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Sample records for routine pathological examination

  1. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  2. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  3. Identifying visual stress during a routine eye examination

    PubMed Central

    Monger, Laura; Wilkins, Arnold; Allen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the clinical tests used in routine eye examinations can identify adults whose reading rate increases with their preferred coloured overlay(s). Methods Routine optometric tests were used to measure 73 undergraduate students’ refractive error, visual acuity, stereo-acuity, amplitude of accommodation, near point of convergence, associated heterophoria at near, colour vision and ocular motility. Participants chose an overlay or combination of overlays with colour optimal for clarity, and completed the Wilkins Rate of Reading Test with and without an overlay(s) of this colour. Results Overall, there was a significant increase in reading speed with overlay (t(72) = −5.26, p < 0.0005). Twenty-six participants (36%) increased their reading rate by >5% with their chosen coloured overlay(s). Ten participants (14%) had a reading speed increase of >10%. The increase in reading speed was not significantly associated with any clinical finding. Conclusion Tests which are completed in routine eye examinations did not identify those participants who benefitted from coloured overlays in terms of reading speed. PMID:25455572

  4. Harlequin testicle and other uncommon pathologies masquerading at routine scrotal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Peguero, Larissa; Patel, Dhairyasheel P

    2015-06-01

    Many scrotal conditions manifest similarly as pain, swelling, a palpable abnormality, or a combination of these symptoms. Most common scrotal pathologies have characteristic accompanying sonographic findings. Less common pathologies can have similar clinical presentations, and imaging with scrotal ultrasound is required to aid in proper diagnosis. This article focuses on several of these less commonly encountered scrotal pathologies--including testicular segmental infarction, scrotal filariasis, scrotal mesothelioma, seminiferous tubule fibrosis, and scrotal leiomyosarcoma--and compares and contrasts them to more routine diagnoses. Familiarity with both typical and atypical scrotal conditions is necessary to make accurate diagnoses at ultrasound to guide appropriate treatment and avoid unnecessary surgery.

  5. Incidental findings during routine pathological evaluation of gallbladder specimens: review of 1,747 elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases.

    PubMed

    Basak, F; Hasbahceci, M; Canbak, T; Sisik, A; Acar, A; Yucel, M; Bas, G; Alimoglu, O

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases can lead to previously undiagnosed gallbladder cancer during histopathological evaluation. Despite some controversy over its usefulness, histopathological evaluation of all gallbladder specimens is common in most hospitals. We evaluated the results of routine pathology of the gallbladder after cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases with regard to unexpected primary gallbladder cancer (UPGC). Methods Patients undergoing cholecystectomy because of benign gallbladder diseases between 2009 and 2013 were enrolled in this study. All gallbladder specimens were sent to the pathology department, and histopathological reports were examined in detail. The impact of demographic features on pathological diagnoses and prevalence of UPGC assessed. Data on additional interventions and postoperative survival for patients with UPGC were collected. Results We enrolled 1,747 patients (mean age, 48.7±13.6 years). Chronic cholecystitis was the most common diagnosis (96.3%) and was associated significantly with being female (p=0.001). Four patients had UPGC (0.23%); one was stage T3 at the time of surgery, and the remaining three cases were stage T2. Conclusions Routine histopathological examination of the gallbladder is valuable for identification of cancer that requires further postoperative management.

  6. Is the routine microscopic examination of proximal and distal resection margins in colorectal cancer surgery justified?

    PubMed

    Morlote, Diana M; Alexis, John B

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic examination of the proximal and distal resection margins is part of the routine pathologic evaluation of colorectal surgical specimens removed for adenocarcinoma. Anastomotic donuts are frequently received and microscopically examined. We examined 594 specimens received over a period of 10 years and found only 3 cases of definitive direct involvement of a longitudinal margin by carcinoma. All 3 cases also showed tumor at the margin grossly. One case of margin involvement by adenocarcinoma was found in which the tumor was grossly 1.7 cm away; however, this finding was likely a tumor deposit, as the patient had diffuse metastatic disease. All 242 anastomotic donuts examined were free of carcinoma. Our study suggests that the proximal and distal margins of colorectal cancer specimens need not be examined microscopically in order to accurately assess margin status in cases where the tumor is at least 2 cm away from the margin of resection. Also, in cases in which anastomotic donuts are included with the case, these should be considered the true margins of resection and may be microscopically examined in place of the bowel specimen margins when margin examination is needed. Anastomotic donuts need not be examined if the tumor is more than 2 cm away from the margin. An exception to this rule would be cases of rectal adenocarcinoma where neoadjuvant therapy is given prior to surgery. In these cases, mucosal evidence of malignancy may be absent and microscopic examination of the margins is the only way to assure complete excision. PMID:27402222

  7. Forensic molecular pathology: its impacts on routine work, education and training.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi

    2014-03-01

    The major role of forensic pathology is the investigation of human death in relevance to social risk management to determine the cause and process of death, especially in violent and unexpected sudden deaths, which involve social and medicolegal issues of ultimate, personal and public concerns. In addition to the identification of victims and biological materials, forensic molecular pathology contributes to general explanation of the human death process and assessment of individual death on the basis of biological molecular evidence, visualizing dynamic functional changes involved in the dying process that cannot be detected by morphology (pathophysiological or molecular biological vital reactions); the genetic background (genomics), dynamics of gene expression (up-/down-regulation: transcriptomics) and vital phenomena, involving activated biological mediators and degenerative products (proteomics) as well as metabolic deterioration (metabolomics), are detected by DNA analysis, relative quantification of mRNA transcripts using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohisto-/immunocytochemistry combined with biochemistry, respectively. Thus, forensic molecular pathology involves the application of omic medical sciences to investigate the genetic basis, and cause and process of death at the biological molecular level in the context of forensic pathology, that is, 'advanced molecular autopsy'. These procedures can be incorporated into routine death investigations as well as guidance, education and training programs in forensic pathology for 'dynamic assessment of the cause and process of death' on the basis of autopsy and laboratory data. Postmortem human data can also contribute to understanding patients' critical conditions in clinical management.

  8. Routine Clinical-Pathologic Correlation of Pigmented Skin Tumors Can Influence Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Caterina; Piana, Simonetta; Lallas, Aimilios; Moscarella, Elvira; Lombardi, Mara; Raucci, Margherita; Pellacani, Giovanni; Argenziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated the benefit of integrating clinical with pathologic information, to obtain a confident diagnosis for melanocytic tumors. However, all those studies were conducted retrospectively and no data are currently available about the role of a clinical-pathologic correlation approach on a daily basis in clinical practice. Aim of the Study In our study, we evaluated the impact of a routine clinical-pathologic correlation approach for difficult skin tumors seen over 3 years in a tertiary referral center. Results Interestingly, a re-appraisal was requested for 158 out of 2015 (7.7%) excised lesions because clinical-pathologic correlation was missing. Of note, in 0.6% of them (13 out of 2045) the first histologic diagnosis was revised in the light of clinical information that assisted the Pathologist to re-evaluate the histopathologic findings that might be bland or inconspicuous per se. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that an integrated approach involving clinicians and pathologists allows improving management of selected patients by shifting from a simply disease-focused management (melanoma versus nevus) to a patient-centered approach. PMID:26325678

  9. Examination of the pathological dissociation taxon in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Simeon, Daphne; Knutelska, Margaret; Nelson, Dorothy; Guralnik, Orna; Schmeidler, James

    2003-11-01

    In recent years, the pathologic dissociation taxon developed by Waller, Putnam, and Carlson (Psychological Methods 1:300-321, 1996) from a Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) sample has been increasingly used in studies of dissociation in general. However, the taxon's convergence with dissociative diagnoses other than DID, as well as the taxon's central premise that pathologic dissociation is a categorical rather than a dimensional construct, remain areas of exploration. This report examines the applicability of the pathologic dissociation taxon to Depersonalization Disorder (DPD). The Dissociative Experiences Scale was administered to 100 consecutively recruited DPD subjects diagnosed by semistructured clinical interview and by the SCID-D. Taxon membership probability was calculated using the recommended SAS scoring program. Approximately 2/3 of subjects (N = 64) had a very high probability (>.80) of belonging to the taxon, while 1/3 of subjects had a very low probability (<.10) of belonging to the taxon. A taxon cutoff score of 13 yielded an 81% sensitivity in detecting the presence of DPD. The modest convergence between taxonic membership and clinical dissociative disorder diagnosis suggests that the taxon may have important limitations in its use, at least when applied to DPD in its current form. As previously, we continue to recommend a low taxon cutoff score (13) for the sensitive detection of depersonalization disorder. The inference that pathologic dissociation is a unitary and categorical entity is also discussed.

  10. A survey of the value of routine intimate examination and related practices in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Desai, A K; Jaiyesimi, R A K

    2007-11-01

    The practice of undertaking routine intimate examinations in the management of subfertile couples varies among clinicians. An anonymous self-administered mailed questionnaire survey was carried out to determine the current practices followed by clinicians and the rationale supporting their practice. In the absence of large comparative studies, this survey provides expert opinion regarding this practice. The questionnaire was mailed to the Fellows and members of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists in the Northern, Yorkshire, West Midlands and Wales regions in the UK. A total of 802 questionnaires were posted, of which 516 were returned, giving an overall response rate of 64%. The responses and comments varied. Some 62% of respondents would routinely perform a pelvic examination on all women presenting with subfertility; 23% would do so only in selected cases and 63% of the clinicians would perform a routine transvaginal ultrasound. The male partners are examined by only 19% of the clinicians. A total of 83% of the respondents were of the opinion that the survey made them think about the role and justification of intimate examinations in greater detail. The practice of intimate examination of subfertile couples varies among clinicians in the survey group. There is a need for large prospective comparative studies to study the value of this examination and related practices in the management of subfertile couples. In the absence of comparative trials, this survey provides expert opinion. It may be suggested that an intimate examination should not be carried out routinely in all subfertile couples. It could be done when it has potential to add value to the management of the patient. A pragmatic approach should be adopted in every clinical situation.

  11. A travel report of the implementation of virtual whole slide images in routine surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Nap, Marius; Teunissen, Rob; Pieters, Math

    2012-04-01

    Virtual microscopy is the terminology used to indicate the use of digitized images of whole slides for inspection of cells and tissue sections on computer screens as an add-on or replacement for conventional microscopy using bright field or other types of illumination in combination with a wide variety of microscope brands. Although technically there is no longer a limit in the size and colour composition of the images, the logistics of embedding virtual microscopy in daily routine of a diagnostic process are still a relatively open area where new pitfalls and opportunities can be found. In this article, we described various aspects in the process. None of them had been planned in advance, but mostly originated from observations done during the different steps towards implementation of virtual microscopy in daily routine, for example, the choice between the different scanner types and their (dis)advantages, issues on storing and retrieval and at last, the effect of digitalization on the diagnostic process. This approach resulted in a manuscript that in a way has more the appearance of a story than of a scientific study with strict protocols, with a clear cut question in advance, a research plan and expected outcome. Depending on the purpose of the virtual slides in a given situation, different solutions must be found locally.

  12. PCR based detection of mycobacteria in paraffin wax embedded material routinely processed for morphological examination.

    PubMed Central

    Frevel, T; Schäfer, K L; Tötsch, M; Böcker, W; Dockhorn-Dworniczak, B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of mycobacterial infections has increased during the past five years. A prompt diagnosis is indispensable for initiating appropriate treatment. Because culturing of mycobacteria takes three to six weeks and sensitivity of microscopic detection of acid fast bacilli is low, amplification methods provide promising possibilities. Recently, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been shown to be useful for confirming a mycobacterial infection, especially in cases with unexpected histological findings or lack of suitable material for culturing. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of PCR based techniques in the detection of mycobacterial infections in uncultured routine histological specimens as an alternative to surgical pathology. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty nine formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded samples from 141 patients with clinical or histological suspicion of a mycobacterial infection were investigated using three different PCR assays and Southern blotting. PCR results were compared with histology and culture and the patients' clinical findings. RESULTS: When using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity for the detection of mycobacteria of the tuberculosis complex was 90%, specificity was 92%, the positive predictive value was 81%, and the negative predictive value was 96%. The sensitivity for the detection of nontuberculous mycobacteria was 100% and specificity was 78%, the positive predictive value was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. The patients' clinical findings supported the PCR positive results, indicating a mycobacterial infection in 11 of 18 initially culture negative cases and in 21 of 35 PCR positive cases without culture results. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that PCR based techniques are sensitive, specific, and rapid methods for the detection of mycobacteria in routinely processed paraffin wax embedded and formalin fixed histological samples. PMID:10748878

  13. Issues in using whole slide imaging for diagnostic pathology: "routine" stains, immunohistochemistry and predictive markers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R

    2014-08-01

    The traditional microscope, together with the "routine" hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain, remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases; remarkably, it and the majority of associated biological stains are more than 150 years old. Immunohistochemistry has added to the repertoire of "stains" available. Because of the need for specific identification and even measurement of "biomarkers," immunohistochemistry has increased the demand for consistency of performance and interpretation of staining results. Rapid advances in the capabilities of digital imaging hardware and software now offer a realistic route to improved reproducibility, accuracy and quantification by utilizing whole slide digital images for diagnosis, education and research. There also are potential efficiencies in work flow and the promise of powerful new analytical methods; however, there also are challenges with respect to validation of the quality and fidelity of digital images, including the standard H & E stain, so that diagnostic performance by pathologists is not compromised when they rely on whole slide images instead of traditional stained tissues on glass slides.

  14. Issues in using whole slide imaging for diagnostic pathology: "routine" stains, immunohistochemistry and predictive markers.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C R

    2014-08-01

    The traditional microscope, together with the "routine" hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) stain, remains the "gold standard" for diagnosis of cancer and other diseases; remarkably, it and the majority of associated biological stains are more than 150 years old. Immunohistochemistry has added to the repertoire of "stains" available. Because of the need for specific identification and even measurement of "biomarkers," immunohistochemistry has increased the demand for consistency of performance and interpretation of staining results. Rapid advances in the capabilities of digital imaging hardware and software now offer a realistic route to improved reproducibility, accuracy and quantification by utilizing whole slide digital images for diagnosis, education and research. There also are potential efficiencies in work flow and the promise of powerful new analytical methods; however, there also are challenges with respect to validation of the quality and fidelity of digital images, including the standard H & E stain, so that diagnostic performance by pathologists is not compromised when they rely on whole slide images instead of traditional stained tissues on glass slides. PMID:24325681

  15. Implementation of large-scale routine diagnostics using whole slide imaging in Sweden: Digital pathology experiences 2006-2013

    PubMed Central

    Thorstenson, Sten; Molin, Jesper; Lundström, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances have improved the whole slide imaging (WSI) scanner quality and reduced the cost of storage, thereby enabling the deployment of digital pathology for routine diagnostics. In this paper we present the experiences from two Swedish sites having deployed routine large-scale WSI for primary review. At Kalmar County Hospital, the digitization process started in 2006 to reduce the time spent at the microscope in order to improve the ergonomics. Since 2008, more than 500,000 glass slides have been scanned in the routine operations of Kalmar and the neighboring Linköping University Hospital. All glass slides are digitally scanned yet they are also physically delivered to the consulting pathologist who can choose to review the slides on screen, in the microscope, or both. The digital operations include regular remote case reporting by a few hospital pathologists, as well as around 150 cases per week where primary review is outsourced to a private clinic. To investigate how the pathologists choose to use the digital slides, a web-based questionnaire was designed and sent out to the pathologists in Kalmar and Linköping. The responses showed that almost all pathologists think that ergonomics have improved and that image quality was sufficient for most histopathologic diagnostic work. 38 ± 28% of the cases were diagnosed digitally, but the survey also revealed that the pathologists commonly switch back and forth between digital and conventional microscopy within the same case. The fact that two full-scale digital systems have been implemented and that a large portion of the primary reporting is voluntarily performed digitally shows that large-scale digitization is possible today. PMID:24843825

  16. An assessment of the usefulness of routine histological examination in hanging deaths.

    PubMed

    Tse, Rexson; Langlois, Neil; Winskog, Calle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-07-01

    A retrospective study was carried out on 100 randomly selected medico-legal autopsies of victims who had committed suicide by hanging. All cases had undergone full police and coronial investigation. Complete external and internal examinations had been carried out including routine histological examination of organs. The age range of victims was 15-94 years (average, 41.7 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 7:1. External and internal injuries were consistent with the reported events. Diagnoses based purely on histology included hepatic steatosis (n = 16), asthma (n = 3), lymphocytic thyroiditis (n = 2), and pulmonary and cardiac sarcoidosis (n = 1). A large cell carcinoma of the lung and a rectal adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Histological evaluation was, however, of limited usefulness in contributing to the medico-legal evaluation of cases, with careful scene, external and internal examinations providing the most relevant information. The results of histological examination of tissues were all incidental to the cause, mechanism, and manner of death. PMID:22372621

  17. Is polysomnographic examination necessary for subjects with diaphragm pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Oruc, Ozlem; Sarac, Sema; Afsar, Gulgun Cetintas; Topcuoglu, Ozgur Bilgin; Kanbur, Serda; Yalcinkaya, Irfan; Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Kirbas, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While respiratory distress is accepted as the only indication for diaphragmatic plication surgery, sleep disorders have been underestimated. In this study, we aimed to detect the sleep disorders that accompany diaphragm pathologies. Specifically, the association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with diaphragm eventration and diaphragm paralysis was evaluated. METHODS: This study was performed in Süreyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2014–2016. All patients had symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (snoring and/or cessation of breath during sleep and/or daytime sleepiness) and underwent diaphragmatic plication via video-assisted mini-thoracotomy. Additionally, all patients underwent pre- and postoperative full-night polysomnography. Pre- and postoperative clinical findings, polysomnography results, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results were compared. RESULTS: Twelve patients (7 males) with a mean age of 48 (range, 27-60) years and a mean body mass index of 25 (range, 20-30) kg/m2 were included in the study. Preoperative polysomnography showed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), while 3 of the patients (25%) were regarded as normal. Postoperatively, patient complaints, apnea hypopnea indices, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results all demonstrated remarkable improvement. CONCLUSION: All patients suffering from diaphragm pathologies with symptoms should undergo polysomnography, and patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be operated on. In this way, long-term comorbidities of sleep disorders may be prevented.

  18. Is polysomnographic examination necessary for subjects with diaphragm pathologies?

    PubMed Central

    Oruc, Ozlem; Sarac, Sema; Afsar, Gulgun Cetintas; Topcuoglu, Ozgur Bilgin; Kanbur, Serda; Yalcinkaya, Irfan; Tepetam, Fatma Merve; Kirbas, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While respiratory distress is accepted as the only indication for diaphragmatic plication surgery, sleep disorders have been underestimated. In this study, we aimed to detect the sleep disorders that accompany diaphragm pathologies. Specifically, the association of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with diaphragm eventration and diaphragm paralysis was evaluated. METHODS: This study was performed in Süreyyapasa Chest Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2014–2016. All patients had symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (snoring and/or cessation of breath during sleep and/or daytime sleepiness) and underwent diaphragmatic plication via video-assisted mini-thoracotomy. Additionally, all patients underwent pre- and postoperative full-night polysomnography. Pre- and postoperative clinical findings, polysomnography results, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results were compared. RESULTS: Twelve patients (7 males) with a mean age of 48 (range, 27-60) years and a mean body mass index of 25 (range, 20-30) kg/m2 were included in the study. Preoperative polysomnography showed obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in 9 of the 12 patients (75%), while 3 of the patients (25%) were regarded as normal. Postoperatively, patient complaints, apnea hypopnea indices, Epworth sleepiness scale scores and pulmonary function test results all demonstrated remarkable improvement. CONCLUSION: All patients suffering from diaphragm pathologies with symptoms should undergo polysomnography, and patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome should be operated on. In this way, long-term comorbidities of sleep disorders may be prevented. PMID:27652831

  19. [ENT examination in SCUBA divers and ENT pathologies restricting diving].

    PubMed

    Hizalan, Ibrahim; Ildiz, Faruk; Uzun, Cem; Keskin, Gürkan

    2002-01-01

    SCUBA diving can be safely performed if a careful pre-dive examination regarding the medical standards of diving is performed, and if all necessary precautions are taken with attention being paid to the potential risks of diving. The most frequent medical problems arising from SCUBA diving fall into the otolaryngology discipline; thus, candidates should be examined in terms of ENT disorders that may prevent them from diving. This article aims to review particular aspects of ENT examination, investigation methods, and criteria for candidates

  20. Routine histopathologic examination of appendectomy specimens: retrospective analysis of 1255 patients.

    PubMed

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  1. The American Society for Clinical Pathology resident in-service examination: does resident performance provide insight into the effectiveness of clinical pathology education?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    The resident in-service examination in pathology is an in-training exercise that is taken by virtually all pathology residents in the United States as well as by some participants in Canada, Ireland, and Lebanon. Although all of the anatomic pathology topics in the examination, with only one exception-forensic pathology, show significant improvement in scores over the 4 years of residency training, three areas of clinical pathology training (laboratory administration, clinical chemistry, and microbiology) show significantly lower improvement in performance over the years of residency training. By contrast, transfusion medicine, hematopathology and the special topics section of the examination all demonstrate improved performance by residents over time. While the reason behind these differences must remain speculative at this time, these findings suggest that measures to improve effectiveness in clinical pathology training might be suggested by examining the differences between residency training practices between higher and lower performing areas of clinical pathology. PMID:17556086

  2. The American Society for Clinical Pathology resident in-service examination: does resident performance provide insight into the effectiveness of clinical pathology education?

    PubMed

    McKenna, Barbara J

    2007-06-01

    The resident in-service examination in pathology is an in-training exercise that is taken by virtually all pathology residents in the United States as well as by some participants in Canada, Ireland, and Lebanon. Although all of the anatomic pathology topics in the examination, with only one exception-forensic pathology, show significant improvement in scores over the 4 years of residency training, three areas of clinical pathology training (laboratory administration, clinical chemistry, and microbiology) show significantly lower improvement in performance over the years of residency training. By contrast, transfusion medicine, hematopathology and the special topics section of the examination all demonstrate improved performance by residents over time. While the reason behind these differences must remain speculative at this time, these findings suggest that measures to improve effectiveness in clinical pathology training might be suggested by examining the differences between residency training practices between higher and lower performing areas of clinical pathology.

  3. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    difference between the treatments of early-stage versus late-stage glaucoma was estimated at $167. The total cost per recipient was estimated at $891/person. Current Ontario Policy As of November 1, 2004 persons between 20 years and 64 years of age are eligible for an insured eye examination once every year if they have any of the following medical conditions: diabetes mellitus type 1 or 2, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus. Persons between 20 to 64 years of age who do not have diabetes mellitus, glaucoma, cataract(s), retinal disease, amblyopia, visual field defects, corneal disease, or strabismus may be eligible for an annual eye examination if they have a valid “request for major eye examination” form completed by a physician (other than that who completed the eye exam) or a nurse practitioner working in a collaborative practice. Persons 20-64 years of age who are in receipt of social assistance and who do not have one of the 8 medical conditions listed above are eligible to receive an eye exam once every 2 years as a non-OHIP government funded service. Persons 19 years of age or younger and 65 years of age or older may receive an insured eye exam once every year. Considerations for Policy Development As of July 17, 2006 there were 1,402 practicing optometrists in Ontario. As of December 31, 2005 there were 404 practicing ophthalmologists in Ontario. It is unknown how many third party payers now cover routine eye exams for person between the ages of 20 and 64 years of age in Ontario. PMID:23074485

  4. The incidence of ocular candidiasis and evaluation of routine opthalmic examination in critically ill patients with candidaemia.

    PubMed

    Gluck, S; Headdon, W G; Tang, Dws; Bastian, I B; Goggin, M J; Deane, A M

    2015-11-01

    Despite a paucity of data regarding both the incidence of ocular candidiasis and the utility of ophthalmic examination in critically ill patients, routine ophthalmic examination is recommended for critically ill patients with candidaemia. The objectives were to estimate the incidence of ocular candidiasis and evaluate whether ophthalmic examination influenced subsequent management of these patients. We conducted a ten-year retrospective observational study. Data were extracted for all ICU patients who were blood culture positive for fungal infection. Risk factors for candidaemia and eye involvement were quantified and details regarding ophthalmic examination were reviewed. Candida species were cultured in 93 patients. Risk factors for ocular candidiasis were present in 57% of patients. Forty-one percent of patients died prior to ophthalmology examination and 2% of patients were discharged before candidaemia was identified. During examination, signs of ocular candidiasis were only present in one (2.9%) patient, who had a risk factor for ocular candidiasis. Based on these findings, the duration of antifungal treatment for this patient was increased. Ocular candidiasis occurs rarely in critically ill patients with candidaemia, but because treatment regimens may be altered when diagnosed, routine ophthalmic examination is still indicated.

  5. Pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.; Farber, J.L. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 29 chapters. Some of the titles are: Genetic and Systemic Diseases; Cell Injury; Inflammation; The Gastrointestinal o Tract; The Pancreas; Environmental and Nutritional Pathology; Infectious and Parasitic Diseases; and Blood Vessels.

  6. Typical or Pathological? Routinized and Compulsive-Like Behaviors in Children and Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Sheila; Cunningham, Cliff

    2007-01-01

    Routinized and compulsive-like behaviors (RCB) are common in typically developing children and in children and adults with Down syndrome, but what functions do they serve? Parents completed questionnaires for RCB, behavior problems, and adaptive behaviors. Children who had Down syndrome had significantly higher levels of RCB than did the typically…

  7. Evaluation of quality of routine physical examination in urban public basic schools in Khartoum State, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Yassin H M; El Fadeel, Ogail Ata; Salih, Karimeldin M A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the availability of the service logistics in basic public schools (structure as quality concept), to assess steps of physical examination according to the ministry of health guidelines (process as quality concept) and to measure satisfaction of service consumers (pupils) and service providers (teacher and doctors). The study involved seven localities in Sudan using questionnaires and observations. The structure in form of material and human resources was not well maintained, equally the process and procedure of medical examination did not well fit with rules of quality, however, the satisfaction level was within the accepted level. As far as structure, process and outcome were concerned, we are still below the standards in developed countries for many reasons but the level of satisfaction in the present study is more or less similar as in else studies. PMID:27493421

  8. Reconstructing the spatial pattern of trees from routine stand examination measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanus, M.L.; Hann, D.W.; Marshall, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of the spatial pattern of trees is important for the accurate visual display of unmapped stands. The proposed process for generating the spatial pattern is a nonsimple sequential inhibition process, with the inhibition zone proportionate to the scaled maximum crown width of an open-grown tree of the same species and same diameter at breast height as the subject tree. The results of this coordinate generation procedure are compared with mapped stem data from nine natural stands of Douglas-fir at two ages by the use of a transformed Ripley's K(d) function. The results of this comparison indicate that the proposed method, based on complete tree lists, successfully replicated the spatial patterns of the trees in all nine stands at both ages and over the range of distances examined. On the basis of these findings and the procedure's ability to model effects through time, the nonsimple sequential inhibition process has been chosen to generate tree coordinates in the VIZ4ST computer program for displaying forest stand structure in naturally regenerated young Douglas-fir stands. For. Sci.

  9. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  10. Exploring virtual reality technology and the Oculus Rift for the examination of digital pathology slides

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Navid; Post, Robert; Duboy, Jon; Ahmed, Ishtiaque; Kolowitz, Brian J.; Krinchai, Teppituk; Monaco, Sara E.; Fine, Jeffrey L.; Hartman, Douglas J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: Digital slides obtained from whole slide imaging (WSI) platforms are typically viewed in two dimensions using desktop personal computer monitors or more recently on mobile devices. To the best of our knowledge, we are not aware of any studies viewing digital pathology slides in a virtual reality (VR) environment. VR technology enables users to be artificially immersed in and interact with a computer-simulated world. Oculus Rift is among the world's first consumer-targeted VR headsets, intended primarily for enhanced gaming. Our aim was to explore the use of the Oculus Rift for examining digital pathology slides in a VR environment. Methods: An Oculus Rift Development Kit 2 (DK2) was connected to a 64-bit computer running Virtual Desktop software. Glass slides from twenty randomly selected lymph node cases (ten with benign and ten malignant diagnoses) were digitized using a WSI scanner. Three pathologists reviewed these digital slides on a 27-inch 5K display and with the Oculus Rift after a 2-week washout period. Recorded endpoints included concordance of final diagnoses and time required to examine slides. The pathologists also rated their ease of navigation, image quality, and diagnostic confidence for both modalities. Results: There was 90% diagnostic concordance when reviewing WSI using a 5K display and Oculus Rift. The time required to examine digital pathology slides on the 5K display averaged 39 s (range 10–120 s), compared to 62 s with the Oculus Rift (range 15–270 s). All pathologists confirmed that digital pathology slides were easily viewable in a VR environment. The ratings for image quality and diagnostic confidence were higher when using the 5K display. Conclusion: Using the Oculus Rift DK2 to view and navigate pathology whole slide images in a virtual environment is feasible for diagnostic purposes. However, image resolution using the Oculus Rift device was limited. Interactive VR technologies such as the Oculus Rift are novel tools

  11. The Everyday Routines of Families of Children with Autism: Examining the Impact of Sensory Processing Difficulties on the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Toth-Cohen, Susan; Johnson, Stephanie L.; Outten, Gina; Benevides, Teal W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experience of how sensory-related behaviors of children with autism affected family routines. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with four primary caregivers regarding the meaning and impact of their child's sensory-related behaviors on family routines that occurred…

  12. Examination of the uterine cervix by ultrasound in normal and pathologic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lampé, L; Tóth, Z; Kóródi, I; Ditrói, P

    1986-01-01

    New possibilities of examination of the uterine cervix are provided by sonography in normal and pathologic pregnancy. Basic data of the ultrasonographic anatomy of the non pregnant uterine cervix is presented first: the length of the cervix as well as the diameters at the levels of external and internal os. These data are compared then with those in normal, physiologic pregnancy, and contrasted with those obtained in cases of incompetent cervix. In this group shortening of the cervical length, opening of the internal os and the funnel, or hour-glass-like herniation of the fetal membranes were characteristic findings. The method seems to be suitable for the assessment of the effectivity of cerclage operations for cervical incompetence. PMID:3295742

  13. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  14. Performance of residents using digital images versus glass slides on certification examination in anatomical pathology: a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mirham, Lorna; Naugler, Christopher; Hayes, Malcolm; Ismiil, Nadia; Belisle, Annie; Sade, Shachar; Streutker, Catherine; MacMillan, Christina; Rasty, Golnar; Popovic, Snezana; Joseph, Mariamma; Gabril, Manal; Barnes, Penny; Hegele, Richard G.; Carter, Beverley; Yousef, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is anticipated that many licensing examination centres for pathology will begin fully digitizing the certification examinations. The objective of our study was to test the feasibility of a fully digital examination and to assess the needs, concerns and expectations of pathology residents in moving from a glass slide-based examination to a fully digital examination. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study that compared, after randomization, the performance of senior residents (postgraduate years 4 and 5) in 7 accredited anatomical pathology training programs across Canada on a pathology examination using either glass slides or digital whole-slide scanned images of the slides. The pilot examination was followed by a post-test survey. In addition, pathology residents from all levels of training were invited to participate in an online survey. Results: A total of 100 residents participated in the pilot examination; 49 were given glass slides instead of digital images. We found no significant difference in examination results between the 2 groups of residents (estimated marginal mean 8.23/12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.72-8.87, for glass slides; 7.84/12, 95% CI 7.28-8.41, for digital slides). In the post-test survey, most of the respondents expressed concerns with the digital examination, including slowly functioning software, blurring and poor detail of images, particularly nuclear features. All of the respondents of the general survey (n = 179) agreed that additional training was required if the examination were to become fully digital. Interpretation: Although the performance of residents completing pathology examinations with glass slides was comparable to that of residents using digital images, our study showed that residents were not comfortable with the digital technology, especially given their current level of exposure to it. Additional training may be needed before implementing a fully digital examination, with consideration for a

  15. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p < .001, and negative affect (three studies), d = 1.00, p < .001. No effect emerged for bulimic symptoms (four studies), d = .22, p = .73. Findings confirmed the effect of pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites.

  16. Associations of Undergoing a Routine Medical Examination or Not with Prevalence Rates of Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Lingling; Tian, Danping; Li, Li; Deng, Xin; Deng, Jing; Ning, Peishan; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Undergoing a routine medical examination may be associated with the prevalence rate of chronic diseases from a population-based household interview survey. However, this important issue has not been examined so far. Methods: Data came from the first health service household interview of Hunan province, China, in 2013. A Rao–Scott chi-square test was performed to examine the difference in prevalence rates between subgroups. Adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC procedure of SAS9.1 statistical software. Results: In total, 24,282 residents of 8400 households were surveyed. A higher proportion of elderly adults had undergone a medical examination within the prior 12 months compared with young adults (≥65 years, 60%; 45–64 years, 46%; 18–44 years, 37%). After controlling for location, sex, and household income per capita, undergoing a medical examination was significantly associated with high prevalence rates of hypertension (adjusted OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.5) and of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.7–6.5) for young adults aged 18–44 years. The associations were not statistically significant for age groups 45–64 years and 65 years or older. Conclusion: The prevalence rates of hypertension and diabetes mellitus may be seriously underestimated for young adults not undergoing a routine medical examination in a health household interview survey. PMID:27347985

  17. Economic and health implications of routine CBCT examination before surgical removal of the mandibular third molar in the Danish population

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, K R; Matzen, L H; Vaeth, M; Wenzel, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This epidemiological study aimed to analyse economical and societal consequences in Denmark if CBCT is used routinely as a diagnostic method before removal of the mandibular third molar. Furthermore, the aim was to calculate the excess cancer incidence from this practice. Methods: 17 representative dental clinics in the regions of Denmark were visited by two observers, who registered the total number of patients in each clinic, the number of removed mandibular third molars from patients' files together with the age and gender of these patients. The data were collected from 2008 to 2014. The total number of removed mandibular third molars in Denmark each year was derived from the collected data and information on patients' contacts with dentists from Statistics Denmark as a sum of contributions from each region. The contribution of a region was obtained as the number of removed mandibular third molars in the selected clinics in the region times the ratio of the number of patients in the selected clinics in the region to the total number of patients with contact to a general practitioner in the region in 2011. Existing knowledge on the costs for panoramic and CBCT imaging was used to calculate total costs. The cancer incidence was calculated from lifetime attributable risk curves based on linear risk assumptions. Results: The selected clinics included 109,686 patients, and 1369 mandibular third molars had been surgically removed. Using data from Statistics Denmark gave an estimated annual number of removed mandibular third molars of 36,882 at a total cost of €6,633,400. The additional cancer incidence was estimated to be approximately 0.46 per year. Conclusions: The data should be used in a cost-effectiveness analysis of the clinical efficacy of CBCT imaging before removal of mandibular third molars. PMID:25785820

  18. [The case of a solitary pulmonary tumor which could be diagnosed as early gastric cancer recurrence by detailed pathological examinations].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shigeya; Sato, Tsutomu; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Segami, Kenki; Kawabe, Taichi; Aoyama, Toru; Makuuchi, Yousuke; Oshima, Takashi; Rino, Yasushi; Masuda, Munetaka; Ogata, Takashi; Cho, Haruhiko; Yoshikawa, Takaki

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a solitary pulmonary tumor, which was diagnosed as recurrent early gastric cancer by detailed pathological examinations. A 59-year old man initially underwent total gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma located at the esophago-gastric junction. A pathological examination indicated a papillary adenocarcinoma (pap ) that had invaded the submucosal layer (sm²), but had not metastasized to the regional lymph nodes (n0). The final diagnosis was P0H0M0T1bN0, Stage IA. Chest computed tomography (CT) 30 months after primary surgery indicated a solitary tumor with a diameter of 9 mm at S3 of the left lung. A positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scan showed an accumulation of ¹⁸F-fluordeoxy-glucose (FDG18) at the same location. Lung cancer was suspected and the patient was given a left upper lobectomy. The resected tumor was diagnosed as gastric cancer metastatic adenocarcinoma by permanent pathological examination. The tumors showed similar histology and immuno histochemical findings for CK7, CK20, TTF-1, SP-A, CDX-2, and HER2 . Early gastric cancer is an almost curable disease and recurrence is very rare. We report the details of this case and review the literature. PMID:25731547

  19. Correlation of the feline PKD1 genetic mutation with cases of PKD diagnosed by pathological examination.

    PubMed

    Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Harley, Ross

    2007-10-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (AD-PKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease of cats, particularly affecting Persians. Using archived tissue samples from 44 cats a genotype was successfully obtained by real-time PCR for 43 cats. Twenty-five cats (18 Persians, 4 domestic longhair cats and 3 domestic shorthair (DSH) cats) were found to carry the AD-PKD mutation and all of these cats had macroscopic and/or microscopic evidence of renal cysts consistent with PKD. Eighteen cats were found to be wild-type. Twelve of these (all Persians) had no pathological evidence of PKD, but the remaining 6 cats had evidence of renal cystic lesions. On pathological review the cystic lesions in 4 (2 Persians and 2 DSH) of these 6 cats were considered not to be consistent with a primary diagnosis of PKD. Histological evidence of polycystic kidneys was, however, confirmed in the remaining 2 cats (1 DSH and 1 Bengal) and may indicate that other PKD-causing mutations exist in the feline population. PMID:17553488

  20. An examination of professional and ethical issues in the fellowship application process in pathology.

    PubMed

    Domen, Ronald E; Wehler, Amanda Brehm

    2008-04-01

    Approximately 34 medical specialty and subspecialty fellowship programs in the United States have formalized the application process through the National Resident Matching Program. This approach sets standards for the application process, offers a formalized match similar to that for residency programs, functions within a specific timeline, and establishes binding rules of behavior for both applicants and programs. For fellowship programs that operate outside the National Resident Matching Program, such as those in pathology, no published guidelines exist to help programs and applicants address the many questions and problems that can arise. As a result, programs are free to set their own timelines for interviews, application requirements, contract negotiations and finalizations, and other details. Consequently, applicants often feel pressured to apply earlier and earlier in their residency for competitive fellowship programs, are often required to fill out multiple unique applications, may feel no "loyalty" toward honoring an acceptance without a contract, and often feel disenfranchised by the whole process. This article addresses professional and ethical aspects of the current application process and offers possible solutions for improving it. PMID:18342659

  1. Ultrasound of the elbow: Examination techniques and US appearance of the normal and pathologic joint.

    PubMed

    Draghi, F; Danesino, G M; de Gautard, R; Bianchi, S

    2007-06-01

    Ultrasound studies are frequently requested for the work-up of patients with local elbow pain, which is generally caused by overuse syndromes, trauma, inflammatory diseases, or neuropathies. The technique used to examine this joint will vary to some extent depending on the precise location of the pain and other clinical findings. The aim of this article is to describe the standard technique used for elbow ultrasound, the normal anatomy of the joint, and the appearance on ultrasound of normal elbow anatomy and the alterations associated with some of the more common disorders affecting this joint.

  2. Fundus-controlled examination of reading in eyes with macular pathology.

    PubMed

    Rohrschneider, K; Bethke-Jaenicke, C; Becker, M; Kruse, F E; Blankenagel, A; Völcker, H E

    1996-09-01

    The ability to read is an important parameter for the optical rehabilitation of visually handicapped patients. For the choice of the best therapy, more detailed knowledge of the physiology of reading is required. We evaluated reading velocity as well as the number of saccades in and against the direction of reading for reading plates with different character sizes (10 steps from a letter height of 3-0.25 degrees) using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope in 20 healthy eyes and 30 eyes with central and paracentral scotomas. The number of characters read during each fixation increased with decreasing size of characters from 3.2 to 4.4 in normals. However, the reading velocity decreased from 14 to 11 digits/s when digits became very small. In patients' eyes the greatest reading velocity was reached at 6.1 digits/s for a 1 degree size, and the maximal number of digits read during one rest phase was 3.2 for a 0.75 degree size. In patients we observed a high number of saccades against the reading direction and different loci of fixation. Fundus-controlled examination allows for new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of reading. Loss of the central visual field leads to an increase in the number of saccades because the number of digits perceived during each fixation decreases. The high number of regressions may be caused by the typical shift of the center of fixation following paracentral scotoma. Saccades directed toward the scotoma have to be corrected due to failure of exact positioning.

  3. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez, José I; Cortes, Jesús M

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection. PMID:27127618

  4. A divide-and-conquer strategy in tumor sampling enhances detection of intratumor heterogeneity in routine pathology: A modeling approach in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lopez, José I; Cortes, Jesús M

    2016-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) is an inherent process in cancer development which follows for most of the cases a branched pattern of evolution, with different cell clones evolving independently in space and time across different areas of the same tumor. The determination of ITH (in both spatial and temporal domains) is nowadays critical to enhance patient treatment and prognosis. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) provides a good example of ITH. Sometimes the tumor is too big to be totally analyzed for ITH detection and pathologists decide which parts must be sampled for the analysis. For such a purpose, pathologists follow internationally accepted protocols. In light of the latest findings, however, current sampling protocols seem to be insufficient for detecting ITH with significant reliability. The arrival of new targeted therapies, some of them providing promising alternatives to improve patient survival, pushes the pathologist to obtain a truly representative sampling of tumor diversity in routine practice. How large this sampling must be and how this must be performed are unanswered questions so far.  Here we present a very simple method for tumor sampling that enhances ITH detection without increasing costs. This method follows a divide-and-conquer (DAC) strategy, that is, rather than sampling a small number of large-size tumor-pieces as the routine protocol (RP) advises, we suggest sampling many small-size pieces along the tumor. We performed a computational modeling approach to show that the usefulness of the DAC strategy is twofold: first, we show that DAC outperforms RP with similar laboratory costs, and second, DAC is capable of performing similar to total tumor sampling (TTS) but, very remarkably, at a much lower cost. We thus provide new light to push forward a shift in the paradigm about how pathologists should sample tumors for achieving efficient ITH detection.

  5. Examining the influence of actual-ideal self-discrepancies, depression, and escapism, on pathological gaming among massively multiplayer online adolescent gamers.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline

    2011-09-01

    This study examined whether actual-ideal self-discrepancy (AISD) is related to pathological gaming through escapism as a means of reducing depression for adolescent massively multiplayer online gamers. A Discrepancy-reduction Motivation model of pathological video gaming was tested. A survey was conducted on 161 adolescent gamers from secondary schools. Two mediation effects were tested using path analysis: (a) depression would mediate the relationship between AISDs and escapism, and (b) escapism would mediate the relationship between depression and pathological gaming. Results support the hypotheses stated above. The indirect effects of both AISD and depression were significant on pathological gaming. AISD and escapism also had direct effects on pathological gaming. The present study suggests that pathological behaviors may be over-regulated coping strategies of approaching the ideal self and avoiding the actual self.

  6. Pulmonary fibrosis in aluminum oxide workers. Investigation of nine workers, with pathologic examination and microanalysis in three of them

    SciTech Connect

    Jederlinic, P.J.; Abraham, J.L.; Churg, A.; Himmelstein, J.S.; Epler, G.R.; Gaensler, E.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Epidemiologic surveys have indicated an excess of nonmalignant respiratory disease in workers exposed to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) during abrasives production. However, clinical, roentgenographic, histologic, and microanalytic description of these workers are lacking. This is a report of nine Al2O3-exposed workers with abnormal chest roentgenograms (profusion greater than or equal to 1/0, ILO/UC) from a plant engaged in the production of Al2O3 abrasives from alundum ore. Mean duration of exposure was 25 yr, and time since first exposure was 28 yr. in a subgroup of three, the severity of symptoms, reduction in the forced vital capacity (67% predicted) and diffusing capacity (51% predicted), and progressive roentgenographic changes (profusion greater than or equal to 2/2) prompted open lung biopsy. Lung tissue was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. In each of the three biopsies, interstitial fibrosis with honeycombing was seen on routine section. In one biopsy, silica and asbestos fiber counts were at the low end of the range seen with silicosis and asbestosis; however, the absence of asbestos bodies and silicotic nodules suggested that the fibrosis was due to another cause. Metals occurred in amounts several orders of magnitude above background, and the majority was aluminum as Al2O3 and aluminum alloys. The findings in these nine workers suggests a common exposure as the possible cause. The nonspecific pathologic findings, absence of asbestos bodies and silicotic nodules, and the striking number of aluminum-containing particles suggest that Al2O3 is that common exposure. The possibility of mixed dust fibrosis should also be considered.

  7. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations.

    PubMed

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S; Dargatz, David A

    2006-07-01

    Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners' hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations.

  8. Pilot study to evaluate 3 hygiene protocols on the reduction of bacterial load on the hands of veterinary staff performing routine equine physical examinations

    PubMed Central

    Traub-Dargatz, Josie L.; Weese, J. Scott; Rousseau, Joyce D.; Dunowska, Magdalena; Morley, Paul S.; Dargatz, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Reduction factors (RFs) for bacterial counts on examiners’ hands were compared when performing a standardized equine physical examination, followed by the use of one of 3 hand-hygiene protocols (washing with soap, ethanol gel application, and chlorohexidine-ethanol application). The mean RFs were 1.29 log10 and 1.44 log10 at 2 study sites for the alcohol-gel (62% ethyl alcohol active ingredient) protocols and 1.47 log10 and 1.94 log10 at 2 study sites for the chlorhexidine-alcohol (61% ethyl alcohol plus 1% chlorhexidine active ingredients) protocols, respectively. The RFs were significantly different (P < 0.0001) between the hand-washing group and the other 2 treatment groups (the alcohol-gel and the chlorhexidine-alcohol lotion). The use of alcohol-based gels or chlorhexidine-alcohol hand hygiene protocols must still be proven effective in equine practice settings, but in this study, these protocols were equivalent or superior to hand washing for reduction in bacterial load on the hands of people after they perform routine physical examinations. PMID:16898109

  9. Improving multiple-choice questions to better assess dental student knowledge: distractor utilization in oral and maxillofacial pathology course examinations.

    PubMed

    McMahan, C Alex; Pinckard, R Neal; Prihoda, Thomas J; Hendricson, William D; Jones, Anne Cale

    2013-12-01

    How many incorrect response options (known as distractors) to use in multiple-choice questions has been the source of considerable debate in the assessment literature, especially relative to influence on the likelihood of students' guessing the correct answer. This study compared distractor use by second-year dental students in three successive oral and maxillofacial pathology classes that had three different examination question formats and scoring resulting in different levels of academic performance. One class was given all multiple-choice questions; the two other were given half multiple-choice questions, with and without formula scoring, and half un-cued short-answer questions. Use by at least 1 percent of the students was found to better identify functioning distractors than higher cutoffs. The average number of functioning distractors differed among the three classes and did not always correspond to differences in class scores. Increased numbers of functioning distractors were associated with higher question discrimination and greater question difficulty. Fewer functioning distractors fostered more effective student guessing and overestimation of academic achievement. Appropriate identification of functioning distractors is essential for improving examination quality and better estimating actual student knowledge through retrospective use of formula scoring, where the amount subtracted for incorrect answers is based on the harmonic mean number of functioning distractors.

  10. A meta-analysis examining the relations among pathological gambling, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and obsessive-compulsive traits.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Heather; Gorey, Kevin M; Stewart, Sherry H

    2008-10-01

    Pathological gambling has been proposed to belong to the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. Disorders on this spectrum are thought to share similar clinical features, neurobiology, and responses to treatment as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. A total of 18 studies were included in a meta-analysis to assess the strength of the association between these disorders. A strong relationship (effect size = 1.01) was found between pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive traits. A weak relationship was found between pathological gambling and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (.07) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (effect size = .23). These results suggest pathological gambling and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder are distinct disorders. However, pathological gamblers do appear to show high rates of obsessive-compulsive traits relative to controls. These findings are only moderately supportive of the inclusion of pathological gambling within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum of conditions.

  11. Examining the Relationship Between Pathologies of the Peroneal, Achilles, and Posterior Tibial Tendons: An MRI Review in an Asymptomatic Lateral Ankle Population.

    PubMed

    Galli, Melissa M; Protzman, Nicole M; Mandelker, Eiran M; Malhotra, Amit D; Wobst, Garrett M; Schwartz, Edward; Brigido, Stephen A

    2014-07-01

    The hindfoot and ankle are dynamic structures to which the interplay of tendinous pathologies is scarcely understood. Five hundred consecutive ankle magnetic resonance imaging examinations, obtained between December 27, 2011 and April 9, 2013, were reviewed. Patients without a history of hindfoot or ankle trauma or lateral ankle pain were included. The 108 MRIs that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were then re-evaluated by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists. Of these, 55.56% demonstrated pathology of the Achilles tendon (AT), 44.44% demonstrated pathology of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT), 35.19% demonstrated pathology of the peroneus brevis (PB), and 37.96% demonstrated pathology of the peroneus longus (PL). In our asymptomatic patient population, 16 (14.81%) patients demonstrated concomitant pathology of the AT, PTT, and peroneal tendons. There were positive, moderate correlations between graded pathology of the AT and the PTT, rs(106) = 0.32, P = .001; the AT and PB, rs(106) = 0.38, P = 0.001; and the AT and PL, rs(106) = 0.46, P = .001. However, there were no statistically significant correlations between pathology of the PTT and PB, rs(106) = 0.17, P = .08, or the PTT and PL, rs(106) = 0.14, P = .15. These findings suggest an intimate relationship between the AT, PTT, and the peroneal tendons. These individual anatomic structures may have underappreciated functional relationships that could lead to future investigations.

  12. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material. PMID:9522647

  13. [Otto Lubarsch (1860-1933) and pathology at the Berlin Charité from 1917 to 1928. From the trauma of war time destruction to the daily routine of a German national university teacher of the Weimar Republic].

    PubMed

    Prüll, C R

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the interdependence of medicine and society in a situation of political crisis. The example of the Pathological Institute at the University of Berlin illustrates how non-scientific, political measures exerted an influence on daily scientific work via the Science Ministry as well as the director and the staff of the Institute. Not only did financial problems of the German State and difficulties of the Prussian Science Ministry in keeping the Institute running hamper successful work in Pathology; moreover, the political ambitions of its director, Otto Lubarsch, and the changes in daily life as a result of the general situation of misery had their impact on scientific work. Therefore, an examination of the interdependence between medical science and politics should not be limited to physicians who are enrolled in a political party. Furthermore, research must be undertaken on the level of laboratory communities and everyday-life with the help of archive material.

  14. Examining the role of Scotland's telephone advice service (NHS 24) for managing health in the community: analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Alison M; McAteer, Anne; Heaney, David; Ritchie, Lewis D; Hannaford, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems Scotland's nurse-led telephone advice service (NHS 24) is contacted about and explore whether these vary by time of contact and patient characteristics. Design Analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data. Setting Scotland, UK. Participants Users of NHS 24 during 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion of the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems NHS 24 is contacted about. Results 82.6% of the calls were made out-of-hours and 17.4% in-hours. Abdominal problems accounted for the largest proportion of calls (12.2%) followed by dental (6.8%) and rash/skin problems (6.0%). There were differences in the type of problems presented in-hours and out-of-hours. Most problems (62.9%) had lasted <24 h before people contacted NHS 24. Out-of-hours calls tended to be for problems of shorter duration. Problems reported out-of-hours most commonly resulted in advice to visit an out-of-hours centre and in-hours advice to contact a general practitioner. Most of the service users were female and from more affluent areas. Use of the service declined with age in those over 35 years. The characteristics of users varied according to when NHS 24 was contacted. The number of calls made by an individual in the year ranged from 1 to 866, although most users (69.2%) made only one call. The type of problem presented varied by age and deprivation, but was broadly similar by gender, rural/urban status and geographic area. Call outcomes also varied by user characteristics. Conclusions This is the first study to examine how the public uses NHS 24. It has identified the patterns of problems which the service must be equipped to deal with. It has also provided important information about who uses the service and when. This information will help future planning and development of the service. PMID:26310396

  15. Examining the relation of osteochondral lesions of the talus to ligamentous and lateral ankle tendinous pathologic features: a comprehensive MRI review in an asymptomatic lateral ankle population.

    PubMed

    Galli, Melissa M; Protzman, Nicole M; Mandelker, Eiran M; Malhotra, Amit D; Schwartz, Edward; Brigido, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    Given the frequency and burden of ankle sprains, the pathologic features identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are widely known in the symptomatic population. Ankle MRI pathologic features in the asymptomatic population, however, are poorly understood. Such examinations are rarely undertaken unless an ankle has been injured or is painful. We report the systematic MRI findings from the reports of 108 consecutive asymptomatic lateral ankles (104 patients). Our purpose was to (1) report the prevalence of osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) and pathologic features of the medial and lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, and superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR); (2) correlate the presence of OLTs with the pathologic features of the medial and lateral ligaments, peroneal tendons, and SPR; and (3) correlate ligamentous discontinuity with the peroneal pathologic features, OLTs, and SPR pathologic features. A total of 16 OLTs (14.81%) were present (13 medial and 3 lateral). Of the 16 patients with OLTs, 8 (50.00%) had concomitant peroneal pathologic findings. Healthy medial and lateral ligaments were noted in 41 patients (37.96%), and ligamentous discontinuity was grade I in 25 (23.15%), II in 32 (29.63%), III in 5 (4.63%), and grade IV in 5 patients (4.63%). A weak positive correlation was found between attenuation or tears of the superficial deltoid and medial OLTs (phi coefficient = 0.23, p = .0191) and a moderate positive correlation between tears of the posterior talofibular ligament and lateral OLTs (phi coefficient = 0.30, p = .0017). Additionally, a moderate positive correlation between ligamentous discontinuity and tendinopathy of the peroneus brevis was noted [Spearman's coefficient(106) = 0.29, p = .0024]. These findings add to the evidence of concomitant pathologic features in the asymptomatic population. To definitively assess causation and evaluate the clinical evolution of radiologic findings, future, prospective, longitudinal

  16. Promoting regular testing: an examination of HIV and STI testing routines and associated socio-demographic, behavioral and social-cognitive factors among men who have sex with men in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Adam, Philippe C G; de Wit, John B F; Bourne, Christopher P; Knox, Douglas; Purchas, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates are amongst the highest in the world among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia. However, notable minorities have never tested and many MSM have not tested recently. To examine testing routines and assess covariates of testing, an online survey was conducted among MSM in New South Wales. Five hundred and eighty non-HIV positive MSM (Mean age: 29.33 years) were randomized to answer questions on barriers to testing for HIV or STI. One in five (20.9 %) non-HIV-positive participants had never tested for HIV, 27.2 % had no HIV testing routines, 22.8 % had a moderate HIV testing routines, and 29.1 % had strong HIV testing routines. Similar patterning was observed for STI testing. In multivariate analyses participants' knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control were moderately related to HIV and/or STI testing routines and some associations were specific to either HIV or STI testing or to particular routines. Findings highlight that multiple social-cognitive factors each play a role in explaining HIV and STI testing among MSM. To effectively promote regular testing in MSM, programs face the challenge of having to address a range of hurdles, rather than a few major obstacles.

  17. When or why does perfectionism translate into eating disorder pathology? A longitudinal examination of the moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Soenens, Bart; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Although research has shown that perfectionism is associated with eating disorder pathology, the role of body dissatisfaction in this association is less clear. In this study, we examined the possible moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction in the relation between perfectionism and increases in eating disorder pathology. Both possible roles were tested in a sample of 455 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.25 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study. We only found support for the moderation hypothesis, with girls high on both perfectionism and body dissatisfaction exhibiting the highest levels of eating disorder symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24886015

  18. When or why does perfectionism translate into eating disorder pathology? A longitudinal examination of the moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Soenens, Bart; Luyten, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Although research has shown that perfectionism is associated with eating disorder pathology, the role of body dissatisfaction in this association is less clear. In this study, we examined the possible moderating and mediating role of body dissatisfaction in the relation between perfectionism and increases in eating disorder pathology. Both possible roles were tested in a sample of 455 adolescent girls (mean age = 13.25 years) using a 3-wave longitudinal study. We only found support for the moderation hypothesis, with girls high on both perfectionism and body dissatisfaction exhibiting the highest levels of eating disorder symptoms. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Does how much a resident teaches impact performance? A comparison of preclinical teaching hours to pathology residents’ in-service examination scores

    PubMed Central

    Talmon, Geoffrey A; Czarnecki, Donna K; Sayles, Harlan R

    2015-01-01

    Background While others have studied the effects of resident teaching on medical student performance, few have examined the benefits to the resident educator. Our study compared the quantity of pathology residents’ didactic teaching with their performance on in-service examinations. Methods The academic records of anatomic/clinical pathology residents over 10 years were reviewed. Scores on step I of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE®), the annual percentile on the in-service examination, and preclinical teaching hours for each resident were obtained. Results Average annual teaching hours showed a weak positive correlation with mean in-service examination performance. Those below the 50th percentile had a lower number of teaching hours (average 7.8) than above the 50th percentile (mean 10.4, P=0.01). The incremental positive association between the two metrics increased by year in training and was strongest among senior residents, even controlling for USMLE performance (P<0.01). Conclusion There is an association between the amount of pathology residents’ preclinical educational activity and their mean performance on in-service examinations. PMID:25945073

  20. An examination of anatomic variants and incidental peroneal tendon pathologic features: a comprehensive MRI review of asymptomatic lateral ankles.

    PubMed

    Galli, Melissa M; Protzman, Nicole M; Mandelker, Eiran M; Malhotra, Amit D; Schwartz, Edward; Brigido, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Intraoperatively, foot and ankle surgeons will encounter peroneal pathologic features in patients with asymptomatic lateral ankles. The purpose of the present study was to review the ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients without a history of ankle trauma or lateral ankle pain to determine which anatomic variants correlate with peroneal tendon pathologic features and noted pathophysiology. A total of 500 MRI scans were screened, 108 (41.90 ± 20.42) of which met the inclusion criteria. The peroneus brevis tendon was intact in 104 MRI scans (96.30%), and the peroneus longus tendon was intact in 108 (100.00%). The results of the present study have confirmed statistically significant correlations between the presence of an os perineum and tendinopathy of the peroneus longus [rs(106) = 0.27], undulating peroneal grooves and the severity of peroneal brevis tears [rs(106) = 0.32], a boomerang-shaped peroneus brevis tendon and increasing tendinopathy of the peroneal tendons [brevis (rs(106) = 0.37; longus rs(106) = 0.33], and low-lying muscle bellies and chronic injuries of the superior peroneal retinaculum (rϕ = 0.19). However, the present study did not find evidence to support the presumed correlations between peroneal tendon pathologic findings and hypertrophied peroneal tubercles, low-lying muscle bellies, or the peroneus quartus muscle. Adding to the published data, the present study found a statistically significant correlation between undulating peroneal grooves and an increasing prevalence of osteophytes within the peroneal groove [rs(106) = 0.32]. MRI findings of anatomic variants or peroneal pathologic features might be useful for injury prevention; however, we advise caution from using the findings alone to advocate surgical intervention. To definitively assess causation, prospective, long-term cohort studies are warranted.

  1. [Detailed pathological examination of the sentinel lymph nodes in order to detect micrometastases: no clinical relevance in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Meijnen, Ph; Peterse, J L; Nieweg, O E; Rutgers, E J

    2004-12-01

    Staging of the axillary lymph nodes yields important prognostic information in patients with breast cancer. The characteristics of the primary tumour are more significant for prognosis if only micrometastases (diameter < or = 2.0 mm) are found. For staging purposes and to estimate the prognosis, pathological examination of axillary lymph nodes therefore need not be focused on the detection of micrometastases. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as an alternate staging method and to determine the indication for axillary lymph node dissection. To reduce the risk of overlooking lymph node metastasis, the sentinel node is being more thoroughly investigated, resulting in the finding of micrometastases in 10-20% of sentinel node negative patients. The sentinel node tumour load correlates with the chance of detecting more metastases in the axilla: an average of 18% for micrometastases, 12% for submicrometastases (diameter < or = 0.2 mm). However, if detailed pathological examination of the sentinel node is omitted, this would result in a low false-negative percentage (1.1-2.5% of all patients undergoing a sentinel node examination), which is less than the percentage false negatives in the sentinel lymph node procedure itself (3.2% on average). Hence, the benefit of detailed pathologic examination with step sectioning and the application of immunohistochemical staining may be doubted.

  2. Examining the relationship between head trauma and neurodegenerative disease: A review of epidemiology, pathology and neuroimaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sundman, Mark H; Hall, Eric E; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are induced by sudden acceleration-deceleration and/or rotational forces acting on the brain. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) has been identified as one of the chief underlying causes of morbidity and mortality in head trauma incidents. DAIs refer to microscopic white matter (WM) injuries as a result of shearing forces that induce pathological and anatomical changes within the brain, which potentially contribute to significant impairments later in life. These microscopic injuries are often unidentifiable by the conventional computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans employed by emergency departments to initially assess head trauma patients and, as a result, TBIs are incredibly difficult to diagnose. The impairments associated with TBI may be caused by secondary mechanisms that are initiated at the moment of injury, but often have delayed clinical presentations that are difficult to assess due to the initial misdiagnosis. As a result, the true consequences of these head injuries may go unnoticed at the time of injury and for many years thereafter. The purpose of this review is to investigate these consequences of TBI and their potential link to neurodegenerative disease (ND). This review will summarize the current epidemiological findings, the pathological similarities, and new neuroimaging techniques that may help delineate the relationship between TBI and ND. Lastly, this review will discuss future directions and propose new methods to overcome the limitations that are currently impeding research progress. It is imperative that improved techniques are developed to adequately and retrospectively assess TBI history in patients that may have been previously undiagnosed in order to increase the validity and reliability across future epidemiological studies. The authors introduce a new surveillance tool (Retrospective Screening of Traumatic Brain Injury Questionnaire, RESTBI) to address this concern. PMID:25324979

  3. An incidental finding of a long-standing button battery in the floor of the nose during a routine orthodontic examination.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kate; Visram, Semina; Hodges, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Foreign body insertion into the ears and nose is common in children and is often witnessed by the carer or reported by the child and therefore appropriate management can be sought promptly. However, these incidents can go unreported and may be accompanied by non-specific symptoms making diagnosis difficult. Button batteries are common in everyday life and their small size and shiny appearance make them appealing to children and their ingestion or insertion is not uncommon. Due to their size, shape and electrochemical composition button batteries pose serious complications if ingested, inhaled or inserted. In the nose they usually cause intense local tissue reactions resulting in severe tissue destruction, septal necrosis or stenosis of the nasal cavity as well as posing the risk of subsequently being ingested or aspirated. This case report details an incidental finding of a button battery in the floor of the nose discovered on routine orthodontic radiographs. An upper standard occlusal and dental panoramic tomography showed a radiopaque, cylindrical, object in the floor of the nose which a subsequent CBCT localized to the floor of the right nasal fossa. The patient required orthodontic extractions and the exposure and bonding of teeth under general anaesthetic. Therefore the battery was removed by the maxillofacial surgery team at the same general anaesthetic. This is a rare case of an incidental finding of a long-standing button battery impaction which was asymptomatic and did not have any detrimental effects. This case highlights the dangers of button battery impaction and the need for prompt referral for removal. PMID:27164470

  4. An incidental finding of a long-standing button battery in the floor of the nose during a routine orthodontic examination.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kate; Visram, Semina; Hodges, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Foreign body insertion into the ears and nose is common in children and is often witnessed by the carer or reported by the child and therefore appropriate management can be sought promptly. However, these incidents can go unreported and may be accompanied by non-specific symptoms making diagnosis difficult. Button batteries are common in everyday life and their small size and shiny appearance make them appealing to children and their ingestion or insertion is not uncommon. Due to their size, shape and electrochemical composition button batteries pose serious complications if ingested, inhaled or inserted. In the nose they usually cause intense local tissue reactions resulting in severe tissue destruction, septal necrosis or stenosis of the nasal cavity as well as posing the risk of subsequently being ingested or aspirated. This case report details an incidental finding of a button battery in the floor of the nose discovered on routine orthodontic radiographs. An upper standard occlusal and dental panoramic tomography showed a radiopaque, cylindrical, object in the floor of the nose which a subsequent CBCT localized to the floor of the right nasal fossa. The patient required orthodontic extractions and the exposure and bonding of teeth under general anaesthetic. Therefore the battery was removed by the maxillofacial surgery team at the same general anaesthetic. This is a rare case of an incidental finding of a long-standing button battery impaction which was asymptomatic and did not have any detrimental effects. This case highlights the dangers of button battery impaction and the need for prompt referral for removal.

  5. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen.

  6. Breast cancer and primary systemic therapy. Results of the Consensus Meeting on the recommendations for pathological examination and histological report of breast cancer specimens in the Marche Region.

    PubMed

    Santinelli, A; De Nictolis, M; Mambelli, V; Ranaldi, R; Bearzi, I; Battellpi, N; Mariotti, C; Fabbietti, L; Baldassarre, S; Giuseppetti, G M; Fabris, G

    2011-10-01

    Primary systemic therapy (PST) adds some practical problems to the pathologic examination of neoplastic breast tissue obtained from patients before and after chemotherapy. Pathologists, oncologists, breast surgeons, radiotherapists and radiologists in the Marche Region held a Consensus Meeting in Ancona on May 13, 2010, in which 15 statements dealing with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were approved by all participants. The first two statements are related to the pre-PST phase and concern the technical procedures and the histological report of the core biopsy. The other statements deal with similar issues of the post-PST surgical specimen. PMID:22393685

  7. Defining Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes with Regard to Anatomo-Pathological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700–2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal–infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS–SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS–SIUDS complex is “The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa”. Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists is necessary. PMID:27709109

  8. Core pathology of eating disorders as measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q): the predictive role of a nested general (g) and primary factors.

    PubMed

    Friborg, Oddgeir; Reas, Deborah L; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Rø, Øyvind

    2013-09-01

    The present study examined several factor models of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and in particular, whether a nested general factor ('g') was present, hence supporting a common pathology factor. A total of 1094 women were randomly selected by Statistics Norway and mailed a questionnaire packet. The sample was randomly split, using the first half for exploratory analyses and the second for confirmatory validation purposes. A four-factor solution received the best support, but the structure deviated from the original model of Fairburn. The internal consistency was high for the first three factors (.93, .82 and .86) and satisfactory for the fourth (.78). The additional specification of a general (g) factor improved model fit significantly, implying that the EDE-Q scores are indicators of both a general core and four primary symptom patterns. Furthermore, the g was more strongly related to predictors like age and body mass index (BMI) than the four primary factors in a full structural equation model. The validity of interpreting the global EDE-Q score as indicative of g was supported. A brief Shape and Weight Concern subscale of 11 items was strongly related to the g-factor, and may provide an abbreviated measure of overall eating disorder pathology.

  9. How to Handle 'Routine' Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Chris T. Brown

    2013-04-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) utilized for preservice or inservice inspection provides valuable information relating to the quality and integrity of fabricated components. This document describes the importance of detailed preparation for nondestructive examination regardless of the complexity, periodicity or routine nature of the examinations/inspections being performed.

  10. Submission of the entire lymph node dissection for histologic examination in gynecologic-oncologic specimens. Clinical and pathologic relevance

    PubMed Central

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Herrmann, Francois R.; Wagner, Heidi; Godoy, Heidi; Odunsi, Kunle; Cheney, Richard T.; Lele, Shashikant

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Lymph node (LN) status in gynecologic malignancies plays an important role in patient staging, management, and prognosis. Therefore, an adequacy of LN harvest is crucial. The aim of this study is to determine whether the submission of the entire LN dissection for histologic examination will affect patients’ outcome or clinical stage. We also evaluated the time required and cost-effectiveness for the laboratory. Materials and methods A prospective study of 134 surgical cases from various gynecologic malignancies was conducted. The LN dissection specimen was performed using a conventional manual node dissection method with all the remaining fat being submitted in additional cassettes. One pathologist evaluated (1) the number and status of palpable LNs identified by the conventional method as well as the number of tissue cassettes and (2) the number, size, and status of the non-palpable LNs as well as the number of tissue cassettes. Results The palpable LNs ranged from 0 to 36 with average 14.8 LNs per case (Poisson 95% CI: 14.1–15.4). The additional non-palpable LNs ranged from 0 to 16 with an average of 3.1 (Poisson 95% CI: 2.8–3.4). In only one case, a 3-mm non-palpable LN with metastasis was identified; however, it did not affect tumor staging or patient management. Conclusion The impact on patient outcome is minimal and it does not prove to be cost and time effective when submitting the entire LN dissection specimen in gynecologic malignancies. However, this method could be justified in selective cases in which the manual node dissection does not reveal an adequate number of LNs. PMID:19811809

  11. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  12. Detection and Evaluation of Novel Herpesviruses in Routine and Pathological Samples from Asian and African Elephants: Identification of Two New Probosciviruses (EEHV5 and EEHV6) and Two New Gammaherpesviruses (EGHV3B and EGHV5)

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, Erin; Zong, Jian-Chao; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Richman, Laura K.; Hayward, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic infections with Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses (EEHV) cause a rapid onset acute hemorrhagic disease with an 85% mortality rate. More than 60 cases have been confirmed worldwide occurring predominantly in juvenile Asian elephants. Originally, three virus types EEHV1A, EEHV1B and EEHV2 were identified, all members of the Proboscivirus genus within the Betaherpesvirinae. However, four elephant gammaherpesviruses (EGHV) have also been found by DNA PCR approaches in eye and genital secretions of asymptomatic animals, and two more versions of the Probosciviruses, EEHV3 and EEHV4, were recently detected in acute hemorrhagic disease cases. To ask whether even more species of elephant herpesviruses may exist, we have developed several new diagnostic DNA PCR assays using multiple round primers in the DNA POL region. These have been used routinely for nearly three years to screen samples submitted to the Elephant Herpesvirus Laboratory for diagnosis of possible cases of EEHV disease in blood and necropsy tissue, as well as in biopsies of other suspicious lesions or growths. Several more cases of EEHV1-associated hemorrhagic disease were confirmed, but in addition, we describe here eleven examples of other known and novel herpesviruses detected and evaluated with these reagents. They include the prototypes of four new elephant herpesviruses, two more within the Proboscivirus group EEHV5 and EEHV6, plus two more gammaherpesviruses EGHV3B and EGHV5. We also report initial semi-quantitative PCR assays demonstrating very high viral loads in the blood of the EEHV3 and EEHV4-associated hemorrhagic disease cases. PMID:20579821

  13. Computational Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Louis, David N.; Feldman, Michael; Carter, Alexis B.; Dighe, Anand S.; Pfeifer, John D.; Bry, Lynn; Almeida, Jonas S.; Saltz, Joel; Braun, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E.; Gilbertson, John R.; Sinard, John H.; Gerber, Georg K.; Galli, Stephen J.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Becich, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Context We define the scope and needs within the new discipline of computational pathology, a discipline critical to the future of both the practice of pathology and, more broadly, medical practice in general. Objective To define the scope and needs of computational pathology. Data Sources A meeting was convened in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 2014 prior to the annual Association of Pathology Chairs meeting, and it was attended by a variety of pathologists, including individuals highly invested in pathology informatics as well as chairs of pathology departments. Conclusions The meeting made recommendations to promote computational pathology, including clearly defining the field and articulating its value propositions; asserting that the value propositions for health care systems must include means to incorporate robust computational approaches to implement data-driven methods that aid in guiding individual and population health care; leveraging computational pathology as a center for data interpretation in modern health care systems; stating that realizing the value proposition will require working with institutional administrations, other departments, and pathology colleagues; declaring that a robust pipeline should be fostered that trains and develops future computational pathologists, for those with both pathology and non-pathology backgrounds; and deciding that computational pathology should serve as a hub for data-related research in health care systems. The dissemination of these recommendations to pathology and bioinformatics departments should help facilitate the development of computational pathology. PMID:26098131

  14. Time matters--a theoretical and empirical examination of the temporal landscape of a hospital pathology service and the impact of e-health.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna I; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    One of the challenges associated with the implementation of e-health systems is the effect they have on the temporal landscape (how time is conceived, structured and monitored) of an organisation particularly as it relates to the way that work is prioritised, allocated, synchronised and coordinated. This study aims to identify the impact of the introduction of a new e-health system on key aspects of the temporal and organisational functioning of a hospital pathology service. The study employed qualitative methods including interviews, focus groups and observation sessions. It was carried out in the period of August 2005 to August 2008 across a hospital pathology service in Sydney, Australia during the introduction of a new laboratory information system and electronic ordering system. The results revealed a number of temporal layers which can be defined as organisational (how the service synchronises its work with other settings); clinical (coordination of work to ensure the appropriate laboratory contribution to effective patient care); procedural (allocating work according to scientific and pathologic processes); and informational and electronic (how and what information is communicated and accessed). The introduction of a new e-health system was shown to have a major impact on the temporal landscape of the pathology service. Specific examples of this were revealed in changes to the way the pathology service: (1) tracked and monitored specimens within the laboratory; and (2) communicated and coordinated its work internally and externally. The use of qualitative methods longitudinally provided key insights into the way that temporal factors operate within pathology laboratories and their interrelationship with the performance, distribution and allocation of work.

  15. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  16. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  17. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  18. Evaluation of response after neoadjuvant treatment in soft tissue sarcomas; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) recommendations for pathological examination and reporting.

    PubMed

    Wardelmann, E; Haas, R L; Bovée, J V M G; Terrier, Ph; Lazar, A; Messiou, C; LePechoux, C; Hartmann, W; Collin, F; Fisher, C; Mechtersheimer, G; DeiTos, A P; Stacchiotti, S; Jones, R L; Gronchi, A; Bonvalot, S

    2016-01-01

    At present, there is not a commonly used and generally accepted standardized approach for the pathologic evaluation of pretreated soft tissue sarcomas. Also, it is still unclear whether the cut-off for prognostic relevance is similar in the many different histological subtypes of STS. This manuscript, produced by a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) endorsed task force, aims to propose standardization of the pathological examination process and the reporting of STS resection specimens after neoadjuvant radio- and/or chemotherapy. PMID:26700077

  19. Musculoskeletal Pathology.

    PubMed

    Peat, Frances J; Kawcak, Christopher E

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of pathology as it relates to common diseases of the equine musculoskeletal system is reviewed. Conditions are organized under the fundamental categories of developmental, exercise-induced, infectious, and miscellaneous pathology. The overview of developmental pathology incorporates the new classification system of juvenile osteochondral conditions. Discussion of exercise-induced pathology emphasizes increased understanding of the contribution of cumulative microdamage caused by repetitive cyclic loading. Miscellaneous musculoskeletal pathology focuses on laminitis, which current knowledge indicates should be regarded as a clinical syndrome with a variety of possible distinct mechanisms of structural failure that are outlined in this overview. PMID:26037607

  20. Osler's pathology.

    PubMed

    Pai, S A

    2000-12-01

    Sir William Osler, one of the giants of clinical medicine, had his initial training as a pathologist. He was one of the physicians responsible for the impact that autopsies have had on medicine. He also contributed to the development of laboratory medicine. Osler made significant discoveries in anatomic pathology and hematology. His expertise was restricted not just to human pathology, but also to veterinary pathology. His mentors played a fundamental role in his achievements in academics.

  1. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  2. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention.

  3. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  4. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  5. Intraoperative pathology consultation for pulmonary lesions: errors and deferrals.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Elif Ulker

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy rate of frozen section constitutes an important step of quality assessment step in pathology practice. This study aimed to investigate pulmonary lesions that were incorrectly diagnosed or postponed for routine examination by pathologists at frozen section examination; it also aimed to discuss the reasons for difficult diagnoses and the various clues enabling the correct diagnosis to be made when such lesions are encountered. This study retrospectively reviewed the medical data of the thoracic surgery cases that underwent frozen section examination between 2009 and 2014. Frozen section errors and deferrals were identified in 25 cases. Fourteen (56%) lesions were of pulmonary parenchymal origin and 11 (44%) were of pleural origin. The number of cases in which the pathologists postponed the diagnosis without making any approach was 14. Of these, 9 (64%) were benign lesions such as bronchiectasis, fibrosis anthracosis, chronic inflammatory cell infiltration, chronic pleuritis, and mesothelial proliferation. The number of misdiagnosed cases was 11. Of these, 7 (64%) were of pulmonary and 4 (36%) were of pleural origin. Because the examination techniques of each pathology department may differ from one another, the comparative examination of frozen sections and routine sections would aid in becoming familiar with various pathologies and would be beneficial for pathologists in minimizing their diagnostic errors.

  6. Parent routines for managing cystic fibrosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bishop, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is burdensome and adherence is often suboptimal. Family routines are associated with adherence and health outcomes in other disease populations. Few studies have examined routines in CF. The study's aim was to describe parent experiences developing and utilizing CF care routines. Semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 25 parents of children under 13 years of age with CF were analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Three domains emerged: parent experiences developing a routine, support systems facilitating maintenance of routines, and challenges with maintaining care routines. Parents found routines difficult to establish, used trial and error, encountered barriers, and found support helpful to manage care demands. Some parents chose to deviate from their routine. Providing anticipatory guidance to promote the use of care routines and strategies to manage potential challenges may facilitate use of routines and improve CF management. PMID:24838648

  7. Pathological Examination of Radical Prostatectomy Specimens in Men with Very Low Risk Disease at Biopsy Reveals Distinct Zonal Distribution of Cancer in Black American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Ross, Ashley E.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Of men with very low risk prostate cancer at biopsy recent evidence shows that black American men are at greater risk for adverse oncologic outcomes after radical prostatectomy. We studied radical prostatectomy specimens from black and white men at very low risk to determine whether there are systematic pathological differences. Materials and Methods Radical prostatectomy specimens were evaluated in men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network® (NCCN) very low risk prostate cancer. At diagnosis all men underwent extended biopsy sampling (10 or more cores) and were treated in the modern Gleason grade era. We analyzed tumor volume, grade and location in 87 black and 89 white men. For each specimen the dominant nodule was defined as the largest tumor with the highest grade. Results Compared to white men, black men were more likely to have significant prostate cancer (61% vs 29%), Gleason 7 or greater (37% vs 11%, each p <0.001) and a volume of greater than 0.5 cm3 (45% vs 21%, p = 0.001). Dominant nodules in black men were larger (median 0.28 vs 0.13 cm3, p = 0.002) and more often anterior (51% vs 29%, p = 0.003). In men who underwent pathological upgrading the dominant nodule was also more frequently anterior in black than in white men (59% vs 0%, p = 0.001). Conclusions Black men with very low risk prostate cancer at diagnosis have a significantly higher prevalence of anterior cancer foci that are of higher grade and larger volume. Enhanced imaging or anterior zone sampling may detect these significant anterior tumors, improving the outcome in black men considering active surveillance. PMID:23770146

  8. [Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].

    PubMed

    Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-02-01

    Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy.

  9. Colorectal carcinoma: Pathologic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Matthew; Ravula, Sreelakshmi; Tatishchev, Sergei F.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the United States. Pathologic examination of biopsy, polypectomy and resection specimens is crucial to appropriate patient managemnt, prognosis assessment and family counseling. Molecular testing plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine. This review article focuses on the histopathology and molecular pathology of colorectal carcinoma and its precursor lesions, with an emphasis on their clinical relevance. PMID:22943008

  10. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  11. Routine vaccination against chickenpox?

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster. In 1995 a varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA and was incorporated into the routine vaccination programme for children; a decline of varicella among children and adults, and a reduction in associated hospitalisation, complications and mortality, has resulted. In the UK, a policy of targeted vaccination of at-risk groups has been in place since the vaccine was introduced. Here we review the evidence for the different approaches to VZV vaccination policy.

  12. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  13. Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma Histotype Based on Limited Sampling: A Prospective Study Comparing Cytology, Frozen Section, and Core Biopsies to Full Pathologic Examination.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; Zachara, Susanna; Soma, Anita; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; McAlpine, Jessica N; Huntsman, David; Thomson, Thomas; van Niekerk, Dirk; Singh, Naveena; Gilks, C Blake

    2015-11-01

    Growing insights into the biological features and molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer has prompted a shift toward histotype-specific treatments and clinical trials. As a result, the preoperative diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas based on small tissue sampling is rapidly gaining importance. The data on the accuracy of ovarian carcinoma histotype-specific diagnosis based on small tissue samples, however, remains very limited in the literature. Herein, we describe a prospective series of 30 ovarian tumors diagnosed using cytology, frozen section, core needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry (p53, p16, WT1, HNF-1β, ARID1A, TFF3, vimentin, and PR). The accuracy of histotype diagnosis using each of these modalities was 52%, 81%, 85%, and 84% respectively, using the final pathology report as the reference standard. The accuracy of histotype diagnosis using the Calculator for Ovarian Subtype Prediction (COSP), which evaluates immunohistochemical stains independent of histopathologic features, was 85%. Diagnostic accuracy varied across histotype and was lowest for endometrioid carcinoma across all diagnostic modalities (54%). High-grade serous carcinomas were the most overdiagnosed on core needle biopsy (accounting for 45% of misdiagnoses) and clear cell carcinomas the most overdiagnosed on frozen section (accounting for 36% of misdiagnoses). On core needle biopsy, 2/30 (7%) cases had a higher grade lesion missed due to sampling limitations. In this study, we identify several challenges in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors based on limited tissue sampling. Recognition of these scenarios can help improve diagnostic accuracy as we move forward with histotype-specific therapeutic strategies.

  14. [Forensic medicine and the overlap with pathology].

    PubMed

    Riepert, T

    2010-07-01

    Forensic medicine incorporates research, teaching and professional service. In the routine practice this encompasses interdisciplinary cooperation with physicians, natural scientists and the legal profession. Lectures in forensic medicine include the correct performance of an external examination of corpses, which every physician must be capable of, just as medical questions and the evidential documentation of injuries. Clinical forensic medicine encompasses the examination and documentation of living victims of physical and/or sexual violence. For further training to become a specialist for forensic medicine it is mandatory to undertake a 6-month training period in pathology. Fatalities with an unclear or unnatural manner of death must be registered with the police. On suspicion of third party involvement the public prosecutor will request a legal autopsy, which is carried out and documented by two physicians in accordance with the penal code. Imaging procedures are standard for an autopsy. Extensive samples are taken for additional testing, such as toxicological and molecular biological investigations.

  15. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

      Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine This routine demonstrates reading the lidar altitude data stored in CALIPSO Lidar Level 1B Profile, Level 2 Aerosol ... Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are stored in an HDF vdata (table) structure, as described ...

  16. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison C; Vimalakanthan, Kiruthiha; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of self-compassion, fear of self-compassion, and self-esteem in eating disorder pathology. One-hundred and fifty-five female undergraduate students and 97 females entering eating disorder treatment completed the Self-Compassion Scale, Fears of Compassion Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. T-tests revealed that the patient group had lower mean self-compassion and higher mean fear of self-compassion than the student group. When controlling for self-esteem, high fear of self-compassion emerged as the strongest predictor of eating disorder pathology in the patient group, whereas low self-compassion was the strongest predictor in the student group. These preliminary results suggest that targeting fear of self-compassion may be important when intervening with individuals suffering from an eating disorder, whereas building self-compassion may be a valuable approach for eating disorder prevention. PMID:25064287

  17. [Clinical pathology].

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, Jovan

    2006-05-01

    This work describes the basic elements of pathology used in clinical practice. Pathology plays an important role in clinical and scientific work, but only a few areas of pathology will be covered. Although the contribution of oncological and surgical pathology to therapy is the most well known, the cases chosen here will involve infectious pathology, diseases of the kidney and the liver, autoimmune diseases, as well as organ transplantation. Especially important is the description of methods that enable more accurate morphological diagnoses, such as histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy. Previous experience and joint work with clinical doctors have enabled the definition of significant morphological elements as well as of essential methods of pathohistological diagnosis. Besides, as is often the case, although disease symptoms are difficult to discern and biochemical results do not show significant changes compared to normal values, the results of biopsy come as a surprise to clinical doctors. For example, in virus hepatitis B involving so-called asymptomatic HBsAg carriers, we discovered every morphological form of hepatitis, from minimal lesions to chronic, persistent, and active hepatitis. With hepatitis C, certain morphological lesions point to the etiopathogenesis of this disease and thus help to confirm the diagnosis and to instigate therapy on time. Another significant experience involves kidney biopsies in cases when clinical findings are asymptomatic. Often, in such cases, morphological findings point to glomerulonephritis and glomerulopathy at different stages. Timely and subtle morphological diagnostics offer a more precise explanation for the pathological injury of tissues than other diagnostic methods. In this way, by adopting new methods, the work of pathologists is included more and more in everyday clinical practice. The inclusion of pathologists in a transplantation team makes sure a proper selection of

  18. Application of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography-pulsed amperometric detection for measuring carbohydrates in routine daily filter samples collected by a national network: 2. Examination of sugar alcohols/polyols, sugars, and anhydrosugars in the upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, A. P.; Frank, N.; Kenski, D. M.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Carbohydrate measurements of ambient samples can provide insights into the biogenic fraction of the organic carbon (OC) aerosol. However, lack of measurement on a routine basis limits data analysis. In a companion paper, 1 year of archived 1-in-6 day FRM (Federal Reference Monitor) filter samples from the PM2.5 NAAQS compliance monitoring network collected at 10 sites in the upper Midwest were analyzed using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection to determine the regional impact of biomass burning. Along with levoglucosan, 13 other carbohydrates were simultaneously measured, including two more anhydrosugars (mannosan and galactosan), five sugars (arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose), and six sugar alcohols/polyols (glycerol, methyltetrols, threitol/erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol). This paper focuses on the results from these carbohydrates in order to investigate their sources and trends both spatially and temporally. Mannosan, galactosan, arabinose, xylose, and threitol/erythritol all correlated with levoglucosan (R2 from 0.43 to 0.97), suggesting biomass burning as their main source. Glucose and mannitol exhibited higher concentrations in summer and at more southern sites, likely due to vegetation differences at the sites. Using mannitol, the contribution of spores to OC was found to be <1%. Methyltetrols were highly correlated with water-soluble OC (R2 from 0.63 to 0.95) and in higher concentrations at more eastern sites. This spatial pattern is possibly due to these sites being downwind of the high isoprene emission zones that occur in the western part of the Midwest from oak forests in the Ozarks and spruce forests in the northern lake states.

  19. The Acquisition of Routines in Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko; Weintraub, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    Investigates performance of the highly constrained Hallowe'en "trick or treat" routine in 115 children from 2 to 16 years of age. Changes in competence and role of parental input are examined in relation to cognitive and social factors. (Author/RM)

  20. Parental Involvement Routines and Former Head Start Children's Literacy Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dove, Meghan Kicklighter; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Wright, David W.; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parental involvement routines and former Head Start children's literacy outcomes. Former Head Start children (n = 3, 808) from the National Head Start/Public School Transition Demonstration Research Project comprised the sample. Family routines and literacy outcomes in kindergarten were examined,…

  1. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    PubMed

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice.

  2. Effects of time and movements of the preshot routine on free throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Mack, M G

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the effects of length and movements of preshot routines on free throw shooting in basketball. 17 members of an intercollegiate men's basketball team attempted 20 free throws in each of four different conditions: (1) normal routine and time, (2) normal routine with altered time, (3) altered routine with normal time, and (4) altered routine with altered time. Free throw performance was measured using an objective 5-point scoring system. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant effect for routine. Neither time nor routine by time was significant. Results indicated that altering the movements in the routine had a significant effect on performance while lengthening the time did not.

  3. Modern pathology methods for neural investigations.

    PubMed

    Hale, Sarah L; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Jordan, William H; Jortner, Bernard S; Boyce, Rogely W; Boyce, John T; Iii, Robert C Switzer; Butt, Mark T; Garman, Robert H; Jensen, Karl; Krinke, Georg; Little, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    This session at the 2010 joint symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and the International Federation of Societies of Toxicologic Pathologists (IFSTP) explored modern neuropathology methods for assessing the neurotoxicologic potential of xenobiotics. Conventional techniques to optimally prepare and evaluate the central and peripheral neural tissues while minimizing artifact were reviewed, and optimal schemes were set forth for evaluation of the nervous system during both routine (i.e., general toxicity) studies and enhanced (i.e., specialized neurotoxicity) studies. Stereology was introduced as the most appropriate means of examining the possible impact of toxicants on neural cell numbers. A focused discussion on brain sampling took place among a panel of expert neuroscientists (anatomists and pathologists) and the audience regarding the proper balance between sufficient sampling and cost- and time-effectiveness of the analysis. No consensus was reached on section orientation (coronal sections of both sides vs. a parasagittal longitudinal section with several unilateral hemisections from the contralateral side), but most panelists favored sampling at least 8 sections (or approximately double to triple the current complement) in routine toxicity studies.

  4. [Pathology of non-reflux esophagitides].

    PubMed

    Daum, Ondřej; Dubová, Magdaléna; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The topic of non-reflux esophagitides is partially hidden in the shadow cast by the huge and modern entity of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Histological investigation alone is often insufficient to reach the correct diagnosis without a correlation of the microscopic picture with clinical presentation, endoscopic gross appearance, personal and pharmacological history of the patient, results of hematological, serological, immunological and microbiological examinations. Due to their low-prevalence, individual types of non-reflux esophagitides are not routinely encountered in routine biopsies. Furthermore, the plethora of etiological agents present with only a limited range of reaction patterns, and thus a single histological picture may be common for more agents. Conversely, one cause may be associated with more morphological patterns. Due to these circumstances the pathological diagnostic management should follow a settled algorithm to prevent an inadequate narrowing of the histopathologist´s view. Histologic findings forming the base of this algorithm include distribution and type of inflammatory infiltrate, appearance of epithelial changes, and (in some cases) even the presence of causative agent in histological slides. PMID:27108553

  5. Pathological fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    De Mattos, C. B. R.; Binitie, O.; Dormans, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathological fractures in children can occur as a result of a variety of conditions, ranging from metabolic diseases and infection to tumours. Fractures through benign and malignant bone tumours should be recognised and managed appropriately by the treating orthopaedic surgeon. The most common benign bone tumours that cause pathological fractures in children are unicameral bone cysts, aneurysmal bone cysts, non-ossifying fibromas and fibrous dysplasia. Although pathological fractures through a primary bone malignancy are rare, these should be recognised quickly in order to achieve better outcomes. A thorough history, physical examination and review of plain radiographs are crucial to determine the cause and guide treatment. In most benign cases the fracture will heal and the lesion can be addressed at the time of the fracture, or after the fracture is healed. A step-wise and multidisciplinary approach is necessary in caring for paediatric patients with malignancies. Pathological fractures do not have to be treated by amputation; these fractures can heal and limb salvage can be performed when indicated. PMID:23610658

  6. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  7. Routines in School Organizations: Creating Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Enomoto, Ernestine K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents routinized action theory as a way to examine the regular, habitual activities that occur in school organizations. Using this theoretical lens, school routines were analyzed in order to understand organizational stability and change. Design/methodology/approach: Using case study methods, three discrete cases are…

  8. Factors for Radical Creativity, Incremental Creativity, and Routine, Noncreative Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine,…

  9. Changing Urban Bureaucracies: How New Practices Become Routinized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The goal of this report is to describe the process by which new service practices in urban bureaucracies become routinized. The routinization process is studied by examining the life histories of six types of innovations: computer-assisted instruction; police computer systems; mobile intensive care units; closed circuit television systems; breath…

  10. An Anatomic Pathology System Using the File Manager

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, R. E.; Tatarczuk, J. R.; Roy, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    An Anatomic Pathology System incorporating patient data from surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology is presented. The System includes four interconnected files created with the aid of the File Manager. One file, containing patient demographic data, can be used as a connecting node to other patient databases. Five MUMPS routines, using File Manager functions, allow System users unfamiliar with computers and computer programming to easily enter, edit and retrieve patient information. Retrieved information is in a format to reconstruct, when possible, a patient's medical history from the pathology database and to correlate surgical pathology, cytopathology and autopsy pathology data.

  11. Revised histopathological consensus classification of joint implant related pathology.

    PubMed

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Perino, G; Kienapfel, H; Ascherl, R; Hassenpflug, G J; Thomsen, M; Thomas, P; Huber, M; Kendoff, D; Baumhoer, D; Krukemeyer, M G; Natu, S; Boettner, F; Zustin, J; Kölbel, B; Rüther, W; Kretzer, J P; Tiemann, A; Trampuz, A; Frommelt, L; Tichilow, R; Söder, S; Müller, S; Parvizi, J; Illgner, U; Gehrke, T

    2014-12-01

    This extended classification of joint implant related pathology is a practical histopathologic classification based on defined morphological criteria covering the complete spectrum of pathohistologic changes in periprosthetic tissues. These changes may occur as a consequence of endoprosthetic replacement of large joints and may lead to a reduction in the prosthesis survival rate. We describe the established consensus classification of the periprosthetic membrane, in which aseptic and septic prosthetic loosening can be subdivided into four histological types, as well as histopathological criteria for additional significant pathologies including endoprosthetic-associated arthrofibrosis, particle-induced immunological, inflammatory and toxic mechanisms (adverse reactions), and bone tissue pathologies. These characteristic tissue alterations and their relationships are summarized in the extended classification. Since particle heterogeneity in periprosthetic tissue is high and particle identification is a necessary part of diagnosis, the identification of different types of particles is described in the histopathological particle algorithm. The morphological qualities of prosthetic material particles and the demarcation between abrasion and non-abrasion endogenous particles are also summarized. This feasible classification which is based on low cost standard tissue processing and examination and on well-defined diagnostic criteria is a solid platform for the histological diagnosis of implant associated pathologies providing a stable and reproducible tool for the surgical pathologist. Since this classification is suitable for standardized histopathological diagnostics, it might also provide a useful data set for joint arthroplasty registers, particularly for registers based on so-called routine data.

  12. "Slide less pathology": Fairy tale or reality?

    PubMed

    Indu, M; Rathy, R; Binu, M P

    2016-01-01

    Pathology practice is significantly advanced in various frontiers. Therefore, "slide less digital" pathology will not be a mere imagination in near future. Digitalization of histopathological slides (whole slide imaging [WSI]) is possible with the help of whole slide scanner. The WSI has a positive impact not only in routine practice but also in research field, medical education and bioindustry. Even if digital pathology has definitive advantages, its widespread use is not yet possible. As it is an upcoming technology in our field, this article is aimed to discussessential aspects of WSI. PMID:27601824

  13. Routine chest radiographs in the surgical intensive care unit: can we change clinical habits with no proven benefit?

    PubMed

    Velicković, Jelena V; Hajdarević, Sanela A; Palibrk, Ivan G; Janić, Natasa R; Djukanović, Marija; Miljković, Bojana; Velicković, Dejan M; Bumbasirević, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Daily routine chest radiographs (CR) are commonly performed in surgical ICU. Unnecessary CR increase costs and expose the staff and the patients to radiation risk. The goal of our study was to estimate the value of daily routine CR in the ICU and to determine the correlation between CR and physical findings in surgical ICU patients. Prospective observational study was conducted during period of two months at the ICU department at the Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade. It included 97 consecutive patients who underwent digestive surgery and stayed at the ICU for at least two days. During their ICU stay, CRs were obtained as a clinical routine or to monitor lung pathology. Patients were followed daily, and CRs (as the proportion of positive findings) were compared with physical examination and clinical presentation. A total of 717 CRs were obtained, median number per patient was 4.0 (2.0-7.0). Proportion of positive findings was significantly higher comparing to auscultation until the sixth day of ICU stay. There was no difference in CR findings from day to day after the sixth day. Therapeutic efficacy of CRs was low as only 56 (7.8%) resulted in a change of patient management. We conclude that daily routine CRs are justified in the first six days of ICU stay, and after that time they show no advantages over clinical examination. PMID:24669579

  14. Renal biopsy and pathologic evaluation of glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Lees, George E; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Clubb, Fred J

    2011-08-01

    Presence of suspected primary glomerular disease is the most common and compelling reason to consider renal biopsy. Pathologic findings in samples from animals with nephritic or nephrotic glomerulopathies, as well as from animals with persistent subclinical glomerular proteinuria that is not associated with advanced chronic kidney disease, frequently guide treatment decisions and inform prognosis when suitable specimens are obtained and examined appropriately. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy techniques generally are satisfactory; however, other methods of locating or approaching the kidney, such as manual palpation (e.g., in cats), laparoscopy, or open surgery, also can be used. Visual assessment of the tissue content of needle biopsy samples to verify that they are renal cortex (i.e., contain glomeruli) as they are obtained is a key step that minimizes the submission of uninformative samples for examination. Adequate planning for a renal biopsy also requires prior procurement of the fixatives and preservatives needed to process and submit samples that will be suitable for electron microscopic examination and immunostaining, as well as for light microscopic evaluation. Finally, to be optimally informative, renal biopsy specimens must be processed by laboratories that routinely perform the required specialized examinations and then be evaluated by experienced veterinary nephropathologists. The pathologic findings must be carefully integrated with one another and with information derived from the clinical investigation of the patient's illness to formulate the correct diagnosis and most informative guidance for therapeutic management of the animal's glomerular disease. PMID:21782145

  15. [How to Interpret and Use Routine Laboratory Data--Our Methods to Interpret Routine Laboratory Data--Chairmen's Introductory Remarks].

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Tozuka, Minoru

    2015-09-01

    In the reversed clinicopathological conference (R-CPC), three specialists in laboratory medicine interpreted routine laboratory data independently in order to understand the detailed state of a patient. R-CPC is an educational method to use laboratory data appropriately, and it is also important to select differential diagnoses in a process of clinical reasoning in addition to the present illness and physical examination. Routine laboratory tests can be performed repeatedly at a relatively low cost, and their time-series analysis can be performed. Interpretation of routine laboratory data is almost the same as taking physical findings. General findings are initially checked and then the state of each organ is examined. Although routine laboratory tests cost little, we can gain much more information from them about the patient than physical examinations. PMID:26731894

  16. Rotavirus vaccines in routine use.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines are now available to combat rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. We review clinical trial data for available rotavirus vaccines and summarize postlicensure data on effectiveness, impact, and safety from countries routinely using these vaccines in national programs. In these countries, rotavirus vaccines have reduced all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations by 17%-55% and 49%-92%, respectively, and all-cause diarrhea deaths by 22%-50% in some settings. Indirect protection of children who are age-ineligible for rotavirus vaccine has also been observed in some high and upper middle income countries. Experience with routine use of rotavirus vaccines in lower middle income countries has been limited to date, but vaccine introductions in such countries have been increasing in recent years. The risk-benefit analysis of rotavirus vaccines is extremely favorable but other strategies to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, particularly in lower middle income settings, should be considered.

  17. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2014.

    PubMed

    Subaiya, Saleena; Dumolard, Laure; Lydon, Patrick; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Conklin, Laura

    2015-11-13

    The year 2014 marked the 40th anniversary of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization, which was established to ensure equitable access to routine immunization services (1). Since 1974, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette- Guérin vaccine [BCG; for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥85%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the 3rd dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is an indicator of immunization program performance because it reflects completion of the basic infant immunization schedule; coverage with other vaccines, including the 3rd dose of poliovirus vaccine (polio3); the 1st dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) is also assessed. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 84%–86% since 2009, with estimated 2014 coverage at 86%. Estimated global coverage for the 2nd routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) was 38% by age 24 months and 56% when older age groups were included, similar to levels reported in 2013 (36% and 55%, respectively). To reach and sustain high immunization coverage in all countries, adequate vaccine stock management and additional opportunities for immunization, such as through routine visits in the second year of life, are integral components to strengthening immunization programs and reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:26562454

  18. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  19. Factors for radical creativity, incremental creativity, and routine, noncreative performance.

    PubMed

    Madjar, Nora; Greenberg, Ellen; Chen, Zheng

    2011-07-01

    This study extends theory and research by differentiating between routine, noncreative performance and 2 distinct types of creativity: radical and incremental. We also use a sensemaking perspective to examine the interplay of social and personal factors that may influence a person's engagement in a certain level of creative action versus routine, noncreative work. Results demonstrate that willingness to take risks, resources for creativity, and career commitment are associated primarily with radical creativity; that the presence of creative coworkers and organizational identification are associated with incremental creativity; and that conformity and organizational identification are linked with routine performance. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  20. Endosonographic examination of thyroid gland among patients with nonthyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    Alkhatib, Amer A.; Mahayni, Abdulah A.; Chawki, Ghaleb R.; Yoder, Leon; Elkhatib, Fateh A.; Al-Haddad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited endosonographic literature regarding thyroid gland pathology, which is frequently visualized during upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Our objective was to assess the prevalence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions encountered during routine upper EUS within a cancer center setting. Materials and Methods: The data were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All upper EUS procedures performed between October 2012 and July 2014 were reviewed at a large referral cancer center. Data collected included patient demographics, preexisting thyroid conditions, thyroid gland dimensions, the presence or absence of thyroid lesions, and EUS morphology of lesions if present, and interventions performed to characterize thyroid lesions and pathology results when applicable. Results: Two hundred and forty-five EUS procedures were reviewed. Of these, 100 cases reported a detailed endosonographic examination of the thyroid gland. Most of the thyroid glands were endosonographically visualized when the tip of the scope was at 18 cm from the incisors. Twelve cases showed thyroid lesions, out of which three previously undiagnosed thyroid cancers were visualized during EUS (two primary papillary thyroid cancers and one anaplastic thyroid cancer). Transesophageal EUS-guided fine needle aspiration of thyroid lesions was feasible when the lesion was in the inferior portion of the thyroid gland, and the tip of the scope was at 18 cm or more from the incisors. Conclusions: Routine EUS examination may detect unexpected thyroid lesions including malignant ones. We encourage endosonographers to screen the visualized portions of the thyroid gland during routine withdrawal of the echoendoscope. PMID:27803906

  1. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  2. Rate of occult specimen provenance complications in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, John D; Liu, Jingxia

    2013-01-01

    Occult specimen provenance complications (SPCs), which occur when there is an absence of any direct or indirect indication that a specimen switch or contamination may have occurred, constitute a significant patient safety and medical-legal problem because they can lead to misdiagnosis. However, the rate at which occult SPCs occur is unknown because, by definition, this category of errors is not identified by standard laboratory practices. In this study, we evaluated a data set comprising almost 13,000 prostate biopsies that were prospectively tested for specimen provenance errors as part of routine clinical practice. The frequency of occult type 1 errors (a complete transposition between patients) and type 2 errors (contamination of the patient's tissue with 1 or more unrelated patients) was 0.26% and 0.67%, respectively; every urology practice setting and surgical pathology laboratory type with a representative sample size experienced at least 1 type 1 and 1 type 2 error during the study period. Overall, the mean frequency of SPCs across practice settings was 0.22% for type 1 errors and 1.69% for type 2 errors. The type 1 rate showed no correlation with a surgical pathology laboratory setting or urologic practice group setting; the type 2 rate correlated solely with a surgical pathology laboratory setting. The occult SPC rate in this limited data set provides an estimate of the scope of the problem of potential misdiagnosis as a result of occult specimen provenance errors in routine clinical practice.

  3. TDP-43 proteinopathies: pathological identification of brain regions differentiating clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rachel H; Kril, Jillian J; Fatima, Manaal; McGeachie, Andrew; McCann, Heather; Shepherd, Claire; Forrest, Shelley L; Affleck, Andrew; Kwok, John B J; Hodges, John R; Kiernan, Matthew C; Halliday, Glenda M

    2015-10-01

    The pathological sequestration of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43, encoded by TARDBP) into cytoplasmic pathological inclusions characterizes the distinct clinical syndromes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, while also co-occurring in a proportion of patients with Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that the regional concentration of TDP-43 pathology has most relevance to specific clinical phenotypes. This has been reflected in the three different pathological staging schemes for TDP-43 pathology in these different clinical syndromes, with none of these staging schemes including a preclinical phase similar to that which has proven beneficial in other neurodegenerative diseases. To apply each of these three staging schemes for TDP-43 pathology, the clinical phenotype must be known undermining the potential predictive value of the pathological examination. The present study set out to test whether a more unified approach could accurately predict clinical phenotypes based solely on the regional presence and severity of TDP-43 pathology. The selection of brain regions of interest was based on key regions routinely sampled for neuropathological assessment under current consensus criteria that have also been used in the three TDP-43 staging schemes. The severity of TDP-43 pathology in these regions of interest was assessed in four clinicopathological phenotypes: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 27, 47-78 years, 15 males), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 15, 49-82 years, seven males), Alzheimer's disease (n = 26, 51-90 years, 11 males) and cognitively normal elderly individuals (n = 17, 80-103 years, nine males). Our results demonstrate that the presence of TDP-43 in the hypoglossal nucleus discriminates patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with an accuracy of 98%. The severity of TDP-43 deposited in the anterior cingulate cortex identifies patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia

  4. Whole-slide, quadruple immunofluorescence labeling of routinely processed paraffin sections.

    PubMed

    Buscone, Serena; Argentieri, Maria C; Pilla, Daniela; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2014-04-01

    Whole-slide images (WSI) have acquired a stable place in diagnostic histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Immunofluorescence (IF) techniques hold a limited and selective role in diagnostics (eg, renal and cutaneous pathology) and so far remain excluded from the digital pathology evolution, with notable exceptions, such as quantitative immunopathology. We explored the ability of a commercial fluorescent slide scanner to provide 4-color IF WSI from routinely processed tissues. With minor modifications and a careful match between filters and fluorochromes, we show that 4-color IF WSI can be obtained from routine material with negligible autofluorescence, good sensitivity, and diagnostic power.

  5. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts. PMID:12593582

  6. Facts about artefacts in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Pattari, S K; Dey, P

    2002-01-01

    Literal meaning of artefact given by 'Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary' is 'a thing made by people'. In medical science 'the fact' is not true; but we observe routinely is called artefact. We face various types of artefacts in daily reporting of pathology specimen. Many times artefacts hinder the actual diagnosis. The artefacts i. e. fixation artefact, processing artefact, staining artefact, mounting artefact, air bubbles etc. can cause difficulty in diagnosis and a pathologist should be trained to identify those artefacts.

  7. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Squier, Waney

    2011-11-01

    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  8. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellant

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Palle; Bredahl, Erik; Lauritsen, Ove; Laursen, Thomas

    1970-01-01

    Petersen, P., Bredahl, E., Lauritsen, O., and Laursen, T. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 141-146. Examination of the liver in personnel working with liquid rocket propellants. Personnel working with liquid rocket propellants were subjected to routine health examinations, including liver function tests, as the propellant, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is potentially toxic to the liver. In 46 persons the concentrations of serum alanine aminotransferase (SGPT) were raised. Liver biopsy was performed in 26 of these men; 6 specimens were pathological (fatty degeneration), 5 were uncertain, and 15 were normal. All 6 pathological biopsies were from patients with a raised SGPT at the time of biopsy. Of the 15 persons with a normal liver biopsy, 14 had a normal SGPT, while one (who was an alcoholic) had a raised SGPT. The connection between SGPT and histology of the liver, as well as the possible causal relation between the pathological findings and exposure to UDMH, is discussed. Images PMID:5428632

  9. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  10. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  11. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  12. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  13. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  14. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  15. Problem and Pathological Gambling among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinchfield, Randy; Hanson, William E.; Olson, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines problem and pathological gambling among college students and reports on prevalence rate, risk and protective factors, prevention and intervention, and recommendations for college student personnel and other university administrators.

  16. SNOMED CT in pathology.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Daniel, Christel; Laurinavicius, Arvydas

    2012-01-01

    Pathology information systems have been using SNOMED II for many years, and in most cases, they are in a migration process to SNOMED CT. COST Action IC0604 (EURO-TELEPATH) has considered terminology normalization one of its strategic objectives. This paper reviews the use of SNOMED CT in healthcare, with a special focus in pathology. Nowadays, SNOMED CT is mainly used for concept search and coding of clinical data. Some ontological errors found in SNOMED CT are described. The Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative has fostered the use of SNOMED CT, also in Pathology, as recommended in the Supplement Anatomic Pathology Structured Reports of the IHE Anatomic Pathology Technical Framework. Rule governing concept post-coordination is also described. Some recent initiatives are trying to define a SNOMED CT subset for Pathology. The Spanish Society of Pathology has defined a subset for specimens and procedures in Pathology. Regarding diagnosis coding, the morphological abnormality sub-hierarchy of SNOMED CT need to be significantly extended and improved to become useful for pathologists. A consensus is needed to encode pathology reports with the adequate hierarchies and concepts. This will make the implementation of pathology structured reports more feasible.

  17. Application of Molecular Pathology in Endocrine Pathology.

    PubMed

    Linke, Ebru Serinsoz; Tezel, Gaye Güler

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth in knowledge of cell and molecular biology led to the increased usage of molecular techniques in anatomical pathology. This is also due to the advances achieved in the techniques introduced in the last few years which are less laborious as compared to the techniques used at the beginning of the "molecular era". The initial assays were also very expensive and were not performed except for selected centers. Moreover, the clinicians were not sure how to make use of the accumulating molecular information. That situation has also changed and molecular techniques are being performed in a wide variety of medical settings which also has a reflection on the endocrine system pathology among other organ systems. This review will provide an update of genetic changes observed in different endocrine system pathologies and their diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic values.

  18. School Bus Crash Rates on Routine and Nonroutine Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus…

  19. Routinization and emotional well-being: an experience sampling investigation in an elderly French sample.

    PubMed

    Bouisson, Jean; Swendsen, Joel

    2003-09-01

    This investigation examined the predictive validity of routinization preference measures, as well as the association of routinization to state affect in daily life. The authors collected naturalistic repeated observations from elderly participants living in private residences or retirement homes. Preferences for routinization were significantly associated with the repetition of both behaviors and environmental contexts. Routines were associated with decreases in positive affect in within-person analyses but had no association to anxious or depressed mood states. The findings are discussed in terms of the complexity of the routinization concept and its relevance for understanding emotional well-being in elderly people.

  20. Handheld computing in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung; Parwani, Anil; Satyanarayanan, Mahadev; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2012-01-01

    Handheld computing has had many applications in medicine, but relatively few in pathology. Most reported uses of handhelds in pathology have been limited to experimental endeavors in telemedicine or education. With recent advances in handheld hardware and software, along with concurrent advances in whole-slide imaging (WSI), new opportunities and challenges have presented themselves. This review addresses the current state of handheld hardware and software, provides a history of handheld devices in medicine focusing on pathology, and presents future use cases for such handhelds in pathology. PMID:22616027

  1. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG <1.035 might reflect inappropriate concentrating ability warranting further investigation. We measured the USG of 1040 apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (<6 months old) had USGs of <1.035. Of these 126 cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG <1.035 without apparent pathology included age and dietary moisture content. Drinking avidity decreased with increasing dietary moisture content. Our results show that most apparently healthy cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG <1.035 are more likely to have pathological causes identified, although clinicians are more likely to examine these cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  2. The Effect of Team Training Strategies on Team Mental Model Formation and Team Performance under Routine and Non-Routine Environmental Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined how the type of training a team receives (team coordination training vs. cross-training) influences the type of team mental model structures that form and how those mental models in turn impact team performance under different environmental condition (routine vs. non-routine). Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduate…

  3. Opportunities in Speech Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Parley W.

    The importance of speech is discussed and speech pathology is described. Types of communication disorders considered are articulation disorders, aphasia, facial deformity, hearing loss, stuttering, delayed speech, voice disorders, and cerebral palsy; examples of five disorders are given. Speech pathology is investigated from these aspects: the…

  4. Uterine pathology and infertility.

    PubMed

    Flamigni, C; Gianaroli, L; Ferraretti, A P; Jasonni, V M; Melega, C; Possati, G

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the factors influencing implantation with reference to uterine pathology; the role that it plays both in the case of failure of implantation and in the case of repeated abortions is discussed and the techniques of treatment in the presence of uterine pathology affecting fertility are listed.

  5. Radiographic pathology for technologists

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.D.; Kowalczyk, N.

    1988-01-01

    This book explains the fundamentals of disease mechanisms and relates this to the practice of radiologic science. Each chapter begins with a discussion of normal anatomy and physiology, then covers pathology and demonstrates how the pathology appears on film. Imaging modalities such as computed tomography, MRI, and ultrasound are also discussed. Clinical case studies are included.

  6. The Effects of Pathological Gaming on Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmens, Jeroen S.; Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this…

  7. Routine Work Environment Stress and PTSD Symptoms in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Maguen, Shira; Metzler, Thomas J.; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Henn-Haase, Clare; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between routine work environment stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a sample of police officers (N = 180) who were first assessed during academy training and reassessed 1-year later. In a model that included gender, ethnicity, traumatic exposure prior to entering the academy, current negative life events, and critical incident exposure over the last year, routine work environment stress was most strongly associated with PTSD symptoms. We also found that routine work environment stress mediated the relationship between critical incident exposure and PTSD symptoms and between current negative life events and PTSD symptoms. Ensuring that the work environment is functioning optimally protects against the effects of duty-related critical incidents and negative life events outside police service. PMID:19829204

  8. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  9. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. PMID:27515387

  10. Is routine nasoendoscopy warranted in epistaxis patients after removal of nasal packing?

    PubMed Central

    Howe, David; Chan, Samuel K.

    2011-01-01

    Fiberoptic nasoendoscopy (FNE) is a powerful investigative tool in ear, nose, and throat practice in which its use in the management of epistaxis is varied among clinicians. The practice of assessing the nasal cavity after removal of nasal packs is common but its usefulness has not been evaluated. Therefore, we assessed the benefits of routine FNE after removal of nasal packs in epistaxis patients. Our study was performed retrospectively involving 62 adult patients admitted over a 6-month period between 2005 and 2006. Data regarding the emergent management of epistaxis cases on presentation, the use of FNE, and the final diagnosis and outcome of each patient were specifically investigated during the study. Anterior rhinoscopy was performed in 27 patients at initial presentation, of whom 45% (10/27) had anterior bleeding points identified. FNE examination after removal of nasal packs in eight patients yielded evidence of a posterior bleeding point in only one case (12.5%). Of those patients in whom anterior rhinoscopy revealed no anterior bleeding point at presentation (17/27), 12 patients went on to have FNE after removal of their nasal packs, and of these, 33% (4/12) of patients were found to have a posterior bleeding vessel. Overall, FNE was performed in 24 patients, of whom only 1 (1/24) had an active posterior bleeding vessel needing nasal repacking. Four patients (4/24) had prominent posterior vessels that required no intervention, 1 patient (1/24) had new pathology identified, and in the remaining 18 cases (18/24), FNE yielded no additional information to modify management. The routine performance of FNE in all epistaxis patients after pack removal does not appear to convey any additional benefit. We advocate the use of FNE when anterior bleeding has been excluded or bleeding is persistent and that careful nasal examination by anterior rhinoscopy should be the cornerstone of assessment. PMID:22852109

  11. Clinical and pathologic diagnosis and different diagnosis of syphilis cervical lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yufen; Zhang, Xinlian; Xu, Nan; Wang, Libo; Li, Fangchao; Zhang, Ping; Miao, Lanfang; Yang, Haijun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the clinical pathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis of syphilitic cervical lymphadenitis, and to improve the rate of its diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Retrospectively analyzed the clinical history, Trepone pallidum-ELISA (TP-ELISA), rapid plasma regain test (RPR) and routine pathological examination of the patient diagnosed as syphilis lymphadenitis. And review related literatures. Results: The main clinical presentation was multiple palpable cervical lymph nodes. The multiple nodes were hard, fixed, and the major diameter of the larger one was 2 cm. The main pathological changes included: the capsule was significantly thickened; reactive hyperplasia of lymphoid follicular with sky star phenomenon; occlusive endovasculitis; perivascular inflammation; the proliferation of epithelioid histiocytes can form granulomas with few multinucleated giant cells; few necrosis. TP-ELISA and RPR were positive. Conclusions: The pathological changes of syphilitic lymphadenitis have a variety of performance with relatively specific and suggestive alterations which requires a combination of clinical history and laboratory test before the diagnosis, and the clinicians can reduce misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis of the disease by increasing vigilance of it. PMID:26722588

  12. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hasted, Tim; Stapleton, Helen; Beckmann, Michael M; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  13. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Michael M.; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  14. Proceedings of the consensus meetings from the International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group on the pathology guidelines for the examination of enucleated eyes and evaluation of prognostic risk factors in retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sastre, Xavier; Chantada, Guillermo L; Doz, François; Wilson, Matthew W; de Davila, Maria T G; Rodríguez-Galindo, Carlos; Chintagumpala, Murali; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia

    2009-08-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignant childhood tumor in need of prospective clinical trials to address important unanswered questions about biology, treatment, and prognostic factors. Currently, there is controversy about the definitions for choroidal invasion and an inconsistency in the handling of eyes with retinoblastoma. The International Retinoblastoma Staging Working Group (IRSWG) composed of 58 participants from 24 countries on 4 continents had a series of Internet meetings to discuss the staging and tissue handling guidelines to reach consensus for adequate processing, establishing definitions of histopathologic risk factors, and reporting of enucleated eyes with retinoblastoma to serve as the basis for clinical trials and studies to validate the proposed criteria. The meetings were facilitated by the International Outreach Program of the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital through Cure4Kids. The retinoblastoma guidelines from the Children's Oncology Group, the French Society for Pediatric Cancers, the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology, and some published data were the basis for this consensus document. Discussions of the feasibility, practicality, and efficacy of the guidelines and criteria resulted in this report. The consensus definitions reached included definition of massive choroidal invasion stated as a maximum diameter of invasive tumor focus of 3 mm or more that may reach the scleral tissue. Focal choroidal invasion is defined as a tumor focus of less than 3 mm and not reaching the sclera. Optic nerve invasion is classified as prelaminar, laminar, retrolaminar, or tumor at surgical margin, and the measurement of the depth of invasion should also be recorded. These guidelines also address handling of the enucleated eye with retinoblastoma in an efficient, practical, and feasible manner for a meaningful diagnosis. The consensus criteria reached by the IRSWG should be validated through prospective

  15. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  16. Rotator cuff and subacromial pathology.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Jacobson, Jon A

    2015-07-01

    Both MRI and ultrasound (US) demonstrate equivalent accuracy in the evaluation of the rotator cuff. Both modalities have their advantages, disadvantages, and pitfalls. Radiography is an important complementary modality in that it can demonstrate occult sources of shoulder pain. MRI is recommended for the evaluation of shoulder pain in patients < 40 years of age because labral pathology is frequently identified. However, in patients > 40 years, US should be the first-line modality because the incidence of rotator cuff pathology increases with age. US is useful to guide procedures such as subacromial injection and calcific tendinosis lavage. Radiologists should be knowledgeable of both MRI and US of the shoulder to tailor these examinations to the specific needs of their patients.

  17. Pathology of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, John W

    2014-12-01

    Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered in veterinary practice in companion animals, livestock and horses, inflicted head injury is a common method of euthanasia in domestic livestock, and malicious head trauma can lead to forensic investigation, the pathology of TBI has generally received little attention in the veterinary literature. This review highlights the pathology and pathogenesis of cerebral lesions produced by blunt, non-missile and penetrating, missile head injuries as an aid to the more accurate diagnosis of neurotrauma cases. If more cases of TBI in animals that result in fatality or euthanasia are subjected to rigorous neuropathological examination, this will lead to a better understanding of the nature and development of brain lesions in these species, rather than extrapolating data from human studies. PMID:25178417

  18. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  19. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  20. Value of histopathologic examination of uterine products after first-trimester miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Alsibiani, Sharifa Ali

    2014-01-01

    The main rationale of routine histopathologic examination of products after first-trimester miscarriages is to detect an ectopic pregnancy or a molar pregnancy, which require further management. An alternative approach is to examine the products only when there is a definite indication. As there is no agreement, we aimed to study whether routine histopathological examination of tissues obtained after first-trimester miscarriage is of any clinical value in our populations. Medical records of all (558) patients with a diagnosis of first-trimester miscarriage over 4 years (2007-2010) at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Histopathologic examination confirmed products of conception in 537 (96.2%) patients, no products of conception in 17 (3%) patients, molar pregnancy in 2 (0.4%) patients, and decidual tissues without chorionic villi (Arias-Stella reaction) in 2 (0.4%) patients. After clinical correlation, only one unsuspected partial molar pregnancy was diagnosed by histopathology examination. Conclusion is that it does not appear reasonable to perform histopathological examination routinely after all first-trimester miscarriages in our studied population. We recommend that histopathological examination be performed in select instances: when the diagnosis is uncertain, when fewer tissues have been obtained during surgery, when unexpected pathology was seen, when ultrasound suggests a molar pregnancy, or when patients are considered at high risk for trophoblastic disease.

  1. Tumor Size on Abdominal MRI Versus Pathologic Specimen in Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: Implications for Radiation Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, William A.; Mikell, John L.; Mittal, Pardeep; Colbert, Lauren; Prabhu, Roshan S.; Kooby, David A.; Nickleach, Dana; Hanley, Krisztina; Sarmiento, Juan M.; Ali, Arif N.; Landry, Jerome C.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: We assessed the accuracy of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining tumor size by comparing the preoperative contrast-enhanced T1-weighted gradient echo (3-dimensional [3D] volumetric interpolated breath-hold [VIBE]) MRI tumor size with pathologic specimen size. Methods and Materials: The records of 92 patients who had both preoperative contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI images and detailed pathologic specimen measurements were available for review. Primary tumor size from the MRI was independently measured by a single diagnostic radiologist (P.M.) who was blinded to the pathology reports. Pathologic tumor measurements from gross specimens were obtained from the pathology reports. The maximum dimensions of tumor measured in any plane on the MRI and the gross specimen were compared. The median difference between the pathology sample and the MRI measurements was calculated. A paired t test was conducted to test for differences between the MRI and pathology measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to measure the association of disparity between the MRI and pathology sizes with the pathology size. Disparities relative to pathology size were also examined and tested for significance using a 1-sample t test. Results: The median patient age was 64.5 years. The primary site was pancreatic head in 81 patients, body in 4, and tail in 7. Three patients were American Joint Commission on Cancer stage IA, 7 stage IB, 21 stage IIA, 58 stage IIB, and 3 stage III. The 3D VIBE MRI underestimated tumor size by a median difference of 4 mm (range, −34-22 mm). The median largest tumor dimensions on MRI and pathology specimen were 2.65 cm (range, 1.5-9.5 cm) and 3.2 cm (range, 1.3-10 cm), respectively. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D VIBE MRI underestimates tumor size by 4 mm when compared with pathologic specimen. Advanced abdominal MRI sequences warrant further investigation for radiation therapy planning in pancreatic adenocarcinoma before

  2. Determinants of pathologic mineralization.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Physiologic mineralization is necessary for the formation of skeletal tissues and for their appropriate functions during adulthood. Mineralization has to be controlled and restricted to specific regions. If the mineralization process occurs in regions that normally do not mineralize, there can be severe consequences (pathologic or ectopic mineralization). Recent findings have indicated that physiologic and pathologic mineralization events are initiated by matrix vesicles, membrane-enclosed particles released from the plasma membranes of mineralization-competent cells. The understanding of how these vesicles are released from the plasma membrane and initiate the mineralization process may provide novel therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic mineralization. In addition, other regulators (activators and inhibitors) of physiologic mineralization have been identified and characterized, and there is evidence that the same factors also contribute to the regulation of pathologic mineralization. Finally, programmed cell death (apoptosis) may be a contributor to physiologic mineralization and if occurring after tissue injury may induce pathologic mineralization and mineralization-related differentiation events in the injured and surrounding areas. This review describes how the understanding of mechanisms and factors regulating physiologic mineralization can be used to develop new therapeutic strategies to prevent pathologic or ectopic mineralization events.

  3. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30), Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF) are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM) of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group) recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS) disorders (ROM patient group). The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales). Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6) and 37.7 years (SD=12.0) for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients. PMID:23171272

  4. [Examination reports on survived strangulation cases].

    PubMed

    Jänisch, Stefanie; Heine, Josephin; Günther, Detlef; Germerott, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Clinical-forensic examination of strangulation victims is an increasing part of the routine of many forensic pathology institutes. The cases examined between 2004 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In total, the study material comprised 218 victims (175 females and 43 males). In 80.7 %, the clinical-forensic examination was performed within 24 hours after the incident. In the overwhelming number of cases, the alleged perpetrator was no stranger. 128 victims (58.7 %) had strangulation marks, 32 victims (14.7 %) ligature marks and 65 victims (29.8 %) nail marks. Four victims showed injuries of the laryngeal and pharyngeal structures (reddening, hematomas, swelling and in one case a fracture of the cricoid cartilage on both sides). Extensive petechiae were predominantly seen in the conjunctivae, the buccal mucosa and the skin of the face in cases where the victims suffered a loss of consciousness. 87 cases (39.9% were classified as potentially life-threatening and 30 cases (13.8 %) as acute life-threatening events. This classification is of legal relevance for the penalty. In addition, 60 victims experienced sexual violence. These results suggest that early clinical-forensic examination is crucial for documenting forensic evidence in support of police investigations and may deliver significant details relevant in court.

  5. [Examination reports on survived strangulation cases].

    PubMed

    Jänisch, Stefanie; Heine, Josephin; Günther, Detlef; Germerott, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Clinical-forensic examination of strangulation victims is an increasing part of the routine of many forensic pathology institutes. The cases examined between 2004 and 2008 at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School were retrospectively analysed. In total, the study material comprised 218 victims (175 females and 43 males). In 80.7 %, the clinical-forensic examination was performed within 24 hours after the incident. In the overwhelming number of cases, the alleged perpetrator was no stranger. 128 victims (58.7 %) had strangulation marks, 32 victims (14.7 %) ligature marks and 65 victims (29.8 %) nail marks. Four victims showed injuries of the laryngeal and pharyngeal structures (reddening, hematomas, swelling and in one case a fracture of the cricoid cartilage on both sides). Extensive petechiae were predominantly seen in the conjunctivae, the buccal mucosa and the skin of the face in cases where the victims suffered a loss of consciousness. 87 cases (39.9% were classified as potentially life-threatening and 30 cases (13.8 %) as acute life-threatening events. This classification is of legal relevance for the penalty. In addition, 60 victims experienced sexual violence. These results suggest that early clinical-forensic examination is crucial for documenting forensic evidence in support of police investigations and may deliver significant details relevant in court. PMID:21121118

  6. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  7. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  8. Habitual routines in task-performing groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual routines for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such routines are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual routines in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual routines.

  9. Accreditation Routines in a Demoralized School: Repairing, Expanding, and Striving for Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine K.; Conley, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how accreditation processes aided a school principal in making reform happen. Using routinized action theory (Feldman, 2000), we examined how the routines in school accreditation were used to transform what had been a demoralized, low performing middle school. This theoretical lens is important as it…

  10. The Effectiveness of a Question-Exploration Routine for Enhancing the Content Learning of Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgren, Janis A.; Marquis, Janet G.; Lenz, B. Keith; Deshler, Donald D.; Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a question-exploration routine and an associated graphic organizer on students' ability to think about and answer complex questions. Participants were 116 students of diverse abilities in seven 7th grade classes. The effects of the routine were compared with the effects of a traditional…

  11. The free routine postcatheterization urogram: a cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Kaplan, G.W.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Postangiography urography has become routine procedure in most centers performing cardiac catheterization in children. We analyzed the x-radiation dosage and clinical yield of this procedure. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure to the abdomen and gonads was measured in 35 children during postangiography urography. Results of 334 consecutive routine postangiography cine-urograms were evaluated based on clinical significance and compared to previous reports on this subject. Average absorbed abdominal radiation dosage was 241 mR +/- 240 from cine-urography, 16 mR +/- 13 from fluoroscopy, and 107 mR +/- 111 from a single abdominal roentgenogram. Gonadal dosage averaged 8 mR and was uniformly less than 27 mR. Of 334 routine postangiography cineurograms, 282 (84%) were normal, 30 (9%) were technically inadequate, 12 (3%) had abnormalities that were clinically insignificant or were falsely positive and in 10 (3%), clinically significant urologic conditions were confirmed. Because of the low yield of clinically significant anomalies and the added radiation exposure, we no longer perform routine postangiography cine-urography in children. Following cardiac angiography, the upper renal collecting systems are examined fluoroscopically. If abnormalities are suspected or fluoroscopy is equivocal, a single abdominal roentgenogram is performed. Using this procedure, mean average absorbed abdominal radiation dose can be reduced from 241 mR to 30.5 mR.

  12. Mediating the intersections of organizational routines during the introduction of a health IT system

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie; Brooks, JoAnn; Gadd, Cynthia; Anders, Shilo; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Public interest in the quality and safety of health care has spurred examination of specific organizational routines believed to yield risk in health care work. Medication administration routines, in particular, have been the subject of numerous improvement projects involving information technology development, and other forms of research and regulation. This study draws from ethnographic observation to examine how the common routine of medication administration intersects with other organizational routines, and why understanding such intersections is important. We present three cases describing intersections between medication administration and other routines, including a pharmacy routine, medication administration on the next shift and management reporting. We found that each intersection had ostensive and performative dimensions; and furthermore, that IT-enabled changes to one routine led to unintended consequences in its intersection with others, resulting in misalignment of ostensive and performative aspects of the intersection. Our analysis focused on the activities of a group of nurses who provide technology use mediation (TUM) before and after the rollout of a new health IT system. This research offers new insights on the intersection of organizational routines, demonstrates the value of analyzing TUM activities to better understand the relationship between IT introduction and changes in routines, and has practical implications for the implementation of technology in complex practice settings. PMID:24357898

  13. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    SciTech Connect

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-08-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective.

  14. Molecular Pathology Informatics.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somak

    2015-06-01

    Molecular informatics (MI) is an evolving discipline that will support the dynamic landscape of molecular pathology and personalized medicine. MI provides a fertile ground for development of clinical solutions to bridge the gap between clinical informatics and bioinformatics. Rapid adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) in the clinical arena has triggered major endeavors in MI that are expected to bring a paradigm shift in the practice of pathology. This brief review presents a broad overview of various aspects of MI, particularly in the context of NGS based testing. PMID:26065793

  15. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice.

  16. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment. PMID:21999693

  17. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  18. One Small Step for Rhinos, One Giant Leap for Wildlife Management- Imaging Diagnosis of Bone Pathology in Distal Limb

    PubMed Central

    Galateanu, Gabriela; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.; Maillot, Alexis; Etienne, Pascal; Potier, Romain; Mulot, Baptiste; Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Chronic foot disease poses a threat to the general health, represents a tremendous clinical challenge, and often is a reason for euthanasia in captive megaherbivores, among them the elephant and rhinoceros. Nevertheless, apart from the elephant, foot pathology is handled as being confined only to soft tissues whereas bone pathology is often overlooked. As a case in point, the authors selected the second largest mammal on land, the rhinoceros. We performed a computed tomographic (CT) study using the highest resolution available in veterinary world, followed by digital radiography of eight distal limbs from two white and one Indian rhinoceroses. Our study demonstrated that bone pathology in rhinoceroses’ foot is present and in large numbers, yet none of these were diagnosed ante mortem. Even when the animals were euthanized due to foot problems, the decision was based on soft tissue pathology rather than orthopedic reasons. Even more worrying is the fact that the largest number of osteopathologies was present in one of the white rhinoceroses that showed no discernable related clinical signs. This study describes for the first time the existence of bone pathology in white rhinoceros foot, in addition to the two previously described rhinoceros species - Indian and black rhinoceroses. Furthermore, the chronic foot disease reported for the Indian rhinoceros in our study was not restricted to soft tissue structures as was presumed ante mortem but included severe bone pathology. New evidence suggesting that osteopathology in rhinoceroses’ distal limb is more widespread than it was thought before could force us to rethink of radiographic diagnosis in captive megaherbivores as routine examination incorporated into their health management. The anticipated improvements in radiologic examinations in megaherbivores will increase the effectiveness of their management and husbandry and open the way for improved animal welfare and better wildlife conservation. PMID:23874643

  19. Would Virchow be a systems biologist? A discourse on the philosophy of science with implications for pathological research.

    PubMed

    Stenzinger, Albrecht; Klauschen, Frederick; Wittschieber, Daniel; Weichert, Wilko; Denkert, Carsten; Dietel, Manfred; Roller, Claudio

    2010-06-01

    Research in pathology spans from merely descriptive work to functional studies, "-omics" approaches and, more recently, systems biology. The work presented here aims at placing pathological research into an epistemological context. Aided by Rudolf Virchow, we give an overview on the philosophy of science including the Wiener Kreis, Popper, Kuhn, Fleck and Rheinberger and demonstrate their implications for routine diagnostics and science in pathology. A focus is on the fields of "-omics" and systems pathology. PMID:20422212

  20. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  1. Pathological Gambling: Psychiatric Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westphal, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Three psychiatric conceptual models: addictive, obsessive-compulsive spectrum and mood spectrum disorder have been proposed for pathological gambling. The objectives of this paper are to (1) evaluate the evidence base from the most recent reviews of each model, (2) update the evidence through 2007 and (3) summarize the status of the evidence for…

  2. Next-Generation Pathology.

    PubMed

    Caie, Peter D; Harrison, David J

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology is rapidly transforming from a semiquantitative and empirical science toward a big data discipline. Large data sets from across multiple omics fields may now be extracted from a patient's tissue sample. Tissue is, however, complex, heterogeneous, and prone to artifact. A reductionist view of tissue and disease progression, which does not take this complexity into account, may lead to single biomarkers failing in clinical trials. The integration of standardized multi-omics big data and the retention of valuable information on spatial heterogeneity are imperative to model complex disease mechanisms. Mathematical modeling through systems pathology approaches is the ideal medium to distill the significant information from these large, multi-parametric, and hierarchical data sets. Systems pathology may also predict the dynamical response of disease progression or response to therapy regimens from a static tissue sample. Next-generation pathology will incorporate big data with systems medicine in order to personalize clinical practice for both prognostic and predictive patient care.

  3. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  4. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  5. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  6. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  7. Pathological examinations of an enterovirus 71 infection: an autopsy case

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lulu; Lin, Peixin; Liu, Shuguang; Lei, Bin; Chen, Qing; Yu, Shouyi; Shen, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We report an 8-month-old female infant with the fatal enterovirus 71 infection here. Clinically, she developed respiratory failure and severe pulmonary edema rapidly. Histologically, the lung specimen showed diffuse, severe pulmonary congestion and edema with focal intra-alveolar hemorrhage and typical features of acute encephalitis were easily identified under light microscope. Immunohistochemically, enterovirus 71 antigen was positive in the cerebella and brainstem. We measured the viral loads of different tissues and found that the brainstem and mesenteric lymph nodes showed the highest viral loads among all tissues. We hope that our case report may help to have a better understanding of the enterovirus 71 infection and provide clues to the prevention and treatment of this disease. PMID:25197403

  8. Costs and benefits of routine follow-up after curative treatment for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Agboola, O O; Grunfeld, E; Coyle, D; Perry, G A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of routine outpatient follow-up after curative treatment of endometrial cancer, and to determine whether this leads to early detection of recurrence or survival. The impact of specific disease characteristics on survival is examined. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review, and calculation of costs. SETTING: Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre-Civic Division (ORCC-C). PATIENTS: All 432 patients referred to the ORCC-C with endometrial cancer between 1982 and 1991 who received treatment with curative intent and who continued with routine follow-up. RESULTS: Cancer recurred in 50 patients (11.57%). There was no statistically significant difference in overall survival between patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic recurrences, or between those with recurrences detected during routine follow-up visits or in the interval between routine visits. Of 4830 Papanicolaou (Pap) smears performed routinely, cancer was detected in 6 cases. The mean cost of the routine follow-up procedures for each patient with a recurrence was $19,200. CONCLUSION: Intensive follow-up of women with endometrial cancer does not result in improved survival. A prospective randomized study is warranted to evaluate other potential benefits of follow-up, such as improved quality of life or decreased morbidity. There is no economic or clinical justification for the routine use of the Pap smear in the follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer. The potential benefits of routine follow-up in endometrial cancer and other types of cancer with favourable prognoses warrant critical evaluation. PMID:9327795

  9. Pathology informatics fellowship training: Focus on molecular pathology

    PubMed Central

    Mandelker, Diana; Lee, Roy E.; Platt, Mia Y.; Riedlinger, Gregory; Quinn, Andrew; Rao, Luigi K. F.; Klepeis, Veronica E.; Mahowald, Michael; Lane, William J.; Beckwith, Bruce A.; Baron, Jason M.; McClintock, David S.; Kuo, Frank C.; Lebo, Matthew S.; Gilbertson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pathology informatics is both emerging as a distinct subspecialty and simultaneously becoming deeply integrated within the breadth of pathology practice. As specialists, pathology informaticians need a broad skill set, including aptitude with information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management. Currently, many of those seeking training in pathology informatics additionally choose training in a second subspecialty. Combining pathology informatics training with molecular pathology is a natural extension, as molecular pathology is a subspecialty with high potential for application of modern biomedical informatics techniques. Methods and Results: Pathology informatics and molecular pathology fellows and faculty evaluated the current fellowship program's core curriculum topics and subtopics for relevance to molecular pathology. By focusing on the overlap between the two disciplines, a structured curriculum consisting of didactics, operational rotations, and research projects was developed for those fellows interested in both pathology informatics and molecular pathology. Conclusions: The scope of molecular diagnostics is expanding dramatically as technology advances and our understanding of disease extends to the genetic level. Here, we highlight many of the informatics challenges facing molecular pathology today, and outline specific informatics principles necessary for the training of future molecular pathologists. PMID:24843823

  10. Incidental findings of pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Bondemark, Lars; Jeppsson, Malin; Lindh-Ingildsen, Lina; Rangne, Klara

    2006-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs, in combination with a clinical examination, are routinely used as an aid to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and location of incidental findings of pathology and abnormalities in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. A total of 496 patients (232 girls and 264 boys; mean age 11.2 years, SD 2.33) were randomly selected from the Orthodontic Clinic at the Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. All radiographic examinations were performed between 1999 and 2003 at the Department of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Sweden. Two independent examiners analyzed the radiographs for abnormalities and diagnoses of pathology. However, caries and findings related to the orthodontic treatment plan, such as eruption disturbances and missing or supernumerary teeth, were not recorded. All radiographs with positive findings were reexamined by a third examiner, a specialist registrar in oral radiology. A total of 56 findings in 43 patients (8.7%) were recorded, and significantly more findings were detected in girls (P = .007). The most common findings were radiopacities (idiopathic sclerosis) in alveolar bone (n = 22), thickening of mucosal lining in sinus maxillaris (n = 15), and periapical inflammatory lesions (n = 10). The majority of the periapical lesions and radiopacities were found in the mandible. In most cases, the findings had no consequence for the orthodontic treatment plan and did not require medical or odontological management. However, the clinician should be aware of the potential to detect pathology and abnormality in pretreatment orthodontic panoramic radiographs. PMID:16448276

  11. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  12. Integrating Communication Skills into Functional Routines & Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This training module on integrating communication skills into functional routines and activities is from the Mississippi Early Education Program for Children with Multiple Disabilities, a program designed to train Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part H service coordinators and service providers to use family centered strategies. The…

  13. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  14. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  15. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  16. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  17. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part for...

  18. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  19. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-07-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  20. Action Selection in Complex Routinized Sequential Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruh, Nicolas; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2010-01-01

    We report two experiments in which errors and interaction latencies were recorded during routinization of hierarchically structured computer-based tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrates that action selection is slowed at subtask transitions, especially when selecting lower frequency actions. This frequency effect is compounded by concurrent performance…

  1. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  2. libvaxdata: VAX data format conversion routines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Lawrence M.

    2005-01-01

    libvaxdata provides a collection of routines for converting numeric data-integer and floating-point-to and from the formats used on a Digital Equipment Corporation1 (DEC) VAX 32-bit minicomputer (Brunner, 1991). Since the VAX numeric data formats are inherited from those used on a DEC PDP-11 16-bit minicomputer, these routines can be used to convert PDP-11 data as well. VAX numeric data formats are also the default data formats used on DEC Alpha 64-bit minicomputers running OpenVMS The libvaxdata routines are callable from Fortran or C. They require that the caller use two's-complement format for integer data and IEEE 754 format (ANSI/IEEE, 1985) for floating-point data. They also require that the 'natural' size of a C int type (integer) is 32 bits. That is the case for most modern 32-bit and 64-bit computer systems. Nevertheless, you may wish to consult the Fortran or C compiler documentation on your system to be sure. Some Fortran compilers support conversion of VAX numeric data on-the-fly when reading or writing unformatted files, either as a compiler option or a run-time I/O option. This feature may be easier to use than the libvaxdata routines. Consult the Fortran compiler documentation on your system to determine if this alternative is available to you. 1Later Compaq Computer Corporation, now Hewlett-Packard Company

  3. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  4. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  5. [Czech eponyms in pathology].

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    The 24th European Congress of Pathology taking place in Prague is an opportunity to remind our society of the Czech names appearing as eponyms in pathological terminology: Karel Rokitanský - R. protuberance in dermoid cyst; R. thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis; Mayer - R. - Küster - Hauser - Winckel syndrome (congenital malformation of the vagina and uterus); Václav Treitz - T. duodenal ligament; T. retroperitoneal hernia; T. uremic colitis; Vilém Dušan Lambl - L. excrescences of heart valves; Lamblia (Giardia) intestinalis, and also the foundation of urological cytology; Stanislav Provázek - Prowazek - Halberstädter bodies (trachoma), Rickettsia Prowazeki (typhus fever); Josef Vaněk - V. tumor (gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp), and also discovery of the etiology of pneumocystic pneumonia; Otto Jírovec - Pneumocystis Jiroveci; Blahoslav Bednář - B. tumor (pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans).

  6. [Pathology of implants].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, C; Eblenkamp, M; Richter, H A; Zwadlo-Klarwasser, G; Bhardwaj, R S; Klosterhalfen, B

    2002-01-01

    Progress in the surgery of implants and biomaterials can be accomplished by: 1. Painstakingly analysing and registering of defaulting implants after explantation within a "National Registry of Implant Pathology". 2. Development of a DNA-microarray named "Implantat/Chronic Wound" in order to discover the differential transcriptional activities of cells brought into contact with different foreign surfaces. 3. Predictive cell-engineering combined with custom-made implant surfaces with the aim of optimal patient care.

  7. [Pathology of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Theegarten, D; Hager, T

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in men and the second most frequent cause in women. The pathology of lung tumors is of special relevance concerning therapy and prognosis and current classification systems have to be taken into consideration. The results of molecular tissue subtyping allow further classification and therapeutic options. The histological entities are mainly associated with typical X‑ray morphological features. PMID:27495784

  8. [Incidental finding of pathological coagulation parameters].

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, B; Lindhoff-Last, E

    2014-10-01

    Pathological coagulation parameters may reflect life-threatening hemorrhagic or thromboembolic diseases but may also be a laboratory result without any clinical significance, result from in vitro phenomena or preanalytical errors. This article gives an overview of potential pitfalls in coagulation diagnostics, lists the differential diagnoses of pathological coagulation parameters and describes further steps in the diagnostic approach to clarify pathological results. The focus lies on coagulation parameters that are frequently determined in routine clinical investigations, e.g. platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen. Besides heparin, fondaparinux, danaparoid, and vitamin K antagonists, direct factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors are nowadays available for therapeutic anticoagulation. This article gives an overview of the influence of anticoagulants on coagulation parameters which depends on the dose, the time of the last administration, as well as the method used for the determination of coagulation parameters. Moreover, common reasons for elevation of the fibrin degradation product D-dimer are presented. The clinical utility of D-dimer assays is limited by their poor specificity. Elevated D-dimer concentrations can be found in various diseases and also under normal physiological circumstances (e.g. in the elderly). Thus, the most useful clinical application of D-dimer is evidence of normal values to essentially rule out venous thromboembolism. PMID:25190093

  9. [Clinical key points. Slit-lamp examination].

    PubMed

    Lachkar, Y

    2007-05-01

    Biomicroscopic examination of glaucoma patients or glaucoma suspects should be systematic. The purpose of this examination is to determine the type of glaucoma and rule out associated pathologies. PMID:17646800

  10. Physical examination of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    King, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes the overall assessment of the shoulder joint and seeks to help direct clinicians to diagnose shoulder pathology using standard and specific physical examinations. The history and standard examination can prompt the examiner to focus on specific tests to further evaluate the shoulder and limit the differential diagnoses. An appropriate and directed shoulder physical examination allows the clinician to focus on further diagnostic strategies and treatment options for the patient.

  11. The Neuropsychopharmacology of Pathological Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Zakeri, Kourosh; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an impulse control disorder with prevalence estimates in the range of 0.2–2% in the general population. PG can significantly impact one’s ability to function as it may negatively influence social, financial, and occupational aspects of life. Historically, PG has received relatively little attention from researchers and clinicians, and few treatments, particularly pharmacological, have been both validated and widely employed. Given the clinical relevance of PG, it is important that researchers examine pharmacological and behavioral treatments for their safety and efficacy and that clinicians use empirically validated therapies. Multiple neurochemicals, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and opioids, and related neurocircuitry, particularly ventral cortico-striatal pathways, have been implicated in PG. The neurobiological rationale for therapies, particularly pharmacological ones, is reviewed with a perspective on the generation of improved prevention and treatment strategies for PG. PMID:24288522

  12. Pathology Image-Sharing on Social Media: Recommendations for Protecting Privacy While Motivating Education.

    PubMed

    Crane, Genevieve M; Gardner, Jerad M

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the use of social media by pathologists. However, the use of pathology images on social media has been debated, particularly gross examination, autopsy, and dermatologic condition photographs. The immediacy of the interactions, increased interest from patients and patient groups, and fewer barriers to public discussion raise additional considerations to ensure patient privacy is protected. Yet these very features all add to the power of social media for educating other physicians and the nonmedical public about disease and for creating better understanding of the important role of pathologists in patient care. The professional and societal benefits are overwhelmingly positive, and we believe the potential for harm is minimal provided common sense and routine patient privacy principles are utilized. We lay out ethical and practical guidelines for pathologists who use social media professionally. PMID:27550566

  13. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2016-03-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale. PMID:26851666

  14. Pathology Gross Photography: The Beginning of Digital Pathology.

    PubMed

    Rampy, B Alan; Glassy, Eric F

    2015-06-01

    The underutilized practice of photographing anatomic pathology specimens from surgical pathology and autopsies is an invaluable benefit to patients, clinicians, pathologists, and students. Photographic documentation of clinical specimens is essential for the effective practice of pathology. When considering what specimens to photograph, all grossly evident pathology, absent yet expected pathologic features, and gross-only specimens should be thoroughly documented. Specimen preparation prior to photography includes proper lighting and background, wiping surfaces of blood, removing material such as tubes or bandages, orienting the specimen in a logical fashion, framing the specimen to fill the screen, positioning of probes, and using the right-sized scale.

  15. Utilization Article of CHC (Complete Health Checkup) Type Charts to Improve the Students’ Understanding of Clinical Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Subhashree, A.R.; Shanthi, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Second year undergraduate medical students lack an integrated approach towards the basic laboratory data. So, they find it difficult when analytical exercises are asked for in pathology practical examinations. A Complete Health Checkup (CHC) is one exercise where an individual undergoes a clinical examination, followed by various basic laboratory tests, along with other tests like ECG, X-ray and USG of the abdomen. A critical analysis of such charts would help in developing higher cognitive skills in the form of integration of all the data which is available, in order to arrive at a final diagnosis. We hypothesized that facilitating the students to analyze a set of clinical pathology tests by using CHC charts as modules would enhance their integrated approach towards the laboratory data. Aim: To evaluate the use of pre designed complete health charts which were designed to enhance the students’ ability to apply and integrate their knowledge on the clinical pathology data. Materials and Methods: Two batches of 44 students each (Group 1 and Group 2), who attended the clinical pathology postings, were included in the study (totally 88 students). Informed consents were obtained from all of them. In addition to their routine posting schedules, the students in Group 2 were exposed to fifteen CHC charts, one at a time, with the subsequent analysis of each chart by using an objective test and a discussion. At the end of their clinical pathology postings, an OSPE was conducted for all the students and the test scores were analyzed. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 15. Results: Group 1 obtained a score which ranged from 48% to 78%, with a mean±SE (mean) of 62.0% ± 1.21 and Group 2 obtained a score which ranged from 65% to 94%, with a mean±SE (mean) of 86.2% ± 0.96. The Student’s-t-test for the equality of means with a value of 15.59 (p=0.000), implied a statistical significance in the mean score, as was observed between the two groups

  16. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  17. Pathologic and physiologic phimosis

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Thomas B.; Pike, John G.; Leonard, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the differences between physiologic and pathologic phimosis, review proper foreskin care, and discuss when it is appropriate to seek consultation regarding a phimotic foreskin. SOURCES OF INFORMATION This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for literature on phimosis and circumcision referrals and on our experience at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Urology Clinic. MeSH headings used in our MEDLINE search included “phimosis,” “referral and consultation,” and “circumcision.” Most of the available articles about phimosis and foreskin referrals were retrospective reviews and cohort studies (levels II and III evidence). MAIN MESSAGE Phimosis is defined as the inability to retract the foreskin. Differentiating between physiologic and pathologic phimosis is important, as the former is managed conservatively and the latter requires surgical intervention. Great anxiety exists among patients and parentsregarding non-retractile foreskins. Most phimosis referrals seen in pediatric urology clinics are normal physiologically phimotic foreskins. Referrals of patients with physiologic phimosis to urology clinics can create anxiety about the need for surgery among patients and parents, while unnecessarily expanding the waiting list for specialty assessment. Uncircumcised penises require no special care. With normal washing, using soap and water, and gentle retraction during urination and bathing, most foreskins will become retractile over time. CONCLUSION Physiologic phimosis is often seen by family physicians. These patients and their parents require reassurance of normalcy and reinforcement of proper preputial hygiene. Consultation should be sought when evidence of pathologic phimosis is present, as this requires surgical management. PMID:17872680

  18. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  19. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  20. Fortran graphics routines for the Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Language Systems MPW Fortran is a popular Fortran compiler for the Macintosh. Unfortunately, it does not have any built-in calls to graphics routines (such as are available with Graflib on the NLTSS), so there is no simple way to make x-y plots from calls within Fortran. Instead, a file of data must be created and a commercial plotting routine (such as IGOR or KALEIDAGRAPH) or a spreadsheet with graphics (such as WINGZ) must be applied to post-process the data. The Macintosh does have available many built-in calls (to the Macintosh Toolbox) that allow drawing shapes and lines with quickdraw, but these are not designed for plotting functions and are difficult to learn to use. This work outlines some Fortran routines that can be called from LS Fortran to make the necessary calls to the Macintosh toolbox to create simple two-dimensional plots or contour plots. The source code DEMOGRAF.F shows how these routines may be used. DEMOGRAF.F simply demonstrates some Fortran subroutines that can be called with language systems MPW Fortran on the Macintosh to plot arrays of numbers. The subroutines essentially mimic the functionality that has been available at LTSS and NLTSS and UNICOS at LLNL. The graphics primitives are kept in four separate files, each containing several subroutines. The subroutines are compiled and stored in a library file, LIBgraf.o. Makefile is used to link this library to the source code. A discussion is included on requirements for interactive plotting of functions.

  1. Marketing the pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, E N

    1995-07-01

    Effective marketing of the pathology practice is essential in the face of an increasingly competitive market. Successful marketing begins with a market-driven planning process. As opposed to the traditional planning process used in health care organizations, a market-driven approach is externally driven. Implementing a market-driven plan also requires recognition of the definition of the service. Each market to which pathologists direct their service defines the service differently. Recognition of these different service definitions and creation of a product to meet these needs could lead to competitive advantages in the marketplace.

  2. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease.

  3. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology.

    PubMed

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T; Diamond, Betty

    2015-11-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  4. Investigation of spinal pathology in notalgia paresthetica.

    PubMed

    Savk, Oner; Savk, Ekin

    2005-06-01

    A possible association of spinal pathology with notalgia paresthetica (NP) was investigated through clinical and radiographic evaluation. Forty-three NP patients underwent dermatologic and orthopedic examination accompanied by radiography of the spine. Sixty-one lesions in 43 patients were evaluated. In 34 patients, various vertebral pathologies were observed radiographically by a blinded investigator, and in 28 of these cases these changes were most prominent in the vertebrae which corresponded to a lesional dermatome. Thirty-seven lesions were accompanied by spinal changes decided to be relevant (60.7%). The striking correlation of NP localization with spinal pathology suggests that spinal nerve impingement may contribute to the pathogenesis of this entity. PMID:15928634

  5. Personality Pathology and Interpersonal Problem Stability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Scott, Lori N.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are often described as stable, which ignores the important dynamic processes and shifts that are observed clinically in individuals with PD. The current study examined patterns of variability in problematic interpersonal functioning, a core feature of personality pathology. Participants (N=150) were assessed for personality pathology at baseline and also completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems–Circumplex Scales at baseline and every three months over the course of a year. Baseline PD was used to predict individual means and variability parameters in generalized interpersonal distress, agentic problems, and communal problems across repeated assessments. Disorders associated with disinhibition predicted variability in generalized distress and agentic problems, whereas only antagonism related disorders predicted variability in communal problems. These associations reveal dynamic processes involved in multiple dimensions of personality pathology and suggest that future research on instability is needed that expands beyond the historical focus on borderline PD. PMID:25562539

  6. Antibodies as Mediators of Brain Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Brimberg, Lior; Mader, Simone; Fujieda, Yuichiro; Arinuma, Yoshiyuki; Kowal, Czeslawa; Volpe, Bruce T.; Diamond, Betty

    2016-01-01

    The brain is normally sequestered from antibody exposure by the blood brain barrier. However, antibodies can access the brain during fetal development before the barrier achieves full integrity, and in disease states when barrier integrity is compromised. Recent studies suggest that antibodies contribute to brain pathology associated with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and neuromyelitis optica, and can lead to transient or permanent behavioral or cognitive abnormalities. We review these findings here and examine the circumstances associated with antibody entry into the brain, the routes of access and the mechanisms that then effect pathology. Understanding these processes and the nature and specificity of neuronal autoantibodies may reveal therapeutic strategies toward alleviating or preventing the neurological pathologies and behavioral abnormalities associated with autoimmune disease. PMID:26494046

  7. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age.

  8. Nanotechnology: Toxicologic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hubbs, Ann F.; Sargent, Linda M.; Porter, Dale W.; Sager, Tina M.; Chen, Bean T.; Frazer, David G.; Castranova, Vincent; Sriram, Krishnan; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.; Reynolds, Steven H.; Battelli, Lori A.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; McKinney, Walter; Fluharty, Kara L.; Mercer, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology involves technology, science, and engineering in dimensions less than 100 nm. A virtually infinite number of potential nanoscale products can be produced from many different molecules and their combinations. The exponentially increasing number of nanoscale products will solve critical needs in engineering, science, and medicine. However, the virtually infinite number of potential nanotechnology products is a challenge for toxicologic pathologists. Because of their size, nanoparticulates can have therapeutic and toxic effects distinct from micron-sized particulates of the same composition. In the nanoscale, distinct intercellular and intracellular translocation pathways may provide a different distribution than that obtained by micron-sized particulates. Nanoparticulates interact with subcellular structures including microtubules, actin filaments, centrosomes, and chromatin; interactions that may be facilitated in the nanoscale. Features that distinguish nanoparticulates from fine particulates include increased surface area per unit mass and quantum effects. In addition, some nanotechnology products, including the fullerenes, have a novel and reactive surface. Augmented microscopic procedures including enhanced dark-field imaging, immunofluorescence, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy are useful when evaluating nanoparticulate toxicologic pathology. Thus, the pathology assessment is facilitated by understanding the unique features at the nanoscale and the tools that can assist in evaluating nanotoxicology studies. PMID:23389777

  9. The effects of pathological gaming on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown that pathological involvement with computer or video games is related to excessive gaming binges and aggressive behavior. Our aims for this study were to longitudinally examine if pathological gaming leads to increasingly excessive gaming habits, and how pathological gaming may cause an increase in physical aggression. For this purpose, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (49% female) of which 540 played games (30% female). Our analyses indicated that higher levels of pathological gaming predicted an increase in time spent playing games 6 months later. Time spent playing violent games specifically, and not just games per se, increased physical aggression. Furthermore, higher levels of pathological gaming, regardless of violent content, predicted an increase in physical aggression among boys. That this effect only applies to boys does not diminish its importance, because adolescent boys are generally the heaviest players of violent games and most susceptible to pathological involvement. PMID:20549320

  10. Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing infection rates, Clostridium difficile is not currently routinely tested for in all diarrhoeal faecal specimens in Australia. In July 2014, all diarrhoeal specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Western Australia were surveyed to determine the true prevalence of C. difficile. In total, 1010 diarrhoeal non-duplicate faecal specimens were received during the month. Testing for C. difficile was requested, or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were met, for 678 specimens which were investigated by PCR for the tcdB gene using the BD MAX platform, followed by toxigenic culture on PCR-positive samples. The remaining 332 specimens, with either no C. difficile test request or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were not met, were examined by toxigenic culture. All isolates were PCR ribotyped. C. difficile was the most commonly detected diarrhoeal pathogen among all specimens. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in all 1010 specimens was 6.4%; 7.2% in the routinely tested group, and 4.8% in the non-requested group. The proportion of non-requested positive detections among all cases was 24.6%. Community-onset infection was present in 50.8% of all cases. The median age of all CDI cases was 60.0 years and the age range in CDI patients in the routine group was 0.6-96.6 years (median 72.7 years), compared to 0.2-2.3 years (median 0.8 years) in the non-requested group. The most common ribotype (RT) found was RT 014/020 (34.1% in the routine group, 43.8% in the non-requested group), followed by RTs 002, 056, 005 and 018. While the routine testing group and the non-requested group differed markedly in age and patient classification, C. difficile was the most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitals and the community in Western Australia. The significance of finding C. difficile in the community paediatric population requires further study.

  11. Medication Routines and Adherence Among Hypertensive African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Abida; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Seixas, Azizi; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Lai, Dejian

    2015-01-01

    Poor adherence to prescribed medication regimens remains an important challenge preventing successful treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. While studies have documented differences in the time of day or weekday vs weekend on medication adherence, no study has examined whether having a medication-taking routine contributes to increased medication adherence. The purpose of this study was to: (1) identify patients’ sociodemographic factors associated with consistent medication-taking routine; (2) examine associations between medication-taking consistency, medication adherence, and blood pressure (BP) control. The study included black patients with hypertension (n = 190; 22 men and 168 women; age, mean±standard deviation 54 ± 12.08 years) who completed a practice-based randomized controlled trial. Findings showed that medication-taking consistency was significantly associated with better medication adherence (F = 9.54, P = .002). Associations with the consistency index were not statistically significant for diastolic BP control (odds ratio, 1.319; 95% confidence interval, 0.410–4.246; P = .642) and systolic BP control (odds ratio, 0.621; 95% confidence interval, 0.195–1.974; P = .419). PMID:25952495

  12. Pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents during routine endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    La France, N.D.; Cole, P.; Wolfe, E.; Giardello, F.; Wagner, H.N.

    1985-05-01

    Radioactive tracer studies are a sensitive means to detect occult pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents. A complication of diagnostic endoscopy is aspiration of contents even in fasted patients. The authors have studied 21 hospitalized patients who underwent elective endoscopy (END) for suspected UGI pathology. Fifteen minutes before END, and prior to pharygeal anesthesia, 1 mCi Tc-99m-sulfur colloid, added to the usual 30cc of simethicone routinely administered before END, was given orally. END was performed as usual and 2 hours later anterior 100,000 count images of the chest were obtained. All the studies were interpreted without history or clinical information. Fever developed within 24 hours (and septic shock in 1) in both patients with positive studies while no fever occurred in the remaining patients with negative studies (rho<.001). The authors conclude that oral radionuclide pulmonary aspiration studies may; detect aspiration not recognized by the endoscopist, reveal evidence of aspiration that preceeds adverse clinical signs and symptoms, and be influenced by systemic pre-END drugs known to affect GI secretions and motility.

  13. Molecular pathology in real time.

    PubMed

    Ryška, Aleš

    2016-03-01

    With the development of sophisticated individualized therapeutic approaches, the role of pathology in classification of tumors is enormously increasing. The solely morphological characterization of neoplastic process is no more sufficient for qualified decision on optimal therapeutic approach. Thus, morphologic diagnosis must be supplemented by molecular analysis of the lesion with emphasis on the detection of status of certain markers used as predictive factors for targeted therapy. Both intrinsic and acquired types of intratumor heterogeneity have an impact at various moments of cancer diagnostics and therapy. The primary heterogeneity of neoplastic tissue represents a significant problem in patients, where only limited biopsy samples from the primary tumor are available for diagnosis, such as core needle biopsy specimens in breast cancer, transthoracic or endobronchial biopsies in lung cancer, or endoscopic biopsies in gastric cancer. Detection of predictive markers may be influenced by this heterogeneity, and the marker detection may be falsely negative or (less probably) falsely positive. In addition, as these markers are often detected in the tissue samples from primary tumor, the differences between molecular features of the primary lesion and its metastases may be responsible for failure of systemic therapy in patients with discordant phenotype between primary and metastatic disease. The fact of tumor heterogeneity must be taken into consideration already in establishing pathological diagnosis. One has to be aware that limited biopsy specimen must not always be fully representative of the entire tumor volume. To overcome these limitations, there does not exist one single simple solution. Examination of more tissue (preference of surgical resection specimens over biopsies, whenever possible), use of ultra-sensitive methods able to identify the minute subclones as a source of possible resistance to treatment, and detection of secondary molecular events from

  14. Pathological pregnancy and psychological symptoms in women.

    PubMed

    Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Dragan; Oresković, Slavko; Tomić, Vajdana; Martinac, Marko; Juras, Josip

    2012-09-01

    Pregnancy is followed by many physiologic, organic and psychological changes and disorders, which can become more serious in pregnancy followed by complications, especially in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to find out and analyze the prevalence and intensity of psychological disorders in women with pathological conditions during pregnancy and compare it with conditions in pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research is approved by the Ethical committee of the Mostar University Hospital Center, and it was made in accordance with Helsinki declaration and good clinical practices. The research conducted section for pathology of pregnancy of Department for gynecology and obstetrics of the Mostar University Hospital Center. It included 82 pregnant women with disorders in pregnancy developement and control group consisted of pregnant women who had normal development of pregnancy. The research work was conducted from September 2007 to August 2008 in Mostar University Hospital Center. Pregnant women had Standard and laboratory tests, Ultrasound. CTG examinations were done for all pregnant women and additional tests for those women with complications during pregnancy. Pregnant women completed sociobiographical, obstetrical-clinical and psychological SCL 90-R questionnaire. Pregnant women with pathological pregnancy exibited significantly more psychological symptoms in comparison to pregnant women with normal pregnancy (p < 0.001 to p = 0.004). Frequency and intensity of psychical symptoms and disorders statisticly are more characteristic in pathological pregnancy (61%/40.6%). The statistical data indicate a significantly higher score of psychological disorders in those pregnant women with primary school education (p = 0.050), those who take more than 60% carbohydrates (p = 0.001), those with pathological CTG records (p < 0.001), those with pathological ultrasound results (p < 0.001 to 0.216) and

  15. Bedtime Routines for Young Children: A Dose-Dependent Association with Sleep Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, Jodi A.; Li, Albert M.; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishment of a consistent bedtime routine (the activities that occur right before lights out) is often recommended as part of healthy sleep habits. However, no studies have investigated the dose-dependent association of a bedtime routine with sleep outcomes, especially in young children for whom they are particularly recommended. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the associations of a consistent bedtime routine with sleep outcomes in young children (ages 0 through 5 y) in a large global sample and assess whether there is a dose-dependent relationship between the frequency of a bedtime routine both concurrently and retrospectively with sleep outcomes. Participants: Mothers of 10,085 children (Australia-New Zealand, Canada, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States) completed the Brief Infant/Child Sleep Questionnaire. Results: A consistent bedtime routine was associated with better sleep outcomes, including earlier bedtimes, shorter sleep onset latency, reduced night wakings, and increased sleep duration. Decreased parent-perceived sleep problems and daytime behavior problems were also related to institution of a regular bedtime routine. Furthermore, there was a dose-dependent relationship, with better outcomes associated with increased “doses” of having a bedtime routine, both currently and retrospectively, and was found within both predominantly Asian and predominantly Caucasian cultural regions. Conclusions: These results indicate that having a regular nightly bedtime routine is associated with improved sleep in young children, and suggests that the more consistently a bedtime routine is instituted and the younger started the better. Citation: Mindell JA, Li AM, Sadeh A, Kwon R, Goh DY. Bedtime routines for young children: a dose-dependent association with sleep outcomes. SLEEP 2015;38(5):717–722. PMID:25325483

  16. [Molecular pathology of schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Uezato, Akihito; Nishikawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Dopamine hypothesis has dominated as a molecular pathology of schizophrenia over the past few decades and anti-dopaminergic drugs are currently the most widespread available treatment option. Converging lines of evidence suggest altered regulation of other neurotransmitters including glutamate, GABA and acetylcholine, results in the dysregulation of dopaminergic neurons in schizophrenia, and is involved in the comprehensive symptoms such as positive, negative, and cognitive dysfunction. In the prefrontal cortex of patients with schizophrenia; dysfunctional NMDA-type glutamate receptors on GABAergic interneurons cause disinhibition of pyramidal glutamatergic neurons, resulting in increase in the firing of dopaminergic neurons. Cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia may be a representation of asynchronous glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In addition to the effects of NMDA receptor modulators including D-serine, emerging evidences of the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on glutamatergic and dopaminergic regulations suggest new treatment options for schizophrenia.

  17. Molecular Pathology and Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ha, Patrick K; Stenman, Göran

    2016-01-01

    The field of salivary gland tumor biology is quite broad, given the numerous subtypes of both benign and malignant tumors originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Knowledge about the molecular pathology of these lesions is still limited, and there are few clinically useful diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. However, recent discoveries of certain key genomic alterations, such as chromosome translocations, copy number alterations, and mutations, provide new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of these lesions and may help to better define them. It is also hoped that this new knowledge can help to guide therapy, but this translation has been somewhat slow to develop, perhaps due to the rarity of these tumors and the lack of large, randomized studies. However, because of the limitations inherent in what surgery and radiation can provide, there is an urgent need for understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in these tumors individually, so that chemotherapy and/or targeted therapy can be rationally selected.

  18. Imaging of pituitary pathology.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, Michael; Schlaffer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques play a vital role in the diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment monitoring of patients with pituitary disease. For its high soft tissue contrast, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides detailed information about the localization and extent of a lesion. It is thus, to date, the most important imaging technique for documenting or ruling out structural lesions. It is usually the first and only imaging procedure to be employed in pituitary pathology. While large pituitary adenomas are reliably depicted in standard T1-weighted sequences, small microadenomas, such as in Cushing's disease, may only become visible if repeat studies, sophisticated techniques and high-field scanners are employed. For monitoring treatment effects after surgical procedures, drug applications, or irradiation, follow-up studies with identical parameters should be employed, preferably at the same investigation site. Some space is devoted to intraoperative imaging, which not only allows assessment of how radical tumor resection needs to be during pituitary tumor surgery, but also provides extremely accurate structural data for neuronavigation. Less frequent lesions, such as craniopharyngiomas, meningiomas, germ cell tumors, gliomas, skull base tumors, hypothalamic hamartomas, vascular malformations, inflammatory and developmental lesions and other, even less frequent pathologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The particular strength of computed tomography (CT) is the direct depiction of calcification, a weakness of MRI, and the high resolution of bone structures at the skull base. This chapter presents the characteristics of both frequent and less commonly encountered tumoral lesions, with an emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25248586

  19. Pathologic tooth migration.

    PubMed

    Brunsvold, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Pathologic tooth migration (PTM) is a common complication of moderate to severe periodontitis and is often the motivation for patients to seek periodontal therapy. In this review of the literature, available information concerning prevalence, etiology, treatment, and prevention of pathologic tooth migration is summarized. Prevalence of PTM among periodontal patients has been reported to range from 30.03% to 55.8%. A survey of the literature regarding chief complaints of periodontal patients support these high prevalence findings. The etiology of PTM appears to be multifactorial. Periodontal bone loss appears to be a major factor in the etiology of PTM. Many aspects of occlusion can contribute to abnormal migration of teeth, and more than one of those factors may be present in an individual patient. Soft tissue forces of the tongue, cheeks, and lips are known to cause tooth movement and in some situations can cause PTM. Also considered important in the etiology of PTM is pressure produced from inflammatory tissues within periodontal pockets. Because extrusion is a common form of PTM, clinical observations support the theory that eruption forces sometimes play a role in the etiology of PTM. Many oral habits have been associated with PTM which are often difficult for the therapist to detect. Most cases of severe PTM require a team approach to achieve success. Periodontal, orthodontic, and prosthodontic treatment are often required. Many patient variables enter into the selection of treatment for PTM. In early stages of PTM, spontaneous correction of migrated teeth sometimes occurs after periodontal therapy. Light intrusive forces are used successfully to treat extrusion and flaring forms of PTM. Based on the literature reviewed, it appears that many cases of PTM could be prevented through the early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal disease, occlusal contributing factors, gingival enlargement, and oral habits. PMID:15948679

  20. Next-generation pathology--surveillance of tumor microecology.

    PubMed

    Koos, Björn; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; David, Leonor; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Dimberg, Anna; Nilsson, Mats; Wählby, Carolina; Söderberg, Ola

    2015-06-01

    A tumor is a heterogeneous population of cells that provides an environment in which every cell resides in a microenvironmental niche. Microscopic evaluation of tissue sections, based on histology and immunohistochemistry, has been a cornerstone in pathology for decades. However, the dawn of novel technologies to investigate genetic aberrations is currently adopted in routine molecular pathology. We herein describe our view on how recent developments in molecular technologies, focusing on proximity ligation assay and padlock probes, can be applied to merge the two branches of pathology, allowing molecular profiling under histologic observation. We also discuss how the use of image analysis will be pivotal to obtain information at a cellular level and to interpret holistic images of tissue sections. By understanding the cellular communications in the microecology of tumors, we will be at a better position to predict disease progression and response to therapy.

  1. The Value of Large Sections in Surgical Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Foschini, Maria P.; Baldovini, Chiara; Ishikawa, Yuko; Eusebi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Large format sections (LS) first have been introduced in breast pathology more than a century ago. Since then, they constituted for longtime a research tool to better understand breast microanatomy and the relationship between radiological images and pathological features. Similarly LS have been used to study neoplastic, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases affecting various organs, as brain, lung, gastrointentinal tract, bone, urinary tract, prostate, and placenta. Currently LS are mostly applied to diagnostic routine to better stage tumours such as prostate and breast carcinomas or to correlate radiologic imaging to gross specimens. The purpose of the present paper is to review the historical background and the basis of the applications of LS in surgical pathology, with special emphasis on breast tumours. PMID:23227346

  2. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. RESULTS Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. CONCLUSIONS PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  3. Effect of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) on Rat Placenta Pathology and Perinatal Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Wang, Ledan; Wang, Fang; Li, Changzhong

    2016-01-01

    Background Fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been reported to cause adverse effects on human health. Evidence has shown the association between PM2.5 exposure and adverse perinatal outcomes, and the most common method is epidemiological investigation. We wished to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on placenta and prenatal outcomes and its related mechanisms in a rat model. Material/Methods Pregnant rats were exposed to a low PM2.5 dose (15 mg/kg) with intratracheal instillation at pregnant day 10 and day 18, while the controls received an equivalent volume normal saline. All rats received cesarean section 24 h after the last intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed with anesthesia. Blood routine tests (BRT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were detected for analyzing inflammation and blood coagulation. Placenta tissue sections underwent pathologic examination, and the levels of homogenate glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) were determined for oxidative stress estimation. Results Increased absorbed blastocysts, and lower maternal weight gain and fetal weight were found in the PM2.5 exposure group compared to controls (p<0.05). Exposure to PM2.5 caused a significant increase of blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), platelets, and IL-6 levels (P<0.01). There were no differences in GSH-Px and MDA of placenta homogenate between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Placenta pathological examination demonstrated thrombus and chorioamnionitis in the PM2.5 exposure group. Conclusions PM2.5 exposure can result in placental pathological changes and adverse perinatal outcomes. The placental inflammation and hypercoagulability with vascular thrombosis may play important roles in placental impairment, but oxidative stress appears to be less important. PMID:27629830

  4. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Babacan, Ali; Gun, Ismet; Kizilaslan, Cem; Ozden, Okan; Muhcu, Murat; Mungen, Ercument; Atay, Vedat

    2014-01-01

    A thorough evaluation of the uterine cavity is frequently required in gynecology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of transvaginal ultrasound examination and hysteroscopy in detecting uterine abnormalities in a group of patients within a range of menopausal status and symptomatology. This study included 285 patients admitted with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge or for a routine gynecological examination. All patients had available transvaginal ultrasonography and hysteroscopy data for evaluation. A biopsy was obtained from all patients during the hysteroscopy session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and likelihood ratio were calculated for both methods and compared, considering the histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard. The mean age of the patients was 49.5±12.9 years (range, 24-89 y). Majority of the patients admitted for abnormal uterine bleeding (n=198, 69.4%). For the diagnosis of polyps of any size, hysteroscopy had better sensitivity (p<0.001), however, specificities did not differ (p=1.0). On the other hand, hysteroscopy did not have a sensitivity advantage over TVU in diagnosing polyps greater than 1 cm (p=0.077), although this time hysteroscopy had better specificity (p<0.001). Combined approach did not offer diagnostic advantage for any of the specific pathologies. Although TVU represents a practical approach for the initial evaluation of uterine pathologies, hysteroscopy seems to offer better diagnostic value for uterine pathologies in general, and uterine polyps in particular. PMID:24753775

  5. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety.

  6. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety. PMID:27400489

  7. Multiple electron scattering routines for PEREGRINE

    SciTech Connect

    White, J A

    1999-08-23

    The Monte Carlo electron scattering routines solve multiple elastic scatters in a condensed history approach. The Goudsmit-Saunderson scattering model is used and its implementation is taken from Kawrakow and Bielajew[l]. The subroutines produce an exit angle representing a likely scattering angle of a single incident electron after scattering elastically over a given step size. Two input parameters, {lambda} and {eta}, that depend on the atomic species and incident energy must first be specified. The mapping from species and energy to 77 and {lambda} already existed in the PEREGRINE code and was not redone or modified in any way. The software has been validated by comparisons to Moliere and Goudsmit-Saunderson models of D.W.O. Rogers[2]. As required by licensing considerations, no public domain or copyrighted software has been used in any phase of the preparation of any of these sub-routines or data files. Apart from needing to have {eta} and {lambda} specified through PEREGRINE, the code provided is completely self-contained. Everything is written in the FORTRAN 77 language to simplify inclusion in the existing PEREGRINE package.

  8. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  9. Anomia-Pathological Verbal Dominance. Agnosic Behavior in Anomia: A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlannan, Frances, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Summarized are three articles concerned with research on neurological aspects of learning disabilities entitled "Anomia-A Case of Pathological Verbal Dominance;""Brain--Right Hemisphere--Man's So Called 'Minor Hemisphere;""Neurology-A Special Neurological Examination of Children with Learning Disabilities". (DB)

  10. Temporal bone pathology in scuba diving deaths.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, P J; Parell, G J; Becker, G D; Paparella, M M

    1993-09-01

    Scuba diving has long been associated with otologic injuries; however, little is known about temporal bone pathology in diving-related deaths. We examined 18 temporal bones from 11 divers who died, primarily from complications of rapid ascent. Bleeding into the middle ear and mastoid air cells was nearly universal. Inner ear damage included hemorrhage around Reissner's membrane and the round window membrane and rupture of the utricle and saccule. Most of the observed inner ear damage was not surgically treatable.

  11. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  12. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness. PMID:1654715

  13. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    PubMed

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  14. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  15. Microchimerism in endocrine pathology.

    PubMed

    Rust, Daniel W; Bianchi, Diana W

    2009-01-01

    Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) materno-fetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues.

  16. Rabies: ocular pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Haltia, M; Tarkkanen, A; Kivelä, T

    1989-01-01

    Ocular pathology in the first European case of human bat-borne rabies is described. The patient was a 30-year-old bat scientist who seven weeks after bat bite developed neurological symptoms and died 23 days later. Rabies virus antigens were detected in brain smears. After extensive virological studies the virus turned out to be a rabies-related virus, closely resembling the Duvenhage virus isolated from bats in South Africa in 1980. By light microscopy focal chronic inflammatory infiltration of the ciliary body and of the choroid was found. PAS-positive exudate was seen in the subretinal and in the outer plexiform layers of the retina, and retinal veins showed endothelial damage and perivascular inflammation. Many of the retinal ganglion cells were destroyed. The presence of rabies-related viral antigen in the retinal ganglion cells was shown by positive cytoplasmic immunofluorescence, though electron microscopy failed to identify definite viral structures in the retina. By immunohistochemistry glial fibrillary acidic protein was observed in the Müller's cells, which are normally negative for this antigen but express it as a reactive change when the retina is damaged. Synaptophysin, a constituent of presynaptic vesicles of normal retinal neurons, was not detected in the retina. Images PMID:2920157

  17. Pathology of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Domingo, M; Vidal, E; Marco, A

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a chronic granulomatous caseous-necrotising inflammatory process that mainly affects the lungs and their draining lymph nodes (Ln.). The pathological changes associated with bTB infection reflect the interplay between the host defence mechanisms and the mycobacterial virulence factors and the balance between the immunologic protective responses and the damaging inflammatory processes. Inhalation is the most common infection route and causes lesions of the nasopharynx and lower respiratory tract, including its associated lymph nodes. The initial infection (primary complex) may be followed by chronic (post-primary) tuberculosis or may be generalised. Goat tuberculosis often produces liquefactive necrosis and caverns, similarly to human TB. The assessment of the severity of TB lesions is crucial for vaccine trials. Semi-quantitative gross lesion scoring systems have been developed for cattle, but imaging technology has allowed the development of more standardised, objective, and quantitative methods, such as multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), which provides quantitative measures of lesion volume. PMID:24731532

  18. Learning and remembering strategies of novice and advanced jazz dancers for skill level appropriate dance routines.

    PubMed

    Poon, P P; Rodgers, W M

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the influence of the challenge level of to-be-learned stimulus on learning strategies in novice and advanced dancers. In Study 1, skill-level appropriate dance routines were developed for novice and advanced jazz dancers. In Study 2, 8 novice and 9 advanced female jazz dancers attempted to learn and remember the two routines in mixed model factorial design, with one between-participants factor: skill level (novice or advanced) and two within-participants factors: routine (easy or difficult) and performance (immediate or delayed). Participants were interviewed regarding the strategies used to learn and remember the routines. Results indicated that advanced performers used atypical learning strategies for insufficiently challenging stimuli, which may reflect characteristics of the stimuli rather than the performer. The qualitative data indicate a clear preference of novice and advanced performers for spatial compatibility of stimuli and response.

  19. A tour of the thymus: a review of thymic lesions with radiologic and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Alan J; Oliva, Isabel; Honarpisheh, Hedieh; Rubinowitz, Ami

    2015-02-01

    The thymus is routinely encountered on cross-sectional imaging studies of the chest. It has a variable appearance, undergoes dynamic changes during periods of stress, and demonstrates numerous different pathologic lesions. Understanding the imaging characteristics of these different lesions facilitates accurate radiographic diagnosis and can prevent unnecessary follow-up imaging and intervention. This article will review normal thymic anatomy and development, thymic hyperplasia and associated medical conditions, and the imaging and pathologic features of various benign and malignant thymic lesions.

  20. An adaptive data-smoothing routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Clayborne D.; Nicolas, David P.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive noise reduction algorithm that can be implemented on a microcomputer is developed. Smoothing polynomials are used where the polynomial coefficients are chosen such that the mean-square-error between the noisy and smoothed data is minimized. This approach is equivalent to the implementation of a low-pass finite impulse response filter. The noise reduction depends on the order of the smoothing polynomial. A whiteness test on the error sequence is incorporated to search for the optimal smoothing. Expansion coefficients may be computed via the fast Fourier transform, and the resulting smoothing process is the equivalent of the implementation of an adaptive ideal low-pass filter. Results are obtained for an analytical signal with added white Gaussian noise. The routine may be applied to any smooth signal with additive random noise.

  1. The Chernobyl thyroid cancer experience: pathology.

    PubMed

    LiVolsi, V A; Abrosimov, A A; Bogdanova, T; Fadda, G; Hunt, J L; Ito, M; Rosai, J; Thomas, G A; Williams, E D

    2011-05-01

    The Chernobyl accident was followed by a large increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinoma in the areas exposed to high levels of fallout. The Chernobyl Tumor Bank was set up in 1998 to make tumours available for study internationally, and a pathology panel reviewed all the tumours and established an agreed diagnosis. The thyroid tumours that were discovered after the Chernobyl nuclear accident were virtually all (95%) of the papillary carcinoma type. Rare examples of other tumour types were identified. Within the papillary group, several subtypes were noted, including classical or usual type, follicular variant, solid variant and mixed patterns Diffuse sclerosis variant, cribriform/morular type and Warthin-like variant were rare. No tall cell or columnar cell variants were identified. The tumours examined by the Pathology Panel of the Chernobyl Tumor Bank constitute a large representative sample (estimated at about 50%) of the tumours that developed in this population. This overview describes the method adopted by the panel and the different diagnostic categories adopted; illustrates the pathology of these neoplasms; compares the pathological characteristics of the early lesions with those identified after long latency periods and the institution of screening programmes and outlines the possible associated causes for the various morphological patterns seen.

  2. Low Incidence of Pathology Detection and High Cost of Screening in the Evaluation of Asymptomatic Short Children

    PubMed Central

    Sisley, Stephanie; Trujillo, Marcela Vargas; Khoury, Jane; Backeljauw, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of pathology during routine screening of healthy short children, testing adherence to a consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature, and the cost per identified diagnosis resulting from comprehensive screening. Study design Retrospective chart review of 1373 consecutive short stature referrals evaluated at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic between 2008 and 2011. We identified 235 patients with a height of <3rd percentile, negative history and review of systems, and normal physical examination. Outcome measures were incidence of pathology detection, diagnostic group characteristics, clinicians' adherence to testing guidelines, and screening costs. ANOVA and χ2 were used to analyze the data. Results Nearly 99% of patients were diagnosed as possible variants of normal growth: 23% with familial short stature, 41% with constitutional delay of growth and maturation, and 36% with idiopathic short stature. The incidence of newly diagnosed pathology was 1.3%: 1 patient with biopsy-proved celiac disease, 1 with unconfirmed celiac disease, and 1 with potential insulin-like growth factor I receptor defect. On average, each patient had 64.3% of the recommended tests for age and sex; 2.1% of patients had all of the recommended testing. The total screening tests costs were $315 321, yielding $105 107 per new diagnosis entertained. Conclusions Healthy short children do not warrant nondirected, comprehensive screening. Future guidelines for evaluating short stature should include patient-specific testing. PMID:23706358

  3. [Termination of mid- and late-term gestation with small dose of genkwaninol and rivanol: comparative clinical and pathological analysis].

    PubMed

    Hu, L

    1985-04-01

    This paper deals with a comparative study on the clinical aspects of 300 case of mid-late-term abortions induced by small dose and routine dose of alcoholic extract of Flos Genkwa and by rivanol and on 100 cases of fetal autopsies. Clinical aspects of 300 cases of abortions, the therapeutic effective rate, and the fetal mortality rate of the small doses of Flos Genkwa are similar to those of the routine doses of Flos Genkwa but with fewer side effects. As compared with the rivanol group, lower the time of induction of abortion is shorter, the rate of live fetuses and the cases with retention of part of the membranes and placenta are fewer. Pathologic aspects of 100 cases of fetal autopsies -- the predominant pathologic changes of the fetus in the Flos Genkwa group are congestion and hemorrhage in contrast with edema in the rivanol group. Degeneration and necrosis in visceral organs occurred in both groups, but they were severe in the Flos Genkwa group. The predominant pathologic changes of umbilical cord in the Flos Genkwa group were trauma and proliferation of intima, thrombosis, and pan-vesselitis. In the rivanol group, the predominant changes were diffuse infiltration of macrophages in the stroma. In both groups there was degeneration and necrosis of trophoblasts of placenta. In Flos Genkwa group, the vessels in the chorionic villi were highly contracted, even the lumen were closed, while in the rivanol group the vessels were dilated. The inflammation of placentas and decidua and the degeneration and necrosis of decidua were also thoroughly examined, analyzed, and compared.

  4. When Routines Are Not so Routine: Exploring Coordination Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Saira Naim

    2010-01-01

    Many work processes take place through routines, or recurrent patterns of action. These activities involve individuals from several occupations working across spatial, temporal, and organizational boundaries. Crossing these professional, temporal and spatial boundaries has unique challenges which can lead to coordination failures. In these…

  5. 29 CFR 18.406 - Habit; routine practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.406 Habit; routine practice. Evidence of the habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization,...

  6. CBT for eating disorders: The impact of early changes in eating pathology on later changes in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah; Marshall, Emily; Wood, Francesca; Stopa, Lusia; Waller, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    Whilst studies have consistently identified early symptom reduction as an important predictor of treatment outcome, the impact of early change on common comorbid features has not been investigated. This study of CBT for eating disorders explored patterns of early change in eating pathology and longer-term change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. It also explored the impact of early change in eating pathology on overall change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression. Participants were 179 adults diagnosed with eating disorders who were offered a course of CBT in an out-patient community eating disorders service in the UK. Patients completed a measure of eating disorder psychopathology at the start of treatment and following the 6th session. They also completed measures of personality disorder cognitions, anxiety and depression at the start and end of treatment. There were significant changes in eating pathology over the first six sessions of treatment. Significant improvements were also seen in personality disorder pathology, anxiety and depression by the end of therapy. Effect sizes were medium to large for both completer and intention to treat analyses. Early changes in eating pathology were associated with later changes in common comorbid features, with early reduction in restraint being a key predictor. These findings demonstrate that early symptom change can be achieved in CBT for eating disorders when delivered in routine clinical practice. Such change has long-term benefits that go beyond the domain of eating pathology, enhancing change in personality pathology, anxiety and depression.

  7. [Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Tamaru, Jun-ichi

    2014-03-01

    This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

  8. A Population-Based Study of the Association between Pathological Gambling and Attempted Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Stephen C.; Thompson, Angus H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide using data from a prevalence study. The odds ratio for pathological gambling was statistically significant when major depression was the only comorbid mental disorder in the model. As terms for additional mental disorders were included, pathological gambling ceased to be…

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Fibrolamellar Variant: Diagnostic Pathologic Criteria and Molecular Pathology Update. A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Sergi, Consolato M.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is generally a fairly rare event in routine pathology practice. This variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is peculiarly intriguing and,in addition, poorly understood. Young people or children are often the target individuals with this type of cancer. Previously, I highlighted some pathology aspects of FL-HCC, but in this review, the distinctive clinico-pathologic features of FL-HCC and the diagnostic pathologic criteria of FL-HCC are fractionally reviewed and expanded upon. Further, molecular genetics update data with reference to this specific tumor are particularly highlighted as a primer for general pathologists and pediatric histopathologists. FL-HCC may present with metastases, and regional lymph nodes may be sites of metastatic spread. However, peritoneal and pulmonary metastatic foci have also been reported. To the best of our knowledge, FL-HCC was initially considered having an indolent course, but survival outcomes have recently been updated reconsidering the prognosis of this tumor. Patients seem to respond well to surgical resection, but recurrences are common. Thus, alternative therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation, are ongoing. Overall, it seems that this aspect has not been well-studied for this variant of HCC and should be considered as target for future clinical trials. Remarkably, FL-HCC data seem to point to a liver neoplasm of uncertain origin and unveiled outcome. A functional chimeric transcript incorporating DNAJB1 and PRKACA was recently added to FL-HCC. This sensational result may give remarkable insights into the understanding of this rare disease and potentially provide the basis for its specific diagnostic marker. Detection of DNAJB1-PRKACA seems to be, indeed, a very sensitive and specific finding in supporting the diagnosis of FL-HCC. In a quite diffuse opinion, prognosis of this tumor should be reconsidered following the potentially mandatory application of new molecular

  10. Continuum model of tendon pathology – where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792

  11. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  12. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  13. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  18. Routines and Transitions: A Guide for Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfont, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    In early childhood settings, children spend over 50 percent of their time on handwashing, dressing, napping, and other routines and transitions. "Routines and Transitions" is a guide to help turn these routine daily activities into learning experiences. By using transitions wisely, providers not only help children develop skills, but also run a…

  19. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: Chest x-ray screening examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Five chest x-ray referral criteria statements have been developed and unanimously endorsed by a panel of physicians convened as part of a major voluntary cooperative effort between FDA's National Center for Devices and Radiological Health (NCDRH) and the medical professional community. The referral criteria statements include recommendations concerning the following applications of chest x-ray screening: mandated routine chest x-ray screening examinations, routine prenatal chest x-ray examinations, routine hospital admission chest x-ray examinations, chest x-ray examinations for tuberculosis detection and control, and routine chest x-ray examinations for occupational medicine. The complete text of the five referral criterial statements plus a brief discussion of the rationale for the development of each statement is presented.

  20. Long head of the biceps tendon pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Calvo, Ana Belén; Alvarez, Victoria; Lepore, Salvador; Ibañez, Federico; Reybet, Juan; Vedova, Franco Della; Aeschlimann, Mauro; Taborro, Betina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Disorders of the long head of the biceps tendon can exist in conjunction with other shoulder pathologies. It was proposed as a cause of pain in patients with rotator cuff injury. A detailed history, thorough physical examination and radiographical evaluation are necessary for a correct diagnosis. The aim of our study was to describe the surgical technique and analyze the results obtained in patients based on the same. Materials and Methods: Were included in this retrospective study 70 patients who had lesions in the long head of the biceps tendon, diagnosed with MRI treated at our institution with arthroscopic biotenodesis technique of the tendon with interference screw in the lower portion of the bicipital groove since January 2009 to January 2012. Functional clinical evaluation was performed with the appropriate scores for the disease (ASES, Rowe, Simple Shoulder Test, Constant Murley). Pain was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. Results: The Rowe score was 86 points, 81 points ASES, SST 9 points, Constant and Murley 87 points. The VAS showed poor post surgical pain. At the time, no associated deformity similar to a Popeye sign was observed. Discussion: The decision to perform a surgical management of the long head of the biceps pathology depends on the clinical presentation, thorough physical examination with specific test, the presence of associated pathologies and failure of nonsurgical treatment.

  1. Enhancing preclinical year pathology exposure: the Angevine approach.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Paus, Amanda M; Corliss, Robert F; Ranheim, Erik A

    2016-07-01

    Less than 2% of graduating US medical seniors select pathology residencies. One major obstacle to attracting prospective residents is the relative "invisibility" of pathology; medical students lacking positive preclinical exposure to pathology are unlikely to later select pathology clerkships or residencies. The Angevine Fellowship is a 10-week competitive pathology internship medical students may apply for the summer following their first year of preclinical training at our institution. We sought to determine whether it was an effective pathology recruitment tool and how it compared with the postsophomore pathology fellowship (PSF). Angevine fellow and PSF data from 2000 to 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Specialty choices of former fellows already matched into residency programs were tabulated. Data regarding annual percentage of graduating seniors at our institution who matched into pathology during the years former fellow cohorts matched were also examined. Our results showed that of the former Angevine fellow cohorts already matched into residency programs, 40% (8/20) matched in pathology and 20% (4/20) at our own institution. Angevine fellows comprised a disproportionately high number of the graduating seniors matching in pathology at our medical school (26.7%). PSFs comprised 6.67%. Although we have endowment funding for 2 Angevine fellows annually, the level of interest among applicants has increased to the point that our department has consistently contributed funding for 1-2 additional fellowship spots since 2011. We conclude that the Angevine Fellowship offers an effective alternative to the postsophomore fellowship. It has proven successful at our institution and could be implemented at others to potentially improve pathology recruitment trends nationwide. PMID:27016489

  2. Pathologic findings in patients with targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate needle core biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Rachel L; Nour, Sherif G; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the routine (non-targeted) sampling approach of transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-GB), targeted magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsies (TMRI-GB) target regions of the prostate suspicious for prostate cancer (PCa), based on findings on multiparametric MRI. We sought to examine the pathologic findings identified on TMRI-GB, due to the fact that there are limited studies on this in the Pathology literature. A search was made through our Urologic Pathology files for prostate needle core biopsies that were obtained via TMRI-GB. Forty-six patients were identified. Mean patient (PT) age was 62 years (range: 50-78 years). Twenty one of 46 PTs (46%) had a history of PCa, 10/46 PTs (22%) had a history of negative TRUS-GB and rising PSA, and the remaining 15/46 PTs (32%) had never undergone biopsy. Cancer detection rate on TMRI-GB was 57% for PTs with a prior diagnosis of PCa, 50% for PTs with a history of benign biopsy, and 67% who were biopsy naïve. An average of 3.16 cores were sampled from malignant lesions and an average of 2.74 were sampled from benign lesions (P=0.02). TMRI-GB has a higher cancer detection rate than TRUS-GB. TMRI-GB may have a critical role as a tool for active surveillance, tumor mapping, and primary detection of PCa, which will likely evolve as the ability to identify malignant lesions improve. The roles of pathologists and radiologists in the validation of this procedure will continue to be even more vital in the future. PMID:26617689

  3. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  4. Proteomics for routine identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Welker, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The invention of MALDI-TOF-MS enormously contributed to the understanding of protein chemistry and cell biology. Without this technique proteomics would most likely not be the important discipline it is today. Besides 'true' proteomics, MALDI-TOF-MS was applied for the analysis of microorganisms for their taxonomic characterization from its beginning. This approach has since been developed as a diagnostic tool readily available for routine, high-throughput analysis of microbial isolates from clinical specimens by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS), the direct analysis of whole bacterial cell without a preceding fractionation or separation by chromatography or electrophoresis. ICMS exploits the reproducibility of mass fingerprints for individual bacterial and fungal strains as well as the high similarity of mass fingerprints within a species. Comparison of mass spectral data to genomic sequences emphasized the validity of peak patterns as taxonomic markers. Supported by comprehensive databases, MALDI-TOF-MS-based identification has been widely accepted in clinical laboratories within only a few years.

  5. Don't neglect routine staff meetings.

    PubMed

    Board, H K

    1982-03-01

    Staff meetings are essential to good staff communication. Meetings help keep the grapevine from growing so big that it strangles the group with its rumors. By holding regular meetings with your staff, you create a consistency in your communications that helps prevent problems that you don't even suspect from cropping up. All personnel should attend the meetings. This way everyone hears news at the same time. Be consistent in your use of meetings. Meetings are more effective if you have a planned agenda and a firm time schedule. Encourage your staff to use meetings to talk out problems that affect the group. Once the meeting is over, encourage them to leave their feelings in the room. Many leaders are reluctant, for a variety of reasons, to hold meetings with their staffs. But it's like dieting and exercise; the more you do it, the easier it becomes. This type of meeting will pay rich dividends in staff personal and professional growth and in improved communication. The sense of participation that can be gained by the effective use of staff meetings can lead to high morale and effective staff performance. As you begin to see the results of a cohesive staff functioning together well, you will realize the routine staff meeting is a management tool that should not be overlooked or underused.

  6. Personality disorders and dimensions in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, Brian L; Schreiber, Liana R N; Grant, Jon E

    2012-06-01

    Comorbid DSM-IV Axis II personality disorders appear to be common in pathological gambling (PG) and may contribute to the chronic problems often associated with the disorder. This study sought to examine the relationship between PG, personality disorders, and impulsivity in a sample of pathological gamblers. Personality assessments included the SCID-II, Eysenck Impulsiveness Questionnaire, Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. A total of 77 individuals with DSM-IV PG were included in this study, of which 35 (45.5%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder. Specific aspects of impulsivity were associated with certain personality disorders in PG when grouped by cluster, yet the presence of a personality disorder was not positively correlated with gambling severity. It remains unclear how the presence of a personality disorder and aspects of impulsivity may affect treatment outcome. Further exploration of these disorders and dimensions of personality may encourage a more inclusively global treatment approach.

  7. Digital pathology and anatomic pathology laboratory information system integration to support digital pathology sign-out

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huazhang; Birsa, Joe; Farahani, Navid; Hartman, Douglas J.; Piccoli, Anthony; O’Leary, Matthew; McHugh, Jeffrey; Nyman, Mark; Stratman, Curtis; Kvarnstrom, Vanja; Yousem, Samuel; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adoption of digital pathology offers benefits over labor-intensive, time-consuming, and error-prone manual processes. However, because most workflow and laboratory transactions are centered around the anatomical pathology laboratory information system (APLIS), adoption of digital pathology ideally requires integration with the APLIS. A digital pathology system (DPS) integrated with the APLIS was recently implemented at our institution for diagnostic use. We demonstrate how such integration supports digital workflow to sign-out anatomical pathology cases. Methods: Workflow begins when pathology cases get accessioned into the APLIS (CoPathPlus). Glass slides from these cases are then digitized (Omnyx VL120 scanner) and automatically uploaded into the DPS (Omnyx® Integrated Digital Pathology (IDP) software v.1.3). The APLIS transmits case data to the DPS via a publishing web service. The DPS associates scanned images with the correct case using barcode labels on slides and information received from the APLIS. When pathologists remotely open a case in the DPS, additional information (e.g. gross pathology details, prior cases) gets retrieved from the APLIS through a query web service. Results: Following validation of this integration, pathologists at our institution have signed out more than 1000 surgical pathology cases in a production environment. Integration between the APLIS and DPS enabled pathologists to review digital slides while simultaneously having access to pertinent case metadata. The introduction of a digital workflow eliminated costly manual tasks involving matching of glass slides and avoided delays waiting for glass slides to be delivered. Conclusion: Integrating the DPS and APLIS were instrumental for successfully implementing a digital solution at our institution for pathology sign-out. The integration streamlined our digital sign-out workflow, diminished the potential for human error related to matching slides, and improved the sign

  8. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  9. Bedtime routines in early childhood: prevalence, consistency, and associations with nighttime sleep.

    PubMed

    Staples, Angela D; Bates, John E; Petersen, Isaac T

    2015-03-01

    The ability to transition from wakefulness to sleep is one of the most important tasks in the development of sleep during early childhood. Although establishing regular bedtime routines for children with sleep problems can be clinically effective in reducing the number of signaled night awakenings and increasing amount of sleep, it is unclear whether a regular bedtime routine would be associated with either the frequency of signaled night awakenings or nightly sleep minutes in a nonclinical sample of children. This study examined the role of a regular bedtime routine on the development of sleep regulation and consolidation in a community sample of young children. Adherence to a bedtime routine was concurrently associated with a greater amount of nightly sleep at 36 and 42 months. In addition, adherence to a bedtime routine predicted an increase in nightly sleep minutes over a 6-month period. Finally, this study demonstrated that adherence to a bedtime routine was particularly supportive of developmental gains for children of mothers who used consistent parenting practices during the day.

  10. Family routine moderates the relation between child impulsivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lanza, H Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children (N = 87, 51% male). Child HI and ODD symptoms were assessed using parent and teacher reports. HI also was indexed by a laboratory task. Family routine was assessed using child self-report. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that family routine moderated child HI. Among children with higher levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms, lower levels of family routine were associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ODD symptoms compared to children with lower levels of teacher-reported HI symptoms. Children who self-reported higher levels of family routine were rated as low on teacher-reported ODD symptoms, regardless of teacher-reported HI levels. Parent report and laboratory measures of child HI did not produce significant interactions. Lower levels of family routine may confer risk for ODD symptoms among low-income, urban, ethnic-minority children experiencing higher levels of HI.

  11. Image Analysis in Surgical Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Mark C; Monaco, James P; Bui, Marilyn M

    2016-06-01

    Digitization of glass slides of surgical pathology samples facilitates a number of value-added capabilities beyond what a pathologist could previously do with a microscope. Image analysis is one of the most fundamental opportunities to leverage the advantages that digital pathology provides. The ability to quantify aspects of a digital image is an extraordinary opportunity to collect data with exquisite accuracy and reliability. In this review, we describe the history of image analysis in pathology and the present state of technology processes as well as examples of research and clinical use. PMID:27241112

  12. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  13. Increased cellularity and expression of adhesion molecules in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with rheumatoid arthritis with clinical suspicion of vasculitis, but negative routine histology

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, P.; Voskuyl, A.; Smeets, T; Zwinderman, K.; Breedveld, F.; Tak, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Histological analysis of random quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens can be used to detect vasculitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study aimed at determining the immunohistological features in patients with clinical suspicion of rheumatoid vasculitis, but without a transmural infiltrate or fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall on routine histology.
METHODS—Three groups of patients with RA were studied: (a) without clinical signs of vasculitis (n=6); (b) with recent onset of extra-articular features and a clinical suspicion of vasculitis but normal routine histology (n=11); and (c) with recent onset of extra-articular features and vasculitis, histologically proved either in muscle or other biopsy specimens (n=14). A control group of patients with osteoarthritis was also included (n=5). Frozen sections from quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens were analysed with monoclonal antibodies to detect CD3, CD4, CD8, CD68, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and HLA-DR. The slides were evaluated using a semiquantitative scoring system (0-4).
RESULTS—The mean scores gradually increased from group 1 to 3, leading to significant differences between groups 1 and 2, but not between groups 2 and 3 for most markers (p< 0.05). Thus the pathological changes were similar for the two groups with clinical signs of vasculitis, even when the conventional histological evaluation was negative. Higher immunohistological scores were associated with perivascular infiltrates on routine histology.
CONCLUSION—The pathophysiological events leading to vasculitis are reflected by the changes in the quadriceps muscle biopsy specimens. The data indicate that the sensitivity of examination of muscle biopsy specimens for the diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis can be increased by the use of new criteria.

 PMID:10913056

  14. Mixed pathology is more likely in black than white decedents with Alzheimer dementia

    PubMed Central

    Leurgans, Sue; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Shah, Raj C.; Arvanitakis, Zoe; James, Bryan D.; Buchman, Aron S.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the burden of neuropathology in black and white participants with clinical Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods: Participants included 122 persons enrolled in the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Core, a prospective cohort study of AD. Forty-one black decedents were matched two-to-one to 81 white decedents according to age at death, sex, years of education, and cognition proximate to death. We examined common brain pathologies related to dementia (AD, Lewy body, and macroscopic and microinfarct pathology) and arteriolar sclerosis and atherosclerosis. We calculated the frequency of each dementia pathology both alone and in combination (mixed pathologies). Racial differences in the odds of a single pathology vs mixed pathologies, and in the odds of vessel disease and its severity, were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results: AD pathology was confirmed in >93% of both black and white decedents with AD dementia. However, black decedents were less likely to have Alzheimer pathology as a single dementia pathology than white decedents (19.5% vs 42.0%), and were more likely to have AD mixed with an additional pathology (70.7% vs 50.6%), particularly Alzheimer pathology and Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer pathology, Lewy bodies, and infarcts. Black decedents also had more severe arteriolar sclerosis and atherosclerosis. Conclusion: Black decedents with AD dementia are more likely to have mixed brain pathologies compared with age-, sex-, education-, and cognition-matched white decedents with AD dementia. PMID:26180136

  15. Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers.

    PubMed

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-one treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, 21 pathological gamblers in recovery, and 21 recreational gamblers watched two video-taped exciting gambling scenarios and an exciting roller-coaster control scenario while their arousal (heart rate and subjective excitement) and urge to gamble were being measured. The gamblers did not differ significantly in cue-elicited heart rate elevations or excitement. However, the active pathological gamblers reported significantly greater urges to gamble across all cues compared to the abstinent pathological gamblers and, with marginal significance (p = 0.06), also compared to the social gamblers. Further exploration of these findings revealed that active pathological gamblers experience urges to gamble in response to exciting situations, whether or not they are gambling related, whereas abstinent and social gamblers only report urges to an exciting gambling-related cue. This suggests that for pathological gamblers excitement itself, irrespective of its source, may become a conditioned stimulus capable of triggering gambling behavior. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19662519

  16. [Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM): with special reference to age-associated pathologies and their modulation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, T

    1996-07-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) has been under development by our research team at Kyoto University since 1970 through selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson Laboratory in 1968, based on the data of the grading score of senescence, life span, and pathologic phenotypes. At present, there are 12 lines of SAM; the 9 senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) include SAMP1, SAMP2, SAMP3, SAMP6, SAMP7, SAMP8, SAMP9, SAMP10 and SAMP11, and the 3 senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR) SAMR1, SANR4 and SAMR5. Data from survival curves, the Gompertzian function and the grading score of senescence, together with growth patterns of body weight of these SAMP and SAMR mice revealed that the characteristic feature of aging common to all SAMP mice is "accelerated senescence": early onset and irreversible advance of senescence manifested by several signs and gross lesions such as the loss of normal behavior, various skin lesions, increased lordokyphosis, etc., after a period of normal development. Routine postmortem examinations and the pathobiological features revealed by systematically designed studies have shown several pathologic phenotypes, which are often characteristic enough to differentiate among the various SAM strains: senile amyloidosis in SAMP1, -P2, -P7, -P9, -P10 and -P11, secondary amyloidosis in SAMP2 and -P6, contracted kidney in SAMP1, -P2, -P10, -P11, immunoblastic lymphoma in SAMR1 and -R4, histiocytic sarcoma in SAMR1 and -R4, ovarian cysts in SAMR1, impaired immune response in SAMP1, -P2 and -P8, hyperinflation of the lungs in SAMP1, hearing impairment in SAMP1, degenerative temporomandibular joint disease in SAMP3, senile osteoporosis in SAMP6, deficits in learning and memory in SAMP8 and -P10, emotional disorders in SAMP8 and -P10, cataracts in SAMP9, and brain atrophy in SAMP10. These are all age-associated pathologies, the incidence and severity of which increase with advancing age. The SAM model in which these

  17. Meckel on developmental pathology.

    PubMed

    Opitz, John M; Schultka, Rüdiger; Göbbel, Luminita

    2006-01-15

    cartilage named after him, and as having interpreted, correctly, the developmental nature of the "Meckel" diverticulum. It is virtually unknown that Meckel also first enuntiated the concept and distinction between primary and secondary malformations/anomalies, introduced the notion of heredity into the causal analysis of congenital anomalies, was the father of syndromology (the Meckel syndrome), had a clear understanding of pleiotropy and heterogeneity, and can unequivocally be regarded as the father of developmental pathology. In hindsight, and inspite of much professional success, Meckel emerges as a tragic figure in the history of biology, his life cut short at 52 without an ability to incorporate cell theory and the embryological insights of his younger contemporaries into his intellectual edifice which might have made it possible for him to finally and clearly see "analogy" (now homology), of which he was the greatest expert in his era, as incontrovertible evidence for descent. In that case, Darwin and Haeckel might have even had the courtesy of a tip-of-the-hat in Meckel's direction. PMID:16353245

  18. Recommendations for gross examination and sampling of surgical specimens of the spleen.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Dennis P; Louissaint, Abner; Vasef, Mohammad A; Auerbach, Aaron; Miranda, Roberto; Brynes, Russell K; Fedoriw, Yuri; Hudnall, S David

    2015-10-01

    This review examines handling and processing of spleen biopsies and splenectomy specimens with the aim of providing the pathologist with guidance in optimizing examination and diagnosis of splenic disorders. It also offers recommendations as to relevant reporting factors in gross examination, which may guide diagnostic workup. The role of splenic needle biopsies is discussed. The International Spleen Consortium is a group dedicated to promoting education and research on the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the spleen. In keeping with these goals, we have undertaken to provide guidelines for gross examination, sectioning, and sampling of spleen tissue to optimize diagnosis (Burke). The pathology of the spleen may be complicated in routine practice due to a number of factors. Among these are lack of familiarity with lesions, complex histopathology, mimicry within several types of lesions, and overall rarity. To optimize diagnosis, appropriate handling and processing of splenic tissue are crucial. The importance of complete and accurate clinical history cannot be overstated. In many cases, significant clinical history such as previous lymphoproliferative disorders, hematologic disorders, trauma, etc, can provide important information to guide the evaluation of spleen specimens. Clinical information helps plan for appropriate processing of the spleen specimen. The pathologist should encourage surgical colleagues, who typically provide the specimens, to include as much clinical information as possible.

  19. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Clinical Pathology Expands List of Commonly Used Tests and Treatments Physicians and Patients Should Question CMS Listens to ASCP, Gives Providers more Flexibility in MACRA Implementation ePolicy News September 2016 Urge ...

  20. THE HARD OF HEARING. PRENTICE-HALL FOUNDATIONS OF SPEECH PATHOLOGY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'NEILL, JOHN J.

    BASIC INFORMATION ABOUT TESTING, DIAGNOSING, AND REHABILITATING THE HARD OF HEARING IS OFFERED IN THIS INTRODUCTORY TEXT. THE PHYSICS OF SOUND, AUDITORY THEORY, ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY OF THE EAR, AND DIAGNOSTIC ROUTINES ARE DISCUSSED. A CHAPTER ON AURAL REHABILITATION INCLUDES AN OVERVIEW OF LIPREADING AND AUDITORY TRAINING TECHNIQUES FOR ADULTS…

  1. Detection of peripheral nerve pathology

    PubMed Central

    Seelig, Michael J.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare accuracy of ultrasound and MRI for detecting focal peripheral nerve pathology, excluding idiopathic carpal or cubital tunnel syndromes. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of patients referred for neuromuscular ultrasound to identify patients who had ultrasound and MRI of the same limb for suspected brachial plexopathy or mononeuropathies, excluding carpal/cubital tunnel syndromes. Ultrasound and MRI results were compared to diagnoses determined by surgical or, if not performed, clinical/electrodiagnostic evaluation. Results: We identified 53 patients who had both ultrasound and MRI of whom 46 (87%) had nerve pathology diagnosed by surgical (n = 39) or clinical/electrodiagnostic (n = 14) evaluation. Ultrasound detected the diagnosed nerve pathology (true positive) more often than MRI (43/46 vs 31/46, p < 0.001). Nerve pathology was correctly excluded (true negative) with equal frequency by MRI and ultrasound (both 6/7). In 25% (13/53), ultrasound was accurate (true positive or true negative) when MRI was not. These pathologies were typically (10/13) long (>2 cm) and only occasionally (2/13) outside the MRI field of view. MRI missed multifocal pathology identified with ultrasound in 6 of 7 patients, often (5/7) because pathology was outside the MRI field of view. Conclusions: Imaging frequently detects peripheral nerve pathology and contributes to the differential diagnosis in patients with mononeuropathies and brachial plexopathies. Ultrasound is more sensitive than MRI (93% vs 67%), has equivalent specificity (86%), and better identifies multifocal lesions than MRI. In sonographically accessible regions ultrasound is the preferred initial imaging modality for anatomic evaluation of suspected peripheral nervous system lesions. PMID:23553474

  2. Pathology of the human embryo and previable fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalousek, D.K. ); Fitch, N.; Paradice, B.

    1990-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include a general review of normal embryonic and fetal development; abortion and the basic approach to the examination of aborted embryos and fetuses; and pathologic findings detected on examination of products of conception. The authors illustrate specific morphologic lesions and the variable expression of genetic syndromes in the embryonic and fetal periods.

  3. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  4. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  5. Going Digital at College Newspapers: The Impact of Photo Credibility and Work Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James D.

    A study used a diffusion of innovation approach to examine the adoption of digital imaging technology at daily college newspapers and to gauge its effect on student journalists' attitudes about the credibility of news photography and their work routines. College papers are well suited for such a study because their adoption of technology is likely…

  6. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  7. Exhumation of Wistar rats experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran: A pathological and toxicological study.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Rodrigues, Karina Borges Almeida; Gonçalves-Júnior, Vagner; Calefi, Atilio Sersun; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Spinosa, Helenice de Souza; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2016-06-01

    Exhumation is required for the investigation of suspicions deaths when a body is buried and is usually performed under court order. Exhumation of animals is not a routine practice in forensic pathology. In this study, 30 male 70-day-old Wistar rats were experimentally exposed to the carbamate pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran. Toxicological, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. Groups of 3 animals (2 exposed and 1 control) were evaluated at 24h, 3days, 5days, 7days and 10days post-mortem. In histopathological examination, the brain, liver, lungs and kidneys were assessed, and for toxicological analysis, the gastric contents, liver, vitreous humor, skeletal muscle and larvae (when available) were collected. The pesticides were detected by HPLC and quantified in the analyzed matrices, and a possible delay in tissue putrefaction due to the pesticides was observed. This study has revealed that it is possible to exhume animals for investigations of possible poisoning by carbamates and has demonstrated that the exhumation of an animal in a suspected case of poisoning should not be ruled out. The increasing demand for investigations of suspicious animal deaths, e.g., in cases of poisoning, will likely lead to an increase in the use of this type of procedure in veterinary pathology. PMID:27020045

  8. Surgical pathology of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Aminu Z.; Edino, Steven T.; Samaila, Adamu A.

    2007-01-01

    Schistosomiasis remains an important health problem in many tropical countries and is being seen with increasing frequency in immigrant populations and tourists in developed countries. The pattern of organ involvement and clinical presentation of schistosomiasis in 80 patients (male: female, 9:1) during a five-year period (2001-2005) was examined from archival histopathology records. The urinary bladder was the most common organ affected [50 (62.5%)]. Gastrointestinal, male and female genital schistosomiasis were detected in 12 (15%), eight (10%) and five (6.1%) cases, respectively. Hematuria was the most common presenting symptom [34 (42.5%)], and bladder cancer was the only malignancy found to be associated with the infection. A high clinical index of suspicion usually allows for a preoperative diagnosis where indicated and avoidance of radical surgery. While research for the development of an effective vaccine continues, a plea is made for the expansion of multinational control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:17534016

  9. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough*,**

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies. PMID:24473762

  10. Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

  11. Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour.

    PubMed

    Basevi, Vittorio; Lavender, Tina

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPubic or perineal shaving is a procedure performed before birth in order to lessen the risk of infection if there is a spontaneous perinealtear or if an episiotomy is performed.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of routine perineal shaving before birth onmaternal and neonatal outcomes, according to the best available evidence.Search methodsWe searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (12 June 2014).Selection criteriaAll controlled trials (including quasi-randomised) that compare perineal shaving versus no perineal shaving.Data collection and analysisTwo review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using apredesigned form. Data were checked for accuracy.Main resultsThree randomised controlled trials (1039 women) published between 1922 and 2005 fulfilled the prespecified criteria. In the earliesttrial, 389 women were alternately allocated to receive either skin preparation and perineal shaving or clipping of vulval hair only. In thesecond trial, which included 150 participants, perineal shaving was compared with the cutting of long hairs for procedures only. In thethird and most recent trial, 500 women were randomly allocated to shaving of perineal area or cutting of perineal hair. The primaryoutcome for all three trials was maternal febrile morbidity; no differences were found (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.73 to 1.76). No differences were found in terms of perineal wound infection (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.70) and perinealwound dehiscence (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.00) in the most recent trial involving 500 women, which was the only trial to assessthese outcomes. In the smallest trial, fewer women who had not been shaved had Gram-negative bacterial colonisation compared withwomen who had been shaved (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98). There were no instances of neonatal infection in either group in theone trial that reported this

  12. A brief overview of the 33rd Annual STP Symposium on the translational pathology: relevance of toxicologic pathology to human health.

    PubMed

    Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Silverman, Lee; Francke, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The 33rd Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Annual Symposium focused on translational science and the relevance of toxicologic pathology to human health. Toxicologic pathologists work in diverse settings studying changes elicited by pharmacological, chemical, and environmental agents and factors that modify these responses. Regardless of the work setting, society members are dedicated to the integration of toxicologic pathology into hazard identification, risk assessment, and risk communication regarding human and animal exposure to potentially toxic substances. Toxicologic pathologists routinely face not only questions regarding pathological changes related to compound exposure but also questions concerning what translational relevance those lesions and exposures have to a human population or organ system. This symposium provided a basis for the membership to understand the variety of roles the toxicologic pathologist plays in translational science, where our gaps in translational science are, and how we can move forward to better address the challenges in the field translational science in order to continue to positively impact human health.

  13. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  14. Ghent Pathology 2011.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Doojin

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the intraday formation process of transaction prices and bid-ask spreads in theKOSPI 200 futures market. By extending the structural model ofMadhavan,Richardson, andRoomans (1997), I develop a unique cross-market model that can decompose spread components and explain intraday price formation for the futures market by using the order flow information from theKOSPI 200 options market, which is a market that is closely related to the futures market as well as considered to be one of the most remarkable options market in the world. The empirical results indicate that the model implied spread and the permanent component of the spread that results from informed trading tend to be underestimated without the inclusion of options market information. Furthermore, the results imply that trades of in-the-money options, which have high delta values, generally incur a more adverse information cost component (the permanent spread component) of the futures market than those of out-of-the-money options, which have relatively low delta values. Finally, I find that the adverse information cost component that is estimated from the cross-market model exhibits a nearlyU-shape intraday pattern; however, it sharply decreases at the end of the trading day.

  15. Bank robberies by an Asian gang: an assessment of the routine activities theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, John Z

    2002-10-01

    It was reported for the first time that a series of bank robberies were committed by an Asian gang group in a major southern city. The bank robberies showed a variety of operational methods. The purpose of this descriptive study is to apply the routine activities theory to explain the causal factors of the robberies. The analysis shows that the six Asian bank robberies resulted from a supply of motivated offenders, the availability of suitable targets, and a low level of capable guardians against crime. Findings suggest that crime-specific measures are an appropriate method for examining the merits of the routine activities theory.

  16. MURCS association: ultrasonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, C O; McFarland, R D; Timmons, C; Ramus, R; Twickler, D M

    1996-12-01

    MURCS association is a rare, lethal and unusual constellation of nonrandom findings that includes mullerian duct aplasia, renal aplasia, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia.1-3 It has been described in 30 patients by Duncan and coworkers2 in 1979, in which report the authors proposed an embryologic cause for these defects.3 Antenatal ultrasonographic findings included a massive, cystic umbilical cord related to a patent urachus, enlarged bladder, single small kidney, and suspicion of urethral obstruction in a fetus of female phenotype. These findings are rare in a case of MURCS and were all confirmed on pathologic examination. PMID:8947863

  17. Indications for ultrasonography in parotid pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bruneton, J N; Sicart, M; Roux, P; Pastaud, P; Nicolau, A; Delorme, G

    1983-01-01

    In connection with 141 cases of parotid tumours, 21 adenopathies of the parotid region and 22 cases of parotitis, the authors define the role of ultrasonography in the exploration of the salivary glands. Use of simple criteria permits differentiation of benign from malignant tumours with a good degree of sensitivity (79.8% in our series). This score allows ultrasonography to be offered as the first complementary examination when dealing with a tumefaction of the parotid region. When ultrasonographic findings evoke a malignant lesion, a CT scan seems necessary to evaluate any extension in depth. In contrast, ultrasonography does not appear justified in cases of parotitis or lithiasic pathologies.

  18. Introduction: human pathology within the broad scope of comparative pathology.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, H E

    1996-01-01

    Pathologic integration is the basic phenomenon of comparative pathology. Since man evolved as earth's most influential species, he was unequally influenced the progression and prevention of diseases in himself and other species. This has both positive and negative ramifications. Positive influences have been life-style, the prolongation of life under healthy conditions and medical progress as seen in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, dental hygiene and other factors, such as the decrease of infectious and parasitic diseases, which are still dominating factors in developing nations. Negative influences are side effects of medical treatments, the appearance of occupational, and certain recreational diseases. These are the pathologic effects of man's life-style to which car accidents, smoking and other factors can be added. Different species are affected by environmental changes such as pollution, ozone, acidic rain, polluted food, and transmission of different diseases from one species to another. Interspecies-specifically the direct influence of man in the extermination of other species, or the indirect influence such as through pollutants in the environment producing chain reactions in different species, can be distinguished. The physical environment has been changed as can be seen in air pollution in large cities, the damage to the ozone layer and the increase of malignant melanoma in certain regions of western Australia. The industrialized nations are dominated by non-infectious diseases such as atherosclerosis and neoplasms, whereas in the developing nations parasitic and infectious diseases stand in the fore-front. Particular diseases like acquired immunodeficiency syndrome increase in both types of nations. These diseases may have developed from other species, e.g. the plague which was originally a disease of rodents, especially rats where it was transmitted by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, Rothschild. The principle of foremost importance is the disruption

  19. Confounders in interpreting pathology for safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Douglas C. . E-mail: wolf.doug@epa.gov; Mann, Peter C.

    2005-02-01

    The contribution of pathology to toxicity assessment is invaluable but often not clearly understood. Pathology endpoints are the central response around which human health risk assessment is frequently determined; therefore, it is important that the general toxicology community understand current concepts and nomenclature of toxicologic pathology. Toxicologic pathology encompasses the study of changes in tissue morphology that help define the risk of exposure to xenobiotics. Toxicologic pathology is a discipline that has changed and adapted over time including methods of analysis and nomenclature of lesions. As risk assessments are updated for chemicals in commerce, frequently the older literature must be reviewed and reevaluated. When interpreting pathology data from animal studies, it is important to consider the biological significance of a lesion as well as its relationship to the ultimate adverse health effect. Assessing the potential for a chemical to cause harm to humans must include the examination of the entire pathology database in context of the study design, the mode of action of the chemical of concern, and using the most current interpretation of a lesion to determine the significance for human health effects of a particular tissue response.

  20. Role of High Resolution Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Pathologies of Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Thukral, Chuni Lal; Singh, Sunmeet; Sood, Arvinder Singh; Singh, Kunwarpal

    2015-01-01

    Background High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT), a modification of routine CT, provides a direct visual window in the temporal bone providing minute structural details. Purpose of the present study was to evaluate the normal variations, pathological processes (infections and congenital anomalies) and their extent involving the temporal bone along with their complications on HRCT and to correlate these imaging findings surgically, wherever available. Materials and Methods The prospective study included 50 patients who were referred to the radiology department with clinically suspected temporal bone or ear pathologies. After detailed clinical examination, the patients were subjected to high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examination. The imaging findings were correlated with the surgical findings wherever available. The surgical findings were considered as final. Results From a total of 50 cases, 83.33% had cholesteatoma. The surgical and radiological findings showed a high level of sensitivity (89.29%) in the identification of cholesteatoma. HRCT provides a good sensitivity of 80.65% in the identification of changes to the ossicular chain despite the presence of surrounding soft tissue. HRCT was highly informative in identification of erosion of lateral semicircular canal. In diagnosis of facial canal dehiscence HRCT had a low sensitivity of 33.33%. In the evaluation of any congenital abnormality of the ear HRCT proved to be beneficial in depicting the anatomical details. Conclusion The clinical and radiological findings showed a high level sensitivity with intraoperative findings as regards to the presence of cholesteatoma, changes of the ossicular chain and erosion of the lateral semicircular canal. HRCT findings, in the treatment of any congenital abnormality of the ear were a good guide to the surgeon for planning and management. PMID:26500978

  1. Reliability and validity of the executive function and occupational routines scale (EFORTS).

    PubMed

    Frisch, Carmit; Rosenblum, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Sustainable daily routines during childhood are important both for children and their parents. Although their affective completion requires well developed executive functions (EF), this issue has not been studied until now. The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Executive Functions and Occupational Routines Scale - EFORTS (developed in Hebrew) which measures children's executive control in their daily routines. Internal consistency and construct and convergent validity were examined by applying the EFORTS and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions/preschool version (BRIEF/P) to 261 children (129 boys, 132 girls) between the ages 3 and 10 (mean=6.1, SD=1.43). The findings indicate that the EFORTS is a reliable and valid tool for examining children's executive control in three occupational daily routines, focusing specifically on metacognitive manifestations of EF. These findings suggest that the EFORTS can be a useful tool to assess children with EF deficits, and may serve targeting intervention programs toward the accomplishment of daily occupational goals. PMID:24887646

  2. Communication skills in diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Bosman, Fred T

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an essential element of good medical practice also in pathology. In contrast to technical or diagnostic skills, communication skills are not easy to define, teach, or assess. Rules almost do not exist. In this paper, which has a rather personal character and cannot be taken as a set of guidelines, important aspects of communication in pathology are explored. This includes what should be communicated to the pathologist on the pathology request form, communication between pathologists during internal (interpathologist) consultation, communication around frozen section diagnoses, modalities of communication of a final diagnosis, with whom and how critical and unexpected findings should be communicated, (in-)adequate routes of communication for pathology diagnoses, who will (or might) receive pathology reports, and what should be communicated and how in case of an error or a technical problem. An earlier more formal description of what the responsibilities are of a pathologist as communicator and as collaborator in a medical team is added in separate tables. The intention of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion rather than to formulate strict rules.

  3. Multiple pathologies are common and related to dementia in the oldest-old

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ronald C.; Sonnen, Joshua A.; Bullain, Szofia S.; Trieu, Thomas; Corrada, María M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the role of multiple pathologies in the expression of dementia in the oldest-old. Methods: A total of 183 participants of The 90+ Study with longitudinal follow-up and autopsy were included in this clinical-pathologic investigation. Eight pathologic diagnoses (Alzheimer disease [AD], microinfarcts, hippocampal sclerosis, macroinfarcts, Lewy body disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, white matter disease, and others) were dichotomized. We estimated the odds of dementia in relation to each individual pathologic diagnosis and to the total number of diagnoses. We also examined dementia severity in relation to number of pathologic diagnoses. Results: The presence of multiple pathologic diagnoses was common and occurred more frequently in those with dementia compared with those without dementia (45% vs 14%). Higher numbers of pathologic diagnoses were also associated with greater dementia severity. Participants with intermediate/high AD pathology alone were 3 times more likely to have dementia (odds ratio = 3.5), but those with single non-AD pathologies were 12 times more likely to have dementia (odds ratio = 12.4). When a second pathology was present, the likelihood of dementia increased 4-fold in those with intermediate/high AD pathology but did not change in those with non-AD pathologies, suggesting that pathologies may interrelate in different ways. Conclusions: In the oldest-old, the presence of multiple pathologies is associated with increased likelihood and severity of dementia. The effect of the individual pathologies may be additive or perhaps synergistic and requires further research. Multiple pathologies will need to be targeted to reduce the burden of dementia in the population. PMID:26180144

  4. Support Routines for In Situ Image Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Pariser, Oleg; Yeates, Matthew C.; Lee, Hyun H.; Lorre, Jean

    2013-01-01

    This software consists of a set of application programs that support ground-based image processing for in situ missions. These programs represent a collection of utility routines that perform miscellaneous functions in the context of the ground data system. Each one fulfills some specific need as determined via operational experience. The most unique aspect to these programs is that they are integrated into the large, in situ image processing system via the PIG (Planetary Image Geometry) library. They work directly with space in situ data, understanding the appropriate image meta-data fields and updating them properly. The programs themselves are completely multimission; all mission dependencies are handled by PIG. This suite of programs consists of: (1)marscahv: Generates a linearized, epi-polar aligned image given a stereo pair of images. These images are optimized for 1-D stereo correlations, (2) marscheckcm: Compares the camera model in an image label with one derived via kinematics modeling on the ground, (3) marschkovl: Checks the overlaps between a list of images in order to determine which might be stereo pairs. This is useful for non-traditional stereo images like long-baseline or those from an articulating arm camera, (4) marscoordtrans: Translates mosaic coordinates from one form into another, (5) marsdispcompare: Checks a Left Right stereo disparity image against a Right Left disparity image to ensure they are consistent with each other, (6) marsdispwarp: Takes one image of a stereo pair and warps it through a disparity map to create a synthetic opposite- eye image. For example, a right eye image could be transformed to look like it was taken from the left eye via this program, (7) marsfidfinder: Finds fiducial markers in an image by projecting their approximate location and then using correlation to locate the markers to subpixel accuracy. These fiducial markets are small targets attached to the spacecraft surface. This helps verify, or improve, the

  5. Taking a new biomarker into routine use – A perspective from the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Sturgeon, Catharine; Hill, Robert; Hortin, Glen L; Thompson, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing pressure to provide cost-effective healthcare based on “best practice.” Consequently, new biomarkers are only likely to be introduced into routine clinical biochemistry departments if they are supported by a strong evidence base and if the results will improve patient management and outcome. This requires convincing evidence of the benefits of introducing the new test, ideally reflected in fewer hospital admissions, fewer additional investigations and/or fewer clinic visits. Carefully designed audit and cost-benefit studies in relevant patient groups must demonstrate that introducing the biomarker delivers an improved and more effective clinical pathway. From the laboratory perspective, pre-analytical requirements must be thoroughly investigated at an early stage. Good stability of the biomarker in relevant physiological matrices is essential to avoid the need for special processing. Absence of specific timing requirements for sampling and knowledge of the effect of medications that might be used to treat the patients in whom the biomarker will be measured is also highly desirable. Analytically, automation is essential in modern high-throughput clinical laboratories. Assays must therefore be robust, fulfilling standard requirements for linearity on dilution, precision and reproducibility, both within- and between-run. Provision of measurements by a limited number of specialized reference laboratories may be most appropriate, especially when a new biomarker is first introduced into routine practice. PMID:21137030

  6. Effects of clinical service reorganisation on cellular pathology workload

    PubMed Central

    Winter, S; Cox, G J; Corbridge, R; Chaplin, A J; Millard, P R; Shah, K A

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess changes in volume and complexity of cellular pathology workload after clinical service reorganisation and alterations in pathology reporting practices, and to identify objective measures of change applicable to all cellular pathology departments. The ear, nose, and throat (ENT), head and neck (HN) specialty was chosen for assessment. Methods: Cellular pathology workload from the ENT-HN surgical specialty was assessed numerically and the complexity in examination of cancer resection specimens was evaluated. Medical and technical time inputs in the reporting of ENT-HN cancer resections were measured prospectively, and the histological and cytological workload arising from the management of such cases was obtained. Results: The 88.83% increase in ENT-HN specimens contrasted with a 13.53% increase in total surgical workload. Substantial increases in work complexity were found when measured as blocks/slides for each case and number of histochemical/immunohistochemical requests. On average, examination of one ENT-HN cancer case consumed 55% of one pathologist’s work session and over one 10th of a technician’s working week. On average, each cancer generated 3.3 histological and 1.06 cytological specimens. Conclusions: Evidence is provided of the increase in cellular pathology workload and in its complexity. This study lists objective measures of complexity applicable to all pathology subspecialties. Given the workforce crisis and expanding clinical needs, realistic workload calculations should include measurement of complexity and not just volumes. PMID:14693830

  7. Persistence of susceptibility to measles in France despite routine immunization: a cohort analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, P; Valleron, A J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the impact of French routine programs urging the combined measles-mumps-rubella immunization of 15-month-old children. METHODS: We applied a cohort analysis to surveillance data collected by general practitioners to estimate the cumulative incidence rate per 1000 unvaccinated children and the proportion of susceptible children, by age and for each birth cohort between 1985 and 1995. RESULTS: More than 70% of unvaccinated children born in 1985 and 1986 had measles by the age of 10. This incidence rate dramatically decreased after implementation of the routine measles-mumps-rubella immunization program in 1989, but the proportion of 5-year-olds susceptible to measles has not decreased appreciably. In 1996, more than 15% of the children born between 1990 and 1995 were susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: The measles vaccine coverage achieved by the French routine immunization program remains insufficient as regards reducing the number of susceptible children. PMID:9987470

  8. The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationships between perfectionism, pathological worry and generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) were investigated in a clinical sample presenting for treatment of perfectionism. Method This study explored the utility of perfectionism in predicting pathological worry in a sample of individuals with elevated perfectionism and GAD (n = 36). Following this, the study examined whether perfectionism could predict a principal GAD diagnosis in the full sample (n = 42). Results Scores on the perfectionism dimensions Concern over Mistakes, Personal Standards, and Clinical Perfectionism significantly predicted pathological worry among participants with GAD after controlling for gender and depression. The perfectionism dimension Doubts about Actions significantly predicted whether individuals from the full sample received a principal diagnosis of GAD. Conclusions These findings support certain dimensions of perfectionism having significant associations with pathological worry and GAD. PMID:24693946

  9. The pathology of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Kues, J M

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121.

  10. [Pathology of the vitreomacular interface].

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Gheorghe, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Vitreous role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases has increased importantly over the recent years. This was possible using Optical Coherence Tomography which reviewed the way the vitreoretinal interface should be looked at and defined and classified new pathologies such as Vitreoretinal Traction Syndrome. Vitreous is not an empty space but an important anatomical structure with role in ocular physiology. With age biochemical changes occur so that vitreous starts to liquefy. Once the vitreous is liquefied (sinchisis) it collapses and passes in the retrohialoid space (sineresis). In complete PVD besides sinchisis there is a weakness of the adherence between the posterior cortex and ILM with total detachment of posterior cortex. Abnormal adhesions are associated with incomplete PVD. The definition and understanting of vitreoretinal pathology is an active and continuous process, PVD being the trigger of a lot of retinal pathologies: epiretinal membrane, macular hole, tractional macular oedema, VMTS, myopic traction maculopathy, exacerbations of exudative ARMD.

  11. [Two-dimensional echoencephalography in focal brain pathology].

    PubMed

    Shokurov, N N; Likhterman, L B

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimentional echoencephalographic examinations were conducted in 35 patients with focal lesions of the brain of different etiology. Normal tomoechoencephalogramme and ultrasonic semiotics of transverse sections of the brain in different pathology is described with reference to its nature and interrelationships with the meninges and brain matter (tumours, abscesses, emningeal and intracerebral haematomas, hydroma, brain confusion, intracranial foreign bodies). The authors believe that two-dimentional echoencephalography is a promising method of diagnosis, free of contraindications, combinding safety and promptness of the examination. direct visualization of focal pathology of the brain through an intact skull.

  12. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way.

  13. Optimal breast cancer pathology manifesto.

    PubMed

    Tot, T; Viale, G; Rutgers, E; Bergsten-Nordström, E; Costa, A

    2015-11-01

    This manifesto was prepared by a European Breast Cancer (EBC) Council working group and launched at the European Breast Cancer Conference in Glasgow on 20 March 2014. It sets out optimal technical and organisational requirements for a breast cancer pathology service, in the light of concerns about variability and lack of patient-centred focus. It is not a guideline about how pathology services should be performed. It is a call for all in the cancer community--pathologists, oncologists, patient advocates, health administrators and policymakers--to check that services are available that serve the needs of patients in a high quality, timely way. PMID:26283037

  14. [Fibronectin, aging and related pathologies].

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Chevalier, X

    1991-01-01

    It could be demonstrated that plasma and tissue fibronectin (FN) increase with age. Some age dependent diseases as diabetes, osteoarthritis and Werner syndrome produce also an increase of tissue fibronectin biosynthesis. Plasma fibronectin decreases in diabetes and in breast cancer. Alternative splicing of the FN gene appears also to vary with age and in some related pathologies. Nutritional status and UV light also influence FN biosynthesis. It appears therefore that the determination of plasma FN and its isoforms as well as the study of tissue FN may be of interest for the study of chronological aging and related pathologies. PMID:1835421

  15. Current diagnosis of temporomandibular pathologies.

    PubMed

    Learreta, Jorge A; Matos, Jane L F; Matos, Marcelo Freire; Durst, Andreas C

    2009-04-01

    The current scientific knowledge of TMJ pathologies points to the importance of etiological research and the need for differential diagnosis using the most modem technological resources. Those include MRI, computed tomography, serologic studies, genetic mapping, and bioelectronic instruments which allow clinicians to study, understand, and measure respectively, the structural changes of soft and hard tissues, infections, genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diseases, and stomatognathic function. The purpose of this article is an overview of the current knowledge and related tools for the diagnosis of TMJ pathologies.

  16. Recapturing Desired Family Routines: A Parent-Professional Behavioral Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buschbacher, Pamelazita; Fox, Lise; Clarke, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Children with complex disabilities such as autism spectrum disorders and Landau Kleffner syndrome often lack means to participate in everyday family routines. Serious problem behaviors may result from their challenges in responding to and initiating communicative interactions. These behaviors can change routine family activities such that the…

  17. Prescriptive Package. Improving Patrol Productivity. Volume I. Routine Patrol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, William G.; Schack, Stephen

    Designed to assist police departments in improving the productivity of their patrol operations, this volume on routine patrol and a companion volume on specialized patrol operations are intended for use by various sizes of departments. The volume on routine patrol focuses on the major issues of patrol productivity and recommends a number of…

  18. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  19. An Element of Practical Knowledge in Education: Professional Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, France

    2011-01-01

    The question of practical knowledge and its teaching has arisen more perceptibly since the appearance of the aim to professionalize teachers. How can imperceptible knowledge such as professional routines be taught? To establish a social fabric and effective class management, it is essential to call on creative and adaptive professional routines.…

  20. Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

    Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

  1. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... relating to national intelligence or otherwise applicable to the ODNI. This routine use is not intended to... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General routine uses. 1701.31 Section 1701.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF...

  2. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... relating to national intelligence or otherwise applicable to the ODNI. This routine use is not intended to... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General routine uses. 1701.31 Section 1701.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF...

  3. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTELLIGENCE ADMINISTRATION OF RECORDS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Routine Uses Applicable to More Than One... of Congressional intelligence oversight committees in connection with the exercise of the committees... disclosed as a routine use pursuant to Executive Order to the President's Foreign Intelligence...

  4. Thinking Routines: Replicating Classroom Practices within Museum Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolberg, Rochelle Ibanez; Goff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes thinking routines as tools to guide and support young children's thinking. These learning strategies, developed by Harvard University's Project Zero Classroom, actively engage students in constructing meaning while also understanding their own thinking process. The authors discuss how thinking routines can be used in both…

  5. The Association between Routinization and Cognitive Resources in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tournier, Isabelle; Mathey, Stephanie; Postal, Virginie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between routinization of daily life activities and cognitive resources during aging. Routinization could increase excessively during aging and become maladaptative in reducing individual resources. Fifty-two young participants (M = 20.8 years) and 62 older participants (M = 66.9 years)…

  6. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  7. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  9. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  10. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  11. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  12. 42 CFR 493.841 - Standard; Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard; Routine chemistry. 493.841 Section 493.841 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.841 Standard; Routine chemistry. (a) Failure to attain a score of at least 80...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1267 - Standard: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Routine chemistry. 493.1267 Section 493.1267 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 493.1267 Standard: Routine chemistry. For blood gas analyses, the laboratory must perform...

  16. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  17. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  18. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  19. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  20. 27 CFR 22.107 - Pathological laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pathological laboratories... Pathological laboratories. (a) Pathological laboratories, not operated by a hospital or sanitarium, may... sanitariums. If a pathological laboratory does not exclusively conduct analyses or tests for hospitals...

  1. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for <2% of all bone tumors. The calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point.

  2. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with pathologic fracture and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Laksha; Schade, Valerie L; Manoso, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Chondroblastomas account for <2% of all bone tumors. The calcaneus is the fifth most common location of occurrence. Males in their second decade of life are most often affected, presenting with an insidious onset of localized pain, swelling, and tenderness. The finding of associated pathologic fracture has been rare. Imaging studies can aid in the formulation of the differential diagnosis and surgical plan. The definitive diagnosis requires histologic examination. Curettage and bone grafting is curative in >80% of cases. Local recurrence rates of ≤38% have been reported, most often because of inadequate resection, and have been associated with malignant conversion and metastasis. Adjuvant therapies can help minimize the incidence of local recurrence. Long-term follow-up examinations are recommended, given the protracted interval that can exist between recurrence and the potential for malignant conversion and metastasis. We present the case of a young, healthy, active male with a calcaneal chondroblastoma and associated pathologic fracture whose initial treatment consisted of curettage, hydrogen peroxide lavage, and allogeneic bone grafting. Recurrence developed at 15 months postoperatively and was treated with repeat curettage, high-speed burring, and reconstruction with steel Steinman pins and polymethylmethacrylate, resulting in no pain or recurrence at the 5-month follow-up point. PMID:25624038

  3. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  4. Learning Biology with Plant Pathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Juliet E.

    This monograph contains 10 plant pathology experiments that were written to correspond to portions of a biology curriculum. Each experiment is suitable to a biology topic and designed to encourage exploration of those biological concepts being taught. Experiments include: (1) The Symptoms and Signs of Disease; (2) Koch's Postulates; (3)…

  5. Giving your heart to pathology.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Jim

    2015-10-17

    Jim KIaassen recently joined Axiom Veterinary Laboratories as a clinical pathologist. During his career, Dr Klaassen has worked in small animal practice, lectured in clinical pathology, undertaken preclinical research and held senior roles in commercial veterinary laboratories in the USA, including as chief medical officer of Antech Diagnostics.

  6. Surgical pathology of urologic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Barsky, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    This text details recent advances in methods for detecting, diagnosing, and managing genitourinary diseases. Included are chapters on imaging techniques (including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasound; tumor markers (such as alphafetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, prostatic specific antigen, and T-antigens); immunocytochemistry; pediatric urologic pathology; and other key topics.

  7. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  8. Analysis of mouse model pathology: a primer for studying the anatomic pathology of genetically engineered mice.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Miller, Claramae H; Munn, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    This primer of pathology is intended to introduce investigators to the structure (morphology) of cancer with an emphasis on genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models (GEMMs). We emphasize the necessity of using the entire biological context for the interpretation of anatomic pathology. Because the primary investigator is responsible for almost all of the information and procedures leading up to microscopic examination, they should also be responsible for documentation of experiments so that the microscopic interpretation can be rendered in context of the biology. The steps involved in this process are outlined, discussed, and illustrated. Because GEMMs are unique experimental subjects, some of the more common pitfalls are discussed. Many of these errors can be avoided with attention to detail and continuous quality assurance.

  9. Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Valenstein, Paul N; Evans, Andrew J; Kaplan, Keith J; Pfeifer, John D; Wilbur, David C; Collins, Laura C; Colgan, Terence J

    2011-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI), or "virtual" microscopy, involves the scanning (digitization) of glass slides to produce "digital slides". WSI has been advocated for diagnostic, educational and research purposes. When used for remote frozen section diagnosis, WSI requires a thorough implementation period coupled with trained support personnel. Adoption of WSI for rendering pathologic diagnoses on a routine basis has been shown to be successful in only a few "niche" applications. Wider adoption will most likely require full integration with the laboratory information system, continuous automated scanning, high-bandwidth connectivity, massive storage capacity, and more intuitive user interfaces. Nevertheless, WSI has been reported to enhance specific pathology practices, such as scanning slides received in consultation or of legal cases, of slides to be used for patient care conferences, for quality assurance purposes, to retain records of slides to be sent out or destroyed by ancillary testing, and for performing digital image analysis. In addition to technical issues, regulatory and validation requirements related to WSI have yet to be adequately addressed. Although limited validation studies have been published using WSI there are currently no standard guidelines for validating WSI for diagnostic use in the clinical laboratory. This review addresses the current status of WSI in pathology related to regulation and validation, the provision of remote and routine pathologic diagnoses, educational uses, implementation issues, and the cost-benefit analysis of adopting WSI in routine clinical practice. PMID:21886892

  10. Review of the current state of whole slide imaging in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Valenstein, Paul N.; Evans, Andrew J.; Kaplan, Keith J.; Pfeifer, John D.; Wilbur, David C.; Collins, Laura C.; Colgan, Terence J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole slide imaging (WSI), or “virtual” microscopy, involves the scanning (digitization) of glass slides to produce “digital slides”. WSI has been advocated for diagnostic, educational and research purposes. When used for remote frozen section diagnosis, WSI requires a thorough implementation period coupled with trained support personnel. Adoption of WSI for rendering pathologic diagnoses on a routine basis has been shown to be successful in only a few “niche” applications. Wider adoption will most likely require full integration with the laboratory information system, continuous automated scanning, high-bandwidth connectivity, massive storage capacity, and more intuitive user interfaces. Nevertheless, WSI has been reported to enhance specific pathology practices, such as scanning slides received in consultation or of legal cases, of slides to be used for patient care conferences, for quality assurance purposes, to retain records of slides to be sent out or destroyed by ancillary testing, and for performing digital image analysis. In addition to technical issues, regulatory and validation requirements related to WSI have yet to be adequately addressed. Although limited validation studies have been published using WSI there are currently no standard guidelines for validating WSI for diagnostic use in the clinical laboratory. This review addresses the current status of WSI in pathology related to regulation and validation, the provision of remote and routine pathologic diagnoses, educational uses, implementation issues, and the cost-benefit analysis of adopting WSI in routine clinical practice. PMID:21886892

  11. Physical examination of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Young, Darryl; Papp, Steven; Giachino, Alan

    2007-04-01

    Physical examination of the wrist requires knowledge of wrist anatomy and pathology to make a diagnosis or narrow the differential diagnosis. Symptoms are provoked by palpation and signs are produced by manipulation. Negative findings elsewhere in the wrist are important. Final diagnosis may require diagnostic imaging. By having all three methods of assessment agree one is assured of correct diagnosis. The physical examination of the wrist is not unlike that of other joints, in that a systematic approach includes observation, range of motion, palpation, and special tests.

  12. Best practices for veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, with emphasis on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices.

  13. Eating routines: Embedded, value based, modifiable, and reflective

    PubMed Central

    Jastran, Margaret; Bisogni, Carole A.; Sobal, Jeffery; Blake, Christine; Devine, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    Eating routines are a compelling issue because recurring eating behaviors influence nutrition and health. As non-traditional and individualized eating patterns have become more common, new ways of thinking about routine eating practices are needed. This study sought to gain conceptual understanding of working adults' eating routines. Forty-two purposively sampled US adults reported food intake and contextual details about eating episodes in qualitative 24-hour dietary recalls conducted over 7 consecutive days. Using the constant comparative method, researchers analyzed interview transcripts for recurrent ways of eating that were either explicitly reported by study participants as “routines” or emergent in the data. Participants' eating routines included repetition in food consumption as well as eating context, and also involved sequences of eating episodes. Eating routines were embedded in daily schedules for work, family, and recreation. Participants maintained purposeful routines that helped balance tension between demands and values, but they modified routines as circumstances changed. Participants monitored and reflected upon their eating practices and tended to assess their practices in light of their personal identities. These findings provide conceptual insights for food choice researchers and present a perspective from which practitioners who work with individuals seeking to adopt healthful eating practices might usefully approach their tasks. PMID:18835305

  14. The Neurological Examination in Family Practice

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Peter

    1974-01-01

    The family practitioner has the first opportunity and responsibility of making a diagnosis. Since a large portion of his work is concerned with neurological problems, he should be able to do a complete neurological examination. This examination should include evaluation of the gait, mental function, cranial nerves, motor system and sensory system. With practice, a routine neurological examination can be done rapidly and accurately. PMID:20469138

  15. Decorin and biglycan of normal and pathologic human corneas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Hevelone, N. D.; Roth, M. R.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Rodrigues, M. R.; Nirankari, V. S.; Conrad, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: Corneas with scars and certain chronic pathologic conditions contain highly sulfated dermatan sulfate, but little is known of the core proteins that carry these atypical glycosaminoglycans. In this study the proteoglycan proteins attached to dermatan sulfate in normal and pathologic human corneas were examined to identify primary genes involved in the pathobiology of corneal scarring. METHODS: Proteoglycans from human corneas with chronic edema, bullous keratopathy, and keratoconus and from normal corneas were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), quantitative immunoblotting, and immunohistology with peptide antibodies to decorin and biglycan. RESULTS: Proteoglycans from pathologic corneas exhibit increased size heterogeneity and binding of the cationic dye alcian blue compared with those in normal corneas. Decorin and biglycan extracted from normal and diseased corneas exhibited similar molecular size distribution patterns. In approximately half of the pathologic corneas, the level of biglycan was elevated an average of seven times above normal, and decorin was elevated approximately three times above normal. The increases were associated with highly charged molecular forms of decorin and biglycan, indicating modification of the proteins with dermatan sulfate chains of increased sulfation. Immunostaining of corneal sections showed an abnormal stromal localization of biglycan in pathologic corneas. CONCLUSIONS: The increased dermatan sulfate associated with chronic corneal pathologic conditions results from stromal accumulation of decorin and particularly of biglycan in the affected corneas. These proteins bear dermatan sulfate chains with increased sulfation compared with normal stromal proteoglycans.

  16. Facial emotion recognition in adolescents with personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Berenschot, Fleur; van Aken, Marcel A G; Hessels, Christel; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Pijl, Ysbrand; Montagne, Barbara; van Voorst, Guus

    2014-07-01

    It has been argued that a heightened emotional sensitivity interferes with the cognitive processing of facial emotion recognition and may explain the intensified emotional reactions to external emotional stimuli of adults with personality pathology, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study examines if and how deviations in facial emotion recognition also occur in adolescents with personality pathology. Forty-two adolescents with personality pathology, 111 healthy adolescents and 28 psychiatric adolescents without personality pathology completed the Emotion Recognition Task, measuring their accuracy and sensitivity in recognizing positive and negative emotion expressions presented in several, morphed, expression intensities. Adolescents with personality pathology showed an enhanced recognition accuracy of facial emotion expressions compared to healthy adolescents and clients with various Axis-I psychiatric diagnoses. They were also more sensitive to less intensive expressions of emotions than clients with various Axis-I psychiatric diagnoses, but not more than healthy adolescents. As has been shown in research on adults with BPD, adolescents with personality pathology show enhanced facial emotion recognition.

  17. Routine Opt-Out HIV Testing Strategies in a Female Jail Setting: A Prospective Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kavasery, Ravi; Maru, Duncan Smith-Rohrberg; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Sylla, Laurie N.; Smith, David; Altice, Frederick L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Ten million Americans enter jails annually. The objective was to evaluate new CDC guidelines for routine opt-out HIV testing and examine the optimal time to implement routine opt-out HIV testing among newly incarcerated jail detainees. Methods This prospective, controlled trial of routine opt-out HIV testing was conducted among 323 newly incarcerated female inmates in Connecticut's only women's jail. 323 sequential entrants to the women's jail over a five week period in August and September 2007 were assigned to be offered routine opt-out HIV testing at one of three points after incarceration: immediate (same day, n = 108), early (next day, n = 108), or delayed (7 days, n = 107). The primary outcome was the proportion of women in each group consenting to testing. Results Routine opt-out HIV testing was significantly highest (73%) among the early testing group compared to 55% for immediate and 50% for 7 days post-entry groups. Other factors significantly (p = 0.01) associated with being HIV tested were younger age and low likelihood of early release from jail based on bond value or type of charge for which women were arrested. Conclusions In this correctional facility, routine opt-out HIV testing in a jail setting was feasible, with highest rates of testing if performed the day after incarceration. Lower testing rates were seen with immediate testing, where there is a high prevalence of inability or unwillingness to test, and with delayed testing, where attrition from jail increases with each passing day. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00624247 PMID:19946370

  18. Floating-point function generation routines for 16-bit microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, M. A.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Several computer subroutines have been developed that interpolate three types of nonanalytic functions: univariate, bivariate, and map. The routines use data in floating-point form. However, because they are written for use on a 16-bit Intel 8086 system with an 8087 mathematical coprocessor, they execute as fast as routines using data in scaled integer form. Although all of the routines are written in assembly language, they have been implemented in a modular fashion so as to facilitate their use with high-level languages.

  19. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education.

  20. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography in routine rheumatology practice: data from Central and Eastern European countries.

    PubMed

    Mandl, Peter; Baranauskaite, Asta; Damjanov, Nemanja; Hojnik, Maja; Kurucz, Reka; Nagy, Orsolya; Nemec, Petr; Niedermayer, Dora; Perić, Porin; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Pille, Andres; Rednic, Simona; Vlad, Violeta; Zlnay, Martin; Balint, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    The main aim was to gain structured insight into the use of musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) in routine rheumatology practices in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. In a cross-sectional, observational, international, multicenter survey, a questionnaire was sent to investigational sites in CEE countries. Data on all subsequent routine MSUS examinations, site characteristics, MSUS equipment, and investigators were collected over 6 months or up to 100 examinations per center. A total of 95 physicians at 44 sites in 9 countries provided information on a total of 2810 MSUS examinations. The most frequent diagnoses were rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritis (34.8 and 14.9 % of cases, respectively). Mean number of joints examined was 6.8. MSUS was most frequently performed for diagnostic purposes (58 %), particularly in patients with undifferentiated arthritis, suspected soft tissue disorders, or osteoarthritis (73.0-85.3 %). In RA patients, 56.3 % of examinations were conducted to monitor disease activity. Nearly all investigations (99 %) had clinical implications, while the results of 78.6 % of examinations (51.6-99.0 %) were deemed useful for patient education. This first standardized multicountry survey performed in CEEs provided a structured documentation of the routine MSUS use in participating countries. The majority of MSUS examinations were performed for diagnostic purposes, whereas one-third was conducted to monitor disease activity in RA. A majority of examinations had an impact on clinical decision making and were also found to be useful for patient education. PMID:26923691

  1. Are routine preoperative CT scans necessary in adult cochlear implantation? Implications for the allocation of resources in cochlear implant programs.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Bruno; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Kasbekar, Anand V; Axon, Patrick R; Donnelly, Neil

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to critically assess the influence of preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans on implantation decisions for adult cochlear implant candidates. The working hypothesis was that these routine scans might not provide critical additional information in most adult cochlear implant candidates. The charts of 175 adults with unilateral cochlear implantation were reviewed. Preoperative CT scan reports were audited, and scans with reported pathology were examined by an Otologist/ENT Surgeon. Clinic notes and multidisciplinary team meeting summaries were also analyzed to assess whether the results of the radiology report had influenced the decision to implant or the laterality of implantation. Twenty-five of the 175 scans (14.3%) showed an abnormality. Five of those 25 scans showed evidence of previous surgeries already known to the clinicians. Of the remaining 20 scans, 17 showed abnormalities, including wide vestibular aqueducts, Mondini deformities, and varying degrees of otospongiosis, the identification of which can be considered preoperatively helpful. Of the 175 scans, 3 (1.7%) demonstrated abnormalities that influenced the side of implantation or the decision to implant and, therefore, had an impact on treatment. We conclude that a preoperative CT scan seems to have an impact on treatment in only a small percentage of adult cochlear implantees. Hence, it may only need to be performed in patients with a history or clinical suspicion of meningitis or otosclerosis, if the individual was born deaf or became deaf before the age of 16, or if there are other clinical reasons to scan (e.g., otoscopic appearance). The related resources can be allocated to other facets of cochlear implant programs. PMID:27551842

  2. Counselling in the Treatment of Pathological Gambling: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Mark D.; MacDonald, Helen F.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the gambling literature and the phases of the pathological gambler's career. Examines counseling approaches that have been used in the treatment of gambling, including psychotherapy, conjoint marital therapy, minimal interventions, behavioral counseling, and practical approaches to the treatment of adolescent problem gamblers. (Author/GCP)

  3. Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L

    2011-02-01

    The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.

  4. System for pathology categorization and retrieval in chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avni, Uri; Greenspan, Hayit; Konen, Eli; Sharon, Michal; Goldberger, Jacob

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present an overview of a system we have been developing for the past several years for efficient image categorization and retrieval in large radiograph archives. The methodology is based on local patch representation of the image content, using a bag of visual words approach and similarity-based categorization with a kernel based SVM classifier. We show an application to pathology-level categorization of chest x-ray data, the most popular examination in radiology. Our study deals with pathology detection and identification of individual pathologies including right and left pleural effusion, enlarged heart and cases of enlarged mediastinum. The input from a radiologist provided a global label for the entire image (healthy/pathology), and the categorization was conducted on the entire image, with no need for segmentation algorithms or any geometrical rules. An automatic diagnostic-level categorization, even on such an elementary level as healthy vs pathological, provides a useful tool for radiologists on this popular and important examination. This is a first step towards similarity-based categorization, which has a major clinical implications for computer-assisted diagnostics.

  5. Interleukin-22: immunobiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dudakov, Jarrod A.; Hanash, Alan M.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) is a recently described IL-10 family cytokine that is produced by T-helper (Th)-17 cells, γδ T cells, NKT cells and newly described innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). Knowledge of IL-22 biology has rapidly evolved since its discovery in 2000, and a role for IL-22 has been identified in numerous tissues including the intestines, lung, liver, kidney, thymus, pancreas and skin. IL-22 primarily targets non-hematopoietic epithelial and stromal cells where it can promote proliferation and play a role in tissue regeneration. In addition, IL-22 regulates host defense at barrier surfaces. However, IL-22 has also been linked to several conditions involving inflammatory tissue pathology. In this review, we will assess the current understanding of this cytokine, including its physiologic and pathologic effects on epithelial cell function. PMID:25706098

  6. α-Synuclein: Experimental Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Masato; Nonaka, Takashi; Masuda-Suzukake, Masami

    2016-01-01

    α-Synuclein, which is present as a small, soluble, cytosolic protein in healthy subjects, is converted to amyloid-like fibrils in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Bulk synthesis of purified α-synuclein has made it more convenient to study the nature of the normal protein and the mechanism of its conversion to an abnormal form in vitro and in vivo. Synthetic α-synuclein fibrils and pathological α-synuclein from diseased brains can act as triggers to convert normal α-synuclein to an abnormal form via prion-like mechanisms. In this article, we describe the experimental pathologies of α-synuclein both in vitro and in vivo in human and animal models. Prion-like spreading of abnormal α-synuclein from cell to cell can account for the progression of these α-synucleinopathies. PMID:27481772

  7. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  8. Quality in pathology laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, S

    1995-06-01

    Quality refers not only to analytical quality control, a traditional area of laboratory excellence, but to the entire science of quality management. As measures of quality, structural indicators refer to staffing and physical facilities, process indicators to the institutions operations and, perhaps most importantly, outcome indicators address the ultimate patient care uses that pathology information is put to. Comparison of performance to peer laboratories, external quality control, is a practical, if limited, yardstick of performance. Customer satisfaction and turn-around-time of tests are receiving more recent attention as quality measures. Blood banking, because of its inherently complex cycle from donor phlebotomy to product infusion, requires special considerations with regard to quality management. Reporting of anatomical pathology, where the only gold standard is a consensus of experts, also does not lend itself to classical numerical quality assessment. PMID:7670717

  9. Insulin dysfunction and Tau pathology

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Noura B.; Gratuze, Maud; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Bretteville, Alexis; Planel, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include senile plaques of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides (a cleavage product of the Amyloid Precursor Protein, or APP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein assembled in paired helical filaments (PHF). NFT pathology is important since it correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment in AD. Only a small proportion of AD is due to genetic variants, whereas the large majority of cases (~99%) is late onset and sporadic in origin. The cause of sporadic AD is likely to be multifactorial, with external factors interacting with biological or genetic susceptibilities to accelerate the manifestation of the disease. Insulin dysfunction, manifested by diabetes mellitus (DM) might be such factor, as there is extensive data from epidemiological studies suggesting that DM is associated with an increased relative risk for AD. Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are known to affect multiple cognitive functions in patients. In this context, understanding the effects of diabetes on Tau pathogenesis is important since Tau pathology show a strong relationship to dementia in AD, and to memory loss in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment. Here, we reviewed preclinical studies that link insulin dysfunction to Tau protein pathogenesis, one of the major pathological hallmarks of AD. We found more than 30 studies reporting Tau phosphorylation in a mouse or rat model of insulin dysfunction. We also payed attention to potential sources of artifacts, such as hypothermia and anesthesia, that were demonstrated to results in Tau hyperphosphorylation and could major confounding experimental factors. We found that very few studies reported the temperature of the animals, and only a handful did not use anesthesia. Overall, most published studies showed that insulin dysfunction can promote Tau hyperphosphorylation and pathology, both directly and indirectly, through hypothermia. PMID:24574966

  10. [Pathological horseshoe kidney. Therapeutic aspects].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Touijer, A; Aboutaieb, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the various therapeutic modalities of uropathies associated with horseshoe kidney, based on a series of 20 pathologic horseshoe kidneys, associated with 12 cases of renal stones, 5 ureteropelvic junction obstructions, 3 kidney tumors, 2 cases of pyonephrosis and finally 1 traumatic horseshoe kidney. The specific anatomic and surgical features of this uncommon malformation are emphasized and the therapeutic features of each uropathy associated with horseshoe kidney are discussed. PMID:7825982

  11. [Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI). Implications for pathology].

    PubMed

    Viertler, C; Zatloukal, K

    2008-11-01

    High quality human biological samples (e.g. blood, tissue or DNA) with associated, well documented clinical and research data are key resources for advancement of life sciences, biotechnology, clinical medicine, drug development and also molecular pathology. Millions of samples of diseased tissues have been collected in the context of routine histopathological diagnosis and are stored in the archives of hospitals and institutes of pathology. A concerted effort is necessary to overcome the current fragmentation of the European biobanking community in order to tap the full research potential of existing biobanks. A pan-European research infrastructure for biobanking and biomolecular resources (BBMRI) is currently in its planning phase. The mission is to link and provide access to local biobanks of different formats, including tissue collections, harmonize standards, establish operational procedures which properly consider ethical, legal, societal aspects, and to secure sustainable funding. Pathology plays a key role in development and administration of tissue banks and is, thus, a major partner for collaboration, expertise and construction of this pan-European research infrastructure.

  12. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; West, Andrew J.; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Tuthill, Mark J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  13. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  14. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  15. Investigative pathology: leading the post-genomic revolution.

    PubMed

    Berman, David M; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Orwant, Robin L; Thurberg, Beth L; Draetta, Gulio F; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Loda, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project and the development of genome-based technologies over the past decade have set the stage for a new era of personalized medicine. By all rights, molecularly trained investigative pathologists should be leading this revolution. Singularly well suited for this work, molecular pathologists have the rare ability to wed genomic tools with unique diagnostic skills and tissue-based pathology techniques for integrated diagnosis of human disease. However, the number of pathologists with expertise in genome-based research has remained relatively low due to outdated training methods and a reluctance among some traditional pathologists to embrace new technologies. Moreover, because budding pathologists may not appreciate the vast selection of jobs available to them, they often end up choosing jobs that focus almost entirely on routine diagnosis rather than new frontiers in molecular pathology. This review calls for changes aimed at rectifying these troubling trends to ensure that pathology continues to guide patient care in a post-genomic era.

  16. Digital slide viewing for primary reporting in gastrointestinal pathology: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Loughrey, Maurice B; Kelly, Paul J; Houghton, Oisin P; Coleman, Helen G; Houghton, Joseph P; Carson, Anne; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hamilton, Peter W

    2015-08-01

    Despite the increasing availability of digital slide viewing, and numerous advantages associated with its application, a lack of quality validation studies is amongst the reasons for poor uptake in routine practice. This study evaluated primary digital pathology reporting in the setting of routine subspecialist gastrointestinal pathology, commonplace in most tissue pathology laboratories and representing one of the highest volume specialties in most laboratories. Individual digital and glass slide diagnoses were compared amongst three pathologists reporting in a gastrointestinal subspecialty team, in a prospective series of 100 consecutive diagnostic cases from routine practice in a large teaching hospital laboratory. The study included a washout period of at least 6 months. Discordant diagnoses were classified, and the study evaluated against recent College of American Pathologists (CAP) recommendations for evaluating digital pathology systems for diagnostic use. The study design met all 12 of the CAP recommendations. The 100 study cases generated 300 pairs of diagnoses, comprising 100 glass slide diagnoses and 100 digital diagnoses from each of the three study pathologists. 286 of 300 pairs of diagnoses were concordant, representing intraobserver concordance of 95.3 %, broadly comparable to rates previously published in this field. In ten of the 14 discordant pairs, the glass slide diagnosis was favoured; in four cases, the digital diagnosis was favoured, but importantly, the 14 discordant intraobserver diagnoses were considered to be of minor clinical significance. Interobserver, or viewing modality independent, concordance was found in 94 of the total of 100 study cases, providing a comparable baseline discordance rate expected in any second viewing of pathology material. These overall results support the safe use of digital pathology in primary diagnostic reporting in this setting.

  17. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

  18. The molecular pathology of haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Larner, A J

    1987-06-01

    The great success of recombinant DNA technology in unravelling the pathology of the thalassaemias at a molecular level has encouraged the application of these methods to other single gene disorders of man in the hope of gaining a deeper insight into the biochemical defects underlying them. An example of this approach is provided by the sex-linked recessive disorders of blood clotting: haemophilia and Christmas disease. These clinically indistinguishable, life-long disorders result from the deficiency or abnormality of the clotting proteins factor VIII and factor IX, respectively, which both participate in the activation of factor X in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. This paper looks at the information concerning the molecular biology and pathology of the haemophilias which has recently been forthcoming. The genes for factor VIII and factor IX have both been successfully cloned within the past five years, with that of factor VIII, achieved in 1984, being a particular tour de force. It encompasses 0.1 per cent of the human X chromosome and is the largest gene yet characterised. Gene cloning is the starting point from which gene probes can be designed to elucidate the molecular pathology of the haemophilias. The implications of these discoveries for the practice of clinical medicine are reviewed, with special emphasis on prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection by means of restriction fragment length polymorphisms, and replacement therapy with recombinant factor VIII.

  19. Thromboembolism Prophylaxis in Hip Arthroplasty: Routine and High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Nunley, Ryan M; Johnson, Staci R; Keeney, James A; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    This study's purpose was to present the use of a risk stratification protocol in which "routine" risk patients receive a mobile compression device with aspirin and "high" risk patients receive warfarin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty. 1859 hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively enrolled (1402 routine risk--75.4%, 457 high risk--24.6%). The cumulative rate of venous thromboembolism events was 0.5% in the routine versus 0.5% in the high-risk cohort within 6weeks postoperatively (P=1.00). Patients in the routine risk cohort had a lower rate of major bleeding (0.5% versus 2.0%, P=0.006) and wound complications (0.2% versus 1.2%, P=0.01). Use of our risk stratification protocol allowed the avoidance of more aggressive anticoagulation in 75% of patients while achieving a low overall incidence of symptomatic VTE. PMID:26182980

  20. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  1. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  2. Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159863.html Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss Older people and those who ... half of people with no new symptoms or vision problems receive new prescriptions or treatment changes as ...

  3. Radioxenon retention in the skeleton on a routine ventilation study

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Tiu, S.; Sanger, J.J.; Benjamin, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    Marked retention of radioxenon by the skeletal structures during a routine ventilation scan is described. Xenon uptake by bones occurs largely in the intraosseous fat. Augmented uptake in this case may be related to the patient's prolonged steroid therapy.

  4. Effects of preshot routine on free-throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Gayton, W F; Cielinski, K L; Francis-Keniston, W J; Hearns, J F

    1989-02-01

    The effect of prohibiting the use of a preshot routine on free-throw shooting in competitive situations was investigated. 25 male high school basketball players were instructed to attempt 50 free throws alternating in blocks of 10 between the use of their preshot routine and shooting without it. To make the situation competitive, subjects were run in groups of five and their performance was recorded on a large easel placed to the side of the free-throw line. A significantly larger number of baskets were made in the preshot routine condition than without the routine. A competitive situation led to a greater decrement in baskets than had been reported in 1986 by Lobmeyer and Wassermen during noncompetitive free-throw shooting.

  5. Pulmonary pathology in pediatric cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Milner, Danny; Factor, Rachel; Whitten, Rich; Carr, Richard A; Kamiza, Steve; Pinkus, Geraldine; Molyneux, Malcolm; Taylor, Terrie

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory signs are common in African children where malaria is highly endemic, and thus, parsing the role of pulmonary pathology in illness is challenging. We examined the lungs of 100 children from an autopsy series in Blantyre, Malawi, many of whom death was attributed to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Our aim was to describe the pathologic manifestations of fatal malaria; to understand the role of parasites, pigment, and macrophages; and to catalog comorbidities. From available patients, which included 55 patients with cerebral malaria and 45 controls, we obtained 4 cores of lung tissue for immunohistochemistry and morphological evaluation. We found that, in patients with cerebral malaria, large numbers of malaria parasites were present in pulmonary alveolar capillaries, together with extensive deposits of malaria pigment (hemozoin). The number of pulmonary macrophages in this vascular bed did not differ between patients with cerebral malaria, noncerebral malaria, and nonmalarial diagnoses. Comorbidities found in some cerebral malaria patients included pneumonia, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, and systemic activation of coagulation. We conclude that the respiratory distress seen in patients with cerebral malaria does not appear to be anatomic in origin but that increasing malaria pigment is strongly associated with cerebral malaria at autopsy.

  6. Aging of signal transduction pathways, and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Morgan E.; Silva, Haroldo S.; Conboy, Irina M.

    2008-01-01

    The major cell signaling pathways, and their specific mechanisms of transduction, have been a subject of investigation for many years. As our understanding of these pathways advances, we find that they are evolutionarily well-conserved not only individually, but also at the level of their crosstalk and signal integration. Productive interactions within the key signal transduction networks determine success in embryonic organogenesis, and postnatal tissue repair throughout adulthood. However, aside from clues revealed through examining age-related degenerative diseases, much remains uncertain about imbalances within these pathways during normal aging. Further, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which alterations in the major cell signal transduction networks cause age-related pathologies. The aim of this review is to describe the complex interplay between the Notch, TGFβ, WNT, RTK-Ras and Hh signaling pathways, with a specific focus on the changes introduced within these networks by the aging process, and those typical of age-associated human pathologies. PMID:18474281

  7. Is pathological gambling moderated by age?

    PubMed

    Granero, Roser; Penelo, Eva; Stinchfield, Randy; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Savvidou, Lamprini G; Fröberg, Frida; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Pérez-Serrano, Miriam; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2014-06-01

    The age of a patient is a strong moderator of both the course and the evolution of disorders/diseases. However, the effects of current age in pathological gambling (PG) have rarely been examined. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating effects of the patients' current age in relation to personality traits and clinical outcomes of PG. A total sample of 2,309 treatment-seeking patients for PG, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, participated in this study and were assessed with the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling according to DSM-IV criteria, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom Checklist, the Temperament and Character Inventory-R, and other clinical and psychopathological measures. Orthogonal polynomial contrasts showed linear trends in the relationship between age and PG: the older the patient, the more comorbid health problems were visible. The presence of additional quadratic trends also suggests that age plays a significant role in moderating the possibility of existing PG problems and general psychopathology. No interaction term was found between age and sex, but it was present for age and some personality traits: self-transcendence and reward dependence (these two traits were only relevant to the level of impairment due to PG at specific ages). This study suggests that the patients' age influences psychopathological and clinical aspects associated to PG. Intervention in the earliest manifestations of this complex problem is essential in order to better address the need of successful treatment planning.

  8. Assessment of breast pathologies using nonlinear microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuankai K.; Shen, Dejun; Sheikine, Yuri; Ahsen, Osman O.; Wang, Helen H.; Schmolze, Daniel B.; Johnson, Nicole B.; Brooker, Jeffrey S.; Cable, Alex E.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid intraoperative assessment of breast excision specimens is clinically important because up to 40% of patients undergoing breast-conserving cancer surgery require reexcision for positive or close margins. We demonstrate nonlinear microscopy (NLM) for the assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens. A total of 179 specimens from 50 patients was imaged with NLM using rapid extrinsic nuclear staining with acridine orange and intrinsic second harmonic contrast generation from collagen. Imaging was performed on fresh, intact specimens without the need for fixation, embedding, and sectioning required for conventional histopathology. A visualization method to aid pathological interpretation is presented that maps NLM contrast from two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic signals to features closely resembling histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Mosaicking is used to overcome trade-offs between resolution and field of view, enabling imaging of subcellular features over square-centimeter specimens. After NLM examination, specimens were processed for standard paraffin-embedded histology using a protocol that coregistered histological sections to NLM images for paired assessment. Blinded NLM reading by three pathologists achieved 95.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity, compared with paraffin-embedded histology, for identifying invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ versus benign breast tissue. Interobserver agreement was κ = 0.88 for NLM and κ = 0.89 for histology. These results show that NLM achieves high diagnostic accuracy, can be rapidly performed on unfixed specimens, and is a promising method for intraoperative margin assessment. PMID:25313045

  9. The Relation among Sleep, Routines, and Externalizing Behavior in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Jill A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Bader, Stephanie H.; Jordan, Sara Sytsma

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined relations among sleep, routines, and externalizing behavior (based on parent report) in 115 children ages 6 to 12 years in two groups: 58 children with an autism spectrum disorder (age M = 9.0, SD = 2.09) and 57 non-ASD children (age M = 8.25, SD = 1.98). Within the ASD group, sleep hygiene and sleep quality were related…

  10. Survey of US Correctional Institutions for Routine HCV Testing.

    PubMed

    Beckwith, Curt G; Kurth, Ann E; Bazerman, Lauri; Solomon, Liza; Patry, Emily; Rich, Josiah D; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain HCV testing practices among US prisons and jails, we conducted a survey study in 2012, consisting of medical directors of all US state prisons and 40 of the largest US jails, that demonstrated a minority of US prisons and jails conduct routine HCV testing. Routine voluntary HCV testing in correctional facilities is urgently needed to increase diagnosis, enable risk-reduction counseling and preventive health care, and facilitate evaluation for antiviral treatment. PMID:25393180

  11. Consensus statement on surgical pathology of the aorta from the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology: I. Inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Stone, James R; Bruneval, Patrick; Angelini, Annalisa; Bartoloni, Giovanni; Basso, Cristina; Batoroeva, Lubov; Buja, L Maximilian; Butany, Jagdish; d'Amati, Giulia; Fallon, John T; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Gouveia, Rosa H; Halushka, Marc K; Kelly, Karen L; Kholova, Ivana; Leone, Ornella; Litovsky, Silvio H; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Miller, Dylan V; Mitchell, Richard N; Preston, Stephen D; Pucci, Angela; Radio, Stanley J; Rodriguez, E Rene; Sheppard, Mary N; Suvarna, S Kim; Tan, Carmela D; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard C; Veinot, John P

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the aorta include routine atherosclerosis, aortitis, periaortitis, and atherosclerosis with excessive inflammatory responses, such as inflammatory atherosclerotic aneurysms. The nomenclature and histologic features of these disorders are reviewed and discussed. In addition, diagnostic criteria are provided to distinguish between these disorders in surgical pathology specimens. An initial classification scheme is provided for aortitis and periaortitis based on the pattern of the inflammatory infiltrate: granulomatous/giant cell pattern, lymphoplasmacytic pattern, mixed inflammatory pattern, and the suppurative pattern. These inflammatory patterns are discussed in relation to specific systemic diseases including giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, ankylosing spondylitis, Cogan syndrome, Behçet's disease, relapsing polychondritis, syphilitic aortitis, and bacterial and fungal infections.

  12. Ecology and pathology of amphibian ranaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L; Hoverman, Jason T

    2009-12-01

    Mass mortality of amphibians has occurred globally since at least the early 1990s from viral pathogens that are members of the genus Ranavirus, family Iridoviridae. The pathogen infects multiple amphibian hosts, larval and adult cohorts, and may persist in herpetofaunal and osteichthyan reservoirs. Environmental persistence of ranavirus virions outside a host may be several weeks or longer in aquatic systems. Transmission occurs by indirect and direct routes, and includes exposure to contaminated water or soil, casual or direct contact with infected individuals, and ingestion of infected tissue during predation, cannibalism, or necrophagy. Some gross lesions include swelling of the limbs or body, erythema, swollen friable livers, and hemorrhage. Susceptible amphibians usually die from chronic cell death in multiple organs, which can occur within a few days following infection or may take several weeks. Amphibian species differ in their susceptibility to ranaviruses, which may be related to their co-evolutionary history with the pathogen. The occurrence of recent widespread amphibian population die-offs from ranaviruses may be an interaction of suppressed and naïve host immunity, anthropogenic stressors, and novel strain introduction. This review summarizes the ecological research on amphibian ranaviruses, discusses possible drivers of emergence and conservation strategies, and presents ideas for future research directions. We also discuss common pathological signs of ranaviral disease, methods for diagnostic evaluation, and ranavirus surveillance methods. In as much as ranaviral disease is listed as a notifiable disease by the World Organization for Animal Health and is a threat to amphibian survival, we recommend that biosecurity precautions are implemented by nations to reduce the likelihood of transporting ranavirus virions among populations. Biosecurity precautions include disinfecting footwear and equipment that comes in contact with surface water inhabited

  13. Routine HIV Testing in Indiana Community Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Beth E; Navale, Shalini M; Gillespie, Anthony; Ohmit, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed routine HIV testing in Indiana community health centers (CHCs). Methods. CHC medical directors reported HIV services, testing behaviors, barriers, and health center characteristics via survey from April to May 2013. Standard of care testing was measured by the extent to which CHCs complied with national guidelines for routine HIV testing in clinical settings. Results. Most (85.7%) CHCs reported HIV testing, primarily at patient request or if the patient was symptomatic. Routine HIV testing was provided for pregnant women by 60.7% of CHCs. Only 10.7% provided routine testing for adolescents to adults up to age 65 years. Routine testing was reported by 14.3% for gay and bisexual men, although 46.4% of CHCs reported asking patients about sexual orientation. Linkage to care services for HIV-positive patients, counseling for HIV treatment adherence, and partner testing generally was not provided. Conclusions. Most CHCs reported HIV testing, but such testing did not reflect the standard of care, because it depended on patient request or symptoms. One approach in future studies may be to allow respondents to compare current testing with standard of care and then reflect on barriers to and facilitators of adoption and implementation of routine HIV testing.

  14. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels. PMID:16393801

  15. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels.

  16. [Current aspects of the osteoarticular pathology of hemodialysis patients. Results and discussion of a rheumatological survey].

    PubMed

    Foissac-Gegoux, P; Flipo, R M; Hardouin, P; Dumont, A; Duquesnoy, B; Lecomte-Houcke, M; Delcambre, B

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study, 80 patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis, 30% more than ten years, were evaluated for joint function and radiographic abnormalities; 58 patients (72%) had clinical symptoms; non-specific arthralgia was the most frequent; 15 patients had inflammatory pain (shoulders 9, hands 3) and diminution of finger mobility (10). Radiological examinations showed 40 abnormal findings in 23 patients (28%): erosive arthropathies of fingers (4), and multiple geodes of the carpus (8), of the humeral head (7) or of the hip (9). We also detected spondylolisthesis (4), erosive arthropathy of cervical (6) or lumbar (2) spine. Pathological study of synovial biopsies was performed in 16 cases. Amyloidosis was found in 4 samples taken routinely. In 2 other cases the biopsy was done on the basis of lesions seen on x-rays: we found amyloidosis in the synovial membrane in both patients and in the bone in one. In 8 patients we found C3 deposits positive in immunofluorescence. These results underline the role of amyloidosis in the mechanism of some arthropathies in long-term hemodialysis patients.

  17. Recovery of spiked troponin I in four routine assays

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ping; Lim, Xiong Chang; Kieu, Karize; Sajiir, Haressh; Neo, Siew Fong; Cheng, Wan Ling; Sethi, Sunil Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to examine the recovery of spiked human cardiac troponin I (cTnI) results measured by four routine assays, and investigate possible interference from microclots. Materials and methods 457 consecutive samples with cTnI concentration below limit of quantitation (12 ng/L), declared by the Vitros TnI ES assay (reference assay), were measured on Beckman Coulter Accu TnI+3, Siemens TnI-Ultra and Roche TnI STAT assays. These samples were enriched with native full-length cTnI to a concentration of 100 ng/L and retested. A post-spiking result that exceeded the critical difference at a predefined probability of 0.0005 of the target concentration (the median post-spiking result for each individual assay) was considered as outlier. To determine whether microclots were a significant cause of critically discrepant outlier results, a separate 50 samples were centrifuged twice between two post-spiking measurements using the Vitros TnI ES assay. Results The median recovery of the enriched cTnI was highest with the Roche assay (271 ng/L) and lowest with the Vitros assay (29 ng/L). The Vitros assay had the highest percentage of results that exceeded the critical difference (49%), followed by the Siemens (38%), Roche (18%) and Beckman Coulter (7%) assays. None of the 50 additional samples produced a critically lower cTnI result after re-centrifugation. Conclusions Our findings underscored the variability of cTnI assays in measuring native cTnI. The lack of cTnI results that became significantly lower after re-centrifugation suggested that microclots are unlikely to be a major cause of the outlier results. PMID:27346968

  18. AKPLOT- A PLOTTER ROUTINE FOR THE IBM PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The AKPLOT routine was designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as an integral part of their documentation. AKPLOT allows the user to generate a graph and edit its appearance on a CRT. This graph may undergo many interactive alterations before it is finally screen dumped to a printer for a hard copy plot. The finished AKPLOT graph may be stored in a file for future use. Features available in AKPLOT include: multiple curves on a single plot; combinations of linear and logarithmic scale axes; Lagrange interpolation of selected curves; shrink, expand, zoom, and tilt; ten different symbols and four different colors for curves; and three different grid types. AKPLOT enables the user to perform least squares fitting of all or selected curves with polynomials of up to 99 degrees and examine the least squares coefficients. The user must provide the data points to be plotted by one of two methods: 1) supplying an external file of X-Y values for all curves, or 2) computing the X-Y vectors by either placing BASIC code describing the relation in a designated section of the AKPLOT code or dynamically entering a one line function. Using either technique, the X-Y values are input to the computer only once, as the iterative graph edit loop bypasses the data input step for faster execution. AKPLOT is written in BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. AKPLOT requires a graphics board and a color monitor. This program was originally developed in 1986 and later revised in 1987.

  19. Congruence Couple Therapy for Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bonnie K.

    2009-01-01

    Couple therapy models for pathological gambling are limited. Congruence Couple Therapy is an integrative, humanistic, systems model that addresses intrapsychic, interpersonal, intergenerational, and universal-spiritual disconnections of pathological gamblers and their spouses to shift towards congruence. Specifically, CCT's theoretical…

  20. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance,we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies. PMID:26435479

  1. [Urothelial carcinoma. Does surgical pathology learn from molecular pathology?].

    PubMed

    Hofstädter, F

    2008-11-01

    The question is raised whether the new theories about initiation and progression of urothelial carcinoma gained by molecular techniques show effects on the classification and histopathological diagnosis. As fundamental new concepts are considered: two pathways of tumor progression, clonality of synchronous and metachronous tumors, tumor-analogous molecular findings in flat lesions, and stromal invasion as dominant principle of molecular tumor classification.The dual pathogenesis of molecular pathology is reflected by the WHO 2004 classification by the differentiation into low and high grade malignancy, but diluted by the use of PUNLMP (papillary urothelial neoplasia of low malignant potential). The new concept of frequent oligoclonality should induce investigations about the mechanism of propagation of these migrating or metastasizing cells and whether they possess stem cell characteristics. The role of flat urothelial lesions must be revised from a molecular pathological view point, but the histological diagnosis does not gain profit till now. The expression signatures of stromal invasive tumors compared with non-invasive ones points to the major importance of an exact histopathological diagnosis in this area.

  2. Original research in pathology: judgment, or evidence-based medicine?

    PubMed

    Crawford, James M

    2007-02-01

    Pathology is both a medical specialty and an investigative scientific discipline, concerned with understanding the essential nature of human disease. Ultimately, pathology is accountable as well, as measured by the accuracy of our diagnoses and the resultant patient care outcomes. As such, we must consider the evidence base underlying our practices. Within the realm of Laboratory Medicine, extensive attention has been given to testing accuracy and precision. Critical examination of the evidence base supporting the clinical use of specific laboratory tests or technologies is a separate endeavor, to which specific attention must be given. In the case of anatomic pathology and more specifically surgical pathology, the expertise required to render a diagnosis is derived foremost from experience, both personal and literature-based. In the first instance, knowledge of the linkage between one's own diagnoses and individual patient outcomes is required, to validate the role of one's own interpretations in the clinical course of patients. Experience comes from seeing this linkage first hand, from which hopefully comes wisdom and, ultimately, good clinical judgment. In the second instance, reading the literature and learning from experts is required. Only a minority of the relevant literature is published in pathology journals to which one may subscribe. A substantial portion of major papers relevant to the practice of anatomic pathology are published in collateral clinical specialty journals devoted to specific disease areas or organs. Active effort is therefore required to seek out the literature beyond the domain of pathology journals. In examining the published literature, the essential question then becomes: Does the practice of anatomic pathology fulfill the tenets of 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM)? If the pinnacle of EBM is 'systematic review of randomized clinical trials, with or without meta-analysis', then anatomic pathology falls far short. Our published

  3. The significance of routine laboratory parameters in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Yasan, Hasan; Tüz, Mustafa; Yariktaş, Murat; Aynali, Giray; Tomruk, Onder; Akkuş, Omer

    2013-12-01

    There are several factors (viral infections, metabolic and ototoxic disorders etc.) accused for the development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Some prognostic factors (late onset of treatment etc.) had been evaluated in the literature. There is no sufficient data on the effect of routine laboratory parameters on the development and/or prognosis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of routine blood chemistry and hematological parameters on the development and prognosis of disease in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. One hundred and forty-seven patients with the diagnosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss followed up during the periods of 2000-2010 years were included in this study. One hundred and three septoplasty patients with no otologic complaints were enrolled as control group. Following the clinical and demographic evaluations, patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and control groups, and patients treated successfully and patients with poor outcome were compared with each other. Data were analyzed by T test. All hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, total and direct bilirubin, fasting blood glucose level and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly different between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and control groups. There was no significantly different parameter between patients treated successfully and patients with poor outcome. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell count, total and direct bilirubin, fasting blood glucose level and AST all can be risk factors for SHL, or they can be the result of undetermined pathology, because these parameters have no effect on the prognosis. Other routine parameters seem to have no effect on the development and/or prognosis of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  4. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  5. Interactions of Pathological Hallmark Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Judit; Vincze, Orsolya; Virók, Dezső; Simon, Dóra; Bozsó, Zsolt; Tőkési, Natália; Horváth, István; Hlavanda, Emma; Kovács, János; Magyar, Anna; Szűcs, Mária; Orosz, Ferenc; Penke, Botond; Ovádi, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The disordered tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) was found to be co-enriched in neuronal and glial inclusions with α-synuclein in Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively; however, co-occurrence of α-synuclein with β-amyloid (Aβ) in human brain inclusions has been recently reported, suggesting the existence of mixed type pathologies that could result in obstacles in the correct diagnosis and treatment. Here we identified TPPP/p25 as an interacting partner of the soluble Aβ oligomers as major risk factors for Alzheimer disease using ProtoArray human protein microarray. The interactions of oligomeric Aβ with proteins involved in the etiology of neurological disorders were characterized by ELISA, surface plasmon resonance, pelleting experiments, and tubulin polymerization assay. We showed that the Aβ42 tightly bound to TPPP/p25 (Kd = 85 nm) and caused aberrant protein aggregation by inhibiting the physiologically relevant TPPP/p25-derived microtubule assembly. The pair-wise interactions of Aβ42, α-synuclein, and tubulin were found to be relatively weak; however, these three components formed soluble ternary complex exclusively in the absence of TPPP/p25. The aggregation-facilitating activity of TPPP/p25 and its interaction with Aβ was monitored by electron microscopy with purified proteins by pelleting experiments with cell-free extracts as well as by confocal microscopy with CHO cells expressing TPPP/p25 or amyloid. The finding that the interaction of TPPP/p25 with Aβ can produce pathological-like aggregates is tightly coupled with unusual pathology of the Alzheimer disease revealed previously; that is, partial co-localization of Aβ and TPPP/p25 in the case of diffuse Lewy body disease with Alzheimer disease. PMID:21832049

  6. 3D Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in routine clinical practice: A review of clinically significant artifacts.

    PubMed

    Amukotuwa, Shalini A; Yu, Caroline; Zaharchuk, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow utilizing magnetically labeled arterial water. Advances in the technique have enabled the major MRI vendors to make the sequence available to the clinical neuroimaging community. Consequently, ASL is being increasingly incorporated into the routine neuroimaging protocol. Although a variety of ASL techniques are available, the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia Consortium have released consensus guidelines recommending standardized implementation of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL with background suppression. The purpose of this review, aimed at the large number of neuroimaging clinicians who have either no or limited experience with this 3D pseudocontinuous ASL, is to discuss the common and clinically significant artifacts that may be encountered with this technique. While some of these artifacts hinder accurate interpretation of studies, either by degrading the images or mimicking pathology, there are other artifacts that are of clinical utility, because they increase the conspicuity of pathology. Cognizance of these artifacts will help the physician interpreting ASL to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls, and increase their level of comfort with the technique.

  7. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  8. Age Demographics, Hiring Trends, and Graduation Rates in Plant Pathology in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the status of plant pathology departments and age demographics of the profession. Seven of eight large departments have lost from 17 to 40% of their faculty positions since 1987, and several smaller graduate programs in plant pathology (e.g., in several northeastern states) have all but...

  9. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  10. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy versus Cognitive Therapy for the Treatment of Comorbid Eating Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarascio, Adrienne S.; Forman, Evan M.; Herbert, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that although eating pathology is prevalent in college populations, both CBT and non-CBT-based therapies achieve only limited effectiveness. The current study examined several questions related to the treatment of eating pathology within the context of a larger randomized controlled trial that compared standard CBT…

  11. Benign sacrococcygeal teratoma incidentally found on routine scoliosis radiographs in a 12-year-old female: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kelly M.; Chavhan, Govind B.; Ainsworth, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the imaging characteristics of sacrococcygeal teratomas and to review appropriate diagnostic evaluation and management. Clinical Features: 12-year-old otherwise healthy, asymptomatic female with an incidental pelvic mass found on routine scoliosis radiographs. Intervention and Outcome: The pelvic mass was further evaluated by MRI and CT scan. Management consisted of successful surgical resection with no postoperative complications. Pathology confirmed a mature, benign, sacrococcygeal teratoma. Conclusions: Chiropractors manage patients with scoliosis, which may include radiographic surveillance. Familiarity with the radiographic features of masses such as sacrococcygeal teratomas is important for prompt diagnosis and management. PMID:27069263

  12. Pathological gambling and criminal responsibility.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, S; Halpern, A L; Portnow, S L

    1986-01-01

    There exists significant interdisciplinary support for eliminating the volitional component of the insanity defense. Somewhat in contrast to this trend is the presentation of pathological gambling as a potentially exculpatory condition in criminal trials. The authors discuss three federal appellate court decisions on this attempted inappropriate usage of psychiatric diagnostic nomenclature. All have upheld convictions, and thereby rejected contentions that such an impulse disorder can form the basis for a valid plea of lack of criminal responsibility. It is suggested that the public interest will be served by statutorily making disturbances of behavioral control insufficient to raise a defense of insanity.

  13. Pathological buying and partnership status.

    PubMed

    Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Mitchell, James E; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2016-05-30

    This pilot study investigated the partnership status and the level of pathological buying (PB) in 157 female patients with PB and 1153 women from a German population-based sample. Slightly more than half of both samples were currently living with a partner. The results suggest a protective effect of being in a couple relationship in the representative sample. In contrast, having a partner was not related to the severity of PB among patients. Future studies should address the question of whether the characteristics and quality of partnership have an impact on the severity and course of PB, and vice versa.

  14. Iliopsoas: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christian N

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of the iliopsoas can be a significant source of groin pain in the athletic population. Commonly described pathologic conditions include iliopsoas bursitis, tendonitis, impingement, and snapping. The first-line treatment for iliopsoas disorders is typically conservative, including activity modification, physical therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment can be considered if the patient fails conservative measures and typically involves arthroscopic lengthening of the musculotendinous unit and treatment of concomitant intra-articular abnormality. Tendon release has been described: in the central compartment, in the peripheral compartment, and at the lesser trochanter, with similar outcomes observed between the techniques. PMID:27343394

  15. A quality assurance program for clinical pathology residents.

    PubMed

    Greenson, J K; Lee, S; Geller, S A

    1987-12-01

    A quality assurance study was undertaken to examine the clinical pathology residency program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. During a three-month period, clinical pathology residents kept a log of all the problems encountered while "on-call." A staff pathologist rated the performance of the resident in terms of how well he or she solved each problem. Of the 109 calls evaluated, one was judged to have been handled incorrectly, and 7 others were considered to have been answered in a conditional manner. The Blood Bank generated the largest number of calls (66), and requests for blood products were the single most common call (29). The review of all on-call problems with staff pathologists proved to be a valuable educational tool, both for the residents and staff. In addition, the study served as an impetus for development of a useful program for evaluating and, if necessary, correcting decisions made by pathology residents.

  16. EZVIDEO, FORTRAN graphics routines for the IBM AT

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, M.R.; Holdeman, J.T.; Ward, R.C.; Jackson, W.L.

    1989-10-01

    A set of IBM PC-based FORTRAN plotting routines called EZVIDEO is described in this report. These routines are written in FORTRAN and can be called from FORTRAN programs. EZVIDEO simulates a subset of the well-known DISSPLA graphics calls and makes plots directly on the IBM AT display screen. Screen dumps can also be made to an attached LaserJet or Epson printer to make hard copy without using terminal emulators. More than forty DISSPLA calls are simulated by the EZVIDEO routines. Typical screen plots require about 10 seconds (s), and good hard copy of the screen image on a laser printer requires less than 2 minutes (min). This higher-resolution hard copy is adequate for most purposes because of the enhanced resolution of the screen in the EGA and VGA modes. These EZVIDEO routines give the IB, AT user a stand-alone capability to make useful scientific or engineering plots directly on the AT, using data generated in FORTRAN programs. The routines will also work on the IBM PC or XT in CGA mode, but they require more time and yield less resolution. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance proton imaging of bone pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Atlan, H.; Sigal, R.; Hadar, H.; Chisin, R.; Cohen, I.; Lanir, A.; Soudry, M.; Machtey, Y.; Schreiber, R.; Benmair, J.

    1986-02-01

    Thirty-two patients with diversified pathology were examined with a supraconductive NMR imager using spin echo with different TR and TE to obtain T1 and T2 weighted images. They included 20 tumors (12 primary, eight metastasis), six osteomyelitis, three fractures, two osteonecrosis, and one diffuse metabolic (Gaucher) disease. In all cases except for the stress fractures, the bone pathology was clearly visualized in spite of the normal lack of signal from the compact cortical bone. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging proved to be at least as sensitive as radionuclide scintigraphy but much more accurate than all other imaging procedures including computed tomography (CT) and angiography to assess the extension of the lesions, especially in tumors extended to soft tissue. This is due both to easy acquisition of sagittal and coronal sections and to different patterns of pathologic modifications of T1 and T2 which are beginning to be defined. It is hoped that more experience in clinical use of these patterns will help to discriminate between tumor extension and soft-tissue edema. We conclude that while radionuclide scintigraphy will probably remain the most sensitive and easy to perform screening test for bone pathology, NMR imaging, among noninvasive diagnostic procedures, appears to be at least as specific as CT. In addition, where the extension of the lesions is concerned, NMR imaging is much more informative than CT. In pathology of the spine, the easy visualization of the spinal cord should decrease the need for myelography.

  18. [Cartilage tumors : Pathology and radiomorphology].

    PubMed

    Uhl, M; Herget, G; Kurz, P

    2016-06-01

    Primary cartilage-forming tumors of the bone are frequent entities in the daily work of skeletal radiologists. This article describes the correlation of pathology and radiology in cartilage-forming skeletal tumors, in particular, enchondroma, osteochondroma, periosteal chondromas, chondroblastoma and various forms of chondrosarcoma. After reading, the radiologist should be able to deduce the different patterns of cartilage tumors on radiographs, CT, and MRI from the pathological aspects. Differentiation of enchondroma and chondrosarcoma is a frequent diagnostic challenge. Some imaging parameters, e. g., deep cortical scalloping (more than two thirds of the cortical thickness), cortical destruction, or a soft-tissue mass, are features of a sarcoma. Osteochondromas are bony protrusions with a continuous extension of bone marrow from the parent bone, the host cortical bone runs continuously from the osseous surface of the tumor into the shaft of the osteochondroma and the osteochondroma has a cartilage cap. Chondromyxoid fibromas are well-defined lytic and eccentric lesions of the metaphysis of the long bones, with nonspecific MRI findings. Chondroblastomas have a strong predilection for the epiphysis of long tubular bones and develop an intense perifocal bone marrow edema. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas are bimorphic lesions with a low-grade chondrogenic component and a high-grade noncartilaginous component. Most chondrogenic tumors have a predilection with regard to site and age at manifestation. PMID:27233920

  19. Virtual microscopy in pathology education.

    PubMed

    Dee, Fred R

    2009-08-01

    Technology for acquisition of virtual slides was developed in 1985; however, it was not until the late 1990s that desktop computers had enough processing speed to commercialize virtual microscopy and apply the technology to education. By 2000, the progressive decrease in use of traditional microscopy in medical student education had set the stage for the entry of virtual microscopy into medical schools. Since that time, it has been successfully implemented into many pathology courses in the United States and around the world, with surveys indicating that about 50% of pathology courses already have or expect to implement virtual microscopy. Over the last decade, in addition to an increasing ability to emulate traditional microscopy, virtual microscopy has allowed educators to take advantage of the accessibility, efficiency, and pedagogic versatility of the computer and the Internet. The cost of virtual microscopy in education is now quite reasonable after taking into account replacement cost for microscopes, maintenance of glass slides, and the fact that 1-dimensional microscope space can be converted to multiuse computer laboratories or research. Although the current technology for implementation of virtual microscopy in histopathology education is very good, it could be further improved upon by better low-power screen resolution and depth of field. Nevertheless, virtual microscopy is beginning to play an increasing role in continuing education, house staff education, and evaluation of competency in histopathology. As Z-axis viewing (focusing) becomes more efficient, virtual microscopy will also become integrated into education in cytology, hematology, microbiology, and urinalysis.

  20. The evolution of anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Stanley; Coffman, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Science advances both by conceptual leaps and by improved observational and analytic tools. Mechanism and function in biological systems can best be understood in the context of the complex microenvironments in which they occur, and for this purpose morphologic analysis can be critical. Technological advances in cell and tissue imaging are currently finding application in a wide variety of basic, translational, and clinical biomedical studies. "Biophotonics in Pathology" was designed as a multi-authored work to describe the various kinds of imaging strategies that have been developed as computational power keeps increasing. Some of these overlap with radiologic techniques and others do not. The field is continuously evolving, and in this commentary I will touch on additional techniques for morphology-based interrogation of cells and tissues that have recently been described. However, it is important to note that though we are expanding our armamentarium as pathologists, our radiological colleagues have been doing this for many years. Clearly, they have embraced new imaging techniques to a greater extent than have pathologists. This commentary discusses some of the factors responsible for this, and suggests that pathology and radiology are converging towards a more holistic approach to diagnostic imaging.

  1. Dental radiology and oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Halstead, C L; Hoard, B C

    1991-01-01

    This article represents an overview of normal and pathological findings of the oral structures for the practicing radiologist. Some of the disease processes discussed are of dental etiology, whereas others are manifestations of systemic diseases. Normal tooth development is described followed by an overview of radiolucent, radiopaque, and mixed lucent-opaque lesions. In the radiolucent category, normal anatomical landmarks of the jaws include the mental foramen, manidbular canal, incisive canal and maxillary sinuses. Other lucencies that represent normal structures or variations include developing tooth buds and root apices, healing dental extraction sites, prominent submandibular fossae and nutrient canals. In the radiopaque category, normal anatomical landmarks of the jaws include the genial tubercle, mental ridge, external oblique ridge, walls of the submandibular canal, walls of the maxillary sinus, nasal septum, stylohyoid ligament, and zygomatic process. Other opacities that represent normal structures or variations include dental restoration material, dental endodontic material, retained roots, sialoliths, salivary duct calculi, calcified lymph nodes, recent extraction sites, hypercementosis, and foreign bodies. Pathological entities which present radiographically as lucencies, opacities, and mixed lucent-opaque areas include inflammatory lesions, cysts, fibro-osseous disease, benign neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and lesions secondary to metabolic disorders.

  2. Master schedule for CY-1982 Hanford environmental surveillance routine program

    SciTech Connect

    Blumer, P.J.; Sula, M.J.; Eddy, P.A.

    1981-12-01

    This report provides the current schedule of data collection for the routine environmental surveillance program at the Hanford Site. The environmental surveillance program objectives are to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided does not include samples which are planned to be collected during FY-1982 in support of special studies or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results. Sampling schedules are presented for the following: air; Columbia River; sanitary water; surface water; ground water; foodstuffs; wildlife; soil and vegetation; external radiation measurements; portable instrument surveys; and surveillance of waste disposal sites. (ATT)

  3. Evolution and function of routine trichromatic vision in primates.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Peter W; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Riba-Hernandez, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E; Yamashita, Nayuta; Loría-Calderón, Esteban; Petersen-Pereira, Wanda; Rojas-Durán, Yahaira; Salas-Pena, Ruth; Solis-Madrigal, Silvia; Osorio, Daniel; Darvell, Brian W

    2003-11-01

    Evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, namely the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage. We tested competing hypotheses globally for eight primate taxa: five with routine trichromatic vision, three without. Routinely trichromatic species ingested leaves that were "red shifted" compared to background foliage more frequently than species lacking this trait. Observed choices were not the reddest possible, suggesting a preference for optimal nutritive gain. There were no similar differences for fruits although red-greenness may sometimes be important in close-range fruit selection. These results suggest that routine trichromacy evolved in a context in which leaf consumption was critical.

  4. Guide to good practices for shift routines and operating practices

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices,`` Chapter 2 of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing shift routines and operating practices. ``Shift Routines and Operating Practices`` is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for a high standard of professional conduct and sound operating practices to promote safe and efficient operations. Recently, guidance pertaining to this element has been strengthened for nuclear power reactors. This additional guidance is given in Appendix C for information purposes. Though this guidance and good practices pertain to nuclear power reactors, DOE sites may choose to use a graded approach for implementing these in nuclear facilities.

  5. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.

    1983-01-01

    Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  6. Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)

  7. Pulse processing routines for neutron time-of-flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Vlachoudis, V.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Wright, T.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Mingrone, F.; Ryan, J. A.; Warren, S. G.; Tsinganis, A.; Barbagallo, M.

    2016-03-01

    A pulse shape analysis framework is described, which was developed for n_TOF-Phase3, the third phase in the operation of the n_TOF facility at CERN. The most notable feature of this new framework is the adoption of generic pulse shape analysis routines, characterized by a minimal number of explicit assumptions about the nature of pulses. The aim of these routines is to be applicable to a wide variety of detectors, thus facilitating the introduction of the new detectors or types of detectors into the analysis framework. The operational details of the routines are suited to the specific requirements of particular detectors by adjusting the set of external input parameters. Pulse recognition, baseline calculation and the pulse shape fitting procedure are described. Special emphasis is put on their computational efficiency, since the most basic implementations of these conceptually simple methods are often computationally inefficient.

  8. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes. PMID:23777375

  9. Gender Differences in the Routine Activities Associated With Risks for Larceny in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry; Jeong, SeokJin; Yoon, Hae-Sung

    2016-08-01

    The present research uses data from the 2010 Korean National Criminal Victimization Survey to examine gender differences in larceny victimization and in predictors of victimization (i.e., target attractiveness, exposure to potential offenders, target hardening, guardianship, and proximity to crime and social disorder) identified by routine activity theory. The findings show no significant gender difference in general larceny victimization, suggesting that Korean females are just as likely to be victims of theft of personal belongings as males. Consistent with the theory, physical proximity to crime and social disorder are significant predictors of larceny victimization for both males and females. However, public transportation appears to have unexpected protective influences for both gender groups, showing the importance of differences in national context. Overall, the current research provides partial support for routine activity theory's applicability in explaining larceny victimization across gender groups outside of the Western context. It also raises questions about reasons for women's increasing larceny victimization rates in Korea. PMID:25943364

  10. Self-reported concussion symptoms and training routines in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Heath, Christopher J; Callahan, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a full-contact, fighting sport that has risen in popularity over recent years, resulting in an increase in both training facilities and sport participants. To date, little research has examined the complications and vulnerability to head trauma, or concussive symptomatology, in MMA athletes. In this study, we assessed relationships between training routines and concussive symptoms, as well as medical care, in MMA athletes. A sample (N = 119) of MMA athletes reported concussive symptoms, training routines, and medical histories through an online survey. Nearly 15% of the MMA athletes reported history of a knockout, and nearly one-third reported a technical knockout. Subjective ratings of concussive symptoms were high for these athletes, with many of them waiting only a brief time after such incidents to return to competition. These findings have important implications for informing the medical treatment and safety decision for returning to participation for these athletes.

  11. Managing routine food choices in UK families: the role of convenience consumption.

    PubMed

    Carrigan, Marylyn; Szmigin, Isabelle; Leek, Sheena

    2006-11-01

    The paper explores the meaning of convenience food for UK mothers, investigating the relationship between mothers and their families' food. The study examines the role of convenience food within the food strategies of contemporary UK families, and aims to elicit consumption meanings in the broader social context of family relationships with food, their rituals, routines and conventions. The findings reveal convenience has multiple meanings for UK women, and that convenience food has been incorporated into reinterpreted versions of homemade and "proper" meals. A hierarchy of acceptable convenience food is presented by the mothers, who tackle complex and conflicting family routines by introducing convenience solutions. Rules of eating have evolved, yet remain essentially controlled by the mother in terms of nutrition. While the traditional model of "proper" food remains aspirational, contemporary family lifestyles require that convenience food become part of the equation.

  12. Exercise as part of a cystic fibrosis therapeutic routine.

    PubMed

    Rand, Sarah; Prasad, S Ammani

    2012-06-01

    The role of exercise in cystic fibrosis (CF) is well established, and over the last three decades it has become an important component in the management of all individuals with CF. The role of exercise as a prognostic indicator or therapeutic tool is an important area of research interest in CF care internationally. This article summarizes the currently available evidence regarding exercise capacity in CF, the potential effects of exercise on health outcomes in CF and the challenges faced when trying to incorporate exercise into a CF therapeutic routine, and highlights some methods to facilitate the incorporation of exercise into CF therapeutic routines. PMID:22788948

  13. [New aspects of tumor pathology of the adrenal glands].

    PubMed

    Saeger, W

    2015-05-01

    In daily routine pathology of the adrenal glands three tumor entities are important: adrenocortical tumors, adrenomedullary tumors and metastases. The differentiation of these three main tumor types can often be difficult structurally but immunostaining enables a definite diagnosis in nearly all cases. Adrenocortical tumors are positive for steroidogenic factor 1 and melan-A and always negative for chromogranin A whereas adrenomedullary tumors express chromogranin A but never keratin. A broad spectrum of antibodies is available for the identification of metastases and even the rare epithelioid angiosarcomas. For adrenocortical tumors, adenomas and carcinomas can be differentiated using three scoring systems and the Ki-67 index in adenomas should not exceed 3%. Using scoring systems and the Ki-67 index approximately 90% of cortical tumors can be differentiated into benign or malignant tumors. For pheochromocytomas two scoring systems are used for differentiating benign and malignant tumors but the results are less dependable.

  14. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  15. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Bjerregaard, Beth; Vyberg, Mogens; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens. PMID:20865103

  16. STP Best Practices for Evaluating Clinical Pathology in Pharmaceutical Recovery Studies.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Lindsay; Ramaiah, Lila; Tripathi, Niraj K; Barlow, Valerie G; Vitsky, Allison; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Bounous, Denise I; Ennulat, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology formed a working group in collaboration with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology to provide recommendations for the appropriate inclusion of clinical pathology evaluation in recovery arms of nonclinical toxicity studies but not on when to perform recovery studies. Evaluation of the recovery of clinical pathology findings is not required routinely but provides useful information on risk assessment in nonclinical toxicity studies and is recommended when the ability of the organ to recover is uncertain. The study design generally requires inclusion of concurrent controls to separate procedure-related changes from test article-related changes, but return of clinical pathology values toward baseline may be sufficient in some cases. Evaluation of either a select or full panel of standard hematology, coagulation, and serum and urine chemistry biomarkers can be scientifically justified. It is also acceptable to redesignate dosing phase animals to the recovery phase or vice versa to optimize data interpretation. Assessment of delayed toxicity during the recovery phase is not required but may be appropriate in development programs with unique concerns. Evaluation of the recovery of clinical pathology data for vaccine development is required and, for efficacy markers, is recommended if it furthers pharmacologic understanding.

  17. Pathology of growth hormone excess.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, K

    1988-09-01

    This paper briefly reviews the pathology of growth hormone excess. Prolonged oversecretion of growth hormone is associated with elevated serum growth hormone as well as somatomedian C levels and the clinical signs and symptoms of acromegaly or gigantism. Morphologic studies, including immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, revealed that several distinct morphologic lesions can be present in the pituitary gland of patients with acromegaly or gigantism. Although substantial progress has been achieved during the last two decades, more work is required to correlate the morphologic features of adenoma cells with their biologic behavior. We feel that the future can be viewed with optimism and further exciting results can be expected by the interaction of pathologists, clinical endocrinologists and basic scientists. PMID:3070506

  18. Diagnosis of major cancer resection specimens with virtual slides: impact of a novel digital pathology workstation.

    PubMed

    Randell, Rebecca; Ruddle, Roy A; Thomas, Rhys G; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Treanor, Darren

    2014-10-01

    Digital pathology promises a number of benefits in efficiency in surgical pathology, yet the longer time required to review a virtual slide than a glass slide currently represents a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. We aimed to create a novel workstation that enables pathologists to view a case as quickly as on the conventional microscope. The Leeds Virtual Microscope (LVM) was evaluated using a mixed factorial experimental design. Twelve consultant pathologists took part, each viewing one long cancer case (12-25 slides) on the LVM and one on a conventional microscope. Total time taken and diagnostic confidence were similar for the microscope and LVM, as was the mean slide viewing time. On the LVM, participants spent a significantly greater proportion of the total task time viewing slides and revisited slides more often. The unique design of the LVM, enabling real-time rendering of virtual slides while providing users with a quick and intuitive way to navigate within and between slides, makes use of digital pathology in routine practice a realistic possibility. With further practice with the system, diagnostic efficiency on the LVM is likely to increase yet more.

  19. The Dubowitz Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Lilly; Ricciw, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    In an ideal world, each neonate should have a comprehensive neurological examination but in practice this is often difficult. In this review we will describe what a routine neurological evaluation in the full-term neonate should consist of and how the Dubowitz examination is performed. The examination has been used for over 20 years and can be…

  20. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  1. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts. PMID:24808883

  2. Being Kitties in a Preschool Classroom: Maintaining Group Harmony and Acting Proper in a Female Peer-Culture Play Routine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrid, Samara; Kantor, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how young girls construct emotional themes in their peer-culture play routines and rituals in the daily life of a preschool classroom. This research is part of a larger eight-month ethnographic study of one preschool classroom. The data selected and analysed in this article are taken from a focused six-week theoretical sampling…

  3. An anatomical fetal brain structure and a normal variant mimicking anomalies on routine neurosonographic imaging: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Correa, F F; Lara, C; Bellver, J; Remohí, J; Pellicer, A; Serra, V

    2004-11-01

    We present two cases in which an anatomical structure, the calcar avis, and a normal variant, a bifid choroid plexus, mimicked abnormalities on routine prenatal ultrasound examination. To the best of our knowledge these pitfalls have only been described in neonates. A familiarity with these false images is important to avoid erroneous diagnoses.

  4. Social Guardianship and Social Isolation: An Application and Extension of Lifestyle/Routine Activities Theory to Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Nagy, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Although the overall crime rate dropped between 1993 and 2000, both adolescent violence and violent crime in rural areas has been on the rise. However, little research has been conducted on the determinants of rural violence using targeted regional samples of rural youth. This study examines the applicability of lifestyle/routine activities (RA)…

  5. Establishment of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) and the current status of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, P J; Fournel-Fleury, C; Bolliger, A P; Freeman, K P; Braun, J-P; Archer, J; Paltrinieri, S; Tvedten, H; Polizopoulou, Z S; Jensen, A L; Pastor, J; Lanevschi-Pietersma, A; Thoren-Tolling, K; Schwendenwien, I; Thoresen, S I; Bauer, N B; Ledieu, D; Cerón, J J; Palm, M; Papasouliotis, K; Gaál, T; Vajdovich, P

    2007-12-01

    After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1) a critical mass of 65 members: 15 original diplomates approved by the EBVS to establish the ECVCP, 37 de facto diplomates, 7 diplomates certified by examination, and 5 elected honorary members; 2) the development and certification of training programs, laboratories, and qualified supervisors for residents; currently there are 18 resident training programs in Europe; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far, with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 years; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges in medicine and pathology; 7) development and strict adherence to a constitution and bylaws compliant with the EBVS; and 8) demonstration of compelling rationale, supporting data, and the support of members and other colleges for independence as a specialty college. Formal EBVS recognition of ECVCP as the regulatory body for the science and practice of veterinary clinical pathology in Europe will facilitate growth and development of the discipline and compliance of academic

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors. PMID:25256011

  7. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors.

  8. Back to Schooling: Challenging Implicit Routines and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorodetsky, Malka; Barak, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Engestrom and others have suggested that major barriers towards school change are rooted in the hidden, implicit aspects of daily school life that are taken for granted. These constitute the school's taken-for-granted routines, which mold teachers' affordances and constraints within the school, without their awareness. The present paper provides…

  9. Nonanalytic function generation routines for 16-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.; Shaufl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Interpolation techniques for three types (univariate, bivariate, and map) of nonanalytic functions are described. These interpolation techniques are then implemented in scaled fraction arithmetic on a representative 16 bit microprocessor. A FORTRAN program is described that facilitates the scaling, documentation, and organization of data for use by these routines. Listings of all these programs are included in an appendix.

  10. Routines, Roles, and Responsibilities for Aligning Scientific and Classroom Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michael J.; Wargo, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    Reform efforts in science education have focused on engaging students in authentic scientific practices. For these efforts to succeed, detailed articulations of scientific practice need to be linked to understandings of classroom practice. Here we characterize engagement in practice generally in terms of "3Rs": routines, roles, and…

  11. Creating Masterpieces: How Course Structures and Routines Enable Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kathy Lund; Fornaciari, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Over a five-year period, we made a persistent observation: Course structures and routines, such as assignment parameters, student group process rules, and grading schemes were being consistently ignored. As a result, we got distracted by correcting these structural issues and were spending less time on student assignment performance. In this…

  12. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interest of simplicity, economy and to avoid redundancy. (b) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of... to the OMB in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in that...

  13. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interest of simplicity, economy and to avoid redundancy. (b) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of... to the OMB in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in that...

  14. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interest of simplicity, economy and to avoid redundancy. (b) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of... to the OMB in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in that...

  15. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest of simplicity, economy and to avoid redundancy. (b) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of... to the OMB in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in that...

  16. 32 CFR 318.14 - Blanket routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interest of simplicity, economy and to avoid redundancy. (b) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of... to the OMB in connection with the review of private relief legislation as set forth in OMB Circular A-19 at any stage of the legislative coordination and clearance process as set forth in that...

  17. Increasing Day Care Staff Members' Interactions during Caregiving Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venn, Martha L.; Wolery, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Four paraprofessional staff members in a mainstreamed day care program were trained to engage in positive interactive behaviors during diaper changing. Results indicated that staff increased frequency of game playing and other interactive behaviors during diapering, but increases were not generalized to feeding routines. (Author/JDD)

  18. Bipolar deep brain stimulation permits routine EKG, EEG, and polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Frysinger, Robert C; Quigg, Mark; Elias, W Jeffrey

    2006-01-24

    As the population of patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) grows and the patients age, more will require routine or emergent electrophysiologic tests. DBS artifact may render these uninterpretable, whereas stopping DBS may release symptoms that confound evaluation. The authors find that monopolar, but not bipolar, stimulation produces significant artifact during EKG, EEG, and polysomnography.

  19. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide to Routines. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  20. Rasch Analysis of the Routines-Based Interview Implementation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Akers, Kate; McWilliam, R. A.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    The Routines-­Based Interview (RBI) is useful for developing functional outcomes/goals, for establishing strong relationships with families, and for assessing the family's true needs. In this study, the authors investigated the psychometric properties of the RBI Implementation Checklist, conducted by 120 early intervention professionals,…

  1. "Your Eye Is Sparkling": Formulaic Expressions and Routines in Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Seran

    There are certain pre-coded (formulaic) utterances conventionally triggered by certain communication situations, and their use is expected and deemed appropriate because they are seen as part of everyday politeness formulas. Lack of an English equivalent indicates cultural differences governing their use. Some routines are taught explicitly and…

  2. Daily Routines and Sleep Disorders in Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troster, Heinrich; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessed sleep disorders in 265 visually impaired and 67 non-disabled 10- to 72-month olds. Found that infants with visual impairments had more difficulties in falling asleep and in sleeping through the night than nonhandicapped children. Also found a relationship between sleep disorders and the regularity of children's daily routine and…

  3. Supporting Classroom Transitions between Daily Routines: Strategies and Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Horn, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide tools for preschool professionals to plan for transitions between daily routines, to identify challenging transitions during the day, and to offer strategies to support transitions in classrooms to prevent challenging behaviors from occurring due to frequent changes. Specifically, the authors answer three…

  4. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  5. Rethinking the Hidden Curriculum: Daily Routine in Slovene Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorec, Marcela Batistic; Došler, Anita Jug

    2016-01-01

    In Slovenia there is a unitary system of early education for all preschool-aged children. Since the vast majority of children attend full-day programmes, the daily routine represents a significant part of life for children in kindergarten. When systemic and curricular reform of preschools was introduced at the end of the twentieth century, lot of…

  6. Routine Activities and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…

  7. Cervical discospondylitis in 2 Great Dane puppies following routine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Finnen, Andrea; Blond, Laurent; Parent, Joane

    2012-01-01

    Two Great Dane puppies developed cervical discospondylitis following routine surgery for sterilization. One animal was affected at C4–C5 and the other at C6–C7 intervertebral discs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was obtained in pure culture from ultrasound-guided disc aspiration in 1 case. Both animals were successfully treated with long-term antibiotics. PMID:23115366

  8. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inexpensive or routinely purchased items. 414.220 Section 414.220 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment...

  9. The case for routine maintenance of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas G; Valderrama, Pilar; Rodrigues, Danieli B C

    2014-05-01

    The large majority of dental implants are successful over the long term. Failure is usually associated with infection, trauma, inflammation, or a combination of these factors. Early identification and appropriate treatment can identify and eliminate these problems in the majority of cases. Thus routine implant maintenance structured along the guidelines for patients with periodontal diseases is recommended.

  10. The Effect of Instruction on Pragmatic Routines in Academic Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of instruction on the acquisition of pragmatic routines used in academic discussion, specifically expressions of agreement, disagreement, and clarification. Thirty-seven learners, including an experimental group of 26 students and a control group of 11 students, participated in the study. Five intact classes…

  11. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Payment for Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.220 Inexpensive or routinely purchased... in conjunction with a nebulizer, aspirator, or ventilator excluded from § 414.222 meet...

  12. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  13. 32 CFR 1701.31 - General routine uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... program statute, regulation, rule or order issued pursuant thereto, may be disclosed as a routine use to... affected information or information technology systems or programs (whether or not belonging to the ODNI... performing authorized responsibilities relating to terrorism or counterterrorism. (s) A record from a...

  14. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  15. TDP-43 Pathology, Cognitive Decline, and Dementia in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert S.; Yu, Lei; Trojanowski, John Q.; Chen, Er-Yun; Boyle, Patricia A.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Cognitive decline is a leading cause of disability and death in old age but its neurobiological bases are not well understood. Objective To test the hypothesis that transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is related to late life cognitive decline. Design Longitudinal clinical-pathologic cohort study. Setting More than 40 Catholic groups across the United States. Participants A total of 130 older Catholic nuns, priests, and monks underwent annual clinical evaluations, including detailed cognitive testing, for a mean of 10.1 years prior to death. On neuropathologic examination, we collected semiquantitative measures of TDP-43 pathology, density of neuronal neurofibrillary tangles, area occupied by amyloid-beta plaques, and the presence of alpha-synuclein Lewy bodies from multiple brain regions. Gross and microscopic cerebral infarcts and hippocampal sclerosis were also identified. Main Outcome Measure Annual rate of change in a previously established composite measure of global cognition during a mean of 10.1 years of annual observation before death. Results TDP-43 pathology ranging from sparse to severe was identified in 46% of participants and was associated with amyloid plaques, tangles, and hippocampal sclerosis but not neocortical Lewy bodies or cerebral infarcts. After controlling for amyloid plaques, tangles, and hippocampal sclerosis, TDP-43 pathology was associated with more rapid cognitive decline and accounted for nearly as much of the variability in rates of global cognitive decline as did tangles. TDP-43 pathology had a distinct cognitive profile that differed from other neuropathologic processes (related to decline in episodic and working memory but not in other cognitive domains), and it was elevated in those who developed dementia but not in those with mild cognitive impairment. Conclusion The results suggest that TDP-43 is an important brain pathology underlying cognitive decline and dementia in old age. PMID:24080705

  16. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status. PMID:27678365

  17. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status.

  18. Summary of cerebrospinal fluid routine parameters in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Sarah; Brettschneider, Johannes; Süssmuth, Sigurd D; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard G; von Arnim, Christine A F; Ludolph, Albert C; Tumani, Hayrettin; Otto, Markus

    2011-06-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) is predominantly performed to exclude inflammatory diseases and to perform a risk assessment in dementive disorders by measurement of tau proteins and amyloid beta peptides. However, large scale data on basic findings of CSF routine parameters are generally lacking. The objective of the study was to define a normal reference spectrum of routine CSF parameters in neurodegenerative diseases. Routine CSF parameters (white cell count, lactate and albumin concentrations, CSF/serum quotients of albumin (Q (alb)), IgG, IgA, IgM, and oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB)) were retrospectively analyzed in an academic research setting. A total of 765 patients (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), vascular dementia (VD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multisystem atrophy (MSA), motor neuron diseases (MND), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Huntington's disease (HD)) and non-demented control groups including a group of patients with muscular disorders (MD). The main outcome measures included statistical analyses of routine CSF parameters. Mildly elevated Q (alb) were found in a small percentage of nearly all subgroups and in a higher proportion of patients with PSP, MSA, VD, PDD, and MND. With the exception of 1 MND patient, no intrathecal Ig synthesis was observed. Isolated OCBs in CSF were sometimes found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases without elevated cell counts; lactate levels were always normal. A slightly elevated Q (alb) was observed in a subgroup of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and does not exclude the diagnosis. Extensive elevation of routine parameters is not characteristic and should encourage a re-evaluation of the clinical diagnosis.

  19. Current status and future trends in telepathology and digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Chordia, Trupti Dinesh; Vikey, Ashok; Choudhary, Anuraag B; Samdariya, Yashpal; Chordia, Dipti Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future trends in telepathology (TP) and digital pathology (DP) in central India. Materials and Methods: A self-constructed questionnaire including 12 questions was designed with five specialists, to improve the design ambiguity. The study was conducted through postal and online survey consisting of 12 questions and sent to 300 histopathologists. Results: A total of 247 histopathologists answered the survey. The overall response rate was 81%. 98% pathologists felt the need for TP and DP. 34% pathologists used digital photomicrographic images in routine practice. Utilization of DP in most efficient way was observed by 48% pathologists mainly for the purpose of teaching in academic institutions. 82% believed that TP is helpful to take an expert opinion whereas only26% believed that a second opinion has to be taken. With respect to limitations, 67% pathologists believed that its cost-effective whereas 51% revealed high use of TP in next 5 years. Conclusions: Our survey shows that as the field evolves, pathologists are more towards welcoming TP and DP, provided frequent workshops and training programs are conducted. The results of this survey indicates that pathology staff across central India currently utilize gross digital images for educational or academic purposes. They also revealed that technology will be required in near future applications in academics, consultation and for medico-legal purposes. PMID:27601805

  20. Current status and future trends in telepathology and digital pathology

    PubMed Central

    Chordia, Trupti Dinesh; Vikey, Ashok; Choudhary, Anuraag B; Samdariya, Yashpal; Chordia, Dipti Samdariya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the current status and future trends in telepathology (TP) and digital pathology (DP) in central India. Materials and Methods: A self-constructed questionnaire including 12 questions was designed with five specialists, to improve the design ambiguity. The study was conducted through postal and online survey consisting of 12 questions and sent to 300 histopathologists. Results: A total of 247 histopathologists answered the survey. The overall response rate was 81%. 98% pathologists felt the need for TP and DP. 34% pathologists used digital photomicrographic images in routine practice. Utilization of DP in most efficient way was observed by 48% pathologists mainly for the purpose of teaching in academic institutions. 82% believed that TP is helpful to take an expert opinion whereas only26% believed that a second opinion has to be taken. With respect to limitations, 67% pathologists believed that its cost-effective whereas 51% revealed high use of TP in next 5 years. Conclusions: Our survey shows that as the field evolves, pathologists are more towards welcoming TP and DP, provided frequent workshops and training programs are conducted. The results of this survey indicates that pathology staff across central India currently utilize gross digital images for educational or academic purposes. They also revealed that technology will be required in near future applications in academics, consultation and for medico-legal purposes.