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Sample records for routine pixe analysis

  1. PIXE Analysis of Ceramic Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, Elizabeth; Lamm, Larry; Schurr, Mark; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emissions, or PIXE, is a nuclear physics technique used as a non-destructive material analysis method which gives a detailed and comprehensive profile of the elemental composition of a target. Using the University of Notre Dame KN and FN accelerators in the ISNAP laboratory a beam of particles, here protons, is accelerated and used to knock out electrons from lower orbitals within the target resulting in characteristic X-rays. Under optimum operating conditions data from PIXE can not only give information about which elements are present in a sample but also their relative abundances in parts per million. In a previous run done in collaboration with the Anthropology Department at the University of Notre Dame pottery shards from the Collier Lodge, located in northwest Indiana, were analyzed and only relative abundances were able to be compared between samples. We are now implementing a new setup into the beam-line which will incorporate the ability to take Rutherford Back Scattering, or RBS, measurements of the beam during the PIXE runs, which will allow for a standard normalization for the runs and give the facility the ability to acquire a more absolute and quantitative analysis of the data. Initial results using the same pottery shards as a comparative data set will be presented.

  2. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  3. IBIXFIT: A Tool For The Analysis Of Microcalorimeter PIXE Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Taborda, A.; Reis, M. A.; Alves, L. C.; Barradas, N. P.; Chaves, P. C.

    2011-06-01

    PIXE analysis software has been for long mainly tuned to the needs of Si(Li) detector based spectra analysis and quantification methods based on K{sub {alpha}} or L{sub {alpha}} X-ray lines. Still, recent evidences related to the study of relative line intensities and new developments in detection equipment, namely the emergence of commercial microcalorimeter based X-ray detectors, have brought up the possibility that in the near future PIXE will become more than just major lines quantification. A main issue that became evident as a consequence of this was the need to be able to fit PIXE spectra without prior knowledge of relative line intensities. Considering new developments it may be necessary to generalize PIXE to a wider notion of ion beam induced X-ray (IBIX) emission, to include the quantification of processes such as Radiative Auger Emission. In order to answer to this need, the IBIXFIT code was created based much on the Bayesian Inference and Simulated Annealing routines implemented in the Datafurnace code [1]. In this presentation, the IBIXFIT is used to fit a microcalorimeter spectrum of a Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1-x)}TiO{sub 3} thin film sample and the specific possibility of selecting between fixed and free line ratios combined with other specificities of the IBIXFIT algorithm are shown to be essential to overcome the problems faced.

  4. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  5. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  6. PIXE analysis of gallstones from Turkish patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumuşoğlu, Nazmi T.; Korkmaz, Filiz; Birchall, Jim

    2006-06-01

    The trace element analysis of gallstone samples removed by cholecystectomy from 100 Turkish patients has been done by using protons at 23.5 MeV and the PIXE method. Ca, Fe, Mn, K, Cl, Br, Cu and Zn elements were observed in the samples in varying concentrations related to the types of the gallstone. Elemental concentrations of the gall stones for these elements were determined. Rb was used as the internal reference. Ca concentration is the highest and it is followed by Fe, Mn.

  7. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  8. Analysis of a reforming catalyst by PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallak, A. B.; Daous, M. A.; Anabtawi, J. A.

    1993-04-01

    A method was developed for the elemental analysis of a reforming catalyst by PIXE and RBS. A total of 13 elements were detected in such an analysis. The platinum and rhenium concentrations in the catalyst were unresolved by RBS and they were determined by PIXE using the concentration sum from RBS and the ratio of the experimentally measured peak areas to the theoretically calculated PIXE yields for the two elements. This method eliminates uncertainties included in the absolute method. The results revealed information on the platinum to rhenium ratio and platinum-rhenium concentration sum which are important in relation to the rate of reforming of hydrocarbons in naphtha. In addition, contamination of the surface of the catalyst with iron was detected and analyzed by RBS.

  9. PIXE-PIGE analysis of a Visigothic gold cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á.; Gómez Tubío, B.; de la Bandera, M. L.; Respaldiza, M. Á.

    2004-11-01

    The study of a Visigothic gold cross is presented in this work. The PIXE analysis of the metal alloys and the soldering areas has been performed. Results reveal the presence of Cu-Ag-Cd-Au and Cu-Ag-Au alloys in the soldering areas. The PIXE-PIGE analysis of the mounted "stones" and the beads that decorate the jewel confirms that glass was used to emulate more valuables gems. By comparison with coetaneous jewels, clear differences on the technological procedures and the raw materials have been established.

  10. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  11. Accuracy of thick-target micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Teesdale, W. J.; Wang, J.-X.

    1990-04-01

    The accuracy attainable in micro-PIXE analysis is assessed in terms of the X-ray production model and its assumptions, physical realities of the specimen, the necessary data base, and techniques of standardization. NTIS reference materials are analyzed to provide the experimental tests of accuracy.

  12. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  13. Elemental analysis of aerosols using PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancuta, Anca; Stihi, Claudia; Popescu, I. V.; Badica, T.; Cimpoca, Gh V.

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we have analyzed aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns: Pitesti, Giurgiu, Resita, Ramnicu-Valcea, Baia-Mare, Craiova, Timisoara, Calarasi, Braila and Arad with different kinds and levels of industrial development by PIXE method using Yttrium like internal standard because it is a very rare element in the environmental items. We have identified 15 elements: S, K, Ca, Cr, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb. The measured elemental concentrations are given with respect to the concentration of the Ca for all analyzed samples. The obtained results can put in evidence a high ratio of Ti/Ca, Cr/Ca, Fe/Ca, Co/Ca, Zn/Ca, As/Ca, Pb/Ca in Craiova, a high ratio of Mn/Ca in Calarasi and a high ratio of Hg/Ca in Braila. Certainly the level of pollution of a region can not determine by a single filter and is need of a good statistic to draw conclusions.

  14. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  15. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  16. PIXE/RBS development and activities at KFUPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallak, A. B.; Daous, M. A.; Al-Kofahi, M. M.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE/RBS setup at the Tandetron accelerator facility of KFUPM is described and examples are given on the analysis of catalysts, geological desert rose, aerosol pollution, wear metals in used engine-lubrication oil and multicomponent glass samples. The advantage of combined data analysis by PIXE and RBS is emphasized in defining routine procedures for such an analysis. In addition, software development is described briefly for PIXE analysis using PIXANPC.

  17. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  18. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Barros Leite, C. V.

    2002-03-01

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundão Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gávea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundão Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundão Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na ( Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization.

  19. Elemental imaging of rat epididymis by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2003-09-01

    The epididymis, a male reproductive organ, which is a highly convoluted duct, plays an important role in transportation of spermatozoa, their maturation, and their storage. Although major elements, such as P, S and K, as well as trace elements, such as Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, are known to be essential for spermatogenesis, detailed distributions of the elements in the epididymis are only poorly understood. In the present study, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se levels in the epididymis were examined in male Wistar rats by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and in situ multi-elemental distributions of epididymal sections were determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis. The Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the epididymis of the young adult rats were around 30 μg/g wet weight, 2 μg/g wet weight and 1 μg/g wet weight, respectively, and their Mn were less than 0.5 μg/g wet weight. PIXE imaging of P and K exhibited that P and K were higher in the epididymal epithelium. In contrast, more S was detected in the lumen, which is composed of spermatozoa and a fluid. Elemental imagings of the trace elements were unclear compared with the major elements, but information about zinc localization in the epididymis was obtained.

  20. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Luís, H.; Franco, N.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandes, N.; Vieira, P.; Ribeiro, J. P.; Jesus, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 °C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  1. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  2. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  3. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  4. Non-destructive analysis and identification of jade by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of identifying jade by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. It is found that the jade can be classified, according to the chemical composition determined by PIXE. The experimental results can differentiate ancient Chinese jade works of art from fakes if the material is the same.

  5. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  6. Use of rubidium, manganese, and zinc as tracers to measure intestinal permeability by PIXE analysis: basal study in an experimental enteritis model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Keitaro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Joshima, Hisamasa; Tamanoi, Itsuro; Saito, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Intestinal permeability has been suggested to be closely linked with the etiology or activity of Crohn's disease. However, current methods for measurement of intestinal permeability are too laborious for routine examination, as they require urine collection and/or use of radioisotopes. The present study was performed to develop a more convenient and safer method for assessing intestinal permeability using blood samples rather than urine. Rats with indomethacin-induced enteritis were orally administered Rb, Mn, and Zn as tracers. Intestinal permeability was determined by assaying the levels of Rb, Mn, and Zn in blood samples by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The distributions of Rb, Mn, and Zn in the small intestine after administration were analyzed by micro-PIXE. The conventional PIXE analysis showed that the levels of Rb and Zn in the blood in the enteritis group were correlated with the grade of enteritis. The micro-PIXE analysis showed that Rb, Mn, and Zn were translocated into the wall of the proximal small intestine 5 min after administration, and this effect was more conspicuous in the enteritis group than in controls. Analysis of blood or small intestine tissue samples using the PIXE allows determination of both intestinal permeability and the route of permeation.

  7. Triggered beam pulser and current integrator for PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, D. T.; Skofronick, G.; Nelson, J. W.

    1987-03-01

    Two auxiliary circuits to facilitate PIXE analyses are described: a triggerable beam pulser tor pile-up reduction and dead time correction; and a versatile voltage to frequency converter for use with a beam current integrator.

  8. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-xin, Chen; Yuan-zhuang, Guo; Hong-kou, Li; Chi-gang, Ren; Guo-hun, Tang; Xi-de, Wang; Fu-chia, Yang; Hui-ying, Yao

    1981-03-01

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from a 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied.

  9. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhou, Z.; An, Z.; Huang, W.; He, Y. H.; Zhao, D. Y.

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700-B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200-B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  10. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  11. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  12. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer.

  13. PIXE measurement applied to trace elemental analysis of human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Matsugi, E.; Miyasaki, K.; Yamagata, T.; Inoue, M.; Ogata, H.; Shimoura, S.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE measurement was applied for trace elemental analyses of 40 autoptic human kidneys. To investigate the reproducibility of the PIXE data, 9 targets obtained from one human liver were examined. The targets were prepared by wet-digestion using nitric and sulfuric acid. Yttrium was used as an internal standard. The extracted elemental concentrations for K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and flame photometry (FP). Various correlations among the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Cd were examined individually for the renal cortex and renal medulla.

  14. PIXE as a complement to trace metal analysis of sediments by ICP-OES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderberg, J. M.; Bartlett, R. J.; Behm, A. M.; Contreras, C.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hoogeveen, N. L.; Huisman, A. J.; Peaslee, G. F.; Postma, J. K.

    2008-11-01

    The adverse effects of metal contamination in sediments require methods that can quickly and accurately assess the extent of environmental pollution. Particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to an established method, which consists of acid digestion and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to measure trace metals in sediment. The analysis of trace metal composition by both techniques on a NIST Standard Reference Material mud gives results that are consistent with the certified values for fourteen measured metals, seven of which are common to both methods. A comparison study conducted on a sediment core from a freshwater lake with a known chromium contamination in Muskegon County, MI also shows a good correlation between the methods for transition metals of environmental interest over a wide range of metal concentrations. Total sample preparation and analysis time for the PIXE measurements is roughly one third that of acid digestion and ICP-OES. Also, the acid digestion step does not elute all the metal, while the nondestructive PIXE approach is a total metals analysis method. However the PIXE method generally has higher limits of detection for many environmental metal contaminants. By combining the two techniques, the acid digestion elution factor can be quantified by running PIXE on an original sample and on the residue resulting from acid digestion.

  15. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  16. Analysis of composites for restorative dentistry by PIXE, XRF and ERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Constantinescu, B.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S.-E.; Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Preoteasa, E.

    2002-04-01

    Composites used in dentistry bring into the organism elements that may induce adverse biological effects. We applied 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and photon-excited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the qualitative analysis of 10 dental composites and we tested copper-beam elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on one material. PIXE, and partly XRF, evidenced Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, In, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb, many of them at trace levels, while ERDA detected H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al and Si.

  17. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  18. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    PubMed

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  19. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  20. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  1. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  2. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  3. Elemental analysis of urban stormwater particulate matter by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. V.; Trompetter, W. J.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-05-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to determine the average elemental concentrations of various size fractions in the particulate phase of urban stormwater derived from areas with different land-use characteristics. Water samples were filtered through Nucleopore polycarbonate filter papers to separate particulate in the 0.4-60 μm and 60-250 μm fractions and the dry weights determined. Elements such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Ag, Cd and Pb are measured with concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to a few percent in both water sample fractions. For the elements P, S, Cl, Ca and Mn, there was no apparent relationship with land-use in the 0.4-60 μm fraction water particulate. However, in the 60-250 μm fraction particulate, higher concentrations were determined at sampling location number 6 which had the largest percentage of industrial use. Significant increased heavy metal concentrations were measured in samples collected from industrial and commercial land-use areas. Our preliminary study reveals that PIXE can be used to measure the elemental concentrations in different particulate size fractions from water samples.

  4. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  5. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  6. PIXE gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Morciaux, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Various solutions for accurate and quantitative analysis of bulk materials by PIXE are presented. The measurements are made in a non vacuum geometry (samples are irradiated at atmospheric pressure after the incident proton beam has crossed a thin aluminium foil) or in a vacuum chamber. Gadgets for the monitoring of the proton beam, for the easy change and the accurate positioning of the target samples, for the corrections of matrix effects, for the handling of very small and irregular samples, for the analysis of liquids and for the measurement of thick layers are discussed.

  7. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and PIXE Analysis of Oligocene-Miocene sediments (Bennett County, South Dakota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbalaei Saleh, F.; Martin, J.; Sidorovskaia, N.; Richter, C.; Hollerman, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo- and rock magnetic results together with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) data from an Oligocene-Miocene aged section in central South Dakota. Sediment samples recovered by the High-Plains Aquifer Drilling Program of the South Dakota Geological Survey retrieved well-preserved core material for paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis. A 250 m long core was retrieved from the Tertiary Arikaree Group, which consists predominantly of fine-grained sandstones and limestones with interbedded silt and clay. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were carried out at 30 cm resolution on more than 200 discrete samples, and geochemical analysis using PIXE at the Louisiana Accelerator Center on twenty selected samples, with the goal of extracting a geomagnetic polarity time scale and to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Stepwise demagnetization of the natural remnant magnetization yields excellent to poor demagnetization behavior, with a viscous isothermal remnant magnetization drilling overprint effectively removed during the 20 mT demagnetization step. Paleomagnetic data are characterized by normal and reversed inclinations, consistent with the site position in South Dakota. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the sediments correlate well with the observed changes in lithology. PIXE sample preparation procedures and calibration techniques to obtain absolute concentrations of heavy elements in the core samples are discussed. An empirical correlation between susceptibility measurements and concentration of the magnetic materials in the core obtained from PIXE will be presented. The results are promising in augmenting traditional paleomagnetic studies to develop a quantitative relationship between the measured magnetization and the concentration of magnetic materials needed for relative paleointensity studies. The PIXE analysis shows also potential in deciphering paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the

  8. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  9. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  10. PIXE-PIGE analysis of Carolingian period glass from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Jezeršek, D.; Knific, T.; Istenič, J.

    2009-01-01

    Glass artifacts excavated from the Late Roman and Carolingian period site at Bašelj Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method using a proton beam in air. The results show that the majority of objects and glass ingots were made of traditional Roman, natron-type glass. Increased titanium and other impurities were found indicating that the glass had been recycled several times. As the composition of the ingots was similar to the other objects, a possibility exists of a secondary glass workshop in the local vicinity. The typologically and stratigraphically dated objects confirm that the Roman glassmaking continued in the area of Eastern Alps well into the 9th century.

  11. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  12. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  13. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  14. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  15. Charge integration in external PIXE-PIGE for the analysis of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. F.; Wang, G. F.; Chu, J. H.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-10-01

    The beam current in an external-beam PIXE-PIGE is difficult to accurately measure due to ionization along the beam path in the atmosphere. Charge integration was measured using a homemade Faraday cup, and assessed by the peak area of Ar Kα X-rays, which were induced by protons near the sample. The X-ray peak integral from a thin Fe reference sample, which was positioned between the exit window and the Faraday cup, was determined to evaluate the performance of the homemade Faraday cup. Moreover, the effects of different membrane filters and samples with different elements on the beam current measurement of the aforementioned methods were studied by placing different blank films or reference standards behind a reference Mn target. The results indicated that the charge measurement of the homemade Faraday cup was reliable for external PIXE-PIGE analysis of aerosol samples.

  16. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  17. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. A new cascade impactor for aerosol sampling with subsequent PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Hillamo, R.; Mäkelä, T.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Bergin, M. H.; Davidson, C. I.

    1996-04-01

    A small deposit area low pressure impactor (abbreviated to SDI) has been developed and tested. The device has been designed specifically to collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in remote locations for subsequent chemical analysis by PIXE. The SDI is a 12-stage, multinozzle device, but the deposit for each stage remains confined to an area with diameter less than 8 mm. It operates at a flow rate of 11 L/min and accepts the same, 25 mm diameter substrate rings as the PIXE International cascade impactor. The experimental cut-points for stages 12 through 1 are 8.50, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66, 1.06, 0.796, 0.591, 0.343, 0.231, 0.153, 0.086 and 0.045 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter. The SDI has been tested in (and employed for) size-fractionated aerosol sampling in the Finnish Arctic and at Summit in Greenland. The data show that the SDI gives results very similar to those obtained with the PIXE International impactor, but with detection limits that are much lower. This suggests that the SDI can be used with shorter sampling times or in areas where concentrations are smaller to obtain reliable size distribution data. The results also suggest that data for a greater number of elements can be obtained with the SDI.

  19. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  20. Analysis of routine pilot-controller communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in routine operations. A sample of routine pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of routine communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.

  1. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique; Shariff, Md. Asad; Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Fazlul Hoque, A. K. M.; Chowdhuri, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Various Metalloprotein Compositional Stoichiometries with Simultaneous PIXE and NRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Andrew; Deyoung, Paul; Peaslee, Graham; Sibley, Megan; Warner, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Stoichiometric characterization has been carried out on multiple metalloproteins using a combination of Ion Beam Analysis methods and a newly modified preparation technique. Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy is a non-destructive ion beam analysis technique well suited to determine the concentrations of heavy elements. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a technique which measures the areal density of a thin target from scattering cross sections of 3.4 MeV protons. A combination of NRA and PIXE has been developed to provide a quantitative technique for the determination of stoichiometric metal ion ratios in metalloproteins. About one third of all proteins are metalloproteins, and most do not have well determined stoichiometric compositions for the metals they contain. Current work focuses on establishing a standard method in which to prepare protein samples. The method involves placing drops of protein solutions on aluminized polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) and allowing them to dry. This technique has been tested for several proteins of known stoichiometry to determine cofactor content and has proven to be a reliable analysis method, accurately determining metal stoichiometry in cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase, concanavalin A, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin.

  3. PIXE and neutron activation methods in human hair material analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎdicǎ, T.; Ciortea, C.; Cojocaru, V.; Ivaşcu, M.; Petrovici, A.; Popa, A.; Popescu, I.; Sǎlǎgean, M.; Spiridon, S.

    1984-04-01

    In order to compare some of the nuclear methods in human hair material analysis, proton induced X-ray excitation and variant techniques of neutron activation analysis have been used. The elemental concentrations are compared with the IAEA-Vienna certified values. The efficiency and reliability of the methods used are briefly discussed.

  4. Determining aerosol particles by in-air micro-IL analysis combined with micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2013-07-01

    A new external ion microbeam ion luminescence (micro-IL) imaging system was developed on a microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator at the TIARA facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Micro-IL was combined with an in-air micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) system to determine the chemical composition and structures of microscopic airborne particles of several micrometers in size. The hardware and software for the combined in-air micro-IL analysis system, called ion luminescence microscopic imaging and spectroscopy (ILUMIS), were studied. Wavelength-dispersive optics, including a collimator lens, a monochromator, and a photon-counting photomultiplier, were installed on the beam line. The signal processing of the IL photon signals, which were collected as spectra and two-dimensional microscopic images, was examined. Several aerosol particles were characterized to demonstrate the ILUMIS/PIXE combined analysis. The external microbeam ILUMIS analysis method provided a variety of information on the chemical and elemental composition of the micrometer-sized aerosol targets under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  5. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  6. Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Sisson, T.W.; Campbell, J.L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the University of Guelph proton microprobe have been evaluated through trace-element analysis of well-characterized silicate glasses and minerals, including BHVO-1 glass, Kakanui augite and hornblende, and ten other natural samples of volcanic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and garnet. Using the 2.39 wt% Mo in a NIST steel as the standard, excellent precision and agreement between reported and analyzed abundances were obtained for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. -from Authors

  7. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, R.; Hanaichi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-01

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 °C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  8. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  9. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Hanaichi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-10

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 degree sign C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  10. RBS and PIXE analysis of chlorine contamination in ALD-Grown TiN films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Meersschaut, J.; Witters, T.; Kaeyhkoe, M.; Lenka, H. P.; Vandervorst, W.; Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A.

    2013-04-19

    The performance, strengths and limitations of RBS and PIXE for the characterization of trace amounts of Cl in TiN thin films are critically compared. The chlorine atomic concentration in ALD grown TiN thin films on Si is determined for samples grown at temperatures ranging from 350 Degree-Sign C to 550 Degree-Sign C. We show that routine Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements (1.5 MeV He{sup +}) and PIXE measurements (1.5 MeV H{sup +}) on 20 nm thick TiN films allow one to determine the Cl content down to 0.3 at% with an absolute statistical accuracy reaching 0.03 at%. Possible improvements to push the sensitivity limit for both approaches are proposed.

  11. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  12. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon-Gonzalez, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Morilla Garcia, Y.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-11

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  13. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón-González, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; García-León, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; García, Y. Morilla; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  14. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  15. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE-PIGE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Tartari, F.; Stamati, F.; Vevecka Priftaj, A.; Istenič, J.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st-4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium-manganese-iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  16. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  17. PIXE analysis of urease isoenzymes isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follmer, C.; Carlini, C. R.; Yoneama, M.-L.; Dias, J. F.

    2002-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to perform a stoichiometric analysis of metals, in particular Ni and Zn, in two isoforms of urease isolated from jack bean seeds. The urease isoforms were separated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The samples were prepared for PIXE by acetone precipitation of the proteins, which were deposited onto regenerated cellulose acetate membranes by filtration. The resulting mass of the samples was of the order of 0.20 mg (dry weight). The results show that urease contains two equivalents of Ni per 90 kDa monomer, in agreement with the results reported in the literature. For canatoxin, the other urease isoform, the presence of one equivalent of Zn per monomer was observed, besides Ni, previously detected by atomic absorption spectrometry as one equivalent per 90 kDa. Problems and further improvements concerning the preparation of the samples are discussed.

  18. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  19. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature.

  20. Accelerator-Based PIXE and STIM Analysis of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerman, W.A.; Stanaland, T.L.; Boudreaux, P.; Elberson, L.; Fontenot, J.; Gates, E.; Greco, R.; McBride, M.; Woodward, A.; Edwards, D.

    2003-08-26

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. A totally reflective sail experiences a pressure of 9.1 {mu}Pa at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. One of the current challenges is to develop strong, lightweight, and radiation resistant sail materials. This paper will discuss initial results from a Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) analysis of candidate solar sail materials.

  1. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  2. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  3. Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

    1990-04-01

    Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

  4. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzutto, M. A.; Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Kajiya, E. M.; Campos, P. H. V.; Magalhães, A. G.; Barbosa, M.

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  5. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Xie, YuLong; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-10-12

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish ef- 5 fective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter _2.5 µm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and 10 total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during 15 dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  6. Target preparation procedure and PIXE analysis of selenium in different foods consumed in the region of Algiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amokrane, A.; Benamar, M. E. A.

    2002-03-01

    A procedure has been elaborated to measure the trace element selenium (Se) in onions and potatoes consumed in the Algiers region. The important chemical pre-concentration step includes wet sample oxidation and the reduction of Se to the element using co-precipitation with tellurium as carrier element and radioactive 75Se to control the chemical process yield. Finally, the filtered probe material is dissolved, labeled with yttrium as an internal PIXE standard and deposited on a thin foil of polycarbonate by solvent drip evaporation. The resulting targets are investigated by the PIXE analysis with 3-MeV proton beams. The low concentration of Se in the samples is determined by measuring the characteristic X-rays.

  7. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  8. Alkali impregnated teflon as a filter for atmospheric SO 2 PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Cahill, Thomas A.

    1985-02-01

    In order to collect SO 2 gas on a stretched Teflon filter impregnated with an alkali solution for a PIXE analysis, an impregnation method has been developed. In this article, the following points are presented. a) It has been found to be necessary to replace the air trapped in filter pores by methanol, and then to replace the methanol by an alkali solution, b) The resistance for air flow through an impregnated Teflon filter is not high and it has been checked that an ordinary pump can be used for the air sampling with the impregnated filter, with the usual flow rate aerosol sampling, c) The impurity levels of the reagents used for impregnants were small enough for sulfur analysis, d) The collection efficiencies of the impregnants, 20%NaOH + 10%glycerin and 20%NaOH + 10%TEA, which are the most suitable ones, did not decrease with flow rate in the range of 0-10 {1}/{min} per filter of 25 mm in diameter. A cross check experiment on the collection of ambient SO 2 gas with the three kinds of filter (A: 5%NaOH + 5%glycerin impregnated Whatman-41 filter, B: 20%NaOH + 10%TEA coated Nuclepore filter, C: 20%NaOH + 10%TEA impregnated stretched Teflon filter) was done. The results showed a satisfactory tolerance for the practical use of Teflon impregnated filter.

  9. In-air PIXE set-up for automatic analysis of historical document inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Rupnik, Zdravko; Uršič, Mitja; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Strlič, Matija

    2004-06-01

    The iron gall inks were one of the writing materials mostly applied in historical documents of the western civilization. Due to the ink corrosive character, the documents are faced with a danger of being seriously, and in some cases also irreversibly changed. The elemental composition of the inks is an important information for taking the adequate conservation action [Project InkCor, http://www.infosrvr.nuk.uni-lj.si/jana/Inkcor/index.htm, and references within]. Here, the in-air PIXE analysis offers an indispensable tool due to its sensitivity and almost non-destructive character. An experimental approach developed for precise and automatic analysis of documents at Jožef Stefan Institute Tandetron accelerator is presented. The selected documents were mounted, one at the time, on the positioning board and the chosen ink spots on the sample were irradiated by 1.7 MeV protons. The data acquisition on the selected ink spots is done automatically throughout the measuring pattern determined prior to the measurement. The chemical elements identified in the documents ranged from Si to Pb, and between them the significant iron gall ink components like Fe, S, K, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni were deduced with precision of ±10%. The measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated documents.

  10. Biomedical studies by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afarideh, H.; Amirabadi, A.; Hadji-Saeid, S. M.; Mansourian, N.; Kaviani, K.; Zibafar, E.

    1996-04-01

    In the present biomedical research, PIXE a powerful technique for elemental analysis was employed to illustrate the importance of multi-elemental determination of serum trace elements in two cases of great medical interest. Those are evaluation of the desferroxamine drug (DPO), a widely used therapy for patient with β-thalassemia-Major (β-thal-M), and investigation of elemental variations in blood-serum in hyperbilirubinamia new-borns before and after blood transfusion (BT). The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the various aspects of PIXE analysis by some practical examples as well as to draw some general conclusions regarding the cure of those patients with the above mentioned disorders or diseases. To present in details each case, we divide the paper in two parts: part 1 and part 2 to consider the experimental procedure as well as the results individually.

  11. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylko, G.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2007-07-01

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl 2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl 2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases.

  12. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  13. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established.

  14. Attempts to improve PIXE quantitative trace element analysis of biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J. M.; Roelandts, I.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE is used to study a possible modification of blood oligo-element composition during hemodialysis and trace element distribution in lungs and interbronchial lymph nodes. Methodological details concerning sample preparation and choice of backing materials are discussed. NBS reference materials are analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the present method. Special attention is paid to quantitative measurements.

  15. Calibration, linearity, precision, and accuracy of a PIXE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, F.-W.; Wätjen, U.

    1984-04-01

    An accuracy and precision of better than 10% each can be achieved with PIXE analysis, with both thin and thick samples. Measures we took to obtain these values for routine analyses in the Marburg PIXE system are discussed. The advantages of an experimental calibration procedure, using thin evaporated standard foils, over the "absolute" method of employing X-ray production cross sections are outlined. The importance of X-ray line intensity ratios, even of weak transitions, for the accurate analysis of interfering elements of low mass content is demonstrated for the Se K α-Pb L ηline overlap. Matrix effects including secondary excitation can be corrected for very well without degrading accuracy under certain conditions.

  16. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  17. PIXE analysis of trace metals in selenium and copper deficient mice exposed to influenza virus and salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, J. M.; Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Small, P. A.; Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1987-03-01

    Reye's syndrome is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy, fatty infiltration of liver, and thymic hypoplasia. The syndrome usually occurs in a susceptible individual with a viral illness who has ingested salicylate. We previously investigated the metal status of children with this syndrome; serum Se and Cu levels were noted to be decreased. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats also produced alterations of serum Se, and liver Se and Cu. We now report our observations for an experimental model of Reye's syndrome. Analysis by PIXE of various metals in Se- and Cu-deficient mice exposed to virus and salicylate are discussed.

  18. Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

  19. PIXE analysis of some medicinal plants used in cleaning teeth in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olabanji, S O; Adesina, S K; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; Moschini, G

    2007-05-01

    Sixteen medicinal plants used for cleaning teeth in southwestern Nigeria were analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. These medicinal plants have other therapeutic uses, but the emphasis and main focus were on their beneficial effects on human teeth. PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova Italy. The results showed the presence of 18 different elements at different concentrations, 2 plants had traces of gold, and none of the plants contained any toxic heavy metals. The metabolic roles of the detected elements were discussed especially as they affected the formation, growth, development, and protection of human teeth. The results of this study are presented and discussed.

  20. SOAR Sandia Optimization and Analysis Routines

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-20

    SOAR is a suite of problem specific desktop welding software applications to develop optimal automatic weld procedures. Applications provide interative displays of fusion zone dimensions versus input parameter levels in a weldment. SOAR also displays heat affected zones, temperature contours, process efficiencies, and sensitivity parameters, by computing solutions to analytical and/or empirical heat transfer models. SOAR provides the knowledgeable user valuable analysis tools to investigate the impact of changes in weld procedures on weld characteristics. SOAR operates via graphical user system input and returns both numerical and graphical output in both electronic and hardcopy form.

  1. PIXE simulation: Models, methods and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Batic, M.; Pia, M. G.; Saracco, P.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2013-04-19

    The simulation of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) is discussed in the context of general-purpose Monte Carlo systems for particle transport. Dedicated PIXE codes are mainly concerned with the application of the technique to elemental analysis, but they lack the capability of dealing with complex experimental configurations. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes provide powerful tools to model the experimental environment in great detail, but so far they have provided limited functionality for PIXE simulation. This paper reviews recent developments that have endowed the Geant4 simulation toolkit with advanced capabilities for PIXE simulation, and related efforts for quantitative validation of cross sections and other physical parameters relevant to PIXE simulation.

  2. Ion-beam analysis for cultural heritage on the AGLAE facility: impact of PIXE/RBS combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, J.; Dran, J.-C.; Guillou, T.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Walter, P.; Mathis, F.

    2008-07-01

    The combination of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. Several set-ups have been developed at the AGLAE facility of the Louvre Laboratory to implement these techniques with an external beam. Successively have been tested the simultaneous use of PIXE and RBS with a single beam of protons, the sequential application of PIXE with protons and RBS with 4He2+ ions and finally the simultaneous implementation of PIXE and RBS with high-energy 4He2+ ions. Several examples illustrate the benefits of these combinations of techniques.

  3. Virtual PIXE and RBS laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlic, I.; Zhou, Shijun; Sanchez, J. L.; Watt, F.; Tang, S. M.

    1999-04-01

    An interactive software package for a complete simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Backscattering Spectra (BS) is being developed. The user is in a position to define all experimental parameters such as incident ions (protons, deuterons or He ions), their energy, excitation and detection geometry, detector parameters and filters as well as sample composition and thicknesses of a number of layers. This is all done through an easy to operate interactive user interface. Simulated PIXE and RBS spectra are immediately displayed on the screen and can be saved either as bitmaps and/or files suitable for further processing. Each output comes with a complete set of experimental parameters, absolute and relative line intensities (including all major K and L lines), peak to background ratio and detection limits for all elements of interest. The program has also a number of utility routines to calculate various fundamental parameters such as photon cross sections, K and L shell ionization and production cross sections, energy loss, and detector efficiency. All these routines use the state-of-the art data base sources. The program operates on a personal computer under the MS Windows operating system. The simulation is fast and the program is easy to operate. The package will be useful in many ways. Firstly, it will be an excellent teaching tool for researchers/students without experience with PIXE/RBS. Secondly, it will be of immense help in planning and optimizing PIXE and/or RBS experiments. The user can 'run' a simulated experiment for any sample/experimental parameters and test various settings/scenarios to achieve optimal results without actually carrying out the experiment, thereby saving a lot of expensive machine time that would otherwise have been spent on trial and error experiments.

  4. Analysis of glassy spherules extracted from Carpathian Mesozoic lime stone by μPIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Solt, P.; Dosztály, L.; Kákay Szabó, O.; Detre, Cs. H.

    1998-04-01

    Twenty-four glassy spherules collected from three Mesozoic sites of the Carpathian Basin have been analysed for major, minor and trace element composition using the scanning proton microprobe facility of the Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI) in Debrecen. μPIXE analyses revealed surprisingly high Ca and Ba concentrations (CaO ˜40%, BaO ˜2.5%) which have never been reported before. Samples proved to be homogeneous for the major elements (Si, Ca). From geological considerations it may be inferred that these spherules are terrestrial impact products, though, the details of the impact events have not been fully cleared yet.

  5. Trace Element Analysis of Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Plasma using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogle, M. R.; Toburen, L. H.; Shinpaugh, J. L.; Justiniano, E. L. B.; Kovacs, C. J.; Daly, B.

    1999-11-01

    It is suggested in various sources of literature that neoplastic disorders induce a shift in the essential trace elements in the blood. A method employing proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure the essential trace elements Cu, Zn, Br, Fe, and Se in the plasma of prostate cancer patients of various stages. The concentration levels of each element and the Cu/Zn ratios were then tracked through the treatment period. Results indicate that early stage prostate cancer patients show little variation in concentration of the individual elements as well as Cu/Zn ratio, while advanced stages show a significant increase in the Cu/Zn ratio.

  6. PIXE analysis for the study of toxic effects of aluminium in vines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. R.; Le Roux, E.; Renan, M. J.; Peisach, M.

    1984-04-01

    Elemental concentrations of Mg, A1, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were determined by PIXE in various parts of grape vines grown in a Hoagland water culture with and without added aluminium. The presence of Al enhanced the uptake of P, S and K in leaves and stems, but depressed Mg and Ca. In the roots the Al concentration was very high, while that of Mg was reduced compared to the control samples. The toxic effects of aluminium produced symptoms reminiscent of calcium deficiency.

  7. PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS analysis of Cu-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Yang, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Shi, L. Q.; Cheng, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate at different atmosphere. Microstructure of these films and Cu occupation sites were investigated using PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS. Only 2.9 at.% Cu, no other magnetic impurities (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) were detected. The ZnO:Cu films possessed the wurtzite ZnO structures and no precipitates (e.g., CuO and Cu2O or Cu cluster) were found. Cu atoms were incorporated into ZnO crystal lattice by occupying Zn atomic sites.

  8. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  9. PIGE-PIXE analysis of medicinal plants and vegetables of pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Olabanji, S O; Makanju, O V; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; Haque, A M; Cherubini, R; Moschini, G

    1997-09-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed to the study of elemental constituents of some traditional medicinal plants generally used in curing many diseases and ailments in southwestern Nigeria. Analyses were also carried out on commonly edible vegetables of medicinal and pharmacological importance. PIGE measurements were carried out using 3.5-MeV collimated protons from the 7 mV CN Van-de-Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy, whereas the PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the same laboratory. The results show that many of the medicinal plants contain elements of cardinal importance in human metabolism. The results from the vegetables also show the presence of vital elements that are needed for growth and development. In addition, some of the toxic elements, which include As, Cd, Hg, and so forth, were not detected. However, some of the recipes contain trace amounts of Pb at very low concentrations. This calls for proper control of dose rates in some samples to prevent the attendant negative cumulative effects.

  10. Comparative analysis of urban atmospheric aerosol by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), and aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS).

    PubMed

    Johnson, K S; Laskin, A; Jimenez, J L; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, L T; Salcedo, D; Dzepina, K; Molina, M J

    2008-09-01

    A multifaceted approach to atmospheric aerosol analysis is often desirable in field studies where an understanding of technical comparability among different measurement techniques is essential. Herein, we report quantitative intercomparisons of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), performed of fline under a vacuum, with analysis by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) carried out in real-time during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Good agreement was observed for mass concentrations of PIXE-measured sulfur (assuming it was dominated by SO4(2-)) and AMS-measured sulfate during most of the campaign. PESA-measured hydrogen mass was separated into sulfate H and organic H mass fractions, assuming the only major contributions were (NH4)2SO4 and organic compounds. Comparison of the organic H mass with AMS organic aerosol measurements indicates that about 75% of the mass of these species evaporated under a vacuum. However approximately 25% of the organics does remain under a vacuum, which is only possible with low-vapor-pressure compounds, and which supports the presence of high-molecular-weight or highly oxidized organics consistent with atmospheric aging. Approximately 10% of the chloride detected by AMS was measured by PIXE, possibly in the form of metal-chloride complexes, while the majority of Cl was likely present as more volatile species including NH4Cl. This is the first comparison of PIXE/PESA and AMS and, to our knowledge, also the first report of PESA hydrogen measurements for urban organic aerosols.

  11. Elemental analysis of lichens from the intermountain western USA using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. N.; Casellas, R. C.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Clair, L. L. St.; Schaalje, G. B.; Swalberg, K. D.

    1996-04-01

    Thirty-six lichen samples that were collected from five wilderness areas and a national monument in the intermountain western United States have been analyzed by PIXE for the determination of 21 elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. Samples were powdered and spiked with Y as an internal standard. The powder was analyzed directly as a sample of moderate thickness. Elemental concentration means and ranges were generally consistent with concentration ranges from other studies of unimpacted lichens. Some samples, however, had high concentrations of S, Cu, As, and a few other elements. There are interpretations of the data that imply some wilderness areas are being impacted to some degree by industrial-plant atmospheric emissions.

  12. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis.

    PubMed

    Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Santos, G H F; Borba, C E; Rizzutto, M A

    2013-10-15

    In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  13. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnau, K.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    2001-07-01

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed.

  14. Mutational And Structural Studies Of The PixD BLUF Output Signal That Affects Light-Regulated Interactions With PixE

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Dragnea, Vladimira; Wu, Qiong; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    PixD (Slr1694) is a BLUF (blue-light using FAD) photoreceptor used by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to control phototaxis toward blue light. In this study we probe the involvement of a conserved Tyr8-Gln50-Met93 triad in promoting an output signal upon blue light excitation of the bound flavin. Analysis of acrylamide quenching of Trp91 fluorescence shows that the side chain of this residue remains partially solvent exposed in both the lit and dark states. Mutational analysis demonstrates that substitution mutations at Tyr8 and Gln50 result in the loss of the photocycle while a mutation of Met93 does not appreciably disturb the formation of the light excited state and only minimally accelerates its decay from 5.7 s to 4.5 s. However, mutations in Tyr8, Gln50 and Met93 disrupt the ability of PixD dimers to interact with PixE to form a higher ordered PixD10-PixE5 complex, which is indicative of a lit conformational state. Solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic analyses confirm that a Tyr8 to Phe mutation is locked in a pseudo light excited state revealing flexible areas in PixD that likely constitute part of an output signal upon light excitation of wild type PixD. PMID:21688827

  15. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples in an Urban Area in Upstate NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadareski, Benjamin; Ali, Salina; Yoskowitz, Josh; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in the aerosol samples including, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The elemental composition and concentrations of these elements were determined using GUPIX. Many of the elements suggest airborne soils, however we see trace amounts of lead concentrations only at the minimal level of detection around 1 ng / m3. Preliminary results suggest that lead pollution is not significant however; we believe that the trace amounts of lead detected are due to fuel emissions from small aircraft due to the sampling site near an airport. Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in

  16. Correlation of archaeological ceramics and clays using an external-beam PIXE analysis of the major elemental constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. R.; Fischbeck, H. J.; Chesnut, K.

    1985-05-01

    Time-consuming trace-element analysis is often used to determine the origin of archaeological artifacts. In an effort to locate the source of clay used to manufacture archaeological ceramics from eastern Oklahoma, we find that a determination of major elemental constituents using external-beam PIXE analysis is a useful technique for determining the probability of common origin. Using a 7 nA, 1.5 MeV external proton beam, it takes less than one minute to determine the concentration of the major elements to an accuracy of better than 5%. This rapid analysis makes it possible to quickly select pottery sherds of similar composition and eliminate clay samples which are not strongly correlated with the sherds. Trace-element analysis of these strongly correlated samples can then in principle be used to make an absolute identification. Major elemental analysis is thus useful for survey work where many samples must be examined. The effects of sample inhomogeneity and the firing process, as well as the probability of false correlations, are discussed.

  17. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  18. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-10

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  19. A methodological test of external beam PIXE analysis on inks of ancient manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambria, R.; Del Carmine, P.; Grange, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    Extensive scientific investigations on the materials used for preparing inks in medieval and Renaissance manuscripts (before invention of printing) are still missing. With our external PIXE setup, we are beginning such an investigation. The present paper deals with a preliminary methodological research aimed at the identification of the critical compositional parameters and at the definition of operating procedures which permit reliable information to be obtained and in particular the homogeneity of the home-made inks to be checked. We chose three 11th century manuscripts of well known origin, and performed composition measurements on five ink areas on each of six pages per manuscript. On one of the five areas a scan in steps of 200 μm was also performed with the purpose of checking ink composition homogeneity even at this small scale. Five measurements on each of the six pages' parchments allowed us to evaluate the contribution to the collected "ink" spectra arising from the underlying parchment. Critical parameters for ink characterization have been found to be e.g. the K contents, the FeCuZnPb compositional pattern, and the sulphur to metals ratio. In addition, we have detected ink-parchment physico-chemical interactions altering the apparent CI and Ca contents.

  20. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-01

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  1. High Energy PIXE at the ARRONAX Facility for Multi Elemental Analysis of Thick Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Metivier, V.; Servagent, N.; de la Bernardie, X.; Garrido, E.; Ragheb, D.

    2011-12-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using high energy protons is a nondestructive multi-elemental technique that can analyze medium and heavy trace elements on thick samples. A new experimental setup is being built at the ARRONAX facility (Nantes, France) for this purpose. Experiments on multi-layer targets have been made in order to identify the sequences and to measure the different layer thicknesses. Our approach is to consider the relative intensities of Kα/Kβ lines in different layers as well as the gamma intensity ray ratio from each layer versus the reference layer. Two multi-layer targets were used: the first one composed of 10 μm Au, 30μm Bi and 250 μm Cu, and the second composed of 125 μm Ti, 10 μm Au and 50 μm Ag. In both cases, we used Al 100 μm as a reference layer. This work emphasizes the importance of having both X-ray and gamma-ray information in multi-layer analyses.

  2. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, F.; Othmane, G.; Vrielynck, O.; Calvo del Castillo, H.; Chêne, G.; Dupuis, T.; Strivay, D.

    2010-06-01

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liège have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si 3N 4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum [1] and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  3. WITS-HEX: A renovated code for analysis of PIXE X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Bauman, S.; Molokomme, T.; Walker, A. J.

    1990-04-01

    The code REX [H.C. Kaufmann and K.R. Akselsson, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18 (1975) 353] and its successor, HEX were developed at Florida State University and University of Lund in the early seventies for quantitative reduction of PIXE spectra. HEX modelled many of the physical processes, including target self-absorption. Lack of adequate documentation and several inherent software related problems hampered widespread adoption and further development. HEX was designed using a hierarchical functional design approach, coded in FORTRAN IV. Its element library and request list are tightly constrained. ANSI standard FORTRAN provides few structured constructs, nor does it support dynamic data structures. HEX has a batch mode of interaction which affords minimal (interim) user interactions. To overcome these limitations we have modernised the program to run on IBM PC compatible computers by using object-oriented design techniques, documented in Program Description Language (pseudo-code) and implemented in a modern programming language, Pascal. Turbo Pascal 5.5 provides an integrated program development environment, a high resolution graphics library, an operating system interface and many software development tools to improve programmer productivity. A menu-based highly interactive screen management library is used for the user interface. A demonstration version is available for user evaluation. Further rigorous testing and the development of user acquired spectra interfacing code will be developed before the first release. The renovated code, WITS-HEX, has extracted the intellectual value embodied in HEX. It will be inherently more stable, reliable, versatile, maintainable and easy to use to facilitate future process modifications.

  4. PIXE, 252Cf-PDMS and radiochemistry applied for soil and vegetable analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Cazicava, J.; Coelho, M. J.; Barros Leite, C. V.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the elements present in vegetables and soils using PIXE (particle induced X-rays emission) and 252Cf-PDMS (252Cf plasma desorption mass spectrometry) techniques in order to estimate the possible influence of soil and agricultural techniques in the metal absorption by the vegetables. In this work, metal concentrations were evaluated in soil and vegetable samples from several regions, where different agricultural techniques were employed. Si, Zr, Ce, Th, Sc and Pb identified in the soil samples were not biologically available. Ga, Ge, As and Br identified in the tubercles indicate that spray pesticide used on the vegetable leaves was absorbed by them. 232Th and 238U present in the soil were not absorbed by the vegetables. The airborne particles from anthropogenic sources (as CFn, VCn) were absorbed by the vegetables. Compounds from mineral sources present in soil as V+, VCO3, HPO4, Cr+, CrOH+, Mn+, FeH+, Fe(OH)n and in the bioorganic compounds as N+, Ca (CN)n+and CnH+ were identified in vegetables. The metal absorption by the vegetables is not dependent of the metal concentration in soil. Different tubercles cultivated in the same soil show similar metal absorption. The exogenous contributions such as the elements present in water irrigation, pesticides, fertilizers and airborne particles deposited on leaves can be absorbed by vegetables. The absorption by the roots depends on the chemical compound of the elements. The use of pesticide sprays and air pollution can cause more contamination in the vegetables than in soil. The use of this methodology allows the identification of possible sources of metals in soils and in vegetables and the metal speciation.

  5. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  6. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-11-01

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510-1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  7. Fixed and free line ratio DT2 PIXE fitting and simulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Marques, J. P.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The DATTPIXE software package, which full extent version become operational in 1992, has been largely used both in academic research and for standard analysis. Developments of a new PIXE setup, having an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) EDS high resolution detection system and a CdTe detector, raised the need for a deep revision of the software used to fit PIXE spectra and interpret data. First steps taken in 2007 essentially comprised a new fitting code based on a proven Bayesian inference routine. Meanwhile, fundamental processes associated to PIXE spectra, which became more evident in X-ray Microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS) high resolution EDS spectra, made clear the need for a full new code. Using some of the routines developed in DATTPIXE, the new DT2 package is written in Fortran 2003 and includes both the fitting and data handling codes. DT2 is now designed to include in the fitting model and deal with diagram lines as well as with satellite lines (Radiative Auger Emission (RAE), multi-ionization satellites and even chemically shifted lines) or even lines having other origins such as low energy γ-rays. In this communication we present the new DT2 package and discuss its new features, such as the possibility of fixing or leave free the relative intensity of spectra lines, even if they belong to transitions to the same shell.

  8. An attempt to diagnose cancer by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yokode, Y.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE is suitable especially for trace elemental analysis for atoms with high atomic numbers, which are contained in matrices composed mainly of light elements such as biological materials. An attempt has been made to distinguish elemental concentrations of cancer tissues from those of normal ones. Kidney, testis and urinary bladder cancer tissues were examined by PIXE. Key elements to diagnose these cancers were Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Zn. Enrichment of Fe and Ti, and deficiency of Zn could be seen in the kidney cancer. An opposite tendency was observed in the testicular cancer. Imbalance of these elemental concentrations in characteristic organs might give us a possibility for cancer diagnosis.

  9. Analysis of HgI{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} crystals and detectors by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and ion backscattering spectroscopy (IBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G.S.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.; James, R.B.; David, D.C.; Burger, A.; Van Den Berg, L.

    1993-03-01

    The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented.

  10. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  11. Rasch Analysis of the Routines-Based Interview Implementation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Akers, Kate; McWilliam, R. A.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    The Routines-­Based Interview (RBI) is useful for developing functional outcomes/goals, for establishing strong relationships with families, and for assessing the family's true needs. In this study, the authors investigated the psychometric properties of the RBI Implementation Checklist, conducted by 120 early intervention professionals,…

  12. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  13. miniPixD: a compact sample analysis system which combines X-ray imaging and diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Robert; Crews, Chiaki; Wilson, Matthew; Speller, Robert

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces miniPixD: a new, compact system that utilises transmission X-ray imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to locate and identify materials of interest within an otherwise opaque volume. The system and the embodied techniques have utility in security screening, medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and quality assurance (QA). This paper outlines the design of the system including discussion on the choice of components and presents some data from relevant samples which are compared to other energy dispersive and angular dispersive XRD techniques.

  14. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  15. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-08-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  16. Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

    2013-09-01

    The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

  17. A PIXE study of vitrification of carnation in vitro culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. Y.; Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-04-01

    PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) is a well-known method for elemental analyses of specimens in applied studies. In this paper, we report results of an application of PIXE in trace-element analysis of normal and vitrified carnations in vitro culture. Experiments were performed to study the vitrification in connection with the trace elements in carnation tissues. About two hundred PIXE spectra were obtained from seventy samples with an irradiation of 3 MeV protons from the NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron tandem accelerator. From the PIXE analysis we determined the trace element composition of normal and vitrified carnations. Our results indicate that there is a significant change of K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in the vitrification process.

  18. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IXGP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  19. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenbol, Eugène

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, "baskets", pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  20. PIXE at rutgers university: Biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.

    1984-04-01

    We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 μg/g for a 6 min irradiation time.

  1. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the ``Book of the Dead''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, A.-M. B.; Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Dran, J. C.; Lövestam, N. E. G.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation.

  2. Towards intelligent spectrum analyzing system for industry-oriented PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Murozono, K.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M.

    1997-02-01

    Outstanding features of a new method called `pattern analysis method' are its analysis speed and easy handling, therefore enabling us to automatize the PIXE spectrum analysis. We address the following tasks within the framework of the pattern analysis method towards realization of more intelligent system for the industrial PIXE: adoption of more detailed models for all the reference X-ray spectra of element, of continuum from the Bremsstrahlung process and of the summing effect; real time inference of the content elements based on the iterative Bayes' theorem, which could be effective in the selection of candidate elements and monitoring the status of the spectrum accumulation; use of the suitable X-ray absorber with accurate data for penetration rate, being indispensable to make PAM analysis more reliable; and development of iterative method for thick sample PIXE where various non-linear effects become significant.

  3. Toward the Routine Analysis of Diverse Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Cox, Dennis; Daly, Don S.; Foote, Harlan P.; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Sloughter, James M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a great time to be a data analyst. The variety and quantity of data, in digitized forms, are increasing. The growth of computer networking and the corresponding use of the network via the World Wide Web have provided, in the form of text, a large dynamic information store. There is wide access to more financial data than can typically be understood. Digital imagery is on the rise; an explosion in the amount of digital video is forthcoming. And, information from scientific instruments is provided across a network with increasing frequency. However, data analysis tools and the corresponding theory are not keeping pace with this scale and diversity of data.

  4. Long-term analysis of elemental content in airborne particulate matter by PIXE and positive matrix factorization: Annual trends and seasonal variability during 2003 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pražnikar, Jure; Cepak, Franka; Žibert, Janez

    2014-09-01

    In the presented study a comprehensive statistical analysis of the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out. The data were collected from April 2003 to August 2008 with a 7-day time resolution in the Northern Adriatic Port of Koper and analyzed by the Proton Induced X-ray method (PIXE). The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of fifteen chemical elements identified six source factors, three natural-regional sources and three local-anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery, industry and iron ore factor were marked as anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery source was represented by the elements V, Ni and Cu. The elements Fe and Mn are attributed to the Iron ore source and were explained by the proximity of the bulk-cargo warehouse and the intense handling of iron ore in Port of Koper. The heavy industry source represented by Pb and Zn was the only anthropogenic factor, which shows clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the local-anthropogenic source factors, natural and regional source factors show significant negative trend. The reduction of the crustal elements Ca, Ti and Sr, joined in a soil source, and sulfur-biomass source, represented by elements K and S, have been attributed to more intense precipitation and to the negative trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. The negative trend of the Cl and Br elements was in line with the negative trend of the wind speed above the sea surface and the significant sea-wave height.

  5. PIXE elemental mapping on original manuscripts with an external microbeam. Application to manuscripts damaged by iron-gall ink corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remazeilles, Céline; Quillet, Véronique; Calligaro, Thomas; Claude Dran, Jean; Pichon, Laurent; Salomon, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping and PIXE spot analysis have been performed on three original manuscripts. We observed that the precision of the spot measurements for the analysis of the ink composition is limited by the heterogeneity of the writing. PIXE mapping proved to be a complementary technique which is much more sensitive, and which makes it possible to evaluate the migration of some elements, such as sulphur, iron and calcium around inscriptions.

  6. The VeloPix ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Llopart, X.; Wong, W.; Campbell, M.; Wyllie, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Schipper, J.; Miryala, S.; Gromov, V.

    2017-01-01

    VeloPix, a 130 nm CMOS technology chip with data driven and zero suppressed readout, will be used as a readout chip for the hybrid pixel system of the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) upgrade. The upgrade, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will enable the experiment to be read out at 40 MHz in trigger-less mode, with event selection being performed in the CPU farm. The highest occupancy ASICs will experience rates of more than 900 Mhits/s, and the closest pixels are 5.1 mm from the LHC beams. This paper will present the VeloPix ASIC along with the first test results without a sensor.

  7. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  8. Procedural and Conceptual Difficulties with Slope: An Analysis of Students' Mistakes on Routine Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Peter; Nagle, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    This study extends past research on students' understanding of slope by analyzing college students' mistakes on routine tasks involving slope. We conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of students' mistakes on common slope tasks to extract information regarding procedural proficiencies and conceptual underpinnings required in order for…

  9. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  10. The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.

  11. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  12. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  13. Thermal and flow analysis subroutines for the SINDA-version 9 computer routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluid flow analysis, special thermal analysis and input/output capabilities of the MOTAR routine were incorporated into the SINDA routine. All the capabilities were added in the form of user subroutines so that they may be added to different versions of SINDA with a minimum of programmer effort. Two modifications were made to the existing subroutines of SINDA/8 to incorporate the above subroutines. These were: (1) A modification to the preprocessor to permit actual values of array numbers, conductor numbers, node numbers or constant numbers supplied as array data to be converted to relative numbers. (2) Modifications to execution subroutine CNFAST to make it compatible with the radiant interchange user subroutine, RADIR. This modified version of SINDA has been designated SINDA/version 9. A detailed discussion of the methods used for the capabilities added is presented. The modifications for the SINDA subroutines are described, as well as user subroutines. All subroutines added or modified are listed.

  14. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. V.; Ene, A.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  15. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  16. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  17. On the Design, Development, and Analysis of Optimized Matrix-Vector Multiplication Routines for Coprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Khairul; Haidar, Azzam; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.

  18. TOF plotter—a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-03-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x- y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems.

  19. SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.

  20. Routine blood examinations combined with morphological analysis for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huanling; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Zhifen; Li, Xiangli; Li, Yuantang; Li, Li; Xu, Rui; Wang, Zie; Tian, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a new hematological neoplasm category; myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), which included four main subcategories. This disease is often misdiagnosed, which delays effective therapy. The present study evaluated the role of routine blood examinations and morphological analysis of peripheral blood cells in the reliable diagnosis of MDS/MPN. In total, 236 adult MDS/MPN patients were analyzed. The analysis included 10 routine blood parameters measured using a Sysmex XE-2100™, 3 differential percentage parameters and 7 morphological features of peripheral blood cells which were analyzed by optical microscopy, and 3 differential absolute count numbers obtained based on the corresponding differential percentages and absolute count of blood cells. The parameters were compared among the subcategories and a value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The median white blood cell and hemoglobin counts of the patients were 18.0×109/l and 88 g/l, respectively. The proportion of monocytes increased to 8% (1.82×109/l), the proportion of blast cells increased to 1% (0.5×109/l) and that of neutrophil precursors increased to 10% (1.98×109/l). A total of 87% of all patients presented with hypogranulation and 71% presented with abnormal condensed nuclear chromatin in granulocytes. Atypical monocytes were observed in 73% of all patients and Pseudo-Pelger cells were observed in 60%. Significant differences were detected among the subcategories. The present study demonstrated that combining blood routine parameters and the morphological analysis of peripheral blood cells have an essential role in the reliable diagnosis of MDS/MPN based on WHO categories. PMID:27895799

  1. Characterization of the endogenous GIT1-betaPIX complex, and identification of its association to membranes.

    PubMed

    Botrugno, Oronza A; Paris, Simona; Za, Lorena; Gualdoni, Sara; Cattaneo, Angela; Bachi, Angela; de Curtis, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactors (GITs) are adaptor proteins with ADP-ribosylating factor--GTPase-activating protein (ARF-GAP) activity that form complexes with the p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factor (PIX) guanine nucleotide exchanging factors for Rac and Cdc42. In this study we have characterized the endogenous GIT1/p95-APP1/Cat1 (GIT1)- PIX complexes in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In COS7 cells, immunocytochemical analysis shows the localization of endogenous GIT1 in the perinuclear region of the cell, as well as at the cell periphery, where GIT1 co-localizes with filamentous actin. The perinuclear localization of endogenous GIT1 was confirmed in avian fibroblasts. In COS7 cells, immunoprecipitation and microsequencing experiments with either anti-GIT1 or anti-betaPIX antibodies unequivocally show that betaPIX is uniquely associated with GIT1 in lysates from these cells, while GIT2/PKL/p95-APP2/Cat2 (GIT2) is undetectable in the endogenous complexes. Moreover, this analysis demonstrates that betaPIX is the limiting factor for the formation of the endogenous complexes, since a small fraction of GIT1 can be co-immunoprecipitated with most betaPIX from these cells. Saponin treatment of unfixed cells indicates that betaPIX-bound GIT1 is preferentially retained in the saponin-resistant fraction when compared to betaPIX-free GIT1. Moreover, analysis by tissue fractionation shows that a significant fraction of the endogenous GIT1-betaPIX complex is firmly associated to membranes from brain homogenates. Our findings show the specific localization of the complex at intracellular membranes, and indicate a correlation between the association of GIT1 to betaPIX, and the localization of the endogenous complex at membranes.

  2. Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Vilaclara, G.; Rico-Montiel, R.; Macías, V. M.; Ruvalcaba, J. L.; Zenteno, M. A.

    1994-03-01

    Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained with PIXE and the material density in the sediment layers. Three different kinds of layers were found, related to their colors: dark, white and gray. The composition of the layers is fairly uniform. The dark zone is enriched in Al, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe. This dark layer may be associated with eruptions of the Malitzin volcano. The white zone is found to contain diatomite of a high purity, with traces of K, Ca, and Fe, while the gray zones are also Al enriched, suggesting a clay contamination of the diatomite. X-ray diffraction of materials obtained from each main layer showed that the white and gray phases are highly amorphous, with a small component of cristobalite, as expected from the diatom sediment diagenesis, while the dark layer contains also important amounts of anorthite and orthoclase, supporting the volcanic origin of this layer.

  3. Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teti, Nicholas M.

    1993-01-01

    The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

  4. Accuracy and usefulness of the AVOXimeter 4000 as routine analysis of carboxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Junko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Takeshita, Haruo

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) is important to determine the cause of death. The AVOXimeter 4000 (AVOX), a portable CO-oximeter, has the advantages of a low purchase price and operating cost, ease of operation, and rapid results. Little information is available on the usefulness of AVOX in the forensic sample, and the previous study investigated only six samples. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed the usefulness of the AVOX through a comparison of its results with data previously obtained using the double wavelength spectrophotometric method in autopsies. Regression analysis was performed between CO-Hb levels measured by the AVOX and those measured by the conventional double wavelength spectrophotometric method in postmortem blood samples: a significant correlation was observed. This study suggests the usefulness of the AVOX to analyze postmortem blood, and the AVOX is suitable for routine forensic analysis and can be applied at the crime scene.

  5. Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  6. The external pixe milliprobe at davis: laser alignment, pixe calibration, and quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Robert A.; Kusko, Bruce H.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    1984-04-01

    An external beam PIXE system has been developed at the Davis cyclotron, which is being used extensively for the analysis of the inks and papers of historical documents. This system has several important features. First, because the system is used in valuable and fragile documents, we have kept the heat loss very small. The amount of beam on the sample is minimized by a close detector geometry and by on-demand beam pulsing. A computer driven beam stop allows beam on the sample only when the data is being acquired. Second, the 1 to 2 mm 2 beam spot can be accurately and quickly located at the desired position using a laser alignment system. With this system we can analyze single letters on one side of a page. Third, the beam on sample is internally monitored using the argon present in the 3 cm gap between the exit window and the sample. This is essential for thick targets which stop the beam. Finally, the elemental results are corrected for the decrease of beam energy at the target and for the X-ray attenuation between the target and the detector, and verified by thin standard foils. Similar corrections are made for the finite thickness of the samples. Multiple measurements on the inks of a single page show good consistency, whether done during the same cyclotron run or at another time. Our work indicates that external beam PIXE can be a very safe and accurate tool in historical research.

  7. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2005-04-01

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project.

  8. Applications of PIXE to studies in dental and mental healths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Ainsworth, T.

    1981-03-01

    The elemental composition of healthy and diseased teeth from 25 South Australian children have been determined using thick-target PIXE analysis. Different dental hard tissues, namely enamel, dentine, cementum and the amelodentinal junction, were analysed independently. A number of elements, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb have been detected, and their concentrations measured. The concentrations of some of the elements were found to vary considerably between: (a) healthy and diseased teeth, (b) teeth of the same type, and (c) different parts of the same tooth. Attempts have been made to correlate the concentrations of the various elements with the health of the teeth. In a pilot study, PIXE has also been applied for Pb analysis in the teeth of a few mentally retarded children. The teeth of all the children, with the exception of one who was suffering from Downe's syndrome, were found to contain appreciable amounts of lead. It is suggested that PIXE would provide a more convenient and accurate form of analysis than destructive chemical methods, for correlating Pb in children's teeth with their mental abilities.

  9. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    SciTech Connect

    Kuharik, J.C.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Ross, J.P.

    2003-08-26

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  10. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  11. Single Particle ICP-MS: Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Manuel D; Olesik, John W; Barber, Angela G; Challis, Katie; Ranville, James F

    2016-07-01

    From its early beginnings in characterizing aerosol particles to its recent applications for investigating natural waters and waste streams, single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of aqueous dispersions of metal-containing nanomaterials. Combining the high-throughput of an ensemble technique with the specificity of a single particle counting technique and the elemental specificity of ICP-MS, spICP-MS is capable of rapidly providing researchers with information pertaining to size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and major elemental composition with minimal sample perturbation. Recently, advances in data acquisition, signal processing, and the implementation of alternative mass analyzers (e.g., time-of-flight) has resulted in a wider breadth of particle analyses and made significant progress toward overcoming many of the challenges in the quantitative analysis of nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of spICP-MS development from a niche technique to application for routine analysis, a discussion of the key issues for quantitative analysis, and examples of its further advancement for analysis of increasingly complex environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract Single particle ICP-MS workflow for the analysis of suspended nanoparticles.

  12. Optimization of capillary array electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for routine molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Larsen, Lars Allan; Baba, Shingo; Kukita, Yoji; Tahira, Tomoko; Christiansen, Michael; Vuust, Jens; Hayashi, Kenshi; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2006-10-01

    Mutation screening is widely used for molecular diagnostics of inherited disorders. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the present and future identification of genetic risk factors for complex disorders will increase the need for high-throughput mutation screening technologies. Capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) SSCP analysis is a low-cost, automated method with a high throughput and high reproducibility. Thus, the method fulfills many of the demands to be met for application in routine molecular diagnostics. However, the need for performing the electrophoresis at three temperatures between 18 degrees C and 35 degrees C for achievement of high sensitivity is a disadvantage of the method. Using a panel of 185 mutant samples, we have analyzed the effect of sample purification, sample medium and separation matrix on the sensitivity of CAE-SSCP analysis to optimize the method for molecular diagnostic use. We observed different effects from sample purification and sample medium at different electrophoresis temperatures, probably reflecting the complex interplay between sequence composition, electrophoresis conditions and sensitivity in SSCP analysis. The effect on assay sensitivity from three different polymers was tested using a single electrophoresis temperature of 27 degrees C. The data suggest that a sensitivity of 98-99% can be obtained using a 10% long chain poly-N,N-dimethylacrylamide polymer.

  13. Informatics Enhanced SNP Microarray Analysis of 30 Miscarriage Samples Compared to Routine Cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Loring, Megan; Massie, Jamie A. M.; Demko, Zachary P.; Johnson, David; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Gemelos, George; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The metaphase karyotype is often used as a diagnostic tool in the setting of early miscarriage; however this technique has several limitations. We evaluate a new technique for karyotyping that uses single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays (SNP). This technique was compared in a blinded, prospective fashion, to the traditional metaphase karyotype. Methods Patients undergoing dilation and curettage for first trimester miscarriage between February and August 2010 were enrolled. Samples of chorionic villi were equally divided and sent for microarray testing in parallel with routine cytogenetic testing. Results Thirty samples were analyzed, with only four discordant results. Discordant results occurred when the entire genome was duplicated or when a balanced rearrangement was present. Cytogenetic karyotyping took an average of 29 days while microarray-based karytoyping took an average of 12 days. Conclusions Molecular karyotyping of POC after missed abortion using SNP microarray analysis allows for the ability to detect maternal cell contamination and provides rapid results with good concordance to standard cytogenetic analysis. PMID:22403611

  14. Development of instrumentation for routine ToF-SIMS imaging analysis of biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliff, B.; Lockyer, N. P.; Corlett, C.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The routine analysis of frozen-hydrated biological material is a goal that is highly sought after in the ToF-SIMS community. To this end we have developed a system based on an existing protocol developed elsewhere, but with several crucial advances. Here we report on the major design initiatives, some early performance characteristics and experimental data obtained. The system was designed with ease-of-use and reliability in mind in addition to performance, this should make the results repeatable. The device works on a freeze-fracture type method to expose pristine surface for SIMS analysis. An important performance characteristic that has emerged is one of time; the fracture stage can be cooled down to operating temperature within 30 min beginning of cooling. This is important as it minimises dead time at the beginning of an experimental session. We also present here images of freeze-fractured liposomes obtained with this hardware, showing two differing fracture regimes, we believe they are of similar quality to those obtained using other techniques.

  15. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. Methods and Findings We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7–US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below

  16. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  17. UMMPerfusion: an open source software tool towards quantitative MRI perfusion analysis in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Frank G; Weisser, Gerald; Reich, Marcel; Kaiser, Sven; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Sourbron, Steven P; Schad, Lothar R

    2013-04-01

    To develop a generic Open Source MRI perfusion analysis tool for quantitative parameter mapping to be used in a clinical workflow and methods for quality management of perfusion data. We implemented a classic, pixel-by-pixel deconvolution approach to quantify T1-weighted contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging (DCE-MRI) perfusion data as an OsiriX plug-in. It features parallel computing capabilities and an automated reporting scheme for quality management. Furthermore, by our implementation design, it could be easily extendable to other perfusion algorithms. Obtained results are saved as DICOM objects and directly added to the patient study. The plug-in was evaluated on ten MR perfusion data sets of the prostate and a calibration data set by comparing obtained parametric maps (plasma flow, volume of distribution, and mean transit time) to a widely used reference implementation in IDL. For all data, parametric maps could be calculated and the plug-in worked correctly and stable. On average, a deviation of 0.032 ± 0.02 ml/100 ml/min for the plasma flow, 0.004 ± 0.0007 ml/100 ml for the volume of distribution, and 0.037 ± 0.03 s for the mean transit time between our implementation and a reference implementation was observed. By using computer hardware with eight CPU cores, calculation time could be reduced by a factor of 2.5. We developed successfully an Open Source OsiriX plug-in for T1-DCE-MRI perfusion analysis in a routine quality managed clinical environment. Using model-free deconvolution, it allows for perfusion analysis in various clinical applications. By our plug-in, information about measured physiological processes can be obtained and transferred into clinical practice.

  18. Routine Liver Biopsy During Bariatric Surgery: an Analysis of Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Parmar, Chetan; Graham, Yitka; Abouleid, Ayman; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis can progress to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are not as accurate as liver biopsy, and bariatric surgery presents a unique opportunity to carry out a simultaneous liver biopsy. Routine liver biopsy can help early and accurate diagnosis of obesity-associated liver conditions. This has led some surgeons to argue for routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery. However, most bariatric surgeons remain unconvinced and liver biopsy is currently not routine practice with bariatric surgery. This review examines published scientific literature to ascertain the usefulness of routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery.

  19. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollós-Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  20. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Pope, D J; Cutajar, D L; George, S P; Guatelli, S; Bucci, J A; Enari, K E; Miller, S; Siegele, R; Rosenfeld, A B

    2015-06-07

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences.Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  1. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  2. PIXE investigation of aerosol composition over the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meter, S. L.; Formenti, P.; Piketh, S. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Atmospheric sulphate aerosol concentrations are of interest in climate change studies because of their negative climate forcing potential. Quantification of their forcing strength requires the compilation of global sulphur emission inventories to determine the magnitude of regional sources. We report on measurements of the ambient aerosol concentrations in proximity to a copper refinery in the central African Copperbelt, along the border of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This region is historically regarded as one of the largest African sources of sulphate aerosols. Sulphate is produced by oxidation in the atmosphere of SO 2 emitted during the pyrometallurgical processing of Cu-Co sulphide ores. Since the last quantification of sulphur emissions (late 1960s), there has been large-scale reduction in copper production and more frequent use of the leaching technique with negligible sulphur emissions. Samples were collected over four weeks, November-December 1996, at Kitwe, Zambia. A low volume two-stage time-resolving aerosol sampler (streaker) was used. Coarse and fine mode aerosols were separated at >2.5 and >10 μmad. Hourly elemental concentrations were determined by 3.2 MeV PIXE, and routinely yielded Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, above detection limits. Si, K, Ca and Fe (major crustal components) dominated the coarse elemental mass. In the fine stage, S and Si accounted for up to 80% of the measured mass, and S alone up to 60%. Time series analysis allowed the division of sulphur and crustal elements (Si, K, Ca, Fe) between (i) background concentrations representative of synoptic scale air masses; and (ii) contributions from local sources, i.e., copper smelter and re-suspended soil dust. Short duration episodes of S concentrations, up to 26 μg/m 3, were found simultaneously with enhanced Cu, Fe and Zn. Contributions from individual pyrometallurgic processes and the cobalt slag dump could be distinguished from the elemental signatures

  3. Study of the elemental composition of Yellow Pine using particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Changgeng; Hollerman, William A.; Glass, Gary A.; Greco, Richard

    2001-07-01

    It has been found that metals in woody tissue will influence the growth rate of trees. Utilization of particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) for determination of trace element levels in biological systems is rather extensive. In this work, three rings taken from a 50-year-old Yellow Pine tree were PIXE analyzed with minimal sample preparation. Eight elements (potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, and zinc) were studied during the PIXE analysis. The relationship between relative yield and tree ring thickness is presented for each detected element. These results show that wood taken from the oldest ring has the widest ring thickness and possesses the largest quantities of all the tested elements. Calcium appears to have the largest relative yield of all the tested elements and is roughly proportional to ring thickness. Heavier elements, such as lead and mercury, were not detected in any of the Yellow Pine samples.

  4. PIXE study of Cuban quaternary paleoclimate geological samples and speleothems.

    PubMed

    Montero, M E; Aspiazu, J; Pajón, J; Miranda, S; Moreno, E

    2000-02-01

    PIXE elemental analysis of sediments, speleothems, and other geological formations related to the karst of the Sierra de San Carlos is presented. The similarity of the elemental composition of the sediments studied, as well as the alluvial regime which created them, indicate their common origin at each location. The Sr/Ca concentration ratio of a stalactite indicates that the average atmospheric temperature 12,000 and 18,000 years B.P. was colder than that of 6000 years B.P.

  5. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  6. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D. J.; Cutajar, D. L.; George, S. P.; Guatelli, S.; Bucci, J. A.; Enari, K. E.; Miller, S.; Siegele, R.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences. Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  7. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  8. Analysis of Investigational Drugs in Biological Fluids Method Development and Routine Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-12

    The purpose of work under this contract is to develop and routinely use analytical methods for the determination of the concentration in biological specimens of investigational drugs in support of pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies undertaken for the purpose of new drug development for the US military establishment. Accepted scientific procedures including normal and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, post column derivatization, and protein precipitation and

  9. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3–8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges. PMID:26792974

  10. Micro-PIXE in plant sciences: Present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.

    2002-04-01

    Fundamental processes of plant physiology are affected or regulated by mineral nutrients. Hence understanding the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and their functions in plant metabolism is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant studies. The present knowledge of ion uptake mechanisms is based mostly on techniques for bulk analysis, including analysis of small (mg-sized) samples but without spatially resolved results. On the other hand, advanced studies of elemental transport at a cellular level are conducted using techniques with high and very high spatial resolution, but with low sensitivity for elemental analysis. Thus the results obtained are usually restricted to macronutrients or elements present in high quantities. There is a high demand for studies of the functions of trace elements. In addition, it is known that, depending on their concentrations, elements can play different roles in plant life. Studies related to elemental deficiency and toxicity, as well as environmental pollution, require accurate, fully quantitative methods with good spatial resolution. Ideally, these studies should be conducted on organs and tissues as far down as the cellular level. This is where micro-PIXE has been applied until present and can in the near future play a much more important role. Progress is subject to closer collaboration between plant biologists and the PIXE community in terms of addressing problems of specimen preparation, refinement of analytical protocols such as quantitative elemental mapping and the interpretation of results.

  11. Detection and Real Time Spectroscopy of Charged Particles with the TimePix Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    We tested the position—, spectral— and time—resolution capability of the TimePix semiconductor detector together with the USB readout interface and Pixelman control and DAQ software tool for detection and visualization of particles. Event—by—event spectroscopy can be achieved by real time analysis of the characteristic tracks and specific response of different radiation in the pixel detector.

  12. Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Of Silicate Coatings On High Impact Resistance Polycarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qian; Hart, M. A.; Culbertson, R. J.; Bradley, J. D.; Herbots, N.; Wilkens, Barry J.; Sell, David A.; Watson, Clarizza Fiel

    2011-06-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis was employed to characterize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) C32H60O19 polymer film via areal density measurement on silicon-based substrates utilizing the differential PIXE concept, and compared with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results. It is demonstrated in this paper that PIXE and RBS measurements both yield comparable results for areal densities ranging from 1018 atom/cm2 to several 1019 atom/cm2. A collection of techniques including PIXE, RBS, tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), and contact angle analysis were used to compute surface free energy, analyze surface topography and roughness parameters, determine surface composition and areal density, and to predict the water affinity and condensation behaviors of silicates and other compounds used for high impact resistance vision ware coatings. The visor surface under study is slightly hydrophilic, with root mean square of surface roughness on the order of one nm, and surface wavelength between 200 nm and 300 nm. Water condensation can be controlled on such surfaces via polymers adsorption. HPMC polymer areal density measurement supports the analysis of the surface water affinity and topography and the subsequent control of condensation behavior. HPMC film between 1018 atom/cm2 and 1019 atom/cm2 was found to effectively alter the water condensation pattern and prevents fogging by forming a wetting layer during condensation.

  13. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Serša, I.; Poličnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanič, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-06-01

    Beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  14. PIXE measurements of Renaissance silverpoint drawings at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milota, Petra; Reiche, Ina; Duval, Alain; Forstner, Oliver; Guicharnaud, Hélène; Kutschera, Walter; Merchel, Silke; Priller, Alfred; Schreiner, Manfred; Steier, Peter; Thobois, Elisabeth; Wallner, Anton; Wünschek, Barbara; Golser, Robin

    2008-05-01

    Silverpoint drawings from the Renaissance are among the most precious and rarest treasures of graphical art. Our research group is particularly interested in the analysis of silverpoint drawings by Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). A very sensitive and non-destructive analytical method, either spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SY-XRF) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is needed to determine the chemical composition of the very faint silver marks on such drawings. Dürer drawings from the collection of the Albertina, Vienna, were analyzed to amend existing data on Dürer drawings. For this purpose an external-beam PIXE setup was installed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). It allows to analyze a spot of ∼0.15 mm on the object in air with 3 MeV protons, and to detect the emitted X-rays that are characteristic for the chemical composition with very good sensitivity and without harming the precious objects. After successful measurements on artificial test samples, four original silverpoint drawings were investigated: two portraits from Albrecht Dürer's very early period (self-portrait and portrait of his father) and two drawings from Dürer's sketch book of his travel to the Netherlands 1520/21.

  15. Validation of the Scan RDI for routine microbiological analysis of process water.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Stephen P; Borazjani, Roya N; McCormick, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the validation methods and criteria specified in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 "Evaluation, Validation, and Implementation of New Microbiological Testing Methods" against data generated on the Chemunex Scan RDI. For each parameter, we have either reported data obtained in-house or reviewed information and documentation available from the manufacturer of the system. For all specified requirements, the Scan RDI produced data that was within the specifications suggested in the PDA Technical Report or suitable information was obtained from the manufacturer. The results of the study indicate that the Scan RDI can be validated for routine use in a pharmaceutical environment and provide results equivalent to current methods, but in a much shorter time frame.

  16. Routine application of the in situ soil analysis technique by the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.C.; McCurdy, D.E.; Laurenzo, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Using a technique developed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for field spectrometry, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory (YAEL) has routinely performed in situ soil measurements in the vicinity of five nuclear power stations for more than a decade. As a special research endeavor, several locations at the FURNAS Angra 1 site in Brazil having high natural backgrounds were also measured in 1987. The technical basis of the technique, a comparison of soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil analyses from the same sites, the advantages and disadvantages of the in situ methodology, and the evolution of the portable equipment utilized at YAEL for the field measurements are presented in this paper.

  17. PIXE and the mysteries of Legionnaires' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    The authors describe the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyse the nickel concentrations of the autopsy specimens from victims of Legionnaires' disease. They show that the high nickel concentrations in the lung specimens from the first recognized Legionnaires' cases in Philadelphia in 1976 were due to contamination during the autopsies. Recently the authors have used PIXE to show that the selenium concentrations in the sera of the acutely ill Legionnaires' patients are significantly lower than in their matching convalescent-phase sera. This finding may be related to the patient's response to the disease or to the specific characteristics of the Legionella pneumophila itself. Studies show that the disease is not a rare illness but a worldwide one. General criteria concerning specimen collection are described.

  18. Diagnosis of river pollution by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Maeda, M.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE has been applied to analyse suspended particulates in urban river water. Samples were collected from the Tama River, which flows into Tokyo Bay, at nine locations in the lower reaches up to 25 km from its river mouth. The major element, Si, and minor elements, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca. Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, were detected. The minor elements could be divided into four groups originated from natural ((1) seawater and (2) minerals) and human ((3) industrial and (4) livings) activities. The contents of elements from minerals were high upper stream and at turbulent areas, while those resulting from human activities increased from the middle areas. The results of ICP and AAS were consistent with the PIXE data.

  19. Clinical utility and cost analysis of routine postoperative head CT in elective aneurysm clippings.

    PubMed

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Winkler, Ethan; Pitts, Lawrence; Hannegan, Lisa; Franc, Benjamin; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative head CT scanning is performed routinely at the authors' institution on all neurosurgical patients after elective aneurysm clippings. The goal of this study was to determine how often these scans influence medical management and to quantify the associated imaging costs. METHODS The authors reviewed the medical records and accounting database of 304 patients who underwent elective (i.e., nonruptured) aneurysm clipping performed by 1 surgeon (M.T.L.) from 2010 to 2014 at the University of California, San Francisco. Specifically, the total number of postoperative head CT scans, radiographic findings, and the effect of these studies on patient management were determined. The authors obtained the total hospital costs for these patients, including the cost of imaging studies, from the hospital accounting database. RESULTS Overall, postoperative CT findings influenced clinical management in 3.6% of cases; specifically, they led to permissive hypertension in 4 patients for possible ischemia, administration of mannitol for edema and high-flow oxygen for pneumocephalus in 2 patients each, seizure prophylaxis in 1 patient, Plavix readjustment in 1 patient, and return to the operating room for an asymptomatic epidural hematoma evacuation in 1 patient. When patients were stratified on the basis of postoperative neurological examination, findings on CT scans altered management in 1.1%, 4.8%, and 9.0% of patients with no new neurological deficits, a nonfocal examination, and focal deficits, respectively. The mean total hospital cost for treating patients who undergo elective aneurysm clipping was $72,227 (± $53,966) (all values are US dollars), and the cost of obtaining a noncontrast head CT scan was $292. Neurologically intact patients required 99 head CT scans, at a cost of $28,908, to obtain 1 head CT scan that influenced medical management. In contrast, patients with a focal neurological deficit required only 11 head CT scans, at a cost of $3212, to

  20. A new on-line electrocardiographic records database and computer routines for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Carlos A; Severeyn, Erika; Perpiñán, Gilberto; Altuve, Miguel; Wong, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Gathering experimental data to test computer methods developed during a research is a hard work. Nowadays, some databases have been stored online that can be freely downloaded, however there is not a wide range of databases yet and not all pathologies are covered. Researchers with low resources are in need of more data they can consult for free. To cope with this we present an on-line portal containing a compilation of ECG databases recorded over the last two decades for research purposes. The first version of this portal contains four databases of ECG records: ischemic cardiopathy (72 patients, 3-lead ECG each), ischemic preconditioning (20 patients, 3-lead ECG each), diabetes (51 patients, 8-lead ECG each) and metabolic syndrome (25 subjects, 12-lead ECG each). In addition, one computer program and three routines are provided in order to correctly read the signals, and two digital filters along with two ECG waves detectors are provided for further processing. This portal will be constantly growing, other ECG databases and signal processing software will be uploaded. With this project, we give the scientific community a resource to avoid hours of data collection and to develop free software.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes.

  2. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  3. Do men consult less than women? An analysis of routinely collected UK general practice data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Hunt, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin; Freemantle, Nick; Petersen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether gender differences in primary care consultation rates (1) vary by age and deprivation status and (2) diminish when consultation for reproductive reasons or common underlying morbidities are accounted for. Design Cross-sectional study of a cohort of patients registered with general practice. Setting UK primary care. Subjects Patients (1 869 149 men and 1 916 898 women) registered with 446 eligible practices in 2010. Primary outcome measures Primary care consultation rate. Results This study analyses routinely collected primary care consultation data. The crude consultation rate was 32% lower in men than women. The magnitude of gender difference varied across the life course, and there was no ‘excess’ female consulting in early and later life. The greatest gender gap in primary care consultations was seen among those aged between 16 and 60 years. Gender differences in consulting were higher in people from more deprived areas than among those from more affluent areas. Accounting for reproductive-related consultations diminished but did not eradicate the gender gap. However, consultation rates in men and women who had comparable underlying morbidities (as assessed by receipt of medication) were similar; men in receipt of antidepressant medication were only 8% less likely to consult than women in receipt of antidepressant medication (relative risk (RR) 0.916, 95% CI 0.913 to 0.918), and men in receipt of medication to treat cardiovascular disease were just 5% less likely to consult (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.948 to 0.952) than women receiving similar medication. These small gender differences diminished further, particularly for depression (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.947 to 0.953), after also taking account of reproductive consultations. Conclusions Overall gender differences in consulting are most marked between the ages of 16 and 60 years; these differences are only partially accounted for by consultations for reproductive reasons

  4. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  5. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues.

  6. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  7. PIXE/RBS as a tool to study cementitious materials: Application to the dynamic leaching of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, I.; Castellote, M.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Ynsa, M. D.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; de Viedma, P. G.; Castillo, A.; Martínez, I.; Andrade, C.; Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.

    2009-12-01

    The suitability of the application of Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to elemental depth profiling in concrete is analysed, studying hardened samples of concrete prior to and after a dynamic leaching test. A calibration of the data has been done by comparing the results obtained by IBA techniques with those obtained by Chemical and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG/DTA). From PIXE and RBS data relevant information about the migration of minor elements, within the concrete matrix after leaching is obtained.

  8. The influence of matrix composition and ink layer thickness on iron gall ink determination by the PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uršič, Mitja; Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož

    2006-06-01

    The elemental composition of iron gall inks in historical documents can be effectively studied using the non-destructive proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The in-air proton beam experimental set-up installed at the Microanalytical Centre of the Jožef Stefan Institute was used for this purpose. The aim of the present investigation was to model and evaluate the uncertainties in the analysis due to the incompletely known matrix composition and iron gall ink layer thickness. Estimation of these uncertainties helped in quantifying the accuracy of multi-elemental PIXE analysis of historical documents.

  9. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  10. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  11. On the autarchic use of solely PIXE data in particulate matter source apportionment studies by receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples allows simultaneous detection of several elements, including important tracers of many particulate matter sources. This capability, together with the possibility of analyzing a high number of samples in very short times, makes PIXE a very effective tool for source apportionment studies by receptor modeling. However, important aerosol components, like nitrates, OC and EC, cannot be assessed by PIXE: this limitation may strongly compromise the results of a source apportionment study if based on PIXE data alone. In this work, an experimental dataset characterised by an extended chemical speciation (elements, EC-OC, ions) is used to test the effect of reducing input species in the application of one of the most widely used receptor model, namely Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The main effect of using only PIXE data is that the secondary nitrate source is not identified and the contribution of biomass burning is overestimated, probably due to the similar seasonal pattern of these two sources.

  12. μ-PIXE and X-PIXE for radiological forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencio, Paula; Doyle, Barney; Antolak, Arlyn; Morse, Daniel; Richardson, Charles

    2005-09-01

    Sandia is evaluating methods for identifying and quantifying trace signatures in field collection samples to support national deterrence policies. The first step in this process is to identify which combination of major, minor, and trace elements in a recovered collection sample provides the most reliable forensic information, and then to be able to quickly, accurately, and, in some cases, nondestructively measure these components. Conventional approaches have typically required a long, complex series of sample preparations followed by radiochemical analysis, often yielding only qualitative results. We report on our investigations to assess accelerator-based ion beam analysis methods by cross-calibrating with other methods, performing in-air analyses of bagged samples in anticipation of inspecting poorly constituted radioactive materials, and quantifying the uncertainties for detected elements.

  13. Environmental impact of fertilizer industries evaluated by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, J. E.; Bolívar, J. P.; Respaldiza, M. A.; García-Tenorio, R.; da Silva, M. F.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper the environmental impact of several phosphogypsum piles sited in the southwest of Spain is studied using multielemental analysis by PIXE of 12 salt marsh and soil samples collected in their surroundings. The piles are used to store the main by-product formed in the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. The samples collected were bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the ITN at Sacavèm (Portugal), and 20 elements from Al to Pb were detected. The results obtained reinforce previous radioanalytical determinations concerning the significant radioactive contamination pathways (leaching or/and dissolution of elements by water from the piles) and the negligible pathways (atmospheric and direct aquatic transport).

  14. Use of the Endocuff during routine colonoscopy examination improves adenoma detection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Matthew; Karnes, William; Jamal, M Mazen; Lee, John G; Lee, Robert; Samarasena, Jason; Bechtold, Matthew L; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To perform meta-analysis of the use of Endocuff during average risk screening colonoscopy. METHODS Scopus, Cochrane databases, MEDLINE/PubMed, and CINAHL were searched in April 2016. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week, United European Gastroenterology, and the American College of Gastroenterology meeting were also searched from 2004-2015. Studies comparing EC-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) to standard colonoscopy, for any indication, were included in the analysis. The analysis was conducted by using the Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird models with the odds ratio (OR) to assess adenoma detection, cecal intubation rate, and complications performed. RESULTS Nine studies (n = 5624 patients) were included in the analysis. Compared to standard colonoscopy, procedures performed with EC had higher frequencies for adenoma (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.23-1.80; P = 0.03), and sessile serrated adenomas detection (OR = 2.34 95%CI: 1.63-3.36; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in cecal intubation rates between the EAC group and standard colonoscopy (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.70-2.27, I2 = 0%; P = 0.44). EAC was associated with a higher risk of complications, most commonly being superficial mucosal injury without higher frequency for perforation. CONCLUSION The use of an EC on colonoscopy appears to improve pre-cancerous polyp detection without any difference in cecal intubation rates compared to standard colonoscopy. PMID:27920485

  15. Modifications to the accuracy assessment analysis routine MLTCRP to produce an output file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications are described that were made to the analysis program MLTCRP in the accuracy assessment software system to produce a disk output file. The output files produced by this modified program are used to aggregate data for regions greater than a single segment.

  16. Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A1Pi-X1Sigma+ Systems of IrN.

    PubMed

    Ram; Bernath

    1999-02-01

    The emission spectrum of IrN has been investigated in the 10 000-20 000 cm-1 region at 0.02 cm-1 resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The bands were excited in an Ir hollow cathode lamp operated with a mixture of 2 Torr of Ne and a trace of N2. Numerous bands have been classified into two transitions labeled as A1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ by analogy with the isoelectronic PtC molecule. Ten bands involving vibrational levels up to Kv = 4 in the ground and excited states have been identified in the A1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. This electronic transition has been previously observed by [A. J. Marr, M. E. Flores, and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 8183-8196 (1996)]. To lower wavenumbers, five additional bands with R heads near 12 021, 12 816, 13 135, 14 136, and 15 125 cm-1 have been assigned as the 0-1, 3-3, 0-0, 1-0, and 2-0 bands, respectively, of the new A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. A rotational analysis of these bands has been carried out and equilibrium constants for the ground and excited states have been extracted. The Kv = 2 and 3 vibrational levels of the A' 1Pi state interact with the Kv = 0 and 1 levels of the A1Pi state and cause global perturbations in the bands. The ground state equilibrium constants for 193IrN are: omegae = 1126.176360(61) cm-1, omegaexe = 6.289697(32) cm-1, Be = 0.5001033(20) cm-1, alphae = 0.0032006(20) cm-1, and re = 1.6068276(32) Å. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. An analysis of human motion detection systems use during elder exercise routines.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Havens, Timothy C; Rantz, Marilyn; Keller, James; Casanova Abbott, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Human motion analysis provides motion pattern and body pose estimations. This study integrates computer-vision techniques and explores a markerless human motion analysis system. Using human-computer interaction (HCI) methods and goals, researchers use a computer interface to provide feedback about range of motion to users. A total of 35 adults aged 65 and older perform three exercises in a public gym while human motion capture methods are used. Following exercises, participants are shown processed human motion images captured during exercises on a customized interface. Standardized questionnaires are used to elicit responses from users during interactions with the interface. A matrix of HCI goals (effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) and emerging themes are used to describe interactions. Sixteen users state the interface would be useful, but not necessarily for safety purposes. Users want better image quality, when expectations are matched satisfaction increases, and unclear meaning of motion measures decreases satisfaction.

  18. Rapid screening for Native American mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups detection in routine DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuccarelli, Gala; Alechine, Evguenia; Caputo, Mariela; Bobillo, Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Aiming to detect individuals of Native American maternal or paternal ancestry a rapid screening approach has been developed. Its strategy was based on SNP typing by Real Time PCR (rt-PCR) followed by High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM). After extraction, DNA was quantitated by rt-PCR using commercial kits; samples were then submitted to two multiplex reactions in order to determine the major Native American mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups by HRM. One cocktail included primers flanking nucleotide substitutions that define mtDNA haplogroup C and sub-haplogroups A2, B2, and D1. The other included primers flanking Y-SNPs M3, M269 and U179 that allowed discriminating Q and non-Q haplogroups. In all cases amplicons were <125 nucleotides long in order to increase the peak resolution. The accuracy of the results obtained was established by means of sequencing analysis of the amplicons. The new working-flow here proposed facilitates and speeds-up the screening process that may preclude a detailed sequencing analysis of particular samples, or for further molecular epidemiological investigations in which continental origin influences might be relevant.

  19. AGANTG: a Microsoft EXCEL 5.0-visual basic routine for the analysis of dose-response data.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P J; Buckner, S

    1998-08-01

    A Microsoft EXCEL 5.0 program was developed to evaluate data from biochemical and functional bioassays, an important step in drug discovery. The program accommodates both agonist and antagonist data. The program, written entirely in Visual Basic, is compatible with both Macintosh and PC platforms. Data are conveniently entered into a worksheet following only a few simple rules. The program performs complex data analysis and outputs calculated and graphic results to EXCEL worksheets. A set-up routine with a convenient dialog box offers the user controls regarding data analysis and results formats. After determining if the data are from an agonist or antagonist assay, the program automatically performs the analysis and outputs results in the proper format. Calculations support Schild analysis for antagonists. An agonist and antagonist were analyzed to illustrate program usage and results generated by the analysis. EXCEL-Visual Basic is a useful and convenient tool for evaluating bioassay data. Data entry is greatly simplified and custom reports can be generated with relative ease. Data are stored in a format that allows for easy editing re-analysis.

  20. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  1. PIXE analysis of PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) for air quality assessment of Islamabad, Pakistan: application of chemometrics for source identification.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Shahida; Jaafar, Muhammad Z; Siddique, Naila; Markwitz, Andreas; Brereton, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A Gent sampler was used to collect 379 pairs of filters from Nilore, a suburban area of Islamabad city. The study was designed to assess the concentration variations of trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter due to anthropogenic activities and naturally occurring events. Source identification was performed by applying MATLAB software for principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA). The average fine and coarse particulate masses during the study period were 15.1 ± 11.9 and 37.3 ± 28.0 μg/m(3) respectively which complies with the 24-h air quality limits set by the government of Pakistan. The application of PCA to PM(2.5) data suggests the PM contribution from sources such as soil, automobile exhaust and coal combustion, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood combustion, biomass burning and fertilizers and fungicides whereas for the PM(2.5-10) data shows signatures of suspended soil, automobile exhaust, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood and biomass burning, refuse incineration, Ni smelter, fertilizers and fungicides are obtained. Cluster analysis of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) datasets reveals that there are mainly three contributory pollution sources and these are suspended soil particles, automobile related sources and wood and coal combustion.

  2. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it’s application to μ-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Kachenko, A. G.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D. D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of μ-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 μm resolution was achieved for μ-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  3. Micro-PIXE quantification of histochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Cichocki, T.; Divoux, S.; Gonsior, B.; Höfert, M.; Jarczyk, L.; Strzalkowski, A.; Sych, M.

    1990-04-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission in combination with a proton microprobe (micro-PIXE) was used for the quantitative determination of a locally bound histochemical reaction end-product. The determination of proteoglycans (PG) content in the cartilage is described in detail. The cartilage from the femur and the skull of 17-19 days old embryos and from ribs of mature CBA strain mice was investigated. The 8 μm cryomicrotome sections, placed on a formvar backing, were incubated in colloidal iron or in alcian blue (dye molecule contains Cu) solutions. The determination of PG contents was made indirectly by assessment of the Fe or Cu concentrations. Differences in the PG contents were observed within all investigated cartilage types. The embryonal cartilage contains more PG than that obtained from mature animals. For the cartilage from the femur the highest content of PG was found in the mineralization front while fully formed bone trabeculae exhibited a PG level 10 times lower. In the case of intramembranaceous ossification the content of PG was also higher in the skull cartilage than in the loose connective tissue. On the basis of the performed studies some methodological conclusions can be drawn. For PG determination, the alcian blue method is more reliable than the colloidal iron technique. The review of the histochemical procedures which may be combined with the micro-PIXE method is also given.

  4. PIXE studies of osteoporosis preventive treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Pinheiro, T.; Ager, F. J.; Alves, L. C.; Millán, J. C.; Gómez-Zubelbia, M. A.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2002-04-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear microprobe (NMP) have been used in an exploratory work to study elemental alterations in tissues of experimental animals submitted to osteoporosis preventive treatments. Osteopathologies have been associated with several factors, such as hormonal disturbances, metabolic aberrations, low dietary Ca and vitamin D intake, excess of iron, among other possible factors. Hormonal treatments seem to be beneficial to the incorporation of Ca in bone but breast and endometrial cancers constitute significant side effects that cannot be ignored. Wistar female rats were used to test the effect of estrogen therapy in osteoporosis progression. The variations of elemental concentrations in uterus and the Ca content of femoral bones of ovariectomised rats under estrogen therapy were investigated. PIXE, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and secondary electron microscopy techniques were applied for the characterisation of biological materials, with respect to morphology and trace element distribution determination. The increase of Ca and Fe concentrations in uterus and the variations for Ca distribution patterns in bone of rats submitted to estrogen therapy were the major features observed.

  5. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  6. Validating the Construct of Coercion in Family Routines: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Irvin, Larry K; Blumberg, E Richard; Laverty, Robelyn; Horner, Robert H; Sprague, Jeffrey R

    2004-06-01

    We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an expanded ecological unit of analysis that may contribute to sustainable behavioral family intervention. Ten children with autism and/or mental retardation and their families participated. Videotaped observations were conducted in typical but unsuccessful home routines. Parent-child interaction in routines was coded in real time and sequential analyses were conducted to test hypotheses about coercive processes. Following observation, families were interviewed about the social validity of the construct. Results confirmed the presence of statistically significant, attention-driven coercive processes in routines in which parents were occupied with non-child centered tasks. Results partially confirmed the presence of escape-driven coercive processes in routines in which parent demands are common. Additional analysis revealed an alternative pattern with greater magnitude. Family perspectives suggested the social validity of the construct. Results are discussed in terms of preliminary, partial evidence for coercive processes in routines of families of children with developmental disabilities. Implications for behavioral assessment and intervention design are discussed.

  7. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX.

  8. Extended-release naltrexone: A qualitative analysis of barriers to routine use

    PubMed Central

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H.; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX. PMID:26654934

  9. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  10. Handheld NIRS sensors for routine compound feed quality control: Real time analysis and field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Modroño, Sagrario; Soldado, Ana; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances achieved in different sensor technologies and computer processing data have made possible to respond the needs of livestock sector, providing precise and rapid information on feed composition, being an alternative to real time quality control on compound feed the use of handheld NIRS sensors. This work aimed to evaluate two hand-held portable NIR spectrophotometers for on-site and real time analysis of nutritive parameters in raw compound feed: Phazir 1624 Polychromix Inc (PhIR) and MicroNIR(TM) 1700 by JDSU (MICRO). For computing data, different combinations of pre-treatments and multivariate statistical methods have been assayed to extract the valuable information of spectra data and to develop appropriate calibrations. The calibration models displayed greatest predictive capacity for Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF) and Starch (STCH) and the determination coefficients of cross validation were 0.90-0.88 for CP, 0.85-0.91 for CF, 0.89-0.88 and 0.89-0.91 for STCH using PhIR and MICRO instruments respectively. Dry Matter showed the lowest determination coefficients of cross validation 0.67-0.73. Accuracy achieved 99-101% for both NIRS instruments and no differences were found when applying tstudent-test comparing reference and predicted data. Results obtained with both instruments were compared by using standard deviation and not significant differences were observed at the 5% level. Results so far have demonstrated the potential of these handheld NIRS instruments proposed here to estimate the individual compound feeds composition changes at farms level instantly, time avoiding the disadvantage of moving the samples to the lab.

  11. Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project from PIX to NICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PIX follow-up project NICS is described. The purpose of PIX was access to X.25, the DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office. The development and implementation of higher protocols for levels 4-7 in the ISOSINN was the actual problem here. Results of the PIX project are given. NICS (Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project) is presented. International Protocols are reviewed. PAD service is described, which allows terminal access to DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office.

  12. A sub-minute CZE method to determine nitrate and nitrite in meat products: An alternative for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Della Betta, Fabiana; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Fett, Roseane; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    A sub-minute capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was optimized and a simple sample preparation procedure based on the extraction of the analytes with water and sodium tetraborate was developed for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite levels in meat products. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 20mmolL(-1) perchloric acid and 65mmolL(-1) β-alanine at pH3.83. Thiocyanate was used as the internal standard. The proposed method was validated and the uncertainty estimated according to Eurachem guidelines. The run time was only 30s, allowing analyzing more than 25samples/h, the good analytical performance confirms the suitability of the method for the analysis of meat products. One sample presented residual nitrite levels above the limit established by MERCOSUL legislation (150mgkg(-1)). The use of a fast method in association with a simple sample preparation step means that this procedure represents a possible alternative to fulfill the demand for high throughput in routine laboratory analysis.

  13. Advanced, enhanced HEX program for PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    The REX code and subsequent HEX code, originating at Florida State University, have been extensively used for PIXE spectra fitting. In 1989 we produced a renovated HEX package: WITS-HEX, enabling the original Fortran program to be more accessible to the PIXE community. We modernised the user interface by replacing the batch mode of operation with an integrated, menu-driven environment. We added the ability to edit support data files from within the program, provided detailed feedback during the fitting process and enhanced spectral plots using high resolution colour graphics. Our prototype also permitted the inclusion of many more peaks and absorption coefficients into the element library than the original HEX, permitting a more extensive element request list to be used during the fitting operation. We have now completed the second phase of the renewal of HEX. The man-machine interface has been upgraded to conform to the IBM SAA Common User Access (CUA) standard. This eliminated several of the sequential (modal) human-computer dialogues, replacing them with a single parallel system. The support utility used in WITS-HEX to convert the binary format of spectra captured using foreign data acquisition systems has been replaced by code to directly access data in ASCII format. The program is now equipped with context-sensitive help and a tutorial. The polynomial background model has been supplemented by a digital filter model, eliminating the associated instability from the fitting process and other spectral features modelled. The program has been validated by comparing results with those obtained from the former versions: WITS-HEX and HEX. A demonstration version is available on request for evaluation purposes.

  14. On the Reliability of PIXE and SXRF Microanalyses of Interplanetary Dust Paticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, P.; Flynn, G. J.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: The trace element contents of stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) eventually provide clues as to their origin(s). Since the masses of IDPs are on the order of nanograms, their trace element contents typically amount to only ab out 10^8 atoms. Therefore all analytical techniques are operating near their limits of detection (LODs) and the question is: how reliable are the trace element data of IDPs? At present three different analytical techniques are applied to measure trace elements in IDPs: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SXRF), and Time Of Flight- or double-focusing Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (T OF-SIMS/SIMS). In 1989 we performed a crosscheck between minor and trace element data obtained by SXRF in Hamburg and by PIXE in Heidelberg and found non-conflicting results [1]. Here we report on a new chrosscheck between results acquired with the new He idelberg PIXE facility [2] and the actual SXRF facility in Brookhaven [3]. Measurements: Three IDPs, L2005AB2 (~12 micrometers), L2011K1 (~15 x 25 micrometers), and L2011R13 (~17 x 34 micrometers), were first analyzed with SXRF in 1994 and re-analyzed with PIXE in March 1995. The PIXE data were aquired in two runs with different absorbers in front of the detector. One spectrum was obtained with a 45 micrometers Be-absorber and a 5 pA beam of 2x2 micrometers^2 during 20-50 min for each particle. For a second analysis we used a 155 micrometers Al-absorber and a 5x5 micrometers^2 beam of ~300 pA for 60-120 min. The SXRF data were aquired in one ru n (<30 min) with a thick Al-absorber and a beam size of roughly 20x20 micrometers^2. Results: The resulting element weight-ratios normalized to iron (set to be =19.04%=CI [4]) are presented in Tab.1. Abundances normalized to Fe and to the respective CI(=solar) ratios from Anders and Grevesse are shown in Fig.1. With only a few exceptions, there is a very good agreement between the PIXE and the SXRF

  15. Integration Of SIMS Into A General Purpose IBA Data Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Alves, L. C.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Coad, P.; Widdowson, A.

    2011-06-01

    IBA techniques such as RBS, ERDA, NRA, or PIXE are highly complementary, and are often combined to maximize the extracted information. In particular, they have different sensitivities to various elements and probe different depth scales. The same is true for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), that can have much better detection limits for many species. Quantification of SIMS data normally requires careful calibration of the exact system being studied, and often the results are only semi-quantitative. Nevertheless, when SIMS is used together with other IBA techniques, it would be highly desirable to integrate the data analysis. We developed a routine to analyse SIMS data, and implemented it in NDF, a standard IBA data analysis code, that already supported RBS, ERDA, resonant and non-resonant NRA, and PIXE. Details of this new routine are presented in this work.

  16. Reliability of fibres in solid-phase microextraction for routine analysis of the headspace of aromatic and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2007-06-08

    This article evaluates the HS-SPME recovery repeatability, intermediate precision and their performance over time when applied to HS-SPME sampling for quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. Experiments were carried out on two sets of fibres coated with two different coatings and belonging to different lots (i.e 100 microm polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS) and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/PDMS 50/30 microm, l: 1 cm (CAR/DVB/PDMS)) and on chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), sage (Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl.) and a standard solution containing 3-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and menthol in diisobutyl phthalate. The performance of each set of fibres was evaluated by determining a group of complementary statistical parameters including: (i) repeatability of the absolute areas of each marker from each matrix with each fibre; (ii) intra-fibre repeatability of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with each fibre of each set; (iii) inter-fibre intermediate precision of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with all fibres of each set; and (iv) analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA with Fisher and Tukey tests. The influence of the number of analyses on fibre effectiveness (fibre life-time) was studied by linear regression analysis (LRA). The results proved that HS-SPME can successfully be used for routine control analysis of aromatic ad medicinal plants since both types of fibres showed good repeatability and intermediate precision of analytes recovery and consistency over time. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, CAR/DVB/PDMS coated fibres gave better results than those coated with PDMS. The fibre-life seemed mainly to be influenced by the number and conditions of samplings and nature of the matrix investigated.

  17. Characterisation by PIXE RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.; Sauvage, T.; Kemeny, J. L.; Cazenave, A.; Jallot, E.

    2006-09-01

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl 6V 4 or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl 6V 4 and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl 6V 4 debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  18. Routine immunofluorescent and histochemical analysis of bone marrow involvement of lymphoma/leukaemia: the use of cryostat sections.

    PubMed Central

    Chilosi, M.; Pizzolo, G.; Fiore-Donati, L.; Bofill, M.; Janossy, G.

    1983-01-01

    Enzyme histochemical and immunohistological (immuno-fluorescence and -peroxidase) techniques have been routinely used for investigating over 70 normal and pathological bone marrow samples. This recently standardized diagnostic procedure is very quick and can be performed in a few hours. In 6 cases the clinical diagnosis of leukaemia/lymphoma has become apparent only after the immunohistological analysis of the bone marrow. In 6 other cases the information about the staging of B cell malignancies was superior in the frozen biopsies to the paraffin embedded preparations. Amongst many other features the monoclonality of B CLL/lymphomas, the special features of B CLL infiltrates (RFA-1+, Leu-1+, HLA-DR+, SmIg+), follicular lymphoma deposits (containing follicular dendritic cells) and non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemic blasts (terminal transferase+, HLA-DR+) as well as the sometimes conspicuous presence of infiltrating normal T cells could be clearly and reproducibly demonstrated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:6360192

  19. Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

    1999-12-10

    We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting.

  20. Development of fast enantioselective gas-chromatographic analysis using gas-chromatographic method-translation software in routine essential oil analysis (lavender essential oil).

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Blumberg, Leonid; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Liberto, Erica

    2010-02-26

    The study aimed to find the best trade-off between separation of the most critical peak pair and analysis time, in enantioselective GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of lavender essential oil, using the GC method-translation approach. Analysis conditions were first optimized for conventional 25 m x 0.25 mm inner diameter (dc) column coated with 6(I-VII)-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2(I-VII)-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral stationary phase (CSP) diluted at 30% in PS086 (polymethylphenylpolysiloxane, 15% phenyl), starting from routine analysis. The optimal multi-rate temperature program for a pre-set column pressure was determined and then used to find the pressures producing the efficiency-optimized flow (EOF) and speed-optimized flow (SOF). This method was transferred to a shorter narrow-bore (NB) column (11 m x 0.10 mm) using method-translation software, keeping peak elution order and separation. Optimization of the enantioselective GC method with the translation approach markedly reduced the analysis time of the lavender essential oil, from about 87 min with the routine method to 40 min with an optimal multi-rate temperature program and initial flow with a conventional inner diameter column, and to 15 min with FID as detector or 13.5 min with MS with a corresponding narrow-bore column, while keeping enantiomer separation and efficiency.

  1. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  2. Access to Routine Immunization: A Comparative Analysis of Supply-Side Disparities between Northern and Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboreime, Ejemai; Abimbola, Seye; Bozzani, Fiammetta

    2015-01-01

    Background The available data on routine immunization in Nigeria show a disparity in coverage between Northern and Southern Nigeria, with the former performing worse. The effect of socio-cultural differences on health-seeking behaviour has been identified in the literature as the main cause of the disparity. Our study analyses the role of supply-side determinants, particularly access to services, in causing these disparities. Methods Using routine government data, we compared supply-side determinants of access in two Northern states with two Southern states. The states were identified using criteria-based purposive selection such that the comparisons were made between a low-coverage state in the South and a low-coverage state in the North as well as between a high-coverage state in the South and a high-coverage state in the North. Results Human resources and commodities at routine immunization service delivery points were generally insufficient for service delivery in both geographical regions. While disparities were evident between individual states irrespective of regional location, compared to the South, residents in Northern Nigeria were more likely to have vaccination service delivery points located within a 5km radius of their settlements. Conclusion Our findings suggest that regional supply-side disparities are not apparent, reinforcing the earlier reported socio-cultural explanations for disparities in routine immunization service uptake between Northern and Southern Nigeria. Nonetheless, improving routine immunisation coverage services require that there are available human resources and that health facilities are equitably distributed. PMID:26692215

  3. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  4. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  5. On-demand beam deflection system for PIXE milliprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltr, J.; Král, J.; Černý, J.; Švejda, J.

    2002-04-01

    Application of an on-demand beam deflection system in PIXE analysis has numerous advantages. The suppression of pile-up is accomplished much better than by using pile-up rejection electronic circuits only. In the case of biological and other sensitive types of samples, it is important to minimize the radiation and thermal load. In the case of samples with very different concentrations, the need for beam current correction between sample analyses is not as critical. An on-demand beam deflection system for the analytical facility at the CTU in Prague has been developed and implemented. A pair of electrodes was inserted in the beam line in front of the target chamber. The electrodes are supplied with positive high voltage up to 1 kV and they are a U-shape cross-section to reduce their beam distortion effect. Temporarily, one of the electrodes is shorted to ground potential. The shorting, by a HEXFET ® transistor, occurs in a period of about 100 ns after the edge of the triggering pulse. A description of the system as well as the results of the tests are presented.

  6. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  7. In-depth elemental characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells by means of RBS and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydas, A. G.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Streeck, C.; Kaufmann, C.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Beckhoff, B.; Jaksic, M.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-07-01

    Thin films based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 are used as absorber cells in photovoltaic devices. In and Ga graded depth profiles are designed to optimize the solar cell performance. Simultaneous Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with 3 MeV 4He ions were used in conjunction to determine the depth profile of all the heavy elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers and complete solar cells. The RBS and PIXE data from one sample were analyzed synergistically, providing reliable depth profiles that satisfy all the data collected. An uncertainty analysis was done, probing the sensitivity of the analysis to different assumptions. The analytical possibilities of the combined RBS/PIXE alpha beam measurements of the CIGSe thin film solar cells, as well as the uncertainties induced in the quantitative methodology are discussed and critically assessed.

  8. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preventive Care: An Analysis of Routine Physical Examination Among Adolescents, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nitardy, Charlotte M; Duke, Naomi N; Pettingell, Sandra L; Borowsky, Iris W

    2016-02-16

    Routine health care plays a central role in health promotion and disease prevention for children and in reducing health disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of routine physical examination among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents at 5 different time points. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey. Measures include frequency of physical examination by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. The analytic sample included 351 510 adolescents (1998, n = 67 239; 2001, n = 69 177; 2004, n = 71 084; 2007, n = 72 312; and 2010, n = 71 698). There were significant differences by racial/ethnic group at each time point. For example, in 2010, never having a physical examination was reported by 9.2% American Indian, 8.7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 7.0% Hispanic/Latino, 4.3% Black/African American, 3.7% mixed race, and 2.6% of White respondents (P < .001). Patterns of association emerged when the measure of routine physical examination was stratified by poverty and family structure.

  10. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  11. Distinguishing between native and smelted coppers using PIXE spectrometry: a case history from early colonial America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    2000-03-01

    During the recent excavation of a native American village at Governor's Land, in Virginia, two burials were unearthed, each of which contained a jumble of human bones, some fabric and a large number of copper tube beads. PIXE analysis of a representative group of these beads showed that about one-third of them were shaped from pieces of native copper, while the remainder were fashioned from scraps of smelted copper. Since the latter must have come from Europe, these data place the village's occupation in the decade either side of A.D. 1607, when the English first settled at nearby Jamestown.

  12. Studies of rare earth element distribution and action in human erythrocyte and animal hepatocyte by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Mi, Y.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, J. X.

    2002-04-01

    PIXE analysis is applied to investigate a long-term disputed issue whether the rare earth element (REE) can enter the cell across the cell membrane or not. It has been illustrated that REE could travel across the biomembrane into the cells by cell studies in vitro as well as in studies of animals fed with REEs diet. The binding of REE by membrane changes its permeability and makes intracellular ion transportable. Entrance of REEs may influence the cellular function. In addition, the REE distribution and behavior in cell are discussed.

  13. Application of PIXE, RBS and high energy proton microbeams to the elemental analysis of coal and coal waste. [Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, H.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Oakley, S.A.; Duedall, I.W.; Woodhead, P.M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission have proved to be sensitive and convenient methods to measure major trace element concentrations in bulk quantities of coal and coal waste materials. These techniques are complementary in their sensitivities as a function of atomic number, and both require little sample preparation. The PIXE measurements were made with the proton beam in air in a microprobe configuration. Collimated proton beam scans were made on several thin sections of fly ash/sludge block materials and good trace sensitivities were observed for small specific volumes; SEM scans showed a high degree of material homogeneity which precluded significant elemental variations at the approx. 100 ..mu..m spatial resolution used. Rutherford backscattering was used to directly observe major and minor elemental concentrations in coal waste materials and in several representative ranks of coals. RBS is useful for only trace concentrations of heavy elements, but it does provide a method independent of fluoresced x rays for detection of possible middle Z interferences. Arsenic, present in trace amounts in coal, is an element of concern and is enriched in fly ash. The form of As in fly ash is unknown. However, because of its volatility most of the As probably becomes attached to the surfaces of the fly ash particles during and subsequent to combustion processes. This view is supported by the fact that As is rapidly mobilized in aqueous solutions whose pH > 9.

  14. Pitfalls in the assessment, analysis, and interpretation of routine outcome monitoring (ROM) Data: results from an outpatient clinic for integrative mental health.

    PubMed

    Hoenders, Rogier H J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Vollbehr, Nina K; van der Ploeg, Karen; de Jonge, Peter; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable debate about routine outcome monitoring (ROM) for scientific or benchmarking purposes. We discuss pitfalls associated with the assessment, analysis, and interpretation of ROM data, using data of 376 patients. 206 patients (55 %) completed one or more follow-up measurements. Mixed-model analysis showed significant improvement in symptomatology, quality of life, and autonomy, and differential improvement for different subgroups. Effect sizes were small to large, depending on the outcome measure and subgroup. Subtle variations in analytic strategies influenced effect sizes substantially. We illustrate how problems inherent to design and analysis of ROM data prevent drawing conclusions about (comparative) treatment effectiveness.

  15. Biomedical application of PIXE in university of liege

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Delbrouck, J. M.; Roelandts, I.; Dideberg, O.; Bartsch, P.; De Pauw, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    Three biomedical applications of charged particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) are outlined. The different fields investigated include biophysics (protein study), cancer chemotherapy (cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (II) associated to liposomes as carriers) and lung pathology (serum and broncho-alveolar lavages). The samples were irradiated with 3 MeV protons (cyclotron) in a nitrogen atmosphere.

  16. Applicability and Efficiency of NGS in Routine Diagnosis: In-Depth Performance Analysis of a Complete Workflow for CFTR Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pagin, Adrien; Devos, Aurore; Figeac, Martin; Truant, Maryse; Willoquaux, Christelle; Broly, Franck; Lalau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Actually, about 2000 sequence variations have been documented in the CFTR gene requiring extensive and multi-step genetic testing in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders. We present a two phases study, with validation and performance monitoring, of a single experiment methodology based on multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing that allows detection of all variants, including large rearrangements, affecting the coding regions plus three deep intronic loci. Methods A total of 340 samples, including 257 patients and 83 previously characterized control samples, were sequenced in 17 MiSeq runs and analyzed with two bioinformatic pipelines in routine diagnostic conditions. We obtained 100% coverage for all the target regions in every tested sample. Results We correctly identified all the 87 known variants in the control samples and successfully confirmed the 62 variants identified among the patients without observing false positive results. Large rearrangements were identified in 18/18 control samples. Only 17 patient samples showed false positive signals (6.6%), 12 of which showed a borderline result for a single amplicon. We also demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect allele specific dropout of amplicons when a sequence variation occurs at a primer binding site thus limiting the risk for false negative results. Conclusions We described here the first NGS workflow for CFTR routine analysis that demonstrated equivalent diagnostic performances compared to Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This study illustrates the advantages of NGS in term of scalability, workload reduction and cost-effectiveness in combination with an improvement of the overall data quality due to the simultaneous detection of SNVs and large rearrangements. PMID:26900683

  17. PIXE as an analytical tool: An external-beam system in helium and the role of sample preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    A PIXE system in which samples in a helium-filled target chamber are irradiated by an external proton beam is described. The system is well suited for study of a wide range of materials, some merely calling for qualitative analysis, and others requiring quantitative measurements. This variety mandates a flexible approach to sample preparation in order to obtain full sensitivity of the system. Some examples taken from our work are given.

  18. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, Zoë; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  19. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-07-01

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  20. PIXE and GC-MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Bakraji, E H; Odeh, A

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC-MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed.

  1. On the direct quantification of celecoxib in commercial solid drugs using the TT-PIXE and TT-PIGE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsouli, B.; Zahraman, K.; Bejjani, A.; Assi, S.; El-Yazbi, F.; Roumié, M.

    2006-08-01

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, etc.,), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib in commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed.

  2. Outdoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  3. Routine Chromosomal Microarray Analysis is Necessary in Korean Patients With Unexplained Developmental Delay/Mental Retardation/Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Saeam; Yu, Nae; Choi, Jong Rak; Jeong, Seri

    2015-01-01

    Background All over the world, chromosomal microarray (CMA) is now the first tier diagnostic assay for genetic testing to evaluate developmental delay (DD), mental retardation (MR), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with unknown etiology. The average diagnostic yield of the CMA test is known to be about 12.2%, while that of conventional G-banding karyotype is below 3%. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of CMA for the purpose of clinical diagnostic testing in the Korean population. Methods We performed CMA and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) tests in 96 patients with normal karyotype and unexplained DD, MR, or ASD. The CMA was conducted with CytoScan 750K array (Affymetrix, USA) with an average resolution of 100 kb. Results Pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in 15 patients by CMA and in two patients by MLPA for four known microdeletion syndromes (Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome and Williams syndrome) designated by National Health Insurance system in Korea. The diagnostic yield was 15.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Thirteen (13.5%) patients (excluding cases with pathogenic CNVs) had variants of uncertain clinical significance. There was one patient with a 17.1-megabase (Mb) region of homozygosity on chromosome 4q. Conclusions Our findings suggest the necessity of CMA as a routine diagnostic test for unexplained DD, MR, and ASD in Korea. PMID:26206688

  4. Micro-PIXE analyses of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tylko, G.; Barnabas, A. D.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

    2013-07-01

    Cryo-micro-PIXE system and methodology of microanalysis of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections is described. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen by metal-mirror method and sections of 20-50 micron thickness were prepared. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. The results of repetitive analyses of standards prepared from gelatin-glycerol solution with added known concentrations of K, Ni, Cu, Zn were in good agreement with expected, calculated values. Mass losses and changes of elemental composition were monitored. Elemental maps obtained for frozen-hydrated semi-thick section of Ni hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus showed excellent preservation of leaf morphology and the distribution of elements. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed similar distribution pattern in both cases. It is clear, however, that freeze-drying induces some distortion of cell morphology and specimen shrinkage.

  5. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  6. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC-Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  7. Verification of a three-dimensional nodal transient neutronics routine for the TRAC-PF1/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, B.R.; Ivanov, K.N.; Baratta, A.J.; Steinke, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    The verification of a three-dimensional nodal transient neutronics routine in the TRAC-PF1/MOD3 Version 1.0 thermal-hydraulic system analysis computer code is discussed. This neutronics algorithm is based on a fully implicit transient version of the well-known nodal expansion method. Results from running TRAC-PF1/MOD3 with this new neutronics routine were compared with the results of running two established neutronics/thermal-hydraulic space-time codes. HERMITE and ARROTTA. The transient chosen of this code verification was a rapid ejection of an off-center control rod in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor, which is initially at hot standby. This severe prompt-critical transient provides a stringent test of TRAC-PF1/MOD3`s new multidimensional neutronics routine and its coupling to the existing thermal-hydraulic solution methodology. Because of its speed, the transient tests only the fuel rod heat conduction coupling and not the coolant thermal-hydraulic coupling. Acceptable agreement as obtained among the results from TRAC-PF1/MOD3, HERMITE, and ARROTTA during all phases of this transient. Agreement was in the areas of time dependence of total-core and peak-assembly powers, as well as the time dependence of the core-average and peak-assembly fuel temperatures. In addition, comparison of several steady-state calculations that provide initial conditions for the transient analysis showed acceptable agreement in the calculated eigenvalues and normalized assembly-power distributions.

  8. External beam pixe programs at the University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    A PIXE system in which large or delicate samples are excited by a low-current external proton beam is described. This system has been used to analyze historical printed books and manuscripts, as well as a large variety of archeological artifacts. The steps used to protect the sample from unnecessary beam current are examined. A recent thorough study of the first volume of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible is described in some detail.

  9. Detection of X chromosome aneuploidy using Southern blot analysis during routine population-based screening for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adir, Vardit; Shahak, Elena; Dar, Hanna; Borochowitz, Zvi U

    2003-01-01

    We report herein two cases where detection of X chromosome aneuploidy (cytogenetically proved 45,X/46XX and 47,XXX) was made possible by molecular diagnosis during population-based carrier screening for Fragile X syndrome, using Southern blot analysis. This study emphasizes the value of molecular analysis for gene dosage to suggest chromosomal aneuploidy.

  10. Efficient identification of flavones, flavanones and their glycosides in routine analysis via off-line combination of sensitive NMR and HPLC experiments.

    PubMed

    Blunder, Martina; Orthaber, Andreas; Bauer, Rudolf; Bucar, Franz; Kunert, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    We present a standardized, straightforward and efficient approach applicable in routine analysis of flavonoids combining sensitive NMR and HPLC experiments. The determination of the relative configuration of sugar moieties usually requires the acquisition of (13)C NMR shift values. We use a combination of HPLC and sensitive NMR experiments (1D-proton, 2D-HSQC) for the unique identification of known flavones, flavanones, flavonols and their glycosides. Owing to their broad range of polarity, we developed HPLC and UHPLC methods (H2O/MeOH/MeCN/HCOOH) which we applied and validated by analyzing 46 common flavones and flavanones and exemplified for four plant extracts. A searchable data base is provided with full data comprising complete proton and carbon resonance assignments, expansions of HSQC-spectra, HPLC parameters (retention time, relative retention factor), UV/Vis and mass spectral data of all compounds, which enables a rapid identification and routine analysis of flavones and flavanones from plant extracts and other products in nutrition and food chemistry.

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Analysis: One of the Few Advanced Physical Measuring Techniques That Have Established Themselves for Routine Application in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Wolfgang; Gegner, Jürgen

    The conventional procedure of X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement is improved by means of a modification of the beam path of the diffractometer and an iterative technique that includes a pre-analysis of the nearpeak line-profile. The achieved short measuring times of 5 and around 10 min per residual stress value and retained austenite content, respectively, serve as precondition for routine industrial applications over the last three decades within SKF. The line width represents a measure of material ageing within the lifetime cycle of a rolling bearing: calibration curves for the (near-) surface and the sub-surface failure mode are presented. Material response analysis permits differentiation of these failure modes and between low- and high-cycle fatigue.

  12. Evaluation of a carbon-rod atomizer for routine determination of trace metals by atomic-absorption spectroscopy applications to analysis of lubricating oil and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hall, G; Bratzel, M P; Chakrabarti, C L

    1973-08-01

    A carbon-rod atomizer (CRA) fitted with a 'mini-Massmann' carbon rod was evaluated for routine analysis of petroleum and petroleum products for trace metal content by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Aspects investigated included sensitivity, detection limit, effect of solvent type, and interferences. The results of analysis of oil samples with this technique were compared with those obtained by other techniques. Metals studied were silver, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. Sensitivity and detection limit values obtained with the CRA were similar to those obtained with the carbon-filament atomizer. Strong 'solvent effects' were observed as well as interference by cations. On the basis of this study, design changes for the CRA are suggested, with the object of minimizing 'solvent effects' and interferences, increasing the atomization efficiency, and increasing the residence time of the atomic vapour in the optical path of the instrumental system.

  13. Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

  14. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  15. Learning from Homeschooling Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the routines of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…

  16. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  17. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  18. A cost-benefit analysis of a routine varicella vaccination program for United States Air Force Academy cadets.

    PubMed

    Burnham, B R; Wells, T S; Riddle, J R

    1998-09-01

    The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is one of the nation's military universities, with the mission to educate and motivate cadets to be career Air Force officers. This diverse population arrives at the USAFA with varying immunization records and disease histories. A review of USAFA cadet medical records identified an alarming cost of treating a simple, preventable, generally childhood disease: chickenpox. In July 1995, a cost-benefit analysis was performed on the use of varicella vaccine among cadets and preparatory school students at the USAFA. Based on this analysis, the USAFA implemented a strategy of serologic screening and vaccination. Although this study does not establish causation, follow-up data showed a dramatic decrease in cases, associated hospitalizations, and therefore costs during the first year after implementation. Fiscal projections indicate that these costs savings should increase through year 4 of the program and continue thereafter. At year 4, the total cadet population will have been serologically screened and/or vaccinated against chickenpox.

  19. Visualization of trace-element zoning in fluorapatite using BSE and CL imaging, and EPMA and μPIXE/μPIGE mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Munnik, Frans; Götze, Jens; Rhede, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, zonation patterns of trace elements in fluorapatite are discussed that were visualized using four analytical techniques, namely back-scattered electrons (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and micro-proton-induced X-ray/gamma ray emission (μPIXE/μPIGE) mapping. Each method demonstrates the in-grain compositional variations in a slightly different way. Both BSE and CL provide qualitative data, and the internal textures are displayed in most detail. Additionally, CL points to specific elements enriched in certain growth zones. Qualitative EPMA maps show detailed zonation patterns for specific elements (with high spatial resolution), which are in general correspondence with the patterns observed in BSE and CL images. The μPIXE/μPIGE maps are fully quantitative and the detection limits are relatively low compared to EPMA mapping. In present spot measurements μPIXE demonstrates lower detection limits than EPMA, however, the latter could be considerably improved by extending the acquisition times. There is no significant overlap of REE (rare earth elements) peaks in the acquired μPIXE energy spectra, however, when multiple REEs are present with sufficiently high concentrations, peak deconvolution may pose some difficulties. Spatial resolution of μPIXE/μPIGE images is not sufficiently high to reflect minor textural features, which also result from the greater interaction depth of the proton beam. However, major growth zones are distinguishable. Even though each method has their advantages and limitations, when applied together, they provide an almost complete characterization of compositional variability in trace-element-bearing minerals.

  20. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  1. Application of CZE Method in Routine Analysis for Determination of B-Complex Vitamins in Pharmaceutical and Veterinary Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Marina; Jasionowska, Renata; Salvatore, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    A competitive CZE method for quality control analysis of multivitamin preparations and veterinary products containing B-group vitamins was developed. Vitamins of interest are thiamine hydrochloride (B1), thiamine monophosphate chloride (B1a), riboflavine (B2), riboflavine-5′monophosphate (B2a), nicotinamide (B3), d-pantothenic acid calcium salt (B5), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), folic acid (B9), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (B10). These analytes were separated optimizing the experimental conditions in 20 mM tetraborate buffer pH = 9.2 as a BGE (background electrolyte), on a Beckman P/ACE System MDQ instrument, using uncoated fused silica capillary. The effective capillary length was of 49.5 cm, I.D. = 50 μm, the applied voltage 20 kV and the temperature 25°C. Detection was performed by a diode array detector at 214 nm for all vitamins except B5 (190 nm) and B2a (260 nm). Separation time was about 9 min. After experimental conditions optimization, the proposed method was validated. Precision of migration time and corrected peak area, linearity range, LOD and LOQ, accuracy (recovery), robustness, and ruggedness were evaluated for each analyte demonstrating the good reliability of the method. Analyses of the pharmaceutical real samples were performed and confirmed the versatility of this method. PMID:22536244

  2. c-Cbl regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Min Woo; Park, Ji Ho; Yoo, Hee Min; Yang, Seung Wook; Oh, Kyu Hee; Ka, Seung Hyeun; Park, Dong Eun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chung, Chin Ha

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • c-Cbl ubiquitinates αPix for proteasome-mediated degradation. • C6 and A172 glioma cells lack c-Cbl, which leads to stabilization of αPix. • The accumulated αPix promotes migration and invasion of the cancer cells. • The lack of c-Cbl in the cells appears responsible for their malignant behavior. - Abstract: c-Cbl, a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, down-regulates receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGF receptor, and inhibits cell proliferation. Moreover, c-Cbl mutations are frequently found in patients with myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, c-Cbl is known as a tumor suppressor. αPix is expressed only in highly proliferative and mobile cells, including immune cells, and up-regulated in certain invasive tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we showed that c-Cbl serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase for proteasome-mediated degradation of αPix, but not βPix. Remarkably, the rat C6 and human A172 glioma cells were unable to express c-Cbl, which leads to a dramatic accumulation of αPix. Depletion of αPix by shRNA markedly reduced the ability of the glioma cells to migrate and invade, whereas complementation of shRNA-insensitive αPix promoted it. These results indicate that c-Cbl negatively regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion and the lack of c-Cbl in the C6 and A172 glioma cells is responsible for their malignant behavior.

  3. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  4. Salerno Exultet: its characterization by Raman and PIXE-α analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Nardone, Michele; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Lighea; Romano, Francesco P.; Russo, Pio A.; Sodo, Armida

    2001-10-01

    Two non-destructive techniques, Raman spectroscopy and particle induced x-ray emission spectrometry, were used for a compete connotation of the Salerno Exultet, an illuminated parchment dated back to 13th century. The Salerno Exultet exhibits several areas which have underdone restoration treatments during the years. The complete connotation of this masterpiece was necessary in order to identify and to distinguish the original and the added pigments. Owing to its dimensions, it has been impossible to analyze the Salerno Exultet directly under the microscope of our Micro- Raman spectrometer. We have therefore used optical fibers connected to a three axis micro-positioned measurement head mounted on a large metal frame. PIXE analysis was performed using the portable instrumentation set up by the INFN-LANDIS Laboratory, Catania, Italy. The combination of these two complementary techniques allowed us to reveal a palette formed by lapis-lazuli, cinnabar, verdigris, earths organic lakes and chalk.

  5. Studies of blood lead levels in children by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE).

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Joseph, D; Choudhury, R K; Bajpai, H N; Gauba, I; Lokeshwar, M R; Wagle, C S

    1991-04-15

    Blood lead levels of children admitted to Sion Hospital, Bombay (India), from the adjoining Dharavi slum areas have been determined by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Blood samples were collected from 36 children with suspected lead poisoning and from 20 control children. The analysis showed that the lead concentration of the patients varied from 0.1 to 6.0 micrograms ml-1. In addition to lead, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were also detected simultaneously, of which the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb and Pb were determined. The high blood lead levels of the children from this area may be ascribed to environmental pollution due to heavy vehicular traffic and industrial sources.

  6. Uptake of cadmium by synthetic mica and apatite: Observation by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Satoh, Takahiro

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated the uptake of Cd by a mixture containing equal mass of two powerful sorbents for Cd, a synthetic mica named 'Na-4-mica' and an apatite, by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. Divalent Cd ions were found to be selectively taken up by the apatite from the mixture even though it has one order of magnitude lower distribution coefficient for Cd 2+ than Na-4-mica. This was mainly attributed to the fact that the kinetics of uptake by the apatite were more rapid than those by Na-4-mica. Regarding the uptake of Cd colloids containing hydroxides and carbonates, no clear selectivity for solid phases was observed and Cd colloids appeared to be preferentially taken up by smaller particles of solid phases.

  7. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  8. Microanalysis of materials by PIXE using focused MeV heavy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuji, Horino; Yoshiaki, Mokuno; Kanenaga, Fujii

    1993-04-01

    MeV heavy ion microprobes, 3 MeV C 2+, Si 2+ and Ni 2+ were applied for micro-PIXE measurements. It was found that the X-ray yields vary drastically as a function of the combination of the atomic number of incident ions and target atoms, which indicates that there is a best combination for specific element analysis. This was demonstrated by an investigation of human nail by a silicon microprobe which was compared with the case of proton. Furthermore, the minimum detectable gold weights in silicon were also estimated as a practical case and it was found that a carbon microprobe was best for measuring gold atoms in silicon.

  9. Constitutive episomal expression of polypeptide IX (pIX) in a 293-based cell line complements the deficiency of pIX mutant adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Caravokyri, C; Leppard, K N

    1995-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 5 capsid is composed of a number of distinct polypeptides. It has been shown previously that one of these, polypeptide IX (pIX), is not absolutely required for the production of viable virus. However, viruses lacking this polypeptide have a significantly reduced packaging limit and, in the one case studied, also show a thermolabile virion phenotype. This report describes the use of eukaryotic episomal vectors based on the Epstein-Barr virus replicon to generate cells which stably express pIX. These cells provide pIX that is efficiently incorporated into virions that are genetically pIX-; such enhanced thermostability. These cells have also been used to isolate a genetically pIX- virus having a genome of length some 2.3 kbp in excess of the previously defined packaging limit for pIX- virus; the resulting virions have wild-type thermostability. These cells expand the theoretical capacity of adenovirus vectors for foreign DNA to around 9.2 kbp and may therefore be useful in gene therapy applications in which vector capacity is limiting. PMID:7474071

  10. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Cossío, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sánchez, S.; Calligaro, T. F.; Tenorio, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, M.; Rios, M. De Los

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purísima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, México, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraíso Querétaro, Ucareo Michoacán and mainly from Zacualtipán/Metzquititlán Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  11. Determination of trace pollutants in urban snow using PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, R. E.; Landsberger, S.; Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1982-02-01

    The absolute concentrations of 25 elements in urban snow samples have been determined by PIXE techniques. Detection limits between 0.2 and 147 ppb for the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd and Pb were achieved by a simple pre-concentration method. Proton beams of 1.6 MeV and 3.0 MeV were employed to bombard the targets. Comparisons of unconcentrated and pre-concentrated snow samples, blank determinations, sensitivity measurements vs bombarding time and reproducibility tests were also carried out.

  12. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  13. Parent routines for managing cystic fibrosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bishop, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is burdensome and adherence is often suboptimal. Family routines are associated with adherence and health outcomes in other disease populations. Few studies have examined routines in CF. The study's aim was to describe parent experiences developing and utilizing CF care routines. Semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 25 parents of children under 13 years of age with CF were analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Three domains emerged: parent experiences developing a routine, support systems facilitating maintenance of routines, and challenges with maintaining care routines. Parents found routines difficult to establish, used trial and error, encountered barriers, and found support helpful to manage care demands. Some parents chose to deviate from their routine. Providing anticipatory guidance to promote the use of care routines and strategies to manage potential challenges may facilitate use of routines and improve CF management. PMID:24838648

  14. Do patients with lactose intolerance exhibit more frequent comorbidities than patients without lactose intolerance? An analysis of routine data from German medical practices

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Rebecca; Kostev, Karel; Gothe, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in food intolerances poses a burgeoning problem in our society. Food intolerances not only lead to physical impairment of the individual patient but also result in a high socio-economic burden due to factors such as the treatment required as well as absenteeism. The present study aimed to explore whether lactose intolerant (LI) patients exhibit more frequent comorbidities than non-LI patients. Methods The study was conducted on a case-control basis and the results were determined using routine data analysis. Routine data from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were used for this purpose. A total of 6,758 data records were processed and analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between LI and the incidence of osteoporosis, changes in mental status, and the presence of additional food intolerances. Comparing 3,379 LI vs. 3,379 non-LI patients, 34.5% vs. 17.7% (P<0.0001) suffered from abdominal pain; 30.6% vs. 17.2% (P<0.0001) from gastrointestinal infections; and 20.9% vs. 16.0% (P=0.0053) from depression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were the highest for fructose intolerance (n=229 LI vs. n=7 non-LI; OR 31.06; P<0.0001), irritable bowel syndrome (n=247 LI vs. n=44 non-LI; OR 5.23; P<0.0001), and bloating (n=351 LI vs. n=68 non-LI; OR 4.94; P<0.0001). Conclusion The study confirms that LI should not be regarded as an isolated illness but considered a possible trigger for further diseases. Additional research is necessary to assert more precise statements. PMID:27065730

  15. Enhancement of Pathologist's Routine Practice: Reuse of DNA Extracted from Immunostained Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Slides in Downstream Molecular Analysis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AL-ATTAS*, ASMAA; ASSIDI*, MOURAD; AL-MAGHRABI, JAUDAH; DALLOL, ASHRAF; SCHULTEN, HANS-JUERGEN; ABU-ELMAGD, MUHAMMAD; CHAUDHARY, ADEEL; ABUZENADAH, ADEL; BUDOWLE, BRUCE; BUHMEIDA, ABDELBASET; AL-QAHTANI, MOHAMMED

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: To date, the conventional formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) technique is the gold-standard for preserving histomorphology. Once FFPE tissues are stained, slides are routinely archived along with their blocks at biobanks/hospitals. However, the reuse of fixed and stained biospecimens as DNA source is not a common routine practice worldwide and, thus, indicates the need of studies to investigate the feasibility of extracting DNA from already immunohistochemistry (IHC) FFPE-stained slides and its possible reuse in subsequent downstream molecular analyses. Materials and Methods: FFPE IHC slides from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were prepared and stored in the CEGMR Biobank. The workflow consists of digitalization of IHC stained slide’s image, removing the slide cover-slip, crude dissection and DNA extraction. Following DNA quality assessment, mutation analysis of CTNNB1 and methylation profile of CDH1 were performed. Results: High-quality DNA was obtained allowing 60% concordance between CDH1 methylation and membranous E-cadherin expression pattern. Clean CTNNB1 DNA chromatograms with evenly-spaced peaks were observed. Conclusion: This study is a proof of concept to recycle and reuse DNA from IHC stained slides with suitable concentration and integrity for further downstream molecular applications. These findings will enhance the pathologists’ knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards the use of these biospecimens and support the implementation of this approach in clinical pathology practice. Therefore, the scientific community will benefit from the largest comprehensive database of human fully annotated FFPE biospecimens already available at their disposal in order to demystify the complexity and the heterogeneity of many challenging diseases and foster the transition towards precision medicine. *These Authors contributed equally to this manuscript. PMID:27566658

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine flexible dose in newly diagnosed patients with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peral, Carmen; Sánchez-Ballester, Francisco; García-Mediero, José M; Ramos, Jaime; Rejas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Health System perspective, of treating overactive bladder (OAB), in newly diagnosed patients with two flexible doses of fesoterodine in routine clinical practice. Patients and methods Economic evaluation of flexible-dose fesoterodine in newly diagnosed patients, including two treatment groups: standard escalating from 4 to 8 mg or fast escalating to 8 mg. Costs were estimated from health care resources utilization related to OAB, and were expressed in 2015 Euros. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from overactive bladder questionnaire-short form. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results Three hundred and ninety symptomatic OAB patients treated with fesoterodine and newly diagnosed (141 in fast escalating group and 249 in standard escalating) were analyzed. Adjusted health care total costs were not statistically different; difference −€4.1 (confidence interval: −153.3; 25.1) P=0.842. QALYs were higher in fast escalating to high dose vs standard escalating group, resulting in a cost of −€16,020/QALY gained for fast escalating vs standard escalating group. Conclusion When the cost-effectiveness threshold is set at a maximum value of €30,000/QALY gained, fesoterodine fast escalating group was cost-effective vs standard escalating group 67.6% of the time. The treatment with fesoterodine, in female patients newly diagnosed, fast escalating to 8 mg was a cost-effective option relative to escalating traditionally from 4 to 8 mg, in the management of OAB in routine clinical practice, from the Spanish National Health System perspective. PMID:27713646

  17. Detailed phenotypic analysis of B-cell lymphoma using a panel of antibodies reactive in routinely fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Norton, A. J.; Isaacson, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty-three well characterized B-cell lymphomas, with diagnoses previously established by conventional cryostat immunocytochemistry or limited paraffin immunocytochemistry, were studied. The tumors encompassed most of the Kiel subtypes and included the newly recognized entity, sclerosing mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. by the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex technique, each tumor was stained with a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies reactive in routinely fixed wax-embedded tissues. The panel included four reagents recognizing probable T-cell and B-cell restricted leukocyte common moieties (UCHL1, MT1, MB1, 4KB5), three antibodies to B-cell-related antigens (KiB3, MB2, LN1), and one to a macrophage-related antigen (Mac411). Other antibodies employed included anti-mu chain, anti-kappa, anti-lambda, and seven antibodies to non-phenotype-associated antigens, including HLA-DR (TAL-1B5, LN3, LN2, MB3), CD15 (C3D-1), and CD30 (BER-H2). Monotypic surface or perinuclear space and cytoplasmic immunoglobulin were detected in 80% of cases. Distinctive immunocytochemical profiles were demonstrable in many tumor categories by means of the panel of antibodies, thus facilitating the differential diagnosis of tumors of similar morphology. These results, together with our work on T-cell lymphoma in paraffin sections, show that accurate phenotypic analysis of lymphoma is now possible in routinely processed tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3113255

  18. A quick, optimized method for routine analysis of essential and trans-octadecenoic acids in edible fats and oils by GLC.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Calvo, María Visitación; Fontecha, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A gas chromatography procedure using a 30-m capillary column (VF-23ms) has been optimized for quick analysis (run time less than 20 min). The method is suitable for routine analysis of the fatty acid composition of edible fat and oil samples (milk, fish, vegetal and synthetic origin). The results were comparable with those obtained with a 100-m-long CP-Sil 88 column (run times between 60 and more than 100 min) in the analysis of geometric and positional isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The achieved resolution of compounds from 4 to 26 carbon atoms with 0-6 double bonds, as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, major trans-octadecenoic isomers and conjugated linoleic acid isomers, was higher than those reported in other proposed and reference methods for similar samples using short-length columns. The response factors obtained from the fatty acid composition of reference milk fat exhibited high feasibility and the inter-assay (VF23ms versus CP-Sil 88) and intra-assays based on relative standard deviation showed good accuracy, because they were lower than 10%.

  19. CHR -- Character Handling Routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, A. C.; Rees, P. C. T.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Jenness, T.

    This document describes the Character Handling Routine library, CHR, and its use. The CHR library augments the limited character handling facilities provided by the Fortran 77 standard. It offers a range of character handling facilities: from formatting Fortran data types into text strings and the reverse, to higher level functions such as wild card matching, string sorting, paragraph reformatting and justification. The library may be used simply for building text strings for interactive applications or as a basis for more complex text processing applications.

  20. Validating the Construct of Coercion in Family Routines: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Irvin, Larry K.; Blumberg, E. Richard; Laverty, Robelyn; Horner, Robert H.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an…

  1. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. C.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Trindade, G. F.; Fleming, M. I. D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratório de Análise de Materiais por Feixes Iônicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  2. Immunogenicity and Effectiveness of Routine Immunization With 1 or 2 Doses of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grassly, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The World Health Organization has recommended that all 124 countries currently using only oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) introduce at least 1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) before the global withdrawal of serotype 2 OPV in 2016. A 1- or 2-dose schedule, potentially administered intradermally with reduced antigen content, may make this affordable. Methods. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies documenting seroconversion after 1 or 2, full or fractional (1/5) doses of enhanced-potency IPV was performed. Studies reporting the clinical efficacy of IPV were also reviewed. Results. Twenty study arms from 12 published articles were included in the analysis of seroconversion. One full dose of intramuscular IPV seroconverted 33%, 41%, and 47% of infants against serotypes 1, 2, and 3 on average, whereas 2 full doses seroconverted 79%, 80%, and 90%, respectively. Seroconversion increased with age at administration. Limited data from case-control studies indicate clinical efficacy equivalent to the proportion seroconverting. One fractional dose of intradermal IPV gave lower seroconversion (10%–40%), but after 2 doses seroconversion was comparable to that with full-dose IPV. Conclusions. Routine immunization with 2 full or fractional doses of IPV given after 10 weeks of age is likely to protect >80% of recipients against poliomyelitis if poliovirus reemerges after withdrawal of OPV serotypes. PMID:24634499

  3. A Model Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Routine Genotyping for CYP2D6 among Older, Depressed Inpatients Starting Nortriptyline Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Luttjeboer, Jos; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genotyping for CYP2D6 has the potential to predict differences in metabolism of nortriptyline. This information could optimize pharmacotherapy. We determined the costs and effects of routine genotyping for old aged Dutch depressed inpatients. Methods With a decision-tree, we modelled the first 12 weeks of nortriptyline therapy. Direct costs of genotyping, hospitalization, therapeutic drug monitoring and drugs were included. Based on genotype, patients could be correctly, sub-, or supratherapeutically dosed. Improvement from sub- or supratherapeutically dosed patients to correctly dosed patients was simulated, assuming that genotyping would prevent under- or overdosing of patients. In the base case, this improvement was assumed to be 35%. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to determine uncertainty around the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results In the base case analysis, costs for genotyping were assumed €200 per test with a corresponding ICER at €1 333 000 per QALY. To reach a €50 000 per QALY cut-off, genotyping costs should be decreased towards €40 per test. At genotyping test costs < €35 per test, genotyping was dominant. At test costs of €17 per test there was a 95% probability that genotyping was cost-effective at €50 000 per QALY. Conclusions CYP2D6 genotyping was not cost-effective at current genotyping costs at a €50 000 per QALY threshold, however at test costs below €40, genotyping could be costs-effective. PMID:28033366

  4. Micro-pixe study on sorption behaviors of cobalt by lichen biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Sakai, Takuro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Oikawa, Masakazu

    2003-09-01

    Sorption behavior of Cobalt (Co) by lichen biomass has been studied in the foliose lichen Permotrema tinctorum in solution between pH 3 and 5. Disc of P. tinctorum, weighing ≈9 mg was incubated in 25 ml 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing 1 mM Co for up to 96 h. Concentrations of Co in the solutions were measured at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h by ICP-AES. Spatial distribution of Co, K, P and Fe in the cross-section of P. tinctorum was examined by in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI. Sorption of Co by P. tinctorum reached equilibrium within 24 h. Co uptake was averaged to be 27 dry wt.%, and was independent of solution pHs between 3 and 5. Two-dimensional distribution of Co indicates that the sorbed Co was localized, and the density of Co in the lichen was ordered lower surface > upper surface, medullary layer > algal layer. Highest density in the two-dimensional distribution of Co is obtained in the lower surface suggesting that Co was sorbed by melanin-like pigment contained in the lower surface. Two-dimensional distribution of Co did not correspond to Fe indicating that Co was not adsorbed on the Fe-containing minerals trapped on P. tinctorum. It is concluded that μ-PIXE analysis is a useful technique to detect the distribution of low concentration of elements in lichen biomass.

  5. THE MAGNESIUM ISOTOPOLOGUES OF MgH IN THE A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Wallace, Lloyd; Ram, Ram S.; Bernath, Peter F.; Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara E-mail: wallace@noao.edu E-mail: pbernath@odu.edu E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it

    2013-08-15

    Using laboratory hollow cathode spectra we have identified lines of the less common magnesium isotopologues of MgH, {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH, in the A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system. Based on the previous analysis of {sup 24}MgH, molecular lines have been measured and molecular constants derived for {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH. Term values and linelists, in both wavenumber and wavelength units, are presented. The A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system of MgH is important for measuring the magnesium isotope ratios in stars. Examples of analysis using the new linelists to derive the Mg isotope ratio in a metal poor dwarf and giant are shown.

  6. CALIPSO User-Provided Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... data files. These routines are written in Interactive Data Language (IDL). A README file demonstrating use of the routines is also available. Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  7. A new method for the routine analysis of LAS and PAH in sewage sludge by simultaneous sonication-assisted extraction prior to liquid chromatographic determination.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Aparicio, I; Alonso, E

    2007-12-12

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAH) are organic pollutants in sewage sludge which will have to be monitored in the European Union according to the third draft of a future sludge directive. In the present work, an analytical method for the simultaneous extraction of 4 LAS homologues and 16 PAH congeners in sludge from wastewater treatment plants is proposed to improve the routine analysis of these compounds in sludge samples. The method involves sonication assisted extraction, clean-up and preconcentration by solid phase extraction, and determination by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and fluorescence (FLD) detectors. Average recoveries were 87% for LAS and 76% for PAH, with relative standard deviations below 13%. Limits of quantification of LAS and PAH were in the range from 13 to 56 mg kg(-1) and from 80 to 650 microg kg(-1), respectively, when using UV-DAD. Limits of quantification of LAS and PAH were in the range 5-18 mg kg(-1) and from 1 to 150 microg kg(-1), respectively, when using FLD. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Seville (South Spain).

  8. Development and validation of a simple method for routine analysis of ractopamine hydrochloride in raw material and feed additives by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Freire, Ellen Figueiredo; Borges, Keyller Bastos; Tanimoto, Hélio; Nogueira, Raquel Tassara; Bertolini, Lucimara Cristiane Toso; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2009-01-01

    A simple method was optimized and validated for determination of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) in raw material and feed additives by HPLC for use in quality control in veterinary industries. The best-optimized conditions were a C8 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5.0 microm particle size) at room temperature with acetonitrile-100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0; 75 + 25, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. With these conditions, the retention time of RAC was around 5.2 min, and standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 160-240 microg/mL (correlation coefficient > or = 0.999). Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection (ranged from 1.60 to 2.05 microg/mL), limit of quantification (ranged from 4.26 to 6.84 microg/mL), precision (relative standard deviation < or = 1.87%), accuracy (ranged from 96.97 to 100.54%), and robustness, gave results within acceptable ranges. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully applied for the routine quality control analysis of raw material and feed additives.

  9. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  10. A sensitive and efficient method for routine pesticide multiresidue analysis in bee pollen samples using gas and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, P Parrilla; Lozano, A; Uclés, S; Ramos, M M Gómez; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2015-12-24

    Several clean-up methods were evaluated for 253 pesticides in pollen samples concentrating on efficient clean-up and the highest number of pesticides satisfying the recovery and precision criteria. These were: (a) modified QuEChERS using dSPE with PSA+C18; (b) freeze-out prior to QuEChERS using dSPE with PSA+C18; (c) freeze-out prior to QuEChERS using dSPE with PSA+C18+Z-Sep; and (d) freeze-out followed by QuEChERS using dSPE with PSA+C18 and SPE with Z-Sep. Determinations were made using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The modified QuEChERS protocol applying a freeze-out followed by dSPE with PSA+C18 and SPE clean-up with Z-Sep was selected because it provided the highest number of pesticides with mean recoveries in the 70-120% range, as well as relative standard deviations (RSDs) typically below 20% (12.2% on average) and ensured much better removal of co-extracted matrix compounds of paramount importance in routine analysis. Limits of quantification at levels as low as 5μgkg(-1) were obtained for the majority of the pesticides. The proposed methodology was applied to the analysis of 41 pollen bee samples from different areas in Spain. Pesticides considered potentially toxic to bees (DL50<2μg/bee) were detected in some samples with concentrations up to 72.7μgkg(-1), which could negatively affect honeybee health.

  11. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  12. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  13. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG): application of routine immunological methods for initial testing and confirmation analysis in doping control.

    PubMed

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Ahola, Liisa; Pussinen, Christel; Leinonen, Antti

    2013-08-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is dimeric glycoprotein produced by placenta in pregnancy and also in low levels by pituitary gland. The main clinical use for exogenous hCG-administration is typically linked to infertility. The desired effect of hCG misuse in sport is due to the enhancement of testicular production of testosterone. Therefore, hCG is listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as a prohibited substance in male athletes and according to the recently published WADA guideline urinary concentrations of hCG > 5 IU/L may be an indicator of doping. In this study two independent immunoassays were used to implement the new WADA guideline. The assay for initial testing (Siemens Immulite 2000 XPi hCG assay) recognizes various hCG variants (e.g. hCG and β-core fragment of hCG) whereas the confirmatory assay (PerkinElmer DELFIA Xpress hCG) is sensitive to intact and nicked hCG only. Both assays showed adequate sensitivity and were proven fit-for-purpose in routine doping control. Population-based distribution of the assays was in good agreement with results of earlier studies and supported well the current threshold of 5 IU/L.

  14. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  15. Quality-assurance data for routine water analysis in the National Water-Quality Laboratory of the US Geological Survey for water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucey, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Geological Survey maintains a quality assurance program based on the analysis of reference samples for its National Water Quality Laboratory located in Denver, Colorado. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and precipitation (low-level concentration) constituents are prepared at the Survey 's Water Quality Services Unit in Ocala, Florida, disguised as routine samples, and sent daily or weekly, as appropriate, to the laboratory through other Survey offices. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), the Survey 's database for all water data. These data are analyzed statistically for precision and bias. An overall evaluation of the inorganic major ion and trace metal constituent data for water year 1988 indicated a lack of precision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for the determination of 8 out of 58 constituents: calcium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry), fluoride, iron (atomic absorption spectrometry), iron (total recoverable), magnesium (atomic absorption spectrometry), manganese (total recoverable), potassium, and sodium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry). The results for 31 constituents had positive or negative bias during water year 1988. A lack of precision was indicated in the determination of three of the six nutrient constituents: nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus. A biased condition was indicated in the determination of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen. There was acceptable precision in the determination of all 10 constituents contained in precipitation samples. Results for ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, sodium, and fluoride indicated a biased condition. (Author 's abstract)

  16. The impact of prenatal exposure to parasitic infections and to anthelminthic treatment on antibody responses to routine immunisations given in infancy: Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mentzer, Alexander J.; Lule, Swaib A.; Kizito, Dennison; Smits, Gaby; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Elliott, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic parasitic infections are associated with active immunomodulation which may include by-stander effects on unrelated antigens. It has been suggested that pre-natal exposure to parasitic infections in the mother impacts immunological development in the fetus and hence the offspring’s response to vaccines, and that control of parasitic infection among pregnant women will therefore be beneficial. Methodology/Principal findings We used new data from the Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, a trial of anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy conducted in Uganda, to further investigate this hypothesis. 2705 mothers were investigated for parasitic infections and then randomised to albendazole (400mg) versus placebo and praziquantel (40mg/kg) during pregnancy in a factorial design. All mothers received sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine for presumptive treatment of malaria. Offspring received Expanded Programme on Immunisation vaccines at birth, six, 10 and 14 weeks. New data on antibody levels to diphtheria toxin, three pertussis antigens, Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) and Hepatitis B, measured at one year (April 2004 –May 2007) from 1379 infants were analysed for this report. Additional observational analyses relating maternal infections to infant vaccine responses were also conducted. Helminth infections were highly prevalent amongst mothers (hookworm 43.1%, Mansonella 20.9%, Schistosoma mansoni 17.3%, Strongyloides 11.7%, Trichuris 8.1%) and 9.4% had malaria at enrolment. In the trial analysis we found no overall effect of either anthelminthic intervention on the measured infant vaccine responses. In observational analyses, no species was associated with suppressed responses. Strongyloidiasis was associated with enhanced responses to pertussis toxin, HiB and Hep B vaccine antigens. Conclusions/Significance Our results do not support the hypothesis that routine anthelminthic treatment during pregnancy has a benefit for the infant’s vaccine response, or

  17. Comparison of high-resolution melting analysis, TaqMan Allelic discrimination assay, and sanger sequencing for Clopidogrel efficacy genotyping in routine molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Cui, Guanglin; Li, Zongzhe; Wang, Haoran; Ding, Hu; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-09-01

    Clopidogrel, as a routine antiplatelet drug, is widely used in patients to reduce cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of genetic variation, patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention show differing responses to clopidogrel therapy. Recently, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CYP2C19 (rs4244285, rs4986893, rs12248560), ABCB1 (rs1045642), and ITGB3 (rs5918) were identified that contribute prominently to variability in response to clopidogrel. Given that Sanger sequencing is labor intensive and time consuming, rapid genotyping methods for SNP detection are urgently required before clopidogrel therapy. Accordingly, we developed a high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and TaqMan allelic discrimination assay (TaqMan) to genotype those five SNPs, and compared these two assays with Sanger sequencing on accuracy of genotyping as well as operational characteristics. These two assays showed high accuracy (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.998 for HRMA; 0.997, 95% CI 0.994 to 0.999 for TaqMan, respectively), sensitivity (0.996, 95% CI 0.989 to 1.002 for HRMA; 0.998, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.002 for TaqMan, respectively), and specificity (0.995, 95% CI 0.991 to 0.999 for HRMA; 0.996, 95% CI 0.993 to 1.000 for TaqMan, respectively). Our study indicates that HRMA and TaqMan are easier to operate and obviously faster than Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, HRMA and TaqMan are rapid, convenient, and reliable assays for clopidogrel efficacy genotyping.

  18. Standard, routine and non-routine processes in health care.

    PubMed

    Lillrank, Paul; Liukko, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Quality management methods have been introduced into health care with variable success. Industrial approaches, such as standardization, are not always applicable professional services, because of fundamental differences in conceptions of aims and the predictability of the results of action. Processes in health care can be classified into standard, routine and non-routine depending on the level of repetition and amount of variation, variety and uncertainty. Quality problems are different in each type: standard processes may produce deviations from targets, routines errors in classification, and non-routines failures in interpretation. Different management approaches for each type are discussed. A metaphor to assist discussion, The Broom, is introduced.

  19. Study of the spatial distribution of mercury in roots of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) by micro-pixe spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lomonte, Cristina; Wang, Yaodong; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Siegele, Rainer; Kolev, Spas D

    2014-01-01

    Localization of Hg in root tissues of vetivergrass (Chrysopogon zizanioides) was investigated by micro-Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) spectrometry to gain a better understanding of Hg uptake and its translocation to the aerial plant parts. Tillers of C. zizanioides were grown in a hydroponic culture for 3 weeks under controlled conditions and then exposed to Hg for 10 days with or without the addition of the chelators (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. These treatments were used to study the effects of these chelators on localization of Hg in the root tissues to allow better understanding of Hg uptake during its assisted-phytoextraction. Qualitative elemental micro-PIXE analysis revealed that Hg was mainly localized in the root epidermis and exodermis, tissues containing suberin in all Hg treatments. Hg at trace levels was localized in the vascular bundle when plants were treated with a mercury solution only. However, higher Hg concentrations were found when the solution also contained (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(3) or KI. This finding is consistent with the observed increase in Hg translocation to the aerial parts of the plants in the case of chemically induced Hg phytoextraction.

  20. Study of Z > 18 elements concentration in tree rings from surroundings forests of the Mexico Valley using external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calva-Vázquez, G.; Razo-Angel, G.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    2006-08-01

    The concentration of elements with Z > 18 is measured in tree rings from forests at the surroundings of the Mexico Valley: El Chico National Park (ECP) and Desierto de los Leones National Park (DLP). The analysis was done by simultaneous PIXE-RBS using an external proton beam on tree rings of Pine and Sacred fir (species Pinus montezumae and Abies religiosa, respectively). This study provides information about the elemental concentration in trees of those parks during the years from 1965 to 2003. Typical elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb were detected using PIXE technique while the wood matrix composition (mainly C and O) was determined by RBS. In general, elemental contents present large variations but concentrations oscillate around the mean value during this period of time. Nevertheless, the measurements showed some trends for Fe and Zn in the tree-rings elemental composition that may be correlated to recent volcanic activities in the region. The low Mn contents indicate soil acidification in DLP from 1968 and the forest decline in ECP during the last 15 years.

  1. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  2. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1

  3. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  4. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-01

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  5. Revascularisation of patients with end-stage renal disease on chronic haemodialysis: bypass surgery versus PCI—analysis of routine statutory health insurance data

    PubMed Central

    Möckel, Martin; Searle, Julia; Baberg, Henning Thomas; Dirschedl, Peter; Levenson, Benny; Malzahn, Jürgen; Mansky, Thomas; Günster, Christian; Jeschke, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to analyse the short-term and long-term outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing percutaneous intervention (PCI) as compared to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to evaluate the optimal coronary revascularisation strategy. Design Retrospective analysis of routine statutory health insurance data between 2010 and 2012. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was adjusted all-cause mortality after 30 days and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were repeat revascularisation at 30 days and 1 year and bleeding events within 7 days. Results The total number of cases was n=4123 (PCI; n=3417), median age was 71 (IQR 62–77), 30.4% were women. The adjusted OR for death within 30 days was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.81) for patients undergoing PCI versus CABG. At 1 year, the adjusted OR for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was 1.58 (1.32 to 1.89) for PCI versus CABG and 1.47 (1.23 to 1.75) for all-cause death. In the subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), adjusted all-cause mortality at 30 days did not differ significantly between both groups (OR 0.75 (0.47 to 1.20)), whereas in patients without AMI the OR for 30-day mortality was 0.44 (0.28 to 0.68) for PCI versus CABG. At 1 year, the adjusted OR for MACCE in patients with AMI was 1.40 (1.06 to 1.85) for PCI versus CABG and 1.47 (1.08 to 1.99) for mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of unselected patients with ESRD undergoing revascularisation, the 1-year outcome was better for CABG in patients with and without AMI. The 30-day mortality was higher in non-AMI patients with CABG reflecting an early hazard with surgery. In cases where the patient's characteristics and risk profile make it difficult to decide on a revascularisation strategy, CABG could be the preferred option. PMID:27752331

  6. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

    ... Profile products. It is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are ... Data Read routine  (1.5 KB) Interactive Data Language (IDL) is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . ...

  7. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  8. Trace elements in human alveolar macrophages studied by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Roelandts, I.; Corhay, J. L.; Radermecker, M.; Delavignette, J. P.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the metal content of alveolar macrophages by PIXE from 94 subjects divided into two groups as follows: group (1) — subjects with non-occupational exposure to industrial dust: 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 16 patients suffering from lung cancer; group (2) — 48 healthy steel workers from the Liège area (blast-furnace [ n=29] and coke oven [ n=19]). We hope to define more precisely the influence of carcinoma, smoking habit, pathology and occupational exposure in the steel industry on the macrophage metal content. This study has shown: (a) an Fe and Sr increase and a Br decrease in the macrophages of smokers (especially in heavy smokers): (b) a significant Fe, Ti, Br and Cu increase and a trend to Pb, Cr, As and Sr increase in macrophages of healthy steel workers (especially blast-furnace workers) in comparison with non-exposed controls; (c) a significant Fe, Br, Cu and Zn increase and a trend to Pb, As and Ni increase in macrophages of non-exposed patients with lung cancer by comparison with non-exposed controls. The mechanism of metal change could be explained by professional exposure and endogenous changes (protein synthesis, inflammation, bronchial bleeding, …)

  9. Application of PIXE in the study of shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, C. P.; Hansen, K. Mueller; Price, K.; Lutz, R.

    1991-05-01

    The Bartol in-air Pixe system has been used to study the elemental composition of many varieties of sea life; the sensitivity for the elements from Na to Sr is good, a reasonable spatial resolution is attainable and little preparation of the samples is required. Two examples are cited. First, the composition of the inner nacreous and prismatic regions of mussels ( Mytilus edulis) taken monthly (1981-1982) from the Damariscotta River, Maine, has been measured and, second, the shell and soft tissues of oysters ( Crassostrea virginica) grown under laboratory conditions on substrate of compacted residues from coal-fired power plants have been analysed. The mussel study shows a rather large anomaly in the Sr/Ca ratio for the nacreous region for May which suggests a possible connection with the reproduction cycle. Oysters grown on metal-containing coal-ash substrata gave tissue and shell metal concentrations similar to natural oysters, an indication of no anomalous uptake of metals from the coal-ash substrata.

  10. Pak1 and PIX regulate contact inhibition during epithelial wound healing.

    PubMed

    Zegers, Mirjam M P; Forget, Marie-Annick; Chernoff, Jonathan; Mostov, Keith E; ter Beest, Martin B A; Hansen, Steen H

    2003-08-15

    Wound healing in epithelia requires coordinated cell migration and proliferation regulated by signaling mechanisms that are poorly understood. Here we show that epithelial cells expressing constitutively active or kinase-dead mutants of the Rac/Cdc42 effector Pak1 fail to undergo growth arrest upon wound closure. Strikingly, this phenotype is only observed when the Pak1 kinase mutants are expressed in cells possessing a free lateral surface, i.e. one that is not engaged in contact with neighboring cells. The Pak1 kinase mutants perturb contact inhibition by a mechanism that depends on the Pak-interacting Rac-GEF PIX. In control cells, endogenous activated Pak and PIX translocate from focal complexes to cell-cell contacts during wound closure. This process is abrogated in cells expressing Pak1 kinase mutants. In contrast, Pak1 mutants rendered defective in PIX binding do not impede translocation of activated Pak and PIX, and exhibit normal wound healing. Thus, recruitment of activated Pak and PIX to cell-cell contacts is pivotal to transduction of growth-inhibitory signals from neighboring cells in epithelial wound healing.

  11. Analysis of positive control STR experiments reveals that results obtained for FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317 condition the success rate of the analysis of routine reference samples.

    PubMed

    Murigneux, Valentine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Lobry, Jean R; Pène, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    About 120,000 reference samples are analyzed each year in the Forensic Laboratory of Lyon. A total of 1640 positive control experiments used to validate and optimize the analytical method in the routine process were submitted to a multivariate exploratory data analysis approach with the aim of better understanding the underlying sources of variability. The peak heights of the 16 genetic markers targeted by the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) STR kit were used as variables of interest. Six different 3130xl genetic analyzers located in the same controlled environment were involved. Two major sources of variability were found: (i) the DNA load of the sample modulates all peak heights in a similar way so that the 16 markers are highly correlated, (ii) the genetic analyzer used with a locus-specific response for peak height and a better sensitivity for the most recently acquired. Three markers (FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317) were found to be of special interest to predict the success rate observed in the routine process.

  12. Investigation of elemental distribution in human femoral head by PIXE and SRXRF microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Wang, Y. S.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhang, G. L.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.

    2007-07-01

    In order to study the distribution and possible degenerative processes inducing the loss of inorganic substances in bone and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in femoral heads from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck fractures. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe analysis technique is used to scan a slice of the femoral head from its periphery to its center, via cartilage, compact and spongy zones. The specimen preparation and experiment procedure are described in detail. The results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in the control group are higher than those in the patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The quantitative results of elemental distribution, such as Ca, P, K, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb in bone slice tissue including cartilage, substantial compact and substantial spongy, are investigated. The data obtained show that the concentrations of Ca, P, K, (the major elements of bone composition), are obviously low in both spongy and cartilage zones in the patient group, but there are no remarkable differences in the compact zone. Combined with the correlations between P, K, Zn, Sr and Ca, the loss mechanism of minerals and the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed.

  13. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik Ø.; Stougaard, Jens

    2011-10-01

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  14. Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Drewniak, T.; Lekka, M.; Wajdowicz, A.

    1996-04-01

    In November 1994 we performed some preliminary studies on cancer kidney tissues. The objective of the measurements was to find a difference in trace element concentrations between normal and cancerous kidney tissue. All targets were prepared as pellets of more or less the same weight and thickness. Kidney samples were obtained during surgical operations done in the Clinic of Urology in Cracow. All kidneys were subject to removal due to cancer disease. Samples for analysis were taken from the cancerous part of the kidney and the non-cancerous one. All samples were analyzed by means of SRIXE (Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission) at the NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source) in BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and by means of PIXE at INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics) in Cracow. According to the physician's investigations, cadmium plays a role in oxidation process during tumor growth. Also the other elements i.e. selenium plays here a significant role. The results obtained so far seem to be interesting and may confirm our hypothesis about the cancer process in the kidney, the hypothesis will be a subject of further study. The applied analytical technique enables us to analyze with high precision even a small region of samples.

  15. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology II. Characterization of Chinese pottery exported to the Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1992-02-01

    The early 9th century A.D. trade links between China's Tang dynasty and the Western world, by land along the caravan routes of the Silk Road and by sea via India and the Gulf, encouraged a taste for many kinds of Chinese ceramics among the affluent societies of the Islamic empire. Using PIXE analysis to determine the primary composition and minor element patterns of the clay fabrics of a wide range of pottery recovered from the Islamic city of Siraf (in southern Iran), we have established clear differences between Chinese wares imported to that region and a variety of imitative wares of local origin. Parallels and contrasts are drawn between our data and those obtained by Chinese scholars in recent years for the products of various Tang kiln sites, particularly for a series of distinctive stonewares from Tongguan (Hunan province).

  16. Routines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Melser and Michie (1970), 135-151. Sacerdoti, Earl D, [1977], A structure for plans and behavior, Elsevier. * Sartre , Jean - Paul , [1976], Critique of...theorem proving to problem solving," Artificial Intelligence, 2 (3) 189-208. Fitts, Paul M and Michael I Posner, [1967], Human performance, Brooks/Cole...Laing, R D and A Esterson, [1964], Sanity, Madness, and the Family, Tavistock. Laird, John E, Paul Rosenbloom, and Allen Newell, [1984], Towards

  17. Computer routine adds plotting capabilities to existing programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. C.; Linnekin, J. S.

    1966-01-01

    PLOTAN, a generalized plot analysis routine written for the IBM 7094 computer, minimizes the difficulties in adding plot capabilities to large existing programs. PLOTAN is used in conjunction with a binary tape writing routine and has the ability to plot any variable on the intermediate binary tape as a function of any other.

  18. μPIXE for a μBrain: The vinegar fly's brain, antenna, sensilla hairs and eye ion concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Anja; Barapatre, Nirav; Sachse, Silke; Reinert, Tilo

    2011-10-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is used as model organism to study a variety of different scientific purposes. Thus, our laboratory studies the olfactory system by neurobiological experiments. These techniques are often disruptive and need to compensate or exchange the body fluid, the lymph, with an artificial Ringer's solution in defined compartments of the fly. The solution mainly contains Na, Cl, K and Ca and is to keep physiological conditions. Therefore, the knowledge about the ion concentrations in the respective Drosophila lymph is required for a correct mixture of the ions. This paper presents the spatially resolved concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in lyophilised head cryosections of Drosophila by using quantitative μPIXE at the ion beam facility LIPSION in Leipzig. The PIXE maps enable a detailed analysis of particular regions of interest down to a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. We quantified the ion concentrations especially in the brain, the antenna and its sensilla hairs acting as the olfactory organ of the fly, in the compound eye and in the mouthparts. The averaged element concentrations of these main compartments are (in descending order): P: 90 mM, K: 81 mM, S: 38 mM, Cl: 18 mM, Ca: 4.9 mM, Fe: 1.4 mM, Zn: 1.2 mM, Cu: 0.06 mM. Certain structures or cavities possess a remarkably high concentration of particular elements and might reflect the different functions of the compartments. An example presented in more detail is the composition of the compound eye. Conclusively, our findings on the ion concentrations might be useful for the mixture of the Drosophila Ringer's solution to ensure physiological conditions in experiments.

  19. Learning Routines in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeve, Aimee; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to generate both a theoretical and an empirical basis for a research model that serves in further research as an analytical tool for understanding the complex phenomenon of learning at different levels in a work organisation. The key concept in this model is the routine concept of Nelson and Winter.…

  20. MISR Conversion to ASCII Routines

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... These routines are written in Exelis Visual Information Solutions IDL programming language. They can be run either with a licensed ... with IDL and is available from  Exelis Visual Information Solutions . The IDL VM software can be downloaded from this site or ordered ...

  1. Operating the GridPix detector in dark matter search experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, R.; Alfonsi, M.; Hemink, G.; Decowski, M. P.; van Bakel, N.; van der Graaf, H.

    2013-08-01

    The DARWIN (dark matter WIMP search with noble liquids) design study aims to use liquid argon and liquid xenon targets to look for nuclear recoils due to weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). To measure the recoil energy in dual-phase noble gas time projection chambers the combination of scintillation and ionisation detection is used to discriminate nuclear from electron recoils. Current experiments use an array of photomultiplier tubes to detect the primary scintillation and the ionisation electrons via secondary scintillation in the gas phase. Within the research framework for DARWIN, one candidate for an alternative direct charge readout is GridPix, a micro-pattern gaseous detector composed of a Micromegas-like amplification grid over the Timepix 65k pixel readout chip. It can achieve a single-electron detection efficiency of up to 98% and has thus great potential to identify the ionisation electrons in dark matter search experiments. The main challenges for this application are low outgassing, thermal robustness, and operation in pure (thus quencher-free) noble gas. To investigate its applicability we operated a GridPix detector in an argon cryostat. We proved GridPix's performance in pure argon. The gas amplification was confirmed in pure argon in the broad temperature range from 300 K down to 87 K. Additionally, we discuss results of thermal tests of GridPix devices at liquid xenon temperature in a dry nitrogen atmosphere.

  2. Computer Graphics: KidPix, the MacIntosh, and Students with Cognitive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cindy

    This teacher's guide provides an overview of KidPix software and contains adaptive applications of the software for Cognitively Disabled-Borderline (CDB) students. Ten lesson plans are given, including: (1) "USing Rubber Stamps/Rubber Stamp Editor"; (2) "Portrait"; (3) "Create a Pattern"; (4) "Garden Mural";…

  3. Multivalent pIX phage display selects for distinct and improved antibody properties

    PubMed Central

    Høydahl, Lene S.; Nilssen, Nicolay R.; Gunnarsen, Kristin S.; Pré, M. Fleur du; Iversen, Rasmus; Roos, Norbert; Chen, Xi; Michaelsen, Terje E.; Sollid, Ludvig M.; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.

    2016-01-01

    Phage display screening readily allows for the identification of a multitude of antibody specificities, but to identify optimal lead candidates remains a challenge. Here, we direct the antibody-capsid fusion away from the signal sequence-dependent secretory SEC pathway in E. coli by utilizing the intrinsic signal sequence-independent property of pIX to obtain virion integration. This approach was combined with the use of an engineered helper phage known to improve antibody pIX display and retrieval. By direct comparison with pIII display, we demonstrate that antibody display using this pIX system translates into substantially improved retrieval of desired specificities with favorable biophysical properties in de novo selection. We show that the effect was due to less E. coli host toxicity during phage propagation conferred by the lack of a signal sequence. This pIX combinatorial display platform provides a generic alternative route for obtaining good binders with high stability and may thus find broad applicability. PMID:27966617

  4. 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, Wojciech Józef; Pineda-Vargas, Carlos

    2015-11-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Particle Induced X-ray Emission ("PIXE 2015") that was held in Somerset West (South Africa) from 25th February to 3rd March 2015.

  5. Design and Development of a Virtual Facility Tour Using iPIX(TM) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Douglas L.

    2002-01-01

    The capabilities of the iPIX virtual tour software, in conjunction with a web-based interface create a unique and valuable system that provides users with an efficient virtual capability to tour facilities while being able to acquire the necessary technical content is demonstrated. A users guide to the Mechanics and Durability Branch's virtual tour is presented. The guide provides the user with instruction on operating both scripted and unscripted tours as well as a discussion of the tours for Buildings 1148, 1205 and 1256 and NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, an indepth discussion has been presented on how to develop a virtual tour using the iPIX software interface with conventional html and JavaScript. The main aspects for discussion are on network and computing issues associated with using this capability. A discussion of how to take the iPIX pictures, manipulate them and bond them together to form hemispherical images is also presented. Linking of images with additional multimedia content is discussed. Finally, a method to integrate the iPIX software with conventional HTML and JavaScript to facilitate linking with multi-media is presented.

  6. Multivalent pIX phage display selects for distinct and improved antibody properties.

    PubMed

    Høydahl, Lene S; Nilssen, Nicolay R; Gunnarsen, Kristin S; Pré, M Fleur du; Iversen, Rasmus; Roos, Norbert; Chen, Xi; Michaelsen, Terje E; Sollid, Ludvig M; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2016-12-14

    Phage display screening readily allows for the identification of a multitude of antibody specificities, but to identify optimal lead candidates remains a challenge. Here, we direct the antibody-capsid fusion away from the signal sequence-dependent secretory SEC pathway in E. coli by utilizing the intrinsic signal sequence-independent property of pIX to obtain virion integration. This approach was combined with the use of an engineered helper phage known to improve antibody pIX display and retrieval. By direct comparison with pIII display, we demonstrate that antibody display using this pIX system translates into substantially improved retrieval of desired specificities with favorable biophysical properties in de novo selection. We show that the effect was due to less E. coli host toxicity during phage propagation conferred by the lack of a signal sequence. This pIX combinatorial display platform provides a generic alternative route for obtaining good binders with high stability and may thus find broad applicability.

  7. From genome-wide arrays to tailor-made biomarker readout - Progress towards routine analysis of skin sensitizing chemicals with GARD.

    PubMed

    Forreryd, Andy; Zeller, Kathrin S; Lindberg, Tim; Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin

    2016-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) initiated by chemical sensitizers is an important public health concern. To prevent ACD, it is important to identify chemical allergens to limit the use of such compounds in various products. EU legislations, as well as increased mechanistic knowledge of skin sensitization have promoted development of non-animal based approaches for hazard classification of chemicals. GARD is an in vitro testing strategy based on measurements of a genomic biomarker signature. However, current GARD protocols are optimized for identification of predictive biomarker signatures, and not suitable for standardized screening. This study describes improvements to GARD to progress from biomarker discovery into a reliable and cost-effective assay for routine testing. Gene expression measurements were transferred to NanoString nCounter platform, normalization strategy was adjusted to fit serial arrival of testing substances, and a novel strategy to correct batch variations was presented. When challenging GARD with 29 compounds, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy could be estimated to 94%, 83% and 90%, respectively. In conclusion, we present a GARD workflow with improved sample capacity, retained predictive performance, and in a format adapted to standardized screening. We propose that GARD is ready to be considered as part of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization.

  8. Mokken scales for testing both pre- and postintervention: an analysis of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) before and after counseling.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Kara R; Richelieu, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Mokken scaling is increasingly being applied to assessing the extent to which clinical scales possess clinically useful properties, especially invariant item ordering (IIO). These scales are often used to track progress in symptoms over time to evaluate the success of an intervention. Such interventions are designed to affect psychopathological trait levels overall but may in some cases act disproportionately on some symptoms over others. As a result, there is no guarantee that the item orderings of a clinical scale will be preserved between the point at which individuals begin treatment and the point at which they can be considered recovered. In these situations, many of the potential benefits of IIO are undermined because an IIO identified at either time point will not be informative about changes in symptoms over time. In this study, we aimed to assess the extent to which the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) retained the same item orderings in a sample of individuals when initially presenting for counseling treatment and when discharged. From the 34 items of the CORE-OM we found a subset of 10 items exhibiting monotonicity, invariant item ordering, and highly similar item orderings when measured at both time points.

  9. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  10. Application of the micro-PIXE technique for analyzing arsenic in biomat and lower plants of lichen and mosses around an arsenic mine site, at Gunma, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, T.; Sakamoto, F.; Kozai, N.; Samadfam, M.; Sakai, T.; Kamiya, T.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, M.

    2002-05-01

    Microhabitats of bacteria (biomat) and lower plants, such as lichen and mosses, are known to accumulate hazardous elements. Since the concentration of hazardous elements in the environment is quite low, we have applied the in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) system developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI, which has low concentration detection limit of ppm, to measure As, one of the hazardous elements, distributions in biomat, lichen and mosses observed around an abandoned As mine site in Gunma, Japan to elucidate the applicability of these biomat and lower plants as bio-indicators of As. Spatial distributions of As, Fe, Si and S in all biomat, lichen and moss collected within 3 m from the mine entrance indicate that As is localized, and is associated with silicate and Fe-containing compounds. In addition, the intensity ratio of peak area for As to Fe in μ-PIXE spectrum of the moss collected from the concrete wall at 3 m downstream of the mine water discharge position is different from those of the lower plants on the rock near the closed entrance, but is the same as that of biomat formed at the mine water discharge position. This indicates that As trapped by the moss on the concrete wall probably has the same origin as the biomat. It is concluded that application of μ-PIXE analysis to the measurement of As in the lower plants and biomat gives not only the distribution of the hazardous element of As, but also the information of the origin.

  11. β-PIX controls intracellular viscoelasticity to regulate lung cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Helen Wenshin; Chen, Yin-Quan; Huang, Chi-Ming; Liu, Ching-Yi; Chiou, Arthur; Wang, Yang-Kao; Tang, Ming-Jer; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer metastasis occurs via a progress involving abnormal cell migration. Cell migration, a dynamic physical process, is controlled by the cytoskeletal system, which includes the dynamics of actin organization and cellular adhesive organelles, focal adhesions (FAs). However, it is not known whether the organization of actin cytoskeletal system has a regulatory role in the physiologically relevant aspects of cancer metastasis. In the present studies, it was found that lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated from the secondary lung cancer of the lymph nodes, H1299 cells, show specific dynamics in terms of the actin cytoskeleton and FAs. This results in a higher level of mobility and this is regulated by an immature FA component, β-PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor-β). In H1299 cells, β-PIX's activity was found not to be down-regulated by sequestration onto stress fibres, as the cells did not bundle actin filaments into stress fibres. Thus, β-PIX mainly remained localized at FAs, which allowed maturation of nascent adhesions into focal complexes; this resulted in actin polymerization, increased actin network integrity, changes in the intracellular microrheology at the peripheral of the cell, and cell polarity, which in turn regulated cell migration. Perturbation of β-PIX caused an inhibition of cell migration, including migration velocity, accumulated distance and directional persistence. Our results demonstrate the importance of β-PIX to the regulation of high mobility of lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1299 and that this occurs via regulation of FA dynamics, changes in actin cytoskeleton organization and cell polarity. PMID:25683605

  12. External beam's nozzle design for the CRC cyclotron PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeon-Gyeong; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-02-01

    Recently, 13-MeV proton cyclotrons have been applied to non-destructive trace element analytical techniques, such as proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE). A new extended beam line has been designed for PIXE/PIGE measurements in order to deliver protons to the target with minimal losses, thus reducing secondary radiation. A target chamber for PIXE/PIGE measurements is installed at the end of the extended beam line, and the beam size may be optimized by using a series of collimators that are located in front of the target. The optimized proton beam, with low currents (˜nA) for PIXE/PIGE experiments, requires a small beam size with variable energies from ˜10 keV to 3 MeV. Based on the ionization cross-section curve, a 3-MeV proton beam has been determined to be suitable for PIXE/PIGE measurements. Therefore, the 13-MeV protons extracted from the cyclotron must be reduced to 3 MeV, and this is achieved through the incorporation of an energy degrader. The appropriate thickness of the energy degrader has been estimated by using the stopping range in matter (SRIM) program. Also, suitable materials must be used for the construction of the collimator and the energy degrader in order to meet the requirements of low neutron activation due to the application of protons. In this study, we evaluated a number of suitable materials with low neutron yields and with little energy spread as the beam passes through the energy degrader and collimator. The appropriate thickness of the energy degrader for the reduction of the proton energy from 13 MeV to 3 MeV was determined using the SRIM code. Also, the neutron yield at the nozzle was estimated using the MCNPX code.

  13. Use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry for bacterial monitoring in routine analysis at a drinking water treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Sala-Comorera, Laura; Vilaró, Carles; Galofré, Belén; Blanch, Anicet R; García-Aljaro, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    The study of bacterial communities throughout a drinking water treatment plant could provide a basic understanding of the effects of water processing that could then be used to improve the management of such plants. However, it is necessary to develop new analytical techniques that are sufficiently efficient, robust and fast for their effective and useful application in routine analysis. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), as compared to the PhenePlate™ system, for routine analysis in a drinking water treatment plant. To this end we studied a total of 277 colonies isolated in different seasons and from different points throughout the water treatment process, including: raw water, sand filtration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis and chlorination. The colonies were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS by direct deposition of the cells on the plate. The colonies were also biochemically fingerprinted using the PhenePlate™ system, clustered according to their similarity and a representative strain was selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing and API(®) gallery-based identification. The use of MALDI-TOF MS was reliable compared to the PhenePlate™ system and has the advantage of being faster and relatively cheap. Bacteria typing by MALDI-TOF MS is therefore a promising method to replace conventional routine phenotypic methods for the identification of bacteria in drinking water laboratories, thanks to its robustness. The major limiting factor for MALDI-TOF MS is the lack of a suitable mass spectra database; although each laboratory can develop its own library. This methodology will provide a tracking tool for companies to use in risk management and the detection of possible failures in both the water treatment processes and the distribution network, as well as offering characterization of the intrinsic microbial populations.

  14. Memos trace routine radiation overexposures

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-03-09

    Workers at the Energy Department's Fernald plant routinely received [open quotes]gross,[close quotes] [open quotes]unacceptable[close quotes] and [open quotes]undue[close quotes] radiation exposures during uranium processing operations from the 1950s through the early 1970s, according to internal Fernald memos. The documents come to light as DOE continues to pay hundreds of thousands of dollars every month to defend its former Fernald contractor, NLO Inc., from a workers' lawsuit seeking compensation for alleged injuries from poor safety practices at the Ohio facility. DOE officials have contended the NLO defense effort is justified because there is no evidence that any former Fernald workers have suffered injury as a result of radiation exposures at the plant. However, the internal Fernald memos document major concerns expressed by Fernald health officials about unsafe working conditions at the plant and what appear in some cases to be routine overexposures of workers.

  15. Routine analysis of induced sputum is not an effective strategy for screening persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus for Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Pneumocystis carinii. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kvale, P A; Hansen, N I; Markowitz, N; Rosen, M J; Jordan, M C; Meiselman, L; Glassroth, J; Reichman, L B; Wallace, J M; Stansell, J D

    1994-09-01

    A prospective multicenter cohort study comprising 1,171 individuals who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but did not have AIDS at the time of enrollment and 182 HIV-seronegative controls, was studied by means of routine induced-sputum analysis in an attempt to detect occult tuberculosis or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. One occult case of tuberculosis was discovered upon the patient's enrollment (at baseline); none were discovered during follow-up. Two additional Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were recovered (one at baseline, one during follow-up) from subjects with symptoms or abnormalities evident on chest roentgenograms. Three specimens were false-positive (one for M. tuberculosis, two for P. carinii). Five pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates were recovered during follow-up. Nonpathogenic, nontuberculous mycobacteria were recovered from 51 (4.6%) of 1,113 baseline specimens and 56 (3.7%) of 1,518 follow-up specimens, primarily at a center where the water supply was contaminated. We conclude that routine induced-sputum analysis is not an effective strategy for screening HIV-infected asymptomatic subjects for tuberculosis or P. carinii pneumonia before the onset of clinically recognizable disease activity.

  16. Application of the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to the study of problems in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, S.; Varier, K. M.; Mehta, G. K.; Rao, M. S.; Sen, P.; Panigrahi, N.

    1981-03-01

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to study crime related problems in forensic science. The experimental arrangements and various practical problems involved are discussed. Consistency and reproducibility checks are presented. The results from the gun-shot residue profiles of the associated elements about the bullet hole obtained for various firing distances showed that the sensitivity of the PIXE technique could play a vital role in forensic science in assigning the distance from the gun to the victim and identifying the type of bullet used. PIXE runs on other forensic related specimens demonstrate its usefulness in identification and evaluation of vital parameters related to a crime. The reliability and the importance of the PIXE method in solving criminal and related problems in forensic science are discussed.

  17. Long-term accuracy and precision of PIXE and PIGE measurements for thin and thick sample analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Siegele, Rainer; Orlic, Ivo; Stelcer, Ed

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes PIXE/PIGE measurements on thin Micromatter Standard (±5%) foils run over a period of 10 years. The selected foils were typically 50 μg/cm 2 thick and covered the commonly used PIXE X-ray energy range 1.4-20 keV and the light elements F and Na for PIGE studies. For the thousands of thick obsidian and pottery samples analysed over a 6-year period, the Ohio Red Clay standard has been used for both PIXE and PIGE calibration of a range of elements from Li to Rb. For PIXE, the long-term accuracy could be as low as ±1.6% for major elements with precision ranging from ±5% to ±10% depending on the elemental concentration. For PIGE, accuracies were around ±5% with precision ranging from ±5% in thick samples to ±15% in thin samples or for low yield γ-ray production.

  18. The Plasma Interaction Experiment /PIX/ - Description and flight qualification test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the Landsat-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus 1 kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage-biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  19. Reliable cool-down of GridPix detectors for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, R.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Bilevych, Y.; van Bakel, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present thermal cycling experiments of GridPix radiation imaging detectors, in view of a potential application in a cryogenic experiment. The robustness of the GridPix detector is studied for various grid designs, as well as various mechanical and thermal surroundings. The grid design variations had insignificant effect on the grid strength. A low cool-down rate as well as good thermal contact are crucial for the durability of the grid. Further, additional strengthening at the grid edges proved necessary to maintain the integrity of the structure during thermal cycling, which was done using globtop adhesive. The combination of these measures led to 100% survival rate after thermal cycling down to -130 °C.

  20. The MuPix Telescope: A Thin, High-Rate Tracking Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, H.; Berger, N.; Dittmeier, S.; Grzesik, C.; Hammerich, J.; Huang, Q.; Huth, L.; Kiehn, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Meier, F.; Perić, I.; Perrevoort, A.-K.; Schöoning, A.; vom Bruch, D.; Wauters, F.; Wiedner, D.

    2017-01-01

    The MuPix Telescope is a particle tracking telescope, optimized for tracking low momentum particles at high rates. It is based on the novel High-Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (HV-MAPS), designed for the Mu3e tracking detector. The telescope represents a first application of the HV-MAPS technology and also serves as test bed of the Mu3e readout chain. The telescope consists of up to eight layers of the newest prototypes, the MuPix7 sensors, which send self-triggered data via fast serial links to FPGAs, where the data is time-ordered and sent to the PC. A particle hit rate of 1 MHz per layer could be processed. Online tracking is performed with a subset of the incoming data. The general concept of the telescope, chip architecture, readout concept and online reconstruction are described. The performance of the sensor and of the telescope during test beam measurements are presented.

  1. A comprehensive experimental characterization of the iPIX gamma imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Paradiso, V.; Patoz, A.; Bonnet, F.; Handley, J.; Couturier, P.; Becker, F.; Menaa, N.

    2016-08-01

    The results of more than 280 different experiments aimed at exploring the main features and performances of a newly developed gamma imager, called iPIX, are summarized in this paper. iPIX is designed to quickly localize radioactive sources while estimating the ambient dose equivalent rate at the measurement point. It integrates a 1 mm thick CdTe detector directly bump-bonded to a Timepix chip, a tungsten coded-aperture mask, and a mini RGB camera. It also represents a major technological breakthrough in terms of lightness, compactness, usability, response sensitivity, and angular resolution. As an example of its key strengths, an 241Am source with a dose rate of only few nSv/h can be localized in less than one minute.

  2. Using μPIXE for quantitative mapping of metal concentration in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    PubMed Central

    Schnell Ramos, Magali; Khodja, Hicham; Mary, Viviane; Thomine, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seeds are a crucial stage in plant life. They contain the nutrients necessary to initiate the development of a new organism. Seeds also represent an important source of nutrient for human beings. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies affect over a billion people worldwide. It is therefore important to understand how these essential metals are stored in seeds. In this work, Particle-Induced X-ray Emission with the use of a focused ion beam (μPIXE) has been used to map and quantify essential metals in Arabidopsis seeds. In agreement with Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) imaging and Perls/DAB staining, μPIXE maps confirmed the specific pattern of Fe and Mn localization in the endodermal and subepidermal cell layers in dry seeds, respectively. Moreover, μPIXE allows absolute quantification revealing that the Fe concentration in the endodermal cell layer reaches ~800 μg·g−1 dry weight. Nevertheless, this cell layer accounts only for about half of Fe stores in dry seeds. Comparison between Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and mutant seeds impaired in Fe vacuolar storage (vit1-1) or release (nramp3nramp4) confirmed the strongly altered Fe localization pattern in vit1-1, whereas no alteration could be detected in nramp3nramp4 dry seeds. Imaging of imbibed seeds indicates a dynamic localization of metals as Fe and Zn concentrations increase in the subepidermal cell layer of cotyledons after imbibition. The complementarities between μPIXE and other approaches as well as the importance of being able to quantify the patterns for the interpretation of mutant phenotypes are discussed. PMID:23761799

  3. PIXE/PIGE characterisation of emeralds using an external micro-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.; Salomon, J.; Zwaan, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    A large collection of emeralds of various occurrences has been analysed by PIXE/PIGE in view to establish a compositional database. Major elements (Be, Si, Al) and trace elements (Li, F, Na, Mg, Ca, Rb, Cs and transition metals) are determined using an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam. Elemental micro-mapping permits to select the useful provenance tracers. This database was applied to infer the origin of several ancient emeralds set on historical jewels.

  4. One Click to the Cosmos: The AstroPix Image Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, Robert L.; Llamas, J.; Squires, G. K.; Brinkworth, C.; X-ray Center, Chandra; ESO/ESA; Science Center, Spitzer; STScI

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a single website that acts as a portal to the entire wealth of public imagery spanning the world's observatories. This is the goal of the AstroPix project (astropix.ipac.caltech.edu), and you can use it today! Although still in a beta development state, this past year has seen the inclusion of thousands of images spanning some of the most prominent observatories in the world, including Chandra, ESO, Galex, Herschel, Hubble, Spitzer, and WISE, with more on the way. The archive is unique as it is built around the Astronomical Visualization Metadata (AVM) standard, which captures the rich contextual information for each image. This ranges from titles and descriptions, to color representations and observation details, to sky coordinates. AVM enables AstroPix imagery to be used in a variety of unique ways that benefit formal and informal education as well as astronomers and the general public. Visitors to Astropix can search the database using simple free-text queries, or use a structured search (similar to "Smart Playlists" found in iTunes, for example). We are also developing public application programming interfaces (APIs) to allow third party software and websites to access the growing content for a variety of uses (planetarium software, museum kiosks, mobile apps, and creative web interfaces, to name a few). Contributing image assets to AstroPix is as easy as tagging the images with the relevant metadata and including the web links to the images in a simple RSS feed. We will cover some of the latest information about tools to contribute images to AstroPix and ways to use the site.

  5. Routine detection of hyperketonemia in dairy cows using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetone in milk in combination with test-day information.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; Jorritsma, R; Schonewille, J T; Knijn, H M; Stegeman, J A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of a diagnostic model for the detection of hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cows at test days. This diagnostic model comprised acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in milk, as determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, in addition to other available test-day information. Plasma BHBA concentration was determined at a regular test day in 1,678 cows between 5 and 60 d in milk, originating from 118 randomly selected farms in the Netherlands. The observed prevalence of hyperketonemia (defined as plasma BHBA ≥1,200 µmol/L) was 11.2%. The value of FTIR predictions of milk acetone and milk BHBA concentrations as single tests for hyperketonemia were found limited, given the relatively large number of false positive test-day results. Therefore, a multivariate logistic regression model with a random herd effect was constructed, using parity, season, milk fat-to-protein ratio, and FTIR predictions of milk acetone and milk BHBA as predictive variables. This diagnostic model had 82.4% sensitivity and 83.8% specificity at the optimal cutoff value (defined as maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity) for the detection of hyperketonemia at test days. Increasing the cutoff value of the model to obtain a specificity of 95% increased the predicted value of a positive test result to 56.5%. Confirmation of test-positive samples with wet chemistry analysis of milk acetone or milk BHBA concentrations (serial testing) improved the diagnostic performance of the test procedure. The presented model was considered not suitable for individual detection of cows with ketosis due to the length of the test-day interval and the low positive predictive values of the investigated test procedures. The diagnostic model is, in our opinion, valuable for herd-level monitoring of hyperketonemia, especially when the model is combined with wet chemistry analysis of milk acetone or milk BHBA concentrations. By

  6. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  7. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology.

  8. The MuPix system-on-chip for the Mu3e experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Heiko; Berger, Niklaus; Dittmeier, Sebastian; Grzesik, Carsten; Hammerich, Jan; Huang, Qinhua; Huth, Lennart; Kiehn, Moritz; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Meier Aeschbacher, Frank; Perić, Ivan; Perrevoort, Ann-Kathrin; Schöning, André; Shrestha, Shruti; vom Bruch, Dorothea; Wauters, Frederik; Wiedner, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay μ+ →e+e-e+. Decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be precisely measured in order to reject both accidental and physics background. A silicon pixel tracker based on 50 μm thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a 1 T solenoidal magnetic field provides precise vertex and momentum information. The MuPix chip combines pixel sensor cells with integrated analog electronics and a periphery with a complete digital readout. The MuPix7 is the first HV-MAPS prototype implementing all functionalities of the final sensor including a readout state machine and high speed serialization with 1.25 Gbit/s data output, allowing for a streaming readout in parallel to the data taking. The observed efficiency of the MuPix7 chip including the full readout system is ⩾ 99 % in a high rate test beam.

  9. A feasibility study of PETiPIX: an ultra high resolution small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Safavi-Naeini, M.; Franklin, D. R.; Petasecca, M.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Hutton, B. F.; Lerch, M. L. F.

    2013-12-01

    PETiPIX is an ultra high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner designed for imaging mice brains. Four Timepix pixellated silicon detector modules are placed in an edge-on configuration to form a scanner with a field of view (FoV) 15 mm in diameter. Each detector module consists of 256 × 256 pixels with dimensions of 55 × 55 × 300 μm3. Monte Carlo simulations using GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) were performed to evaluate the feasibility of the PETiPIX design, including estimation of system sensitivity, angular dependence, spatial resolution (point source, hot and cold phantom studies) and evaluation of potential detector shield designs. Initial experimental work also established that scattered photons and recoil electrons could be detected using a single edge-on Timepix detector with a positron source. Simulation results estimate a spatial resolution of 0.26 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at the centre of FoV and 0.29 mm FWHM overall spatial resolution with sensitivity of 0.01%, and indicate that a 1.5 mm thick tungsten shield parallel to the detectors will absorb the majority of non-coplanar annihilation photons, significantly reducing the rates of randoms. Results from the simulated phantom studies demonstrate that PETiPIX is a promising design for studies demanding high resolution images of mice brains.

  10. Development and first results of the Yale PIXeY two-phase xenon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefano, Nicholas E.; Bernard, Ethan; Edwards, Blair; Gai, Moshe; Horn, Markus; Larsen, Nicole; McKinsey, Daniel; Tennyson, Brian; Wahl, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    PIXeY (Particle Identification in Xenon at Yale) is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon prototype time projection chamber with 3 kg active mass. PIXeY was built to optimize energy resolution and gamma/neutron discrimination, with a number of technological improvements over previous work. Parallel-wire grids, which control the drift and proportionalscintillation fields, are optimized both for light collection efficiency and field uniformity. High quantum efficiency Hamamatsu R8778 PMTs, high-reflectivity Teflon walls, and charge-light anti-correlation techniques are also incorporated. The first run of the detector has concluded, where all systems were tested both using LED calibration methods as well as using sources for calibration and spectral measurements. Ultimately our results were limited by PMT calibration issues, low light collection caused by saturation, and low drift fields constrained by high voltage hardware. The second run of the detector is currently underway with several improved components. The feedthroughs for higher voltages have improved to allow a much higher operating voltage, new PMT bases for more stable operation have been installed, and three new grids with transparencies between 92% and 97% have been added. Once the energy resolution studies have concluded, PIXeY will serve as a platform for future improvements, including multiple optical volumes and single wire readout for R&D on gamma-ray imaging.

  11. Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162856.html Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too Cardiorespiratory test would help gauge patients' heart ... checked regularly, but an exercise expert says cardiorespiratory fitness should also be part of a routine medical ...

  12. Development of a Rapid High-Throughput Method for High-Resolution Melting Analysis for Routine Detection and Genotyping of Noroviruses▿

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri-Utagawa, Etsuko; Hara, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Mayumi; Wakita, Takaji

    2009-01-01

    We developed a simple, rapid, high-throughput detection and genotyping method for noroviruses using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to create a difference plot. The capsid gene was amplified by real-time RT-PCR in the presence of ResoLight HRM dye, a saturating DNA dye. Following optimization of the HRM assay conditions, the major norovirus genotypes were selected. Because we had only small quantities of the patient stool samples used in this study, we constructed plasmids for each genotype and used these to optimize the HRM assay. We selected six stool samples, each positive for one of the six dominant subtypes of noroviruses that have been circulating in Japan, namely, genotypes 4, 8, and 9 from genogroup 1 and genotypes 3, 4, and 10 from genogroup 2. The specific high-resolution derivate plot of the HRM assay for each plasmid was constructed by subtracting the melting-curve shape of the plasmid from the reference or base curve. The RNAs extracted from 14 clinical samples positive for small round structured viruses were then directly analyzed using the HRM assay. The HRM data from the clinical RNA samples corresponded with the genotype results obtained by RT-PCR and sequencing of the clinical samples. In addition, the HRM data from the clinical RNA samples corresponded with the HRM data from the six reference plasmid DNAs, indicating that this assay is useful for the direct detection and genotyping of noroviruses in clinical samples. This assay requires no multiplexing or hybridization probes and provides a new approach to the genetic screening of noroviruses in clinical virology laboratories. PMID:19073870

  13. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels.

  14. Can routine oral care with antiseptics prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients receiving mechanical ventilation? An update meta-analysis from 17 randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Longti; Ai, Zhibing; Li, Longzhu; Zheng, Xuesong; Jie, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether oral antiseptics could reduce the risk of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients receiving mechanical ventilation remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of oral care with antiseptics on the prevalence of ventilator associated pneumonia in adult critically ill patients. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science were performed to identity relevant studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials of mechanically ventilated adult patients receiving oral care with antiseptics. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Jadad score. Relative risks (RRs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and pooled using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with I 2 test. Results: 17 studies with a total number of 4249 met the inclusion criteria. Of the 17 studies, 14 assessed the effect of chlorhexidine, and 3 investigated the effect of povidone-iodine. Overall, oral care with antiseptics significantly reduced the prevalence of VAP (RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.92; P=0.008). The use of chlorhexidine was shown to be effective (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.93; P=0.012), whereas this effect was not observed in povidone-iodine (RR=0.51, 95% CI: 0.09, 2.82; P=0.438). Subgroup analyses showed that oral antiseptics were most marked in cardiac surgery patients (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.74; P=0.00). Patients with oral antiseptics did not have a reduction in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (RR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.29; P=0.201), length of ICU stay (WMD=-0.10 days, 95% CI: -0.25, 0.05; P=0.188), or duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD=-0.05 days, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.04; P=0.260). Conclusion: Oral care with antiseptics significantly reduced the prevalence of VAP. Chlorhexidine application prevented the occurrence of VAP in mechanically ventilated patients but povidone-iodine did not

  15. In-Vivo Assessment of Femoral Bone Strength Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) Based on Routine MDCT Imaging: A Preliminary Study on Patients with Vertebral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Hans; Garcia, Eduardo Grande; Holzner, Fabian; Noel, Peter B.; Burgkart, Rainer; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Baum, Thomas; Bauer, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA) modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as gold standard. Methods One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects. Results In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963) and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976). The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N) by 14.7% (5440 N) while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N). The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366), but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028). Conclusion FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our

  16. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  17. Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distribution in "live" tardigrades using micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E. J. C.; Pallon, J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Wang, Y. D.; Jönsson, K. I.

    2014-08-01

    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed - the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest. In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  18. Program sustainability: focus on organizational routines.

    PubMed

    Pluye, P; Potvin, L; Denis, J L; Pelletier, J

    2004-12-01

    Program sustainability is an ongoing concern for most people in health promotion. However, the current notion of sustainability in organizations, namely routinization, needs refinement. This article examines organizational routines. In so doing, it refines the notion of sustainability and the assessment of routines. Drawing on the organizational literature, a routinized program is defined by the presence of routinized activities, meaning that these activities exhibit four characteristics of organizational routines: memory, adaptation, values and rules. To answer the question of how these characteristics are useful, we conducted an empirical study of the routinization of the Quebec Heart Health Demonstration Project in five community health centers. Our method consisted of a multiple-case study. We observed project activities in each center in 2000. The data came from documents and interviews with project actors. Our results show that, in one of the centers, no resources had been officially committed to project activities. Even so, the actors continued some activities on an informal basis. In another center, the activities satisfied three of the four routine characteristics. In the three others, activities satisfied all of the characteristics. These results suggest focusing the study of program sustainability on the routinization of activities resulting from it. They indicate four distinct degrees of sustainability: (1) the absence of sustainability; no program activity is continued; (2) precarious sustainability; some residual activities are pursued, at least unofficially; (3) weak sustainability; the program produces some official activities that are not routinized; and (4) sustainability through routinization; routinized activities result from the program.

  19. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  20. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  1. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  2. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  4. Use of charged particle beams for analysis of biological tissues and fluids.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J L

    1983-01-01

    PIXE has passed through its demonstration stage and matured into a viable tool supported by a reliable physics data base; the main problem to be solved at the outset of any new project is the preparation of a representative specimen of uniform thickness (or thinness) rather than any aspect of X-ray or accelerator physics or technology. We repeat the caution that minimum detection limits are strongly influenced by the nuclear reaction gamma-ray background from trace elements in the specimen. Thus experiment on a new target type is preferable to use of MDL calculations based on the background due to atomic processes (bremsstrahlung) in the known matrix. One hopes to see a more adventurous mood eg a move from routine blood serum analysis towards analyses of different blood fractions that concentrate specific trace elements. PIGE, while promising, must be regarded as developmental until the data-base of elemental gamma-ray yields is extended and made more accurate; work on fluorine in teeth clearly stands to profit from this technique. Finally, RBS, although scarcely used to date in any biological context, is clearly a powerful way of measuring major elemental ratios in mineralised tissues; however, RBS lacks the resolving power of PIXE and so is not a candidate for multi-trace element analysis.

  5. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of first-line treatment failure and switches to second-line therapy are key indicators for national HIV programmes. We assessed immunological treatment failure defined by WHO criteria in the Tanzanian national HIV programme. Methods We included adults initiating first-line therapy in 2004–2011 with a pre-treatment CD4 count, and ≥6-months of follow-up. We assessed subhazard ratios (SHR) for immunological treatment failure, and subsequent switch to second-line therapy, using competing risks methods to account for deaths. Results Of 121 308 adults, 7% experienced immunological treatment failure, and 2% died without observed immunological treatment failure, over a median 1.7 years. The 6-year cumulative probability of immunological treatment failure was 19.0% (95% CI 18.5, 19.7) and of death, 5.1% (4.8, 5.4). Immunological treatment failure predictors included earlier year of treatment initiation (P < 0.001), initiation in lower level facilities (SHR = 2.23 [2.03, 2.45] for dispensaries vs. hospitals), being male (1.27 [1.19, 1.33]) and initiation at low or high CD4 counts (for example, 1.78 [1.65, 1.92] and 5.33 [4.65, 6.10] for <50 and ≥500 vs. 200–349 cells/mm3, respectively). Of 7382 participants in the time-to-switch analysis, 6% switched and 5% died before switching. Four years after immunological treatment failure, the cumulative probability of switching was 7.3% (6.6, 8.0) and of death, 6.8% (6.0, 7.6). Those who immunologically failed in dispensaries, health centres and government facilities were least likely to switch. Conclusions Immunological treatment failure rates and unmet need for second-line therapy are high in Tanzania; virological monitoring, at least for persons with immunological treatment failure, is required to minimise unnecessary switches to second-line therapy. Lower level government health facilities need more support to reduce treatment failure rates and improve second-line therapy uptake to sustain the

  6. The environmental heat flux routine, version 4 (EHFR-4) and Multiple Reflections Routine (MRR), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The environmental heat flux routine version 4, (EHFR-4) is a generalized computer program which calculates the steady state and/or transient thermal environments experienced by a space system during lunar surface, deep space, or thermal vacuum chamber operation. The specific environments possible for EHFR analysis include: lunar plain, lunar crater, combined lunar plain and crater, lunar plain in the region of spacecraft surfaces, intervehicular, deep space in the region of spacecraft surfaces, and thermal vacuum chamber generation. The EHFR was used for Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit environment analysis of the Apollo 11-17 missions, EMU manned and unmanned thermal vacuum qualification testing, and EMU-LRV interface environmental analyses.

  7. Global Routine Vaccination Coverage, 2015.

    PubMed

    Casey, Rebecca M; Dumolard, Laure; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Diallo, Mamadou S; Hampton, Lee M; Wallace, Aaron S

    2016-11-18

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization* to provide protection against six vaccine-preventable diseases through routine infant immunization (1). Based on 2015 WHO and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) estimates, global coverage with the third dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP3), the first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) and the third dose of polio vaccine (Pol3) has remained stable (84%-86%) since 2010. From 2014 to 2015, estimated global coverage with the second MCV dose (MCV2) increased from 39% to 43% by the end of the second year of life and from 58% to 61% when older age groups were included. Global coverage was higher in 2015 than 2010 for newer or underused vaccines, including rotavirus vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), rubella vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, and 3 doses of hepatitis B (HepB3) vaccine. Coverage estimates varied widely by WHO Region, country, and district; in addition, for the vaccines evaluated (MCV, DTP3, Pol3, HepB3, Hib3), wide disparities were found in coverage by country income classification. Improvements in equity of access are necessary to reach and sustain higher coverage and increase protection from vaccine-preventable diseases for all persons.

  8. Routine outcome measures in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Adair, Carol E; Lin, Elizabeth; Marriott, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canada is a federal country of 10 provinces and three territories. High level information on mental health conditions and service use has mostly been generated from administrative data collected by provinces and territories. These include four major types - hospital admissions and discharges, physician billings, ambulatory care services, and drug databases. At the national level, the Canadian Institute for Health Information brings together this information to produce indicators of outcome. Although these data provide information on patient and health system characteristics, they do not capture the full spectrum of formal and informal mental healthcare. These include changes in health status, functioning, community integration and quality of life. As a result, some jurisdictions have begun to implement more standardized measures of outcome such as the clinician-rated Health of the Nation Outcome Scales or the inpatient Resident Assessment Instrument - Mental Health. In this paper we provide an overview of mental-health-related data sources in Canada, highlight some of the more progressive practices beginning to emerge, and conclude with some thoughts about how the routine measurement and reporting of mental health outcomes in Canada might be advanced including efforts at engaging both clinicians and decision-makers.

  9. Routine CMV screening during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Collinet, P; Subtil, D; Houfflin-Debarge, V; Kacet, N; Dewilde, A; Puech, F

    2004-05-10

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening during pregnancy has been widely discussed for several years, but still no consensus has been agreed. With a number of live births of 750,000 per year in France, we would expect 7500 infected infants at birth per year (rate of congenital infection of 1%). Among infected infants at birth, the number of severely infected foetuses would be approximately 75, the number of infants with severe sequelae would be 480, 675 approximately would present with hearing loss and the number of asymptomatic infants would be 6270. Five different preventive methods for congenital CMV infection are possible: (1) Routine CMV screening at the beginning of pregnancy for primary prevention. (2) Secondary prevention by antenatal diagnosis of congenital CMV infection complications. (3) Tertiary prevention by serological testing during pregnancy. (4) Tertiary prevention by serological screening at birth. (5) Tertiary prevention: Hearing loss screening at birth. The aims of this review are to define the advantages and disadvantages of these different methods of CMV screening during pregnancy and to determine if the current available information would make systematic testing acceptable.

  10. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues: A comparative study by EDXRF, TXRF, synchrotron radiation and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; von Bohlen, A.

    2007-09-01

    It is known that trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. These include the activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions, competition between elements and metal proteins for binding positions and modifications in the permeability of cellular membranes. These elements may also influence carcinogenic processes, thus the knowledge of trace element concentrations in healthy and neoplastic tissues might help in diagnostic and in the etiology and development of cancer. This work intends to give an overview of the achieved results in the analysis of several healthy and neoplastic human tissues, using multi-elemental techniques. The described measurements were carried out by means of synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A brief description of each method is given and the analytical results discussed and compared. There is a good agreement between the results obtained with the several techniques for the same tissue. However, the behavior of the elements is not always the same for the several analyzed tissues.

  11. Elemental micro-PIXE mapping of hypersensitive lesions in Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) resistant to Sphaerotheca fuliginea (powdery mildew)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Straker, C. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Genotypes of the Southern African cucurbit, Lagenaria sphaerica, that are resistant to powdery-mildew ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea) exhibit foliar hypersensitive (HS) lesions on inoculation with this fungal pathogen. Elemental distributions across radially symmetrical HS lesions, surrounding unlesioned leaf tissue and uninoculated leaf tissue, were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous PIXE and BS point analyses. The composition of cellulose (C 6H 10O 5) was used as constant matrix composition for scans, and the sample thickness was found from BS spectra. Si and elements heavier than Ca contributed to matrix composition within HS lesions and the locally elevated Ca raised the limits of detection for some trace metals of interest. In comparison to uninoculated tissue, inoculated tissue was characterised by higher overall concentrations of all measured elements except Cu. Fully developed, 6 day-old HS lesions and the surrounding tissue could be divided into five zones, centred on the fungal infection site. Each zone was characterized by distinct local elemental distributions (either depletion, or accumulation to potentially phytotoxic levels).

  12. Evaluation and mapping of PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols in Arasia region using PIXE and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Chiari, M.; Srour, A.; Sa'adeh, H.; Reslan, A.; Sultan, M.; Ahmad, M.; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Zubaidi, Th.; Rihawy, M. S.; Hussein, T.; Arafah, D.-E.; Karydas, A. G.; Simon, A.; Nsouli, B.

    2016-03-01

    The present work is a part of a scientific study conducted among several Arab countries in west Asia, under an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional technical cooperation project for Arasia region. The project aims at producing for the first time a database of particulate matter (PM) elemental concentrations in the region that will help in future air quality studies in order to identify commonalities and differences in the presence and contribution of fingerprint pollution sources among the Arasia Member States. The first regional campaign was launched simultaneously in Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and United Arab Emirates, using a harmonized sampling and analysis protocol of PM10 and PM2.5 samples. Different samples, collected between October 2014 and February 2015, from the participating countries, were analyzed by PIXE technique and gravimetric measurements were also carried out. The first results of the study will be discussed in a regional perspective. Our study shows that concentrations of fine aerosol fractions are often exceeding the WHO standard values as well as showing some disparities in the obtained values between the different sampling sites. However, some trend similarities of variations with time could also be observed, suggesting a common influence by trans-boundary or external sources of air pollution.

  13. Computer simulation of the CSPAD, ePix10k, and RayonixMX170HS X-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-21

    The invention of free-electron lasers (FELs) has opened a door to an entirely new level of scientific research. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is an X-ray FEL that houses several instruments, each with its own unique X-ray applications. This light source is revolutionary in that while its properties allow for a whole new range of scientific opportunities, it also poses numerous challenges. For example, the intensity of a focused X-ray beam is enough to damage a sample in one mere pulse; however, the pulse speed and extreme brightness of the source together are enough to obtain enough information about that sample, so that no further measurements are necessary. An important device in the radiation detection process, particularly for X-ray imaging, is the detector. The power of the LCLS X-rays has instigated a need for better performing detectors. The research conducted for this project consisted of the study of X-ray detectors to imitate their behaviors in a computer program. The analysis of the Rayonix MX170-HS, CSPAD, and ePix10k in particular helped to understand their properties. This program simulated the interaction of X-ray photons with these detectors to discern the patterns of their responses. A scientist’s selection process of a detector for a specific experiment is simplified from the characterization of the detectors in the program.

  14. Pulse processing routines for neutron time-of-flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Vlachoudis, V.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Wright, T.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Mingrone, F.; Ryan, J. A.; Warren, S. G.; Tsinganis, A.; Barbagallo, M.

    2016-03-01

    A pulse shape analysis framework is described, which was developed for n_TOF-Phase3, the third phase in the operation of the n_TOF facility at CERN. The most notable feature of this new framework is the adoption of generic pulse shape analysis routines, characterized by a minimal number of explicit assumptions about the nature of pulses. The aim of these routines is to be applicable to a wide variety of detectors, thus facilitating the introduction of the new detectors or types of detectors into the analysis framework. The operational details of the routines are suited to the specific requirements of particular detectors by adjusting the set of external input parameters. Pulse recognition, baseline calculation and the pulse shape fitting procedure are described. Special emphasis is put on their computational efficiency, since the most basic implementations of these conceptually simple methods are often computationally inefficient.

  15. What is the impact of Silicon Carbide nanoparticles to the mineral composition of rat lungs? A PIXE-μPIXE comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, O.; Colaux, J. L.; Laloy, J.; Dogné, J. M.; Lucas, S.

    2015-05-01

    The exposure to nanomaterials can yield changes in the mineral composition of tissues which may have long term health repercussions. In this study, the changes in mineral composition of rat lungs, exposed to a nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC), has been studied by means of global and local ion beam probes with the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique, measuring the whole lung contents and selected areas where SiC was found, respectively. It was found that from a global perspective there is a small decrease in the mineral contents (phosphorous, sulphur, chlorine and potassium) of the lung except for Ca, while locally these mineral contents tend fluctuate.

  16. Long-term outcomes of anthroposophic treatment for chronic disease: a four-year follow-up analysis of 1510 patients from a prospective observational study in routine outpatient settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic treatment includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We here report an update to a previously published study of anthroposophic treatment for chronic diseases, including more patients and a longer follow up. The Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS) was a prospective observational cohort study of anthroposophic treatment for chronic indications in routine outpatient settings in Germany. Anthroposophic treatment was associated with improvements of symptoms and quality of life. Previous follow-up-analyses have been performed after 24 months or, in subgroups of patients enrolled in the period 1999-2001, after 48 months. We conducted a 48-month follow-up analysis of all patients enrolled in AMOS in the period 1999-2005. Methods 1,510 outpatients aged 1-75 years, starting anthroposophic treatment for chronic conditions in routine German outpatient settings, participated in a prospective cohort study. Main outcomes were Symptom Score (primary outcome, mean symptom severity on numerical rating scales), SF-36 Physical and Mental Component scores in adults, and disease-specific outcomes in the six most common diagnosis groups: asthma, anxiety disorders and migraine (numerical rating scales), depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms (FBB-HKS Total score), and low back pain (Hanover Functional Ability Questionnaire, Low Back Pain Rating Scale). Results Median disease duration at baseline was 3.5 years. From baseline to 48-month follow-up all ten outcomes improved significantly (p < 0.001 for all pre-post comparisons). Standardised Response Mean effect sizes were large (range 0.84-1.24 standard deviations) for seven comparisons, medium for two comparisons (SF-36 Mental Component: 0.60, Low Back Pain Rating Scale: 0.55), and small for one comparison (SF-36 Physical Component: 0.39). Symptom Score improved significantly with large effect

  17. Development of a new in-air micro-PIXE set-up with in-vacuum charge measurements in Atomki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Csedreki, L.; Dani, J.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    A new external microbeam set-up has recently been installed as the extension of the existing microprobe system at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of Atomki, Debrecen, Hungary. The external beam set-up, based on the system of Oxford Microbeams (OM), is equipped with two X-ray detectors for PIXE analysis, a digital microscope, two alignment lasers and a precision XYZ stage for easy and reproducible positioning of the sample. Exit windows with different thicknesses and of different materials can be used according to the actual demands, currently silicon-nitride (Si3N4) film with 200 nm thickness is employed in our laboratory. The first application was demonstrated in the field of archaeometry, on Bronze Age hoards from Hungary.

  18. Analyses of inks and papers in historical documents through external beam PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, T. A.; Kusko, B.; Schwab, R. N.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analyses of documents can be carried out to high sensitivity in an external beam configuration designed to protect historical materials from damage. Test runs have shown that a properly designed system with high solid angle can operate at less than 1% of the flux necessary to cause any discoloration whatsoever on papers of the 17th and 18th centuries. The composition of these papers is suprisingly complex, yet retains distinct association with the historical period, paper source, and even the individual sheets of paper that are folded and cut to make groups of pages. Early studies are planned on historical forgeries.

  19. Thin and thick target PIXE analyses to assess the mechanism of Cu2+ removal by Egeria densa.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Santos, G H F; Borba, C E; Rizzutto, M A; Ravagnani, Mauro A S S

    2013-12-01

    In this work the PIXE technique was used to study the mechanism of metal sorption by dead biomass. Several batch copper-sorption experiments were performed by using Egeria densa biomass. PIXE measurements were performed in solid and liquid samples. Element concentrations in biosorbent samples were determined using the Clara software. Based on the mass balance among the major elements in the liquid and solid phases before and after the Cu-removal experiments, an ion exchange process is suggested as the main mechanism.

  20. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouton, M.; Botha, A.; Thornton, M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  1. Treatment of patients with refractory metastatic cancer according to molecular profiling on tumor tissue in the clinical routine: an interim-analysis of the ONCO-T-PROFILE project

    PubMed Central

    Seeber, Andreas; Gastl, Guenther; Ensinger, Christian; Spizzo, Gilbert; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Kocher, Florian; Leitner, Christoph; Willenbacher, Ella; Amann, Arno; Steiner, Normann; Eisterer, Wolfgang; Voss, Andreas; Russell, Kenneth; Zwierzina, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with refractory metastatic cancer have been shown to benefit from molecular profiling of tumor tissue. The ONCO-T-PROFILE project was launched in March 2014 at the Innsbruck Medical University. Within 2 years our project aims to recruit 110 patients with stage IV cancer refractory to standard therapy. Our data presented here are based on an interim-analysis. Methods Tumor tissue specimens were submitted for molecular profiling to the certified laboratory (Caris Life Science, USA). Druggable tumor targets were selected based on biomarker status to agents with potential clinical benefit. Clinical benefit was defined as a PFS ratio (=PFS upon treatment according to the molecular profile/ PFS upon the last prior therapy) ≥ 1.3. Results As of April 2015, tumors from 50 patients have been molecularly profiled and one or more targets were detectable in 48 specimens (98%). So far, 19 (38%) patients have been treated according to their molecular tumor profile. To date, 8 (42%) patients have reached a PFS ratio of ≥ 1.3. Conclusions We could show that molecular profiling is feasible in the clinical routine. A proportion of patients might benefit from an individualized treatment approach based on molecular profiling. As a result, we will proceed to enroll patients in ONCO-T-PROFILE. PMID:28050231

  2. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  3. SVI: Super-VIOR interface routines

    SciTech Connect

    Alleva, D.

    1987-10-21

    This document describes a set of routines for a VME DMA module called the Super-VIOR. The Super-VIOR interface routines, also called the SVI routines, are written in PILS and run under a Valet-plus system. These routines enable a program to set up, execute, and monitor DMA operations. The Super-VIOR Interface Routines are written in PILS, a high level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. One of the most powerful features of the Valet/PILS system is the ability to set up exception vectors and exception handlers directly in a program. This feature is used to handle interrupts from the MC68450 (a 4 channel, 16 bit DMA controller) and the interface's front panel. This document is divided into ten sections, the first being the introduction. The remaining sections detail the interface registers, channel initiation, polling and interrupts, status reporting, front panel interrupts, the configuration routines, the operation control routines, the status reporting routines, and special comments on the MC68450.

  4. 10 CFR 1017.20 - Routine access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Routine access. 1017.20 Section 1017.20 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Access to Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.20 Routine access. (a) Authorized... access to the UCNI, subject to limitations in paragraph (b) of this section, and who may...

  5. Making Routine Letters Have Positive Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, S. M.

    While few business people dispute the importance of carefully crafting persuasive, demanding, conciliatory, and bad-news letters, the regular flow of routine communications receives very little meaningful consideration or scrutiny. These routine communications (letters, inquiries, requests, collection letters, complaints, confirmations,…

  6. Daily Routines of Young Children. (Draft).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossbach, Hans-Guenther

    This pilot study of the structural characteristics of daily routines of young children also explored aspects of conceptual framework and research instruments. Four data collection instruments were developed. Two of the three retrospective measures used were questionnaires for mothers about their child's routine on the previous day. The other…

  7. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiol, Marlena; O'Connor, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this two-part paper is to develop a process model of unlearning established organizational routines. The model traces the interactions among three unlearning sub-processes: ostensive aspects of initial destabilization of an established routine; performative aspects of ongoing discarding-from-use of old behaviors and…

  8. Simultaneous quantification of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate in different commercial drugs using PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejjani, A.; Roumié, M.; Akkad, S.; El-Yazbi, F.; Nsouli, B.

    2016-03-01

    We have demonstrated, in previous studies that Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) is one of the most rapid and accurate choices for quantification of an active ingredient, in a solid drug, from the reactions induced on its specific heteroatom using pellets made from original tablets. In this work, PIXE is used, for the first time, for simultaneous quantification of two active ingredients, amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, in six different commercial antibiotic type of drugs. Since the quality control process of a drug covers a large number of samples, the scope of this study was also to found the most rapid and low cost sample preparation needed to analyze these drugs with a good precision. The chosen drugs were analyzed in their tablets' "as received" form, in pellets made from the powder of the tablets and also in pellets made from the powder of the tablets after being heated up to 70 °C to avoid any molecular destruction until constant weight and removal of humidity. The quantification validity related to the aspects of each sample preparation (homogeneity of the drug components and humidity) are presented and discussed.

  9. Investigation of ancient human bone by means of ionoluminescence and μPIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spemann, D.; Jankuhn, St.; Vogt, J.; Butz, T.

    2001-07-01

    We studied diagenetic alterations on ancient human bones by means of ionoluminescence and μPIXE. It was found that diagenetically altered regions show an orange-red luminescence activated by Mn2+ ions. In order to study the incorporation of Mn into the bone mineral in more detail, μPIXE measurements were performed in the periosteal region of a bone cross section from which maps of elemental distributions could be obtained. The Mn distribution is characterized by a rather uniform Mn concentration of 130 μg/g over the scanned area and additional small areas with concentrations up to 110 mg/g. These areas are mainly located at holes and pores in the bone mineral indicating that they act as suitable pathways for the incorporation of Mn. Furthermore a line scan was made which showed an enhanced concentration of Mn, Fe, and Zn in the area of the periosteal surface which shows that this region is strongly influenced by diagenetic alterations.

  10. Cadmium localization and quantification in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana using micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, F. J.; Ynsa, M. D.; Domínguez-Solís, J. R.; Gotor, C.; Respaldiza, M. A.; Romero, L. C.

    2002-04-01

    Remediation of metal-contaminated soils and waters poses a challenging problem due to its implications in the environment and the human health. The use of metal-accumulating plants to remove toxic metals, including Cd, from soil and aqueous streams has been proposed as a possible solution to this problem. The process of using plants for environmental restoration is termed phytoremediation. Cd is a particularly favourable target metal for this technology because it is readily transported and accumulated in the shoots of several plant species. This paper investigates the sites of metal localization within Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, when plants are grown in a cadmium-rich environment, by making use of nuclear microscopy techniques. Micro-PIXE, RBS and SEM analyses were performed on the scanning proton microprobe at the CNA in Seville (Spain), showing that cadmium is sequestered within the trichomes on the leaf surface. Additionally, regular PIXE analyses were performed on samples prepared by an acid digestion method in order to assess the metal accumulation of such plants.

  11. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  12. PIXE identification of the provenance of ferruginous rocks used by Neanderthals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, François; Bodu, Pierre; Dubreuil, Olivier; Salomon, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Les Bossats, near Ormesson, France, is a newly discovered late Mousterian open air site dated to around 47,000 years ago by thermoluminescence. The archaeological level, fossilized by loess, revealed a rich industry based on the discoid mode, associated with numerous fragments of red and yellow iron oxide-rich rocks showing clear traces of powder production (abrasion, striation, scraping), which are exceptional remains for this remote period. Archeological material and geological samples from the close environment were studied by PIXE and by petrographical observations made on thin sections. The geological sources were identified by means of PIXE analyses on two IBA facilities: AGLAE (2 MV tandem) at the C2RMF in Paris and the cyclotron of the IPNAS (University of Liège). We paid particular attention to the comparison of results obtained on both installations by using the same set of geological standards and by a fine evaluation of the limit of detection relative to each trace elements of interest for both experimental set ups. The elemental fingerprint of one geological source of iron-rich concretions corresponds clearly with the archaeological collection. At least, this investigation demonstrates that the colouring materials were minutely selected in the close neighbouring of the site by the Neanderthals.

  13. Metadata extraction routines for improving infobutton performance.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Nathan C; Haug, Peter J

    2010-11-13

    Infobuttons have been proven as an effective means for providing quick, context-specific links to pertinent information resources at the point of care. Current infobutton manager implementations, however, lack the ability to exchange metadata, are limited to a relatively small set of information providers, and are targeted primarily for a clinician audience. As part of a local effort to implement infobuttons for patient use via a tethered personal health record, we present a series of metadata extraction routines. These routines were constructed to extract key pieces of information from health information providers on the Internet, including content coverage, language availability, and readability scores. The extraction routines were tested using thirty different disease conditions against eight different providers. The routines yielded 183 potential infobutton targets and associated metadata for each. The capabilities of the extraction routines will be expanded to cover new types of metadata in the future.

  14. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  15. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  16. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Michael M.; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  17. Routine nasal packing follwoing nasal surgery-Is it necessary?

    PubMed

    Basha, S I; Gupta, D; Kaluskar, S K

    2005-01-01

    The practice of routine nasal packing after nasal surgery is usually customary and not evidence based. Post operative complications, while uncoumon, are sometimes pack related. A retrospective analysis of 110 patients who underwent a variety of nasal operations was performed to determine the incidence of complications when nasal packs were not routinely inserted 9 cases (8.2%) [6 out of these were revision surgeries] needed nasal packing for haemostasis at the end of surgery. 4 cases (3.6%) required to be packed in the immediate post operative period. One patient who required nasal packing developed a unilateral adhesion. No patient developed septal hematoma. The need for routine nasal packing is not supported. Packing should be indicated where there continuous bleeding at.

  18. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  19. A comparison between PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of metals in aerosol particulate collected in urban and marine sites in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Rugi, F.; Severi, M.; Udisti, R.

    2014-01-01

    PIXE and ICP-AES techniques are largely used in atmospheric aerosol studies. Since PIXE is able to provide the total elemental concentrations, while ICP-AES results depend on the extraction conditions, parallel PIXE and ICP-AES measurements of Fe, Al, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, V, As on PM10 and PM2.5 samples were compared. Two extraction procedures were applied to samples from 5 sites at different anthropization level in Italy: a "weak" extraction (HNO3 at pH = 1.5) and a "strong" extraction (micro-wave oven in HNO3 and H2O2 - following EU rules).

  20. Efficacy and tolerability balance of oxycodone/naloxone and tapentadol in chronic low back pain with a neuropathic component: a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected routine data from 12-week prospective open-label observations

    PubMed Central

    Ueberall, Michael A; Mueller-Schwefe, Gerhard H H

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefit–risk profile (BRP) of oxycodone/naloxone (OXN) and tapentadol (TAP) in patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) with a neuropathic component (NC) in routine clinical practice. Methods This was a blinded end point analysis of randomly selected 12-week routine/open-label data of the German Pain Registry on adult patients with cLBP-NC who initiated an index treatment in compliance with the current German prescribing information between 1st January and 31st October 2015 (OXN/TAP, n=128/133). Primary end point was defined as a composite of three efficacy components (≥30% improvement of pain, pain-related disability, and quality of life each at the end of observation vs baseline) and three tolerability components (normal bowel function, absence of either central nervous system side effects, and treatment-emergent adverse event [TEAE]-related treatment discontinuation during the observation period) adopted to reflect BRP assessments under real-life conditions. Results Demographic as well as baseline and pretreatment characteristics were comparable for the randomly selected data sets of both index groups without any indicators for critical selection biases. Treatment with OXN resulted formally in a BRP noninferior to that of TAP and showed a significantly higher primary end point response vs TAP (39.8% vs 25.6%, odds ratio: 1.93; P=0.014), due to superior analgesic effects. Between-group differences increased with stricter response definitions for all three efficacy components in favor of OXN: ≥30%/≥50%/≥70% response rates for OXN vs TAP were seen for pain intensity in 85.2%/67.2%/39.1% vs 83.5%/54.1%/15.8% (P= ns/0.031/<0.001), for pain-related disability in 78.1%/64.8%/43.8% vs 66.9%/50.4%/24.8% (P=0.043/0.018/0.001), and for quality of life in 76.6%/68.0%/50.0% vs 63.9%/54.1%/34.6% (P=0.026/0.022/0.017). Overall, OXN vs TAP treatments were well tolerated, and proportions of patients who either maintained a normal bowel

  1. Habitual routines in task-performing groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual routines for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such routines are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual routines in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual routines.

  2. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  3. A VAX and PC-based data acquisition system for MCA, scanning and list-mode analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churms, C. L.; Pilcher, J. V.; Springhorn, K. A.; Tapper, U. A. S.

    1993-05-01

    The design of the data acquisition system for the National Accelerator Centre's nuclear microprobe is described. The system consists of an intelligent PC scanner and imaging terminal, interfaced to a VAX-11/750 running a general purpose data acquisition package XSYS. In this way, the user friendliness of a dedicated, intelligent scanner has been combined with the flexibility of a general purpose data acquisition package. It is illustrated how simple tasks such as beam focussing, area of interest localization, and quantitative single spot PIXE or RBS analysis can be performed with minimal complexity, whereas requirements of a more complex nature can be implemented routinely using the general purpose acquisition package with standard command files. Even unique studies can be performed by means of minor software modifications.

  4. Investigation of strontium accumulation on ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rat tibia by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Li, Y.; Jin, W.; Zheng, Y.; Rong, C.; Lyu, H.; Shen, H.

    2014-08-01

    Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug effective in osteoporosis treatment by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation. Strontium accumulation and distribution are determined in bones of rat after strontium ranelate administration by using micro-PIXE. The investigated rats are divided into four groups: (A) control, (B) ovariectomized, (C) ovariectomized followed with strontium chloride, (D) ovariectomized followed with strontium ranelate. It was found that strontium ranelate would result in increasing trabecular volume and decreasing bone resorption to treat osteoporosis. There are similar contours of calcium and strontium in two-dimensional images, while the strontium is not evenly distributed in the bone. It supports the conclusion that strontium has an affinity for bone and it is capable of replacing calcium atoms as a part of the strontium mechanism in the osteoporosis treatment. The results related to biochemistry are also discussed.

  5. The MuPix high voltage monolithic active pixel sensor for the Mu3e experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, H.; Berger, N.; Bravar, S.; Corrodi, S.; Damyanova, A.; Förster, F.; Gredig, R.; Herkert, A.; Huang, Q.; Huth, L.; Kiehn, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Maldaner, S.; Perić, I.; Philipp, R.; Robmann, P.; Schöning, A.; Shrestha, S.; vom Bruch, D.; Weber, T.; Wiedner, D.

    2015-03-01

    Mu3e is a novel experiment searching for charged lepton flavor violation in the rare decay μ → eee. In order to reduce background by up to 16 orders of magnitude, decay vertex position, decay time and particle momenta have to be measured precisely. A pixel tracker based on 50 μm thin high voltage monolithic active pixel sensors (HV-MAPS) in a magnetic field will deliver precise vertex and momentum information. Test beam results like an excellent efficiency of >99.5% and a time resolution of better than 16.6 ns obtained with the MuPix HV-MAPS chip developed for the Mu3e pixel tracker are presented.

  6. Determination of elemental concentrations of iron gall ink components by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Uršič, Mitja; Rupnik, Zdravko; Kolar, Jana; Strlič, Matija

    2003-08-01

    The harmful effects of the iron gall ink on the supporting media (i.e. paper, parchment) are known for a long time. High contents of the catalytic ions and acids present in the ink can cause corrosion of the support and even its irreversible damage. Several historical documents from National and University Library (NUL) are being studied. The samples were measured nondestructively by the in-air PIXE for determination of the iron gall elemental composition. The measured concentrations prove that the analyzed inks contain a variety of different transition metals, which may influence the ink's corrosive character. For already measured documents dating from 14th to 19th century the ink and paper elemental concentrations and their ratios to iron were studied by the statistical methods.

  7. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    SciTech Connect

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-06

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  8. An Apparatus For Student Projects Using External-Beam PIXE And PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Francis D.; Edsall, Douglas W.; DePooter, Katherine A.; Maskell, Nicholas D.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.

    2011-06-01

    We recently installed a simple endstation at the Naval Academy Tandem Accelerator Laboratory to support student projects using external-beam PIXE and PIGE. It consists of a short, graphite-lined beamline extension with a thin window, an interlocked box that surrounds the target, detectors for x- and gamma rays, provision for flooding the target with helium gas, easily changed x-ray absorbers, and a compact video camera for monitoring the position of the beam spot. We used this system to measure the elemental composition of colonial-era architectural materials, principally bricks and mortar, from James Madison's Montpelier, the reconstructed Virginia estate of the fourth President of the United States. We describe the design and construction of the system, relate some of our experiences using it, and present some preliminary data from our investigations.

  9. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  10. Applications of PIXE to biological and biomedical samples at the university of gent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.; Duflou, H.; De Reuck, J.

    1987-03-01

    The research on biological and biomedical samples, conducted at the University of Gent during the last 4-5 years and using PIXE as analytical technique, is presented. Our optimized sample/target preparation methods are described, and the accuracy and precision obtainable with them are discussed. Two comprehensive biological/biomedical research projects, initiated at Gent, are presented. The first aims at investigating possible trace element changes in tissues of experimental animals (rats) as a result of liver necrosis or cirrhosis, induced by intraperitoneal injection with CCl 4. The second project involves the determination of the regional distribution of trace elements in the human brain. Eight elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb, are being measured in up to 50 different regions of 12 normal brains, and in selected brain regions from patients with neurological disorders. Some of the results of the two projects are discussed.

  11. Roman onyx glass: A study of production recipes and colorants, using PIXE spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1994-03-01

    The most attractive Roman glass produced during the latter half of the 1st century B.C. was mosaic ware — vessels and dishes molded from arrays of composite, multi-colored canes which create abstract floral and geometric designs. We have studied a range of such vessels, all of them colored amber and white in a way which was intended to imitate elite vessels that were carved from onyx stone. We have differentiated three ways in which onyx patterns were achieved in this glass. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution and detection sensitivity of PIXE spectrometry, we have studied the "recipes" for colorants used in these onyx patterns, thus raising the notion that each one may have been fashionable in just certain regions of the Roman World, and/or in vogue only during a certain time period.

  12. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-01

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  13. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  14. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status. PMID:27678365

  15. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. Design and data analysis Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. Data sources Observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, searched for articles published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. Electronic searches with MeSH terms and text words identified 3115 papers. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. Results 58 observational studies investigated 77 783 E coli isolates in urine. In studies from OECD countries, the pooled prevalence of resistance was 53.4% (95% confidence interval 46.0% to 60.8%) for ampicillin, 23.6% (13.9% to 32.3%) for trimethoprim, 8.2% (7.9% to 9.6%) for co-amoxiclav, and 2.1% (0.8 to 4.4%) for ciprofloxacin; nitrofurantoin was the lowest at 1.3% (0.8% to 1.7%). Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received

  16. Subjective refraction: the mechanism underlying the routine.

    PubMed

    Harris, W F

    2007-11-01

    The routine of subjective refraction is usually understood, explained and taught in terms of the relative positions of line or point foci and the retina. This paper argues that such an approach makes unnecessary and sometimes invalid assumptions about what is actually happening inside the eye. The only assumption necessary in fact is that the subject is able to guide the refractionist to (or close to) the optimum power for refractive compensation. The routine works even in eyes in which the interval of Sturm does not behave as supposed; it would work, in fact, regardless of the structure of the eye. The idealized subjective refraction routine consists of two steps: the first finds the best sphere (the stigmatic component) and the second finds the remaining Jackson cross-cylinder (the antistigmatic component). The model makes use of the concept of symmetric dioptric power space. The second part of the refraction routine can be performed with Jackson cross-cylinders alone. However, it is usually taught and practiced using spheres, cylinders and Jackson cross-cylinders in a procedure that is not easy to understand and learn. Recognizing that this part of the routine is equivalent to one involving Jackson cross-cylinders only allows one to teach and understand the procedure more naturally and easily.

  17. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  18. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  19. Single mothers' views of young children's everyday routines: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Koulouglioti, Christina; Cole, Robert; Moskow, Marian

    2011-07-01

    Consistent daily routines have been associated with children's well-being, but children of single parents are less likely to engage in regular family meals or bedtime routines. This study explored routines and the challenges of maintaining routines as experienced by single mothers with a preschool age (3-5) child. Four focus groups (N = 12) were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used. Mothers described routines as an integral part of their parenting role and a reflection of successful parenting but maintaining routines around bedtimes and mealtimes were major concerns. Difficulties managing their child's behavior and their own fatigue were major challenges but mothers described a wide range of helpful strategies as well.

  20. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  1. Obsidian provenance determination by using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Bracchitta, D.; Palio, O.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.

    2012-04-01

    About 1300 obsidian artefacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily were analyzed by using the BSC-XRF (Beam Stability Controlled - X-ray Fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (Particle Induced X-ray Emission, using low energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory at the LNS-INF and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of the Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb trace element concentrations where deduced through the use of a method that makes use of a multi parameter linear regression, previously The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In the present work the two instrumental devices are presented. The data are from: Milena (Cl), Ustica (Pa), Rocchicella (Ct), Poggio dell'Acquila (Ct), San Marco (Ct), Villaggio del Petraro* (Sr) and Licodia Eubea* (Ct). Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analysed samples. Analyses carried out on vitreous artefact found in Rocchicella, showed for the first time that the Palagonite was used as row material. *Preliminary data. Topic of conference: Application of XRS in archaeometry Kind of presentation: oral

  2. ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, R.

    1995-01-01

    An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.

  3. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  4. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  5. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Liang-Man; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Yuan-Xim; Li, Yan; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Qing-Chen; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Han, Yong

    2009-11-01

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The Sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO2-4. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  6. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  7. The Daily Routine of the Oldest Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barer, Barbara M.

    Individuals who are beyond the age of 85 have to confront the decrements of aging that are commonly recognized. This study examined the daily routine of the oldest old through interviews. Subjects were asked about the logistics of their daily lives, what they liked best to do, what they didn't like to do, what made a day good for them, and what…

  8. Action Selection in Complex Routinized Sequential Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruh, Nicolas; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2010-01-01

    We report two experiments in which errors and interaction latencies were recorded during routinization of hierarchically structured computer-based tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrates that action selection is slowed at subtask transitions, especially when selecting lower frequency actions. This frequency effect is compounded by concurrent performance…

  9. 10 CFR 71.87 - Routine determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.87 Routine determinations. Before each shipment of licensed material, the licensee shall... accordance with written procedures; (g) For fissile material, any moderator or neutron absorber, if...

  10. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  11. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  12. libvaxdata: VAX data format conversion routines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Lawrence M.

    2005-01-01

    libvaxdata provides a collection of routines for converting numeric data-integer and floating-point-to and from the formats used on a Digital Equipment Corporation1 (DEC) VAX 32-bit minicomputer (Brunner, 1991). Since the VAX numeric data formats are inherited from those used on a DEC PDP-11 16-bit minicomputer, these routines can be used to convert PDP-11 data as well. VAX numeric data formats are also the default data formats used on DEC Alpha 64-bit minicomputers running OpenVMS The libvaxdata routines are callable from Fortran or C. They require that the caller use two's-complement format for integer data and IEEE 754 format (ANSI/IEEE, 1985) for floating-point data. They also require that the 'natural' size of a C int type (integer) is 32 bits. That is the case for most modern 32-bit and 64-bit computer systems. Nevertheless, you may wish to consult the Fortran or C compiler documentation on your system to be sure. Some Fortran compilers support conversion of VAX numeric data on-the-fly when reading or writing unformatted files, either as a compiler option or a run-time I/O option. This feature may be easier to use than the libvaxdata routines. Consult the Fortran compiler documentation on your system to determine if this alternative is available to you. 1Later Compaq Computer Corporation, now Hewlett-Packard Company

  13. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  14. The complementarity of PIXE and PIGE techniques: A case study of size segregated airborne particulates collected from a Nigeria city.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, G C; Obioh, I B; Asubiojo, O I; Chiari, M; Nava, S; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F; Nuviadenu, C

    2015-09-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique is a reliable ion beam analytical tool for the characterization of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements (such as Na, Mg, Al and Si) owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique could be employed as avalid means to determine corrections for such an effect. Hence, in this study, Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter samples collected at Ikeja, Lagos-Nigeria, using a double staged 'Gent' stacked sampler were analyzed for their elemental concentrations using an external beam set-up for simultaneous PIXE and PIGE measurements. The measured PIXE concentrations as well as the PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected in the PM(10-2.5) samples (collected on polycarbonate Nuclepore membranes) are reported. The concentrations of 24 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) detected in both fractions were displayed, discussed and likely sources of these elements were also identified.

  15. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au-U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  16. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  17. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  18. Mediating the intersections of organizational routines during the introduction of a health IT system

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie; Brooks, JoAnn; Gadd, Cynthia; Anders, Shilo; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Public interest in the quality and safety of health care has spurred examination of specific organizational routines believed to yield risk in health care work. Medication administration routines, in particular, have been the subject of numerous improvement projects involving information technology development, and other forms of research and regulation. This study draws from ethnographic observation to examine how the common routine of medication administration intersects with other organizational routines, and why understanding such intersections is important. We present three cases describing intersections between medication administration and other routines, including a pharmacy routine, medication administration on the next shift and management reporting. We found that each intersection had ostensive and performative dimensions; and furthermore, that IT-enabled changes to one routine led to unintended consequences in its intersection with others, resulting in misalignment of ostensive and performative aspects of the intersection. Our analysis focused on the activities of a group of nurses who provide technology use mediation (TUM) before and after the rollout of a new health IT system. This research offers new insights on the intersection of organizational routines, demonstrates the value of analyzing TUM activities to better understand the relationship between IT introduction and changes in routines, and has practical implications for the implementation of technology in complex practice settings. PMID:24357898

  19. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadro, A.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.; Passi, P.

    1999-06-01

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton μbeam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some μA were used. The maps were obtained by an "ad hoc" software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  20. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zadro, A.; Passi, P.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.

    1999-06-10

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton {mu}beam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some {mu}A were used. The maps were obtained by an 'ad hoc' software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  1. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (<10 vol.% vapor) and co-existing low-salinity aqueous vapor (<20 vol.% liquid) inclusions. Results indicate that vapor inclusions have higher concentrations of Cu (typically 1000's of ppm; max. 7277 ppm) compared to brine inclusions (typically 100's of ppm). Brine inclusions also are much higher in Cl (Na), K, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Fe. Only Pb concentrations approach those in the vapor. Metal ratios such as Cu/Fe and Cu/Zn are 2 to 167 times higher in the vapor compared with the brine inclusions. Cu/Pb ratios are 2 to 15 times higher in the vapor than in the brine. PIXE microanalysis for the ~617 Ma 17 Mile Hill deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (<10 vol.%) bubble of carbonic fluid, and adjacent "carbonic" inclusions, which have a thin rim of aqueous liquid (<10 vol.%) wetting the

  2. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  3. ROUTINE CHOLANGIOGRAPHY DURING OPERATION FOR GALLSTONES

    PubMed Central

    Smith, C. C.; Faris, George A.

    1959-01-01

    Cholangiography done routinely during operation was found valuable for detection of stones in the bile ducts. Operation for stone not seen in the operative cholangiogram was seldom necessary. When no stone is demonstrated, it seems proper to spare the patient the additional trauma of common duct exploration. ImagesFigure 1 (Case 1).Figure 2 (Case 1).Figure 3 (Case 2).Figure 4 (Case 3).Figure 5 (Case 5).Figure 6 (Case 6). PMID:13651956

  4. Investigation of incrusted pottery found in the territory of Hungary by micro-PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sziki, Gusztáv Á.; Biró, Katalin T.; Uzonyi, Imre; Dobos, Erik; Kiss, Árpád Z.

    2003-09-01

    Incrusted pottery samples from the territory of Hungary were analyzed by micro-PIXE technique. Measurements were executed on the front and back side of the samples and inside the incrustations too. We succeeded to group the pottery from different regions and periods by the composition of the ornament. It was concluded that the elemental composition of the ornament may be characteristic to the provenance of the pottery. In case of samples from Vörs-Máriaasszonysziget the presence of a kind of grit in the incrustations with high calcium and phosphorus content was established. The material of the grit is presumably bone. Samples from other archaeological localities can be described by incrustations with different compositions. Incrustations in the samples from Balatonfüzö are presumably composed of limestone (CaCO 3), from Baradla cave (Aggtelek) probably of white clay paste (kaolinite). It was also concluded that the red color of the ornaments of some sample from Baradla cave is caused by hematite.

  5. KCC2 regulates actin dynamics in dendritic spines via interaction with β-PIX

    PubMed Central

    Llano, Olaya; Smirnov, Sergey; Soni, Shetal; Golubtsov, Andrey; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hotulainen, Pirta; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Chloride extrusion in mature neurons is largely mediated by the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. In addition, independently of its chloride transport function, KCC2 regulates the development and morphology of dendritic spines through structural interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show a novel pathway for KCC2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. We found that KCC2, through interaction with the b isoform of Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX, regulates the activity of Rac1 GTPase and the phosphorylation of one of the major actin-regulating proteins, cofilin-1. KCC2-deficient neurons had abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin-1. Consistently, dendritic spines of these neurons exhibited a large pool of stable actin, resulting in reduced spine motility and diminished density of functional synapses. In conclusion, we describe a novel signaling pathway that couples KCC2 to the cytoskeleton and regulates the formation of glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26056138

  6. The application of PIXE to the mapping of contaminants deposited on a monolithic automotive catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angove, Dennys E.; Cant, Noel W.; Bailey, Grahame M.; Cohen, David D.

    1996-04-01

    Automotive catalytic converters lose activity whilst in service. The degree of deactivation depends upon a number of factors including contamination by residues of additives or trace elements in fuel and/or engine oil, which generally reduces the surface area of the catalyst. In this initial investigation, PIXE was used to map contaminant deposition at three points along each of the central longitudinal axis and a parallel axis located closer to the side of a single monolith. This monolith was selected because it was physically undamaged and exhibited low surface area (<2 m 2 g -1) at the front and reasonable surface area (>10 m 2 g -1) towards the rear. A total of 20 elements were identified. The contaminants P, K, Ca, Zn and Pb were deposited in greater concentration towards the front of the monolith on both axes. Si may also be a contaminant; it is unexpectedly deposited more uniformly along the central axis than along the parallel side axis where it appears to decrease linearly from front to rear. Degraded precision was obtained for Al and Si in samples that were heavily contaminated.

  7. The PocketSpacecraft.com Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The PocketSpacecraft.com Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE) is an integrated generic spacecraft design, simulation, manufacturing, and operations system for the low cost mass exploration of space by amateur and professional Principle Investigators (PIs). PIs use an online tool to design Thin-Film Spacecraft/Lander/Rovers (TF-SLRs) using a library of predefined spacecraft and mission components to specify TF-SLRs in quantities ranging from one to thousands per mission, each with a typical mass <1g, surface area <1m2, and

  8. RBS, PIXE and NDP study of erbium incorporation into glass surface for photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, Anna; Havránek, Vladimír; Vacík, Jiří; Salavcová, Linda; Špirková, Jarmila

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication and the characterisation of successful erbium in-diffusion into silicate glass surface for potential use in photonics active structures through ion beam analytical methods. The erbium doping occurred by ion exchange of erbium ions from a molten source for lithium ions from the specially designed glass substrates. Composition of the optical layers was studied by ion beam analytical techniques: RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy) characterized depth distribution of the incorporated Er3+ ions and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy) gave information on the total amount of erbium incorporated in the samples. The NDP (neutron depth profiling) method was used to evaluate changes in distribution of Li+ ions in the surfaces of the fabricated samples. We observed shallow Er profiles that were accompanied by more mobile Cs+, Rb+ ions incorporated in the much deeper layer as compared to the Er. The Li concentration in the glass substrate occurs as the most important parameter for Er diffusion into the glass substrate.

  9. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  10. Study of the provenance of Belgian Merovingian garnets by PIXE at IPNAS cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, F.; Vrielynck, O.; Laclavetine, K.; Chêne, G.; Strivay, D.

    2008-05-01

    Recent archaeological excavation in Belgium reveals one of the biggest Merovingian necropolis ever found in this country. This necropolis contains 436 tombs with a period of occupation of almost two centuries. Some of these tombs were very rich, especially two of them, and delivered an important funerary furniture. About 60 jewels inlaid with red garnets have been found, most of them of "cloisonné" style (namely about 450 garnets). The new extracted beam set-up of the IPNAS cyclotron (University of Liège, Belgium) has been improved in order to analyse by PIXE these garnets and try to determine their provenance. These analyses reveal that the garnets found in the necropolis of Grez-Doiceau are very homogeneous in composition (almandine garnets) and are coming almost from a unique source. These results have been compared to previous studies led in France during these past five years. This permits to identify the source of almandine garnet situated in India and to highlight differences in garnet supply between France and Belgium in Merovingian times.

  11. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  12. Development Of PIXE Measurement Of Ca Changes Resulting From Viral Transduction In Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Chienthavorn, Orapin; Eronen, Hannele; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Gilbert, Leona K.

    2011-06-01

    Ca is a life-element of particular interest because it is both bound to proteins, and as Ca2+ which functions as a signal molecule in apoptosis. Here we report development of chemical-matrix blind assaying the Ca fluxes from transduced HepG2 cells using particle induced X-ray emission. The cells were transduced with recombinant baculoviruses hosting the DNA for non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of the human pavovirus B19. Different recombinant baculoviruses were used that carried different DNA payloads of this NS1. Two different approaches have been developed to assay Ca in cells. The first is where the cells were directly cultured using a self-supporting pioloform as a substrate. In the second approach the cells are permeabilized, and bound-Ca content in the debris, and unbound-Ca in the wash solutions were measured using an internal V reference standard. The results support a difference in the Ca contents depending on the payload of the infecting virus, however the PIXE signals were too close to the minimum detection limit to draw reliable conclusions.

  13. Miniaturization through lab-on-a-chip: utopia or reality for routine laboratories? A review.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Angel; Zougagh, Mohammed; Avila, Mónica

    2012-08-31

    Micro total analysis (μTAS), also called "lab-on-a-chip (LOC)" technology, promises solutions for high throughput and highly specific analysis for chemistry, biology and medicine, while consuming only tiny amounts of samples, reactants and space. This article reports selected contributions of LOC, which represent clear practical approaches for routine work, or presenting potentiality to be transferred to routine analytical laboratories. Taking into account the present LOC state-of-the-art, we identify various reasons for its scarce implementation in routine analytical laboratories despite its high analytical potential, as well as the probably main "niche" for successfully practical developments is suggested.

  14. CERES: A Set of Automated Routines for Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Rafael; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor

    2017-03-01

    We present the Collection of Elemental Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES). These routines were developed for the construction of automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction, and analysis of spectra acquired with different instruments, allowing the obtention of homogeneous and standardized results. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD image reductions; identification and tracing of the echelle orders; optimal and rectangular extraction; computation of the wavelength solution; estimation of radial velocities; and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. Currently, CERES has been used to develop automated pipelines for 13 different spectrographs, namely CORALIE, FEROS, HARPS, ESPaDOnS, FIES, PUCHEROS, FIDEOS, CAFE, DuPont/Echelle, Magellan/Mike, Keck/HIRES, Magellan/PFS, and APO/ARCES, but the routines can be easily used to deal with data coming from other spectrographs. We show the high precision in radial velocity that CERES achieves for some of these instruments, and we briefly summarize some results that have already been obtained using the CERES pipelines.

  15. A PAK1-PIX-PKL complex is activated by the T-cell receptor independent of Nck, Slp-76 and LAT.

    PubMed

    Ku, G M; Yablonski, D; Manser, E; Lim, L; Weiss, A

    2001-02-01

    Given the importance of the Rho GTPase family member Rac1 and the Rac1/Cdc42 effector PAK1 in T-cell activation, we investigated the requirements for their activation by the T-cell receptor (TCR). Rac1 and PAK1 activation required the tyrosine kinases ZAP-70 and Syk, but not the cytoplasmic adaptor Slp-76. Surprisingly, PAK1 was activated in the absence of the transmembrane adaptor LAT while Rac1 was not. However, efficient PAK1 activation required its binding sites for Rho GTPases and for PIX, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases. The overexpression of ssPIX that either cannot bind PAK1 or lacks GEF function blocked PAK1 activation. These data suggest that a PAK1-PIX complex is recruited to appropriate sites for activation and that PIX is required for Rho family GTPase activation upstream of PAK1. Furthermore, we detected a stable trimolecular complex of PAK1, PIX and the paxillin kinase linker p95PKL. Taken together, these data show that PAK1 contained in this trimolecular complex is activated by a novel LAT- and Slp-76-independent pathway following TCR stimulation.

  16. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S. O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  17. [When life needs routine, imagination, listening].

    PubMed

    Tognoni, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    When life needs routine, imagination, listening. Barbara is a 44 years old oncologist, married and with two children, that tells through others but also with her own words of her cancer, until death. Giuseppe is a laboratory technician, researcher, mountaineer, promoter of humanitarian initiatives Bosnia and Croatia; his lateral amyotrophic sclerosis is told by his wife, in a booklet written after his death. Their two stories are the occasions for reflecting on the importance and role of closeness, listening, dreaming, narrating in improving the quality of life and care: none of these words are included in the guidelines.

  18. [Neuroimaging for patients with Alzheimer disease in routine practice].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    In routine practice neuroimaging has been applied as an adjunct technique for early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease in routine practice. Of the several neuroimaging modalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been commonly used in Japan; further software programs are used to aid statistical analysis of the imaging results. For example voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer disease (VSRAD) for MRI and easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS) are used for the analysis of MRI and SPECT. In the early stage of Alzheimer disease, specific findings of regional atrophy and perfusion reduction are observed in some areas. In the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and parietal cortex, perfusion reduction was more frequently observed than atrophy. On the other hand, in the medial temporal structures, perfusion reduction was less frequently observed than atrophy. Perfusion reduction in the the posterior cingulate gyrus precuneus and in the parietal cortex was more prominent in the case of patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease. Further, atrophy in the medial temporal structures was more prominent in the case of patients with late-onset Alzheimer disease than in the case of those with early-onset Alzheimer disease. These findings are helpful for differentiating of Alzheimer disease from other diseases characterized by dementia.

  19. The PixFEL project: Progress towards a fine pitch X-ray imaging camera for next generation FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    The INFN PixFEL project is developing the fundamental building blocks for a large area X-ray imaging camera to be deployed at next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities with unprecedented intensity. Improvement in performance beyond the state of art in imaging instrumentation will be explored adopting advanced technologies like active edge sensors, a 65 nm node CMOS process and vertical integration. These are the key ingredients of the PixFEL project to realize a seamless large area focal plane instrument composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. In order to minimize the dead area and reduce ambiguities in image reconstruction, a fine pitch active edge thick sensor is being optimized to cope with very high intensity photon flux, up to 104 photons per pixel, in the range from 1 to 10 keV. A low noise analog front-end channel with this wide dynamic range and a novel dynamic compression feature, together with a low power 10 bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, has been realized in a 110 μm pitch with a 65 nm CMOS process. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be also explored in the future to build a four-side buttable readout chip with high density memories. In the long run the objective of the PixFEL project is to build a flexible X-ray imaging camera for operation both in burst mode, like at the European X-FEL, or in continuous mode with the high frame rates anticipated for future FEL facilities.

  20. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  1. Micro-PIXE and micro-SR-XRF studies for Romanian archaeological gold identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.

    2009-04-01

    For gold, trace elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological artifacts than the main components: Platinum Group Elements (PGE), Sn, Te, Sb, Hg, Pb, but also high melting point elements, such as Ta and Nb. Several small fragments of native Carpathian gold were studied using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility, and using SR-XRF at BESSY synchrotron. The goal of the study was to identify the trace elements, especially Sn, Sb and Te. At BESSY, the SR-XRF measurements were performed in air by using a 34 keV beam to excite the characteristic X-lines in Sn-Sb-Te region. We found Sn to be present in placers from Valea Arieşului and Valea Pianului, Sb in primary gold from Zlatna, Ruda-Brad, Valea Morii, Runculeţ-Straja and Pb in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Zlatna, Runculeţ-Straja, Valea Morii, Muşariu-Brad. Ten native gold nuggets and several fragments of objects coming from Visigothic Pietroasa "The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens" hoard were analyzed using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum, Paris and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility. We found Te in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Muşariu-Brad (different samples from BESSY analyzed ones), and Roşia Montanǎ, Sb in primary gold at Bucium-Izbiţa. For Pietroasa hoard, we found Sn in the Oenochoe cup and small fibula, indicating that alluvial gold - probably from Anatolia (Pactolus river) - was used. We also detected Ta inclusions in the large fibula, indicating that Ural Mountains (the only region where Ta and Au minerals are together) gold was (at least partially) used. A spectacular application to nine Dacian gold bracelets (belonging to National History Museum of Romania) authentication is presented. These bracelets look like spirals and are based on the same artistic idea, are centred around the same theme. The number of spiral varies from 6 to 8. When uncoiled, some bracelets

  2. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  3. Advantages and Limitations of Direct PCR Amplification of Bacterial 16S-rDNA from Resected Heart Tissue or Swabs Followed by Direct Sequencing for Diagnosing Infective Endocarditis: A Retrospective Analysis in the Routine Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Maneg, Daniela; Sponsel, Janina; Müller, Iris; Lohr, Benedikt; Penders, John; Madlener, Katharina; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Its long-term prognosis strongly depends on a timely and optimized antibiotic treatment. Therefore, identification of the causative pathogen is crucial and currently based on blood cultures followed by characterization and susceptibility testing of the isolate. However, antibiotic treatment starting prior to blood sampling or IE caused by fastidious or intracellular microorganisms may cause negative culture results. Here we investigate the additional diagnostic value of broad-range PCR in combination with direct sequencing on resected heart tissue or swabs in patients with tissue or swab culture-negative IE in a routine clinical setting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of broad-range PCR from diagnostic material in our patients were 33.3%, 76.9%, 90.9%, and 14.3%, respectively. We identified a total of 20 patients (21.5%) with tissue or culture-negative IE who profited by the additional application of broad-range PCR. We conclude that broad-range PCR on resected heart tissue or swabs is an important complementary diagnostic approach. It should be seen as an indispensable new tool for both the therapeutic and diagnostic management of culture-negative IE and we thus propose its possible inclusion in Duke's diagnostic classification scheme. PMID:27110570

  4. Cost analysis of bivalirudin versus reference anticoagulants without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in routine clinical practice. Pompidou registry.

    PubMed

    Puymirat, E; Cohen, S; Védrenne, G; Caruba, T; Sabatier, B; Danchin, N; Durand, E

    2013-04-01

    Randomized controlled trials have shown improved short-term bleeding outcomes for bivalirudin compared to other anticoagulant in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study analyzed the cost/efficacy profile of bivalirudin-based anticoagulation strategy versus non bivalirudin-based anticoagulant strategy without use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in routine clinical practice. From January 2009 to December 2010, 216 patients who underwent PCI for ACS at hospital Georges-Pompidou without GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were studied. Of these patients, 24 (11%) received bivalirudin and 192 (88%) received others anticoagulants (mainly unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin). Ischemic events and bleeding or transfusion were slightly lower in bivalirudin group (0 vs. 4.2%, P=0.60 and 4.2 vs. 8.9%, P=0.70, respectively). In spite of a higher cost of the medication, the overall cost of the bivalirudin strategy was slightly lower (9167±3688 € vs. 14,016±14,749 €, P=0.23), in relation with a shorter average duration of the hospital stay. In conclusion, in this limited, single-center, population of patients with ACS, the clinical efficacy and safety of bivalirudin appeared at least as good as that of reference anticoagulants in real world clinical practice, with no increase in overall costs.

  5. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  6. Combined external-beam PIXE and /μ-Raman characterisation of garnets used in Merovingian jewellery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Poirot, J.-P.; Sudres, C.

    2002-04-01

    Red garnets were the dominant gemstones used for jewels in Europe during the Early Middle Ages. We have studied over 350 garnets set on 12 jewels unearthed in the royal necropolis of the Saint-Denis Basilica, close to Paris. This famous collection of "cloisonné" style artefacts dates from the Merovingian period (late fifth century AD to early seventh century AD). The archaeological issue addressed is the identification of the geographical origin of these garnets, in view to establish the gem trading routes during the Dark Ages. External beam PIXE was used to determine the major constituents (Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Mn, Fe), specifying the garnet type (composition in various mineralogical end-members, e.g. almandine, pyrope, spessartite, …), and the trace element content (Cr, Y). Three sorts of garnets were identified. Ten jewels are adorned with almandine garnets (Fe-rich). One jewel has intermediate almandine-pyrope garnets ("rhodolite"). The last and most recent jewel is inlaid with pyrope (Mg-rich) garnets. Trace element content and slight differences in major composition allowed to distinguish five different sources: two sources for pyrope garnets (with and without chromium), and two sources for almandine garnets (distinctive calcium, magnesium and yttrium contents). A preliminary comparison with literature data suggested that almandine garnets may have been mined from India while the "rhodolite" garnets may have been imported from Sri Lanka. The sources of pyrope garnets could be the Bohemian deposits (Czech republic). In addition, μ-Raman spectrometry was used to identify most of the mineral inclusions (apatite, zircon, ilmenite, monazite, calcite, quartz) present in almandine garnets. Even if two specific types of inclusions were not identified, due to the lack of corresponding reference spectra in our database, the Raman spectra collected provided an interesting inclusion fingerprint.

  7. Study of the Pd Rh interdiffusion by three complementary analytical techniques: PIXE, RBS and ToF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, R. L.; Brison, J.; Houssiau, L.; Lucas, S.

    2005-10-01

    Pd diffusion in Rh has a great interest in the 103Pd* production intended to brachytherapy, a cancer treatment using radioactive implants. In order to study that diffusion, DC-magnetron sandwich layers of natural Pd and Rh were produced, annealed, and the Pd profiles were measured by ToF-SIMS. Nevertheless, because ToF-SIMS depth profiles suffer from a lack of quantification and depth calibration, the study was completed by RBS, PIXE. The combination of these techniques allowed us to convert the ToF-SIMS depth profiles from an intensity-time to a concentration-depth profile and thus to study the Pd diffusion in Rh.

  8. HERALD (Health Economics using Routine Anonymised Linked Data)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health economic analysis traditionally relies on patient derived questionnaire data, routine datasets, and outcomes data from experimental randomised control trials and other clinical studies, which are generally used as stand-alone datasets. Herein, we outline the potential implications of linking these datasets to give one single joined up data-resource for health economic analysis. Method The linkage of individual level data from questionnaires with routinely-captured health care data allows the entire patient journey to be mapped both retrospectively and prospectively. We illustrate this with examples from an Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) cohort by linking patient reported study dataset with the routinely collected general practitioner (GP) data, inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) datasets, and Accident and Emergency department data in Wales. The linked data system allows: (1) retrospective and prospective tracking of patient pathways through multiple healthcare facilities; (2) validation and clarification of patient-reported recall data, complementing the questionnaire/routine data information; (3) obtaining objective measure of the costs of chronic conditions for a longer time horizon, and during the pre-diagnosis period; (4) assessment of health service usage, referral histories, prescribed drugs and co-morbidities; and (5) profiling and stratification of patients relating to disease manifestation, lifestyles, co-morbidities, and associated costs. Results Using the GP data system we tracked about 183 AS patients retrospectively and prospectively from the date of questionnaire completion to gather the following information: (a) number of GP events; (b) presence of a GP 'drug' read codes; and (c) the presence of a GP 'diagnostic' read codes. We tracked 236 and 296 AS patients through the OP and IP data systems respectively to count the number of OP visits; and IP admissions and duration. The results are presented under several patient stratification

  9. Staging of renal cell carcinoma: cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.J.; Broaddus, S.B.; Leadbetter, G.W. Jr.

    1985-03-01

    The use of bone scans in the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma has become routine in many centers. In a retrospective analysis of 42 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, the authors analyzed the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative bone scans. Although these scans accurately predict metastatic disease to bone, they are not cost-effective as a routine preoperative tool because they do not alter outcome. In selected patients with bone pain and no other positive staging studies, preoperative bone scans may be of value in the decision to perform extirpative surgery.

  10. Stable Ion Beam Analysis (RBS and PIXE) Study of Photocatalytic Track-Etched Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossouw, A.; Artoshina, O. V.; Nechaev, A. N.; Apel, P. Yu.; Petrik, L.; Perold, W. J.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    In microfiltration, caking is a major problem. Organic molecules get absorbed on the track-etched membrane TM surface during water purification. This leads to a loss of efficiency and changes in TM selectivity. A solution devised to solve this problem is the creation of self-cleaning, low-absorptive TM coatings. The TM surface was modified by depositing a thin-film photocatalytic semiconductor, titanium dioxide (TiO2). Strong oxidizing agents appear on the TiO2 surface in the presence of water, dissolved oxygen and UV irradiation. This results in the mineralization of the organic compounds present, By applying the use of exotic beams in the material research, it becomes possible to investigate properties regarding the layer thickness, homogeneity and purity of the modified TMs, not otherwise attainable.

  11. PIXE microbeam analysis of the metallic debris release around endosseous implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buso, G. P.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Passi, P.; Zadro, A.; Uzunov, N. M.; Doyle, B. L.; Rossi, P.; Provencio, P.

    2005-10-01

    The mechanical friction that occurs during the surgical insertion of endosseous implants, both in dentistry and orthopaedics, may cause the detachment of metal debris which are dislodged into the peri-implant tissues and can lead to adverse clinical effects. This phenomenon more likely happens with coated or roughened implants that are the most widely employed. In the present study were studied dental implants screws made of commercially pure titanium and coated using titanium plasma-spray (TPS) technique. The implants were inserted in the tibia of rabbits, and removed "en bloc" with the surrounding bone after one month. After proper processing and mounting on plastic holders, samples from bones were analysed by EDXRF setup at of National Laboratories of Legnaro, INFN, Italy, and consequently at 3 MeV proton microbeam setup at Sandia National Laboratories. Elemental maps were drawn, showing some occasional presence of metal particles in the peri-implant bone.

  12. The influence of target preparation and mode of irradiation on PIXE analysis of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galuszka, Janusz; Jarczyk, Lucjan; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Strzalkowski, Adam; Sych, Marek

    1984-04-01

    The following methods of target preparation were examined and compared: dry ashing at high temperature, low temperature ashing in plasma asher, wet ashing, lyophilization at a temperature of 35°C, cryofixation with drying in vacuum and dehydration in alcohol with drying in vacuum. All these techniques were applied to prepare targets from five different rat organs: liver, kidney, brain, lung and muscle tissue. The dried and powdered sample material was pressed into pellets or was distributed on formvar film. The evaporation of the thin carbon layer on the investigated target and placing of the thin carbon film in front of a target were also tested. The targets were irradiated in vacuum using an external beam in the air chamber. The influence of the method of target preparation on the detection limits, time requirements and escape of elements from the sample material is discussed.

  13. PIXE-PIGE analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples from remote areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Taccetti, F.; Becagli, S.; Frosini, D.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical characterization of size-segregated samples is helpful to study the aerosol effects on both human health and environment. The sampling with multi-stage cascade impactors (e.g., Small Deposit area Impactor, SDI) produces inhomogeneous samples, with a multi-spot geometry and a non-negligible particle stratification.

  14. Analysis of ancient Indian silver punch-marked coins by external PIXE.

    PubMed

    Rautray, Tapash R; Nayak, Suman S; Tripathy, Bipin B; Das, Saubhagyalaxmi; Das, Manas R; Das, Satya R; Chattopadhyay, Pranab K

    2011-10-01

    Seven silver punch-marked coins were analysed using external particle induced X-ray emission technique. The main group of elements like Ag, Cu, Au, Pb and Fe were estimated along with a number of trace/minor elements such as K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Rb in the analysed silver coins. Gold was found in all the coins and varied between 0.7% and 6.2% indicating the better economic condition of that civilisation.

  15. Prehistoric cave painting PIXE analysis for the identification of paint ``pots''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menu, Michel; Walter, Philippe

    1992-02-01

    Prior to the advent of modern analytical techniques, the methods of producing prehistoric paintings were a subject of conjecture. We have sampled and extensively analysed prehistoric paint in several French cave sites of the Upper Paleolithic. The results indicate that, more than 12000 years ago, artists working within a restricted area utilized a number of "paint recipes" which are chronologically significant and may thus assist in dating the paintings. These recipes consist of a precise manufacturing of the different elements: pigment, extender and sometimes binder. The chemical impurities associated with the paint (here the mineral part composed of pigment + extender) may determine the "paint pot". These impurities are characteristic of the sources of the minerals. Among the different sites that we analysed, three from the most important ones are presented here: Niaux, Gargas (French Pyrenees) and Lascaux (Perigord, France).

  16. PIXE and IL analysis of an archeologically problematic XIII century ceramic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Jiménez-Rey, David; Climent-Font, Aurelio; Martina, Silvia; Faieta, Rosangela; Maggi, Marco; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Calusi, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    At the beginning of the XIII century the archaeologists have found evidence of a singular, transitional, pottery technique limited to a small area around western Liguria (Northwest of Italy). Known as Ligurian Protomajolica (PML), it shows in the same ceramic body and on the same surface white slip and enamel together, addressing questions about the technical reasons of this unusual combination, its origin and evolution. To integrate previous morphological and mineralogical studies, we have analysed by particle induced X-ray emission (also with mapping) and ionoluminescence (IL) the ceramic body, slip and glaze composition of 56 samples, of which 25 PML's. We have identified some PML's compositional features which are distinct from those of other coeval or later productions from the same area. A few PML imitations are described. A plausible explanation of the origin of the PML's, based both on the archaeometric results and the archaeological and historical knowledge, is presented.

  17. One year of campaigns in Cameroon: effects on routine health services

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Edengue, Jean Marie; Lagarde, Mylene; Baonga, Simon Franky; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Targeted campaigns have been reported to disrupt routine health services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the average effect of public health campaigns over 1 year on routine services such as antenatal care, routine vaccination and outpatient services. Method: We collected daily activity data in 60 health facilities in two regions of Cameroon that traditionally undergo different intensities of campaign activity, the Centre region (low) and the Far North (high), to ascertain effects on routine services. For each outcome, we restricted our analysis to the public health centres for which good data were available and excluded private health facilities given their small number. We used segment-linear regression to account for the longitudinal nature of the data, and assessed whether the number of routine activities decreased in health facilities during periods when campaigns occurred. The analysis controlled for secular trends and serial correlation. Results: We found evidence that vaccination campaigns had a negative impact on routine activities, decreasing outpatient visits when they occurred (Centre: −9.9%, P = 0.079; Far North: −11.6%, P = 0.025). The average negative effect on routine services [outpatient visits −18% (P = 0.02) and antenatal consultations −70% [P = 0.001]) was most pronounced in the Far North during ‘intensive’ campaigns that usually require high mobilization of staff. Discussion: With an increasing number of interventions delivered by campaigns and in the context of elimination and eradication targets, these are important results for countries and agencies to consider. Achieving disease control targets hinges on ensuring high uptake of routine services. Therefore, we suggest that campaigns should systematically monitor ‘impact on routine services’, while also devising concrete strategies to mitigate potential adverse effects. PMID:27175031

  18. Adiponectin as a routine clinical biomarker.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Ken; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2014-01-01

    Adiponectin is a protein synthesized and secreted predominantly by adipocytes into the peripheral blood. However, circulating adiponectin level is inversely related with body weight, especially visceral fat accumulation. The mechanism of this paradoxical relation remains obscure. Low circulating adiponectin concentrations (hypoadiponectinemia; <4 μg/mL) are associated with a variety of diseases, including dysmetabolism (type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia), atherosclerosis (coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease), sleep apnea, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gastritis and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel diseases, pancreatitis, osteoporosis, and cancer (endometrial cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer). On the other hand, hyperadiponectinemia is associated with cardiac, renal and pulmonary diseases. This review article focuses on the significance of adiponectin as a clinical biomarker of obesity-related diseases. Routine measurement of adiponectin in patients with lifestyle-related diseases is highly recommended.

  19. [Management of aflibercept in routine clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Cabrera López, F

    2015-03-01

    Aflibercept is a new anti-vegf drug that, unlike ranibizumab and bevacizumab blocks both vegf-A and placental growth factor. Moreover, it binds with much greater strength and affinity to human VEGF-A165 than other endogenous vegf receptors, conferring it with a more extended effect and allowing a lower frequency of intravitreal injections. This facilitates the adoption of fixed treatment regimens other than monthly or individual regimens such as "treat and extend". Aflibercept is indicated for the treatment of neovascular (exudative) age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), visual alteration due to macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and visual alteration due to diabetic macular edema (DME). The present article reviews the management of aflibercept in routine clinical practice, based on the specifications of its new core data sheet, which includes all the therapeutic indications in which its use has been approved and evaluating the distinct alternatives and treatment regimens after the initial loading doses.

  20. When Routines Are Not so Routine: Exploring Coordination Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Saira Naim

    2010-01-01

    Many work processes take place through routines, or recurrent patterns of action. These activities involve individuals from several occupations working across spatial, temporal, and organizational boundaries. Crossing these professional, temporal and spatial boundaries has unique challenges which can lead to coordination failures. In these…