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Sample records for routine pixe analysis

  1. A PIXE system for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong-Kou; Malmqvist, K. G.; Carlsson, L.-E.; Akselsson, K. Roland

    1984-04-01

    This article describes a PIXE system designed and constructed for routine longitudinal scanning of single hair strands. In constructing a PIXE system for trace elemental scans of single hair strands on a routine basis, a fairly intense beam has to be used but the heating damage must be kept to a minimum. The experimental conditions (charge integration, beam homogeneity etc.) have to be carefully controlled in order to give accurate PIXE results. The geometrical thickness of the hair at each point of the scan has to be determined and a qualitative knowledge of the elemental distribution over the cross section of the hair has to be provided for a proper interpretation of the PIXE results. In the present PIXE system the geometrical thickness of a hair strand at each point along the scan is determined by counting the number of backscattered protons simultaneously with the PIXE analysis, and a qualitative knowledge of the elemental distribution over the cross section of the hair is obtained through bombarding the hair at particular points with different proton energies.

  2. A forensic application of PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

    2001-07-01

    PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone.

  3. PIXE analysis and imaging of papyrus documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lövestam, N. E. Göran; Swietlicki, Erik

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of antique papyrus documents using an external milliprobe is described. Missing characters of text in the documents were made visible by means of PIXE analysis and X-ray imaging of the areas studied. The contrast between the papyrus and the ink was further increased when the information contained in all the elements was taken into account simultaneously using a multivariate technique (partial least-squares regression).

  4. Elemental analysis with external-beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Teng, P. K.; Huang, Y. M.; Chen, C. Y.

    1992-05-01

    A beamline system and experimental setup has been established for elemental analysis using PIXE with an external beam. Experiments for the study of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese potsherds (the Min and Ching ages) were performed. Continuum X-ray spectra from the samples bombarded by 3 MeV protons have been measured with a Si(Li) detector. From the analysis of PIXE data, the concentration of the main elements (Al, Si, K, and Ca) and of more than ten trace elements in the matrices and glazed surfaces were determined. Results for two different potsherds are presented, and those obtained from the glaze colorants are compared with the results of measurements on a Ching blue-and-white porcelain vase.

  5. PIXEF: The Livermore PIXE spectrum analysis package

    SciTech Connect

    Antolak, A.J.; Bench, G.S.

    1993-07-01

    PIXEF (for, PIXE-Fit) is a proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) data analysis program designed for analyzing medium to heavy element matrices while retaining the capability to treat lower atomic number targets. Using nonlinear least squares fitting techniques, algorithms have been developed or modified both for fitting the characteristic x-ray peaks and representing the associated bremsstrahung and {gamma}-ray background. Self-absorption and secondary fluorescence are explicitly determined for K shell and L subshell x rays. Data bases have been created or improved, where necessary, from reliable current literature values or by direct measurement for element mass attenuation coefficients, photoionization and proton ionization cross sections, Coster-Kronig transition probabilities, fluorescence yields, and relative line intensities. The utility of the program is demonstrated with PDM spectra obtained at Livermore.

  6. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  7. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  8. PIXE analysis of ancient Jordanian pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Naser; Carlsson, Lars-Eric; Hallak, Awni B.; Bennet, Crystal

    1981-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been applied for the determination of 18 elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Pb) in two groups of pottery from two different sites in Jordan, Biblical Bozrah (BB) and Amman Citadel (AC). The analysis showed that the elements Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Ba were the most useful elements to study to be able to differentiate between the two groups of pottery.

  9. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, C. W.; Liu, T. Y.; Wu, C. M.; Chen, K. M.; Lin, S. S.

    1999-04-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  10. PIGE-PIXE analysis of human milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Haque, A. M. I.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-04-01

    PIGE-PIXE nuclear techniques were employed for the determination of the elemental composition of human breast milk which is the main source of nutrients to babies in Nigeria. Samples were collected from 32 healthy lactating mothers from Obafemi Awolowo Teaching University Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The samples were homogenized and immediately frozen, and then freeze-dried. Pellets were made using a Perkin Elmer instrument and its accessory the 13 mm die. PIGE measurements of light elements were performed using 3.5 MeV collimated protons from the 7 MV CN Van de Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy while PIXE analysis was carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator of the same Institute. The results show the presence of important elements that are essential for growth and development of babies. We searched for certain toxic elements which include As, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc. because of their negative roles in enhancing infant mortality rates, but none of them was detected except Pb.

  11. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  12. Whole blood analysis of kwashiorkor cases by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoelstra, B.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Annegarn, H. J.; Renan, M. J.

    1981-03-01

    A particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of whole blood has been performed on samples supplied by a hospital. Of these samples 45 were from kwashiorkor cases and 37 were from a control group. The relative concentrations determined for the elements Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn indicated significant deficiencies in all these elements for the kwashiorkor group. The statistical treatment of the results is discussed as well as the suitability of PIXE for this work.

  13. PIXE analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected over Hungary and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, T.; Amemiya, S.; Tsurita, Y.; Masuda, T.; Koltay, E.; Borbély-Kiss, I.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE analysis of atmospheric samples collected over Hungary and Japan has been made to investigate characteristic features of the samples of Hungary and Japan, and to compare them. Samples were collected at Budapest, Debrecen, Szerencs, Pálháza in Hungary, and at Tokyo, Noma coast Aichi, Obara-mura Aichi (rural district), Mt. Rokko, in Japan. The PIXE analysis of the samples was made using a 2 MeV proton beam from a Van de Graaff accelerator at Nagoya University. Differences, specially in the concentration of lead, between samples collected in Hungary and Japan were observed.

  14. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  15. PIXE analysis of Trojan gold jewelry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, C. P.; Betancourt, P. P.; Fleming, S.; Floyd, C. R.

    1997-07-01

    Technological advancements in the production of gold jewelry from the Troad in northwest Anatolia in the third millennium BC are investigated by PIXE. Results indicate a higher percentage of Cu at the interface between joined pieces of gold than exists elsewhere on the jewelry, away from joinings. The results indicate the probable use of copper salts as a flux in the manufacture of jewelry with granulation.

  16. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  17. Accuracy of thick-target micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Teesdale, W. J.; Wang, J.-X.

    1990-04-01

    The accuracy attainable in micro-PIXE analysis is assessed in terms of the X-ray production model and its assumptions, physical realities of the specimen, the necessary data base, and techniques of standardization. NTIS reference materials are analyzed to provide the experimental tests of accuracy.

  18. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  19. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, Ruth; Bertol, A. P. L.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  20. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  1. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  2. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  3. Matrix effects in PIXE elemental analysis of thick calculi targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Lekki, Janusz; Nowak, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Erazm M.; Paluszkiewicz, Czeslawa

    1997-02-01

    The PIXE technique for Trace Element Analysis have been applied to the studies of mineral deposits such as kidney stones in human organism. The calculi mainly composed of phosphates, oxalates and uric acid were extracted during surgical operations and were measured at the proton beam as thick targets. Trace elements studies of such samples are influenced by the thick targets matrix effects and by the sample composition changes caused by energy deposition in the target due to the proton beam irradiation. These both difficulties are especially pronounced in the case of the biological samples. In this paper the procedure dealing with the above problems is described, basing on calculations with the use of principal formula for the detected X-ray yields and two complementary techniques for PIXE experiments such as Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Elastic Back Scattering (EBS). A rough estimation of sample chemical composition was achieved by means of the FTIR analysis, which also may serve as a tool for local sample temperature estimation during beam irradiation. Composition of major target elements, needed for beam stopping and X-rays attenuation calculations were determined using the EBS technique applied simultaneously with PIXE. The above approach was used to estimate elemental contents of several samples. Comparison between traditionally calculated and improved results is presented.

  4. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Barros Leite, C. V.

    2002-03-01

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundão Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gávea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundão Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundão Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na ( Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization.

  5. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  6. Elemental imaging of rat epididymis by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2003-09-01

    The epididymis, a male reproductive organ, which is a highly convoluted duct, plays an important role in transportation of spermatozoa, their maturation, and their storage. Although major elements, such as P, S and K, as well as trace elements, such as Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, are known to be essential for spermatogenesis, detailed distributions of the elements in the epididymis are only poorly understood. In the present study, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se levels in the epididymis were examined in male Wistar rats by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and in situ multi-elemental distributions of epididymal sections were determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis. The Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the epididymis of the young adult rats were around 30 μg/g wet weight, 2 μg/g wet weight and 1 μg/g wet weight, respectively, and their Mn were less than 0.5 μg/g wet weight. PIXE imaging of P and K exhibited that P and K were higher in the epididymal epithelium. In contrast, more S was detected in the lumen, which is composed of spermatozoa and a fluid. Elemental imagings of the trace elements were unclear compared with the major elements, but information about zinc localization in the epididymis was obtained.

  7. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  8. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  9. K, L, and M shell datasets for PIXE spectrum fitting and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David D.; Crawford, Jagoda; Siegele, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Routine PIXE analysis programs, like GUPIX, GEOPIXE and PIXAN generally perform at least two key functions firstly, the fitting of K, L and M characteristic lines X-ray lines to a background, including unfolding of overlapping lines and secondly, the use of a fitted primary Kα, Lα or Mα line area to determine the elemental concentration in a given matrix. To achieve these two results to better than 3-5% the data sets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections should be determined to better than 3%. There are many different theoretical and experimental K, L and M datasets for these parameters. How they are applied and used in analysis programs can vary the results obtained for both fitting and concentration determinations. Here we discuss several commonly used datasets for fluorescence yields, emission rates, Coster-Kronig transitions and ionisation cross sections for K, L and M subshells and suggests an optimum set to obtain consistent results for PIXE analyses across a range of elements with atomic numbers from 5 ⩽ Z ⩽ 100.

  10. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhay, O.; Khachatrian, A.; Storizhko, V. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample.

  11. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  12. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  13. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  14. Analysis of atmospheric aerosols by PIXE: the importance of real time and complementary measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Castanho, Andrea D.; Yamasoe, Marcia A.; Martins, José Vanderlei; Longo, Karla M.

    1999-04-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used for more than 30 yr in many urban and background air pollution studies. The technique has certainly contributed to the understanding of source-receptor relationship for aerosol particles as well as to aerosol physics and chemistry. In the last few years, where aerosol issues were strongly linked to global climate change through the relationship between aerosol and atmospheric radiation points to new challenges in atmospheric sciences, where PIXE could play an important role. Also the recognition for the inter-relationship between aerosol and liquid and gas phases in the atmosphere makes important to integrate PIXE aerosol analysis with other complementary measurements. The use of Nephelometers and Aethalometers to measure scattering and absorption of radiation by aerosol particles can be done in parallel with particle filter collection for PIXE analysis. Parallel measurements of trace gases using traditional monitors as well as with new techniques such as Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) that can provide concentration of O 3, SO 2, NO 3, NO 2, HCHO, HNO 3, Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene, is also important for both urban and remote aerosol studies. They provide information that allows a much richer interpretation of PIXE data. Recently developed instruments that provide real time aerosol data such as the Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM) PM 10 monitor and automatic real time organic and elemental carbon analyzers provide extremely useful data to complement PIXE aerosol analysis. The concentrations of trace elements measured by PIXE comprise only 10-30% of the aerosol mass, leaving the organic aerosol characterization and measurement with an important role. The aerosol source apportionment provided by PIXE analysis can be extended with other aerosol measurements such as scattering and absorption, estimating for example, the radiative impact of each discriminated aerosol source. The

  15. Analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiankang, Wu; Xianzhou, Zeng; Huiyin, Yao

    1993-04-01

    The experimental methods of the analysis of a single strand of hair by PIXE, IXX and SR-XRF, respectively, are compared. IXX and SR-XRF are more suitable than PIXE for the direct analysis of hair due to their nondestructiveness and better sensitivity. The analysis of a few single strands of human hairs, general primate and unknown primate (wildman) in China are presented. The high Fe/Zn ratio in wildman hair is given by different analytical methods, and may be the first scientific evidence of the existence of the Chinese wildman.

  16. Comparison between two computer codes for PIXE studies applied to trace element analysis in amniotic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertner, I.; Heber, O.; Zajfman, J.; Zajfman, D.; Rosner, B.

    1989-01-01

    Two different methods of analysis applicable for PIXE data are introduced and compared. In the first method Gaussian shaped peaks are fitted to the X-ray spectrum, and the complete analysis can be done on a microcomputer. The second is based on the Bayesian deconvolution method for simultaneous peak fitting and has to be carried out on a larger IBM computer. The advantage of the second method becomes evident for regions of poor statistics or where many overlapping peaks occur in the spectrum. The comparisons between the methods made on PIXE measurements obtained from 55 amniotic fluid samples gave satisfactory agreement.

  17. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  18. PIXE analysis of nephrite minerals from different deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. W.; Gan, F. X.; Cheng, H. S.

    2011-02-01

    External-beam PIXE was used to determine the major, minor and trace elements of 45 nephrite minerals from 14 different deposits, including China and other countries. Depending on the R∗ value (mole percent of Mg 2+/(Mg 2+ + Fe 2+(3+))) and content of Cr, Co and Ni, two types of nephrite minerals from dolomite and serpentinized ultramafic deposits can be more accurately distinguished. Besides, the nephrite minerals from Xiaomeiling and Wenchuan deposit can be distinguished with others from dolomite deposits, through the content of Sr and Mn/Fe value, respectively. Moreover, depending on the Sr content, clear evidence was given to prove that the raw materials of ancient nephrite artifacts from Liangzhu culture ruins are not from Xiaomeiling nephrite deposit. Furthermore, PIXE as a non-destructive method will be more used to study ancient nephrite artifacts, so these results can provide scientific basis for seeking the provenance of nephrite raw materials.

  19. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  20. Elemental analysis of agricultural soil samples by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Flocchini, Robert G.; Artaxo, Paulo; Crestana, Silvio; Herrmann, Paulo S. P., Jr.

    1999-04-01

    In agriculture, elements essential to vital processes are also called nutrients. A suitable and reliable particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) methodology for content determination of essential nutrients in soil samples was developed and its effectiveness proved. The PIXE method is applied to intermediate thickness samples, whose mass per area unit are smaller than 1 μg/cm 2. Precision and accuracy of the method was estimated after repeated measurements of a single reference material: CRM PACS-2 (estuarine sediment) with a matrix quite similar to the soil samples measured. This paper reports the results of elemental measurements in soil samples. A discussion of agricultural soil sample preparation for PIXE analysis is also presented.

  1. Non-destructive analysis and appraisal of ancient Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Xia, H. N.; Jiang, J. C.; Yang, F. J.

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports the results of the PIXE analysis on ancient Chinese blue and white porcelain fired at Kuan Kiln (Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province) during 13-19th century. The major, minor and trace element of porcelain body, white glaze and blue glaze were determined by PIXE. In this paper the chemical compositions of porcelain body, white glaze and blue glaze measured from Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) and Qing (AD 1616-1911) blue and white porcelain are present. The cobalt blue pigment used in Yuan, Ming and Qing are also discussed.

  2. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  3. MeV heavy ion microprobe PIXE for the analysis of the materials surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokuno, Y.; Horino, Y.; Kinomura, A.; Chayahara, A.; Kiuchi, M.; Fujii, K.; Takai, M.

    1994-03-01

    Micro PIXE analysis using MeV phosphorus microprobes was performed to a surface structure which consists of multilevel aluminum wirings in silicon nitride and these results were compared with those from a proton microprobe. In the case of a 2 MeV phosphorus microprobe, the X-ray production was enhanced near the surface due to the large energy deposition rate or the short projectile range. As a result, the increase in surface sensitivity was clearly shown in PIXE mapping images of aluminum, silicon, and phosphorus.

  4. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  5. Particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis of biological materials: Precision, accuracy and application to cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; De Reu, L.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Cafmeyer, J.; Van Espen, P.

    1980-01-01

    An autopsy kidney, a human serum sample and NBS bovine liver were analyzed by both PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several target preparation procedures were investigated. The reproducibility of the PIXE analysis, as determined by analyzing up to 20 targets from the same material, was of the order of 10% or better. For most elements a good agreement was obtained between PIXE and INAA, indicating that PIXE can yield data which are accurate to within 10%. The PIXE technique was also applied to cancerous and normal tissue sections of the same organ of patients, showing renal cell and other types of carcinoma. Substantial differences were often observed between the trace element concentration patterns of the cancerous and normal sections.

  6. PIXE analysis of scalp hair from carcinoma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xianzhou; Yao, Huiying; Mu, Meiyun; Yang, Jie; Wang, Zhixing; Chang, Husheng; Ye, Yanqing

    1987-03-01

    Naso-pharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of major malignant tumors and has high incidence in Guangdong, a province in China. For a better understanding of the effect of the geographic district on NPC, 68 scalp hair samples collected from 34 NPC patients who reside near Shanghai far away from Guangdong were analyzed and compared with the hair samples from healthy people by PIXE. With the same technique scalp hair samples from 34 osteoma patients were also analyzed. The experimental data are presented and discussed.

  7. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  8. A comparison of quantitative reconstruction techniques for PIXE-tomography analysis applied to biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, D. G.; Alves, L. C.; Barberet, Ph.; Bourret, S.; Devès, G.; Gordillo, N.; Michelet, C.; Le Trequesser, Q.; Marques, A. C.; Seznec, H.; da Silva, R. C.

    2014-07-01

    The tomographic reconstruction of biological specimens requires robust algorithms, able to deal with low density contrast and low element concentrations. At the IST/ITN microprobe facility new GPU-accelerated reconstruction software, JPIXET, has been developed, which can significantly increase the speed of quantitative reconstruction of Proton Induced X-ray Emission Tomography (PIXE-T) data. It has a user-friendly graphical user interface for pre-processing, data analysis and reconstruction of PIXE-T and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy Tomography (STIM-T). The reconstruction of PIXE-T data is performed using either an algorithm based on a GPU-accelerated version of the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation (MLEM) method or a GPU-accelerated version of the Discrete Image Space Reconstruction Algorithm (DISRA) (Sakellariou (2001) [2]). The original DISRA, its accelerated version, and the MLEM algorithm, were compared for the reconstruction of a biological sample of Caenorhabditis elegans - a small worm. This sample was analysed at the microbeam line of the AIFIRA facility of CENBG, Bordeaux. A qualitative PIXE-T reconstruction was obtained using the CENBG software package TomoRebuild (Habchi et al. (2013) [6]). The effects of pre-processing and experimental conditions on the elemental concentrations are discussed.

  9. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  10. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  11. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  12. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  13. Thick-target PIXE analysis of chromium, copper and arsenic impregnated lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, K.-E.; Harju, L.; Lill, J.-O.; Rajander, J.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-04-01

    Chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) have for decades been used for wood preservation. Of these elements especially arsenic is very toxic. As CCA impregnated wood is still today used for many construction purposes, a monitoring of these metal ions is of great environmental importance. Thick-target PIXE is a powerful method for the determination of trace metals in wood. The TTPIXE method enabled study of variations of the elemental concentrations in lumber treated with CCA impregnation solution. Distribution patterns were obtained for both naturally occurring elements and elements introduced in the treatment process. During the impregnation process a desorption of e.g. alkali metal ions takes place from the wood. The sensitivity of the method is improved by dry ashing of the samples prior to PIXE analysis. The TTPIXE method was calibrated and validated using international certified reference materials (CRM) based on wood material.

  14. Improved Dynamic Analysis method for quantitative PIXE and SXRF element imaging of complex materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, C. G.; Laird, J. S.; Fisher, L. A.; Kirkham, R.; Moorhead, G. F.

    2015-11-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method in the GeoPIXE software provides a rapid tool to project quantitative element images from PIXE and SXRF imaging event data both for off-line analysis and in real-time embedded in a data acquisition system. Initially, it assumes uniform sample composition, background shape and constant model X-ray relative intensities. A number of image correction methods can be applied in GeoPIXE to correct images to account for chemical concentration gradients, differential absorption effects, and to correct images for pileup effects. A new method, applied in a second pass, uses an end-member phase decomposition obtained from the first pass, and DA matrices determined for each end-member, to re-process the event data with each pixel treated as an admixture of end-member terms. This paper describes the new method and demonstrates through examples and Monte-Carlo simulations how it better tracks spatially complex composition and background shape while still benefitting from the speed of DA.

  15. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  16. Elemental analysis of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere using PIXE and identification of pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Esmaili, N; Khashman, S; Lamehi-Rachti, M; Agha Aligol, D; Shokouhi, F; Oliaiy, P; Farmahini Farahani, M

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been applied to measure the elemental composition and concentrations of particulate matter of 220 samples of aerosols in Tehran's atmosphere within a 450-day time interval starting from March 2009 and ending in June 2010, covering all four seasons. PIXE analysis shows the samples are comprised of various elements including Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. Also, to obtain more information about the sources of pollution and to identify the major sources of urban particulate matter, principal component analysis (PCA) was used. Furthermore, micro-PIXE was performed to study individual aerosols in some samples. Results revealed that the concentration of elements originating from vehicle emissions increases three times in winter; whereas the concentration of elements with soil origin remains constant. Based on wind rose maps, it is inferred that the high concentrations of the elements Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe are associated with natural dust brought by winds into Tehran from the west.

  17. Analysis of size-fractionated coal combustion aerosols by PIXE and other analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Røyset, O.; Vadset, M.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Lind, T. M.

    1993-04-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to study the chemical composition of size-fractionated in-stack fly-ash particles emitted during coal combustion. The samples were collected before the electrostatic precipitator at a gas temperature of 120°C during the combustion of Venezuelan coal in a 81 MW capacity circulating fluidized bed boiler. The sampling device consisted of a Berner low pressure impactor, which was operated with a cyclone precutter. The Nuclepore polycarbonate foils, which were used as collection surfaces in the low pressure impactor, were analyzed by the three techniques and the results of common elements were critically compared. The PIXE results were systematically lower than the INAA data and the percentage difference appeared to be stage-dependent, but virtually independent upon the element. The discrepancies are most likely due to bounce-off effects, particle reentrainment and other sampling artifacts, which may make that a fraction of the aerosol particles is deposited on the impaction foils outside the section analyzed by PIXE. However, by resorting to a "mixed internal standard" approach, accurate PIXE data are obtained. Also in the comparison between the ICP-MS and the INAA data significant discrepancies were observed. These are most likely due to incomplete dissolution of the particulate material and in particular of the alumino-silicate fly-ash matrix, during the acid digestion sample preparation step for ICP-MS. It is suggested that a comparison between ICP-MS data of acid digested samples and INAA can advantageously be used to provide speciation information on the various elements. Selected examples of size distributions are presented and briefly discussed.

  18. Analysis of unsectioned specimens: 2D and tomographic PIXE with STIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.; Lefevre, Harlan W.

    1993-05-01

    Two techniques for quantitative analysis of heterogeneous thick specimens are reviewed. First, a measurement of the total zinc content in the abdomen of a fly is reported. The calculation used to determine the uncertainty in this measurement is detailed. STIM measurements at two different angles were used to determine the possible range of the X-ray production cross section and the X-ray attenuation factors. The abdomen content of zinc was determined to be 0.022( + 0.009, -0.006) (μg. Second, a PIXE-STIM mutomographic determination of metal concentrations in the sting of a scorpion is reviewed. STIM tomography was used to determine the X-ray production cross sections and the X-ray attenuation factors for points inside of the specimen. Details of how this information was then used for reconstructions of PIXE tomographic data are given. Finally, 2D PIXE measurements on a thick section of this sting are reported. On this section the measured concentration of zinc reached 22(± 3)% of dry mass, in satisfactory agreement with the results from tomography, 25(± 3)%.

  19. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. PMID:26803668

  1. PIXE analysis on Maya blue in Prehispanic and colonial mural paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Solís, C.; Reyes-Valerio, C.

    2006-08-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) experiments have been carried out at the AGLAE facility (Paris) on several mural samples containing Maya blue from different Prehispanic archaeological sites (Cacaxtla, El Tajín, Tamuin, Santa Cecilia Acatitlán) and from several colonial convents in the Mexican plateau (Jiutepec, Totimehuacán, Tezontepec and Cuauhtinchán). The analysis of the concentration of several elements permitted to extract some information on the technique used for painting the mural, usually fresco. Principal component analysis permitted to classify the samples into groups. This grouping is discussed in relation to geographic and historic data.

  2. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique; Shariff, Md. Asad; Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Fazlul Hoque, A. K. M.; Chowdhuri, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Various Metalloprotein Compositional Stoichiometries with Simultaneous PIXE and NRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Andrew; Deyoung, Paul; Peaslee, Graham; Sibley, Megan; Warner, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Stoichiometric characterization has been carried out on multiple metalloproteins using a combination of Ion Beam Analysis methods and a newly modified preparation technique. Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy is a non-destructive ion beam analysis technique well suited to determine the concentrations of heavy elements. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a technique which measures the areal density of a thin target from scattering cross sections of 3.4 MeV protons. A combination of NRA and PIXE has been developed to provide a quantitative technique for the determination of stoichiometric metal ion ratios in metalloproteins. About one third of all proteins are metalloproteins, and most do not have well determined stoichiometric compositions for the metals they contain. Current work focuses on establishing a standard method in which to prepare protein samples. The method involves placing drops of protein solutions on aluminized polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) and allowing them to dry. This technique has been tested for several proteins of known stoichiometry to determine cofactor content and has proven to be a reliable analysis method, accurately determining metal stoichiometry in cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase, concanavalin A, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin.

  4. Characterization of pre-Hispanic pottery from Teotihuacan, Mexico, by a combined PIXE-RBS and XRD analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Manzanilla, L.; Miranda, J.; Cañetas Ortega, J.; López, C.

    1999-04-01

    A combined analysis of IBA techniques (Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS)) and a complementary study by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were performed to characterize pottery corresponding to the Epiclassic period (A.D. 700-900) from Teotihuacan, Mexico. Elemental compositions of pottery samples were measured by simultaneous PIXE and RBS using 2.6 MeV protons. Red, white and brown pottery pigments were studied by non-vacuum PIXE and a proton beam of 3 MeV. The various mineralogical phases of the pottery were identified by XRD. From pottery elemental compositions and its mineralogical phases, some differences among the pottery samples and groups were established.

  5. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  6. Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Sisson, T.W.; Campbell, J.L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the University of Guelph proton microprobe have been evaluated through trace-element analysis of well-characterized silicate glasses and minerals, including BHVO-1 glass, Kakanui augite and hornblende, and ten other natural samples of volcanic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and garnet. Using the 2.39 wt% Mo in a NIST steel as the standard, excellent precision and agreement between reported and analyzed abundances were obtained for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. -from Authors

  7. RBS and PIXE analysis of chlorine contamination in ALD-Grown TiN films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Meersschaut, J.; Witters, T.; Kaeyhkoe, M.; Lenka, H. P.; Vandervorst, W.; Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A.

    2013-04-19

    The performance, strengths and limitations of RBS and PIXE for the characterization of trace amounts of Cl in TiN thin films are critically compared. The chlorine atomic concentration in ALD grown TiN thin films on Si is determined for samples grown at temperatures ranging from 350 Degree-Sign C to 550 Degree-Sign C. We show that routine Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements (1.5 MeV He{sup +}) and PIXE measurements (1.5 MeV H{sup +}) on 20 nm thick TiN films allow one to determine the Cl content down to 0.3 at% with an absolute statistical accuracy reaching 0.03 at%. Possible improvements to push the sensitivity limit for both approaches are proposed.

  8. Analysis of Ag sbnd Co thin film alloys using PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sˇandrik, R.; Grime, G. W.

    1996-04-01

    The Ag sbnd Co system representing a grain type alloy has non-mixing properties resulting in the formation of pure metal precipitates under certain conditions. 50 nm thin layers of Ag 1- xCo x (0.35≤x≤0.55) on SiO 2Si substrates were analysed using microbeam PIXE and RBS to determine whether structural changes following 600°C annealing could be detected. With the aim to estimate the accuracy of proposed analytical techniques the parameters of linear model CiPIXE= f( CiRBS) have been statistically tested. Using a 1 μm beam of 2 MeV protons many random point analyses were carried out on areas ranging from 20 × 20 μm 2 to 2000 ×2000 μm 2. Statistical evaluation of this data shows differences in the Ag/Co yields ratio for annealed as well as non-annealed samples. Lateral concentration inhomogeneity on a scale less than the beam diameter can be observed within a sample according to the analysis of variance based on an F-test of many random point analyses.

  9. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Hanaichi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-10

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 degree sign C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  10. Pcrace: A program for the analysis of PIXE spectra for use on an IBM PC/XT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Steven H.; Williams, Evan T.; Perley, Brian; Eldred, Robert; Shadoan, D. J.

    1987-04-01

    We describe both the original RACE program developed at UC Davis by Eldred and Harrison for PIXE spectrum analysis on a PDP 15/40 with 48K of memory, and the susbsequent modification and reconfiguration at Brooklyn College to adapt the code for use on an IBM PC/XT.

  11. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  12. Background considerations in the analysis of PIXE spectra by Artificial Neural Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Requena, I.; Miranda, J.; Barrera, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the importance of background in PIXE spectra to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosols using artificial neural systems ANS, two independently trained ANS were constructed, one which considered as input the net number of counts in the peak, and another which included the background. In the training and validation phases thirty eight spectra of aerosols collected in Santiago, Chile, were used. In both cases the elemental concentration values were similar. This fact was due to the intrinsic characteristic of ANS operating with normalized values of the net and total number of counts under the peaks, something that was verified in the analysis of 172 spectra obtained from aerosols collected in Mexico city. Therefore, networks operating under the mode which include background can reduce time and cost when dealing with large number of samples.

  13. Accelerator-Based PIXE and STIM Analysis of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerman, W.A.; Stanaland, T.L.; Boudreaux, P.; Elberson, L.; Fontenot, J.; Gates, E.; Greco, R.; McBride, M.; Woodward, A.; Edwards, D.

    2003-08-26

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. A totally reflective sail experiences a pressure of 9.1 {mu}Pa at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. One of the current challenges is to develop strong, lightweight, and radiation resistant sail materials. This paper will discuss initial results from a Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) analysis of candidate solar sail materials.

  14. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  15. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature. PMID:17047941

  16. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  17. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  18. Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

    1990-04-01

    Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

  19. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzutto, M. A.; Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Kajiya, E. M.; Campos, P. H. V.; Magalhães, A. G.; Barbosa, M.

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  20. Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

  1. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  2. SOAR Sandia Optimization and Analysis Routines

    2003-08-20

    SOAR is a suite of problem specific desktop welding software applications to develop optimal automatic weld procedures. Applications provide interative displays of fusion zone dimensions versus input parameter levels in a weldment. SOAR also displays heat affected zones, temperature contours, process efficiencies, and sensitivity parameters, by computing solutions to analytical and/or empirical heat transfer models. SOAR provides the knowledgeable user valuable analysis tools to investigate the impact of changes in weld procedures on weld characteristics.more » SOAR operates via graphical user system input and returns both numerical and graphical output in both electronic and hardcopy form.« less

  3. The external PIXE setup for the analysis of manuscripts at the Florence University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carmine, P.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.; Pecchioli, A. O.

    1993-04-01

    The external beam PIXE setup of the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in Florence is extensively used for the analysis of parchments, rulings, inks and miniature temperas of Medieval and Renaissance manuscripts. The beam is collimated to about 200 μm and exits from the vacuum environment through a 8 μm Kapton window. Beam currents from 200 to 500 pA are used; they have been found to produce no visible damage to the examined materials. Two Si(Li) detectors are simultaneously used with different geometries in order to cover the widest possible Z-range of the detected elements: even Na is detected with good sensitivity. A robust and versatile support has been constructed for safe and easy handling of the manuscripts. A laser alignment system allows accurate aiming at the detail of interest. A rotating chopper samples the beam at a frequency of the order of 1 Hz; X-rays produced on a Ni layer evaporated on the graphite vane of the chopper are used for charge normalization, since the weak current pulses would be unreliably measured in air due, in particular, to space-charge effects. An application is shortly presented, concerning the materials used for the "colour" rulings which are found, starting from the 11th century, to delimit the writing field for the copyist.

  4. Microprobe PIXE analysis of aluminium in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Fujii, K.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), we examined aluminium (Al) in the rat liver, and in the brains (hippocampus) of Alzheimer's disease patients using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobe and proton (2 MeV) microprobe PIXE analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+) have several time's higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. (1) In the rat liver, Al was detected in the cell nuclei, where phosphorus (P) was most densely distributed. (2) We also demonstrated Al in the cell nuclei isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobes. Al spectra were detected using 2 MeV proton microprobes in the isolated brain cell nuclei. Al could not be observed in areas where P was present in relatively small amounts, or was absent. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells.

  5. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  6. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  7. Biomedical studies by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afarideh, H.; Amirabadi, A.; Hadji-Saeid, S. M.; Mansourian, N.; Kaviani, K.; Zibafar, E.

    1996-04-01

    In the present biomedical research, PIXE a powerful technique for elemental analysis was employed to illustrate the importance of multi-elemental determination of serum trace elements in two cases of great medical interest. Those are evaluation of the desferroxamine drug (DPO), a widely used therapy for patient with β-thalassemia-Major (β-thal-M), and investigation of elemental variations in blood-serum in hyperbilirubinamia new-borns before and after blood transfusion (BT). The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the various aspects of PIXE analysis by some practical examples as well as to draw some general conclusions regarding the cure of those patients with the above mentioned disorders or diseases. To present in details each case, we divide the paper in two parts: part 1 and part 2 to consider the experimental procedure as well as the results individually.

  8. Attempts to improve PIXE quantitative trace element analysis of biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J. M.; Roelandts, I.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE is used to study a possible modification of blood oligo-element composition during hemodialysis and trace element distribution in lungs and interbronchial lymph nodes. Methodological details concerning sample preparation and choice of backing materials are discussed. NBS reference materials are analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the present method. Special attention is paid to quantitative measurements.

  9. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established.

  10. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. PMID:24055999

  11. Source profile derivation for an arc welding shop using time sequenced sampling and PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formenti, P.; Van Den Heever, D. J.; Annegarn, H. J.

    1998-03-01

    Samples of particulate concentration inside a welding shop in Bloemfontein (South Africa) were collected for two weeks during August 1995 using a single stage time sequenced sampler (streaker sampler). Inorganic elemental concentrations (μg/m 3) for 12 < Z < 82 were measured via Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) irradiation. The main activity of the workers consists in welding of the components during manufacturing of train trucks. For that, metallic rods are melted through electric arc welding to join steel plates. The absence of proper ventilation in the building, due to the closing of doors and windows during winter conditions, results in accumulation of pollutants and in enhanced hazardous conditions for the workers. Analysis of temporal coincidences of elemental concentrations time series formed the basis for extracting the arc welding source profile. Major periodical and episodic contributors to the indoor pollution were qualitatively observed during the sampling period. Due to the hourly time resolution of the sampling, their different time dependence could be identified and isolated. The welding shop activities were found to be characterised by high metal concentrations ([Fe] up to 95 μg/m 3) and variations in the Cu-to-Fe and Mn-to-Fe ratios within 30% over a week period. Cr concentrations up to 7 μg/m 3 were detected over 8-h shift periods. A profile for soil dust in the welding shop air was extracted, and was found to be enriched in Cr, Mn and Fe. This identifies the existence of a secondary source of heavy metal particulate exposure, to which all the workers, not only welders during their shifts, are exposed.

  12. PIXE analysis of trace metals in selenium and copper deficient mice exposed to influenza virus and salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, J. M.; Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Small, P. A.; Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1987-03-01

    Reye's syndrome is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy, fatty infiltration of liver, and thymic hypoplasia. The syndrome usually occurs in a susceptible individual with a viral illness who has ingested salicylate. We previously investigated the metal status of children with this syndrome; serum Se and Cu levels were noted to be decreased. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats also produced alterations of serum Se, and liver Se and Cu. We now report our observations for an experimental model of Reye's syndrome. Analysis by PIXE of various metals in Se- and Cu-deficient mice exposed to virus and salicylate are discussed.

  13. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  14. Analysis of lichen thin sections by PIXE and STIM using a proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. M.; Mangelson, N. F.; St. Clair, L. L.; Gardner, J. S.; Cooper, L. S.; Rees, L. B.; Grant, P. G.; Bench, G. S.

    1999-04-01

    In order to better understand the distribution pattern of mineral elements in lichen tissues, thin sections (15 μm) of the foliose, vagrant soil lichen Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa were examined using proton microprobe Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This technique was used to make two-dimensional scans, with 5 μm resolution, across tissue cross sections of the test species. Element maps for Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and As have been prepared. Several elements are strongly localized in the element maps. PIXE data are complimented with STIM, light micrographs, and SEM images. Preliminary data suggest that nuclear microprobe techniques may be useful in elucidating element absorption and transport mechanisms in lichens.

  15. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Bailey, M. J.; Coley, H.; Kirkby, K. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2010-06-01

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  16. PIXE simulation: Models, methods and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Batic, M.; Pia, M. G.; Saracco, P.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2013-04-19

    The simulation of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) is discussed in the context of general-purpose Monte Carlo systems for particle transport. Dedicated PIXE codes are mainly concerned with the application of the technique to elemental analysis, but they lack the capability of dealing with complex experimental configurations. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes provide powerful tools to model the experimental environment in great detail, but so far they have provided limited functionality for PIXE simulation. This paper reviews recent developments that have endowed the Geant4 simulation toolkit with advanced capabilities for PIXE simulation, and related efforts for quantitative validation of cross sections and other physical parameters relevant to PIXE simulation.

  17. PIXE analysis of human serum - A preliminary study of the correlation between trace elements in human serum and the ``Deficiency Syndrome Complex'' theory of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming-chien, Li; Ming-guang, Tan; Jun-fa, Chin; Kang-long, Shen; Zhi-xiang, Chen; Jia-hua, Chang; Wen, Zhu; Wei-yi, Li; Zong-qin, Xia; An-kun, Kuang

    1981-03-01

    To be able to study the correlation between trace elements and the "Deficiency Syndrome Complex" theory of traditional Chinese medicine, we have used a completely automated PIXE analysis system to determine the trace element concentrations in human serum. The experimental results show a marked correlation between the concentrations of trace elements in serum and the two types of patients with the "Deficiency Syndrome Complex".

  18. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  19. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA), and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S; Laskin, Alexander; Jimenez, Jose L; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, Luisa T; Salcedo, D; Dzepina, K; Molina, Mario J

    2008-09-01

    A multifaceted approach to atmospheric aerosol analysis is often desirable in field studies where an understanding of technical comparability among different measurement techniques is essential. Herein we report quantitative intercomparisons of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA), performed off-line under vacuum, with analysis by Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) carried out in real-time during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Good agreement was observed for mass concentrations of PIXE-measured sulfur (assuming it was dominated by SO42-) and AMS-measured sulfate during the most of the campaign. PESA-measured hydrogen mass was separated into sulfate H and organic H mass fractions assuming the only major contributions were (NH4)2SO4 and organic compounds. Comparison of the organic H mass with AMS organic aerosol measurements indicates that about 75% of the mass of these species evaporated under vacuum. However ~25% of the organics does remain under vacuum, which is only possible with low vapor pressure compounds, and which supports the presence of high molecular weight and/or highly oxidized organics consistent with atmospheric aging. Approximately 10% of the chloride detected by AMS was measured by PIXE, possibly in the form of metal-chloride complexes, while the majority of Cl was likely present as more volatile species including NH4Cl. This is the first comparison of PIXE/PESA and AMS, and to our knowledge also the first report of PESA hydrogen measurements for urban organic aerosols.

  20. The use of a single multielement standard for trace analysis in biological materials by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, S. K.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Islam, M. M.; Khan, A. H.

    1984-04-01

    The validity of the use of a single multielement standard for mass calibration in thick-target external beam PIXE analysis of biological materials has been investigated. In this study, the NBS orchard leaf, SRM 1571, was used as the basic standard for trace element analysis in other biological materials. Using the present procedure, the concentrations of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were determined in several NBS reference materials such as bovine liver, spinach, rice flour, etc., generally in 20 μC irradiations with 2.0 MeV protons. The analytical results are compared with certified values of the NBS as well as with other measurements and the sources of errors are discussed.

  1. Functional analysis of metals distribution in organs of the beetle Chrysolina pardalina exposed to excess of nickel by Micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz Przybyłowicz, J.; Migula, P.; Głowacka, E.; Nakonieczny, M.; Augustyniak, M.

    2003-09-01

    Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution within organs of Chrysolina pardalina beetle feeding on a nickel hyperaccumulating plant species Berkheya coddii, was used to check its ability to cope with excess of nickel and to study quantitative and qualitative relations between nickel and other elements in physiologically important structures. Data analysis was performed using a new PC based version of the GeoPIXE software (GeoPIXE II). The use of micro-PIXE, supported with analysis of electronograms demonstrated mechanism of Ni rejection from the insects' body. Concretions rich in Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Br are formed in Malpighian tubules and in the midgut cells. Organs important for maintaining homeostasis are protected against excess of metals. Malpighian tubules play a crucial role in Ni elimination from hemolymph, further rejected through the digestive tract and in larve also with exuvia during molting. Both used methods proved that midgut cells in adults could regenerate. Such an adaptive mechanism has not been earlier described in adult beetles.

  2. Differential and scanning-mode external PIXE for the analysis of the painting “Ritratto Trivulzio” by Antonello da Messina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, Novella

    2009-03-01

    Extensive PIXE investigations have been performed at the LABEC accelerator laboratory in Florence on the painting "Ritratto Trivulzio" by Antonello da Messina, one of the great Italian masters of XV Century and a pioneer in modern oil painting. It is well known that a complete and unambiguous characterisation of materials in paintings is often difficult, owing to their complex structure. For the "Ritratto Trivulzio", the combination of advanced variants of PIXE, such as differential and scanning-mode analysis, provided a relevant contribution to the characterisation of paint layers, in terms of composition and structure, in a totally non-invasive and non-destructive way. Single-spot mode PIXE with external proton beams of about half millimetre diameter was first used for a general characterisation of different areas of the painting. Differential PIXE performed in many spots led to reconstruct the sequence of paints employed by the artist and to estimate in some cases the local paint layer thickness. A second run carried out with the external scanning microbeam facility, using a 3 MeV proton beam of about 80 μm size, was then crucial to clarify some issues raised by the first analysis. In particular, elemental maps from selected areas helped to understand the way some colour shades had been obtained on the red mantle of the portrayed gentleman, using different pigments irregularly distributed on the surface.

  3. Study of new sheep bone and Zn/Ca ratio around TiAlV screw: PIXE RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Munnik, F.; Langhoff, J. D.; Von Rechenberg, B.; Buffat, Ph. A.; Laub, D.; Faber, L.; Ducret, F.; Gerber, I.; Mikhailov, S.

    2008-03-01

    This study reports on in vivo particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) measurements combined with Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses of new remodeled sheep bone formed around TiAlV screws. The implants (screws) were anodized by a modified TiMax™ process. The interface between the implant and the bone was carefully investigated. [Zn]/[Ca] in-depth composition profiles as well as Ca, Fe elemental maps were recorded. The thickness of new bone formed around the screw reached 300-400 μm. Osteon and Osteoid phases were identified in the new bone. A higher [Zn]/[Ca] ratio was observed in the new bone as compared to the mature bone. Blood vessels were observed in the bone in close contact with the screw. This study shows the potential of ion beam analysis for biological and biomedical characterization.

  4. Improved detection limits in PIXE analysis employing wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavčič, M.

    2010-11-01

    A wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to measure the proton induced Lα X-ray emission spectra of Ag, Pd and Cd targets in order to lower detection limits for trace amounts of Pd and Cd in silver matrix. The measurements were performed with a Johansson-type crystal spectrometer having an energy resolution below the natural linewidths of the measured L X-ray lines. As a direct consequence of such ultrahigh experimental energy resolution, detection limits of only few tens of ppm were reached. The method presented in this work can be used in general to improve substantially PIXE detection limits compared to standard energy dispersive spectroscopy for the measurement of trace elements with atomic number in the close vicinity of the atomic number of the target matrix element.

  5. Elemental analysis of lichens from the intermountain western USA using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. N.; Casellas, R. C.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Clair, L. L. St.; Schaalje, G. B.; Swalberg, K. D.

    1996-04-01

    Thirty-six lichen samples that were collected from five wilderness areas and a national monument in the intermountain western United States have been analyzed by PIXE for the determination of 21 elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. Samples were powdered and spiked with Y as an internal standard. The powder was analyzed directly as a sample of moderate thickness. Elemental concentration means and ranges were generally consistent with concentration ranges from other studies of unimpacted lichens. Some samples, however, had high concentrations of S, Cu, As, and a few other elements. There are interpretations of the data that imply some wilderness areas are being impacted to some degree by industrial-plant atmospheric emissions.

  6. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnau, K.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    2001-07-01

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed.

  7. Analysis of counter ions of cyanine dye in Langmuir-Blodgett films by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Asai, Keisuke; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Morita, Akira; Ito, Seiji; Kawanishi, Toshio

    2000-10-01

    Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of 1-methyl-1 '-octadecylquinocyanine bromide, iodide and perchlorate were prepared from subphases containing NaClO 4, KBr and/or KI. Each sample consists of an arachidic cadmium layer and about 100 cyanine dye layers on a Si substrate. Anions incorporated into the film as counter ions from the subphase were analyzed by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 2.5 MeV He 2+ beam. It was found that the dissociation of the cationic dye molecule in the monolayer at the air/water interface leads to the substitution of counter anions of the dye molecules, and the subsequent incorporation of the counter anions in the LB films. Some of the dissociation constants of cyanine halide dyes were estimated.

  8. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples in an Urban Area in Upstate NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadareski, Benjamin; Ali, Salina; Yoskowitz, Josh; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in the aerosol samples including, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The elemental composition and concentrations of these elements were determined using GUPIX. Many of the elements suggest airborne soils, however we see trace amounts of lead concentrations only at the minimal level of detection around 1 ng / m3. Preliminary results suggest that lead pollution is not significant however; we believe that the trace amounts of lead detected are due to fuel emissions from small aircraft due to the sampling site near an airport. Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in

  9. Plea for routinely presenting prediction intervals in meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    IntHout, Joanna; Ioannidis, John P A; Rovers, Maroeska M; Goeman, Jelle J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Evaluating the variation in the strength of the effect across studies is a key feature of meta-analyses. This variability is reflected by measures like τ2 or I2, but their clinical interpretation is not straightforward. A prediction interval is less complicated: it presents the expected range of true effects in similar studies. We aimed to show the advantages of having the prediction interval routinely reported in meta-analyses. Design We show how the prediction interval can help understand the uncertainty about whether an intervention works or not. To evaluate the implications of using this interval to interpret the results, we selected the first meta-analysis per intervention review of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issues 2009–2013 with a dichotomous (n=2009) or continuous (n=1254) outcome, and generated 95% prediction intervals for them. Results In 72.4% of 479 statistically significant (random-effects p<0.05) meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database 2009–2013 with heterogeneity (I2>0), the 95% prediction interval suggested that the intervention effect could be null or even be in the opposite direction. In 20.3% of those 479 meta-analyses, the prediction interval showed that the effect could be completely opposite to the point estimate of the meta-analysis. We demonstrate also how the prediction interval can be used to calculate the probability that a new trial will show a negative effect and to improve the calculations of the power of a new trial. Conclusions The prediction interval reflects the variation in treatment effects over different settings, including what effect is to be expected in future patients, such as the patients that a clinician is interested to treat. Prediction intervals should be routinely reported to allow more informative inferences in meta-analyses. PMID:27406637

  10. A methodological test of external beam PIXE analysis on inks of ancient manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambria, R.; Del Carmine, P.; Grange, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    Extensive scientific investigations on the materials used for preparing inks in medieval and Renaissance manuscripts (before invention of printing) are still missing. With our external PIXE setup, we are beginning such an investigation. The present paper deals with a preliminary methodological research aimed at the identification of the critical compositional parameters and at the definition of operating procedures which permit reliable information to be obtained and in particular the homogeneity of the home-made inks to be checked. We chose three 11th century manuscripts of well known origin, and performed composition measurements on five ink areas on each of six pages per manuscript. On one of the five areas a scan in steps of 200 μm was also performed with the purpose of checking ink composition homogeneity even at this small scale. Five measurements on each of the six pages' parchments allowed us to evaluate the contribution to the collected "ink" spectra arising from the underlying parchment. Critical parameters for ink characterization have been found to be e.g. the K contents, the FeCuZnPb compositional pattern, and the sulphur to metals ratio. In addition, we have detected ink-parchment physico-chemical interactions altering the apparent CI and Ca contents.

  11. Total elemental composition analysis of soil samples using the PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolormaa, Oyuntsetseg; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Watanabe, Makiko; Hattroi, Toshiyuki

    2007-09-01

    The determination of major and trace element contents in soils was developed by acid digestion method combined with particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). The digestion of soils was achieved by using nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid HCl and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with repeated additions. A 20 μL aliquot from the digested samples was evaporated on the Nuclepore Track-Etch Membrane and irradiated by the 2.5 MeV proton beam from the single-end type Van de Graaff accelerator. The accuracy of this methodology was estimated based on series of measurements done for a reference material of soil CRM 023-050. The proposed experimental procedure was shown to have good reproducibility of the experimental results. The corresponding limits of detection (LODs) for Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo and Cd were estimated. Other soil characteristics such as total carbon (TC) and nitrogen (TN) content, pH and electrical conductivity (EC) were also measured.

  12. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-10

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  13. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  14. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  15. WITS-HEX: A renovated code for analysis of PIXE X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Bauman, S.; Molokomme, T.; Walker, A. J.

    1990-04-01

    The code REX [H.C. Kaufmann and K.R. Akselsson, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18 (1975) 353] and its successor, HEX were developed at Florida State University and University of Lund in the early seventies for quantitative reduction of PIXE spectra. HEX modelled many of the physical processes, including target self-absorption. Lack of adequate documentation and several inherent software related problems hampered widespread adoption and further development. HEX was designed using a hierarchical functional design approach, coded in FORTRAN IV. Its element library and request list are tightly constrained. ANSI standard FORTRAN provides few structured constructs, nor does it support dynamic data structures. HEX has a batch mode of interaction which affords minimal (interim) user interactions. To overcome these limitations we have modernised the program to run on IBM PC compatible computers by using object-oriented design techniques, documented in Program Description Language (pseudo-code) and implemented in a modern programming language, Pascal. Turbo Pascal 5.5 provides an integrated program development environment, a high resolution graphics library, an operating system interface and many software development tools to improve programmer productivity. A menu-based highly interactive screen management library is used for the user interface. A demonstration version is available for user evaluation. Further rigorous testing and the development of user acquired spectra interfacing code will be developed before the first release. The renovated code, WITS-HEX, has extracted the intellectual value embodied in HEX. It will be inherently more stable, reliable, versatile, maintainable and easy to use to facilitate future process modifications.

  16. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-11-01

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510-1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  17. Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

    1984-04-01

    Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

  18. Rasch Analysis of the Routines-Based Interview Implementation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Akers, Kate; McWilliam, R. A.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    The Routines-­Based Interview (RBI) is useful for developing functional outcomes/goals, for establishing strong relationships with families, and for assessing the family's true needs. In this study, the authors investigated the psychometric properties of the RBI Implementation Checklist, conducted by 120 early intervention professionals,…

  19. The free routine postcatheterization urogram: a cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Kaplan, G.W.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Postangiography urography has become routine procedure in most centers performing cardiac catheterization in children. We analyzed the x-radiation dosage and clinical yield of this procedure. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure to the abdomen and gonads was measured in 35 children during postangiography urography. Results of 334 consecutive routine postangiography cine-urograms were evaluated based on clinical significance and compared to previous reports on this subject. Average absorbed abdominal radiation dosage was 241 mR +/- 240 from cine-urography, 16 mR +/- 13 from fluoroscopy, and 107 mR +/- 111 from a single abdominal roentgenogram. Gonadal dosage averaged 8 mR and was uniformly less than 27 mR. Of 334 routine postangiography cineurograms, 282 (84%) were normal, 30 (9%) were technically inadequate, 12 (3%) had abnormalities that were clinically insignificant or were falsely positive and in 10 (3%), clinically significant urologic conditions were confirmed. Because of the low yield of clinically significant anomalies and the added radiation exposure, we no longer perform routine postangiography cine-urography in children. Following cardiac angiography, the upper renal collecting systems are examined fluoroscopically. If abnormalities are suspected or fluoroscopy is equivocal, a single abdominal roentgenogram is performed. Using this procedure, mean average absorbed abdominal radiation dose can be reduced from 241 mR to 30.5 mR.

  20. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  1. Fixed and free line ratio DT2 PIXE fitting and simulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Marques, J. P.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The DATTPIXE software package, which full extent version become operational in 1992, has been largely used both in academic research and for standard analysis. Developments of a new PIXE setup, having an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) EDS high resolution detection system and a CdTe detector, raised the need for a deep revision of the software used to fit PIXE spectra and interpret data. First steps taken in 2007 essentially comprised a new fitting code based on a proven Bayesian inference routine. Meanwhile, fundamental processes associated to PIXE spectra, which became more evident in X-ray Microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS) high resolution EDS spectra, made clear the need for a full new code. Using some of the routines developed in DATTPIXE, the new DT2 package is written in Fortran 2003 and includes both the fitting and data handling codes. DT2 is now designed to include in the fitting model and deal with diagram lines as well as with satellite lines (Radiative Auger Emission (RAE), multi-ionization satellites and even chemically shifted lines) or even lines having other origins such as low energy γ-rays. In this communication we present the new DT2 package and discuss its new features, such as the possibility of fixing or leave free the relative intensity of spectra lines, even if they belong to transitions to the same shell.

  2. Advanced flight design systems subsystem performance models. Sample model: Environmental analysis routine library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. C.; Torian, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A sample environmental control and life support model performance analysis using the environmental analysis routines library is presented. An example of a complete model set up and execution is provided. The particular model was synthesized to utilize all of the component performance routines and most of the program options.

  3. Quantitative analysis of a metalloprotein compositional stoichiometry with PIXE and PESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. D.; DeYoung, P. A.; Ellsworth, L. A.; Kiessel, L. M.; Rycenga, M. J.; Peaslee, G. F.

    2010-05-01

    An absolute measurement of the heavy element concentrations in a dried sample of aqueous protein solution has been combined with the absolute measurement of protein molecular concentration in the same sample. The ratio of these two measurements yields the metal-to-protein compositional stoichiometry of the metalloprotein. This combination of two Ion Beam Analysis techniques (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis) allows quantitative assessment of the metal atom to protein ratio in metalloproteins without direct measurement of sulfur atoms within the protein for the first time. While these results only demonstrate success with a single well-known metalloprotein, this combination of measurement ratios holds promise for future Ion Beam Analysis studies of metalloproteins.

  4. Worst case uncertainty estimates for routine instrumental analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ricardo J N Bettencourt; Santos, Júlia R; Camões, M Filomena G F C

    2002-07-01

    A methodology for the worst case measurement uncertainty estimation for analytical methods which include an instrumental quantification step, adequate for routine determinations, is presented. Although the methodology presented should be based on a careful evaluation of the analytical method, the resulting daily calculations are very simple. The methodology is based on the estimation of the maximum value for the different sources of uncertainty and requires the definition of limiting values for certain analytical parameters. The simplification of the instrumental quantification uncertainty estimation involves the use of the standard deviation obtained from control charts relating to the concentrations estimated from the calibration curves for control standards at the highest calibration level. Three levels of simplification are suggested, as alternatives to the detailed approach, which can be selected according to the proximity of the sample results to decision limits. These approaches were applied to the determination of pesticide residues in apples (CEN, EN 12393), for which the most simplified approach showed a relative expanded uncertainty of 37.2% for a confidence level of approximately 95%.

  5. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  6. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  7. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H. S.; Lin, J. W.; Yang, F. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  8. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  9. Toward the Routine Analysis of Diverse Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Cox, Dennis; Daly, Don S.; Foote, Harlan P.; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Sloughter, James M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a great time to be a data analyst. The variety and quantity of data, in digitized forms, are increasing. The growth of computer networking and the corresponding use of the network via the World Wide Web have provided, in the form of text, a large dynamic information store. There is wide access to more financial data than can typically be understood. Digital imagery is on the rise; an explosion in the amount of digital video is forthcoming. And, information from scientific instruments is provided across a network with increasing frequency. However, data analysis tools and the corresponding theory are not keeping pace with this scale and diversity of data.

  10. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IXGP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  11. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenbol, Eugène

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, "baskets", pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  12. PIXE at rutgers university: Biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.

    1984-04-01

    We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 μg/g for a 6 min irradiation time.

  13. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the ``Book of the Dead''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, A.-M. B.; Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Dran, J. C.; Lövestam, N. E. G.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation.

  14. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  15. Identification of histological markers for malignant glioma by genome-wide expression analysis: dynein, alpha-PIX and sorcin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takashi; Kouno, Jun; Adachi, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Akira; Matsumoto, Koshi; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Onda, Masamitsu; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant class of glial neoplasm (grade IV in WHO criteria), carries the worst clinical prognosis among primary brain tumors in adults. To identify a set of genes involved in the tumorigenesis of GBM, we evaluated expression profiles of GBM tissues from 11 patients using a cDNA microarray representing 25,344 human genes. By comparing the profiles with those of normal brain tissue, we identified a number of differentially expressed genes: 54 with increased expression and 45 with reduced expression in GBMs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments with 6 of those genes confirmed higher expression of DNCH2, ARHGEF6, NPM1 and SRI and lower expression of NRGN and TM4SF2 in GBM tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for 3 of the respective gene products, dynein (product of DNCH2), alpha-PIX (product of ARHGEF6), and sorcin (product of SRI) indicated that this technique might be useful for histological grading of glial tumors. To establish criteria for this diagnostic approach, we scored glial tumor tissues of different histological grades according to the staining results; the scores were significantly higher in anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs than in diffuse astrocytomas or normal brain tissues. These findings indicated that levels of these three proteins might serve as histological markers for malignant glioma classification. PMID:16320026

  16. Persistence of susceptibility to measles in France despite routine immunization: a cohort analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, P; Valleron, A J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the impact of French routine programs urging the combined measles-mumps-rubella immunization of 15-month-old children. METHODS: We applied a cohort analysis to surveillance data collected by general practitioners to estimate the cumulative incidence rate per 1000 unvaccinated children and the proportion of susceptible children, by age and for each birth cohort between 1985 and 1995. RESULTS: More than 70% of unvaccinated children born in 1985 and 1986 had measles by the age of 10. This incidence rate dramatically decreased after implementation of the routine measles-mumps-rubella immunization program in 1989, but the proportion of 5-year-olds susceptible to measles has not decreased appreciably. In 1996, more than 15% of the children born between 1990 and 1995 were susceptible. CONCLUSIONS: The measles vaccine coverage achieved by the French routine immunization program remains insufficient as regards reducing the number of susceptible children. PMID:9987470

  17. The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.

  18. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc. PMID:17613745

  19. Long-term analysis of elemental content in airborne particulate matter by PIXE and positive matrix factorization: Annual trends and seasonal variability during 2003 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pražnikar, Jure; Cepak, Franka; Žibert, Janez

    2014-09-01

    In the presented study a comprehensive statistical analysis of the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out. The data were collected from April 2003 to August 2008 with a 7-day time resolution in the Northern Adriatic Port of Koper and analyzed by the Proton Induced X-ray method (PIXE). The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of fifteen chemical elements identified six source factors, three natural-regional sources and three local-anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery, industry and iron ore factor were marked as anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery source was represented by the elements V, Ni and Cu. The elements Fe and Mn are attributed to the Iron ore source and were explained by the proximity of the bulk-cargo warehouse and the intense handling of iron ore in Port of Koper. The heavy industry source represented by Pb and Zn was the only anthropogenic factor, which shows clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the local-anthropogenic source factors, natural and regional source factors show significant negative trend. The reduction of the crustal elements Ca, Ti and Sr, joined in a soil source, and sulfur-biomass source, represented by elements K and S, have been attributed to more intense precipitation and to the negative trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. The negative trend of the Cl and Br elements was in line with the negative trend of the wind speed above the sea surface and the significant sea-wave height.

  20. Analytical approaches to expanding the use of capillary electrophoresis in routine food analysis.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Gregorio; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Ríos, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is becoming an ever more powerful analytical technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of a wide variety of compounds of interest in many application fields. Particularly in food analysis this technique can offer interesting advantages over chromatographic techniques because of its greater simplicity and efficiency. Nevertheless, CE needs to advance with regard to compatibility with sample matrices, sensitivity, and robustness of the methodologies in order to gain even wider acceptance in food analysis laboratories, specially for routine work. This article presents various approaches to expanding the analytical usefulness of CE in food analysis, discussing their advantages over conventional CE. These approaches focus on sample screening, automated sample preparation with on-line CE arrangements, and the automatic integration of calibration in routine analytical work with CE.

  1. Application of micro-PIXE method to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, S.; Hamasaki, S.; Sie, S. H.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Hu, X.

    1999-06-10

    Specific examples of ore mineral analysis by micro-PIXE are presented in this paper. For mineralogical usage it is essential to construct a specimen chamber which is designed exclusively for mineral analysis. In most of the analysis of natural minerals, selection of absorbers is essential in order to obtain optimum results. Trace element data reflect the crystallographic characteristics of each mineral and also geologic settings of sampling locality, and can be exploited in research spanning mineral exploration to beneficiation. Micro-PIXE thus serves as a bridge between small-scale mineralogical experiments and understanding of large-scale geological phenomenon on the globe.

  2. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  3. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html . PMID:24788324

  4. Thermal and flow analysis subroutines for the SINDA-version 9 computer routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluid flow analysis, special thermal analysis and input/output capabilities of the MOTAR routine were incorporated into the SINDA routine. All the capabilities were added in the form of user subroutines so that they may be added to different versions of SINDA with a minimum of programmer effort. Two modifications were made to the existing subroutines of SINDA/8 to incorporate the above subroutines. These were: (1) A modification to the preprocessor to permit actual values of array numbers, conductor numbers, node numbers or constant numbers supplied as array data to be converted to relative numbers. (2) Modifications to execution subroutine CNFAST to make it compatible with the radiant interchange user subroutine, RADIR. This modified version of SINDA has been designated SINDA/version 9. A detailed discussion of the methods used for the capabilities added is presented. The modifications for the SINDA subroutines are described, as well as user subroutines. All subroutines added or modified are listed.

  5. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakas, M.; Diapouli, E.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R. B.; Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM10 samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009-11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11-33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m3), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m3), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m3), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m3), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m3), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m3). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  6. On the Design, Development, and Analysis of Optimized Matrix-Vector Multiplication Routines for Coprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Khairul; Haidar, Azzam; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.

  7. Soluble metals in the atmosphere and their biological implications. A study to identify important aerosol components by statistical analysis of PIXE data.

    PubMed

    Winchester, J W

    1990-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis has been applied to time series measurements of aerosol elemental composition from PIXE analysis of filter samples, and principal components have been resolved that represent distinct particle types in an external mixture in the atmosphere. In this study, it is argued that a combination of chemical and statistical analyses of the data may be more powerful in determining chemical species in atmospheric aerosols than studied that employ mainly direct chemical analysis of chemical species in unresolved mixtures of aerosol particle samples. Sulfur is generally associated with mineral dust elements. It is reasoned that the association may represent sulfuric acid coatings on particles that can lead to mineral dissolution and solubilization of significant amounts of aluminum, iron, and other metals. Upon wet or dry deposition to the surface, the fluxes of these metals in biologically-available form may be sufficient to affect primary productivity in the world ocean and cause ecological damage in lakes. As a consequence, the fluxes of biogenic trace gases to the atmosphere may be changed, possibly leading to changes in the tropospheric concentration of ozone. The inputs to lakes of soluble aluminum, which is toxic to fish, may be partly by deposition directly from the atmosphere, thus not limited to leaching of soils by acid deposition. Human inhalation of soluble aluminum and other solubilized mineral metals may account, in part, for the observed geographic pattern of deaths attributed to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that show high rates in cities of the Western US and the southeast region, but low in most of the midwest and northeast.

  8. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  9. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  10. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  11. Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teti, Nicholas M.

    1993-01-01

    The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

  13. Routine cerebrospinal fluid analysis during 'de novo' ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion: Single Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Ayman; Mandiwanza, Tafadzwa; Zakaria, Zaitun; Crimmins, Darach

    2016-08-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling is performed during ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting procedure surgery for early detection of infection. We have performed a retrospective study to determine whether routine intraoperative CSF sampling at new VP shunt insertion has predicted shunt infection or changed subsequent surveillance or management. Method From January 2011 to December 2013, 99 patients underwent first time VP shunt insertion at our hospital. The data collected from Beaumont Hospital Information System and operating theatre logbook. The reviewed data were patient demographics, the clinical condition requiring VP shunt procedure, shunt type, date of VP shunt insertion, date of VP shunt infection or malfunction and laboratory data. Results A first time VP shunt insertion procedure was performed in 99 patients. During the VP shunt insertion procedure, 64 patients had CSF sampling for microbiological analysis. The CSF culture was negative in all samples. All patients were followed up for 12 months. During the follow-up period, a total of 15 patients underwent VP shunt revision. Three of the shunt revisions were secondary to infection. The three infected shunt cases had sterile CSF cultures at the time of insertion. Conclusion There appears to be no correlation between CSF sampling during first time VP shunt insertion and the later development VP shunt infection. This questions the need for routine CSF sampling at the time of insertion. This would be confirmed as a part of future randomised trials.

  14. Rapid targeted somatic mutation analysis of solid tumors in routine clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Francaviglia, Ilaria; Dal Cin, Elena; Barbieri, Gianluca; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio; Cangi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Tumor genotyping is an essential step in routine clinical practice and pathology laboratories face a major challenge in being able to provide rapid, sensitive and updated molecular tests. We developed a novel mass spectrometry multiplexed genotyping platform named PentaPanel to concurrently assess single nucleotide polymorphisms in 56 hotspots of the 5 most clinically relevant cancer genes, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, EGFR and PIK3CA for a total of 221 detectable mutations. To both evaluate and validate the PentaPanel performance,we investigated 1025 tumor specimens of 6 different cancer types (carcinomas of colon, lung, breast, pancreas, and biliary tract, and melanomas), systematically addressing sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of our platform. Sanger sequencing was also performed for all the study samples. Our data showed that PentaPanel is a high throughput and robust tool, allowing genotyping for targeted therapy selection of 10 patients in the same run, with a practical turnaround time of 2 working days. Importantly, it was successfully used to interrogate different DNAs isolated from routinely processed specimens (formalin-fixed paraffin embedded, frozen, and cytological samples), covering all the requirements of clinical tests. In conclusion, the PentaPanel platform can provide an immediate, accurate and cost effective multiplex approach for clinically relevant gene mutation analysis in many solid tumors and its utility across many diseases can be particularly relevant in multiple clinical trials, including the new basket trial approach, aiming to identify appropriate targeted drug combination strategies. PMID:26435479

  15. Health economic analysis of the Swedish neonatal metabolic screening programme. A method of optimizing routines.

    PubMed

    Alm, J; Larsson, A; Rosenqvist, U

    1982-01-01

    A benefit-cost analysis was carried out to optimize the routines for neonatal metabolic screening. The basis of the study was provided by results of the Swedish neonatal screening programme from 1965 to 1979. During this period over one million infants were screened by the Guthrie test for phenylketonuria and galactosaemia, and for limited periods also for tyrosinaemia, homocystinuria and histidinaemia. The benefit-cost ratio was calculated for combinations of different screening tests, recall routines, and varying degrees of coverage. The largest benefit-cost ratio was obtained with combined screening for phenylketonuria and galactosaemia, using a borderline blood phenylalanine level of 0.50 mmol/L in the Guthrie test for phenylketonuria. However, the inaccuracy of this test necessitated the use of a lower blood phenylalanine level of 0.25 mmol/L and the acceptance of a lower benefit-cost ratio. An increase in the present 98% coverage of newborns by the screening programme was found to be an effective means of improving the benefit-cost ratio in the present programme.

  16. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  17. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  18. Single Particle ICP-MS: Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Manuel D; Olesik, John W; Barber, Angela G; Challis, Katie; Ranville, James F

    2016-07-01

    From its early beginnings in characterizing aerosol particles to its recent applications for investigating natural waters and waste streams, single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of aqueous dispersions of metal-containing nanomaterials. Combining the high-throughput of an ensemble technique with the specificity of a single particle counting technique and the elemental specificity of ICP-MS, spICP-MS is capable of rapidly providing researchers with information pertaining to size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and major elemental composition with minimal sample perturbation. Recently, advances in data acquisition, signal processing, and the implementation of alternative mass analyzers (e.g., time-of-flight) has resulted in a wider breadth of particle analyses and made significant progress toward overcoming many of the challenges in the quantitative analysis of nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of spICP-MS development from a niche technique to application for routine analysis, a discussion of the key issues for quantitative analysis, and examples of its further advancement for analysis of increasingly complex environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract Single particle ICP-MS workflow for the analysis of suspended nanoparticles.

  19. Frontiers of stem cell transplantation monitoring: capturing graft dynamics through routine longitudinal chimerism analysis.

    PubMed

    Kristt, Don; Stein, Jerry; Klein, Tirza

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative chimerism testing has become an indispensable tool for following the course and success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. In this paper, we describe the current laboratory approach to quantitative chimerism testing based on an analysis of short tandem repeats, and explain why performing this analysis longitudinally is important and feasible. Longitudinal analysis focuses on relative changes appearing in the course of sequential samples, and as such exploits the ultimate potential of this intrinsically semi-quantitative platform. Such an analysis is more informative than single static values, less likely to be confused with platform artifacts, and is individualized to the particular patient. It is particularly useful with non-myeloablative conditioning, where mixed chimerism is common. When longitudinal chimerism analysis is performed on lineage-specific subpopulations, the sensitivity, specificity and mechanistic implications of the data are augmented. Importantly, longitudinal monitoring is a routinely feasible laboratory option because multiplex STR-PCR kits are available commercially, and modern software can be used to perform computation, reliability testing, and longitudinal tracking in a rapid, easy to use format. The ChimerTrack application, a shareware program developed in our laboratory for this purpose, produces a report that automatically summarizes and illustrates the quantitative temporal course of the patient's chimeric status. Such a longitudinal perspective enhances the value of quantitative chimerism monitoring for decisions regarding immunomodulatory post-transplant therapy. This information also provides unique insights into the biological dynamics of engraftment underlying the fluctuations in the temporal course of a patient's chimeric status.

  20. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  1. Earthworm transport of heavy metals from sewage sludge: a micro-PIXE application in soil science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protz, R.; Teesdale, W. J.; Maxwell, J. A.; Campbell, J. L.; Duke, C.

    1993-05-01

    Micro-PIXE was used to analyze earthworm fecal material and the linings of earthworm channels in the soil below a land area on which sewage sludge had been applied. Metals present in the sludge were identified both in fecal pellets and in the linings of the channels, at concentration markedly higher than in the soil matrix. PIXE elemental data in raster format were spatially analyzed during image analysis demonstrating in a quantitative manner the spatial correlations among elements transported by the earthworms.

  2. Applications of GridPix detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco Carballo, V.; Chefdeville, M.; Decowski, M. P.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Koppert, W. J. C.; Schmitz, J.

    2010-02-01

    GridPix detectors provide an excellent tracking and vertex determination for internal radioactive sources with a 4π angular acceptance. In both WIMP search and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments, we expect that GridPix detectors have the ability to significantly improve the measurements.

  3. Analysis of the Cu, Fe, and Zn contents in cytochrome C oxidases from different species and tissues by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bombelka, E.; Richter, F.W.; Stroh, A.; Kadenbach, B.

    1986-11-14

    The Cu, Fe and Zn contents in isolated cytochrome c oxidase preparations from heart, liver, diaphragm or kidney of bovine, pig and rat was measured by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The average Cu/2Fe ratio was 2.73 and Zn/2Fe ratio 0.98. Correspondingly a Cu/Zn ratio of 2.76 was found. Dialysis of the bovine heart enzyme against increasing EDTA concentrations up to 30 mM did not change this result. It is concluded that all isozymes of mammalian cytochrome c oxidase contain 3 Cu, 2 Fe and 1 Zn per monomeric catalytic unit.

  4. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. Methods and Findings We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7–US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below

  5. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  6. Routine analysis of ultra pure water by ICP-MS in the low- and sub-ng/L level.

    PubMed

    Hoelzl, R; Fabry, L; Kotz, L; Pahlke, S

    2000-01-01

    The chemical analysis with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can help to examine the purity of ultra pure water (UPW) down to 10 part per trillion (ng/L) and lower. For a proper determination of a high number of samples per week the analysis must be divided into two parts: the routine analysis and the reference water analysis. The routine analysis is done by direct measurement of the ultra pure water samples. Applying a standard addition method under particular clean conditions, the reference water analysis leads to the definition of the accurate zero. A quick evaluation scheme is also presented for the reference water analysis. The method is tested for its fitness for application by examining LOD (for relevant element < 2 ng/L), reproducibility and linearity of calibration. The ICP-MS was optimized according to the methodology of G. Taguchi to improve reproducibility and LOD. PMID:11225818

  7. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2005-04-01

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project.

  8. Costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated care in Germany: results of a routine data analysis in Bavaria

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Antonius; Donnachie, Ewan; Tauscher, Martin; Gerlach, Roman; Maier, Werner; Mielck, Andreas; Linde, Klaus; Mehring, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The efficiency of a gatekeeping system for a health system, as in Germany, remains unclear particularly as access to specialist ambulatory care is not restricted. The aim was to compare the costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated patients (UP) in ambulatory care; with additional subgroup analysis of patients with mental disorders. Design Retrospective routine data analysis of patients with statutory health insurance, using claims data held by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. A patient was defined as uncoordinated if he or she visited at least 1 specialist without a referral from a general practitioner within a quarter. Outcomes were compared with propensity score matching analysis. Participants The study encompassed all statutorily insured patients in Bavaria contacting at least 1 ambulatory specialist in the first quarter of 2011 (n=3 616 510). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was total costs of ambulatory care; secondary outcomes were financial claims of general physicians, specialists and for medication. Results The average age was 55.3 years for coordinated patients (CP, n=1 629 302), 48.3 years for UP (n=1 825 840). CP more frequently had chronic diseases (85.4%) as compared with UP (67.5%). The total unadjusted financial claim per patient was higher for UP (€234.52) than for CP (€224.41); the total adjusted difference was −€9.65 (95% CI −11.64 to −7.67), indicating lower costs for CP. The cost differences increased with increasing age. Total adjusted difference per patient with mental diseases as documented with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 F-diagnosis, was −€20.31 (95% CI −26.43 to −14.46). Conclusions Coordination of care is associated with lower ambulatory healthcare expenditures and is of particular importance for patients who are more vulnerable to medical interventions, especially for elderly and patients with mental disorders

  9. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  10. Set of FORTRAN routines for multitask timing analysis on shared memory machines

    SciTech Connect

    Montry, G.R.

    1986-03-31

    A set of FORTRAN-based timing routines has been written for shared memory parallel processors. These routines are designed to measure the performance of multitasking codes on machines with different hardware configurations. Complete run-time histories of all executing tasks are provided in a postmortem summary. The package is able to provide both processing time and elapsed time statistics for each task subject to functional hardware constraints. Source code for the ELXSI 6400 version of the package is included in an Appendix. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  12. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    SciTech Connect

    Kuharik, J.C.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Ross, J.P.

    2003-08-26

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  13. [Routine data from general practitioner's software systems - Export, analysis and preparation for research].

    PubMed

    Kersting, M; Gierschmann, A; Hauswaldt, J; H-Pradier, E

    2010-06-01

    An advanced and integrative information technology (IT)-landscape is needed for optimal support of future processes in health-care, including health services research. Most researches in the primary care sector are based on data collected for reimbursement. The aim of this study is to show the limits and options of secondary analysis based on data that was exported via the "Behandlungsdatentransfer" (treatment data transport) BDT-interface in the software systems of German general practitioners and afterwards prepared for further research in SPSS. From the middle of 2005 to the end of 2007 all 168 teaching practices of the Hannover Medical School (MHH) were invited to join the study. Finally routine data from 28 practices could be collected successfully. The data from 139 other practices which had been collected for the project "Health Care in Practice" ("Medizinische Versorgung in der Praxis" - MedViP) was also added to the pool. The process of data preparation included a complete cycle from data collection, merging the data in a relational database system, via statistics and analysis to publishing and generating a feedback report for the participating practices. During the whole study the limits and options of this method were systematically identified. Of the 168 practices, 68 (40.5%) were interested to participate. From 28 (16.7%) physicians the data could be exported from their software systems. In 15 (8.9%) cases no collection was possible due to technical and in 26 (15.5%) to administrative reasons. The method of data extraction varied, as the BDT-interface was differently implemented by the software companies. Together with the MedViP data, the database at the MHH now consists of 167 practices with 974 304 patients and 12 555 943 treatments. For 44.1% of the 11 497 899 prescription entries an anatomic therapeutic chemical (ATC) code could be applied, by matching the entries to the master data from the Scientific Institute of Local Health-Care Funds

  14. [Routine data from general practitioner's software systems - Export, analysis and preparation for research].

    PubMed

    Kersting, M; Gierschmann, A; Hauswaldt, J; H-Pradier, E

    2010-06-01

    An advanced and integrative information technology (IT)-landscape is needed for optimal support of future processes in health-care, including health services research. Most researches in the primary care sector are based on data collected for reimbursement. The aim of this study is to show the limits and options of secondary analysis based on data that was exported via the "Behandlungsdatentransfer" (treatment data transport) BDT-interface in the software systems of German general practitioners and afterwards prepared for further research in SPSS. From the middle of 2005 to the end of 2007 all 168 teaching practices of the Hannover Medical School (MHH) were invited to join the study. Finally routine data from 28 practices could be collected successfully. The data from 139 other practices which had been collected for the project "Health Care in Practice" ("Medizinische Versorgung in der Praxis" - MedViP) was also added to the pool. The process of data preparation included a complete cycle from data collection, merging the data in a relational database system, via statistics and analysis to publishing and generating a feedback report for the participating practices. During the whole study the limits and options of this method were systematically identified. Of the 168 practices, 68 (40.5%) were interested to participate. From 28 (16.7%) physicians the data could be exported from their software systems. In 15 (8.9%) cases no collection was possible due to technical and in 26 (15.5%) to administrative reasons. The method of data extraction varied, as the BDT-interface was differently implemented by the software companies. Together with the MedViP data, the database at the MHH now consists of 167 practices with 974 304 patients and 12 555 943 treatments. For 44.1% of the 11 497 899 prescription entries an anatomic therapeutic chemical (ATC) code could be applied, by matching the entries to the master data from the Scientific Institute of Local Health-Care Funds

  15. Application of the PIXE method to organic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodopivec, Jedert; Budnar, Miloš; Pelicon, Primož

    2005-09-01

    The contribution presents the application of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), as a non-destructive analytical method, to the identification and study of historic paper, parchment and textile objects. The results show the possibilities for identification of inks, pigments, dyes, surface layers and inorganic impurities in historic objects made of organic materials. The measurement of elemental concentrations in these materials provides a sound basis for investigation of their composition and of degradation processes. PIXE has been found useful in evaluating the viability of a range of potential conservation treatments by measuring the elemental changes before and after the process has been carried out. Like any other form of analysis, the PIXE method has its limitations, but its great strength is in its non-destructiveness, high sensitivity and accuracy in determining composition and concentration distribution over a wide range of chemical elements. For objects made of complex organic materials the information obtained should be interpreted in combination with other analytical methods.

  16. Routine analysis of neutron reflection experiments, a dream or a delusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. S.

    1991-08-01

    Neutron or X-ray reflection is like the small angle scattering techniques in that it is applied by non-specialists to a wide range of problems. Magnetism, colloids, polymers, materials science and biological systems all provide potential applications for both techniques. The small angle technique is well established, use of the technique is almost routine, and there are data fitting packages which are widely available and provide basic information such as radii of gyration, molecular weights, correlation lengths, etc. By comparing and contrasting the uses of the two techniques, this contribution addresses the question as to whether similar “basic” information can be made available from reflection measurements.

  17. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in an Urban Area in Upstate NY Using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeremy; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Yoskowitz, Joshua; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We examined atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady NY for evidence of pollution. We collected aerosol samples using a nine stage cascade impactor which distributes the particulate matter by aerodynamic size onto 7.5 μm Kapton foils. We then used a 1MV electrostatic Pelletron accelerator to produce a 2.2 MeV proton beam to hit the impacted foils. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra were collected using an Amptek x-ray detector where the x-rays are produced from the proton beam interacting with the sample. This is called PIXE. The elemental composition and concentrations of the elements present in the aerosol samples were determined using a software package called GUPIX. We have found elements ranging from Al to Pb and in particular have found significant amounts of Pb and Br on some of our impacted foils, with a Br/Pb ratio of 0.6 +/- 0.2 which agrees with previous studies. This result suggests the presence of leaded aviation fuel perhaps due to the proximity of the collection site to a small airport with a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Union College.

  18. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Pope, D J; Cutajar, D L; George, S P; Guatelli, S; Bucci, J A; Enari, K E; Miller, S; Siegele, R; Rosenfeld, A B

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences.Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  19. The PIX-2 experiment: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The second Plasma Interactions Experiment (PIX-2) was launched in January 1983 as a piggyback on the second stage of the Delta launch vehicle that carried IRAS into orbit. Placed in a 870 km circular polar orbit, it returned 18 hrs of data on the plasma current collection and arcing behavior of solar arrays biased to +/-1000 V in steps. The four 500 sq cm solar array segments were biased singly and in combinations. In addition to the array segments PIX-2 carried a Sun sensor, a Langmuir probe to measure electron currents, and a hot-wire filament electron emitter to control vehicle potential during positive array bias sequences. The PIX-2 experiment is reviewed from program and operational perspectives.

  20. PIXE investigation of aerosol composition over the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meter, S. L.; Formenti, P.; Piketh, S. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Atmospheric sulphate aerosol concentrations are of interest in climate change studies because of their negative climate forcing potential. Quantification of their forcing strength requires the compilation of global sulphur emission inventories to determine the magnitude of regional sources. We report on measurements of the ambient aerosol concentrations in proximity to a copper refinery in the central African Copperbelt, along the border of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This region is historically regarded as one of the largest African sources of sulphate aerosols. Sulphate is produced by oxidation in the atmosphere of SO 2 emitted during the pyrometallurgical processing of Cu-Co sulphide ores. Since the last quantification of sulphur emissions (late 1960s), there has been large-scale reduction in copper production and more frequent use of the leaching technique with negligible sulphur emissions. Samples were collected over four weeks, November-December 1996, at Kitwe, Zambia. A low volume two-stage time-resolving aerosol sampler (streaker) was used. Coarse and fine mode aerosols were separated at >2.5 and >10 μmad. Hourly elemental concentrations were determined by 3.2 MeV PIXE, and routinely yielded Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, above detection limits. Si, K, Ca and Fe (major crustal components) dominated the coarse elemental mass. In the fine stage, S and Si accounted for up to 80% of the measured mass, and S alone up to 60%. Time series analysis allowed the division of sulphur and crustal elements (Si, K, Ca, Fe) between (i) background concentrations representative of synoptic scale air masses; and (ii) contributions from local sources, i.e., copper smelter and re-suspended soil dust. Short duration episodes of S concentrations, up to 26 μg/m 3, were found simultaneously with enhanced Cu, Fe and Zn. Contributions from individual pyrometallurgic processes and the cobalt slag dump could be distinguished from the elemental signatures

  1. Leaching from CCA-Treated Wood into Soils: Preliminary PIXE Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, R. F.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Kuharik, J. C.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Dunnam, F. E.; Huffman, J.

    2003-08-01

    Widespread use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) as a wood preservative has led to increasing public concern regarding possible toxic contamination of areas surrounding CCA-treated structures, e.g., decks, playground equipment, etc. Appreciable leaching of arsenic, chromium, and copper into soils adjacent to such structures has been demonstrated via standard techniques of analytical chemistry. The advantages of PIXE [rapid analysis, quick sample turnover, possible lower cost] suggest its application to this area of interest. PIXE studies in our laboratory of CCA-contaminated soil samples show good agreement with previous analyses of As, Cu, Cr, and other heavy-elemental content, with some variability in diffusion rates.

  2. Review of PIXE Mercury Detection Research at the Louisiana Accelerator Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillan, C.; Hollerman, W. A.; Lentz, M.; Glass, G. A.; Greco, R. R.; Liao, C.; Doyle, T. W.; Lewis, T. E.

    2003-12-01

    Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) is non-destructive and allows the simultaneous analysis of elements in solid, liquid, and gas samples. When incident energetic ions strike a target, inner shell electrons of these atoms are ejected as they acquire energy from the incident particle. Outer shell electrons then fill vacancies in the inner shell caused by the ionization. This de-excitation is accompanied by the emission of an Auger electron or x-ray. The ratio of the x-ray production to the probability of ejection of an Auger electron is the fluorescence yield, which ranges from a value of nearly 100% for heavy elements to as low a few percent for light elements. The energy of the emitted x-rays depends on the specific elements present in the target. Since each target element has its own set of characteristic energies in the x-ray spectrum, identifying and determining the concentration of elements is possible. Typically 1-3 MeV ions (usually protons) from a small electrostatic accelerator are used for PIXE analysis. This technique is fast and sensitive; typical limits of detection fall below the ng/cm2 region in the case of surface analysis, or ng/mg (ppm) in the case of concentration measurements. PIXE is two orders of magnitude more sensitive than similar electron-based analysis techniques. Over the last several years, the authors have been using PIXE to detect low concentrations of mercury in tree ring samples. For example, southern magnolia (magnolia grandiflora) tree samples, with known concentrations of mercury, were analyzed using PIXE. Recent published results from these measurements indicate that the average mercury absorption percentage was found to be 85+/- 4%. The distribution of mercury was found to be reasonably homogeneous over the sample surface. However, small variations in mercury concentration are most likely caused by the structure of cellulose in the wood. Mercury in the samples appears to be stable to a total integrated charge of 10

  3. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes. PMID:26451658

  5. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Clinically Driven versus Routine Laboratory Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Medina Lara, Antonieta; Kigozi, Jesse; Amurwon, Jovita; Muchabaiwa, Lazarus; Nyanzi Wakaholi, Barbara; Mujica Mota, Ruben E.; Walker, A. Sarah; Kasirye, Ronnie; Ssali, Francis; Reid, Andrew; Grosskurth, Heiner; Babiker, Abdel G.; Kityo, Cissy; Katabira, Elly; Munderi, Paula; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Darbyshire, Janet; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have rarely been evaluated. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779). Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM) or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM); individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial. Results 3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM) symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR) age 37 (32,42); CD4 86 (31,139) cells/mm3) were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days) survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks). CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term. Conclusions There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African

  6. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D. J.; Cutajar, D. L.; George, S. P.; Guatelli, S.; Bucci, J. A.; Enari, K. E.; Miller, S.; Siegele, R.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences. Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  7. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Pope, D J; Cutajar, D L; George, S P; Guatelli, S; Bucci, J A; Enari, K E; Miller, S; Siegele, R; Rosenfeld, A B

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences.Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  8. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  9. Concordance and robustness of quality indicator sets for hospitals: an analysis of routine data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hospitals are increasingly being evaluated with respect to the quality of provided care. In this setting, several indicator sets compete with one another for the assessment of effectiveness and safety. However, there have been few comparative investigations covering different sets. The objective of this study was to answer three questions: How concordant are different indicator sets on a hospital level? What is the effect of applying different reference values? How stable are the positions of a hospital ranking? Methods Routine data were made available to three companies offering the Patient Safety Indicators, an indicator set from the HELIOS Hospital Group, and measurements based on Disease Staging™. Ten hospitals from North Rhine-Westphalia, comprising a total of 151,960 inpatients in 2006, volunteered to participate in this study. The companies provided standard quality reports for the ten hospitals. Composite measures were defined for strengths and weaknesses. In addition to the different indicator sets, different reference values for one set allowed the construction of several comparison groups. Concordance and robustness were analyzed using the non-parametric correlation coefficient and Kendall's W. Results Indicator sets differing only in the reference values of the indicators showed significant correlations in most of the pairs with respect to weaknesses (maximum r = 0.927, CI 0.714-0.983, p < 0.001). There were also significant correlations between different sets (maximum r = 0.829, CI 0.417-0.958, p = 0.003) having different indicators or when different methods for performance assessment were applied. The results were weaker measuring hospital strengths (maximum r = 0.669, CI 0.068-0.914, p = 0.034). In a hospital ranking, only two hospitals belonged consistently either to the superior or to the inferior half of the group. Even altering reference values or the supplier for the same indicator set changed the rank for nine out of ten hospitals

  10. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  11. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues.

  12. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O.

  13. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues. PMID:24314527

  14. Population analysis of myelosuppression profiles using routine clinical data after the ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide) regimen for malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yoshitaka; Kodawara, Takaaki; Hongo, Haruyuki; Yano, Ikuko; Kishi, Yo; Takahashi, Jun; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2009-11-01

    We propose a simple and practical modeling approach for analysis of the data for myelosuppression after cancer chemotherapy, which can be applied when pharmacokinetic data are not available and several anticancer drugs were simultaneously administered. The model equation is based on the probability density function for the Erlang distribution. The data for cell counts of leukocytes (white blood cell, WBC), platelets (PLT), and reticulocytes (RET) obtained in routine clinical laboratory tests after the ICE (ifosfamide/carboplatin/etoposide) regimen for cancer chemotherapy were retrospectively collected from 28 patients, and a population analysis was applied. The time course profiles could be well explained by the proposed model. The individual values of the time to reach the nadir were obtained by the Bayesian method, and their medians (days) were 16.8 for WBC, 12.8 for PLT, and 8.2 for RET. Such information would be useful to determine the day of visit for outpatients especially for additional treatment to prevent side effects such as infections. The model is simple and applicable to explain the time course profiles for myelosuppression irrespective of cell types, and also practical because it requires only the data from routine clinical laboratory tests without any additional burden to patients.

  15. Routine Analysis of Dermatoglyphics and Palmar Creases in Children with Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dar, H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A dermatoglyphic and palmar crease analysis was carried out in 100 children aged 6-months to 5-years with psychomotor retardation (excluding Down's syndrome). Journal availability: see EC 113 765. (Author)

  16. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  17. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  18. Modifications to the accuracy assessment analysis routine MLTCRP to produce an output file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications are described that were made to the analysis program MLTCRP in the accuracy assessment software system to produce a disk output file. The output files produced by this modified program are used to aggregate data for regions greater than a single segment.

  19. An analysis of human motion detection systems use during elder exercise routines.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Havens, Timothy C; Rantz, Marilyn; Keller, James; Casanova Abbott, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Human motion analysis provides motion pattern and body pose estimations. This study integrates computer-vision techniques and explores a markerless human motion analysis system. Using human-computer interaction (HCI) methods and goals, researchers use a computer interface to provide feedback about range of motion to users. A total of 35 adults aged 65 and older perform three exercises in a public gym while human motion capture methods are used. Following exercises, participants are shown processed human motion images captured during exercises on a customized interface. Standardized questionnaires are used to elicit responses from users during interactions with the interface. A matrix of HCI goals (effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) and emerging themes are used to describe interactions. Sixteen users state the interface would be useful, but not necessarily for safety purposes. Users want better image quality, when expectations are matched satisfaction increases, and unclear meaning of motion measures decreases satisfaction. PMID:20185803

  20. Particulate monitoring at US National Parks using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Robert A.; Cahill, Thomas A.; Feeney, Patrick J.

    1987-03-01

    In order to help the United States National Park Service understand the causes of visibility impairment at various national parks throughout the United States, the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California, Davis, has been collecting samples of coarse and fine particles at 35 sites continuously since 1982. At these remote sites most visibility impairment is due to the scattering of light by fine particles, between 0.2 and 1 μm. We are responsible for all aspects of the monitoring program, including designing and maintaining the particulate samplers, handling and analyzing the filters, and presenting and interpreting the results. A successful monitoring program requires strict adherence to carefully prepared procedures at all stages, with numerous quality assurance checks. All the samples are analyzed for mass by microbalance and for elemental composition by PIXE. PIXE is well-suited to particulate monitoring in terms of accuracy, cost, range of elements, and spatial resolution. The concentration of fine hydrogen is measured by proton elastic scattering operated simultaneously with the PIXE analysis. We also measure the optical absorption by fine soot particles using the integrating plate method. Because the sites arc remote and the sampling is almost continuous, most of the measured variables show well-defined regional patterns when averaged over the seasons of the year. The wide range of elements permits a good characterization of the fine particles. There are wide differences in the overall composition for different regions. In the eastern US the fine mass is dominated by ammonium sulfate. In some regions of the western US, fine soil and organics are important components to the aerosol. For visibility, fine sulphur is the most single important element measureable by PIXE. For most regions sulfur is largest in summer, although in some regions the maxima are in spring or fall. The average sulfur concentration varies widely over the US. with values

  1. Data Quality in Biofilm High-Throughput Routine Analysis: Intralaboratory Protocol Adaptation and Experiment Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Paula; Lourenço, Anália; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm research is growing more diverse and dependent on high-throughput technologies, and the large-scale production of results aggravates data substantiation. In particular, experimental protocols are often adapted to meet the needs of a particular laboratory, and no statistical validation of the modified method is provided. This paper discusses the impact of intralaboratory adaptation and non-rigorous documentation of experimental protocols on biofilm data interchange and validation. The case study is a non-standard, but widely used, workflow for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development considering three analysis assays: the crystal violet (CV) assay for biomass quantification, the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) assay for respiratory activity assessment, and the colony forming units (CFU) assay for determination of cell viability. The ruggedness of the protocol was assessed by introducing small changes in the biofilm growth conditions, which simulate minor protocol adaptations and non- rigorous protocol documentation. Results show that even minor variations in the biofilm growth conditions may affect the results considerably, and that the biofilm analysis assays lack repeatability. Intralaboratory validation of non-standard protocols is found critical to ensure data quality and enable the comparison of results within and among laboratories.

  2. Data Quality in Biofilm High-Throughput Routine Analysis: Intralaboratory Protocol Adaptation and Experiment Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Paula; Lourenço, Anália; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm research is growing more diverse and dependent on high-throughput technologies, and the large-scale production of results aggravates data substantiation. In particular, experimental protocols are often adapted to meet the needs of a particular laboratory, and no statistical validation of the modified method is provided. This paper discusses the impact of intralaboratory adaptation and non-rigorous documentation of experimental protocols on biofilm data interchange and validation. The case study is a non-standard, but widely used, workflow for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development considering three analysis assays: the crystal violet (CV) assay for biomass quantification, the 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) assay for respiratory activity assessment, and the colony forming units (CFU) assay for determination of cell viability. The ruggedness of the protocol was assessed by introducing small changes in the biofilm growth conditions, which simulate minor protocol adaptations and non- rigorous protocol documentation. Results show that even minor variations in the biofilm growth conditions may affect the results considerably, and that the biofilm analysis assays lack repeatability. Intralaboratory validation of non-standard protocols is found critical to ensure data quality and enable the comparison of results within and among laboratories. PMID:26651585

  3. High purity microfluidic sorting and analysis of circulating tumor cells: towards routine mutation detection.

    PubMed

    Autebert, Julien; Coudert, Benoit; Champ, Jérôme; Saias, Laure; Guneri, Ezgi Tulukcuoglu; Lebofsky, Ronald; Bidard, François-Clément; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Farace, Françoise; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2015-05-01

    A new generation of the Ephesia cell capture technology optimized for CTC capture and genetic analysis is presented, characterized in depth and compared with the CellSearch system as a reference. This technology uses magnetic particles bearing tumour-cell specific EpCAM antibodies, self-assembled in a regular array in a microfluidic flow cell. 48,000 high aspect-ratio columns are generated using a magnetic field in a high throughput (>3 ml h(-1)) device and act as sieves to specifically capture the cells of interest through antibody-antigen interactions. Using this device optimized for CTC capture and analysis, we demonstrated the capture of epithelial cells with capture efficiency above 90% for concentrations as low as a few cells per ml. We showed the high specificity of capture with only 0.26% of non-epithelial cells captured for concentrations above 10 million cells per ml. We investigated the capture behavior of cells in the device, and correlated the cell attachment rate with the EpCAM expression on the cell membranes for six different cell lines. We developed and characterized a two-step blood processing method to allow for rapid processing of 10 ml blood tubes in less than 4 hours, and showed a capture rate of 70% for as low as 25 cells spiked in 10 ml blood tubes, with less than 100 contaminating hematopoietic cells. Using this device and procedure, we validated our system on patient samples using an automated cell immunostaining procedure and a semi-automated cell counting method. Our device captured CTCs in 75% of metastatic prostate cancer patients and 80% of metastatic breast cancer patients, and showed similar or better results than the CellSearch device in 10 out of 13 samples. Finally, we demonstrated the possibility of detecting cancer-related PIK3CA gene mutation in 20 cells captured in the chip with a good correlation between the cell count and the quantitation value Cq of the post-capture qPCR. PMID:25815443

  4. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  5. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX. PMID:26654934

  6. Validating the Construct of Coercion in Family Routines: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Irvin, Larry K.; Blumberg, E. Richard; Laverty, Robelyn; Horner, Robert H.; Sprague, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an expanded ecological unit of analysis that may contribute to sustainable behavioral family intervention. Ten children with autism and/or mental retardation and their families participated. Videotaped observations were conducted in typical but unsuccessful home routines. Parent-child interaction in routines was coded in real time and sequential analyses were conducted to test hypotheses about coercive processes. Following observation, families were interviewed about the social validity of the construct. Results confirmed the presence of statistically significant, attention-driven coercive processes in routines in which parents were occupied with non-child centered tasks. Results partially confirmed the presence of escape-driven coercive processes in routines in which parent demands are common. Additional analysis revealed an alternative pattern with greater magnitude. Family perspectives suggested the social validity of the construct. Results are discussed in terms of preliminary, partial evidence for coercive processes in routines of families of children with developmental disabilities. Implications for behavioral assessment and intervention design are discussed. PMID:26321883

  7. Routine histopathologic examination of appendectomy specimens: retrospective analysis of 1255 patients.

    PubMed

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17-85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1-27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  8. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Serša, I.; Poličnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanič, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-06-01

    Beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  9. The new dedicated PIXE set-up at the National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Kâre; Waahlin, Peter

    1999-06-01

    The Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen was in the beginning of the 70'es one of the early places for PIXE. Contributions were made to the theoretical interpretation of the PIXE spectra as well as the practical application. The home-made 4 MV van de Graaff accelerator at the Niels Bohr Institute was an excellent tool for PIXE. The accelerator, which was used for many years, has now found its place on a museum after more than 40 years of active service. A dedicated PIXE set-up has now been established at the National Environmental Research Institute using a new 1.7 MV Tandem Pelletron (5SDH) from NEC. The main application is elemental analysis of outdoor aerosols. The main work is unsophisticated macro analyses, which do not push the equipment to its limits. This enables automated analysis of about 10,000 samples per year using very limited manpower resources. The research focuses on the contribution from various source types to the atmosphere over Europe, the North Atlantic and Greenland. Source compositions and their temporal variations are studied.

  10. PIXE and the mysteries of Legionnaires' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    The authors describe the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyse the nickel concentrations of the autopsy specimens from victims of Legionnaires' disease. They show that the high nickel concentrations in the lung specimens from the first recognized Legionnaires' cases in Philadelphia in 1976 were due to contamination during the autopsies. Recently the authors have used PIXE to show that the selenium concentrations in the sera of the acutely ill Legionnaires' patients are significantly lower than in their matching convalescent-phase sera. This finding may be related to the patient's response to the disease or to the specific characteristics of the Legionella pneumophila itself. Studies show that the disease is not a rare illness but a worldwide one. General criteria concerning specimen collection are described.

  11. Routine Analysis of all available GNSS Stations in Greece: Processing Scheme and Dissemination of Products and Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Anastasiou, Demitris; Marinou, Aggeliki; Zacharis, Vangelis; Paradissis, Demitris

    2015-04-01

    Dionysos Satellite Observatory and Higher Geodesy Laboratory of the National Technical University of Athens, have developed an automated processing scheme to accommodate the daily analysis of all available continuous GNSS stations in Greece. For the moment, a total of approximately 150 regional stations are processed, divided in 4 subnetworks. GNSS data are processed routinely on a daily basis, via Bernese GNSS Software v5.0, developed by AIUB. Each network is solved twice, within a period of 20 days, first using ultra-rapid products (with a latency of ~10 hours) and then using final products (with a latency of ~20 days). Observations are processed using carrier phase, modelled to double differences in the ionosphere-free linear combination. Analysis results, include coordinate estimates, ionospheric corrections (TEC maps) and hourly tropospheric parameters (zenith delay). This processing scheme, has proved helpful in investigating in near real-time abrupt geophysical phenomena, as in the 2011 Santorini inflation episode and the 2014 Kephalonia earthquake events. All analysis results and products are made available via a dedicated webpage. Additionally, most of the GNSS data are hosted in a GSAC web platform, available to all interested parties. Data and results are made available through the laboratory's dedicated website: http://dionysos.survey.ntua.gr/.

  12. Parotid gland tumors: correlation between routine cytology and cytomorphometry by digital image analysis using conventional and newly introduced cytomorphometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Obad-Kovačević, Dragica; Kardum-Skelin, Ika; Jelić-Puškarić, Biljana; Vidjak, Vinko; Blašković, Darko

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare qualitative cytomorphology and morphometric characteristics of parotid gland tumor cells, with the aid of a computer-assisted system of image analysis. Routine qualitative cytologic and quantitative morphometric results from 64 parotid gland tumors were compared. Ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens were taken from 54 patients. Eleven conventionally used morphometric parameters were studied: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor, and nuclear- cytoplasmatic (N/C) ratio. Two newly introduced nuclear form factors were also measured: area symmetry factor and perimeter symmetry factor. The following nuclear morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, convexity, maximal and minimal radius, length, breadth, FF, elongation factor, area symmetry factor, and perimeter symmetry factor. Comparing the cutoff values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves the following nuclear morphometric parameters were found most useful in separating benign from malignant tumors: area, perimeter, convex area, maximal radius, length, and FF. The following whole cell morphometric parameters were significantly different between malignant and benign tumors: minimal and maximal radius, convexity, breadth, FF, and elongation factor. N/C ratio was significantly higher in malignant tumors. The quantitative morphometric analysis is a useful tool in the cytological differentiation between benign and malignant parotid gland tumors. Computerized image analysis may add to morphological evaluation by turning qualitative data into quantitative values.

  13. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  14. Access to Routine Immunization: A Comparative Analysis of Supply-Side Disparities between Northern and Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboreime, Ejemai; Abimbola, Seye; Bozzani, Fiammetta

    2015-01-01

    Background The available data on routine immunization in Nigeria show a disparity in coverage between Northern and Southern Nigeria, with the former performing worse. The effect of socio-cultural differences on health-seeking behaviour has been identified in the literature as the main cause of the disparity. Our study analyses the role of supply-side determinants, particularly access to services, in causing these disparities. Methods Using routine government data, we compared supply-side determinants of access in two Northern states with two Southern states. The states were identified using criteria-based purposive selection such that the comparisons were made between a low-coverage state in the South and a low-coverage state in the North as well as between a high-coverage state in the South and a high-coverage state in the North. Results Human resources and commodities at routine immunization service delivery points were generally insufficient for service delivery in both geographical regions. While disparities were evident between individual states irrespective of regional location, compared to the South, residents in Northern Nigeria were more likely to have vaccination service delivery points located within a 5km radius of their settlements. Conclusion Our findings suggest that regional supply-side disparities are not apparent, reinforcing the earlier reported socio-cultural explanations for disparities in routine immunization service uptake between Northern and Southern Nigeria. Nonetheless, improving routine immunisation coverage services require that there are available human resources and that health facilities are equitably distributed. PMID:26692215

  15. PIXE studies of osteoporosis preventive treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Pinheiro, T.; Ager, F. J.; Alves, L. C.; Millán, J. C.; Gómez-Zubelbia, M. A.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2002-04-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear microprobe (NMP) have been used in an exploratory work to study elemental alterations in tissues of experimental animals submitted to osteoporosis preventive treatments. Osteopathologies have been associated with several factors, such as hormonal disturbances, metabolic aberrations, low dietary Ca and vitamin D intake, excess of iron, among other possible factors. Hormonal treatments seem to be beneficial to the incorporation of Ca in bone but breast and endometrial cancers constitute significant side effects that cannot be ignored. Wistar female rats were used to test the effect of estrogen therapy in osteoporosis progression. The variations of elemental concentrations in uterus and the Ca content of femoral bones of ovariectomised rats under estrogen therapy were investigated. PIXE, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and secondary electron microscopy techniques were applied for the characterisation of biological materials, with respect to morphology and trace element distribution determination. The increase of Ca and Fe concentrations in uterus and the variations for Ca distribution patterns in bone of rats submitted to estrogen therapy were the major features observed.

  16. Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project from PIX to NICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PIX follow-up project NICS is described. The purpose of PIX was access to X.25, the DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office. The development and implementation of higher protocols for levels 4-7 in the ISOSINN was the actual problem here. Results of the PIX project are given. NICS (Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project) is presented. International Protocols are reviewed. PAD service is described, which allows terminal access to DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office.

  17. Quantitative PIXE analysis of human uterine myoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, S. C.; Chu, T. C.; Lin, H. J.; Hsu, C. C.

    1986-11-01

    Twenty-two samples, taken from eight pathological proved uterine myoma patients, were embedded in paraffin and cut into slices of identical thickness (4.0 μm). After deparaffinization, washing and drying, the slices of myomal tissue and their neighboring myometrial tissue were bombarded by 2.0 MeV proton beams from a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The induced characteristic X-rays were then detected and analyzed using a HPGe detector system. The absolute concentrations of trace elements contained in tumors and normal tissues of human myomal uterus were determined, in reference to a known concentration of doped yttrium. Significant correlations between the concentration of elements, both in tumors and in normal tissues, were found.

  18. Advanced, enhanced HEX program for PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    The REX code and subsequent HEX code, originating at Florida State University, have been extensively used for PIXE spectra fitting. In 1989 we produced a renovated HEX package: WITS-HEX, enabling the original Fortran program to be more accessible to the PIXE community. We modernised the user interface by replacing the batch mode of operation with an integrated, menu-driven environment. We added the ability to edit support data files from within the program, provided detailed feedback during the fitting process and enhanced spectral plots using high resolution colour graphics. Our prototype also permitted the inclusion of many more peaks and absorption coefficients into the element library than the original HEX, permitting a more extensive element request list to be used during the fitting operation. We have now completed the second phase of the renewal of HEX. The man-machine interface has been upgraded to conform to the IBM SAA Common User Access (CUA) standard. This eliminated several of the sequential (modal) human-computer dialogues, replacing them with a single parallel system. The support utility used in WITS-HEX to convert the binary format of spectra captured using foreign data acquisition systems has been replaced by code to directly access data in ASCII format. The program is now equipped with context-sensitive help and a tutorial. The polynomial background model has been supplemented by a digital filter model, eliminating the associated instability from the fitting process and other spectral features modelled. The program has been validated by comparing results with those obtained from the former versions: WITS-HEX and HEX. A demonstration version is available on request for evaluation purposes.

  19. ‘As simple as possible but not simpler': What is useful in a temperature-based snow-accounting routine? Part 2 - Sensitivity analysis of the Cemaneige snow accounting routine on 380 catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valéry, Audrey; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the degree of complexity required in a snow accounting routine to ultimately simulate flows at the catchment outlet. We present a simple, parsimonious and general snow accounting routine (SAR), called Cemaneige, that can be associated with any precipitation-runoff model to simulate discharge at the catchment scale. To get results of general applicability, this SAR was tested on a large set of 380 catchments from four countries (France, Switzerland, Sweden and Canada) and combined with four different hydrological models. Our results show that five basic features provide a good reliability and robustness to the SAR, namely considering: (1) a transition range of temperature for the determination of the solid fraction of precipitation; (2) five altitudinal bands of equal area for snow accumulation; (3) the cold-content of the snowpack (with a parameter controlling snowpack inertia); (4) a degree-day factor controlling snowmelt; (5) uneven snow distribution in each band. This general SAR includes two internal states (the snowpack and its cold-content). Results also indicate that only two free parameters (snowmelt factor and cold-content factor) are warranted in a SAR at the daily time step and that further complexity is not supported by improvements in flow simulation efficiency. To justify the reasons for considering the five features above, a sensitivity analysis comparing Cemaneige with other SAR versions is performed. It analyses the snow processes which should be selected or not to bring significant improvement in model performances. Compared with the six existing SARs presented in the companion article (Valéry et al., 2014) on the 380 catchments set, Cemaneige shows better performance on average than five of these six SARs. It provides performance similar to the sixth SAR (MORD4) but with only half its number of free parameters. However, CemaNeige still appears perfectible on mountainous catchments (France and Switzerland) where the lumped

  20. Characterisation by PIXE RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.; Sauvage, T.; Kemeny, J. L.; Cazenave, A.; Jallot, E.

    2006-09-01

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl 6V 4 or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl 6V 4 and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl 6V 4 debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  1. Nuclear microprobe - synchrotron synergy: towards integrated quantitative real-time elemental imaging using PIXE and SCRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, C. G.; Etschmann, B. E.; Vogt, S.; Maser, J.; Harland, C. L.; van Achterbergh, E.; Legnini, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; CSIRO Exploration and Mining; Australian Synchrotron Research Program, ANSTO

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method, for the projection of quantitative elemental images using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), has been extended for use with energy-dispersive Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) data collected with the X-ray microprobe by making use of similarities and synergy with nuclear microscopy. The broad element sensitivity of PIXE is complemented by the selective nature of SXRF, where the beam energy can be tuned to optimize the sensitivity in a portion of the periodic table. PIXE combined with Proton Induced {gamma}-ray Emission (PIGE) in this study provided images of geological samples of 25 elements, including characteristic X-rays up to the energy of the Nd K lines (37 keV). Maximum sensitivity was achieved for elements around Z {approx} 33 with detection limits of {approx}250 ppb (in 5 h). SXRF using a 16.1 keV photon microbeam provided images of 16 elements, with optimum sensitivity around Z {approx} 35 with detection limits of {approx}70 ppb (in 11 h), an improvement of {approx}2.4 times when corrected for acquisition time.

  2. Applicability and Efficiency of NGS in Routine Diagnosis: In-Depth Performance Analysis of a Complete Workflow for CFTR Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pagin, Adrien; Devos, Aurore; Figeac, Martin; Truant, Maryse; Willoquaux, Christelle; Broly, Franck; Lalau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Actually, about 2000 sequence variations have been documented in the CFTR gene requiring extensive and multi-step genetic testing in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders. We present a two phases study, with validation and performance monitoring, of a single experiment methodology based on multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing that allows detection of all variants, including large rearrangements, affecting the coding regions plus three deep intronic loci. Methods A total of 340 samples, including 257 patients and 83 previously characterized control samples, were sequenced in 17 MiSeq runs and analyzed with two bioinformatic pipelines in routine diagnostic conditions. We obtained 100% coverage for all the target regions in every tested sample. Results We correctly identified all the 87 known variants in the control samples and successfully confirmed the 62 variants identified among the patients without observing false positive results. Large rearrangements were identified in 18/18 control samples. Only 17 patient samples showed false positive signals (6.6%), 12 of which showed a borderline result for a single amplicon. We also demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect allele specific dropout of amplicons when a sequence variation occurs at a primer binding site thus limiting the risk for false negative results. Conclusions We described here the first NGS workflow for CFTR routine analysis that demonstrated equivalent diagnostic performances compared to Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This study illustrates the advantages of NGS in term of scalability, workload reduction and cost-effectiveness in combination with an improvement of the overall data quality due to the simultaneous detection of SNVs and large rearrangements. PMID:26900683

  3. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  4. Routine Chromosomal Microarray Analysis is Necessary in Korean Patients With Unexplained Developmental Delay/Mental Retardation/Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Saeam; Yu, Nae; Choi, Jong Rak; Jeong, Seri

    2015-01-01

    Background All over the world, chromosomal microarray (CMA) is now the first tier diagnostic assay for genetic testing to evaluate developmental delay (DD), mental retardation (MR), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with unknown etiology. The average diagnostic yield of the CMA test is known to be about 12.2%, while that of conventional G-banding karyotype is below 3%. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of CMA for the purpose of clinical diagnostic testing in the Korean population. Methods We performed CMA and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) tests in 96 patients with normal karyotype and unexplained DD, MR, or ASD. The CMA was conducted with CytoScan 750K array (Affymetrix, USA) with an average resolution of 100 kb. Results Pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in 15 patients by CMA and in two patients by MLPA for four known microdeletion syndromes (Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome and Williams syndrome) designated by National Health Insurance system in Korea. The diagnostic yield was 15.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Thirteen (13.5%) patients (excluding cases with pathogenic CNVs) had variants of uncertain clinical significance. There was one patient with a 17.1-megabase (Mb) region of homozygosity on chromosome 4q. Conclusions Our findings suggest the necessity of CMA as a routine diagnostic test for unexplained DD, MR, and ASD in Korea. PMID:26206688

  5. Time-resolved tracking of interprotein signal transduction: Synechocystis PixD-PixE complex as a sensor of light intensity.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Nakasone, Yusuke; Okajima, Koji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tokutomi, Satoru; Terazima, Masahide

    2012-05-23

    PixD (Slr1694) is a blue light receptor that contains a BLUF (blue light sensors using a flavin chromophore) domain. A protein-protein interaction between PixD and a response regulator PixE (Slr1693) is essential to achieve light signal transduction for phototaxis of the species. Although the initial photochemical reaction of PixD, the red shift of the flavin absorption spectrum, has been investigated, the subsequent reaction dynamics remain largely unresolved. Only the disassembly of the PixD(10)-PixE(5) dark complex has been characterized by static size exclusion chromatography. In this report, interprotein reaction dynamics were examined using time-resolved transient grating spectroscopy. The dissociation process was clearly observed as the light-induced diffusion coefficient change in the time domain, and the kinetics was determined. More strikingly, disassembly was found to take place only after photoactivation of two PixD subunits in the complex. This result suggests that the biological response of PixD does not follow a linear correlation with the light intensity but appears to be light-intensity-dependent.

  6. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  7. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  8. Importance of Family Routines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share The Importance of Family Routines Page Content ​Every family needs ... child to sleep. These rituals can include storytelling, reading aloud, conversation, and songs. Try to avoid exciting ...

  9. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  10. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

  11. A fast and effective routine method based on HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS for the analysis of organotin compounds in biota samples.

    PubMed

    Noventa, Seta; Barbaro, Jvan; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Rampazzo, Federico; Brusà, Rossella Boscolo; Gabellini, Massimo; Berto, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    This work validated an automated, fast, and low solvent- consuming methodology suited for routine analysis of tributyltin (TBT) and degradation products (dibutyltin, DBT; monobutyltin, MBT) in biota samples. The method was based on the headspace solid-phase microextraction methodology (HS-SPME), coupled with gas chromatographic separation and tandem mass-spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of the matrix-matched signal ratio external calibration was tested for quantification purposes. The exclusion of matrix influences in the calibration curves proved the suitability of this versatile quantification method. The method detection limits obtained were of 3 ng Sn g(-1) dw for all the analytes. The analysis of references materials showed satisfying accuracy under optimum calibration conditions (% recovery between 87-111%; |Z-scores|<2). The repeatability RSD% and intra-laboratory reproducibility RSD% were lower than 9.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The work proved the remarkable analytical performances of the method and its high potential for routine application in monitoring organotin compounds (OTC). PMID:25597804

  12. Application of PIXE, RBS and high energy proton microbeams to the elemental analysis of coal and coal waste. [Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, H.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Oakley, S.A.; Duedall, I.W.; Woodhead, P.M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission have proved to be sensitive and convenient methods to measure major trace element concentrations in bulk quantities of coal and coal waste materials. These techniques are complementary in their sensitivities as a function of atomic number, and both require little sample preparation. The PIXE measurements were made with the proton beam in air in a microprobe configuration. Collimated proton beam scans were made on several thin sections of fly ash/sludge block materials and good trace sensitivities were observed for small specific volumes; SEM scans showed a high degree of material homogeneity which precluded significant elemental variations at the approx. 100 ..mu..m spatial resolution used. Rutherford backscattering was used to directly observe major and minor elemental concentrations in coal waste materials and in several representative ranks of coals. RBS is useful for only trace concentrations of heavy elements, but it does provide a method independent of fluoresced x rays for detection of possible middle Z interferences. Arsenic, present in trace amounts in coal, is an element of concern and is enriched in fly ash. The form of As in fly ash is unknown. However, because of its volatility most of the As probably becomes attached to the surfaces of the fly ash particles during and subsequent to combustion processes. This view is supported by the fact that As is rapidly mobilized in aqueous solutions whose pH > 9.

  13. Proton backscatter as a means of mass normalization in PIXE scanning of human hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, S. B.; Gibson, R. S.; Faiq, S.; Campbell, J. L.

    1981-03-01

    Variations in linear density along a given hair can cause changes in X-ray intensity which do not reflect elemental concentration changes. Hairs from different subjects vary by a factor ˜5 in linear density, so that very different X-ray intensities need not necessarily reflect different concentrations. We investigate the usefulness of the backscattered proton intensity as a means of determining the mass undergoing PIXE analysis. Specimen damage can be avoided in the BS measurement via low currents without loss of statistcs. A correlation is found between BS intensity and mass, but a laser diffraction measurement of the hair diameter provides an equally satisfactory mass determination.

  14. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  15. Effect of Prednisolone Administration on Patients with Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage and in Routine Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dan, Song; Wei, Wang; Yichao, Shi; Hongbo, Cheng; Shenmin, Yang; Jiaxiong, Wang; Hong, Li

    2015-07-01

    The effects of prednisolone on pregnancy outcome are open to debate. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the efficiency of prednisolone administration on unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and the process of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Relevant publications were searched from databases and the included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated effects of prednisolone administration in women with unexplained RM or during ART. The outcomes in our analysis were measured in terms of risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random effect models. This meta-analysis was performed based on pregnancy outcomes following prednisolone treatment. This meta-analysis provides evidence that prednisolone therapy improves pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic RM (live birth rate: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.23-2.02; successful pregnancy outcome: RR 7.63, 95% CI 3.71-15.69; miscarriage rate: RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.28-0.61). Our meta-analysis revealed a non-significant effect of prednisolone on pregnancy outcome during intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (pregnancy rate: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.24; clinical pregnancy rate: RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.82-1.24; implantation rate: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85-1.28). Prednisolone administration may improve pregnancy outcomes in women with idiopathic RM; its efficacy in women undergoing ICSI is not significant. PMID:25753479

  16. Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

  17. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frick, Daniel A; Schuessler, Jan A; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ(30)Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ(30)Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g(-1)-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ simultaneous

  18. Development of routines for simultaneous in situ chemical composition and stable Si isotope ratio analysis by femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frick, Daniel A; Schuessler, Jan A; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2016-09-28

    Stable metal (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mo) and metalloid (B, Si, Ge) isotope ratio systems have emerged as geochemical tracers to fingerprint distinct physicochemical reactions. These systems are relevant to many Earth Science questions. The benefit of in situ microscale analysis using laser ablation (LA) over bulk sample analysis is to use the spatial context of different phases in the solid sample to disclose the processes that govern their chemical and isotopic compositions. However, there is a lack of in situ analytical routines to obtain a samples' stable isotope ratio together with its chemical composition. Here, we evaluate two novel analytical routines for the simultaneous determination of the chemical and Si stable isotope composition (δ(30)Si) on the micrometre scale in geological samples. In both routines, multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) is combined with femtosecond-LA, where stable isotope ratios are corrected for mass bias using standard-sample-bracketing with matrix-independent calibration. The first method is based on laser ablation split stream (LASS), where the laser aerosol is split and introduced simultaneously into both the MC-ICP-MS and a quadrupole ICP-MS. The second method is based on optical emission spectroscopy using direct observation of the MC-ICP-MS plasma (LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES). Both methods are evaluated using international geological reference materials. Accurate and precise Si isotope ratios were obtained with an uncertainty typically better than 0.23‰, 2SD, δ(30)Si. With both methods major element concentrations (e.g., Na, Al, Si, Mg, Ca) can be simultaneously determined. However, LASS-ICP-MS is superior over LA-MC-ICP-MS|OES, which is limited by its lower sensitivity. Moreover, LASS-ICP-MS offers trace element analysis down to the μg g(-1)-range for more than 28 elements due to lower limits of detection, and with typical uncertainties better than 15%. For in situ simultaneous

  19. PIXE as an analytical tool: An external-beam system in helium and the role of sample preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    A PIXE system in which samples in a helium-filled target chamber are irradiated by an external proton beam is described. The system is well suited for study of a wide range of materials, some merely calling for qualitative analysis, and others requiring quantitative measurements. This variety mandates a flexible approach to sample preparation in order to obtain full sensitivity of the system. Some examples taken from our work are given.

  20. Routine DNA testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  1. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  2. Improvement of detection limits of PIXE by substrate signal reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, S.; Nejedly, Z.; Campbell, J. L.; Edwards, G. C.; Dias, G. M.

    2002-04-01

    Limits of detection (LODs) for aerosol samples collected using PIXE International cascade impactors, were improved approximately 50% after reducing the cross-sectional area of the analytical beam based on results obtained from microscope photographs of aerosol deposits. Improvements in LODs were most noticeable for selected elements collected on the smaller stages of the impactor (stages 1-3).

  3. Opportunities and challenges in conducting secondary analysis of HIV programmes using data from routine health information systems and personal health information

    PubMed Central

    Gloyd, Stephen; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Woelk, Godfrey B; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV programme data from routine health information systems (RHIS) and personal health information (PHI) provide ample opportunities for secondary data analysis. However, these data pose unique opportunities and challenges for use in health system monitoring, along with process and impact evaluations. Methods Analyses focused on retrospective case reviews of four of the HIV-related studies published in this JIAS supplement. We identify specific opportunities and challenges with respect to the secondary analysis of RHIS and PHI data. Results Challenges working with both HIV-related RHIS and PHI included missing, inconsistent and implausible data; rapidly changing indicators; systematic differences in the utilization of services; and patient linkages over time and different data sources. Specific challenges among RHIS data included numerous registries and indicators, inconsistent data entry, gaps in data transmission, duplicate registry of information, numerator-denominator incompatibility and infrequent use of data for decision-making. Challenges specific to PHI included the time burden for busy providers, the culture of lax charting, overflowing archives for paper charts and infrequent chart review. Conclusions Many of the challenges that undermine effective use of RHIS and PHI data for analyses are related to the processes and context of collecting the data, excessive data requirements, lack of knowledge of the purpose of data and the limited use of data among those generating the data. Recommendations include simplifying data sources, analysis and reporting; conducting systematic data quality audits; enhancing the use of data for decision-making; promoting routine chart review linked with simple patient tracking systems; and encouraging open access to RHIS and PHI data for increased use. PMID:27443274

  4. Oligomeric-state-dependent conformational change of the BLUF protein TePixD (Tll0078).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Nakasone, Yusuke; Okajima, Koji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tokutomi, Satoru; Terazima, Masahide

    2009-03-13

    The photochemical reaction dynamics of a BLUF (sensors of blue light using FAD) protein, PixD, from a thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (TePixD, Tll0078) were studied by pulsed laser-induced transient grating method. After the formation of an intermediate species with a red-shifted absorption spectrum, two new reaction phases reflecting protein conformational changes were discovered; one reaction phase manifested itself as expansion of partial molar volume with a time constant of 40 micros, whereas the other reaction phase represented a change in the diffusion coefficient D [i.e., the diffusion-sensitive conformational change (DSCC)]. D decreased from 4.9 x 10(-11) to 4.4 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1) upon the formation of the first intermediate, and subsequently showed a more pronounced decrease to 3.2 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1) upon formation of the second intermediate. From a global analysis of signals at various grating wavenumbers, the time constant of D-change was determined to be 4 ms. Although the magnitude and rate constant of the faster volume change were independent of protein concentration, the amplitude of the signal that reflects the later DSCC significantly decreased as the protein concentration decreased. This concentration dependence suggests that two species exist in solution: a reactive species exhibiting the DSCC, and a second species that is nonreactive. The fraction of these species was found to be dependent on the concentration. The difference in reactivity was attributed to the different oligomeric states of TePixD (i.e., pentamer and decamer). The equilibrium of these states in the dark was confirmed by size-exclusion chromatography at various concentrations. These results demonstrated that only the decamer state is responsible for the conformational change. The results may suggest that the oligomeric state is functionally important in the signal transduction of this photosensory protein.

  5. Rotavirus vaccines in routine use.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-11-01

    Vaccines are now available to combat rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide. We review clinical trial data for available rotavirus vaccines and summarize postlicensure data on effectiveness, impact, and safety from countries routinely using these vaccines in national programs. In these countries, rotavirus vaccines have reduced all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus hospitalizations by 17%-55% and 49%-92%, respectively, and all-cause diarrhea deaths by 22%-50% in some settings. Indirect protection of children who are age-ineligible for rotavirus vaccine has also been observed in some high and upper middle income countries. Experience with routine use of rotavirus vaccines in lower middle income countries has been limited to date, but vaccine introductions in such countries have been increasing in recent years. The risk-benefit analysis of rotavirus vaccines is extremely favorable but other strategies to improve the effectiveness of the vaccine, particularly in lower middle income settings, should be considered.

  6. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, Zoë; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  7. Structures of cyanobacteriochromes from phototaxis regulators AnPixJ and TePixJ reveal general and specific photoconversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Rei; Ishizuka, Takami; Muraki, Norifumi; Shiba, Tomoo; Kurisu, Genji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-15

    Cyanobacteriochromes are cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors that share a bilin-binding GAF domain with photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. Cyanobacteriochromes are divided into many subclasses with distinct spectral properties. Among them, putative phototaxis regulators PixJs of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (denoted as AnPixJ and TePixJ, respectively) are representative of subclasses showing red-green-type and blue/green-type reversible photoconversion, respectively. Here, we determined crystal structures for the AnPixJ GAF domain in its red-absorbing 15Z state (Pr) and the TePixJ GAF domain in its green-absorbing 15E state (Pg). The overall structure of these proteins is similar to each other and also similar to known phytochromes. Critical differences found are as follows: (i) the chromophore of AnPixJ Pr is phycocyanobilin in a C5-Z,syn/C10-Z,syn/C15-Z,anti configuration and that of TePixJ Pg is phycoviolobilin in a C10-Z,syn/C15-E,anti configuration, (ii) a side chain of the key aspartic acid is hydrogen bonded to the tetrapyrrole rings A, B and C in AnPixJ Pr and to the pyrrole ring D in TePixJ Pg, (iii) additional protein-chromophore interactions are provided by subclass-specific residues including tryptophan in AnPixJ and cysteine in TePixJ. Possible structural changes following the photoisomerization of the chromophore between C15-Z and C15-E are discussed based on the X-ray structures at 1.8 and 2.0-Å resolution, respectively, in two distinct configurations. PMID:23256156

  8. PIXE and GC-MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Bakraji, E H; Odeh, A

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC-MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed.

  9. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-07-01

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  10. Implementation of a routine genetic evaluation for longevity based on survival analysis techniques in dairy cattle populations in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Vukasinovic, N; Moll, J; Casanova, L

    2001-09-01

    Genetic evaluation of sires for functional longevity of their daughters based on survival analysis has been implemented in the populations of Braunvieh, Simmental, and Holstein cattle in Switzerland. A Weibull mixed sire-maternal grandsire survival model was used to estimate breeding values of sires with data on cows that calved since April 1, 1980. Data on Braunvieh and Simmental cows included about 1.1 million records, data on Holstein cows comprised about 220,000 records. Data contained approximately 20 to 24% right-censored records and 6 to 9% left-truncated records. Besides the random sire and maternal grandsire effects, the model included effects of herd-year-season, age at first calving, parity, stage of lactation, alpine pasturing (Braunvieh and Simmental), and relative milk yield and relative fat and protein percentage within herd to account for culling for production. Heritability of functional longevity, estimated on a subset of data including approximately 150,000 animals, were 0.181, 0.198, and 0.184 for Braunvieh, Simmental, and Holstein, respectively. Breeding values were estimated for all sires with at least six daughters or three granddaughters in the data. Breeding values of sires are expressed in months of functional productive life and published in sire catalogs along with breeding values for production traits.

  11. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  12. Explaining trends in Scottish coronary heart disease mortality between 2000 and 2010 using IMPACTSEC model: retrospective analysis using routine data

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Joel W; Davies, Carolyn A; Dundas, Ruth; Hawkins, Nathaniel; Jhund, Pardeep S; Scholes, Shaun; Bajekal, Madhavi; O’Flaherty, Martin; Critchley, Julia; Capewell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the contributions of prevention and treatment to the trends in mortality due to coronary heart disease in Scotland. Design Retrospective analysis using IMPACTSEC, a previously validated policy model, to apportion the recent decline in coronary heart disease mortality to changes in major cardiovascular risk factors and to increases in more than 40 treatments in nine non-overlapping groups of patients. Setting Scotland. Participants All adults aged 25 years or over, stratified by sex, age group, and fifths of Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. Main outcome measure Deaths prevented or postponed. Results 5770 fewer deaths from coronary heart disease occurred in 2010 than would be expected if the 2000 mortality rates had persisted (8042 rather than 13 813). This reflected a 43% fall in coronary heart disease mortality rates (from 262 to 148 deaths per 100 000). Improved treatments accounted for approximately 43% (95% confidence interval 33% to 61%) of the fall in mortality, and this benefit was evenly distributed across deprivation fifths. Notable treatment contributions came from primary prevention for hypercholesterolaemia (13%), secondary prevention drugs (11%), and chronic angina treatments (7%). Risk factor improvements accounted for approximately 39% (28% to 49%) of the fall in mortality (44% in the most deprived fifth compared with only 36% in the most affluent fifth). Reductions in systolic blood pressure contributed more than one third (37%) of the decline in mortality, with no socioeconomic patterning. Smaller contributions came from falls in total cholesterol (9%), smoking (4%), and inactivity (2%). However, increases in obesity and diabetes offset some of these benefits, potentially increasing mortality by 4% and 8% respectively. Diabetes showed strong socioeconomic patterning (12% increase in the most deprived fifth compared with 5% for the most affluent fifth). Conclusions Increases in medical treatments accounted for almost

  13. Do patients with lactose intolerance exhibit more frequent comorbidities than patients without lactose intolerance? An analysis of routine data from German medical practices

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Rebecca; Kostev, Karel; Gothe, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in food intolerances poses a burgeoning problem in our society. Food intolerances not only lead to physical impairment of the individual patient but also result in a high socio-economic burden due to factors such as the treatment required as well as absenteeism. The present study aimed to explore whether lactose intolerant (LI) patients exhibit more frequent comorbidities than non-LI patients. Methods The study was conducted on a case-control basis and the results were determined using routine data analysis. Routine data from the IMS Disease Analyzer database were used for this purpose. A total of 6,758 data records were processed and analyzed. Results There were significant correlations between LI and the incidence of osteoporosis, changes in mental status, and the presence of additional food intolerances. Comparing 3,379 LI vs. 3,379 non-LI patients, 34.5% vs. 17.7% (P<0.0001) suffered from abdominal pain; 30.6% vs. 17.2% (P<0.0001) from gastrointestinal infections; and 20.9% vs. 16.0% (P=0.0053) from depression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) were the highest for fructose intolerance (n=229 LI vs. n=7 non-LI; OR 31.06; P<0.0001), irritable bowel syndrome (n=247 LI vs. n=44 non-LI; OR 5.23; P<0.0001), and bloating (n=351 LI vs. n=68 non-LI; OR 4.94; P<0.0001). Conclusion The study confirms that LI should not be regarded as an isolated illness but considered a possible trigger for further diseases. Additional research is necessary to assert more precise statements. PMID:27065730

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of fesoterodine flexible dose in newly diagnosed patients with overactive bladder in routine clinical practice in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peral, Carmen; Sánchez-Ballester, Francisco; García-Mediero, José M; Ramos, Jaime; Rejas, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To carry out cost-effectiveness analysis from the Spanish National Health System perspective, of treating overactive bladder (OAB), in newly diagnosed patients with two flexible doses of fesoterodine in routine clinical practice. Patients and methods Economic evaluation of flexible-dose fesoterodine in newly diagnosed patients, including two treatment groups: standard escalating from 4 to 8 mg or fast escalating to 8 mg. Costs were estimated from health care resources utilization related to OAB, and were expressed in 2015 Euros. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were obtained from overactive bladder questionnaire-short form. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were carried out. Results Three hundred and ninety symptomatic OAB patients treated with fesoterodine and newly diagnosed (141 in fast escalating group and 249 in standard escalating) were analyzed. Adjusted health care total costs were not statistically different; difference −€4.1 (confidence interval: −153.3; 25.1) P=0.842. QALYs were higher in fast escalating to high dose vs standard escalating group, resulting in a cost of −€16,020/QALY gained for fast escalating vs standard escalating group. Conclusion When the cost-effectiveness threshold is set at a maximum value of €30,000/QALY gained, fesoterodine fast escalating group was cost-effective vs standard escalating group 67.6% of the time. The treatment with fesoterodine, in female patients newly diagnosed, fast escalating to 8 mg was a cost-effective option relative to escalating traditionally from 4 to 8 mg, in the management of OAB in routine clinical practice, from the Spanish National Health System perspective. PMID:27713646

  15. A quick, optimized method for routine analysis of essential and trans-octadecenoic acids in edible fats and oils by GLC.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luis Miguel; Calvo, María Visitación; Fontecha, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A gas chromatography procedure using a 30-m capillary column (VF-23ms) has been optimized for quick analysis (run time less than 20 min). The method is suitable for routine analysis of the fatty acid composition of edible fat and oil samples (milk, fish, vegetal and synthetic origin). The results were comparable with those obtained with a 100-m-long CP-Sil 88 column (run times between 60 and more than 100 min) in the analysis of geometric and positional isomers of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The achieved resolution of compounds from 4 to 26 carbon atoms with 0-6 double bonds, as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, major trans-octadecenoic isomers and conjugated linoleic acid isomers, was higher than those reported in other proposed and reference methods for similar samples using short-length columns. The response factors obtained from the fatty acid composition of reference milk fat exhibited high feasibility and the inter-assay (VF23ms versus CP-Sil 88) and intra-assays based on relative standard deviation showed good accuracy, because they were lower than 10%.

  16. Analysis and Presentation of Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test Data – The Influence of Different Parameters in a Routine Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Kohlmann, Rebekka; Gatermann, Sören G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many clinical microbiology laboratories report on cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility testing (cAST) data on a regular basis. Criteria for generation of cAST reports, however, are often obscure and inconsistent. Whereas the CLSI has published a guideline for analysis and presentation of cAST data, national guidelines directed at clinical microbiology laboratories are not available in Europe. Thus, we sought to describe the influence of different parameters in the process of cAST data analysis in the setting of a German routine clinical microbiology laboratory during 2 consecutive years. Material and Methods We developed various program scripts to assess the consequences ensuing from different algorithms for calculation of cumulative antibiograms from the data collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory in 2013 and 2014. Results One of the most pronounced effects was caused by exclusion of screening cultures for multi-drug resistant organisms which decreased the MRSA rate in some cases to one third. Dependent on the handling of duplicate isolates, i.e. isolates of the same species recovered from successive cultures on the same patient during the time period analyzed, we recorded differences in resistance rates of up to 5 percentage points for S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae and up to 10 percentage points for P. aeruginosa. Stratification by site of care and specimen type, testing of antimicrobials selectively on resistant isolates, change of interpretation rules and analysis at genus level instead of species level resulted in further changes of calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Conclusion The choice of parameters for cAST data analysis may have a substantial influence on calculated antimicrobial resistance rates. Consequently, comparability of cAST reports from different clinical microbiology laboratories may be limited. We suggest that laboratories communicate the strategy used for cAST data analysis as long as national

  17. Parent routines for managing cystic fibrosis in children

    PubMed Central

    Grossoehme, Daniel H.; Filigno, Stephanie Spear; Bishop, Meredith

    2014-01-01

    Management of cystic fibrosis (CF) is burdensome and adherence is often suboptimal. Family routines are associated with adherence and health outcomes in other disease populations. Few studies have examined routines in CF. The study's aim was to describe parent experiences developing and utilizing CF care routines. Semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of 25 parents of children under 13 years of age with CF were analyzed using phenomenological analysis. Three domains emerged: parent experiences developing a routine, support systems facilitating maintenance of routines, and challenges with maintaining care routines. Parents found routines difficult to establish, used trial and error, encountered barriers, and found support helpful to manage care demands. Some parents chose to deviate from their routine. Providing anticipatory guidance to promote the use of care routines and strategies to manage potential challenges may facilitate use of routines and improve CF management. PMID:24838648

  18. Routine vaccination against chickenpox?

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes both varicella and herpes zoster. In 1995 a varicella vaccine was licensed in the USA and was incorporated into the routine vaccination programme for children; a decline of varicella among children and adults, and a reduction in associated hospitalisation, complications and mortality, has resulted. In the UK, a policy of targeted vaccination of at-risk groups has been in place since the vaccine was introduced. Here we review the evidence for the different approaches to VZV vaccination policy.

  19. The role of micro-NRA and micro-PIXE in carbon mapping of organic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niekraszewicz, L. A. B.; de Souza, C. T.; Stori, E. M.; Jobim, P. F. C.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the work developed in the Ion Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) in order to implement the micro-NRA technique for the study of light elements in organic tissues. In particular, the work was focused on nuclear reactions employing protons and alphas with carbon. The (p,p) resonances at 0.475 and 1.734 were investigated. The (α,α) resonance at 4.265 MeV was studied as well. The results indicate that the yields for the 0.475 and 1.734 MeV resonances are similar. Elemental maps of different structures obtained with the micro-NRA technique using the 1.734 MeV resonance were compared with those obtained with micro-PIXE employing a SDD detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. The results show that the use of micro-NRA for carbon at 1.734 MeV resonance provides good results in some cases at the expense of longer beam times. On the other hand, micro-PIXE provides enhanced yields but is limited to surface analysis since soft X-rays are greatly attenuated by matter.

  20. Development and applications of STIM- and PIXE-tomography: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelet, C.; Barberet, P.; Moretto, P.; Seznec, H.

    2015-11-01

    In combination with nuclear microprobes, STIM and PIXE tomography offer non-destructive quantitative three-dimensional characterization of microscopic samples. STIM tomography provides 3D density maps of the analyzed sample with sub-micrometer resolution and PIXE tomography is one of the only methods allowing a quantification of trace elements in three dimensions. These tomography techniques have been developed in several microbeam laboratories around the world since the 80's. Nevertheless, despite a huge interest in mapping the inner content of a sample without destroying it, the use of ion beam tomography has been limited to a few studies up to now. This comes from the specific requirements of this kind of experiments, i.e. specific experimental set-up (rotation of the sample during analysis) and reconstruction software, making this type of experiments difficult to handle and relatively long. For a few years, efforts have been made to facilitate the implementation of these techniques and reduce the duration of data acquisition: new detectors and new algorithms were proposed. After an introduction to ion beam tomography techniques and to the first developments made in that field, the experimental and data processing specificities of this 3D imaging approach will be discussed. Finally, examples of recent applications to biology and material science are presented, as well as related techniques developed in the field of microbeam 3D imaging.

  1. Micro-PIXE mapping of mineral distribution in mature grain of two pearl millet cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis-Ndimba, R.; Kruger, J.; Taylor, J. R. N.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) was used to map the distribution of several nutritionally important minerals found in the grain tissue of two cultivars of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.). The distribution maps revealed that the predominant localisation of minerals was within the germ (consisting of the scutellum and embryo) and the outer grain layers (specifically the pericarp and aleurone); whilst the bulk of the endosperm tissue featured relatively low concentrations of the surveyed minerals. Within the germ, the scutellum was revealed as a major storage tissue for P and K, whilst Ca, Mn and Zn were more prominent within the embryo. Fe was revealed to have a distinctive distribution pattern, confined to the dorsal end of the scutellum; but was also highly concentrated in the outer grain layers. Interestingly, the hilar region was also revealed as a site of high accumulation of minerals, particularly for S, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn, which may be part of a defensive strategy against infection or damage. Differences between the two cultivars, in terms of the bulk Fe and P content obtained via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), concurred with the average concentration data determined from the analysis of micro-PIXE spectra specifically extracted from the endosperm tissue.

  2. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corregidor, V.; Oliveira, A. R.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Alves, L. C.

    2015-04-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken's workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist's works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings.

  3. Optimization and validation of a Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry method for the routine analysis of soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Luis; Trejos, Tatiana; Gardinali, Piero R.; Almirall, José R.

    2009-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method was developed for the routine analysis of trace elements on sediments and soils by UV-ns-LA-ICP-MS. The homogenization procedure that reduces the particle size of the samples to less than 1 µm diameter was found to be a key factor to allow for a representative sampling of the bulk soil at the micro-scale and to improve reproducibility and cohesion of the sample without requiring the use of any binder. The elimination of binders simplified the sample preparation and avoided any undesirable dilution of the sample. SEM/EDX analyses were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of laser to sample interaction. Matrix effects and different quantitation strategies were employed to demonstrate the utility of the analytical technique. Sixteen elements were analyzed on soil and sediment samples and certified reference materials. Analytical results obtained by LA-ICP-MS were comparable to solution ICP-MS analysis in terms of accuracy, precision and limits of detection. Two independent proficiency tests for trace metals in soils were conducted to compare the performance of the method versus conventional digestion ICP and AA methods, obtaining z scores ≤ 3 for all elements measured by LA-ICP-MS. An overall bias between 8 and 15% was found, depending on the sample while the overall precision was found to be better than 5% RSD for all samples. Limits of detection were as low as 0.01 mg kg - 1 .

  4. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  5. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, D.; Yang, F. J.; Sun, X. M.; Guo, M. S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  6. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC-Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  7. An application of PIXE in medicine: Legionnaires' disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, James R.

    1981-03-01

    The name "Legionnaires' disease" refers to an acute respiratory illness that was first recognized at an American Legion Convention in Philadelphia in July, 1976. 221 people became ill and 34 died. During the ensuing months before the etiologic agent, a previously unknown species of bacterium, was isolated, many investigators suspected that a toxic agent, in particular nickel carbonyl, might have caused the outbreak of illness. We describe the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyse the nickel concentrations of the autopsy specimens. We show that the high nickel concentrations in the lung specimens were due to contamination during the autopsies. Recently we have used PIXE to show that the selenium concentrations in the serums of the acutely ill Legionnaires' patients are significantly lower than in their matching convalescent-phase serums. This finding may be related to the patient's response to the disease or to the specific characteristics of the Legionnaires' bacterium itself.

  8. Complementary tumor vascularity imaging in a single PET-CT routine using FDG early dynamic blood flow and contrast-enhanced CT texture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmi, Raz; Yefremov, Nikolay; Bernstine, Hanna; Groshar, David

    2014-03-01

    A feasibility study of improved PET-CT tumor imaging approach is presented. A single PET-CT routine includes three different techniques: 18F-FDG early dynamic blood flow intended for perfusion assessment; standard late 18F-FDG uptake; and high-resolution contrast-enhanced CT enabling tissue texture analysis. Both PET protocols utilize the same single standard radiotracer dose administration. Quantitative volumetric arterial perfusion maps are derived from the reconstructed dynamic PET images corresponding to successive acquisition time intervals of 3 seconds only. For achieving high accuracy, the analysis algorithm differentiates the first-pass arterial flow from other interfering dynamic effects, and a noise reduction scheme based on adaptive total-variation minimization aims to provide appreciable quantitative map in physical conditions of high noise and low spatial resolution. The CT texture analysis comprises a practical and robust method for generating volumetric tissue irregularity maps. A local map value is represented by the entropy function which is derived from a weighted co-occurrence matrix histogram of the corresponding image voxel three-dimensional vicinity. Unique entropy scaling scheme and parameter optimization process, as well as appropriate scaling for varying image noise levels and contrast agent concentrations, improve the results toward quantitative absolute measure with respect to diverse scanning conditions and key analysis parameters. Representative imaging results are demonstrated on several clinical cases involving different organs and cancer types. In these cases, significant tumor characterization relative to the normal surrounding tissues is seen on the quantitative maps of all three imaging techniques. This proof of concept can lead the way to a new practical diagnostic imaging application.

  9. External beam pixe programs at the University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    A PIXE system in which large or delicate samples are excited by a low-current external proton beam is described. This system has been used to analyze historical printed books and manuscripts, as well as a large variety of archeological artifacts. The steps used to protect the sample from unnecessary beam current are examined. A recent thorough study of the first volume of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible is described in some detail.

  10. PIXE facility at Centro Atómico Bariloche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limandri, S.; Olivares, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Bernardi, G.; Suárez, S.

    2014-01-01

    A 1.7 MeV tandem accelerator has been recently installed at Centro Atómico Bariloche, Argentina. This communication includes a brief description of the system facility with the main associated equipment, in particular that used for PIXE measurements. The X-ray detector efficiency was experimentally determined by comparing X-ray characteristic spectra with theoretical predictions. The knowledge of this parameter allows us to perform quantification without standards with good precision.

  11. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppert, W. J. C.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Colas, P.; Desch, K.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N. P.; Kaminski, J.; Schmitz, J.; Schön, R.; Zappon, F.

    2013-12-01

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  12. An image-analysis system based on support vector machines for automatic grade diagnosis of brain-tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Glotsos, D; Spyridonos, P; Cavouras, D; Ravazoula, P; Dadioti, P Arapantoni; Nikiforidis, G

    2005-09-01

    An image-analysis system based on the concept of Support Vector Machines (SVM) was developed to assist in grade diagnosis of brain tumour astrocytomas in clinical routine. One hundred and forty biopsies of astrocytomas were characterized according to the WHO system as grade II, III and IV. Images from biopsies were digitized, and cell nuclei regions were automatically detected by encoding texture variations in a set of wavelet, autocorrelation and parzen estimated descriptors and using an unsupervised SVM clustering methodology. Based on morphological and textural nuclear features, a decision-tree classification scheme distinguished between different grades of tumours employing an SVM classifier. The system was validated for clinical material collected from two different hospitals. On average, the SVM clustering algorithm correctly identified and accurately delineated 95% of all nuclei. Low-grade tumours were distinguished from high-grade tumours with an accuracy of 90.2% and grade III from grade IV with an accuracy of 88.3% The system was tested in a new clinical data set, and the classification rates were 87.5 and 83.8%, respectively. Segmentation and classification results are very encouraging, considering that the method was developed based on every-day clinical standards. The proposed methodology might be used in parallel with conventional grading to support the regular diagnostic procedure and reduce subjectivity in astrocytomas grading. PMID:16403707

  13. Fractal geometry-based fabric quantification in practice: deployment of automated analysis routines on magmatic flow patterns from the Squillace Tonalite (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerik, A.; Kruhl, J. H.; Caggianelli, A.

    2009-04-01

    Magmatic processes such as magma emplacement and deformation-cooling histories leave visible traces in fabrics of magmatic rocks on all scales from µm to m. Together with the mostly diffuse and irregular nature of the patterns, this large scale range greatly impedes comprehensive analyses of the rock's fabrics. While such fabric patterns have been analyzed using a number of conventional methods over the last two decades, the resulting interpretations are mostly related to geometric aspects of the analyzed patterns on a specific scale. Fractal geometry-based quantification approaches can help overcome this problem, as they can be applied on larger scale ranges and thereby help extracting additional information. Furthermore, they are specifically suitable to analyze the pattern's complexity as well as anisotropies and inhomogeneities that may occur within a pattern. One issue that has prevented a widespread application of these methods is the fact that - compared to methods that are based on conventional statistical approaches - the time and effort required for the deployment of fractal geometry-based quantification approaches is much higher. However, the better availability of computing power and the development of automated routines along with their successful application on complex magmatic patterns has largely resolved such reservations. Still, the foundation of a meaningful analysis is laid in the initial preparation and processing of the analyzed patterns. To help avoid the influence of subjective decisions made along the way, we show an exemplary, rule-based work flow from pattern acquisition and image processing to deployment of automated quantification routines on a series of samples from geologically different locations within the Squillace Tonalite in the Serre (Calabria, Italy). All of the samples show evidence of flow, mingling and mixing processes of different intensity. These processes occurred during the injection and the shearing of the

  14. On the temporal and behavioural consistency of pre-performance routines: an intra-individual analysis of elite basketball players' free throw shooting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Chris; Tam, Jimmy T M

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of pre-performance routines on skilled performance in a self-paced skill has yet to be verified. In this study, we examine the importance of temporal and behavioural consistency in these routines. The duration and specific pattern of behaviours exhibited before each free throw (n = 284) were observed during 14 National Basketball Association play-off games. An intra-individual standardized score was calculated for each shot's duration. Each player's dominant behavioural routine was identified and each shot was classified as "sequence followed" or "sequence not followed". No difference was observed in the success rates of shots associated with brief, long, and regular duration routines (P > 0.05). However, players were more successful when they followed their dominant behavioural sequence (83.77% success) than when they deviated from their specific behavioural pattern (71.43% success) (P < 0.05). The findings are interpreted in light of relevant theory and implications for practice are discussed.

  15. Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-19

      Lidar Altitude Data Read Routine This routine demonstrates reading the lidar altitude data stored in CALIPSO Lidar Level 1B Profile, Level 2 Aerosol ... Data Language (IDL) and uses HDF routine calls to read the altitude data which are stored in an HDF vdata (table) structure, as described ...

  16. Visualization of trace-element zoning in fluorapatite using BSE and CL imaging, and EPMA and μPIXE/μPIGE mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Munnik, Frans; Götze, Jens; Rhede, Dieter

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, zonation patterns of trace elements in fluorapatite are discussed that were visualized using four analytical techniques, namely back-scattered electrons (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and micro-proton-induced X-ray/gamma ray emission (μPIXE/μPIGE) mapping. Each method demonstrates the in-grain compositional variations in a slightly different way. Both BSE and CL provide qualitative data, and the internal textures are displayed in most detail. Additionally, CL points to specific elements enriched in certain growth zones. Qualitative EPMA maps show detailed zonation patterns for specific elements (with high spatial resolution), which are in general correspondence with the patterns observed in BSE and CL images. The μPIXE/μPIGE maps are fully quantitative and the detection limits are relatively low compared to EPMA mapping. In present spot measurements μPIXE demonstrates lower detection limits than EPMA, however, the latter could be considerably improved by extending the acquisition times. There is no significant overlap of REE (rare earth elements) peaks in the acquired μPIXE energy spectra, however, when multiple REEs are present with sufficiently high concentrations, peak deconvolution may pose some difficulties. Spatial resolution of μPIXE/μPIGE images is not sufficiently high to reflect minor textural features, which also result from the greater interaction depth of the proton beam. However, major growth zones are distinguishable. Even though each method has their advantages and limitations, when applied together, they provide an almost complete characterization of compositional variability in trace-element-bearing minerals.

  17. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  18. The Australian millipede Dicranogonus pix Jeekel, 1982 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae): a species with and without paranota

    PubMed Central

    Mesibov, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Dicranogonus pix Jeekel, 1982 occurs in Victoria and Tasmania, Australia, including the islands in eastern Bass Strait between the two States. There is only slight gonopod variation across this range, but Dicranogonus pix populations with and without paranota are separated in Bass Strait by the ca 50 km-wide gap between the Kent and Furneaux Groups of islands. PMID:25493065

  19. Quality-assurance data for routine water analysis in the National Water-Quality Laboratory of the US Geological Survey for water year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucey, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The US Geological Survey maintains a quality assurance program based on the analysis of reference samples for its National Water Quality Laboratory located in Denver, Colorado. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and precipitation (low-level concentration) constituents are prepared at the Survey 's Water Quality Services Unit in Ocala, Florida, disguised as routine samples, and sent daily or weekly, as appropriate, to the laboratory through other Survey offices. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System (WATSTORE), the Survey 's database for all water data. These data are analyzed statistically for precision and bias. An overall evaluation of the inorganic major ion and trace metal constituent data for water year 1988 indicated a lack of precision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for the determination of 8 out of 58 constituents: calcium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry), fluoride, iron (atomic absorption spectrometry), iron (total recoverable), magnesium (atomic absorption spectrometry), manganese (total recoverable), potassium, and sodium (inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry). The results for 31 constituents had positive or negative bias during water year 1988. A lack of precision was indicated in the determination of three of the six nutrient constituents: nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus. A biased condition was indicated in the determination of ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, ammonia plus organic nitrogen as nitrogen, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen as nitrogen. There was acceptable precision in the determination of all 10 constituents contained in precipitation samples. Results for ammonia nitrogen as nitrogen, sodium, and fluoride indicated a biased condition. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Salerno Exultet: its characterization by Raman and PIXE-α analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Nardone, Michele; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Lighea; Romano, Francesco P.; Russo, Pio A.; Sodo, Armida

    2001-10-01

    Two non-destructive techniques, Raman spectroscopy and particle induced x-ray emission spectrometry, were used for a compete connotation of the Salerno Exultet, an illuminated parchment dated back to 13th century. The Salerno Exultet exhibits several areas which have underdone restoration treatments during the years. The complete connotation of this masterpiece was necessary in order to identify and to distinguish the original and the added pigments. Owing to its dimensions, it has been impossible to analyze the Salerno Exultet directly under the microscope of our Micro- Raman spectrometer. We have therefore used optical fibers connected to a three axis micro-positioned measurement head mounted on a large metal frame. PIXE analysis was performed using the portable instrumentation set up by the INFN-LANDIS Laboratory, Catania, Italy. The combination of these two complementary techniques allowed us to reveal a palette formed by lapis-lazuli, cinnabar, verdigris, earths organic lakes and chalk.

  1. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  2. Study of medieval enamelling on gilded objects combining SEM-EDAX and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamón, J.; Gutierrez, P. C.; Barrio, J.; Climent-Font, A.; Arroyo, M.

    2010-05-01

    A set of fragments of metallic artefacts from the medieval period excavated from Ciudad Real in Spain has been studied. The objects are gilded copper buckles with a champlevé enamelling decoration. The composition of predominantly blue-coloured enamels has been analysed using three non-destructive techniques, SEM-EDAX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission). Analyses show that Co is responsible for the blue colour. The results of the two techniques are compared, as well as the main components which constitute the enamel. Analyses suggest that Cu is responsible for red colour.

  3. c-Cbl regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Min Woo; Park, Ji Ho; Yoo, Hee Min; Yang, Seung Wook; Oh, Kyu Hee; Ka, Seung Hyeun; Park, Dong Eun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chung, Chin Ha

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • c-Cbl ubiquitinates αPix for proteasome-mediated degradation. • C6 and A172 glioma cells lack c-Cbl, which leads to stabilization of αPix. • The accumulated αPix promotes migration and invasion of the cancer cells. • The lack of c-Cbl in the cells appears responsible for their malignant behavior. - Abstract: c-Cbl, a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, down-regulates receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGF receptor, and inhibits cell proliferation. Moreover, c-Cbl mutations are frequently found in patients with myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, c-Cbl is known as a tumor suppressor. αPix is expressed only in highly proliferative and mobile cells, including immune cells, and up-regulated in certain invasive tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we showed that c-Cbl serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase for proteasome-mediated degradation of αPix, but not βPix. Remarkably, the rat C6 and human A172 glioma cells were unable to express c-Cbl, which leads to a dramatic accumulation of αPix. Depletion of αPix by shRNA markedly reduced the ability of the glioma cells to migrate and invade, whereas complementation of shRNA-insensitive αPix promoted it. These results indicate that c-Cbl negatively regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion and the lack of c-Cbl in the C6 and A172 glioma cells is responsible for their malignant behavior.

  4. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  5. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1

  6. Constitutive episomal expression of polypeptide IX (pIX) in a 293-based cell line complements the deficiency of pIX mutant adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Caravokyri, C; Leppard, K N

    1995-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 5 capsid is composed of a number of distinct polypeptides. It has been shown previously that one of these, polypeptide IX (pIX), is not absolutely required for the production of viable virus. However, viruses lacking this polypeptide have a significantly reduced packaging limit and, in the one case studied, also show a thermolabile virion phenotype. This report describes the use of eukaryotic episomal vectors based on the Epstein-Barr virus replicon to generate cells which stably express pIX. These cells provide pIX that is efficiently incorporated into virions that are genetically pIX-; such enhanced thermostability. These cells have also been used to isolate a genetically pIX- virus having a genome of length some 2.3 kbp in excess of the previously defined packaging limit for pIX- virus; the resulting virions have wild-type thermostability. These cells expand the theoretical capacity of adenovirus vectors for foreign DNA to around 9.2 kbp and may therefore be useful in gene therapy applications in which vector capacity is limiting. PMID:7474071

  7. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  8. Revascularisation of patients with end-stage renal disease on chronic haemodialysis: bypass surgery versus PCI—analysis of routine statutory health insurance data

    PubMed Central

    Möckel, Martin; Searle, Julia; Baberg, Henning Thomas; Dirschedl, Peter; Levenson, Benny; Malzahn, Jürgen; Mansky, Thomas; Günster, Christian; Jeschke, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to analyse the short-term and long-term outcome of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing percutaneous intervention (PCI) as compared to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to evaluate the optimal coronary revascularisation strategy. Design Retrospective analysis of routine statutory health insurance data between 2010 and 2012. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was adjusted all-cause mortality after 30 days and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were repeat revascularisation at 30 days and 1 year and bleeding events within 7 days. Results The total number of cases was n=4123 (PCI; n=3417), median age was 71 (IQR 62–77), 30.4% were women. The adjusted OR for death within 30 days was 0.59 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.81) for patients undergoing PCI versus CABG. At 1 year, the adjusted OR for major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was 1.58 (1.32 to 1.89) for PCI versus CABG and 1.47 (1.23 to 1.75) for all-cause death. In the subgroup of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), adjusted all-cause mortality at 30 days did not differ significantly between both groups (OR 0.75 (0.47 to 1.20)), whereas in patients without AMI the OR for 30-day mortality was 0.44 (0.28 to 0.68) for PCI versus CABG. At 1 year, the adjusted OR for MACCE in patients with AMI was 1.40 (1.06 to 1.85) for PCI versus CABG and 1.47 (1.08 to 1.99) for mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of unselected patients with ESRD undergoing revascularisation, the 1-year outcome was better for CABG in patients with and without AMI. The 30-day mortality was higher in non-AMI patients with CABG reflecting an early hazard with surgery. In cases where the patient's characteristics and risk profile make it difficult to decide on a revascularisation strategy, CABG could be the preferred option. PMID:27752331

  9. Examining the role of Scotland's telephone advice service (NHS 24) for managing health in the community: analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Alison M; McAteer, Anne; Heaney, David; Ritchie, Lewis D; Hannaford, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems Scotland's nurse-led telephone advice service (NHS 24) is contacted about and explore whether these vary by time of contact and patient characteristics. Design Analysis of routinely collected NHS 24 data. Setting Scotland, UK. Participants Users of NHS 24 during 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion of the type, duration and outcome of the symptoms and health problems NHS 24 is contacted about. Results 82.6% of the calls were made out-of-hours and 17.4% in-hours. Abdominal problems accounted for the largest proportion of calls (12.2%) followed by dental (6.8%) and rash/skin problems (6.0%). There were differences in the type of problems presented in-hours and out-of-hours. Most problems (62.9%) had lasted <24 h before people contacted NHS 24. Out-of-hours calls tended to be for problems of shorter duration. Problems reported out-of-hours most commonly resulted in advice to visit an out-of-hours centre and in-hours advice to contact a general practitioner. Most of the service users were female and from more affluent areas. Use of the service declined with age in those over 35 years. The characteristics of users varied according to when NHS 24 was contacted. The number of calls made by an individual in the year ranged from 1 to 866, although most users (69.2%) made only one call. The type of problem presented varied by age and deprivation, but was broadly similar by gender, rural/urban status and geographic area. Call outcomes also varied by user characteristics. Conclusions This is the first study to examine how the public uses NHS 24. It has identified the patterns of problems which the service must be equipped to deal with. It has also provided important information about who uses the service and when. This information will help future planning and development of the service. PMID:26310396

  10. Comparative estimated effectiveness of antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of respiratory tract infections: longitudinal analysis of routine data from UK primary care 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Berni, Ellen; Butler, Chris C; Jenkins-Jones, Sara; de Voogd, Hanka; Ouwens, Mario; Morgan, Christopher Ll; Currie, Craig J

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To compare the estimated effectiveness of seven frequently prescribed antibiotic classes as initial and secondary treatments of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) 1991-2012. The main outcome measure was a surrogate for estimated antibiotic effectiveness. Methods Routine, primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used. Having established standardized criteria representing antibiotic treatment failure, estimated treatment effectiveness rates were calculated as one minus the treatment failure rate. For each year from 1991 to 2012, estimated effectiveness rates by treatment line, indication, and sub-indication were calculated. These were presented by antibiotic class, with a sub-analysis for the macrolide clarithromycin. Findings From approximately 58 million antibiotic prescriptions in CPRD, we analyzed 8,654,734 courses of antibiotic monotherapy: 4,825,422 courses (56%) were associated with URTI; 3,829,312 (44%) were associated with LRTI. Amino-penicillins (4,148,729 [56%]), penicillins (1,304,561 [18%]), and macrolides (944,622 [13%]) predominated as initial treatments; macrolides (375,903 [32%]), aminopenicillins (275,866 [23%]), and cephalosporins (159,954 [14%]) as secondary treatments. Macrolides and aminopenicillins had estimated effectiveness rates ≥80% across the study period as initial treatments of URTI and LRTI. In secondary use, only macrolides maintained these rates: 80.7% vs. 79.8% in LRTI, 85.1% vs. 84.5% in throat infections, 80.7% vs. 82.3% in nasal infections, 83.5% vs. 83.8% in unspecified URTI in 1991 and 2012, respectively. Implications After more than two decades, macrolides remained amongst the most effective antibiotic classes for both URTI and LRTI in initial and secondary antibiotic treatment when a further antibiotic course was prescribed. Limitations Antibiotic treatments were classified as intention to treat. It is unknown whether the

  11. THE MAGNESIUM ISOTOPOLOGUES OF MgH IN THE A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Wallace, Lloyd; Ram, Ram S.; Bernath, Peter F.; Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara E-mail: wallace@noao.edu E-mail: pbernath@odu.edu E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it

    2013-08-15

    Using laboratory hollow cathode spectra we have identified lines of the less common magnesium isotopologues of MgH, {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH, in the A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system. Based on the previous analysis of {sup 24}MgH, molecular lines have been measured and molecular constants derived for {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH. Term values and linelists, in both wavenumber and wavelength units, are presented. The A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system of MgH is important for measuring the magnesium isotope ratios in stars. Examples of analysis using the new linelists to derive the Mg isotope ratio in a metal poor dwarf and giant are shown.

  12. Development of PIXE, PESA and Transmission Ion Microscopy Capability to Measure Aerosols by Size and Time

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, Shuttha ); Thevuthasan, Theva ); Disselkamp, Robert S. ); Stroud, Ashley M.; Cavanagh, Andrew S.; Adams, Evan M.; Baer, Donald R. ); Barrie, Leonard A. ); Cliff, Steven S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M; Cahill, Thomas A.

    2002-01-01

    The elemental analysis of aerosol composition with high time and spatial resolution is crucial in the studies related to environmental issues such as human health, urban smog formation, regional visibility, and climate change. The effects of atmospheric aerosols are closely related to their size distribution, which plays a major role in understanding transport and removal processes and in pinpointing possible aerosol sources. Hence, there is a need for simultaneous measurements of compositions and particle size distribution of aerosols. We have developed a capability that consists of a combination of PIXE, PESA and STIM (same location on the sample) at the accelerator facility in Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) to address some of the needs associated with time series and size distribution. Simultaneous measurements of PIXE and PESA can be performed on aerosols collected using 3 stage improved rotating drum impactor by size (3 modes, 2.5 to 0.07 um) and time (2 mm rotation for every 8 hours) on a 20 cm long Teflon strips with a time resolution of 2 hours (using 500 micron size proton beam). Two Teflon strips can be mounted on the manipulator at the same time without breaking the vacuum through a load-lock. Movable and fixed surface barrier detectors are used for PESA and STIM measurements respectively. Preliminary measurements were carried out using the aerosol samples collected at the 62nd floor of Williams Tower in Houston, Texas. These aerosol samples were also analyzed by synchrotron x-ray microprobe (S-XRF) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the comparison of XRF and ion beam results along with the details of the capability will be discussed.

  13. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  14. GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes, located at the centrosome, is an essential step in the formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate microtubule nucleation in interphase cells are largely unknown. In this study, we report that γ-tubulin is in complexes containing G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1), p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (βPIX), and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in various cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed association of GIT1, βPIX and activated PAK1 with centrosomes. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that depletion of βPIX stimulated microtubule nucleation, while depletion of GIT1 or PAK1 resulted in decreased nucleation in the interphase cells. These data were confirmed for GIT1 and βPIX by phenotypic rescue experiments, and counting of new microtubules emanating from centrosomes during the microtubule regrowth. The importance of PAK1 for microtubule nucleation was corroborated by the inhibition of its kinase activity with IPA-3 inhibitor. GIT1 with PAK1 thus represent positive regulators, and βPIX is a negative regulator of microtubule nucleation from the interphase centrosomes. The regulatory roles of GIT1, βPIX and PAK1 in microtubule nucleation correlated with recruitment of γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Furthermore, in vitro kinase assays showed that GIT1 and βPIX, but not γ-tubulin, serve as substrates for PAK1. Finally, direct interaction of γ-tubulin with the C-terminal domain of βPIX and the N-terminal domain of GIT1, which targets this protein to the centrosome, was determined by pull-down experiments. We propose that GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins with PAK1 kinase represent a novel regulatory mechanism of microtubule nucleation in interphase cells.

  15. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio

    2015-02-01

    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa.

  16. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kortüm, Fanny; Harms, Frederike Leonie; Hennighausen, Natascha; Rosenberger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow. PMID:26177020

  17. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    PubMed

    Kortüm, Fanny; Harms, Frederike Leonie; Hennighausen, Natascha; Rosenberger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow.

  18. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  19. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  20. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Khademi Nadooshan, F.

    2012-10-01

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  1. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  2. Effects of time and movements of the preshot routine on free throw shooting.

    PubMed

    Mack, M G

    2001-10-01

    This study examined the effects of length and movements of preshot routines on free throw shooting in basketball. 17 members of an intercollegiate men's basketball team attempted 20 free throws in each of four different conditions: (1) normal routine and time, (2) normal routine with altered time, (3) altered routine with normal time, and (4) altered routine with altered time. Free throw performance was measured using an objective 5-point scoring system. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant effect for routine. Neither time nor routine by time was significant. Results indicated that altering the movements in the routine had a significant effect on performance while lengthening the time did not.

  3. Laboratory diagnosis of paediatric tuberculosis in the European Union/European Economic Area: analysis of routine laboratory data, 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Sanchini, A; Fiebig, L; Drobniewski, F; Haas, W; Richter, E; Katalinic-Jankovic, V; Pimkina, E; Skenders, G; Cirillo, D M; Balabanova, Y

    2014-03-20

    Laboratory confirmation of paediatric tuberculosis (TB) is frequently lacking. We reviewed the range of routine laboratory tests and their performance in different biological samples used to diagnose active TB in children. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among the European Reference Laboratory Network for TB followed by collection of routine laboratory data on 10,549 paediatric samples tested in 2007 to 2011 at six reference laboratories (in Croatia, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania and the United Kingdom (UK)). The questionnaire showed that all laboratories used rapid assays. Non-respiratory samples were collected more often in Germany (135/275, 49.1%) and the UK (490/2,140, 22.9%) compared with Croatia (138/2,792, 4.9%), Latvia (222/2,401, 9.2%) and Lithuania (76/1,549, 4.9%). Overall laboratory positivity rates (isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and/or identification of its nucleic acids in a sample) were higher in lymph node and gastric aspirate samples (14/203 (6.9%) and 43/1,231 (3.5%)) than in sputum samples (89/4,684 (1.9%)). Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of molecular assays assessed against solid or liquid culture were 79.2%, 93.6%, 67.1%, 96.5% and 91.6%, respectively. A more intensive approach in obtaining gastric aspirate and non-respiratory samples may increase laboratory confirmation of paediatric TB. Major effort is needed in optimisation and validation of molecular tests in these samples.

  4. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John L.; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-01

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  5. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardes, S.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Santos, I. D. A. O.; Oliveira, A. F.; Shie, J. N.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Oliveira, T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients' chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  6. PIXE analysis of preconcentrated body fluids, especially urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakarinen, Pirjo; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Pallon, Jan

    1990-04-01

    A cation exchange resin, Chelex 100, has been used to separate and preconcentrate trace metal ions in urine. A good recovery of several metal ions in doped urine is achieved. The validity of the procedure has been checked by analyzing a certified control urine for metals, Lanonorm. The method is also applicable for amniotic fluid samples.

  7. On background subtraction in PIXE analysis of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S. M.; Eldred, R. A.; Feeney, P. J.; Cahill, T. A.

    1987-03-01

    The technique of background evaluation by using the spectrum of a blank substrate can, in principle, only be applied to spectra of lightly loaded aerosol samples with substrates having the same thickness as the blank. In this paper we present and discuss experimental results to show the effects of thickness difference between the blank and the sample substrate on such background evaluation. Computational procedures for making corrections for these effects as well as for the effects of thick sample mass are suggested.

  8. How to Handle 'Routine' Inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Chris T. Brown

    2013-04-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) utilized for preservice or inservice inspection provides valuable information relating to the quality and integrity of fabricated components. This document describes the importance of detailed preparation for nondestructive examination regardless of the complexity, periodicity or routine nature of the examinations/inspections being performed.

  9. A PIXE mini-beam setup at the bonn cyclotron for archeometric metal analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J.; Beier, Th.; Diehl, U.; Lambrecht, D.; Mommsen, H.; Pantenburg, F. J.

    1990-04-01

    The exact analysis of the elemental composition at and around a soldering joint of an antique piece of jewelry can elucidate the joining technologies and give hints of the genuineness of the object. As analytical method we use PIXE, which is nondestructive, multielemental and with fundamental parameter calculations gives absolute concentration values. To obtain the necessary spot size of the H 2+ beam at the Bonn cyclotron we use a piezo-controlled diaphragm, whose demagnified image is focussed on the target by two magnetic quadrupole triplets. With an electrostatic deflector the beam spot of 0.1 × 0.3 mm 2 size can be moved 2 mm in each direction on the target. With a laser beam, which simulates the ion beam, an irregularly shaped archeological object can be positioned. The laser is also used to obtain the alignment of the target surface to the ion beam direction and the small beam size makes it easier to find a flat part on the surface of the object; both of these are important preconditions for using the fundamental parameter method. A scan over a joint of modern gold alloys demonstrates the ability to detect soldering joints. The analysis of four pieces of Roman gold jewelry found in the area of Cologne and Bonn shows examples of brazing with a solder as well as diffusion soldering.

  10. Ultrastructural characterization of soft tissues surrounding implanted hip prosthesis by complementary PIXE and TEM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallot, E.; Benhayoune, H.; Kilian, L.; Balossier, G.; Bonhomme, P.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    We study soft tissues surrounding hip prostheses from three different patients. We evaluate the elemental composition of different fragments. The tissues are examined by means of two complementary methods in such analysis: Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled with X-ray microanalysis (Energy Dispersive X-ray, EDX). These methods allow to determine locally at `macro' and `micro' level the chemistry of soft tissues. The findings confirmed the presence of metal in soft tissue near the three different hips. The tissues' composition undergoes important modifications with a systematic elevation of trace metal in patients with failed implants. We observe a corrosion which causes the continual release of particles into the tissues. Corrosion alters the shape size and chemical composition of wear particles embedded in soft tissue around the failed hip. EDX analysis showed that the wear particles contained varying quantities of titanium and aluminium. This phenomenon may be related with the variation of time of contact with soft tissues for each particle and Ti solubility.

  11. Trace elements in human alveolar macrophages studied by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Roelandts, I.; Corhay, J. L.; Radermecker, M.; Delavignette, J. P.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the metal content of alveolar macrophages by PIXE from 94 subjects divided into two groups as follows: group (1) — subjects with non-occupational exposure to industrial dust: 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 16 patients suffering from lung cancer; group (2) — 48 healthy steel workers from the Liège area (blast-furnace [ n=29] and coke oven [ n=19]). We hope to define more precisely the influence of carcinoma, smoking habit, pathology and occupational exposure in the steel industry on the macrophage metal content. This study has shown: (a) an Fe and Sr increase and a Br decrease in the macrophages of smokers (especially in heavy smokers): (b) a significant Fe, Ti, Br and Cu increase and a trend to Pb, Cr, As and Sr increase in macrophages of healthy steel workers (especially blast-furnace workers) in comparison with non-exposed controls; (c) a significant Fe, Br, Cu and Zn increase and a trend to Pb, As and Ni increase in macrophages of non-exposed patients with lung cancer by comparison with non-exposed controls. The mechanism of metal change could be explained by professional exposure and endogenous changes (protein synthesis, inflammation, bronchial bleeding, …)

  12. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  13. VeloPix ASIC development for LHCb VELO upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beuzekom, M.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Collins, P.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Wyllie, K.; Zivkovic, V.

    2013-12-01

    The upgrade of the LHCb experiment, planned for 2018, will transform the readout of the entire experiment to a triggerless system operating at 40 MHz. All data reduction algorithms will be run in a high level software farm, and will have access to event information from all subdetectors. This approach will give great power and flexibility in accessing the physics channels of interest in the future, in particular the identification of flavour tagged events with displaced vertices. The data acquisition and front end electronics systems require significant modification to cope with the enormous throughput of data. For the silicon vertex locator (VELO) a dedicated development is underway for a new ASIC, VeloPix, which will be a derivative of the Timepix/Medipix family of chips. The chip will be radiation hard and be able to cope with pixel hit rates of above 500 MHz, highly non-uniformly distributed over the 2 cm2 chip area. The chip will incorporate local intelligence in the pixels for time-over-threshold measurements, time-stamping and sparse readout. It must in addition be low power, radiation hard, and immune to single event upsets. In order to cope with the datarates and use the pixel area most effectively, an on-chip data compression scheme will integrated. This paper will describe the requirements of the LHCb VELO upgrade, and give an overview of the digital architecture being developed specifically for the readout chip.

  14. PAK–PIX interactions regulate adhesion dynamics and membrane protrusion to control neurite outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Medina, Miguel; Gregus, Kelly A.; Gomez, Timothy M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The roles of P21-activated kinase (PAK) in the regulation of axon outgrowth downstream of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are poorly understood. Here we show that PAK1–3 and PIX are expressed in the developing spinal cord and differentially localize to point contacts and filopodial tips within motile growth cones. Using a specific interfering peptide called PAK18, we found that axon outgrowth is robustly stimulated on laminin by partial inhibition of PAK–PIX interactions and PAK function, whereas complete inhibition of PAK function stalls axon outgrowth. Furthermore, modest inhibition of PAK–PIX stimulates the assembly and turnover of growth cone point contacts, whereas strong inhibition over-stabilizes adhesions. Point mutations within PAK confirm the importance of PIX binding. Together our data suggest that regulation of PAK–PIX interactions in growth cones controls neurite outgrowth by influencing the activity of several important mediators of actin filament polymerization and retrograde flow, as well as integrin-dependent adhesion to laminin. PMID:23321640

  15. A betaPix Pak2a signaling pathway regulates cerebral vascular stability in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Fraser, Sherri D; Faloon, Patrick W; Rollins, Evvi Lynn; Vom Berg, Johannes; Starovic-Subota, Olivera; Laliberte, Angie L; Chen, Jau-Nian; Serluca, Fabrizio C; Childs, Sarah J

    2007-08-28

    The vasculature tailors to the needs of different tissues and organs. Molecular, structural, and functional specializations are observed in different vascular beds, but few genetic models give insight into how these differences arise. We identify a unique cerebrovascular mutation in the zebrafish affecting the integrity of blood vessels supplying the brain. The zebrafish bubblehead (bbh) mutant exhibits hydrocephalus and severe cranial hemorrhage during early embryogenesis, whereas blood vessels in other regions of the embryo appear intact. Here we show that hemorrhages are associated with poor cerebral endothelial-mesenchymal contacts and an immature vascular pattern in the head. Positional cloning of bbh reveals a hypomorphic mutation in betaPix, a binding partner for the p21-activated kinase (Pak) and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Cdc42. betaPix is broadly expressed during embryonic development and is enriched in the brain and in large blood vessels. By knockdown of specific betaPix splice variants, we show that they play unique roles in embryonic vascular stabilization or hydrocephalus. Finally, we show that Pak2a signaling is downstream of betaPix. These data identify an essential in vivo role for betaPix and Pak2a during embryonic development and illuminate a previously unrecognized pathway specifically involved in cerebrovascular stabilization. PMID:17573532

  16. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2014.

    PubMed

    Subaiya, Saleena; Dumolard, Laure; Lydon, Patrick; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Conklin, Laura

    2015-11-13

    The year 2014 marked the 40th anniversary of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization, which was established to ensure equitable access to routine immunization services (1). Since 1974, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette- Guérin vaccine [BCG; for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥85%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the 3rd dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is an indicator of immunization program performance because it reflects completion of the basic infant immunization schedule; coverage with other vaccines, including the 3rd dose of poliovirus vaccine (polio3); the 1st dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) is also assessed. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 84%–86% since 2009, with estimated 2014 coverage at 86%. Estimated global coverage for the 2nd routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) was 38% by age 24 months and 56% when older age groups were included, similar to levels reported in 2013 (36% and 55%, respectively). To reach and sustain high immunization coverage in all countries, adequate vaccine stock management and additional opportunities for immunization, such as through routine visits in the second year of life, are integral components to strengthening immunization programs and reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine preventable diseases. PMID:26562454

  17. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Tabraze; Leung, Edmund; McArdle, Kirsten; Pathak, Rajiv; Dalmia, Sanjay

    2010-10-01

    Splenic rupture is a life-threatening condition characterized by internal hemorrhage, often difficult to diagnose. Colonoscopy is a gold standard routine diagnostic test to investigate patients with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as to those on the screening program for colorectal cancer. Splenic injury is seldomly discussed during consent for colonoscopy, as opposed to colonic perforation, as its prevalence accounts for less than 0.1%. A 66-year-old Caucasian woman with no history of collagen disorder was electively admitted for routine colonoscopy for surveillance of adenoma. She was admitted following the procedure for re-dosing of warfarin, which was stopped prior to the colonoscopy. The patient was found collapsed on the ward the following day with clinical shock and anemia. Computed tomography demonstrated grade 4 splenic rupture. Immediate blood transfusion and splenectomy was required. Splenic rupture following routine colonoscopy is extremely rare. Awareness of it on this occasion saved the patient's life. Despite it being a rare association, the seriousness warrants inclusion in all information leaflets concerning colonoscopy and during its consent.

  18. Investigation of elemental distribution in human femoral head by PIXE and SRXRF microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. X.; Wang, Y. S.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhang, G. L.; Huang, Y. Y.; He, W.

    2007-07-01

    In order to study the distribution and possible degenerative processes inducing the loss of inorganic substances in bone and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method is used for the determination of elemental concentrations in femoral heads from five autopsies and seven patients with femoral neck fractures. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) microprobe analysis technique is used to scan a slice of the femoral head from its periphery to its center, via cartilage, compact and spongy zones. The specimen preparation and experiment procedure are described in detail. The results show that the concentrations of P, Ca, Fe, Cu, Sr in the control group are higher than those in the patient group, but the concentrations of S, K, Zn, Mn are not significantly different. The quantitative results of elemental distribution, such as Ca, P, K, Fe, Zn, Sr and Pb in bone slice tissue including cartilage, substantial compact and substantial spongy, are investigated. The data obtained show that the concentrations of Ca, P, K, (the major elements of bone composition), are obviously low in both spongy and cartilage zones in the patient group, but there are no remarkable differences in the compact zone. Combined with the correlations between P, K, Zn, Sr and Ca, the loss mechanism of minerals and the physiological functions of some metal elements in bone are also discussed.

  19. Micro-PIXE and SAXS studies at the bone-cartilage interface.

    PubMed

    Kaabar, W; Gundogdu, O; Laklouk, A; Bunk, O; Pfeiffer, F; Farquharson, M J; Bradley, D A

    2010-01-01

    Micro Proton Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis has been employed herein in investigating and quantifying the distribution of a number of essential elements in thin human diseased articular cartilage sections affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Various cations Ca, P and Zn have been reported to play an important role both in the normal growth and remodelling of articular cartilage and subchondral bone as well as in the degenerative and inflammatory processes associated with the disease; they act as co-factors of a class of enzymes known as metalloproteinases which are believed to be active during the initiation, progress and remodelling processes associated with osteoarthritis. Other important enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase are associated with cartilage mineralization. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) for mapping of elemental distributions in bone and cartilage has also been employed by the present group and others. In the current investigations using the cSAXS beamline at the Swiss light source, Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) was carried out on decalcified human articular cartilage to explore the structural and organizational changes of collagen networks in diseased articular cartilage.

  20. Investigation of trace elements in cancer kidney tissues by SRIXE and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Drewniak, T.; Lekka, M.; Wajdowicz, A.

    1996-04-01

    In November 1994 we performed some preliminary studies on cancer kidney tissues. The objective of the measurements was to find a difference in trace element concentrations between normal and cancerous kidney tissue. All targets were prepared as pellets of more or less the same weight and thickness. Kidney samples were obtained during surgical operations done in the Clinic of Urology in Cracow. All kidneys were subject to removal due to cancer disease. Samples for analysis were taken from the cancerous part of the kidney and the non-cancerous one. All samples were analyzed by means of SRIXE (Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission) at the NSLS (National Synchrotron Light Source) in BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) and by means of PIXE at INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics) in Cracow. According to the physician's investigations, cadmium plays a role in oxidation process during tumor growth. Also the other elements i.e. selenium plays here a significant role. The results obtained so far seem to be interesting and may confirm our hypothesis about the cancer process in the kidney, the hypothesis will be a subject of further study. The applied analytical technique enables us to analyze with high precision even a small region of samples.

  1. Manganese accumulation in the leaf mesophyll of four tree species: a PIXE/EDAX localization study.

    PubMed

    Fernando, D R; Bakkaus, E J; Perrier, N; Baker, A J M; Woodrow, I E; Batianoff, G N; Collins, R N

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the spatial distribution of excess manganese (Mn) in the leaves of tolerant plants. Recently, the first such study of a Mn hyperaccumulator showed that the highest localized Mn concentrations occur in the photosynthetic tissue. This is in contrast to reports based on localization of foliar accumulation of other heavy metals. Here, four tree species, Gossia bidwillii, Virotia neurophylla, Macadamia integrifolia and Macadamia tetraphylla, which hyperaccumulate or strongly accumulate Mn, were studied. Cross-sectional foliar Mn localization was carried out in situ using proton-induced X-ray emission/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (PIXE/EDAX). All four species contained photosynthetic tissues with multiple palisade layers. These were shown to be the primary sequestration sites for Mn. Mn was not detected in the epidermal tissues. The findings of this study demonstrate a concurrence of three traits in four tree species, that is, accumulation of excess Mn in the leaves, its primary sequestration in the photosynthetic tissues, and multiple-layer palisade mesophyll.

  2. Comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of isolated nuclei and routine histological sections from paraffin-embedded prostatic adenocarcinoma specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, J.; Bostwick, D. G.; Takahashi, S.; Borell, T. J.; Brown, J. A.; Lieber, M. M.; Jenkins, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of chromosomes and genes and can be applied in a variety of specimens, including cell cultures, isolated nuclei from fresh and fixed tissues, and histological tissue sections. However, the results of FISH analysis of isolated nuclei in prostate cancer have not been previously compared with those from histological sections from the paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. To compare these methods, we studied isolated nuclei derived from 50-microns sections and adjacent 5-microns tissue sections from 10 cases of benign nodular hyperplasia of the prostate and 16 cases of prostatic carcinoma. FISH analysis employed centromere-specific probes for chromosomes 7, 8, 11, and 12. In benign tissue, the percentage of nuclei with three or more signals for chromosomes 7, 8, 11, and 12 was less than 3% for both isolated nuclei and tissue sections. However, the percentage of nuclei with no and one signals was less than 8% for isolated nuclei and more than 24% for tissue sections. In prostatic carcinoma, numeric chromosomal anomalies were found in 75% of cases by both FISH methods. However, isolated nuclei had more chromosomal tetrasomy than tissue sections (mean, 9.2 to 11.0% versus 5.1 to 5.6%, respectively). Conversely, intratumor heterogeneity of chromosomal anomalies was identified in 5 cases by FISH analysis of tissue sections but not in isolated nuclei. Cancer ploidy analysis by FISH correlated well with ploidy analysis by flow cytometry, although FISH was more sensitive for aneuploidy. We conclude that FISH analysis of isolated nuclei and histological tissue sections from paraffin blocks are reliable methods for detection of chromosomal anomalies in archival tissue of prostate cancer, although each method has advantages and disadvantages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8863668

  3. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  4. Recent applications of PIXE spectrometry in archaeology II. Characterization of Chinese pottery exported to the Islamic world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1992-02-01

    The early 9th century A.D. trade links between China's Tang dynasty and the Western world, by land along the caravan routes of the Silk Road and by sea via India and the Gulf, encouraged a taste for many kinds of Chinese ceramics among the affluent societies of the Islamic empire. Using PIXE analysis to determine the primary composition and minor element patterns of the clay fabrics of a wide range of pottery recovered from the Islamic city of Siraf (in southern Iran), we have established clear differences between Chinese wares imported to that region and a variety of imitative wares of local origin. Parallels and contrasts are drawn between our data and those obtained by Chinese scholars in recent years for the products of various Tang kiln sites, particularly for a series of distinctive stonewares from Tongguan (Hunan province).

  5. A microPIXE investigation of the interaction of cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe with the culture medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, P. M. M.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Cuenca, L.; Rodriguez, R.; Browton, M.; Wardell, N.; Underwood, B.; Kirkby, N. F.; Kirkby, K. J.

    2007-07-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe ( S. pombe) is a eucaryotic cell type similar to mammalian cells but much more simple. As it also executes its cell cycle rapidly it is very useful for investigating basic processes in cells. In this paper we report a feasibility study of the applicability of microPIXE to investigate the interaction between S. pombe cells and the surrounding culture medium. Cells were cultured in various growth medium prior to preparation for analysis. 1 μl drops of medium and cells were spotted onto polypropylene foils held in contact with a polished copper block previously cooled in liquid nitrogen. The samples were dehydrated by freeze-drying. Micro PIXE analysis was carried out with the IBC microbeam facility using a beam of 2.5 MeV protons focused to 1-2 μm diameter. Initially no elemental contrast was observed between the cells and the medium, but by modifying the dilution of the cell suspension, the cells could be distinguished from the surrounding medium through an increased concentration of P and reduced concentration of Cl. The distribution of Na in the medium around the cells showed evidence of the action of the Na pump. Sporulation appears to be induced in the cells by adding Cu to the growth medium and the uptake of Cu by the cells could be clearly observed. This study shows that it is possible to analyse the mass transport of elements in and out of cells In the future this will enable concentration gradients to be analysed and allow the rate of production or consumption of individual cells to be calculated. By observing these patterns for individual cells (not populations) at various known points in the cell cycle, fundamental data can be derived.

  6. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events. PMID:27451215

  7. A case study to determine the geographical origin of unknown GM papaya in routine food sample analysis, followed by identification of papaya events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4.

    PubMed

    Prins, Theo W; Scholtens, Ingrid M J; Bak, Arno W; van Dijk, Jeroen P; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Laurensse, Emile J; Kok, Esther J

    2016-12-15

    During routine monitoring for GMOs in food in the Netherlands, papaya-containing food supplements were found positive for the genetically modified (GM) elements P-35S and T-nos. The goal of this study was to identify the unknown and EU unauthorised GM papaya event(s). A screening strategy was applied using additional GM screening elements including a newly developed PRSV coat protein PCR. The detected PRSV coat protein PCR product was sequenced and the nucleotide sequence showed identity to PRSV YK strains indigenous to China and Taiwan. The GM events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 could be identified by amplifying and sequencing events-specific sequences. Further analyses showed that both papaya event 16-0-1 and event 18-2-4 were transformed with the same construct. For use in routine analysis, derived TaqMan qPCR methods for events 16-0-1 and 18-2-4 were developed. Event 16-0-1 was detected in all samples tested whereas event 18-2-4 was detected in one sample. This study presents a strategy for combining information from different sources (literature, patent databases) and novel sequence data to identify unknown GM papaya events.

  8. Global routine vaccination coverage, 2013.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jennifer B; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Eggers, Rudolf; Brown, David W; Sodha, Samir V

    2014-11-21

    In 1974, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Expanded Program on Immunization to ensure that all children have access to routinely recommended vaccines. Since then, global coverage with the four core vaccines (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine [for protection against tuberculosis], diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine [DTP], polio vaccine, and measles vaccine) has increased from <5% to ≥84%, and additional vaccines have been added to the recommended schedule. Coverage with the third dose of DTP vaccine (DTP3) by age 12 months is a key indicator of immunization program performance. Estimated global DTP3 coverage has remained at 83%-84% since 2009, with estimated 2013 coverage at 84%. Global coverage estimates for the second routine dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV2) are reported for the first time in 2013; global coverage was 35% by the end of the second year of life and 53% when including older age groups. Improvements in equity of access and use of immunization services will help ensure that all children are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25412062

  9. External-beam PIXE spectrometry for the study of Punic jewellery (SW Spain): The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Respaldiza, M. Á.; Luisa de la Bandera, M.; Ovejero Zappino, G.; Bouzas, A.; Gómez-Morón, A.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents the study of a set of Punic gold items (400 B.C.), from the Museum of Cádiz (Spain). An external beam set-up has been employed for the absolutely non-destructive analysis of the objects. PIXE spectrometry has been performed in order to characterize the metallic alloys and the manufacturing techniques. Compositional differences have been found and soldering procedures have been identified. By comparison with the rings and other coetaneous jewellery, the presence of palladium in the bulk alloy of the earrings can be pointed out. The geographical provenance of the palladium-bearing gold is discussed based on geological and archaeological considerations.

  10. Routine detection of hyperketonemia in dairy cows using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of β-hydroxybutyrate and acetone in milk in combination with test-day information.

    PubMed

    van der Drift, S G A; Jorritsma, R; Schonewille, J T; Knijn, H M; Stegeman, J A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the quality of a diagnostic model for the detection of hyperketonemia in early lactation dairy cows at test days. This diagnostic model comprised acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in milk, as determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, in addition to other available test-day information. Plasma BHBA concentration was determined at a regular test day in 1,678 cows between 5 and 60 d in milk, originating from 118 randomly selected farms in the Netherlands. The observed prevalence of hyperketonemia (defined as plasma BHBA ≥1,200 µmol/L) was 11.2%. The value of FTIR predictions of milk acetone and milk BHBA concentrations as single tests for hyperketonemia were found limited, given the relatively large number of false positive test-day results. Therefore, a multivariate logistic regression model with a random herd effect was constructed, using parity, season, milk fat-to-protein ratio, and FTIR predictions of milk acetone and milk BHBA as predictive variables. This diagnostic model had 82.4% sensitivity and 83.8% specificity at the optimal cutoff value (defined as maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity) for the detection of hyperketonemia at test days. Increasing the cutoff value of the model to obtain a specificity of 95% increased the predicted value of a positive test result to 56.5%. Confirmation of test-positive samples with wet chemistry analysis of milk acetone or milk BHBA concentrations (serial testing) improved the diagnostic performance of the test procedure. The presented model was considered not suitable for individual detection of cows with ketosis due to the length of the test-day interval and the low positive predictive values of the investigated test procedures. The diagnostic model is, in our opinion, valuable for herd-level monitoring of hyperketonemia, especially when the model is combined with wet chemistry analysis of milk acetone or milk BHBA concentrations. By

  11. User's Manual: Routines for Radiative Heat Transfer and Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the intensity and spectral distribution of radiation emanating from a heated surface has applications in many areas of science and engineering. Areas of research in which the quantification of spectral radiation is used routinely include thermal radiation heat transfer, infrared signature analysis, and radiation thermometry. In the analysis of radiation, it is helpful to be able to predict the radiative intensity and the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. Presented in this report is a set of routines written in Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) and incorporating functions specific to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington) that are useful for predicting the radiative behavior of heated surfaces. These routines include functions for calculating quantities of primary importance to engineers and scientists. In addition, the routines also provide the capability to use such information to determine surface temperatures from spectral intensities and for calculating the sensitivity of the surface temperature measurements to unknowns in the input parameters.

  12. μPIXE for a μBrain: The vinegar fly's brain, antenna, sensilla hairs and eye ion concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, Anja; Barapatre, Nirav; Sachse, Silke; Reinert, Tilo

    2011-10-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster is used as model organism to study a variety of different scientific purposes. Thus, our laboratory studies the olfactory system by neurobiological experiments. These techniques are often disruptive and need to compensate or exchange the body fluid, the lymph, with an artificial Ringer's solution in defined compartments of the fly. The solution mainly contains Na, Cl, K and Ca and is to keep physiological conditions. Therefore, the knowledge about the ion concentrations in the respective Drosophila lymph is required for a correct mixture of the ions. This paper presents the spatially resolved concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in lyophilised head cryosections of Drosophila by using quantitative μPIXE at the ion beam facility LIPSION in Leipzig. The PIXE maps enable a detailed analysis of particular regions of interest down to a spatial resolution of 0.5 μm. We quantified the ion concentrations especially in the brain, the antenna and its sensilla hairs acting as the olfactory organ of the fly, in the compound eye and in the mouthparts. The averaged element concentrations of these main compartments are (in descending order): P: 90 mM, K: 81 mM, S: 38 mM, Cl: 18 mM, Ca: 4.9 mM, Fe: 1.4 mM, Zn: 1.2 mM, Cu: 0.06 mM. Certain structures or cavities possess a remarkably high concentration of particular elements and might reflect the different functions of the compartments. An example presented in more detail is the composition of the compound eye. Conclusively, our findings on the ion concentrations might be useful for the mixture of the Drosophila Ringer's solution to ensure physiological conditions in experiments.

  13. Mechanical analysis of insertion problems and pain during colonoscopy: Why highly skill-dependent colonoscopy routines are necessary in the first place... and how they may be avoided

    PubMed Central

    Loeve, Arjo J; Fockens, Paul; Breedveld, Paul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy requires highly skill-dependent manoeuvres that demand a significant amount of training, and can cause considerable discomfort to patients, which increases the use of sedatives. Understanding the underlying fundamental mechanics behind insertion difficulties and pain during colonoscopy may help to simplify colonoscopy and reduce the required extent of training and reliance on sedatives. METHODS: A literature search, anatomical studies, models of the colon and colonoscope, and bench tests were used to qualitatively analyze the fundamental mechanical causes of insertion difficulties and pain. A categorized review resulted in an overview of potential alternatives to current colonoscopes. RESULTS: To advance a colonoscope through the colon, the colon wall, ligaments and peritoneum must be stretched, thus creating tension in the colon wall, which resists further wall deformation. This resistance forces the colonoscope to bend and follow the curves of the colon. The deformations that cause insertion difficulties and pain (necessitating the use of complex conventional manoeuvres) are the stretching of ligaments, and stretching of colon wall in the transverse and longitudinal directions, and the peritoneum. CONCLUSIONS: Four fundamental mechanical solutions to prevent these deformations were extracted from the analysis. The current results may help in the development of new colonoscopy devices that reduce – or eliminate – the necessity of using highly skill-dependent manoeuvres, facilitate training and reduce the use of sedatives. PMID:23712305

  14. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  15. Design and Development of a Virtual Facility Tour Using iPIX(TM) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Douglas L.

    2002-01-01

    The capabilities of the iPIX virtual tour software, in conjunction with a web-based interface create a unique and valuable system that provides users with an efficient virtual capability to tour facilities while being able to acquire the necessary technical content is demonstrated. A users guide to the Mechanics and Durability Branch's virtual tour is presented. The guide provides the user with instruction on operating both scripted and unscripted tours as well as a discussion of the tours for Buildings 1148, 1205 and 1256 and NASA Langley Research Center. Furthermore, an indepth discussion has been presented on how to develop a virtual tour using the iPIX software interface with conventional html and JavaScript. The main aspects for discussion are on network and computing issues associated with using this capability. A discussion of how to take the iPIX pictures, manipulate them and bond them together to form hemispherical images is also presented. Linking of images with additional multimedia content is discussed. Finally, a method to integrate the iPIX software with conventional HTML and JavaScript to facilitate linking with multi-media is presented.

  16. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels. PMID:16393801

  17. Work routinization and implications for ergonomic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Gold, Judith E; Park, Jung-Soon; Punnett, Laura

    2006-01-15

    Jobs in many modern settings, including manufacturing, service, agriculture and construction, are variable in their content and timing. This prompts the need for exposure assessment methods that do not assume regular work cycles. A scheme is presented for classifying levels of routinization to inform development of an appropriate exposure assessment strategy for a given occupational setting. Five levels of routinization have been defined based on the tasks of which the job is composed: 1) a single scheduled task with a regular work cycle; 2) multiple cyclical tasks; 3) a mix of cyclical and non-cyclical tasks; 4) one non-cyclical task; 5) multiple non-cyclical tasks. This classification, based primarily on job observation, is illustrated through data from a study of automobile manufacturing workers (n = 1200), from which self-assessed exposures to physical and psychosocial stressors were also obtained. In this cohort, decision latitude was greater with higher routinization level (p < 0.0001), and the least routinized jobs showed the lowest self-reported exposure to physical ergonomic stressors. The job analysis checklist developed for non-routinized jobs is presented, and limitations of the task analysis method utilized in the study are discussed. A work sampling approach to job analysis is recommended as the most efficient way to obtain a comparable unbiased exposure estimate across all routinization levels.

  18. Evolutionary Dynamics of Digitized Organizational Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the effects of increased digitization on the evolutionary dynamics of organizational routines. Do routines become more flexible, or more rigid, as the mix of digital technologies and human actors changes? What are the mechanisms that govern the evolution of routines? The dissertation theorizes about the effects of…

  19. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  20. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  1. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  2. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  3. 42 CFR 493.931 - Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routine chemistry. 493.931 Section 493.931 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.931 Routine chemistry. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing for routine chemistry, a...

  4. Obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (eastern Tunisia) and the PIXE elemental compositions of the Mediterranean peralkaline obsidians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bourdonnec, François-Xavier; Poupeau, Gérard; Boussofara, Ridha; Dubernet, Stéphan; Moretto, Philippe; Compin, Matthieu; Mulazzani, Simone

    2015-09-01

    The provenance of 37 obsidians from the Kerkennah Islands (central Mediterranean Sea) was determined by PIXE. It is shown that they came from the two main obsidian sources, Balata dei Turchi and Lago di Venere, of the Pantelleria Island. A comparison of the PIXE elemental composition of geological vs. archaeological obsidians of central and western Mediterranean shows that their sources present elemental compositions homogeneous enough to make possible sourcing studies. However, a comparison between the distributions of geological and archaeological obsidians chemistry shows that the PIXE source qualifications do not cover yet the whole of their internal variations.

  5. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of first-line treatment failure and switches to second-line therapy are key indicators for national HIV programmes. We assessed immunological treatment failure defined by WHO criteria in the Tanzanian national HIV programme. Methods We included adults initiating first-line therapy in 2004–2011 with a pre-treatment CD4 count, and ≥6-months of follow-up. We assessed subhazard ratios (SHR) for immunological treatment failure, and subsequent switch to second-line therapy, using competing risks methods to account for deaths. Results Of 121 308 adults, 7% experienced immunological treatment failure, and 2% died without observed immunological treatment failure, over a median 1.7 years. The 6-year cumulative probability of immunological treatment failure was 19.0% (95% CI 18.5, 19.7) and of death, 5.1% (4.8, 5.4). Immunological treatment failure predictors included earlier year of treatment initiation (P < 0.001), initiation in lower level facilities (SHR = 2.23 [2.03, 2.45] for dispensaries vs. hospitals), being male (1.27 [1.19, 1.33]) and initiation at low or high CD4 counts (for example, 1.78 [1.65, 1.92] and 5.33 [4.65, 6.10] for <50 and ≥500 vs. 200–349 cells/mm3, respectively). Of 7382 participants in the time-to-switch analysis, 6% switched and 5% died before switching. Four years after immunological treatment failure, the cumulative probability of switching was 7.3% (6.6, 8.0) and of death, 6.8% (6.0, 7.6). Those who immunologically failed in dispensaries, health centres and government facilities were least likely to switch. Conclusions Immunological treatment failure rates and unmet need for second-line therapy are high in Tanzania; virological monitoring, at least for persons with immunological treatment failure, is required to minimise unnecessary switches to second-line therapy. Lower level government health facilities need more support to reduce treatment failure rates and improve second-line therapy uptake to sustain the

  6. β-PIX controls intracellular viscoelasticity to regulate lung cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Helen Wenshin; Chen, Yin-Quan; Huang, Chi-Ming; Liu, Ching-Yi; Chiou, Arthur; Wang, Yang-Kao; Tang, Ming-Jer; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer metastasis occurs via a progress involving abnormal cell migration. Cell migration, a dynamic physical process, is controlled by the cytoskeletal system, which includes the dynamics of actin organization and cellular adhesive organelles, focal adhesions (FAs). However, it is not known whether the organization of actin cytoskeletal system has a regulatory role in the physiologically relevant aspects of cancer metastasis. In the present studies, it was found that lung adenocarcinoma cells isolated from the secondary lung cancer of the lymph nodes, H1299 cells, show specific dynamics in terms of the actin cytoskeleton and FAs. This results in a higher level of mobility and this is regulated by an immature FA component, β-PIX (PAK-interacting exchange factor-β). In H1299 cells, β-PIX's activity was found not to be down-regulated by sequestration onto stress fibres, as the cells did not bundle actin filaments into stress fibres. Thus, β-PIX mainly remained localized at FAs, which allowed maturation of nascent adhesions into focal complexes; this resulted in actin polymerization, increased actin network integrity, changes in the intracellular microrheology at the peripheral of the cell, and cell polarity, which in turn regulated cell migration. Perturbation of β-PIX caused an inhibition of cell migration, including migration velocity, accumulated distance and directional persistence. Our results demonstrate the importance of β-PIX to the regulation of high mobility of lung adenocarcinoma cell line H1299 and that this occurs via regulation of FA dynamics, changes in actin cytoskeleton organization and cell polarity. PMID:25683605

  7. [How to Interpret and Use Routine Laboratory Data--Our Methods to Interpret Routine Laboratory Data--Chairmen's Introductory Remarks].

    PubMed

    Honda, Takayuki; Tozuka, Minoru

    2015-09-01

    In the reversed clinicopathological conference (R-CPC), three specialists in laboratory medicine interpreted routine laboratory data independently in order to understand the detailed state of a patient. R-CPC is an educational method to use laboratory data appropriately, and it is also important to select differential diagnoses in a process of clinical reasoning in addition to the present illness and physical examination. Routine laboratory tests can be performed repeatedly at a relatively low cost, and their time-series analysis can be performed. Interpretation of routine laboratory data is almost the same as taking physical findings. General findings are initially checked and then the state of each organ is examined. Although routine laboratory tests cost little, we can gain much more information from them about the patient than physical examinations. PMID:26731894

  8. Pulse processing routines for neutron time-of-flight data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žugec, P.; Weiß, C.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Vlachoudis, V.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Wright, T.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Mingrone, F.; Ryan, J. A.; Warren, S. G.; Tsinganis, A.; Barbagallo, M.

    2016-03-01

    A pulse shape analysis framework is described, which was developed for n_TOF-Phase3, the third phase in the operation of the n_TOF facility at CERN. The most notable feature of this new framework is the adoption of generic pulse shape analysis routines, characterized by a minimal number of explicit assumptions about the nature of pulses. The aim of these routines is to be applicable to a wide variety of detectors, thus facilitating the introduction of the new detectors or types of detectors into the analysis framework. The operational details of the routines are suited to the specific requirements of particular detectors by adjusting the set of external input parameters. Pulse recognition, baseline calculation and the pulse shape fitting procedure are described. Special emphasis is put on their computational efficiency, since the most basic implementations of these conceptually simple methods are often computationally inefficient.

  9. Application of an ePix100 detector for coherent scattering using a hard X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Marcin; Feng, Yiping; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Carini, Gabriella; Herrmann, Sven; Nishimura, Kurtis; Hart, Philip; Robert, Aymeric

    2016-09-01

    A prototype ePix100 detector was used in small-angle scattering geometry to capture speckle patterns from a static sample using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) hard X-ray free-electron laser at 8.34 keV. The average number of detected photons per pixel per pulse was varied over three orders of magnitude from about 23 down to 0.01 to test the detector performance. At high average photon count rates, the speckle contrast was evaluated by analyzing the probability distribution of the pixel counts at a constant scattering vector for single frames. For very low average photon counts of less than 0.2 per pixel, the `droplet algorithm' was first applied to the patterns for correcting the effect of charge sharing, and then the pixel count statistics of multiple frames were analyzed collectively to extract the speckle contrast. Results obtained using both methods agree within the uncertainty intervals, providing strong experimental evidence for the validity of the statistical analysis. More importantly it confirms the suitability of the ePix100 detector for X-ray coherent scattering experiments, especially at very low count rates with performances surpassing those of previously available LCLS detectors.

  10. Application of an ePix100 detector for coherent scattering using a hard X-ray free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Sikorski, Marcin; Feng, Yiping; Song, Sanghoon; Zhu, Diling; Carini, Gabriella; Herrmann, Sven; Nishimura, Kurtis; Hart, Philip; Robert, Aymeric

    2016-09-01

    A prototype ePix100 detector was used in small-angle scattering geometry to capture speckle patterns from a static sample using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) hard X-ray free-electron laser at 8.34 keV. The average number of detected photons per pixel per pulse was varied over three orders of magnitude from about 23 down to 0.01 to test the detector performance. At high average photon count rates, the speckle contrast was evaluated by analyzing the probability distribution of the pixel counts at a constant scattering vector for single frames. For very low average photon counts of less than 0.2 per pixel, the `droplet algorithm' was first applied to the patterns for correcting the effect of charge sharing, and then the pixel count statistics of multiple frames were analyzed collectively to extract the speckle contrast. Results obtained using both methods agree within the uncertainty intervals, providing strong experimental evidence for the validity of the statistical analysis. More importantly it confirms the suitability of the ePix100 detector for X-ray coherent scattering experiments, especially at very low count rates with performances surpassing those of previously available LCLS detectors. PMID:27577772

  11. A routine accredited method for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, chlorobenzenes and screening of other halogenated organics in soil, sediment and sludge by GCxGC-μECD.

    PubMed

    Muscalu, Alina M; Reiner, Eric J; Liss, Steven N; Chen, Tony; Ladwig, Gerry; Morse, David

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants is a real challenge due to the large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection or mass spectrometry has been the method of choice for the past 50 years. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) coupled with micro-electron capture detector (μECD) is a new method that can analyze polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and chlorobenzenes (CBz) in a single analytical run with enhanced selectivity and sensitivity over single column methods and can also be used to screen for other halogenated organics in environmental samples. An accredited routine method using commercially available LECO GCxGC-μECD and a column combination DB-1 × Rtx-PCB has been developed to analyse PCBs/OCs/CBz in soils, sediments and sludges. The method provides quantification of Aroclors and Aroclor mixtures to within 15% of target values and sub-nanogrammes per gramme detection limits.

  12. Proteomics for routine identification of microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Welker, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The invention of MALDI-TOF-MS enormously contributed to the understanding of protein chemistry and cell biology. Without this technique proteomics would most likely not be the important discipline it is today. Besides 'true' proteomics, MALDI-TOF-MS was applied for the analysis of microorganisms for their taxonomic characterization from its beginning. This approach has since been developed as a diagnostic tool readily available for routine, high-throughput analysis of microbial isolates from clinical specimens by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS), the direct analysis of whole bacterial cell without a preceding fractionation or separation by chromatography or electrophoresis. ICMS exploits the reproducibility of mass fingerprints for individual bacterial and fungal strains as well as the high similarity of mass fingerprints within a species. Comparison of mass spectral data to genomic sequences emphasized the validity of peak patterns as taxonomic markers. Supported by comprehensive databases, MALDI-TOF-MS-based identification has been widely accepted in clinical laboratories within only a few years.

  13. Quantitative assay of element mass inventories in single cell biological systems with micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrinc, Nina; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša; Jeromel, Luka; Tomić, Sergej; Čolić, Miodrag; Beran, Alfred

    2013-07-01

    Elemental concentrations in micro-PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) maps of elements in biological tissue slices have been determined using auxiliary information on the sample matrix composition from EBS (Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy) and STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy). The thin sample approximation may be used for evaluating micro-PIXE data in cases, where X-ray absorption in the sample can be neglected and the mass of elements in a selected area can be estimated. The resulting sensitivity amounts to an impressive 10-12 g of the selected elements. Two cases are presented as examples. In the first, we determined the total mass of gold nanoparticles internalized by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC). In the second, an inventory of the mass of elements in the micro-particulate material adsorbed at the wall of the lorica of the microzooplankton species Tintinnopsis radix has been created.

  14. A comprehensive experimental characterization of the iPIX gamma imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgarou, K.; Paradiso, V.; Patoz, A.; Bonnet, F.; Handley, J.; Couturier, P.; Becker, F.; Menaa, N.

    2016-08-01

    The results of more than 280 different experiments aimed at exploring the main features and performances of a newly developed gamma imager, called iPIX, are summarized in this paper. iPIX is designed to quickly localize radioactive sources while estimating the ambient dose equivalent rate at the measurement point. It integrates a 1 mm thick CdTe detector directly bump-bonded to a Timepix chip, a tungsten coded-aperture mask, and a mini RGB camera. It also represents a major technological breakthrough in terms of lightness, compactness, usability, response sensitivity, and angular resolution. As an example of its key strengths, an 241Am source with a dose rate of only few nSv/h can be localized in less than one minute.

  15. Use of PIXE-PIGE under variable incident angle for ancient glass corrosion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Strivay, D.; Martinot, L.; Garnir, H. P.

    2002-04-01

    Although glass is usually considered as a very stable archaeological material, it can undergo severe degradation. Soda-lime glass, the most common glass throughout ancient times, is particularly sensitive to this problem. The glass surface absorbs moisture from its environment and the contact with CO 2 causes Na 2O and NaOH to convert to Na 2CO 3, which is extremely hygroscopic. The subsequent unstable glass layer can be leached out and causes decomposition of the glass. The non-destructive PIGE-PIXE method of investigation allows detection of this phenomenon even if no visible effect appears. The variable incident angle method is able to discern the depth of the degradation. One aim of such studies is the possible dating or at least fake detecting of archaeological materials. Furthermore, even objects of large size can be investigated with the atmospheric PIGE-PIXE set-up. Some examples of measurements on ancient glass are given.

  16. Reliable cool-down of GridPix detectors for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, R.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.; Bilevych, Y.; van Bakel, N.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we present thermal cycling experiments of GridPix radiation imaging detectors, in view of a potential application in a cryogenic experiment. The robustness of the GridPix detector is studied for various grid designs, as well as various mechanical and thermal surroundings. The grid design variations had insignificant effect on the grid strength. A low cool-down rate as well as good thermal contact are crucial for the durability of the grid. Further, additional strengthening at the grid edges proved necessary to maintain the integrity of the structure during thermal cycling, which was done using globtop adhesive. The combination of these measures led to 100% survival rate after thermal cycling down to -130 °C.

  17. Detection of trace metallic elements in oral lichenoid contact lesions using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL) are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous reactions with a risk of malignant transformation that alter the epithelium. OLP and OLCL have similar clinical and histopathological features and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Metallic restorations are suspected to generate OLCLs. Trace metal analysis of OLCL specimens may facilitate the discrimination of symptoms and identification of causative metallic restorations. The purpose of this study was to assess OLCL tissue samples for the prevalence of metallic elements derived from dental restorations, and to discriminate OLCL from OLP by using synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Typical elements of dental materials were detected in the OLCL, whereas no obvious element accumulation was detected in OLP and negative control specimens. The origin of the detected metallic elements was presumed to be dental alloys through erosion. Therefore, our findings support the feasibility of providing supporting information to distinguish OLCL from OLP by using elemental analysis. PMID:26085368

  18. Detection of trace metallic elements in oral lichenoid contact lesions using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-18

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL) are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous reactions with a risk of malignant transformation that alter the epithelium. OLP and OLCL have similar clinical and histopathological features and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Metallic restorations are suspected to generate OLCLs. Trace metal analysis of OLCL specimens may facilitate the discrimination of symptoms and identification of causative metallic restorations. The purpose of this study was to assess OLCL tissue samples for the prevalence of metallic elements derived from dental restorations, and to discriminate OLCL from OLP by using synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Typical elements of dental materials were detected in the OLCL, whereas no obvious element accumulation was detected in OLP and negative control specimens. The origin of the detected metallic elements was presumed to be dental alloys through erosion. Therefore, our findings support the feasibility of providing supporting information to distinguish OLCL from OLP by using elemental analysis.

  19. Technology: Computer Applications for Young Users--BumperCar and KidPix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    There is a lot of software available for young children, but there are not many applications designed especially for them. This situation may be about to change with the release of BumperCar and a new version of KidPix, both of which recently earned awards from MacWorld magazine. In this article, the author describes this new software and how it…

  20. PIXE/PIGE characterisation of emeralds using an external micro-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.; Salomon, J.; Zwaan, J. C.

    2000-03-01

    A large collection of emeralds of various occurrences has been analysed by PIXE/PIGE in view to establish a compositional database. Major elements (Be, Si, Al) and trace elements (Li, F, Na, Mg, Ca, Rb, Cs and transition metals) are determined using an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam. Elemental micro-mapping permits to select the useful provenance tracers. This database was applied to infer the origin of several ancient emeralds set on historical jewels.

  1. PIXE-STIM microtomography: Zinc and manganese concentrations in a scorpion stinger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.; Lefevre, Harlan W.

    1992-10-01

    Microtomography using PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) is developed and applied. Iterative algorithms for emission tomography (Donner algorithms) are modified for this purpose. STIM (scanning transmission ion microscopy) microtomography provides the required local X-ray attenuation factors and X-ray production cross sections (σ x's). The variation in σ x is treated along with X-ray attenuation in an effective attenuation factor. Several criteria for the optimal number of iterations are discussed. Element density values obtained from PIXE tomography are normalized with density values from STIM tomography to provide local concentration values. Three transverse sections of the sting of a scorpion, Hadrurus arizonensis, are reconstructed tomographically. Local zinc concentrations reaching as high as 25(± 3)% of dry mass are found. Manganese concentrations reaching 3.8(± 0.5)% of dry mass are also found. In the section manifesting high concentrations of both manganese and zinc, the zinc is found mainly in a band beneath the manganese-rich surface layer. Specimen damage during PIXE is found not to have significantly affected the results.

  2. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology.

  3. A feasibility study of PETiPIX: an ultra high resolution small animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Safavi-Naeini, M.; Franklin, D. R.; Petasecca, M.; Guatelli, S.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Hutton, B. F.; Lerch, M. L. F.

    2013-12-01

    PETiPIX is an ultra high spatial resolution positron emission tomography (PET) scanner designed for imaging mice brains. Four Timepix pixellated silicon detector modules are placed in an edge-on configuration to form a scanner with a field of view (FoV) 15 mm in diameter. Each detector module consists of 256 × 256 pixels with dimensions of 55 × 55 × 300 μm3. Monte Carlo simulations using GEANT4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) were performed to evaluate the feasibility of the PETiPIX design, including estimation of system sensitivity, angular dependence, spatial resolution (point source, hot and cold phantom studies) and evaluation of potential detector shield designs. Initial experimental work also established that scattered photons and recoil electrons could be detected using a single edge-on Timepix detector with a positron source. Simulation results estimate a spatial resolution of 0.26 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) at the centre of FoV and 0.29 mm FWHM overall spatial resolution with sensitivity of 0.01%, and indicate that a 1.5 mm thick tungsten shield parallel to the detectors will absorb the majority of non-coplanar annihilation photons, significantly reducing the rates of randoms. Results from the simulated phantom studies demonstrate that PETiPIX is a promising design for studies demanding high resolution images of mice brains.

  4. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. PMID:23041780

  5. Ram-wake effects on plasma current collection of the PIX 2 Langmuir probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Experiment 2 (PIX 2) Langmuir probe readings of the same polar magnetospheric regions taken on consecutive orbits showed occasional apparent densities as much as 10 times lower than the average, although each pass clearly showed density structures related to the day/night boundary. At other points in the orbit, Langmuir probe currents varied by as much as a factor of 20 on a time scale of minutes. The hypothesis is advanced that these apparent inconsistencies in Langmuir probe current are the results of the probe's orientation relative to the body of the spacecraft and the velocity vector. Theoretical studies predict a possible depletion in collected electron current by a factor of 100 in the wake. Experimental results from other spacecraft indicate that a wake electron depletion by a factor of 10 or so is realistic. This amount of depletion is consistent with the PIX 2 data if the spacecraft was rotating. Both the Sun sensor and temperature sensor data on PIX 2 show a complex variation consistent with rotation of the Langmuir probe into and out of the spacecraft wake on a time scale of minutes. Furthermore, Langmuir probe data taken when the probe was not in the spacecraft wake are consistent from orbit to orbit. This supports the interpretation that ram/wake effects may be the source of apparent discrepancies at other orientations.

  6. Investigation of environmental problems caused by studded tires of automobiles using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susumu, Amemiya; Yukio, Tsurita; Toshio, Masuda; Akira, Asawa; Kohki, Tanaka; Toshio, Katoh; Mamoru, Mohri; Toshiro, Yamashina

    1984-04-01

    The PIXE technique has been successfully applied to investigate the environmental problems caused by the studded tire of automobiles. The dust samples were collected on stacked filters in Sapporo and some other cities in Japan and Europe. PIXE measurements were performed using a 2 MeV proton beam. The results were compared with those of different cities. The main components of dust particulates were Al, Si, Ca, Fe and so on. The vertical distribution of dust concentration in the city of Sapporo was determined by PIXE in April and June. The concentration in April decreases exponentially with height from the ground. The effect of dust particulates due to studded tires is observed up to an altitude 60 m. On the other hand in June, the concentration on the ground is one-tenth of that in April, and it is almost unchanged with the distance in the vertical direction. The concentration of Ca in the dust particulates in the area where the studded tires are used increases by a factor of 2 to 4 in comparison with that in the ordinary soil.

  7. Trace element mapping of pyrite from Archean gold deposits - A comparison between PIXE and EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agangi, A.; Przybyłowicz, W.; Hofmann, A.

    2015-04-01

    Chemical zoning of pyrites can record the evolution of mineralising fluids at widely varying P-T conditions ranging from diagenesis to medium-grade metamorphism. If preserved, zoning can reveal growth textures, brecciation and veining, resorption and recrystallisation events, thus shedding light on the processes that contributed to ore formation. Chemical zoning of sulfides is invisible in optical microscopy, but can be studied by chemical etching, high-contrast back-scattering electron images, and elemental imaging. In this study we compared micro-PIXE and WDS-EPMA elemental maps on the chemically zoned pyrites in mineralised vein-bearing samples from the Sheba and Fairview gold mines in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Elemental images show complex distribution of trace elements, suggesting multiple events of pyrite crystallisation and gold deposition. EPMA maps show fine-scale variations reflecting growth and recrystallisation textures marked, in particular, by variations of As, Ni, and Co. In PIXE maps, gold occurs both as finely-distributed and discrete inclusions, suggesting incorporation in the pyrite structure as solid solution, and deposition as electrum inclusions, respectively. Micro-PIXE and EPMA provide complementary information, forming together a powerful tool to obtain information on chemical zoning of pyrites in ore deposits.

  8. Active Movement Warm-Up Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Teri; Quint, Ashleigh; Fischer, Kim; Kiger, Joy

    2011-01-01

    This article presents warm-ups that are designed to physiologically and psychologically prepare students for vigorous physical activity. An active movement warm-up routine is made up of three parts: (1) active warm-up movement exercises, (2) general preparation, and (3) the energy system. These warm-up routines can be used with all grade levels…

  9. Matrix algebra routines for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer: example applications.

    PubMed

    Fielding, A

    1988-08-01

    A set of matrix algebra routines have been written, as BASICV procedures, for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. It is shown that these procedures are executed so quickly that programs, which require matrix algebra computations, can be written in interpreted BASIC. Two example applications, reciprocal averaging and principal components analysis, are demonstrated.

  10. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, A.; Angelici, D.; Lo Giudice, A.; Maupas, E.; Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Gelli, N.; Massi, M.; Borghi, A.; Gallo, L. M.; Pratesi, G.; Mandò, P. A.

    2013-04-01

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification.

  11. Evaluation of cryoanalysis as a tool for analyzing elemental distribution in "live" tardigrades using micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E. J. C.; Pallon, J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Wang, Y. D.; Jönsson, K. I.

    2014-08-01

    Although heavy on labor and equipment, thus not often applied, cryoanalysis of frozen hydrated biological specimens can provide information that better reflects the living state of the organism, compared with analysis in the freeze-dried state. In this paper we report a study where the cryoanalysis facility with cryosectioning capabilities at Materials Research Department, iThemba LABS, South Africa was employed to evaluate the usefulness of combining three ion beam analytical methods (μPIXE, RBS and STIM) to analyze a biological target where a better elemental compositional description is needed - the tardigrade. Imaging as well as quantification results are of interest. In a previous study, the element composition and redistribution of elements in the desiccated and active states of two tardigrade species was investigated. This study included analysis of both whole and sectioned tardigrades, and the aim was to analyze each specimen twice; first frozen hydrated and later freeze-dried. The combination of the three analytical techniques proved useful: elements from C to Rb in the tardigrades could be determined and certain differences in distribution of elements between the frozen hydrated and the freeze-dried states were observed. RBS on frozen hydrated specimens provided knowledge of matrix elements.

  12. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hasted, Tim; Stapleton, Helen; Beckmann, Michael M; Wilkinson, Shelley A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  13. Clinician's Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Michael M.; Wilkinson, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (re)introduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians' perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence. PMID:27446614

  14. Increased Exposure to Rigid Routines Can Lead to Increased Challenging Behavior Following Changes to Those Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Leah E.; Oliver, Chris; Callaghan, Eleanor; Woodcock, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Several neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with preference for routine and challenging behavior following changes to routines. We examine individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome, who show elevated levels of this behavior, to better understand how previous experience of a routine can affect challenging behavior elicited by disruption to…

  15. Taking medicine at home - create a routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000613.htm Taking medicine at home - create a routine To use the ... teeth. Find Ways to Help You Remember Your Medicines You can: Set the alarm on your clock, ...

  16. Simnple, portable, 3-D projection routine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.S.

    1987-04-01

    A 3-D projection routine is presented for use in computer graphics applications. The routine is simple enough to be considered portable, and easily modified for special problems. There is often the need to draw three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional plotting surface. For the object to appear realistic, perspective effects must be included that allow near objects to appear larger than distant objects. Several 3-D projection routines are commercially available, but they are proprietary, not portable, and not easily changed by the user. Most are restricted to surfaces that are functions of two variables. This makes them unsuitable for viewing physical objects such as accelerator prototypes or propagating beams. This report develops a very simple algorithm for 3-D projections; the core routine is only 39 FORTRAN lines long. It can be easily modified for special problems. Software dependent calls are confined to simple drivers that can be exchanged when different plotting software packages are used.

  17. Habitual routines in task-performing groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersick, C. J.; Hackman, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Groups, like individuals, often develop habitual routines for dealing with frequently encountered stimuli. Although such routines are consequential for group life and work, little is known about them. This paper reconnoiters the territory of habitual behavior in groups that perform work within organizations. We offer a definition of group habits, identify their functions and dysfunctions, suggest how they develop and are maintained, and identify the circumstances when they are likely to be altered or abandoned. Throughout, we give special attention to the social nature of habitual routines in groups, to the interaction between habitual behavior and group life cycle phenomena, and to the role of the organizational context in prompting, shaping, and terminating habitual routines.

  18. Development of Pattern Recognition Software for Tracks of Ionizing Radiation In Medipix2-Based (TimePix) Pixel Detector Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilalta, R.; Kuchibhotla, S.; Valerio, R.; Pinsky, L.

    2011-12-01

    The principal aim of our project is to develop an efficient pattern recognition tool for the automated identification and classification of tracks of ionizing radiation as measured by a TimePix version of the hybrid semiconductor Medipix2 pixel detector system. Such a software tool would have a number of applications including dosimeters to assess the risk of human exposure to radiation, and area monitors to characterize the general background radiation environment harmful to humans and electronic equipment. We are particularly interested in the development of the real-time analysis software needed to support an operational dosimeter that can assess the radiation environment during space missions. Our software development project makes use of data taken in beams of heavy ions at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Facility) in Chiba, Japan, including data from several different heavy ions with similar Linear Energy Transfers (LETs) for calibration purposes. We describe two modules of our pattern recognition tool: feature generation and classification. Our first module builds on a segmentation algorithm that identifies tracks from the pixel image assuming an approximately elliptical form that varies in size and degree of elongation based on multiple factors, including the particle species and angle of incidence. Determining the charge and energy of the particles creating each track is a particularly challenging task because different energy and charge incident particles can produce very similar patterns. Our classification module invokes different algorithms such as decision trees, support vector machines, and Bayesian classifiers.

  19. Trace elements in human cancerous and healthy tissues: A comparative study by EDXRF, TXRF, synchrotron radiation and PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Magalhães, T.; Becker, M.; von Bohlen, A.

    2007-09-01

    It is known that trace elements play an important role in a number of biological processes. These include the activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions, competition between elements and metal proteins for binding positions and modifications in the permeability of cellular membranes. These elements may also influence carcinogenic processes, thus the knowledge of trace element concentrations in healthy and neoplastic tissues might help in diagnostic and in the etiology and development of cancer. This work intends to give an overview of the achieved results in the analysis of several healthy and neoplastic human tissues, using multi-elemental techniques. The described measurements were carried out by means of synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission (SRIXE), energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A brief description of each method is given and the analytical results discussed and compared. There is a good agreement between the results obtained with the several techniques for the same tissue. However, the behavior of the elements is not always the same for the several analyzed tissues.

  20. Evaluation and mapping of PM2.5 atmospheric aerosols in Arasia region using PIXE and gravimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Chiari, M.; Srour, A.; Sa'adeh, H.; Reslan, A.; Sultan, M.; Ahmad, M.; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Zubaidi, Th.; Rihawy, M. S.; Hussein, T.; Arafah, D.-E.; Karydas, A. G.; Simon, A.; Nsouli, B.

    2016-03-01

    The present work is a part of a scientific study conducted among several Arab countries in west Asia, under an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regional technical cooperation project for Arasia region. The project aims at producing for the first time a database of particulate matter (PM) elemental concentrations in the region that will help in future air quality studies in order to identify commonalities and differences in the presence and contribution of fingerprint pollution sources among the Arasia Member States. The first regional campaign was launched simultaneously in Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, Syria and United Arab Emirates, using a harmonized sampling and analysis protocol of PM10 and PM2.5 samples. Different samples, collected between October 2014 and February 2015, from the participating countries, were analyzed by PIXE technique and gravimetric measurements were also carried out. The first results of the study will be discussed in a regional perspective. Our study shows that concentrations of fine aerosol fractions are often exceeding the WHO standard values as well as showing some disparities in the obtained values between the different sampling sites. However, some trend similarities of variations with time could also be observed, suggesting a common influence by trans-boundary or external sources of air pollution.

  1. Computer simulation of the CSPAD, ePix10k, and RayonixMX170HS X-ray detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tina, Adrienne

    2015-08-21

    The invention of free-electron lasers (FELs) has opened a door to an entirely new level of scientific research. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is an X-ray FEL that houses several instruments, each with its own unique X-ray applications. This light source is revolutionary in that while its properties allow for a whole new range of scientific opportunities, it also poses numerous challenges. For example, the intensity of a focused X-ray beam is enough to damage a sample in one mere pulse; however, the pulse speed and extreme brightness of the source together are enough to obtain enough information about that sample, so that no further measurements are necessary. An important device in the radiation detection process, particularly for X-ray imaging, is the detector. The power of the LCLS X-rays has instigated a need for better performing detectors. The research conducted for this project consisted of the study of X-ray detectors to imitate their behaviors in a computer program. The analysis of the Rayonix MX170-HS, CSPAD, and ePix10k in particular helped to understand their properties. This program simulated the interaction of X-ray photons with these detectors to discern the patterns of their responses. A scientist’s selection process of a detector for a specific experiment is simplified from the characterization of the detectors in the program.

  2. Elemental micro-PIXE mapping of hypersensitive lesions in Lagenaria sphaerica (Cucurbitaceae) resistant to Sphaerotheca fuliginea (powdery mildew)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiersbye-Witkowski, I. M.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Straker, C. J.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.

    1997-07-01

    Genotypes of the Southern African cucurbit, Lagenaria sphaerica, that are resistant to powdery-mildew ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea) exhibit foliar hypersensitive (HS) lesions on inoculation with this fungal pathogen. Elemental distributions across radially symmetrical HS lesions, surrounding unlesioned leaf tissue and uninoculated leaf tissue, were obtained using the true elemental imaging system (Dynamic Analysis) of the NAC Van de Graaff nuclear microprobe. Raster scans of 3 MeV protons were complemented by simultaneous PIXE and BS point analyses. The composition of cellulose (C 6H 10O 5) was used as constant matrix composition for scans, and the sample thickness was found from BS spectra. Si and elements heavier than Ca contributed to matrix composition within HS lesions and the locally elevated Ca raised the limits of detection for some trace metals of interest. In comparison to uninoculated tissue, inoculated tissue was characterised by higher overall concentrations of all measured elements except Cu. Fully developed, 6 day-old HS lesions and the surrounding tissue could be divided into five zones, centred on the fungal infection site. Each zone was characterized by distinct local elemental distributions (either depletion, or accumulation to potentially phytotoxic levels).

  3. Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, U.; Grime, G. W.; Smith, J. A. C.; Hawes, C. R.; Baker, A. J. M.

    1997-07-01

    Certain terrestrial plants are able to accumulate metals such as zinc, manganese, nickel, cobalt, or copper in their above-ground biomass. The largest group of these so-called "metal hyperaccumulators" is to be found among certain species in the family Brassicaceae endemic to ultramafic soils. For example, nickel concentrations in members of the genus Alyssum can reach 3% of the leaf dry biomass. However, nickel levels in the root tissue of these plants are low, suggesting that hyperaccumulation is associated with effective metal translocation from root to shoot and sequestration of the metal in non-toxic form within the leaves. To investigate the sites of nickel localization within A. lesbiacum, leaf cross-sections were examined by nuclear microscopy using PIXE and RBS on the Oxford Scanning Proton Microprobe (SPM) with a spatial resolution of 1 μm. This paper describes the sample preparation and analysis methods and presents some preliminary results indicating that nickel is sequestered to a considerable degree within the epidermal trichomes on the leaf surface.

  4. What is the impact of Silicon Carbide nanoparticles to the mineral composition of rat lungs? A PIXE-μPIXE comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, O.; Colaux, J. L.; Laloy, J.; Dogné, J. M.; Lucas, S.

    2015-05-01

    The exposure to nanomaterials can yield changes in the mineral composition of tissues which may have long term health repercussions. In this study, the changes in mineral composition of rat lungs, exposed to a nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC), has been studied by means of global and local ion beam probes with the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique, measuring the whole lung contents and selected areas where SiC was found, respectively. It was found that from a global perspective there is a small decrease in the mineral contents (phosphorous, sulphur, chlorine and potassium) of the lung except for Ca, while locally these mineral contents tend fluctuate.

  5. PIXE analyses over a long period: The case of Neolithic variscite jewels from Western Europe (5th-3th millennium BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Calligaro, T.; Domínguez-Bella, S.; Cassen, S.

    2014-01-01

    PIXE analysis of archeological variscite beads and pendants from the Neolithic period that were excavated in Spain, Portugal and France and of variscite geological references samples from European occurrences were carried out from 1999 to 2013 in order to trace back the circulation of this precious gemstone over three millennia. Transformations of the AGLAE external beam system and progress in spectrum processing have induced some apparent compositional variation, affecting in particular the phosphorus/aluminum ratio. This long term evolution has been taken into account with the help of geostandards to build a large and coherent geochemical database of minor and trace elements in variscite. This database allowed us to determine the provenance of the raw material and thus of the circulation of the jewels.

  6. Development of a new in-air micro-PIXE set-up with in-vacuum charge measurements in Atomki

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Csedreki, L.; Dani, J.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.

    2015-11-01

    A new external microbeam set-up has recently been installed as the extension of the existing microprobe system at the Laboratory of Ion Beam Applications of Atomki, Debrecen, Hungary. The external beam set-up, based on the system of Oxford Microbeams (OM), is equipped with two X-ray detectors for PIXE analysis, a digital microscope, two alignment lasers and a precision XYZ stage for easy and reproducible positioning of the sample. Exit windows with different thicknesses and of different materials can be used according to the actual demands, currently silicon-nitride (Si3N4) film with 200 nm thickness is employed in our laboratory. The first application was demonstrated in the field of archaeometry, on Bronze Age hoards from Hungary.

  7. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts.

  8. Parent routines, child routines, and family demographics associated with obesity in parents and preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    Many daily routines and behaviors are related to the prevalence of obesity. This study investigated the association between routines and behaviors that act as protective factors related to lower prevalence of obesity in parents (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight in preschool children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed in relation to protective routines (PRs), and prevalence of obesity/overweight data from 337 preschool children and their parents. The two PRs assessed with parents included adequate sleep (≥7 h/night) and family mealtime routine (scoring higher than the median score). The four PRs assessed in children included adequate sleep (≥10 h/night), family mealtime routine, limiting screen-viewing time (≤2 h/day of TV, video, DVD), and not having a bedroom TV. Overall, 27.9% of parents were obese and 22.8% of children were overweight, and 39.8% of the parents had both parent PRs, and only 11.6% of children had all four child PRs. Results demonstrated that several demographic factors were significantly related to the use of PRs for parents and children. The lack of PRs was related to increased risk for overweight in children, but not for obesity in parents. However, in the adjusted models the overall cumulative benefits of using PRs was not significant in children either. In the multivariate adjusted logistic regression models, the only significant individual PR for children was adequate sleep. In a path analysis model, parent sleep was related to child sleep, which was in turn related to decreased obesity. Overall, findings suggest that parent and child PRs, especially sleep routines, within a family can be associated and may play an important role in the health outcomes of both parents and children. Understanding the mechanisms that influence how and when parents and children use these PRs may be promising for developing targeted family-based obesity-prevention efforts. PMID:24808883

  9. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies investigating the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli in children and, when appropriate, to meta-analyse the relation between previous antibiotics prescribed in primary care and resistance. Design and data analysis Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pooled percentage prevalence of resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics in children in primary care, stratified by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) status of the study country. Random effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the association between previous exposure to antibiotics in primary care and resistance. Data sources Observational and experimental studies identified through Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases, searched for articles published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported resistance in community acquired urinary tract infection in children and young people aged 0-17. Electronic searches with MeSH terms and text words identified 3115 papers. Two independent reviewers assessed study quality and performed data extraction. Results 58 observational studies investigated 77 783 E coli isolates in urine. In studies from OECD countries, the pooled prevalence of resistance was 53.4% (95% confidence interval 46.0% to 60.8%) for ampicillin, 23.6% (13.9% to 32.3%) for trimethoprim, 8.2% (7.9% to 9.6%) for co-amoxiclav, and 2.1% (0.8 to 4.4%) for ciprofloxacin; nitrofurantoin was the lowest at 1.3% (0.8% to 1.7%). Resistance in studies in countries outside the OECD was significantly higher: 79.8% (73.0% to 87.7%) for ampicillin, 60.3% (40.9% to 79.0%) for co-amoxiclav, 26.8% (11.1% to 43.0%) for ciprofloxacin, and 17.0% (9.8% to 24.2%) for nitrofurantoin. There was evidence that bacterial isolates from the urinary tract from individual children who had received

  10. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouton, M.; Botha, A.; Thornton, M.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2015-11-01

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  11. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status. PMID:27678365

  12. Cost effectiveness of routine duodenal biopsies in iron deficiency anemia

    PubMed Central

    Broide, Efrat; Matalon, Shay; Kriger-Sharabi, Ofra; Richter, Vered; Shirin, Haim; Leshno, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the cost effectiveness of routine small bowel biopsies (SBBs) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) independent of their celiac disease (CD) serology test results. METHODS We used a state transition Markov model. Two strategies were compared: routine SBBs during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in all patients with IDA regardless their celiac serology status (strategy A) vs SBBs only in IDA patients with positive serology (strategy B). The main outcomes were quality adjusted life years (QALY), average cost and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). One way sensitivity analysis was performed on all variables and two way sensitivity analysis on selected variables were done. In order to validate the results, a Monte Carlo simulation of 100 sample trials with 10, and an acceptability curve were performed. RESULTS Strategy A of routine SBBs yielded 19.888 QALYs with a cost of $218.10 compared to 19.887 QALYs and $234.17 in strategy B. In terms of cost-effectiveness, strategy A was the dominant strategy, as long as the cost of SBBs stayed less than $67. In addition, the ICER of strategy A was preferable, providing the cost of biopsy stays under $77. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that strategy A yielded the same QALY but with lower costs than strategy B. CONCLUSION Our model suggests that EGD with routine SBBs is a cost-effective approach with improved QALYs in patients with IDA when the prevalence of CD is 5% or greater. SBBs should be a routine screening tool for CD among patients with IDA, regardless of their celiac antibody status.

  13. Metallic nano-particles in lustre glazed ceramics from the 15th century in Seville studied by PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, A. Polvorinos; Castaing, J.; Aucouturier, M.

    2006-08-01

    Lustre ceramics, found in a workshop located in Triana (Sevilla), have been analysed to determine the composition of glazes including the metallic particle layers giving rise to the lustre effect. PIXE and RBS were used for the elemental composition and the sub-surface concentration profiles, respectively. Copper and silver at the origin of the lustre are detected by PIXE. RBS gives access to the detailed distribution of the elements in the surface layers. The simulation of RBS spectra confirms the occurrence of thin layers (less than 300 nm) containing metallic silver and/or copper. The results are compared with those obtained on other types of lustre ceramics.

  14. Thin and thick target PIXE analyses to assess the mechanism of Cu2+ removal by Egeria densa.

    PubMed

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Santos, G H F; Borba, C E; Rizzutto, M A; Ravagnani, Mauro A S S

    2013-12-01

    In this work the PIXE technique was used to study the mechanism of metal sorption by dead biomass. Several batch copper-sorption experiments were performed by using Egeria densa biomass. PIXE measurements were performed in solid and liquid samples. Element concentrations in biosorbent samples were determined using the Clara software. Based on the mass balance among the major elements in the liquid and solid phases before and after the Cu-removal experiments, an ion exchange process is suggested as the main mechanism. PMID:23934371

  15. PIXE studies of changes in mineral composition of plants infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Papper, C. S.; Weste, G.

    1981-03-01

    The mineral composition of susceptible and resistant plants from native forests infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi was compared between themselves and with the same species from disease-free areas. Root and shoot samples from different plants were carefully ashed, compressed into pellets and analysed with the thick target PIXE technique. A number of elements, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr, Sn and Pb, were detected. Many of the elements showed variations, sometimes large, between the composition of susceptible and resistant plants, and between the same species from infected and disease-free forests.

  16. PIXE-induced XRF by high energy protons and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, M.; Manfredi, G.; Milazzo, M.; Silari, M.

    1993-04-01

    In the past three years a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study has been conducted on the production of intense sources of monochromatic X-rays in the range 1-75 keV by bombardment of pure element targets with protons and alpha particles of tens of MeV energy. The present paper describes a dual-chamber irradiation system which has been designed and built for PIXE-induced XRF. Preliminary experimental results of analyses obtained with 20 MeV protons and a Zn primary target are shown.

  17. Micro-PIXE studies of elemental distribution in Cd-accumulating Brassica juncea L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Thorsten; Haag-Kerwer, Angela; Maetz, Mischa; Niecke, Manfred; Povh, Bogdan; Rausch, Thomas; Schüßler, Arthur

    1999-10-01

    Brassica juncea L. is a high biomass producing crop plant, being able to accumulate Cd and other heavy metals in their roots and shoots. It is a good candidate for efficient phytoextraction of heavy metals - such as Cd - from polluted soils. PIXE and STIM analyses were applied to investigate Cd-uptake in roots and the resulting effects on the elemental distribution of Cd stressed plants. The axial distribution of trace elements as a function of distance from the root tip as well as the radial distribution within cross-sections were analysed. The results are compared with the elemental distribution in control plants.

  18. Optimization of Routine Monitoring of Workers Exposed to Plutonium Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Davesne, Estelle; Quesne, Benoit; De Vita, Antoine; Chojnacki, Eric; Blanchardon, Eric; Franck, Didier

    2016-10-01

    In case of incidental confinement failure, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel preparation may expose workers to plutonium aerosols. Due to its potential toxicity, occupational exposure to plutonium compounds should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To ensure the absence of significant intake of radionuclides, workers at risk of internal contamination are monitored by periodic bioassay planned in a routine monitoring programme. From bioassay results, internal dose may be estimated. However, accurate dose calculation relies on known exposure conditions, which are rarely available when the exposure is demonstrated by routine monitoring only. Therefore, internal dose calculation is subject to uncertainty from unknown exposure conditions and from activity measurement variability. The present study calculates the minimum detectable dose (MDD) for a routine monitoring programme by considering all plausible conditions of exposure and measurement uncertainty. The MDD evaluates the monitoring quality and can be used for optimization. Here, MDDs were calculated for the monitoring of workers preparing MOX fuel. Uncertain parameters were modelled by probability distributions defined according to information provided by experts of routine monitoring, of workplace radiological protection and of bioassay analysis. Results show that the current monitoring is well adapted to potential exposure. A sensitivity study of MDD highlights high dependence on exposure condition modelling. Integrating all expert knowledge is therefore crucial to obtain reliable MDD estimates, stressing the value of a holistic approach to worker monitoring.

  19. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  20. Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Hendrick J.

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.

  1. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.

    1997-11-24

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites` HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  2. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  3. INAA and PIXE of atmospheric and combustion aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kucera, J; Havránek, V; Smolík, J; Schwarz, J; Veselý, V; Kugler, J; Sýkorová, I; Santroch, J

    1999-01-01

    Using instrumental neutron activation analyses and photon-induced x-ray emission techniques for analysis of size-fractionated atmospheric and combustion aerosols and other emission samples arising from fluidized-bed combustion of North Bohemian lignites up to 42 elements were determined in all samples types. This allowed the evaluation of element enrichment, time trends, and inter-element correlations and the performance of factor analysis of various fractions of atmospheric aerosols. The data obtained on mass and element size distributions of aerosols and emission samples obtained upon lignite combustion in an experimental scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor without and with added hydrated lime and limestone were used to elucidate the mechanism of abatement of toxic trace and matrix elements from flue gas. PMID:10676497

  4. Summary of cerebrospinal fluid routine parameters in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Jesse, Sarah; Brettschneider, Johannes; Süssmuth, Sigurd D; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard G; von Arnim, Christine A F; Ludolph, Albert C; Tumani, Hayrettin; Otto, Markus

    2011-06-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) is predominantly performed to exclude inflammatory diseases and to perform a risk assessment in dementive disorders by measurement of tau proteins and amyloid beta peptides. However, large scale data on basic findings of CSF routine parameters are generally lacking. The objective of the study was to define a normal reference spectrum of routine CSF parameters in neurodegenerative diseases. Routine CSF parameters (white cell count, lactate and albumin concentrations, CSF/serum quotients of albumin (Q (alb)), IgG, IgA, IgM, and oligoclonal IgG bands (OCB)) were retrospectively analyzed in an academic research setting. A total of 765 patients (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), vascular dementia (VD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), multisystem atrophy (MSA), motor neuron diseases (MND), spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), Huntington's disease (HD)) and non-demented control groups including a group of patients with muscular disorders (MD). The main outcome measures included statistical analyses of routine CSF parameters. Mildly elevated Q (alb) were found in a small percentage of nearly all subgroups and in a higher proportion of patients with PSP, MSA, VD, PDD, and MND. With the exception of 1 MND patient, no intrathecal Ig synthesis was observed. Isolated OCBs in CSF were sometimes found in patients with neurodegenerative diseases without elevated cell counts; lactate levels were always normal. A slightly elevated Q (alb) was observed in a subgroup of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and does not exclude the diagnosis. Extensive elevation of routine parameters is not characteristic and should encourage a re-evaluation of the clinical diagnosis.

  5. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co-Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10-15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC-Co materials.

  6. PIXE identification of the provenance of ferruginous rocks used by Neanderthals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, François; Bodu, Pierre; Dubreuil, Olivier; Salomon, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Les Bossats, near Ormesson, France, is a newly discovered late Mousterian open air site dated to around 47,000 years ago by thermoluminescence. The archaeological level, fossilized by loess, revealed a rich industry based on the discoid mode, associated with numerous fragments of red and yellow iron oxide-rich rocks showing clear traces of powder production (abrasion, striation, scraping), which are exceptional remains for this remote period. Archeological material and geological samples from the close environment were studied by PIXE and by petrographical observations made on thin sections. The geological sources were identified by means of PIXE analyses on two IBA facilities: AGLAE (2 MV tandem) at the C2RMF in Paris and the cyclotron of the IPNAS (University of Liège). We paid particular attention to the comparison of results obtained on both installations by using the same set of geological standards and by a fine evaluation of the limit of detection relative to each trace elements of interest for both experimental set ups. The elemental fingerprint of one geological source of iron-rich concretions corresponds clearly with the archaeological collection. At least, this investigation demonstrates that the colouring materials were minutely selected in the close neighbouring of the site by the Neanderthals.

  7. Concentration and distribution of cobalt in higher plants: The use of micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkaus, E.; Gouget, B.; Gallien, J.-P.; Khodja, H.; Carrot, F.; Morel, J. L.; Collins, R.

    2005-04-01

    Cobalt is not classified as an essential element for plants, however, it is usually described as "beneficial". This trace element can be a contaminant in soils due to agricultural additives or metal refineries. Certain plants species have the ability to extract metals (such as Co) from soils, thus, cleaning the environment. Therefore, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of metal absorption is required to improve these phytoremediation technologies. Patterns of cobalt accumulation and storage were determined in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) species. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with different Co treatments, using controlled environmental conditions. The spatial distributions of K, Ca, Fe and Co in whole plants, and in leaf and stem sections, were examined by micro-PIXE. In conjunction, total Co concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. Micro-PIXE spectroscopy proved to be a convenient technique for indicating Co concentrations and distribution patterns in these plants. This knowledge aids in the identification of vegetal Co sequestration and, thus, helps to unravel how Co is transported in higher plants.

  8. Experimental comparison of micro-PIXE with other methods utilized for biomineralization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichocki, T.; Heck, D.; Jarczyk, L.; Rokita, E.; Strzalkowski, A.; Sych, M.

    1988-05-01

    The present study deals with the investigation of arterial wall mineralization i.e. of inorganic compound development within artery wall under normal or pathologic conditions. Autopsy samples of human aorta as well as fragments of aorta obtained from hypercholesterolemic rabbits were used for the experiments. The samples were investigated using micro-PIXE, PIXE and PIGE techniques, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and a variety of histochemical methods in order to compare the techniques based on a proton microprobe with the other methods which aimed at the investigation of inorganic deposits. Proton microprobe measurements confirm the different composition of mineral deposits found in rabbit and human aorta samples. In the case of animal aorta the apatite crystals constitute the mineral form of deposits while for human samples we deal with a mixture of different compounds. Moreover, for rabbit aorta samples the deposits were found always in the atheromas, while in human aorta sections the mineral deposits were localized in the media of the aortic wall. The proton microprobe can be considered to be a valuable addition to the experimental methods that have been applied in the study of the biomineralization process. It permits a qualitative determination of mineral deposits in situ while infrared and Raman spectroscopy as well as X-ray powder diffraction measurements may be performed only for ashed aorta samples. The possibility of in situ measurements and high detection sensitivity seem to be the most significant advantages of a proton microprobe in the study of artery wall mineralization.

  9. The hydrogen-sulfur correlation, by PIXE plus PESA, and aerosol source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.; Eldred, Robert A.; Wallace, Don; Kusko, Bruce H.

    1987-03-01

    The use of hydrogen-free thin teflon filters for particulate sampling has allowed us to simultaneously measure sulfur (and other elements) by PIXE and hydrogen by PESA. Particulate hydrogen in nonvolatile forms (since all analyses are in vacuum) is an important component of aerosols, totalling typically about {1}/{3} of all atoms. The hydrogen is measured at the same time as PIXE by placing a surface barrier detector at 30° in the forward direction, allowing the (p, p) kinematic energy shift to safely resolve hydrogen from the unresolved peaks of C, N, O, and heavier elements. The method is absolute and simple, with no important corrections. Sensitivity on 400 {μg}/{cm 2} teflon filters is about 5 {ng}/{cm 2} H in 100s. This technique was introduced to the National Park Service 31 station network in June. 1984, and immediately proved enormously valuable in separating natural aerosols from anthropogenic aerosols. For example, at Great Smoky NP, the H/S correlation was excellent, > 0.90, while the molar ratio was 10:1 (note: (NH 4) 2SO 4) has a ratio 8:1), while at North Cascades NP, there was essentially no correlation and the {H}/{S} molar ratio was 37:1. In the former, most hydrogen is tied to presumably anthropogenic sulfur species, while at North Cascades NP, the converse is true. Evidence of H 2SO 4) aerosols from Arctic studies will also be shown.

  10. Investigation of Chinese archaic jade by PIXE and μRaman spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.-H.; Calligaro, T.; Pagès-Camagna, S.; Menu, M.

    External-beam particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and μRaman spectrometry were used for elemental and structural studies of Chinese archaic nephrite jades of the Guimet Asian Museum in Paris in a non-destructive way. Nephrite is a variety of tremolite-actinolite of the amphibole group, with variable iron and magnesium contents. In the present work, in addition to identification of materials, the cation distribution in nephrite was investigated. Cation order-disorder is related to thermodynamic properties of minerals, and hence associated with geological conditions of the mineral formation. Besides, it plays an important role in the mechanism of coloration. So far, little work has been done on the cation distribution in nephrite. We thus initiated this research expecting to answer open questions concerning art and archaeological issues such as jade provenance and colour. The OH stretching vibration band of nephrite, depending on the electronegativity of the bonded cations, presents a fine structure. The study of this fine structure, together with the total cation content obtained by PIXE, allows estimation of the cation distribution in nephrite. In this study, six jade artefacts, dated from the Neolithic period to the Han dynasty (about 3000 BC to 220 AD), with diverse colours including white, yellow-green, green, dark green and black, were analysed. The data obtained permits establishing a geological database for determination of nephrite provenance and explaining the correlation between colour and cation distribution.

  11. Pressure-sensitive reaction yield of the TePixD blue-light sensor protein.

    PubMed

    Kuroi, Kunisato; Okajima, Koji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Tokutomi, Satoru; Kamiyama, Tadashi; Terazima, Masahide

    2015-02-19

    The effect of pressure on the dissociation reaction of the TePixD decamer was investigated by high-pressure transient grating (TG). The TG signal intensity representing the dissociation reaction of the TePixD decamer significantly decreased by applying a relatively small pressure. On the other hand, the reaction rate increased with increasing pressure. The equilibrium between the pentamer and the decamer was investigated by high-pressure dynamic light scattering. The results indicated that the fraction of the decamer slightly increased in the high-pressure region. From these measurements, it was concluded that the pressure-dependent signal intensity originated from the decrease of the quantum yield of the dissociation reaction of the decamer, indicating that this reaction efficiency is very sensitive to pressure. Using densimetry at high pressures, the compressibility was found to be pressure dependent even in a relatively low pressure range. We attributed the origin of the pressure-sensitive reaction yield to the decrease of compressibility at high pressure. Because the compressibility is related to the volume fluctuation, this observation suggests that the driving force for this reaction is fluctuation of the protein. The relationship between the cavities at the interfaces of the monomer units and the reactivity is also discussed.

  12. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  13. Integrating Communication Skills into Functional Routines & Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stremel, Kathleen

    This training module on integrating communication skills into functional routines and activities is from the Mississippi Early Education Program for Children with Multiple Disabilities, a program designed to train Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Part H service coordinators and service providers to use family centered strategies. The…

  14. Routines. Infant/Toddler Caregiving: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    Intended for use in conjunction with videos illustrating key concepts and caregiving techniques, this guide focuses on how the daily routines of caring for infants and toddlers can become opportunities for promoting the child's learning and development and for deepening the relationship between child and caregiver. Special attention is given to…

  15. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  16. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  17. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  18. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part for...

  19. 40 CFR 141.621 - Routine monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Routine monitoring. 141.621 Section 141.621 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS... system that begins using a disinfectant other than UV light after the dates in subpart U of this part...

  20. Is routine drainage necessary after pancreaticoduodenectomy?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Di, Yang; Yao, Lie; Jin, Chen; Fu, De-Liang

    2014-07-01

    With the development of imaging technology and surgical techniques, pancreatic resections to treat pancreatic tumors, ampulla tumors, and other pancreatic diseases have increased. Pancreaticoduodenectomy, one type of pancreatic resection, is a complex surgery with the loss of pancreatic integrity and various anastomoses. Complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy such as pancreatic fistulas and anastomosis leakage are common and significantly associated with patient outcomes. Pancreatic fistula is one of the most important postoperative complications; this condition can cause intraperitoneal hemorrhage, septic shock, or even death. An effective way has not yet been found to avoid the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. In most medical centers, the frequency of pancreatic fistula has remained between 9% and 13%. The early detection and routine drainage of anastomotic fistulas, pancreatic fistulas, bleeding, or other intra-abdominal fluid collections after pancreatic resections are considered as important and effective ways to reduce postoperative complications and the mortality rate. However, many recent studies have argued that routine drainage after abdominal operations, including pancreaticoduodenectomies, does not affect the incidence of postoperative complications. Although inserting drains after pancreatic resections continues to be a routine procedure, its necessity remains controversial. This article reviews studies of the advantages and disadvantages of routine drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy and discusses the necessity of this procedure. PMID:25009383

  1. An Examination of Latino Students' Homework Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Homework appears to be positively associated with better student outcomes. Although some researchers have explored the connection between time spent on homework and minority student achievement, few have examined the homework routines of Latino youth. Interviews with Latino high school students show that they have some difficulty completing daily…

  2. Action Selection in Complex Routinized Sequential Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruh, Nicolas; Cooper, Richard P.; Mareschal, Denis

    2010-01-01

    We report two experiments in which errors and interaction latencies were recorded during routinization of hierarchically structured computer-based tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrates that action selection is slowed at subtask transitions, especially when selecting lower frequency actions. This frequency effect is compounded by concurrent performance…

  3. The Acquisition of Routines in Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko; Weintraub, Sandra

    1976-01-01

    Investigates performance of the highly constrained Hallowe'en "trick or treat" routine in 115 children from 2 to 16 years of age. Changes in competence and role of parental input are examined in relation to cognitive and social factors. (Author/RM)

  4. libvaxdata: VAX data format conversion routines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Lawrence M.

    2005-01-01

    libvaxdata provides a collection of routines for converting numeric data-integer and floating-point-to and from the formats used on a Digital Equipment Corporation1 (DEC) VAX 32-bit minicomputer (Brunner, 1991). Since the VAX numeric data formats are inherited from those used on a DEC PDP-11 16-bit minicomputer, these routines can be used to convert PDP-11 data as well. VAX numeric data formats are also the default data formats used on DEC Alpha 64-bit minicomputers running OpenVMS The libvaxdata routines are callable from Fortran or C. They require that the caller use two's-complement format for integer data and IEEE 754 format (ANSI/IEEE, 1985) for floating-point data. They also require that the 'natural' size of a C int type (integer) is 32 bits. That is the case for most modern 32-bit and 64-bit computer systems. Nevertheless, you may wish to consult the Fortran or C compiler documentation on your system to be sure. Some Fortran compilers support conversion of VAX numeric data on-the-fly when reading or writing unformatted files, either as a compiler option or a run-time I/O option. This feature may be easier to use than the libvaxdata routines. Consult the Fortran compiler documentation on your system to determine if this alternative is available to you. 1Later Compaq Computer Corporation, now Hewlett-Packard Company

  5. The first year of routine Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-06-01

    MEETING REPORT The successful completion of the first year of routine science operations of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory was marked by a Specialist Discussion Meeting of the RAS held in January 2011. A few of the early science highlights from the mission were presented. Derek Ward-Thompson and David Clements summarize.

  6. Individual Values, Learning Routines and Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred; Fries, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Academic procrastination, the tendency to postpone learning activities, is regarded as a consequence of postmodern values that are prominent in post-industrialized societies. When students strive for leisure goals and have no structured routines for academic tasks, delaying strenuous learning activities becomes probable. Aims: The…

  7. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  8. Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour.

    PubMed

    Basevi, Vittorio; Lavender, Tina

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundPubic or perineal shaving is a procedure performed before birth in order to lessen the risk of infection if there is a spontaneous perinealtear or if an episiotomy is performed.ObjectivesTo assess the effects of routine perineal shaving before birth onmaternal and neonatal outcomes, according to the best available evidence.Search methodsWe searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (12 June 2014).Selection criteriaAll controlled trials (including quasi-randomised) that compare perineal shaving versus no perineal shaving.Data collection and analysisTwo review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using apredesigned form. Data were checked for accuracy.Main resultsThree randomised controlled trials (1039 women) published between 1922 and 2005 fulfilled the prespecified criteria. In the earliesttrial, 389 women were alternately allocated to receive either skin preparation and perineal shaving or clipping of vulval hair only. In thesecond trial, which included 150 participants, perineal shaving was compared with the cutting of long hairs for procedures only. In thethird and most recent trial, 500 women were randomly allocated to shaving of perineal area or cutting of perineal hair. The primaryoutcome for all three trials was maternal febrile morbidity; no differences were found (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval(CI) 0.73 to 1.76). No differences were found in terms of perineal wound infection (RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.70) and perinealwound dehiscence (RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.00) in the most recent trial involving 500 women, which was the only trial to assessthese outcomes. In the smallest trial, fewer women who had not been shaved had Gram-negative bacterial colonisation compared withwomen who had been shaved (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.98). There were no instances of neonatal infection in either group in theone trial that reported this

  9. CERES: Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahm, Rafael; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor

    2016-10-01

    The Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES) constructs automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction, and analysis of echelle spectrograph data. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD reductions, tracing of the echelle orders, optimal and simple extraction, computation of the wave-length solution, estimation of radial velocities, and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. The standard output of pipelines constructed with CERES is a FITS cube with the optimally extracted, wavelength calibrated and instrumental drift-corrected spectrum for each of the science images. Additionally, CERES includes routines for the computation of precise radial velocities and bisector spans via the cross-correlation method, and an automated algorithm to obtain an estimate of the atmospheric parameters of the observed star.

  10. Past radionuclide releases from routine operations at Rocky Flats.

    PubMed

    Ripple, S R; Widner, T E; Mongan, T R

    1996-10-01

    The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment sponsored a study to reconstruct contaminant doses to the public from operations at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility. This analysis of routine releases of plutonium and uranium, the principal radioactive materials used at the plant, was part of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment study. Historical radionuclide monitoring and data handling practices are characterized and uncertainties are quantified. Estimates of the annual release of plutonium and uranium are provided for the period from 1953 to 1989. Off-site airborne concentrations and deposition of plutonium and uranium associated with the releases are estimated, along with the highest doses for off-site populations. The predicted effective doses from the routine release of plutonium and uranium from Rocky Flats for a person residing near the plant boundary between 1953 and 1989 are very small. PMID:8830751

  11. Cryogenic Neutron Protein Crystallography: routine methods and potential benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Kevin L; Tomanicek, Stephen J; NG, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    The use of cryocooling in neutron diffraction has been hampered by several technical challenges such as the need for specialized equipment and techniques. Recently we have developed and deployed equipment and strategies that allow for routine neutron data collection on cryocooled crystals using off the shelf components. This system has several advantages, compared to a closed displex cooling system such as fast cooling coupled with easier crystal mounting and centering. The ability to routinely collect cryogenic neutron data for analysis will significantly broaden the range of scientific questions that can be examined by neutron protein crystallography. Cryogenic neutron data collection for macromolecules has recently become available at the new Biological Diffractometer BIODIFF at FRM II and the Macromolecular Diffractometer (MaNDi) at the Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. To evaluate the benefits of a cryocooled neutron structure we collected a full neutron data set on the BIODIFF instrument on a Toho-1 lactamase structure at 100K.

  12. Mediating the intersections of organizational routines during the introduction of a health IT system

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Laurie; Brooks, JoAnn; Gadd, Cynthia; Anders, Shilo; Lorenzi, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Public interest in the quality and safety of health care has spurred examination of specific organizational routines believed to yield risk in health care work. Medication administration routines, in particular, have been the subject of numerous improvement projects involving information technology development, and other forms of research and regulation. This study draws from ethnographic observation to examine how the common routine of medication administration intersects with other organizational routines, and why understanding such intersections is important. We present three cases describing intersections between medication administration and other routines, including a pharmacy routine, medication administration on the next shift and management reporting. We found that each intersection had ostensive and performative dimensions; and furthermore, that IT-enabled changes to one routine led to unintended consequences in its intersection with others, resulting in misalignment of ostensive and performative aspects of the intersection. Our analysis focused on the activities of a group of nurses who provide technology use mediation (TUM) before and after the rollout of a new health IT system. This research offers new insights on the intersection of organizational routines, demonstrates the value of analyzing TUM activities to better understand the relationship between IT introduction and changes in routines, and has practical implications for the implementation of technology in complex practice settings. PMID:24357898

  13. Proportional counting techniques for routine tritium analyses at environmental levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, W W; Hughes, M B

    1981-01-01

    Techniques and procedures were developed to routinely analyze samples for tritium as part of research and monitoring programs on the transport of radionuclides released from the Savannah River Plant site. Because tritium concentrations in the environment are low, trace analysis methods were developed. The primary analysis technique involves converting aqueous samples to hydrogen gas which is mixed with propane and assayed in proportional counters. Counter background is reduced by massive shielding, anticoincidence gating with plastic scintillators, and pulse shape discrimination. The overall sensitivity for tritium is 0.02 pCi/g of water with a demonstrated precision of 6.3% at 1 pCi/g of water.

  14. Routine Operational Environmental Monitoring schedule, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.W.

    1993-12-01

    This document provides Health Physics (HP) a schedule in accordance with the Environmental Compliance Manual, WHC-CM-7-5, of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) Program during calendar year (CY) 1994. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of EES and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive waste sites are scheduled to be surveyed annually at a minimum. Any newly discovered waste sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995. This schedule does not discuss the manpower needs nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines.

  15. Fortran graphics routines for the Macintosh

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.

    1992-06-01

    The Language Systems MPW Fortran is a popular Fortran compiler for the Macintosh. Unfortunately, it does not have any built-in calls to graphics routines (such as are available with Graflib on the NLTSS), so there is no simple way to make x-y plots from calls within Fortran. Instead, a file of data must be created and a commercial plotting routine (such as IGOR or KALEIDAGRAPH) or a spreadsheet with graphics (such as WINGZ) must be applied to post-process the data. The Macintosh does have available many built-in calls (to the Macintosh Toolbox) that allow drawing shapes and lines with quickdraw, but these are not designed for plotting functions and are difficult to learn to use. This work outlines some Fortran routines that can be called from LS Fortran to make the necessary calls to the Macintosh toolbox to create simple two-dimensional plots or contour plots. The source code DEMOGRAF.F shows how these routines may be used. DEMOGRAF.F simply demonstrates some Fortran subroutines that can be called with language systems MPW Fortran on the Macintosh to plot arrays of numbers. The subroutines essentially mimic the functionality that has been available at LTSS and NLTSS and UNICOS at LLNL. The graphics primitives are kept in four separate files, each containing several subroutines. The subroutines are compiled and stored in a library file, LIBgraf.o. Makefile is used to link this library to the source code. A discussion is included on requirements for interactive plotting of functions.

  16. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age.

  17. Miniaturization through lab-on-a-chip: utopia or reality for routine laboratories? A review.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Angel; Zougagh, Mohammed; Avila, Mónica

    2012-08-31

    Micro total analysis (μTAS), also called "lab-on-a-chip (LOC)" technology, promises solutions for high throughput and highly specific analysis for chemistry, biology and medicine, while consuming only tiny amounts of samples, reactants and space. This article reports selected contributions of LOC, which represent clear practical approaches for routine work, or presenting potentiality to be transferred to routine analytical laboratories. Taking into account the present LOC state-of-the-art, we identify various reasons for its scarce implementation in routine analytical laboratories despite its high analytical potential, as well as the probably main "niche" for successfully practical developments is suggested. PMID:22840644

  18. Miniaturization through lab-on-a-chip: utopia or reality for routine laboratories? A review.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Angel; Zougagh, Mohammed; Avila, Mónica

    2012-08-31

    Micro total analysis (μTAS), also called "lab-on-a-chip (LOC)" technology, promises solutions for high throughput and highly specific analysis for chemistry, biology and medicine, while consuming only tiny amounts of samples, reactants and space. This article reports selected contributions of LOC, which represent clear practical approaches for routine work, or presenting potentiality to be transferred to routine analytical laboratories. Taking into account the present LOC state-of-the-art, we identify various reasons for its scarce implementation in routine analytical laboratories despite its high analytical potential, as well as the probably main "niche" for successfully practical developments is suggested.

  19. Feasibility study of a portable PIXE system using a 210Po alpha source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, G.; de Sanoit, J.; Musumarra, A.; Calvi, G.; Marchetta, C.

    1996-04-01

    An alpha source which consists of 1 mCi of 210Po electro-deposited on 1 μm thin Ag foil attached to a ceramic backing has been prepared. The overall geometry exhibits a truncated-conical shape. The source has been coupled to a standard 10 mm diameter Si(Li) X-rays detector connected to a portable electronic system (ORTEC-NOMAD). The analysed area of the exposed samples is 16 mm in diameter. Preliminary results state that medium-light elements, like Ca, Ti, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni and Cu can be easily analysed at concentrations of some per cent. Lighter elements determination is affected by the enhancing presence of X-rays generated in the Ag foil and by some chlorine impurities. PIXE measurements of attic greek pottery sherds are discussed.

  20. Determination of trace elements in hair of Wilson's disease patients using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Yin; Liu, Pingsheng; Zhang, Runhua; Liu, Guilin; Zhang, Zhengxin; Feng, Yinkun; Liu, Guodong; Sun, Guiqin; Wang, Shizhen

    1987-03-01

    The contents of nine elements (P, S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Se, Sr) in the hair of 52 patients with Wilson's disease (HLD) and 52 well matched healthy controls were determined by the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method and they were in good agreement with published data. The apparently abnormal contents of Ca and Cu in the patient's hair were not observed. The Zn content of hair in Wilson's disease patients with splenomegaly was obviously higher than that in the matched controls ( P < 0.025). The abnormal content of Zn seems to indicate that Wilson's disease is a disease with a multielemental metabolic disturbance. Our results provide a proper ground for treatment of Wilson's disease patients with zinc sulphate. In contrast to reports from western countries, the content of Cu in the hair of healthy females was lower than that of healthy males.

  1. Study of ancient Islamic gilded pieces combining PIXE-RBS on external microprobe with sem images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Chamón, J.; Gutiérrez, P. C.; Gomez-Morilla, I.; Enguita, O.; Pardo, A. I.; Arroyo, M.; Barrio, J.; Ferretti, M.; Climent-Font, A.

    2008-07-01

    Numerous metallic objects with very aesthetic and technological qualities have been recovered by archaeological excavations. Adequate processes of restoration and conservation treatments require the accurate determination of the elemental composition and distribution within the objects, as well as the identification of the nature and distribution of the corrosion products. Ideally the identification method should cause no alteration in the sample. In this work, different archaeological pieces with a gilded look have been characterized using simultaneously PIXE and RBS at the CMAM external microprobe in order to study the gilding metalworking done in the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. The gold layer thickness and its elemental concentrations of Ag, Au and Hg were determined by both techniques and compared with the scanning electron microscopy images obtained for some fragments of pieces.

  2. PIXE characterization of CsI(Tl) scintillators used for particle detection in nuclear reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, N.; Casini, G.; Frosini, M.; Tobia, G.; Marchi, T.

    2008-05-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission has been used to measure Thallium concentration in several CsI(Tl) scintillators from different manufacturers, in order to check their nominal declared values and correlate their behaviour with actual Tl concentration. Indeed, both Tl doping level and its uniformity affect light emission of these detectors, which are largely employed in nuclear physics experiments. In some of the examined crystals Tl concentration values from PIXE measurements came out to be quite different from those declared. This allowed us to explain apparent anomalies in the trend of their α/γ-induced light yield ratio versus Tl content. In some cases, the presence of unexpected contaminants was also pointed out.

  3. Micro-PIXE line-scan measurements of the yellow eel's otolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Guo, H.; Tang, W.; Wei, K.; Shen, H.; Yang, M.; Mi, Y.

    2011-10-01

    Anguilla japonica has a high economic value. The abundance had decreased significantly due to excessive fishing and change in the aquatic ecology. Life history patterns of A. japonica have been studied to prevent excessive fishing and make management plans. Strontium (Sr)-calcium (Ca) ratio along a line down the long axis from the core to the edge of the yellow eel's otolith was measured using micro proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). An efficient and precise method was proposed to locate the core where an otolith begins to grow, based on Sr concentration and distribution. Using this method, life history patterns of the yellow eels collected from Jingjiang River in China were investigated. In general, there are two types, river eels and estuarine eels.

  4. Determination of elemental concentrations of iron gall ink components by PIXE

    SciTech Connect

    Budnar, Milos; Simcic, Jure; Ursic, Mitja; Rupnik, Zdravko; Kolar, Jana; Strlic, Matija

    2003-08-26

    The harmful effects of the iron gall ink on the supporting media (i.e. paper, parchment) are known for a long time. High contents of the catalytic ions and acids present in the ink can cause corrosion of the support and even its irreversible damage. Several historical documents from National and University Library (NUL) are being studied. The samples were measured nondestructively by the in-air PIXE for determination of the iron gall elemental composition. The measured concentrations prove that the analyzed inks contain a variety of different transition metals, which may influence the ink's corrosive character. For already measured documents dating from 14th to 19th century the ink and paper elemental concentrations and their ratios to iron were studied by the statistical methods.

  5. Roman onyx glass: A study of production recipes and colorants, using PIXE spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    1994-03-01

    The most attractive Roman glass produced during the latter half of the 1st century B.C. was mosaic ware — vessels and dishes molded from arrays of composite, multi-colored canes which create abstract floral and geometric designs. We have studied a range of such vessels, all of them colored amber and white in a way which was intended to imitate elite vessels that were carved from onyx stone. We have differentiated three ways in which onyx patterns were achieved in this glass. Taking advantage of the spatial resolution and detection sensitivity of PIXE spectrometry, we have studied the "recipes" for colorants used in these onyx patterns, thus raising the notion that each one may have been fashionable in just certain regions of the Roman World, and/or in vogue only during a certain time period.

  6. Application of PIXE to the study of Renaissance style enamelled gold jewelry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weldon, M.; Carlson, J.; Reedy, S.; Swann, C. P.

    1996-04-01

    This study examines and compares three pieces of Renaissance style gold and enamelled jewelry owned by the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, MD, USA. These are a 16th century Hat Badge of Adam and Eve, a 19th century Fortitude Pendant and a Diana Pendant presumed to be of the 16th century (The Walters Art Gallery, Jewelry, Ancient to Modern (Viking, New York, 1979)), Ref. [1]. PIXE spectroscopy was applied to examine the elemental composition of the gold and of the enamels. Compositional differences, including the use of post-Renaissance colorants, were found between the enamels in separate regions of each of the three pieces. The modern colorant, chromium, was, in fact, found in all of the pieces and uranium was found in only the Diana Pendant. There are some differences in the gold purity of the three objects; there are significant differences in the solders used even within one object, the Fortitude Pendant.

  7. Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE

    SciTech Connect

    Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2013-05-06

    X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  8. Provenance studies of Central European Neolithic obsidians using external beam milli-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2014-01-01

    External beam milli-PIXE technique was used for the determination of the elemental concentration ratios in some Prehistoric obsidian tools found in Transylvania, in the Iron Gates region near Danube, as well as on a few relevant geological obsidian samples from Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari, Armenia. As provenance "fingerprints" the Ti to Mn and Rb to Zr ratios were used. The results confirm that the Transylvanian Neolithic samples have a Slovak Tokaj Mountains provenance. For Iron Gates samples, there are at least two different geological sources: for Late Neolithic tools, the origin is also the Slovak Tokaj Mountains but for Late Mesolithic-Early Neolithic samples, the sources are clearly different, possibly of the Hungarian Tokaj Mountains or the Balkan-Aegean origin.

  9. Determination of elemental composition of river water and slime by PIXE method

    SciTech Connect

    Augustyniak, S.; Jarczyk, L.; Lenczowska, J.B.; Rokita, E.; Slominska, D.

    1981-04-01

    The application of PIXE method was developed for determination of concentration of different elements in river water and bottom slime. The internal standard technique was applied for quantitative evaluation of contents of different elements. In case of river water yttrium standard was used in form of yttrium nitrate solution. The measurements for bottom slime was performed with external beam using standards with predetermined concentration of different elements. The concentration of following elements: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Hg, Pb was determined with the described procedure. The estimated concentration of elements ranged from about 0.05 to about 200 ppm for water samples and from about 1.5 to about 30000 ppm in bottom slime samples.

  10. Investigation of strontium accumulation on ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rat tibia by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Li, Y.; Jin, W.; Zheng, Y.; Rong, C.; Lyu, H.; Shen, H.

    2014-08-01

    Strontium ranelate is a newly developed drug effective in osteoporosis treatment by depressing bone resorption and maintaining bone formation. Strontium accumulation and distribution are determined in bones of rat after strontium ranelate administration by using micro-PIXE. The investigated rats are divided into four groups: (A) control, (B) ovariectomized, (C) ovariectomized followed with strontium chloride, (D) ovariectomized followed with strontium ranelate. It was found that strontium ranelate would result in increasing trabecular volume and decreasing bone resorption to treat osteoporosis. There are similar contours of calcium and strontium in two-dimensional images, while the strontium is not evenly distributed in the bone. It supports the conclusion that strontium has an affinity for bone and it is capable of replacing calcium atoms as a part of the strontium mechanism in the osteoporosis treatment. The results related to biochemistry are also discussed.

  11. An Apparatus For Student Projects Using External-Beam PIXE And PIGE

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, Francis D.; Edsall, Douglas W.; DePooter, Katherine A.; Maskell, Nicholas D.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.

    2011-06-01

    We recently installed a simple endstation at the Naval Academy Tandem Accelerator Laboratory to support student projects using external-beam PIXE and PIGE. It consists of a short, graphite-lined beamline extension with a thin window, an interlocked box that surrounds the target, detectors for x- and gamma rays, provision for flooding the target with helium gas, easily changed x-ray absorbers, and a compact video camera for monitoring the position of the beam spot. We used this system to measure the elemental composition of colonial-era architectural materials, principally bricks and mortar, from James Madison's Montpelier, the reconstructed Virginia estate of the fourth President of the United States. We describe the design and construction of the system, relate some of our experiences using it, and present some preliminary data from our investigations.

  12. Applications of PIXE to biological and biomedical samples at the university of gent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.; Duflou, H.; De Reuck, J.

    1987-03-01

    The research on biological and biomedical samples, conducted at the University of Gent during the last 4-5 years and using PIXE as analytical technique, is presented. Our optimized sample/target preparation methods are described, and the accuracy and precision obtainable with them are discussed. Two comprehensive biological/biomedical research projects, initiated at Gent, are presented. The first aims at investigating possible trace element changes in tissues of experimental animals (rats) as a result of liver necrosis or cirrhosis, induced by intraperitoneal injection with CCl 4. The second project involves the determination of the regional distribution of trace elements in the human brain. Eight elements, i.e. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb, are being measured in up to 50 different regions of 12 normal brains, and in selected brain regions from patients with neurological disorders. Some of the results of the two projects are discussed.

  13. Studies on bronze pre-monetary signs found in Dobroudja using XRF and micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D.; Talmatchi, G.; Ceccato, D.

    2016-03-01

    We performed compositional analyses on 180 Scythian-type arrowheads and pre-monetary signs using XRF method and on 60 small fragments of such items (approx. 100 microns diameter), sampling being performed on previously corrosion-cleaned areas on their surface, using micro-PIXE. The items are found in Dobroudja, Istros-Histria region. The most relevant for numismatists result is that for each finding place the same type of alloy was used both for fighting arrowheads and for pre-monetary signs. Our analyses revealed three types of alloys: Cu-Sn-Pb ("normal" bronze), Cu-Sn-Mn-Pb and Cu-Sn-Sb-Pb. The presence of antimony suggests the use of fahlore-type poly-metals deposits, most probably from Caucasus Mountains. The problem of ancient bronze containing manganese is more complicated; an explanation could be the use of manganese oxides as flux necessary to smelt oxidized ores.

  14. SymPix: A Spherical Grid for Efficient Sampling of Rotationally Invariant Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seljebotn, D. S.; Eriksen, H. K.

    2016-02-01

    We present SymPix, a special-purpose spherical grid optimized for efficiently sampling rotationally invariant linear operators. This grid is conceptually similar to the Gauss-Legendre (GL) grid, aligning sample points with iso-latitude rings located on Legendre polynomial zeros. Unlike the GL grid, however, the number of grid points per ring varies as a function of latitude, avoiding expensive oversampling near the poles and ensuring nearly equal sky area per grid point. The ratio between the number of grid points in two neighboring rings is required to be a low-order rational number (3, 2, 1, 4/3, 5/4, or 6/5) to maintain a high degree of symmetries. Our main motivation for this grid is to solve linear systems using multi-grid methods, and to construct efficient preconditioners through pixel-space sampling of the linear operator in question. As a benchmark and representative example, we compute a preconditioner for a linear system that involves the operator \\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{D}}}+{\\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{B}}}}T{{\\boldsymbol{N}}}-1\\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{B}}}, where \\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{B}}} and \\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{D}}} may be described as both local and rotationally invariant operators, and {\\boldsymbol{N}} is diagonal in the pixel domain. For a bandwidth limit of {{\\ell }}{max} = 3000, we find that our new SymPix implementation yields average speed-ups of 360 and 23 for {\\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{B}}}}T{{\\boldsymbol{N}}}-1\\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{B}}} and \\widehat{{\\boldsymbol{D}}}, respectively, compared with the previous state-of-the-art implementation.

  15. Crystal Structure of the SH3 Domain of beta PIX in Complex with a High Affinity Peptide from PAK2

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelz,A.; Janz, J.; Lawrie, S.; Corwin, B.; Lee, A.; Sakmar, T.

    2006-01-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are important effector proteins of the small GTPases Cdc42 and Rac and control cytoskeletal rearrangements and cell proliferation. The direct interaction of PAKs with guanine nucleotide exchange factors from the PIX/Cool family, which is responsible for the localization of PAK kinases to focal complexes in the cell, is mediated by a 24-residue peptide segment in PAKs and an N-terminal src homology 3 (SH3) domain in PIX/Cool. The SH3-binding segment of PAK contains the atypical consensus-binding motif PxxxPR, which is required for unusually high affinity binding. In order to understand the structural basis for the high affinity and specificity of the PIX-PAK interaction, we solved crystal structures for the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX and for the complex of the atypical binding segment of PAK2 with the N-terminal SH3 domain of {beta}PIX at 0.92 Angstroms and 1.3 Angstroms resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contains two SH3 domains and two peptide ligands. The bound peptide adopts a conformation that allows for intimate contacts with three grooves on the surface of the SH3 domain that lie between the n-Src and RT-loops. Most notably, the arginine residue of the PxxxPR motif forms a salt-bridge and is tightly coordinated by a number of residues in the SH3 domain. This arginine-specific interaction appears to be the key determinant for the high affinity binding of PAK peptides. Furthermore, C-terminal residues of the peptide engage in additional interactions with the surface of the RT-loop, which significantly increases binding specificity. Compared to a recent NMR structure of a similar complex, our crystal structure reveals an alternate binding mode. Finally, we compare our crystal structure with the recently published {beta}PIX/Cbl-b complex structure, and suggest the existence of a molecular switch.

  16. Obsidian provenance determination using the beam stability controlled BSC-XRF and the PIXE-alpha portable spectrometers of the LANDIS laboratory: the case of the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea (Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, L.; Romano, F. P.; Bracchitta, D.; Massimino, A.; Palio, O.; Rizzo, F.

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade about 800 obsidian artifacts coming from various archaeological sites of Sicily have been analyzed using the BSC-XRF (beam stability controlled-x-ray fluorescence) and PIXE-alpha (particle induced x-ray emission, using low-energy alpha particles) portable spectrometers developed at the Landis laboratory of the LNS-INFN and IBAM-CNR in Catania (Italy). The portable BSC-XRF system allows the non-destructive analysis of Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Nb trace concentrations, which are considered to be characteristic of the obsidian samples and consequently are indicative of the provenance quarries. Quantitative data on the above trace-element concentrations were deduced using a method that makes use of a multi-parameter linear regression. The portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer allows the quantitative determination of the matrix major elements, from Na to Zn. In this paper the updated versions of the instrumental devices and methods are presented together with a review of all the obtained data from various Sicilian sites. Results on compositional data for trace elements and major elements allowed us to identify Lipari and Pantelleria islands as the only two sources of the analyzed samples. Recent data about the Via Capuana settlement in Licodia Eubea are also presented and discussed for the first time.

  17. Advantages and Limitations of Direct PCR Amplification of Bacterial 16S-rDNA from Resected Heart Tissue or Swabs Followed by Direct Sequencing for Diagnosing Infective Endocarditis: A Retrospective Analysis in the Routine Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Maneg, Daniela; Sponsel, Janina; Müller, Iris; Lohr, Benedikt; Penders, John; Madlener, Katharina; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Its long-term prognosis strongly depends on a timely and optimized antibiotic treatment. Therefore, identification of the causative pathogen is crucial and currently based on blood cultures followed by characterization and susceptibility testing of the isolate. However, antibiotic treatment starting prior to blood sampling or IE caused by fastidious or intracellular microorganisms may cause negative culture results. Here we investigate the additional diagnostic value of broad-range PCR in combination with direct sequencing on resected heart tissue or swabs in patients with tissue or swab culture-negative IE in a routine clinical setting. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of broad-range PCR from diagnostic material in our patients were 33.3%, 76.9%, 90.9%, and 14.3%, respectively. We identified a total of 20 patients (21.5%) with tissue or culture-negative IE who profited by the additional application of broad-range PCR. We conclude that broad-range PCR on resected heart tissue or swabs is an important complementary diagnostic approach. It should be seen as an indispensable new tool for both the therapeutic and diagnostic management of culture-negative IE and we thus propose its possible inclusion in Duke's diagnostic classification scheme. PMID:27110570

  18. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety.

  19. Just a routine operation: a critical discussion.

    PubMed

    McClelland, G; Smith, M B

    2016-05-01

    This article has summarised a critical discussion of the human factors that contributed to the death of a patient from a failure to respond appropriately to a 'can't intubate, can't ventilate' scenario. The contributory factors included the clinical team's inability to communicate, prioritise tasks and demonstrate effective leadership and assertive followership. The film Just a routine operation has now been in circulation for several years. When a system is designed and introduced with the intention of making a change to clinical practice, it can quickly become just another component of an organisation's architecture and complacency around its use can develop. This article has been written specifically for perioperative practitioners to renew the debate around the human factors that contribute to patient harm. By critically discussing Just a routine operation and attempting to review why the incident occurred, this article has attempted to emphasise that some of the conditions and behaviours that contributed to the death of Elaine Bromiley may be latent within our organisations and teams, and may continue to contribute to failures that affect patient safety. PMID:27400489

  20. Multiple electron scattering routines for PEREGRINE

    SciTech Connect

    White, J A

    1999-08-23

    The Monte Carlo electron scattering routines solve multiple elastic scatters in a condensed history approach. The Goudsmit-Saunderson scattering model is used and its implementation is taken from Kawrakow and Bielajew[l]. The subroutines produce an exit angle representing a likely scattering angle of a single incident electron after scattering elastically over a given step size. Two input parameters, {lambda} and {eta}, that depend on the atomic species and incident energy must first be specified. The mapping from species and energy to 77 and {lambda} already existed in the PEREGRINE code and was not redone or modified in any way. The software has been validated by comparisons to Moliere and Goudsmit-Saunderson models of D.W.O. Rogers[2]. As required by licensing considerations, no public domain or copyrighted software has been used in any phase of the preparation of any of these sub-routines or data files. Apart from needing to have {eta} and {lambda} specified through PEREGRINE, the code provided is completely self-contained. Everything is written in the FORTRAN 77 language to simplify inclusion in the existing PEREGRINE package.

  1. MATHEMATICAL ROUTINES FOR ENGINEERS AND SCIENTISTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this package is to provide the scientific and engineering community with a library of programs useful for performing routine mathematical manipulations. This collection of programs will enable scientists to concentrate on their work without having to write their own routines for solving common problems, thus saving considerable amounts of time. This package contains sixteen subroutines. Each is separately documented with descriptions of the invoking subroutine call, its required parameters, and a sample test program. The functions available include: maxima, minima, and sort of vectors; factorials; random number generator (uniform or Gaussian distribution); complimentary error function; fast Fourier Transformation; Simpson's Rule integration; matrix determinate and inversion; Bessel function (J Bessel function for any order, and modified Bessel function for zero order); roots of a polynomial; roots of non-linear equation; and the solution of first order ordinary differential equations using Hamming's predictor-corrector method. There is also a subroutine for using a dot matrix printer to plot a given set of y values for a uniformly increasing x value. This package is written in FORTRAN 77 (Super Soft Small System FORTRAN compiler) for batch execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series under MS-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 28K of 8 bit bytes for all subroutines. This program was developed in 1986.

  2. CPU timing routines for a CONVEX C220 computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bynum, Mary Ann

    1989-01-01

    The timing routines available on the CONVEX C220 computer system in the Structural Mechanics Division (SMD) at NASA Langley Research Center are examined. The function of the timing routines, the use of the timing routines in sequential, parallel, and vector code, and the interpretation of the results from the timing routines with respect to the CONVEX model of computing are described. The timing routines available on the SMD CONVEX fall into two groups. The first group includes standard timing routines generally available with UNIX 4.3 BSD operating systems, while the second group includes routines unique to the SMD CONVEX. The standard timing routines described in this report are /bin/csh time,/bin/time, etime, and ctime. The routines unique to the SMD CONVEX are getinfo, second, cputime, toc, and a parallel profiling package made up of palprof, palinit, and palsum.

  3. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Liang-Man; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Yuan-Xim; Li, Yan; Lin, Jun; Liu, Wei; Cao, Qing-Chen; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Han, Yong

    2009-11-01

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The Sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO2-4. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  4. The Integrin‐Mediated ILK‐Parvin‐αPix Signaling Axis Controls Differentiation in Mammary Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Nicholas; Wang, Pengbo; Brennan, Keith; Gilmore, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial cell adhesion to the surrounding extracellular matrix is necessary for their proper behavior and function. During pregnancy and lactation, mammary epithelial cells (MECs) receive signals from their interaction with laminin via β1‐integrin (β1‐itg) to establish apico‐basal polarity and to differentiate in response to prolactin. Downstream of β1‐itg, the scaffold protein Integrin Linked Kinase (ILK) has been identified as the key signal transducer that is required for both lactational differentiation and the establishment of apico‐basal polarity. ILK is an adaptor protein that forms the IPP complex with PINCH and Parvins, which are central to its adaptor functions. However, it is not known how ILK and its interacting partners control tissue‐specific gene expression. Expression of ILK mutants, which weaken the interaction between ILK and Parvin, revealed that Parvins have a role in mammary epithelial differentiation. This conclusion was supported by shRNA‐mediated knockdown of the Parvins. In addition, shRNA knockdown of the Parvin‐binding guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPix prevented prolactin‐induced differentiation. αPix depletion did not disrupt focal adhesions, MEC proliferation, or polarity. This suggests that αPix represents a differentiation‐specific bifurcation point in β1‐itg‐ILK adhesive signaling. In summary, this study has identified a new role for Parvin and αPix downstream of the integrin‐ILK signaling axis for MEC differentiation. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2408–2417, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27019299

  5. The PixFEL project: development of advanced X-ray pixel detectors for application at future FEL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Pancheri, L.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.; Mendicino, R.; Benkechkache, M. A.

    2015-02-01

    The PixFEL project aims to develop an advanced X-ray camera for imaging suited for the demanding requirements of next generation free electron laser (FEL) facilities. New technologies can be deployed to boost the performance of imaging detectors as well as future pixel devices for tracking. In the first phase of the PixFEL project, approved by the INFN, the focus will be on the development of the microelectronic building blocks, carried out with a 65 nm CMOS technology, implementing a low noise analog front-end channel with high dynamic range and compression features, a low power ADC and high density memory. At the same time PixFEL will investigate and implement some of the enabling technologies to assembly a seamless large area X-ray camera composed by a matrix of multilayer four-side buttable tiles. A pixel matrix with active edge will be developed to minimize the dead area of the sensor layer. Vertical interconnection of two CMOS tiers will be explored to build a four-side buttable readout chip with small pixel pitch and all the on-board required functionalities. The ambitious target requirements of the new pixel device are: single photon resolution, 1 to 104 photons @ 1 keV to 10 keV input dynamic range, 10-bit analog to digital conversion up to 5 MHz, 1 kevent in-pixel memory and 100 μm pixel pitch. The long term goal of PixFEL will be the development of a versatile X-ray camera to be operated either in burst mode (European XFEL), or in continuous mode to cope with the high frame rates foreseen for the upgrade phase of the LCLS-II at SLAC.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MgH in the A2{Pi}-X2{Sigma}+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, K. H.; Wallace, L.; Ram, R. S.; Bernath, P. F.; Sneden, C.; Lucatello, S.

    2013-09-01

    Rotationally resolved lines within the A2{Pi}-X2{ transition of the 25MgH and 26MgH isotopologues were measured from spectra recorded by J. Black, P. F. Bernath, C. R. Brazier, and R. Hubbard in 1984 (National Solar Observatory (NSO) archive reference 1984/03/13/#2) with the 1m Fourier transform spectrometer associated with the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope of the NSO at Kitt Peak. (6 data files).

  7. Design and characterization of the ePix10k: a high dynamic range integrating pixel ASIC for LCLS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2015-05-01

    ePix10k is a variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. The ASIC is optimized for high dynamic range application requiring high spatial resolution and fast frame rates. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix10k variant has 100um×100um pixels arranged in a 176×192 matrix, a resolution of 140e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 3.5pC (10k photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 2kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized. Performance in terms of noise, linearity, uniformity, cross-talk, together with preliminary measurements with bump bonded sensors are reported here.

  8. The complementarity of PIXE and PIGE techniques: A case study of size segregated airborne particulates collected from a Nigeria city.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, G C; Obioh, I B; Asubiojo, O I; Chiari, M; Nava, S; Calzolai, G; Lucarelli, F; Nuviadenu, C

    2015-09-01

    The Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique is a reliable ion beam analytical tool for the characterization of thin aerosol samples, but it can underestimate the lightest measurable elements (such as Na, Mg, Al and Si) owing to the absorption of their X-rays inside the sample. The Proton Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) technique could be employed as avalid means to determine corrections for such an effect. Hence, in this study, Fine (PM(2.5)) and Coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter samples collected at Ikeja, Lagos-Nigeria, using a double staged 'Gent' stacked sampler were analyzed for their elemental concentrations using an external beam set-up for simultaneous PIXE and PIGE measurements. The measured PIXE concentrations as well as the PIGE correction factors for Na and Al detected in the PM(10-2.5) samples (collected on polycarbonate Nuclepore membranes) are reported. The concentrations of 24 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) detected in both fractions were displayed, discussed and likely sources of these elements were also identified.

  9. Elemental imaging of organic matter and associated metals in ore deposits using micro PIXE and micro-EBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, S.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE and micro-EBS analyses were carried out on samples from the Au-U-bearing Carbon Leader Reef of the Witwatersrand in South Africa to investigate the role of organic matter in the formation of this deposit. Micro-PIXE and Micro-EBS shows a very complex metal distribution within the bitumen nodules and their interstitial spaces. The style of the gold distribution and its association with epigenetic minerals (REE phosphates, phyllosilicates) indicates that all observed gold migrated in aqueous solution and precipitated by reduction on the surfaces of the bitumen nodules. Uraninite occurrences are confined to the bitumen nodules, which supports the argument of a uraninite paleo-placer; however the pervasive distribution of uranium also supports the argument that uraninite is derived from organo-metallic complexes. This study shows that micro-PIXE is a powerful tool to characterize metals associated with hydrocarbons. However, the organic matrix, the complexity of the obtained spectra and the small size of the minerals have significant influence on the reliability of the quantitative data. Due to highly variable amounts of heavy metals (U, Au, Pb) the obtained micro-EBS results are of questionable quality.

  10. Conference on Instrumental Activation Analysis: IAA 89

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vobecky, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 40 abstracts of papers all of which have been incorporated in INIS. The papers were centred on the applications of radioanalytical methods, especially on neutron activation analysis, x ray fluorescence analysis, PIXE analysis and tracer techniques in biology, medicine and metallurgy, measuring instruments including microcomputers, and data processing methods.

  11. An adaptive data-smoothing routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Clayborne D.; Nicolas, David P.

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive noise reduction algorithm that can be implemented on a microcomputer is developed. Smoothing polynomials are used where the polynomial coefficients are chosen such that the mean-square-error between the noisy and smoothed data is minimized. This approach is equivalent to the implementation of a low-pass finite impulse response filter. The noise reduction depends on the order of the smoothing polynomial. A whiteness test on the error sequence is incorporated to search for the optimal smoothing. Expansion coefficients may be computed via the fast Fourier transform, and the resulting smoothing process is the equivalent of the implementation of an adaptive ideal low-pass filter. Results are obtained for an analytical signal with added white Gaussian noise. The routine may be applied to any smooth signal with additive random noise.

  12. One year of campaigns in Cameroon: effects on routine health services

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Edengue, Jean Marie; Lagarde, Mylene; Baonga, Simon Franky; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Targeted campaigns have been reported to disrupt routine health services in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the average effect of public health campaigns over 1 year on routine services such as antenatal care, routine vaccination and outpatient services. Method: We collected daily activity data in 60 health facilities in two regions of Cameroon that traditionally undergo different intensities of campaign activity, the Centre region (low) and the Far North (high), to ascertain effects on routine services. For each outcome, we restricted our analysis to the public health centres for which good data were available and excluded private health facilities given their small number. We used segment-linear regression to account for the longitudinal nature of the data, and assessed whether the number of routine activities decreased in health facilities during periods when campaigns occurred. The analysis controlled for secular trends and serial correlation. Results: We found evidence that vaccination campaigns had a negative impact on routine activities, decreasing outpatient visits when they occurred (Centre: −9.9%, P = 0.079; Far North: −11.6%, P = 0.025). The average negative effect on routine services [outpatient visits −18% (P = 0.02) and antenatal consultations −70% [P = 0.001]) was most pronounced in the Far North during ‘intensive’ campaigns that usually require high mobilization of staff. Discussion: With an increasing number of interventions delivered by campaigns and in the context of elimination and eradication targets, these are important results for countries and agencies to consider. Achieving disease control targets hinges on ensuring high uptake of routine services. Therefore, we suggest that campaigns should systematically monitor ‘impact on routine services’, while also devising concrete strategies to mitigate potential adverse effects. PMID:27175031

  13. When Routines Are Not so Routine: Exploring Coordination Work in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haque, Saira Naim

    2010-01-01

    Many work processes take place through routines, or recurrent patterns of action. These activities involve individuals from several occupations working across spatial, temporal, and organizational boundaries. Crossing these professional, temporal and spatial boundaries has unique challenges which can lead to coordination failures. In these…

  14. 29 CFR 18.406 - Habit; routine practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Relevancy and Its Limits § 18.406 Habit; routine practice. Evidence of the habit of a person or of the routine practice of an organization,...

  15. Polio inactivated vaccine costs into routine childhood immunization in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine, Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger, Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; Soárez, Patricia Coelho de; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the "National Immunization Days", during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of "National Immunization Days" carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one "National Immunization Day" was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011.

  16. Polio inactivated vaccine costs into routine childhood immunization in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine, Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger, Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; de Soárez, Patricia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the “National Immunization Days”, during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of “National Immunization Days” carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one “National Immunization Day” was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011. PMID:25741645

  17. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zadro, A.; Passi, P.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.

    1999-06-10

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton {mu}beam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some {mu}A were used. The maps were obtained by an 'ad hoc' software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  18. The marginal leakage of some dental cements in humans: a PIXE-microbeam approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadro, A.; Cavalleri, G.; Galassini, S.; Moschini, G.; Rossi, P.; Passi, P.

    1999-06-01

    The marginal leakage and water absorption of dental cements and restorative materials has been investigated by many authors with several techniques, some of which led to valid results. However, no technique could give, by itself, information both on leakage and water absorption, as these measurements usually need different investigations. PIXE micro beam offers the possibility of investigating these two aspects at the same time, since it is possible to map a proper marker element. In the present study, cavities were made on 50 extracted human molars, then filled with five different temporary cements (IRM, Cavit W, Kalsogen, Fermit N, SuperEBA). The filled teeth were placed into a 5% silver nitrate solution, and after three days, one, two, three and four weeks were examined. The samples for microPIXE were prepared after embedding the teeth in epoxy resin, and sectioning and grinding them down to a thickness of about 1 mm. The sections were placed on metal holders, and examined with a scanning proton μbeam, in Legnaro (Italy) at the AN2000 LAB of INFN National Laboratories. The beam consisted of 2.4 MeV protons, it had a cross section of 1.5 micron in diameter and typical currents of the order of some μA were used. The maps were obtained by an "ad hoc" software with a McIntosh personal computer. Mapping of silver allowed to evaluate both the marginal leakage and the water absorption for each cement. The samples filled with Cavit W showed a great infiltration, as the tracing element was found in the cement bulk, along the margins and inside the cavity, while those filled with IRM and Kalsogen presented only a deposition of the tracing solution on the cement surface. SuperEBA showed a poor resistance against microleakage, because the marker element was only detected along the cavity margins. Fermit N showed the best marginal integrity, and on its surface no traces of siver were found. In this case the better resistance may be due to the resin present in the

  19. Rituals and Routines: Supporting Infants and Toddlers and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Linda; Petersen, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The words "routine" and "ritual" are sometimes used interchangeably. Yet there are some important differences. Routines are repeated, predictable events that provide a foundation for the daily tasks in a child's life. Teachers can create a predictable routine in early childhood settings for infants and toddlers, and they can individualize those…

  20. [The controversy of routine articulator mounting in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Han, Xianglong; Bai, Ding

    2013-06-01

    Articulators have been widely used by clinicians of dentistry. But routine articulator mounting is still controversial in orthodontics. Orthodontists oriented by gnathology approve routine articulator mounting while nongnathologic orthodontists disapprove it. This article reviews the thoughts of orthodontist that they agree or disagree with routine articulator mounting based on the considerations of biting, temporomandibular disorder (TMD), periodontitis, and so on.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  2. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  3. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  4. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  5. 42 CFR 493.1210 - Condition: Routine chemistry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition: Routine chemistry. 493.1210 Section 493....1210 Condition: Routine chemistry. If the laboratory provides services in the subspecialty of Routine chemistry, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through 493.1256, §...

  6. Routines and Transitions: A Guide for Early Childhood Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malenfont, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    In early childhood settings, children spend over 50 percent of their time on handwashing, dressing, napping, and other routines and transitions. "Routines and Transitions" is a guide to help turn these routine daily activities into learning experiences. By using transitions wisely, providers not only help children develop skills, but also run a…

  7. Magmatic Vapor Phase Transport of Copper in Reduced Porphyry Copper-Gold Deposits: Evidence From PIXE Microanalysis of Fluid Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowins, S. M.; Yeats, C. J.; Ryan, C. G.

    2002-05-01

    Nondestructive proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) studies of magmatic fluid inclusions in granite-related Sn-W deposits [1] reveal that copper transport out of reduced felsic magmas is favored by low-salinity vapor and not co-existing high-salinity liquid (halite-saturated brine). Copper transport by magmatic vapor also has been documented in oxidized porphyry Cu-Au deposits, but the magnitude of Cu partitioning into the vapor compared to the brine generally is less pronounced than in the reduced magmatic Sn-W systems [2]. Consideration of these microanalytical data leads to the hypothesis that Cu and, by inference, Au in the recently established "reduced porphyry copper-gold" (RPCG) subclass should partition preferentially into vapor and not high-salinity liquid exsolving directly from fluid-saturated magmas [3-4]. To test this hypothesis, PIXE microanalysis of primary fluid inclusions in quartz-sulfide (pyrite, pyrrhotite & chalcopyrite) veins from two RPCG deposits was undertaken using the CSIRO-GEMOC nuclear microprobe. PIXE microanalysis for the ~30 Ma San Anton deposit (Mexico) was done on halite-saturated aqueous brine (<10 vol.% vapor) and co-existing low-salinity aqueous vapor (<20 vol.% liquid) inclusions. Results indicate that vapor inclusions have higher concentrations of Cu (typically 1000's of ppm; max. 7277 ppm) compared to brine inclusions (typically 100's of ppm). Brine inclusions also are much higher in Cl (Na), K, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Fe. Only Pb concentrations approach those in the vapor. Metal ratios such as Cu/Fe and Cu/Zn are 2 to 167 times higher in the vapor compared with the brine inclusions. Cu/Pb ratios are 2 to 15 times higher in the vapor than in the brine. PIXE microanalysis for the ~617 Ma 17 Mile Hill deposit (W. Australia) was done on halite-saturated "aqueous" inclusions, which contain a small (<10 vol.%) bubble of carbonic fluid, and adjacent "carbonic" inclusions, which have a thin rim of aqueous liquid (<10 vol.%) wetting the

  8. CULA: hybrid GPU accelerated linear algebra routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Paolini, Aaron L.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2010-04-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of nearly 1 TFLOPS peak throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU and an excellent FLOPS/watt ratio. High-level linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring O(N3) operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on CULA, a GPU accelerated implementation of linear algebra routines. We present results from factorizations such as LU decomposition, singular value decomposition and QR decomposition along with applications like system solution and least squares. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally.

  9. Closed cycle refrigeration for routine magnetotransport measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardana, Binuka; Ye, Tianyu; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    Condensed matter physics is often interested in the behavior of materials at very low temperatures. Low temperatures have traditionally been realized using liquid helium. However, the recent scarcity of liquid helium and the rapid rise in its cost has encouraged the development of alternative approaches, based on closed cycle refrigerators, for realizing low temperatures. Here, we convey our experiences in developing a home-made, low cost, variable temperature closed cycle refrigeration system for routine magnetotransport measurements down to 10K, and present measurements obtained with this system relating to the electronic properties of the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D semiconductors system. The setup was constructed to examine 0.5cm × 0.5cm semiconductor chips including up to 49 leads and reach ~ 10K within 3 hours. A computer controlled data acquisition system was assembled to collect resistivity and Hall effect data, and extract the carrier Hall mobility and density as a function of the temperature.

  10. Don't neglect routine staff meetings.

    PubMed

    Board, H K

    1982-03-01

    Staff meetings are essential to good staff communication. Meetings help keep the grapevine from growing so big that it strangles the group with its rumors. By holding regular meetings with your staff, you create a consistency in your communications that helps prevent problems that you don't even suspect from cropping up. All personnel should attend the meetings. This way everyone hears news at the same time. Be consistent in your use of meetings. Meetings are more effective if you have a planned agenda and a firm time schedule. Encourage your staff to use meetings to talk out problems that affect the group. Once the meeting is over, encourage them to leave their feelings in the room. Many leaders are reluctant, for a variety of reasons, to hold meetings with their staffs. But it's like dieting and exercise; the more you do it, the easier it becomes. This type of meeting will pay rich dividends in staff personal and professional growth and in improved communication. The sense of participation that can be gained by the effective use of staff meetings can lead to high morale and effective staff performance. As you begin to see the results of a cohesive staff functioning together well, you will realize the routine staff meeting is a management tool that should not be overlooked or underused.

  11. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  12. KCC2 regulates actin dynamics in dendritic spines via interaction with β-PIX.

    PubMed

    Llano, Olaya; Smirnov, Sergey; Soni, Shetal; Golubtsov, Andrey; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hotulainen, Pirta; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd; Rivera, Claudio; Ludwig, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Chloride extrusion in mature neurons is largely mediated by the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. In addition, independently of its chloride transport function, KCC2 regulates the development and morphology of dendritic spines through structural interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show a novel pathway for KCC2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. We found that KCC2, through interaction with the b isoform of Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX, regulates the activity of Rac1 GTPase and the phosphorylation of one of the major actin-regulating proteins, cofilin-1. KCC2-deficient neurons had abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin-1. Consistently, dendritic spines of these neurons exhibited a large pool of stable actin, resulting in reduced spine motility and diminished density of functional synapses. In conclusion, we describe a novel signaling pathway that couples KCC2 to the cytoskeleton and regulates the formation of glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26056138

  13. The PocketSpacecraft.com Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The PocketSpacecraft.com Integrated eXploration Environment (PIXE) is an integrated generic spacecraft design, simulation, manufacturing, and operations system for the low cost mass exploration of space by amateur and professional Principle Investigators (PIs). PIs use an online tool to design Thin-Film Spacecraft/Lander/Rovers (TF-SLRs) using a library of predefined spacecraft and mission components to specify TF-SLRs in quantities ranging from one to thousands per mission, each with a typical mass <1g, surface area <1m2, and

  14. PIXE reveals that two Murillo’s masterpieces were painted on Mexican obsidian slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Dubernet, S.; Poupeau, G.; Gendron, F.; Gonthier, E.; Meslay, O.; Tenorio, D.

    2005-10-01

    Two paintings by Murillo from the Louvre Museum entitled Agony in the garden and Penitent St. Peter kneeling before Christ and the column were analysed by PIXE to identify the nature of their unusual dark mineral backing. Considered until now as black marble, this support turns out to be obsidian, with an almost identical elemental composition for the two works. This composition was compared to that of six Mesoamerican unpainted obsidians labelled "smoking mirrors" with comparable size and shape from the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle and Musée de l'Homme and to that of geological samples from five Mexican sources. The trace element contents of Murillo's obsidians, in particular those of Mn, Zr, Sr, Y, Rb, Zr, Nb and Zn appeared to be very similar to that of four smoking mirrors and to that of obsidians from the Ucareo-Zinapécuaro source in central Mexico, an important complex of obsidian quarries exploited since pre-Hispanic times. A literature survey showed no such similarity with obsidians from other Mesoamerican sources or even from Mediterranean and surroundings source-areas. This study points out that Murillo, although living in Sevilla, had occasionally employed for his paintings materials shipped from the New World to Spain.

  15. KCC2 regulates actin dynamics in dendritic spines via interaction with β-PIX

    PubMed Central

    Llano, Olaya; Smirnov, Sergey; Soni, Shetal; Golubtsov, Andrey; Guillemin, Isabelle; Hotulainen, Pirta; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Chloride extrusion in mature neurons is largely mediated by the neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2. In addition, independently of its chloride transport function, KCC2 regulates the development and morphology of dendritic spines through structural interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. The mechanism of this effect remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show a novel pathway for KCC2-mediated regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. We found that KCC2, through interaction with the b isoform of Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX, regulates the activity of Rac1 GTPase and the phosphorylation of one of the major actin-regulating proteins, cofilin-1. KCC2-deficient neurons had abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin-1. Consistently, dendritic spines of these neurons exhibited a large pool of stable actin, resulting in reduced spine motility and diminished density of functional synapses. In conclusion, we describe a novel signaling pathway that couples KCC2 to the cytoskeleton and regulates the formation of glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26056138

  16. PIXE characterization of tissues surrounding metallic prostheses coated with biological glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbotteau, Y.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Biological glasses can be used as coatings for metallic prostheses in order to prevent corrosion. According to their composition, these glasses have different properties. We studied, in vivo, two glasses referred to as BVA and BVH. They are used as coatings of Ti6Al4V metallic implant. BVA glass disappears after 3 months of implantation and is replaced by bone. Prostheses initially coated by this glass have a larger osseous contact perimeter compared to the uncoated prostheses. This ensures a better anchoring of the implant and limits the micro-motions which cause wear debris. BVH glass keeps a constant composition during implantation and it is used like a layer which isolates metal implant from biological environment. In order to characterize the bony environment surrounding implants, we have used PIXE and RBS methods. This paper shows results of the behavior of bony tissue under micro-beam, the quality tests of new bone which replaces the BVA glass coating and the evaluation of corrosion effects. Titanium release in bony tissues begins when the metal surface of the prosthesis is exposed to biological fluids. After a few months of implantation, the titanium contamination is stabilized and remains localized within the first tens of micrometers of surrounding bone.

  17. Quantitative measurement of essential and not essential metals in muscular, hepatic and renal tissue of horses by means of PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balzan, S.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; De Poli, M.; Giaccone, V.; Moschini, G.; Novelli, E.; Olabanji, S. O.; Passi, P.; Tepedino, V.

    2004-06-01

    Nowadays, the food safety and the related health risks for humans are a major issue. It has become a priority to ensure the health and well-being of the population through the better scientific understanding of the food intake influence. A frequently found harmful feature of human diet is the simultaneous presence in food stuff of both essential and toxic elements. A significant example of this situation is represented by horse meat. The aim of this survey is to evaluate the elemental content of muscular, hepatic and renal tissues of horses bred in different countries of the East of Europe and slaughtered in Italy. The studied population consisted of about 100 individuals; the sampling period, coinciding with the highest market request, was extended from November to March. Freeze dried tissues were pelletized and carbon coated prior to analysis. The samples were analyzed using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique at the AN2000 van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN-National Laboratories of Legnaro. The accuracy of the results was verified using certified standard reference materials prepared and measured in the same experimental conditions. Results have highlighted the noble nutritional values of horse muscular tissue in terms of iron, zinc and calcium content. Cadmium was staidly identified in horse kidneys, with an average concentration of 257 μg/g on dried matter, while in liver it was sporadically present.

  18. Alloying elemental change of SS-316 and Al-5754 during laser welding using real time laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) accompanied by EDX and PIXE microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    Experimental studies of pulsed laser welding of stainless steel 316 in keyhole mode was done to examine a vaporization model based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. A long pulsed Nd:YAG laser with variable duration of 1-12 ms and 9-17 Gw/cm2 was employed. The undesirable loss of volatile elements affects on the weld metal compositions and the alloy properties. The model predicts that the loss of alloying elements strongly takes place at higher peak powers and longer pulse durations. On the other hand, the model shows the rapid migration of Mn and Cr based on the pressure and concentration gradients from the molten pool. Accordingly, the concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and manganese were determined in the weld pool by means of the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and proton induced X ray characteristics (PIXE) microanalysis. The change of weld metal composition of aluminium alloy 5754 in keyhole mode laser welding, was investigated using the model and was supported by the successive measurements. The model predicts that the concentration of magnesium in the weld metal decreases, while the aluminium concentration increases. Moreover, the real time concentrations of aluminium and magnesium elements in the weld metal were determined by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at different conditions. We conclude that variation of the Al to Mg concentration ratio is negligible with various laser power densities while it is strongly correlated to the pulse duration.

  19. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  20. Optimized immunohistochemistry in combination with image analysis: a reliable alternative to quantitative ELISA determination of uPA and PAI-1 for routine risk group discrimination in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, D S; Heilenkötter, U; Schumm, W; Behrens, O; Simon, R; Vollmer, E; Goldmann, T

    2013-10-01

    The determination of the invasion markers urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) has further improved the possibilities for individualized therapy of breast cancer. To date, quantitative measurement by ELISA, that needs large amounts of fresh, frozen material, is the only standardized procedure for diagnostic purposes. Therefore, the aim of this study was the establishment of a reliable alternative method based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and image analysis requiring only small amounts of fixed tumor tissue. Protein expression of uPA and PAI-1 was analyzed in HOPE-fixed tumor samples using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and semiquantitative image analysis. The results of both methods were significantly correlated and risk assessment showed an overall concordance of 78% (83/107; high- and low-risk) and of 94% (74/79) regarding only high-risk patients. The data demonstrate that optimized IHC in combination with image analysis can provide adequate clinical significance compared to ELISA-derived determination of uPA and PAI-1.