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Sample records for routine pixe analysis

  1. PIXE Analysis of Ceramic Artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, Elizabeth; Lamm, Larry; Schurr, Mark; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emissions, or PIXE, is a nuclear physics technique used as a non-destructive material analysis method which gives a detailed and comprehensive profile of the elemental composition of a target. Using the University of Notre Dame KN and FN accelerators in the ISNAP laboratory a beam of particles, here protons, is accelerated and used to knock out electrons from lower orbitals within the target resulting in characteristic X-rays. Under optimum operating conditions data from PIXE can not only give information about which elements are present in a sample but also their relative abundances in parts per million. In a previous run done in collaboration with the Anthropology Department at the University of Notre Dame pottery shards from the Collier Lodge, located in northwest Indiana, were analyzed and only relative abundances were able to be compared between samples. We are now implementing a new setup into the beam-line which will incorporate the ability to take Rutherford Back Scattering, or RBS, measurements of the beam during the PIXE runs, which will allow for a standard normalization for the runs and give the facility the ability to acquire a more absolute and quantitative analysis of the data. Initial results using the same pottery shards as a comparative data set will be presented.

  2. High-energy PIXE: quantitative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Campbell, J. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Hopman, T.

    2004-06-01

    In recent years, high-energy PIXE was applied successfully for qualitative analysis on art and archaeological objects, e.g. coins, bronzes, sculptures, brooches. However, in the absence of software for quantitative analysis the full benefit inherent in the PIXE technique was not obtained. For example, a bronze could easily be distinguished from a brass, but the concentrations could not be rigorously compared within a set of bronzes. In this paper, the first quantitative analysis by high-energy PIXE is presented. The Guelph PIXE Software Package GUPIX has been extended to proton energies up to 100 MeV, so that high-energy PIXE spectra can be evaluated and concentrations derived. Measurements on metal and alloy standards at two different proton energies have been performed and the obtained compositions were compared to the certified values. The results will be presented and deviations discussed.

  3. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Uršič, Mitja; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Šelih, Vid Simon; Strlič, Matija

    2006-02-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  4. IBIXFIT: A Tool For The Analysis Of Microcalorimeter PIXE Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Taborda, A.; Reis, M. A.; Alves, L. C.; Barradas, N. P.; Chaves, P. C.

    2011-06-01

    PIXE analysis software has been for long mainly tuned to the needs of Si(Li) detector based spectra analysis and quantification methods based on K{sub {alpha}} or L{sub {alpha}} X-ray lines. Still, recent evidences related to the study of relative line intensities and new developments in detection equipment, namely the emergence of commercial microcalorimeter based X-ray detectors, have brought up the possibility that in the near future PIXE will become more than just major lines quantification. A main issue that became evident as a consequence of this was the need to be able to fit PIXE spectra without prior knowledge of relative line intensities. Considering new developments it may be necessary to generalize PIXE to a wider notion of ion beam induced X-ray (IBIX) emission, to include the quantification of processes such as Radiative Auger Emission. In order to answer to this need, the IBIXFIT code was created based much on the Bayesian Inference and Simulated Annealing routines implemented in the Datafurnace code [1]. In this presentation, the IBIXFIT is used to fit a microcalorimeter spectrum of a Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1-x)}TiO{sub 3} thin film sample and the specific possibility of selecting between fixed and free line ratios combined with other specificities of the IBIXFIT algorithm are shown to be essential to overcome the problems faced.

  5. IBIXFIT: A Tool For The Analysis Of Microcalorimeter PIXE Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, A.; Alves, L. C.; Barradas, N. P.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2011-06-01

    PIXE analysis software has been for long mainly tuned to the needs of Si(Li) detector based spectra analysis and quantification methods based on Kα or Lα X-ray lines. Still, recent evidences related to the study of relative line intensities and new developments in detection equipment, namely the emergence of commercial microcalorimeter based X-ray detectors, have brought up the possibility that in the near future PIXE will become more than just major lines quantification. A main issue that became evident as a consequence of this was the need to be able to fit PIXE spectra without prior knowledge of relative line intensities. Considering new developments it may be necessary to generalize PIXE to a wider notion of ion beam induced X-ray (IBIX) emission, to include the quantification of processes such as Radiative Auger Emission. In order to answer to this need, the IBIXFIT code was created based much on the Bayesian Inference and Simulated Annealing routines implemented in the Datafurnace code [1]. In this presentation, the IBIXFIT is used to fit a microcalorimeter spectrum of a BaxSr(1-x)TiO3 thin film sample and the specific possibility of selecting between fixed and free line ratios combined with other specificities of the IBIXFIT algorithm are shown to be essential to overcome the problems faced.

  6. Prehispanic goldwork technology study by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Climent Font, Aurelio; Gutierrez Neira, Patricia Carolina; Perea, Alicia; Fernandez Esquivel, Patricia; Rovira Llorens, Salvador; Ruvalcaba Sil, José Luis; Verde, Ana

    2014-08-01

    Technological characterization of pre-Hispanic gold metallurgy has still a wide deficit of analytical data. A set of 103 pieces from the so called "Quimbaya's treasure" (QT) and the "Costa Rica collection" (CRC) of the Museo de America of Madrid were submitted to IBA analysis (PIXE and RBS) at the CMAM in three phases and the metal composition was determined. Only in a limited number of cases, due to the dramatic erosion of the gilded layer, produced by abrasive cleaning methods applied after the discovery and before the seventies, it was possible to determine also the sequence of layers, which gives information on the manufacture technology and the type and purity of the metals. PIXE results are reported and discussed. Data show that the CRC objects have very high gold levels (>80% in weight) while the QT have a more variable composition with significant Cu levels associated to the so called Tumbaga-alloy. In the cases where polishing had a tolerable effect, PIXE (and RBS), point to depletion gilding as a standard finishing process in the Costa Rica production, resulting in a gold rich surface alloy, while the variable composition of the QT objects may well be linked to deliberate colour choice.

  7. PIXE and /μ-PIXE analysis of glazes from terracotta sculptures of the della Robbia workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Bouquillon, Anne; Giancarlo Lanterna; Lucarelli, Franco; Mandò, Pier Andrea; Prati, Paolo; Salomon, Joseph; Vaccari, Maria Grazia

    2002-04-01

    A series of PIXE analyses has been performed on glazes from terracotta sculptures of the Italian Renaissance and on reference standards. The problems related to the investigation of such heterogeneous materials are discussed and the experimental uncertainties are evaluated, for each element, from the PIXE analysis of standard glasses. Some examples from artefacts coming from Italian collections are given. This research has been conducted in the framework of the COST-G1 European action.

  8. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Yu, Y. C.; Wang, C. W.; Liu, T. Y.; Wu, C. M.; Chen, K. M.; Lin, S. S.

    1999-04-01

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  9. PIXE analysis of ancient Jordanian pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Naser; Carlsson, Lars-Eric; Hallak, Awni B.; Bennet, Crystal

    1981-03-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been applied for the determination of 18 elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba and Pb) in two groups of pottery from two different sites in Jordan, Biblical Bozrah (BB) and Amman Citadel (AC). The analysis showed that the elements Zn, Rb, Sr, Zr and Ba were the most useful elements to study to be able to differentiate between the two groups of pottery.

  10. PIXE analysis of gallstones from Turkish patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumuşoğlu, Nazmi T.; Korkmaz, Filiz; Birchall, Jim

    2006-06-01

    The trace element analysis of gallstone samples removed by cholecystectomy from 100 Turkish patients has been done by using protons at 23.5 MeV and the PIXE method. Ca, Fe, Mn, K, Cl, Br, Cu and Zn elements were observed in the samples in varying concentrations related to the types of the gallstone. Elemental concentrations of the gall stones for these elements were determined. Rb was used as the internal reference. Ca concentration is the highest and it is followed by Fe, Mn.

  11. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben; Gharbi, F.; Roumie, M.; Baccouche, S.; Romdhane, K. Ben; Nsouli, B.; Trabelsi, A.

    2010-01-15

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135{sup o} to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  12. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  13. Analysis of a reforming catalyst by PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallak, A. B.; Daous, M. A.; Anabtawi, J. A.

    1993-04-01

    A method was developed for the elemental analysis of a reforming catalyst by PIXE and RBS. A total of 13 elements were detected in such an analysis. The platinum and rhenium concentrations in the catalyst were unresolved by RBS and they were determined by PIXE using the concentration sum from RBS and the ratio of the experimentally measured peak areas to the theoretically calculated PIXE yields for the two elements. This method eliminates uncertainties included in the absolute method. The results revealed information on the platinum to rhenium ratio and platinum-rhenium concentration sum which are important in relation to the rate of reforming of hydrocarbons in naphtha. In addition, contamination of the surface of the catalyst with iron was detected and analyzed by RBS.

  14. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  15. PIXE-PIGE analysis of a Visigothic gold cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ontalba Salamanca, M. Á.; Gómez Tubío, B.; de la Bandera, M. L.; Respaldiza, M. Á.

    2004-11-01

    The study of a Visigothic gold cross is presented in this work. The PIXE analysis of the metal alloys and the soldering areas has been performed. Results reveal the presence of Cu-Ag-Cd-Au and Cu-Ag-Au alloys in the soldering areas. The PIXE-PIGE analysis of the mounted "stones" and the beads that decorate the jewel confirms that glass was used to emulate more valuables gems. By comparison with coetaneous jewels, clear differences on the technological procedures and the raw materials have been established.

  16. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  17. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  18. Accuracy of thick-target micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Teesdale, W. J.; Wang, J.-X.

    1990-04-01

    The accuracy attainable in micro-PIXE analysis is assessed in terms of the X-ray production model and its assumptions, physical realities of the specimen, the necessary data base, and techniques of standardization. NTIS reference materials are analyzed to provide the experimental tests of accuracy.

  19. PIXE analysis of caries related trace elements in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annegarn, H. J.; Jodaikin, A.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.; Sellschop, J. P. F.; Madiba, C. C. P.; Bibby, D.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE analysis has been applied to a set of twenty human teeth to determine trace element concentration in enamel from areas susceptible to dental caries (mesial and distal contact points) and in areas less susceptible to the disease (buccal surfaces), with the aim of determining the possible roles of trace elements in the curious process. The samples were caries-free anterior incisors extracted for periodontal reasons from subjects 10-30 years of age. Prior to extraction of the sample teeth, a detailed dental history and examination was carried out in each individual. PIXE analysis, using a 3 MeV proton beam of 1 mm diameter, allowed the determination of Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb above detection limits. As demonstrated in this work, the enhanced sensitivity of PIXE analysis over electron microprobe analysis, and the capability of localised surface analysis compared with the pooled samples required for neutron activation analysis, makes it a powerful and useful technique in dental analysis.

  20. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  1. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  2. Elemental analysis of aerosols using PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancuta, Anca; Stihi, Claudia; Popescu, I. V.; Badica, T.; Cimpoca, Gh V.

    2006-05-01

    In the present work we have analyzed aerosols deposits on filters from ten Romanian towns: Pitesti, Giurgiu, Resita, Ramnicu-Valcea, Baia-Mare, Craiova, Timisoara, Calarasi, Braila and Arad with different kinds and levels of industrial development by PIXE method using Yttrium like internal standard because it is a very rare element in the environmental items. We have identified 15 elements: S, K, Ca, Cr, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb. The measured elemental concentrations are given with respect to the concentration of the Ca for all analyzed samples. The obtained results can put in evidence a high ratio of Ti/Ca, Cr/Ca, Fe/Ca, Co/Ca, Zn/Ca, As/Ca, Pb/Ca in Craiova, a high ratio of Mn/Ca in Calarasi and a high ratio of Hg/Ca in Braila. Certainly the level of pollution of a region can not determine by a single filter and is need of a good statistic to draw conclusions.

  3. PIXE-quantified AXSIA : elemental mapping by multivariate spectral analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Campbell, J. L.; Ryan, C. G.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Barrett, Keith E.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    Automated, nonbiased, multivariate statistical analysis techniques are useful for converting very large amounts of data into a smaller, more manageable number of chemical components (spectra and images) that are needed to describe the measurement. We report the first use of the multivariate spectral analysis program AXSIA (Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis) developed at Sandia National Laboratories to quantitatively analyze micro-PIXE data maps. AXSIA implements a multivariate curve resolution technique that reduces the spectral image data sets into a limited number of physically realizable and easily interpretable components (including both spectra and images). We show that the principal component spectra can be further analyzed using conventional PIXE programs to convert the weighting images into quantitative concentration maps. A common elemental data set has been analyzed using three different PIXE analysis codes and the results compared to the cases when each of these codes is used to separately analyze the associated AXSIA principal component spectral data. We find that these comparisons are in good quantitative agreement with each other.

  4. Thick multi-layers analysis using high energy PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subercaze, A.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Koumeir, C.; Métivier, V.; Servagent, N.

    2017-09-01

    A method for multi-layer analysis using high energy PIXE is described. It is based on the variation of the Kα/Kβ ratio as a function of the detection angle. Experiments have been carried out at the ARRONAX cyclotron using 70 MeV protons in order to validate this method. The thicknesses and the sequences of simple multi-layers targets and more complex targets with hidden layers have been determined using this method.

  5. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  6. PIXE/RBS development and activities at KFUPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallak, A. B.; Daous, M. A.; Al-Kofahi, M. M.

    1993-04-01

    The PIXE/RBS setup at the Tandetron accelerator facility of KFUPM is described and examples are given on the analysis of catalysts, geological desert rose, aerosol pollution, wear metals in used engine-lubrication oil and multicomponent glass samples. The advantage of combined data analysis by PIXE and RBS is emphasized in defining routine procedures for such an analysis. In addition, software development is described briefly for PIXE analysis using PIXANPC.

  7. Application of PIXE for elemental analysis of ancient Chinese artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Cheng, W. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1995-05-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a well-known method for elemental analysis in many different specimens for various applied studies. In this paper, we report an application of PIXE analysis for a series of ancient Chinese coins from the Tang Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty (AD 618-1679). Ninety-six PIXE spectra were obtained from forty-eight samples of the ancient coins with the use of a Ge(Li) X-ray detector. On each sample two spots at different positions on the flat surface were irradiated per run by 3 MeV protons from a NEC 9SDH-2 pelletron tandem accelerator. The principal component elements (Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn) and others (Fe, Sb, Ni and As) were determined for the analyzed coins. Variations in composition with a time span of about one thousand years for the examined coins were observed. The results are presented and aspects of the evolution of Chinese metallurgy in casting coins are discussed.

  8. Metal trace analysis by PIXE and PDMS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias da Cunha, K.; Barros Leite, C. V.

    2002-03-01

    The risk for the human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work plasma desorption mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used as complementary technique to the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to characterize aerosol samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a 6-stage cascade impactor (CI) in two sites of Rio de Janeiro City. One is an island (Fundão Island) in the Guanabara Bay close to an industrial zone and the other, in Gávea, is a residential zone close to a lagoon and to the seashore. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulates were in the fine fraction of the aerosols collected in both locations. In order to identify the contribution of the seawater particles from the Guanabara Bay in the aerosols, seawater samples were also collected at Fundão Island. The samples were analyzed by PIXE and PDMS techniques. The analysis of the results suggests that the aerosols are different in both sampling sites and also exist a contribution from the Guanabara Bay seawater particles to the aerosols collected in the Fundão Island. PIXE allows identification and quantification of the elements heavier than Na ( Z=11) while PDMS allows identification of organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples, as these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization.

  9. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xun-liang; Feng, Song-lin; Cheng, Huang-sheng; Zhang, Wen-Jiang; Fan, Chang-Sheng

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  10. Analysis of pottery by PIXE: Late classical and hellenistic imports to gordion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Evan T.; Cadet, Gardy; Guardala, Noel A.; Huang, Eric; Winter, Frederick A.

    1987-03-01

    In a feasibility study, PIXE analysis was performed in an attempt to classify samples obtained at Gordion, an archaeological site in Turkey. On the basis of the work performed so far, it appears that PIXE analysis is capable of discriminating between imported and local ware and also of establishing subgroupings among certain types of pottery specimens.

  11. Elemental imaging of rat epididymis by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2003-09-01

    The epididymis, a male reproductive organ, which is a highly convoluted duct, plays an important role in transportation of spermatozoa, their maturation, and their storage. Although major elements, such as P, S and K, as well as trace elements, such as Mn, Cu, Zn, Se, are known to be essential for spermatogenesis, detailed distributions of the elements in the epididymis are only poorly understood. In the present study, Mn, Cu, Zn and Se levels in the epididymis were examined in male Wistar rats by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and in situ multi-elemental distributions of epididymal sections were determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis. The Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the epididymis of the young adult rats were around 30 μg/g wet weight, 2 μg/g wet weight and 1 μg/g wet weight, respectively, and their Mn were less than 0.5 μg/g wet weight. PIXE imaging of P and K exhibited that P and K were higher in the epididymal epithelium. In contrast, more S was detected in the lumen, which is composed of spermatozoa and a fluid. Elemental imagings of the trace elements were unclear compared with the major elements, but information about zinc localization in the epididymis was obtained.

  12. Golden glazes analysis by PIGE and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Luís, H.; Franco, N.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Cruz, J.; Galaviz, D.; Fernandes, N.; Vieira, P.; Ribeiro, J. P.; Jesus, A. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis performed on the chemical composition of two golden glazes available in the market using the PIGE and PIXE techniques at the ITN ion beam laboratory. The analysis of the light elements was performed using the Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis (ERYA) code, a standard-free method for PIGE analysis on thick samples. The results were compared to those obtained on an old glaze. Consistently high concentrations of lead and sodium were found in all analyzed golden glazes. The analysis of the samples pointed to Mo and Co as the specific elements responsible of the gold colour at the desired temperature, and allowed Portuguese ceramists to produce a golden glaze at 997 °C. Optical reflection spectra of the glazes are given, showing that the produced glaze has a spectrum similar to the old glaze. Also, in order to help the ceramists, the unknown compositions of four different types of frits (one of the components of glazes) were analysed.

  13. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  14. External-RBS, PIXE and NRA analysis for ancient swords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Hellen C.; Added, Nemitala; Silva, Tiago F.; Rodrigues, C. L.

    2015-02-01

    Elemental composition of the steel of two ancient swords (Japanese and Damascus from a private collection) was characterized using in air IBA techniques. Our results contribute for the understanding the processes of manufacturing (hammering and quenching) and surface treatments applied in these swords. The Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements along the Damascus blade allowed to identify and to trace a superficial concentration profile for the elements such Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and As, while results for the Japanese blade showed only the presence of iron. The carbon content on the surface was also investigated using a resonant region in the Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) measurements and the results have shown a slightly difference between the surfaces under investigation. In order to investigate the nitrogen content on surface, that could explain the hardening process, we used Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and the results shown that nitrogen content was under our detection limit for the technique (0.3% in mass). The measurements of PIXE, NRA and EBS were taken using the external beam setup installed at Lamfi - São Paulo/Brazil, the latter being successfully implemented for the first time in this facility.

  15. A novel preconcentration technique for the PIXE analysis of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. M.; Fernandez, R. F.; Zhang, W.; Robertson, J. D.; Majidi, V.

    1995-05-01

    The potential of using dried algae as a novel preconcentration technique for the analysis of water samples by PIXE was examined. The algae cells were found to contain significant levels of P and S, indicative of phosphorous- and sulfur-containing groups on the cell wall or inside the algae cells which may serve as potential binding sites for metal ions. When C. vulgaris was used on mixed metal solutions, linear responses were observed for Ag +, Ba 2+, and Cd 2+ in the concentration range from 10 ng/g to 1 μg/g; for Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ from 10 ng/g to 5 μg/g; and for Hg 2+ from 10 ng/g to 10 μg/g. When S. bacillaris was used, linear responses were observed from 10 ng/g up to 10 μg/g for all of the metal cations investigated. The PIXE results demonstrated that metal binding at low concentrations involves replacement of sodium on the cell wall and that at high concentrations magnesium was also replaced. Competitive binding studies indicate that the metal ions, Ag +, Ba 2+, Cd 2+, Cu 2+, and Pb 2+, share common binding sites with binding efficiencies varying in the sequence of Pb 2+ > Cu 2+ > Ag 2+ > Cd 2+ > Ba 2+. The binding of Hg 2+ involved a different binding site with an increase in binding efficiency in the presence of Ag +.

  16. PIGE-PIXE analysis of chewing sticks of pharmacological importance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.

    1996-06-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.

  17. Non-destructive analysis and identification of jade by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of identifying jade by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. It is found that the jade can be classified, according to the chemical composition determined by PIXE. The experimental results can differentiate ancient Chinese jade works of art from fakes if the material is the same.

  18. PIXE-analysis of powder and liquid uranium-bearing samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhay, O.; Khachatrian, A.; Storizhko, V. Yu.

    2015-05-01

    The article concerns techniques of sample preparation from powder and liquid uranium-bearing materials for the PIXE analysis. Experiment procedure is described for elemental analysis of samples with proton induced X-ray emission. Advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions for successive X-rays filters for PIXE spectra are enlisted. Results of a quantitative analysis of the samples are reported. Their credibility is proved by analysis performed for a standard liquid sample.

  19. Trace element analysis by PIXE in several biomedical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.; Beguin, Y.; Roelandts, I.; Delbrouck, J. M.

    1984-04-01

    Since 1980 in the University of Liége trace element analysis by PIXE has been developed in several directions, among these: the elemental composition of lung parenchyma, hilar lymph nodes, blood content in hematological disorders and renal insufficiency. The content in trace elements of lung tumor and surrounding tissue is measured and compared to similar content previously obtained on unselected patients of comparable ages. The normalization of the bromine deficiency observed in hemodialized patients is achieved by using a dialyzing bath doped with NaBr in order to obtain a normal bromine level of 5.7 μg/ml. The content of Cu, Zn, Br and Se in blood serum from more than 100 patients suffering from malignant hemopathy has been measured. The results are compared with a reference group. These oligoelements have also been measured sequentially for patients under intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

  20. Use of rubidium, manganese, and zinc as tracers to measure intestinal permeability by PIXE analysis: basal study in an experimental enteritis model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Keitaro; Suzuki, Yasuo; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Joshima, Hisamasa; Tamanoi, Itsuro; Saito, Yasushi

    2004-04-01

    Intestinal permeability has been suggested to be closely linked with the etiology or activity of Crohn's disease. However, current methods for measurement of intestinal permeability are too laborious for routine examination, as they require urine collection and/or use of radioisotopes. The present study was performed to develop a more convenient and safer method for assessing intestinal permeability using blood samples rather than urine. Rats with indomethacin-induced enteritis were orally administered Rb, Mn, and Zn as tracers. Intestinal permeability was determined by assaying the levels of Rb, Mn, and Zn in blood samples by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The distributions of Rb, Mn, and Zn in the small intestine after administration were analyzed by micro-PIXE. The conventional PIXE analysis showed that the levels of Rb and Zn in the blood in the enteritis group were correlated with the grade of enteritis. The micro-PIXE analysis showed that Rb, Mn, and Zn were translocated into the wall of the proximal small intestine 5 min after administration, and this effect was more conspicuous in the enteritis group than in controls. Analysis of blood or small intestine tissue samples using the PIXE allows determination of both intestinal permeability and the route of permeation.

  1. Triggered beam pulser and current integrator for PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, D. T.; Skofronick, G.; Nelson, J. W.

    1987-03-01

    Two auxiliary circuits to facilitate PIXE analyses are described: a triggerable beam pulser tor pile-up reduction and dead time correction; and a versatile voltage to frequency converter for use with a beam current integrator.

  2. Trace element analysis of human hair by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian-xin, Chen; Yuan-zhuang, Guo; Hong-kou, Li; Chi-gang, Ren; Guo-hun, Tang; Xi-de, Wang; Fu-chia, Yang; Hui-ying, Yao

    1981-03-01

    PIXE was used to analyze trace elements in human hair. Using an external beam, hair from workers exposed to GaAs was examined. The results are in fairly good agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Using the PIXE technique in vacuum hair from mentally defective children was analyzed and compared with the hair of normal children. In a similar way, hair from a 3200 year old preserved mummy was studied.

  3. PIXE-RBS analysis on potteries unearthed from Lijiaba Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. Q.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, M. T.; Zhou, Z.; An, Z.; Huang, W.; He, Y. H.; Zhao, D. Y.

    2013-02-01

    A simultaneous proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) analysis using 2 MeV proton beam and an aluminum funny filter was performed to identify and characterize elemental composition of 52 pottery shards in Shang-Zhou Dynasty (B.C.1700-B.C.221) unearthed from the Lijiaba Site, one of the habitations of Ba clan in the Three Gorges reservoir area in China. From the result of factor analysis of elemental composition, there was no obvious element assemblage phenomenon among the pottery shards with different types, which may suggest that there was no special clay source for special pottery at that time. Furthermore, a group of pottery elemental data from the Jinsha Site (B.C.1200-B.C.650) of Chengdu in China, the representative relic of Shu culture, was also employed to compare with those from the Lijiaba Site, and an obvious difference in elemental composition was observed, which perhaps indicated that only based on the elemental analysis of these potteries, no evidence of interchange was found between the two sites.

  4. PIXE analysis in different stages of psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, K.; Steigleder, G.K.; Bischof, W.; Gonsior, B.

    1987-02-01

    Elemental distribution in psoriatic skin varies with the functional state of the keratinocytes, e.g., electrolytes influence cell metabolism and cell proliferation, and trace elements play a crucial role in a great number of enzymes. Elemental distribution in pinpoint lesions, old plaques, and uninvolved skin of 5 psoriatic patients and 4 healthy controls was studied by means of PIXE (proton-induced x-ray emission) analysis. This technique allows the simultaneous detection of elements with an atomic number greater than or equal to 14 along the epidermis and dermis in freeze-dried skin biopsies. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, and Zn were determined down to a level of 1 ppm. In comparison with uninvolved skin, concentrations of P and K were elevated in psoriatic epidermis. In addition, increased levels of K were correlated with the stage of the psoriatic lesion. Zinc concentrations were significantly elevated in pinpoint lesions. The Zn concentration profiles within the epidermis and upper dermis showed high correlation to the P concentration profiles. Iron levels were decreased in old psoriatic plaques, whereas Cu concentrations varied considerably. In comparison to the controls, Cl concentrations were markedly decreased in the dermis of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin, whereas epidermal Cl levels were unaffected. As high K levels prevent the Ca-induced differentiation of keratinocytes, high K levels may be the cause of the high cell differentiation in psoriatic skin. Elevated DNA- and RNA-polymerases might be the cause of elevated Zn levels in pinpoint lesions.

  5. PIXE analysis of Italian ink drawings of the XVI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Enguita, O.; Fernandez-Jimenez, M. T.; Finaldi, G.; Garrido, C.; Matillas, J. M.

    2005-10-01

    The composition of inks in a group of 24 drawings of ten XVI century Italian painters, has been determined by PIXE at the external micro-beam line of the Centro de Micro Análisis de Materiales of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Ink elemental thicknesses have been determined by comparison with a set of certified thin standards. A comprehensive comparison of inks has also been performed by renormalisation of spectra and definition of an ink-to-ink distance. The elemental compositions and the ink-to-ink distances give consistent results that are generally in line with the appearance of the drawings and add relevant instrumental information to the stylistic observation, revealing for example the presence of retouches and additions in different parts of a drawing. Cluster analysis performed on a subgroup of 13 artefacts from the Genoese painter Luca Cambiaso and his school has revealed a partition that separates neatly the work of the master from that of his followers.

  6. Feasibility of breast cancer screening by PIXE analysis of hair.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, N; Kabiri, Z; Kakuee, O; Saleh-Kotahi, M; Changizi, V; Fathollahi, V; Oliaiy, P; Omranipour, R

    2013-06-01

    To reveal the role of key elements present in the hair of breast cancer patients on cancer development, the levels of a number of elements in scalp hair samples of 82 people including healthy individuals, people suffering from benign breast disease, and breast cancer patients were measured by PIXE analysis. Pellets of hair samples were prepared and bombarded by 2.2 MeV proton beam of a 3-MV Van de Graaff accelerator. The number of incident ions hitting the sample was indirectly measured using the RBS spectrum of a thin Ag film placed in the beam path. The concentrations of S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, and Cu in the hair of healthy individuals were in agreement with those observed in the hair of hyperplasia and cancer patients within standard deviations. However, a lower average level of zinc was found in samples from hyperplasia and breast cancer patients. Strong positive correlations were found between iron and potassium as well as between calcium and potassium in the cancer patients. These results could be of significance in the screening for breast cancer.

  7. PIXE measurement applied to trace elemental analysis of human tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Matsugi, E.; Miyasaki, K.; Yamagata, T.; Inoue, M.; Ogata, H.; Shimoura, S.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE measurement was applied for trace elemental analyses of 40 autoptic human kidneys. To investigate the reproducibility of the PIXE data, 9 targets obtained from one human liver were examined. The targets were prepared by wet-digestion using nitric and sulfuric acid. Yttrium was used as an internal standard. The extracted elemental concentrations for K, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd were in reasonable agreement with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and flame photometry (FP). Various correlations among the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, and Cd were examined individually for the renal cortex and renal medulla.

  8. PIXE as a complement to trace metal analysis of sediments by ICP-OES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderberg, J. M.; Bartlett, R. J.; Behm, A. M.; Contreras, C.; DeYoung, P. A.; Hoogeveen, N. L.; Huisman, A. J.; Peaslee, G. F.; Postma, J. K.

    2008-11-01

    The adverse effects of metal contamination in sediments require methods that can quickly and accurately assess the extent of environmental pollution. Particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to an established method, which consists of acid digestion and Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to measure trace metals in sediment. The analysis of trace metal composition by both techniques on a NIST Standard Reference Material mud gives results that are consistent with the certified values for fourteen measured metals, seven of which are common to both methods. A comparison study conducted on a sediment core from a freshwater lake with a known chromium contamination in Muskegon County, MI also shows a good correlation between the methods for transition metals of environmental interest over a wide range of metal concentrations. Total sample preparation and analysis time for the PIXE measurements is roughly one third that of acid digestion and ICP-OES. Also, the acid digestion step does not elute all the metal, while the nondestructive PIXE approach is a total metals analysis method. However the PIXE method generally has higher limits of detection for many environmental metal contaminants. By combining the two techniques, the acid digestion elution factor can be quantified by running PIXE on an original sample and on the residue resulting from acid digestion.

  9. A new mapping acquisition and processing system for simultaneous PIXE-RBS analysis with external beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Beck, L.; Walter, Ph.; Moignard, B.; Guillou, T.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of ion beam analysis techniques is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. For several years, the AGLAE facility of the Louvre laboratory has been implementing these techniques with an external beam. The recent set-up permits to carry out PIXE, PIGE and RBS simultaneously on the same analyzed spot with a particle beam of approximately 20 μm diameter. A new mapping system has been developed in order to provide elemental concentration maps from the PIXE and RBS spectra. This system combines the Genie2000 spectroscopy software with a homemade software that creates maps by handling acquisition with the object position. Each pixel of each PIXE and RBS maps contains the spectrum normalised by the dose. After analysing each pixel of the PIXE maps (low and high energy X-ray spectra) with the Gupixwin peak-fitting software, quantitative elemental concentrations are obtained for the major and trace elements. This paper presents the quantitative elemental maps extracted from the PIXE spectra and the development of RBS data processing for light element distribution and thin layer characterization. Examples on rock painting and lustrous ceramics will be presented.

  10. Analysis of composites for restorative dentistry by PIXE, XRF and ERDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Constantinescu, B.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S.-E.; Pantelica, D.; Negoita, F.; Preoteasa, E.

    2002-04-01

    Composites used in dentistry bring into the organism elements that may induce adverse biological effects. We applied 3 MeV proton particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and photon-excited X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the qualitative analysis of 10 dental composites and we tested copper-beam elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) on one material. PIXE, and partly XRF, evidenced Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag, Zr, Cd, In, Ba, Yb, Y, Ho, Hf and Pb, many of them at trace levels, while ERDA detected H, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Al and Si.

  11. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  12. Building a fingerprint database for modern art materials: PIXE analysis of commercial painting and drawing media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Gómez-Tejedor, J. García; Martina, S.; Muro García, C.; Gimeno, E.; Hernández, P.; Canelo, N.

    2015-11-01

    We have examined by PIXE (and by RBS in parallel) about 180 samples of commercial painting and drawing media including pencils, pastels, waxes, inks, paints and paper. Given the high PIXE sensitivity we produced X-ray spectra at low collected charges and currents, operating in good conservation conditions. For drawing media containing inorganic components or a unique marker element, we have defined colouring agent fingerprints which correspond, when applicable, to the composition declared by the manufacturer. For thin layers, the ratios of areal densities of elements are close to those expected given the declared composition, which is promising from the perspective of compiling the database. The quantitative PIXE and RBS analysis of part of the set of samples is provided.

  13. Direct Trace Element Analysis of Liquid Blood Samples by In-Air Ion Beam Analytical Techniques (PIXE-PIGE).

    PubMed

    Huszank, Robert; Csedreki, László; Török, Zsófia

    2017-02-07

    There are various liquid materials whose elemental composition is of interest in various fields of science and technology. In many cases, sample preparation or the extraction can be complicated, or it would destroy the original environment before the analysis (for example, in the case of biological samples). However, multielement direct analysis of liquid samples can be realized by an external PIXE-PIGE measurement system. Particle-induced X-ray and gamma-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE, PIGE) techniques were applied in external (in-air) microbeam configuration for the trace and main element determination of liquid samples. The direct analysis of standard solutions of several metal salts and human blood samples (whole blood, blood serum, blood plasma, and formed elements) was realized. From the blood samples, Na, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Br elemental concentrations were determined. The focused and scanned ion beam creates an opportunity to analyze very small volume samples (∼10 μL). As the sample matrix consists of light elements, the analysis is possible at ppm level. Using this external beam setup, it was found that it is possible to determine elemental composition of small-volume liquid samples routinely, while the liquid samples do not require any preparation processes, and thus, they can be analyzed directly. In the case of lower concentrations, the method is also suitable for the analysis (down to even ∼1 ppm level) but with less accuracy and longer measurement times.

  14. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  15. Regional PIXE facility at Chandigarh (India) and Trace Element Analysis of Aerosol and Bio-medical Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govil, I. M.

    2009-03-01

    A regional Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) facility is newly developed using 3 Mev Proton beam from Variable Energy Cyclotron, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India). A new target chamber has been designed to cater for Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) along with PIXE measurements. The HPGe x-ray detector, the Ge (Li) gamma-ray detector and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector can be mounted simultaneously in the chamber for this purpose. A remotely controlled stepper motor is provided to move the target wheel holding 12/24 samples at a time. This facility is now routinely used for the detection of trace elements in the aerosol, medical and forensic science samples. The paper presents the analysis of Aerosol samples collected from highly polluted steel city of Mandi Govindgarh in Punjab state and relatively clean city of Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir region. The results from the analysis of these samples show some basic differences in the trace element profile of the two cities. The paper also describes the trace element analysis of fly ash in the vicinity of Ropar Thermal Power plant in Punjab. The scope of this study was to determine the concentration and composition of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in the vicinity of coal-fired thermal power plants in India. The data taken for the Bio-medical samples are also discussed.

  16. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  17. Improvements in PIXE analysis of hourly particulate matter samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Giannoni, M.; Carraresi, L.; Prati, P.; Vecchi, R.

    2015-11-01

    Most air quality studies on particulate matter (PM) are based on 24-h averaged data; however, many PM emissions as well as their atmospheric dilution processes change within a few hours. Samplings of PM with 1-h resolution can be performed by the streaker sampler (PIXE International Corporation), which is designed to separate the fine (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) and the coarse (aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 μm) fractions of PM. These samples are efficiently analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) at the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence (Italy), equipped with a 3 MV Tandetron accelerator, thanks to an optimized external-beam set-up, a convenient choice of the beam energy and suitable collecting substrates. A detailed description of the adopted set-up and results from a methodological study on the detection limits for the selection of the optimal beam energy are shown; the outcomes of the research on alternative collecting substrates, which produce a lower background during the measurements, and with lower contaminations, are also discussed.

  18. Elemental analysis of urban stormwater particulate matter by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J. V.; Trompetter, W. J.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-05-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has been used to determine the average elemental concentrations of various size fractions in the particulate phase of urban stormwater derived from areas with different land-use characteristics. Water samples were filtered through Nucleopore polycarbonate filter papers to separate particulate in the 0.4-60 μm and 60-250 μm fractions and the dry weights determined. Elements such as Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Ag, Cd and Pb are measured with concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to a few percent in both water sample fractions. For the elements P, S, Cl, Ca and Mn, there was no apparent relationship with land-use in the 0.4-60 μm fraction water particulate. However, in the 60-250 μm fraction particulate, higher concentrations were determined at sampling location number 6 which had the largest percentage of industrial use. Significant increased heavy metal concentrations were measured in samples collected from industrial and commercial land-use areas. Our preliminary study reveals that PIXE can be used to measure the elemental concentrations in different particulate size fractions from water samples.

  19. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  20. Environmental-Analysis Routine Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K.; Torian, J.

    1982-01-01

    Program available from COSMIC contains library of routines that simulate environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS). Through interactive dialogue with program, user selects routines to be assembled into simulation of particular ECLSS under consideration. Program is modular, and allows addition of new routines as they are required.

  1. PIXE gadgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demortier, G.; Morciaux, Y.

    1994-03-01

    Various solutions for accurate and quantitative analysis of bulk materials by PIXE are presented. The measurements are made in a non vacuum geometry (samples are irradiated at atmospheric pressure after the incident proton beam has crossed a thin aluminium foil) or in a vacuum chamber. Gadgets for the monitoring of the proton beam, for the easy change and the accurate positioning of the target samples, for the corrections of matrix effects, for the handling of very small and irregular samples, for the analysis of liquids and for the measurement of thick layers are discussed.

  2. Paleomagnetism, rock magnetism, and PIXE Analysis of Oligocene-Miocene sediments (Bennett County, South Dakota)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbalaei Saleh, F.; Martin, J.; Sidorovskaia, N.; Richter, C.; Hollerman, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present paleo- and rock magnetic results together with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) data from an Oligocene-Miocene aged section in central South Dakota. Sediment samples recovered by the High-Plains Aquifer Drilling Program of the South Dakota Geological Survey retrieved well-preserved core material for paleomagnetic and geochemical analysis. A 250 m long core was retrieved from the Tertiary Arikaree Group, which consists predominantly of fine-grained sandstones and limestones with interbedded silt and clay. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic measurements were carried out at 30 cm resolution on more than 200 discrete samples, and geochemical analysis using PIXE at the Louisiana Accelerator Center on twenty selected samples, with the goal of extracting a geomagnetic polarity time scale and to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Stepwise demagnetization of the natural remnant magnetization yields excellent to poor demagnetization behavior, with a viscous isothermal remnant magnetization drilling overprint effectively removed during the 20 mT demagnetization step. Paleomagnetic data are characterized by normal and reversed inclinations, consistent with the site position in South Dakota. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the sediments correlate well with the observed changes in lithology. PIXE sample preparation procedures and calibration techniques to obtain absolute concentrations of heavy elements in the core samples are discussed. An empirical correlation between susceptibility measurements and concentration of the magnetic materials in the core obtained from PIXE will be presented. The results are promising in augmenting traditional paleomagnetic studies to develop a quantitative relationship between the measured magnetization and the concentration of magnetic materials needed for relative paleointensity studies. The PIXE analysis shows also potential in deciphering paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the

  3. PIXE elemental analysis of South American mummy hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, A. Y.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Matheny, R. T.

    1996-04-01

    Hair samples were obtained from ten mummies of the archaic and formative cultures of the north coast of Chile. Each sample was divided into two portions. One portion was washed in acetone and then water and the second portion remained unwashed. All samples were then prepared by an acid digestion procedure and analyzed by PIXE. The washed and unwashed samples were compared to determine what elements were present in the material on the hair surface. Concentrations of the elements Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, and Pb are reported. Comparison was made to previously published elemental analyses of mummy hair and modern hair. One sample, which had a reddish hue, was found to contain unusually large quantities of Fe and As. Since the unwashed sample had much higher concentrations of these elements than the washed sample, it is believed that the reddish color originated in a mineral dye applied to the hair.

  4. Analysis of elements in lake sediment samples by PIXE spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelarescu, E. D.; Radulescu, C.; Stihi, C.; Bretcan, P.; Tanislav, D.; Dulama, I. D.; Stirbescu, R. M.; Teodorescu, S.; Bucurica, I. A.; Andrei, R.; Morarescu, C.

    2017-09-01

    This work aims to determine the concentrations of several elements (e.g. Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe) from lake sediments, in order to characterize their origin and evolution. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique using the 3 MV Tandetron™ particle accelerator from National Institute for R&D in Physics and Nuclear Engineering ;Horia Hulubei; (IFIN-HH), Magurele-Bucharest, Romania, was applied. Sediment cores from different salt lakes from Romania (i.e. Amara Lake, Caineni Lake, and Movila Miresii Lake) were collected, in August 2015. The content of Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Ni from sediment samples show similarities with other data presented in literature and international regulation. The Zn was the only element with a higher content in all samples (e.g. maximum 401.7-517.3 mg/kg d.w.).

  5. PIXE analysis of human spermatozoa isolated from seminal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yoshida, K.; Uda, M.

    1990-04-01

    PIXE has been applied to the multielemental and microanalysis of human spermatozoa. This is the first attempt to determine the chemical compositions of the motile spermatozoa free from contaminations of seminal plasma without loss of component elements during washing. The spermatozoa were isolated from semen by letting them swim into a kind of physiological saline, Tyrode's solution. Relative concentrations of P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Zn and Br in motile spermatozoa were determined by the use of the chlorine K X-ray peak intensity for evaluating the amount of Tyrode's solution contained in the sample targets. The concentrations of calcium and iron in spermatozoa were considerably higher than in seminal plasma. The concentrations of P, K, Zn and Br in spermatozoa were not so different from those in seminal plasma.

  6. PIXE-PIGE analysis of Carolingian period glass from Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Jezeršek, D.; Knific, T.; Istenič, J.

    2009-01-01

    Glass artifacts excavated from the Late Roman and Carolingian period site at Bašelj Slovenia were analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method using a proton beam in air. The results show that the majority of objects and glass ingots were made of traditional Roman, natron-type glass. Increased titanium and other impurities were found indicating that the glass had been recycled several times. As the composition of the ingots was similar to the other objects, a possibility exists of a secondary glass workshop in the local vicinity. The typologically and stratigraphically dated objects confirm that the Roman glassmaking continued in the area of Eastern Alps well into the 9th century.

  7. Provenance study of rubies from a Parthian statuette by PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Mossmann, A.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization of three red inlays of a Parthian statuette (3rd century B.C.) originating from Babylon, Mesopotamia. The external beam setup of AGLAE was used in order to determine the chemical composition of the inlays. PIXE analysis confirmed the expected nature of the cabochons: ruby, and not colored glass as previously reported. According to these results, this archaeological object contains one of the oldest rubies left today. Moreover, quantitative analysis of trace elements allowed us to infer the geographic origin of these gems. PIXE analyses of a batch of 57 rubies from nine well-known sources were carried out in order to establish a geochemical database. The use of multivariate statistical methods enables us to restrict the possible provenance to either Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or more likely Burma (Myanmar).

  8. PIXE Analysis of Aerosol and Soil Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Joshua; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of aerosol and soil samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the aerosol samples near Piseco Lake and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The soil samples were also collected at Piseco Lake and pressed into cylindrical pellets for experimentation. PIXE analysis of the aerosol and soil samples were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. There are higher concentrations of sulfur at smaller particle sizes (0.25-1 μm), suggesting that it could be suspended in the air for days and originate from sources very far away. Other elements with significant concentrations peak at larger particle sizes (1-4 μm) and are found in the soil samples, suggesting that these elements could originate in the soil. The PIXE analysis will be described and the resulting data will be presented.

  9. VIBA-Lab 3.0: Computer program for simulation and semi-quantitative analysis of PIXE and RBS spectra and 2D elemental maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlić, Ivica; Mekterović, Darko; Mekterović, Igor; Ivošević, Tatjana

    2015-11-01

    VIBA-Lab is a computer program originally developed by the author and co-workers at the National University of Singapore (NUS) as an interactive software package for simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission and Rutherford Backscattering Spectra. The original program is redeveloped to a VIBA-Lab 3.0 in which the user can perform semi-quantitative analysis by comparing simulated and measured spectra as well as simulate 2D elemental maps for a given 3D sample composition. The latest version has a new and more versatile user interface. It also has the latest data set of fundamental parameters such as Coster-Kronig transition rates, fluorescence yields, mass absorption coefficients and ionization cross sections for K and L lines in a wider energy range than the original program. Our short-term plan is to introduce routine for quantitative analysis for multiple PIXE and XRF excitations. VIBA-Lab is an excellent teaching tool for students and researchers in using PIXE and RBS techniques. At the same time the program helps when planning an experiment and when optimizing experimental parameters such as incident ions, their energy, detector specifications, filters, geometry, etc. By "running" a virtual experiment the user can test various scenarios until the optimal PIXE and BS spectra are obtained and in this way save a lot of expensive machine time.

  10. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples Collected in the Adirondack Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoskowitz, Josh; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Smith, Jeremy; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We have performed an elemental analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples collected at Piseco Lake in Upstate New York using proton induced x-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). This work is part of a systematic study of airborne pollution in the Adirondack Mountains. Of particular interest is the sulfur content that can contribute to acid rain, a well-documented problem in the Adirondacks. We used a nine-stage cascade impactor to collect the samples and distribute the particulate matter onto Kapton foils by particle size. The PIXE experiments were performed with 2.2-MeV proton beams from the 1.1-MV pelletron accelerator in the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. X-Ray energy spectra were measured with a silicon drift detector and analyzed with GUPIX software to determine the elemental concentrations of the aerosols. A broad range of elements from silicon to zinc were detected with significant sulfur concentrations measured for particulate matter between 0.25 and 0.5 μm in size. The PIXE analysis will be described and preliminary results will be presented.

  11. Application of FTIR, PIXE, and EBS for trace element analysis in biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, W. M.; Lekki, J.; Paluszkiewicz, C.; Preikschas, N.

    1992-02-01

    FTIR (Fourier transform infrared), PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission), EBS (elastic backscattering spectroscopy) are applicable to trace element analysis in biological samples. Recently, we have applied two of these three techniques for investigation of trace element content in renal stones [1]. In this study the FTIR technique was used for chemical composition (phase structure) determination and choice of standards. The PIXE technique was applied for determination of stone elemental composition. Using the EBS technique, we were able to make corrections taking into account beam energy depth dependence and the X-ray attenuation effect. Such an effect is particularly significant for light elements. Combining the three techniques mentioned above it was possible to form a procedure for trace element determination in thick biological targets.

  12. Charge integration in external PIXE-PIGE for the analysis of aerosol samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. F.; Wang, G. F.; Chu, J. H.; Yu, L. D.

    2012-10-01

    The beam current in an external-beam PIXE-PIGE is difficult to accurately measure due to ionization along the beam path in the atmosphere. Charge integration was measured using a homemade Faraday cup, and assessed by the peak area of Ar Kα X-rays, which were induced by protons near the sample. The X-ray peak integral from a thin Fe reference sample, which was positioned between the exit window and the Faraday cup, was determined to evaluate the performance of the homemade Faraday cup. Moreover, the effects of different membrane filters and samples with different elements on the beam current measurement of the aforementioned methods were studied by placing different blank films or reference standards behind a reference Mn target. The results indicated that the charge measurement of the homemade Faraday cup was reliable for external PIXE-PIGE analysis of aerosol samples.

  13. Long term fine aerosol analysis by XRF and PIXE techniques in the city of Rijeka, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Orlić, Ivica; Radović, Iva Bogdanović

    2015-11-01

    The results of a long term, multi elemental XRF and PIXE analysis of fine aerosol pollution in the city of Rijeka, Croatia, are reported for the first time. The samples were collected during a seven months period (6th Aug 2013-28th Feb 2014) on thin stretched Teflon filters and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA), University of Rijeka and by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using 1.6 MeV protons at the Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions (LIBI), Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb. The newly developed micro-XRF system at LEMA provided results for 19 elements in the range from Si to Pb. The PIXE at the LIBI provided information for the same elements as well for the light elements such as Na, Mg and Al. Black carbon was determined with the Laser Integrated Plate Method (LIPM). The results were statistically evaluated by means of the positive matrix factorization (PMF). The seven major pollution sources were identified together with their relative contributions, these are: secondary sulfates, road traffic, smoke, road dust, sea spray, ship emissions and soil dust.

  14. Analysis of unsectioned specimens: 2D and tomographic PIXE with STIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Robert M. S.; Lefevre, Harlan W.

    1993-05-01

    Two techniques for quantitative analysis of heterogeneous thick specimens are reviewed. First, a measurement of the total zinc content in the abdomen of a fly is reported. The calculation used to determine the uncertainty in this measurement is detailed. STIM measurements at two different angles were used to determine the possible range of the X-ray production cross section and the X-ray attenuation factors. The abdomen content of zinc was determined to be 0.022( + 0.009, -0.006) (μg. Second, a PIXE-STIM mutomographic determination of metal concentrations in the sting of a scorpion is reviewed. STIM tomography was used to determine the X-ray production cross sections and the X-ray attenuation factors for points inside of the specimen. Details of how this information was then used for reconstructions of PIXE tomographic data are given. Finally, 2D PIXE measurements on a thick section of this sting are reported. On this section the measured concentration of zinc reached 22(± 3)% of dry mass, in satisfactory agreement with the results from tomography, 25(± 3)%.

  15. Quantitative analysis of major elements in silicate minerals and glasses by micro-PIXE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, J.L.; Czamanske, G.K.; MacDonald, L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Guelph micro-PIXE facility has been modified to accommodate a second Si(Li) X-ray detector which records the spectrum due to light major elements (11 ??? Z ??? 20) with no deleterious effects from scattered 3 MeV protons. Spectra have been recorded from 30 well-characterized materials, including a broad range of silicate minerals and both natural and synthetic glasses. Sodium is mobile in some of the glasses, but not in the studied mineral lattices. The mean value of the instrumental constant H for each of the elements Mg, Al, and Si in these materials is systematically 6-8% lower than the H-value measured for the pure metals. Normalization factors are derived which permit the matrix corrections requisite for trace-element measurements in silicates to be based upon pure metal standards for Mg, Al and Si, supplemented by well-established, silicate mineral standards for the elements Na, K and Ca. Rigorous comparisons of electron microprobe and micro-PIXE analyses for the entire, 30-sample suite demonstrate the ability of micro-PIXE to produce accurate analysis for the light major elements in silicates. ?? 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. A new cascade impactor for aerosol sampling with subsequent PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Hillamo, R.; Mäkelä, T.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Bergin, M. H.; Davidson, C. I.

    1996-04-01

    A small deposit area low pressure impactor (abbreviated to SDI) has been developed and tested. The device has been designed specifically to collect size-fractionated aerosol samples in remote locations for subsequent chemical analysis by PIXE. The SDI is a 12-stage, multinozzle device, but the deposit for each stage remains confined to an area with diameter less than 8 mm. It operates at a flow rate of 11 L/min and accepts the same, 25 mm diameter substrate rings as the PIXE International cascade impactor. The experimental cut-points for stages 12 through 1 are 8.50, 4.08, 2.68, 1.66, 1.06, 0.796, 0.591, 0.343, 0.231, 0.153, 0.086 and 0.045 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter. The SDI has been tested in (and employed for) size-fractionated aerosol sampling in the Finnish Arctic and at Summit in Greenland. The data show that the SDI gives results very similar to those obtained with the PIXE International impactor, but with detection limits that are much lower. This suggests that the SDI can be used with shorter sampling times or in areas where concentrations are smaller to obtain reliable size distribution data. The results also suggest that data for a greater number of elements can be obtained with the SDI.

  17. Setting up of in-vacuum PIXE system for direct elemental analysis of thick solid environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Ismail, I M; Halloum, D

    2016-04-01

    Experimental set-up, development, characterization, and calibration of an in-vacuum PIXE system at the tandem accelerator facility of the Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS) is described. The PIXE system calibration involved experimental characterization of the X-ray detector parameters and careful determination of the H-values that control dependence of the detector solid angle with the X-ray energies and correct imperfect values of the detector efficiency. Setting up of an electron flood gun to compensate charge built up and utilization of a beam profile monitor to perform indirect measurement of the beam charge, provide a direct PIXE measurement of thick insulating samples in-vacuum. The PIXE system has been subsequently examined to verify its ability to perform direct PIXE measurements on geological materials. A combination of minimum sample preparation procedures and specific experimental conditions applied enables simple and accurate elemental analysis. Elemental concentrations of several elements heavier than sodium in different reference geological samples, at about 5-10% absolute accuracy for most elements, have been determined. Comprehensive discussion of the obtained elemental concentration values, for most elements of visible X-ray peaks in the PIXE spectra, has been considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  19. PIXE facility at Jordan Van-de-Graaff accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Saleh, N.; Hallak, A.; Al-Saleh, K.; Arafah, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) set-up was constructed and optimized for routine elemental analysis at the University of Jordan Van de Graaff accelerator (JOVAC). Some important features of the system are described. Testing was carried out using some standards. Applications to Jordanian currencies are discussed.

  20. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique; Shariff, Md. Asad; Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal; Fazlul Hoque, A. K. M.; Chowdhuri, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Various Metalloprotein Compositional Stoichiometries with Simultaneous PIXE and NRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCubbin, Andrew; Deyoung, Paul; Peaslee, Graham; Sibley, Megan; Warner, Joshua

    2013-04-01

    Stoichiometric characterization has been carried out on multiple metalloproteins using a combination of Ion Beam Analysis methods and a newly modified preparation technique. Particle Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectroscopy is a non-destructive ion beam analysis technique well suited to determine the concentrations of heavy elements. Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) is a technique which measures the areal density of a thin target from scattering cross sections of 3.4 MeV protons. A combination of NRA and PIXE has been developed to provide a quantitative technique for the determination of stoichiometric metal ion ratios in metalloproteins. About one third of all proteins are metalloproteins, and most do not have well determined stoichiometric compositions for the metals they contain. Current work focuses on establishing a standard method in which to prepare protein samples. The method involves placing drops of protein solutions on aluminized polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) and allowing them to dry. This technique has been tested for several proteins of known stoichiometry to determine cofactor content and has proven to be a reliable analysis method, accurately determining metal stoichiometry in cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase, concanavalin A, vitamin B12, and hemoglobin.

  2. PIXE and neutron activation methods in human hair material analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bǎdicǎ, T.; Ciortea, C.; Cojocaru, V.; Ivaşcu, M.; Petrovici, A.; Popa, A.; Popescu, I.; Sǎlǎgean, M.; Spiridon, S.

    1984-04-01

    In order to compare some of the nuclear methods in human hair material analysis, proton induced X-ray excitation and variant techniques of neutron activation analysis have been used. The elemental concentrations are compared with the IAEA-Vienna certified values. The efficiency and reliability of the methods used are briefly discussed.

  3. Determining aerosol particles by in-air micro-IL analysis combined with micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Satoh, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2013-07-01

    A new external ion microbeam ion luminescence (micro-IL) imaging system was developed on a microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator at the TIARA facility of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Micro-IL was combined with an in-air micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) system to determine the chemical composition and structures of microscopic airborne particles of several micrometers in size. The hardware and software for the combined in-air micro-IL analysis system, called ion luminescence microscopic imaging and spectroscopy (ILUMIS), were studied. Wavelength-dispersive optics, including a collimator lens, a monochromator, and a photon-counting photomultiplier, were installed on the beam line. The signal processing of the IL photon signals, which were collected as spectra and two-dimensional microscopic images, was examined. Several aerosol particles were characterized to demonstrate the ILUMIS/PIXE combined analysis. The external microbeam ILUMIS analysis method provided a variety of information on the chemical and elemental composition of the micrometer-sized aerosol targets under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  4. Application of PIXE analysis to investigation of plants cultivated with contaminated soil of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Ishizaki, A.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Sera, K.; Sasaki, H.; Sasaki, K.; Sawamura, T.

    2014-08-01

    We present a method to research low radioactive cesium contaminated plants by the use of PIXE analysis. Highly contaminated regions still remain in the Fukushima prefecture. We collected wild plants growing in this area, that is, Butterbur, Welsh onion, Alpine leek and White clover and measured their specific activities of 137Cs and 40K. We also measured 137Cs and 40K specific activities of soil under these plants. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of 137Cs were ∼0.02 for 4 wild plants and those of 40K were ∼0.5 except for White clover. Using PIXE analysis, we measured the concentration of mineral elements in these plants. Among mineral elements, we noted the concentrations of additional alkali metal elements such as Na, K and Rb. The experimental results showed that the concentration of Rb was proportional to the specific activities of 137Cs except for Welsh onion and other elements had no strong correlation with 137Cs. These results indicate that there may be correlations between the adsorption of Cs and Rb.

  5. Micro-PIXE analysis of silicate reference standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Sisson, T.W.; Campbell, J.L.; Teesdale, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of the University of Guelph proton microprobe have been evaluated through trace-element analysis of well-characterized silicate glasses and minerals, including BHVO-1 glass, Kakanui augite and hornblende, and ten other natural samples of volcanic glass, amphibole, pyroxene, and garnet. Using the 2.39 wt% Mo in a NIST steel as the standard, excellent precision and agreement between reported and analyzed abundances were obtained for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Nb. -from Authors

  6. External PIXE analysis of an Iranian 15th century poetry book

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuee, Omidreza; Fathollahi, Vahid; Oliaiy, Parvin; Lamehi-Rachti, Mohammad; Taheri, Raziyeh; Jafarian, Hosseinali A.

    2012-02-01

    The paints of illumination, ink and paper of an Iranian poetry manuscript originally belonging to 15th century but partly restored about 300 years ago are characterized by external PIXE. The technique was employed to determine the elemental composition of different inks and paints applied in the text and illumination as well as the paper of both the original masterpiece and the restored parts in order to evaluate the quality of restoration processes. The X-ray spectra were collected by a Si(Li) X-ray detector placed at a scattering angle of 135° while the beam charge was indirectly measured through the Ar K α X-ray yield originated from the irradiation of in-air Argon. By analysis of the collected PIXE spectra, concentration of different elements present in closely matched colored areas in the original and restored illuminations were compared. In the same way, the origin of colored pigments and black ink in the original and restored illuminations and texts are inferred.

  7. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, R.; Takeuchi, T.; Hanaichi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-10

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 degree sign C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  8. PIXE analysis of low concentration aluminum in brain tissues of an Alzheimer's disease patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, R.; Hanaichi, T.; Takeuchi, T.; Ektessabi, A. M.

    1999-06-01

    An excess accumulation and presence of metal ions may significantly alter a brain cell's normal functions. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to measure and quantify the density and distribution of excessive accumulations of constituent elements (such as Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca) in the brain, as well as the presence and distribution of contaminating elements (such as Al). This is particularly important in cases of neuropathological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and ALS. The aim of this paper was to measure the Al present in the temporal cortex of the brain of an Alzheimer's disease patient. The specimens were taken from an unfixed autopsy brain which has been preserved for a period of 4 years in the deep freezer at -80 °C. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy was used for the measurement of Al concentration in this brain tissue. A tandem accelerator with 2 MeV of energy was also used. In order to increase the sensitivity of the signals in the low energy region of the spectra, the absorbers were removed. The results show that the peak height depends on the measurement site. However, in certain cases an extremely high concentration of Al was observed in the PIXE spectra, with an intensity higher than those in the other major elements of the brain's matrix element. Samples from tissues affected by the same disease were analyzed using the EDX analyzer. The results are quantitatively in very good agreement with those of the PIXE analysis.

  9. PIXE analysis of hair samples from artisanal mining communities in the Acupan region, Benguet, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Eligia; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Murao, S.

    2004-06-01

    The mountainous regions of Benguet Province in the Philippines is home to some 10,000 small-scale miners who make out a living by extracting gold. In these communities, the method of extraction still involves the use of mercury, via amalgamation. In the separation of gold from mercury the method involves the release of mercury vapor into the atmosphere. This is therefore expected to affect the people living in the nearby areas. This study involves the accumulation of baseline data on the extent of mercury contamination in humans through the analysis of their hair. In 1989, Hursh et al. [Arch. Environ. Health 44 (2) (1989) 120] studied human volunteers and found that uptake of mercury vapor through the skin is only about 1% of the uptake through inhalation [World Health Organization, IPCS, EHC118, Inorganic Mercury, Geneva, 1991, p. 42]. In this light, any residual mercury which might have deposited in human hair is speculated to give an indication of how much mercury vapor the subject could have actually inhaled. A high concentration of mercury in the sample can therefore be indicative of the high rate of intake of the mercury vapor through inhalation. A sampling of the community consisted of both male (83%) and female (17%) subjects who ranged in age from 8 to 66 years old. Hair analysis was done using particle induced X-ray emission at the Iwate Medical University through Dr. Sera. With Zn set as a standard element, the rest of the elements were determined using the standard-free method. In order to obtain the conversion coefficient for hair samples, many hair samples were analyzed by this method and the internal standard method which involves the preparation of the hair samples by chemical ashing. The results obtained were comparable. The PIXE results for these samples showed the analysis of 26 elements but for our purposes, however, only the mercury analysis will be considered. Results of the analysis showed the hair samples to contain 0-27 ppm, with only seven

  10. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón-González, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; García-León, M.; García-Tenorio, R.; García, Y. Morilla; Sosa, M.

    2008-08-01

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  11. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon-Gonzalez, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Morilla Garcia, Y.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-11

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  12. RBS and PIXE analysis of chlorine contamination in ALD-Grown TiN films on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Meersschaut, J.; Witters, T.; Kaeyhkoe, M.; Lenka, H. P.; Vandervorst, W.; Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A.

    2013-04-19

    The performance, strengths and limitations of RBS and PIXE for the characterization of trace amounts of Cl in TiN thin films are critically compared. The chlorine atomic concentration in ALD grown TiN thin films on Si is determined for samples grown at temperatures ranging from 350 Degree-Sign C to 550 Degree-Sign C. We show that routine Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements (1.5 MeV He{sup +}) and PIXE measurements (1.5 MeV H{sup +}) on 20 nm thick TiN films allow one to determine the Cl content down to 0.3 at% with an absolute statistical accuracy reaching 0.03 at%. Possible improvements to push the sensitivity limit for both approaches are proposed.

  13. Micro-PIXE analysis of trace element concentrations of natural rubies from different locations in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, J. L.; Osipowicz, T.; Tang, S. M.; Tay, T. S.; Win, T. T.

    1997-07-01

    The trace element concentrations found in geological samples can shed light on the formation process. In the case of gemstones, which might be of artificial or natural origin, there is also considerable interest in the development of methods that provide identification of the origin of a sample. For rubies, trace element concentrations present in natural samples were shown previously to be significant indicators of the region of origin [S.M. Tang et al., Appl. Spectr. 42 (1988) 44, and 43 (1989) 219]. Here we report the results of micro-PIXE analyses of trace element (Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Cu and Ga) concentrations of a large set ( n = 130) of natural rough rubies from nine locations in Myanmar (Burma). The resulting concentrations are subjected to statistical analysis. Six of the nine groups form clusters when the data base is evaluated using tree clustering and principal component analysis.

  14. Analysis of Roman glass from Albania by PIXE-PIGE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Tartari, F.; Stamati, F.; Vevecka Priftaj, A.; Istenič, J.

    2013-02-01

    A series of 31 Roman glasses dated to the 1st-4th c. AD from the present Albania was analyzed by the combined PIXE-PIGE method. The analysis shows typical natron-based glass of the Roman period, though statistical treatment using principal component analysis and bivariate plots reveals four distinct groups, which are qualified by increased levels of potassium, magnesium and titanium-manganese-iron oxides, respectively. MgO content may exceed 2% and reach the level commonly accepted for halophytic plant-ash glass. The groups are formed on account of mineral impurities in the sand, which gives support to the thesis of multiple production centers of raw glass in the imperial age.

  15. Analysis of routine pilot-controller communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in routine operations. A sample of routine pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of routine communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.

  16. Analysis of routine pilot-controller communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in routine operations. A sample of routine pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of routine communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.

  17. A comparison of the techniques of PIXE, PIGE and INAA by reference to the elemental analysis of porcine brain samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. D.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1994-12-01

    The trace element concentrations in porcine brain samples as determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) analysis are compared. The matrix composition was determined by Rutherford backscattering (RBS). Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd were determined by PIXE analysis Na, K, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Br, Rb, and Cs by INAA and Na, Mg and Fe by PIGE analysis. The bulk elements C, N, O, Na Cl and S were found by RBS analysis. Elemental concentrations are obtained using the comparator method of analysis rather than an absolute method, the validity which is examined by comparing the elemental concentrations obtained in porcine brain using two separate certified reference materials.

  18. Accelerator-Based PIXE and STIM Analysis of Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hollerman, W.A.; Stanaland, T.L.; Boudreaux, P.; Elberson, L.; Fontenot, J.; Gates, E.; Greco, R.; McBride, M.; Woodward, A.; Edwards, D.

    2003-08-26

    Solar sailing is a unique form of propulsion where a spacecraft gains momentum from incident photons. A totally reflective sail experiences a pressure of 9.1 {mu}Pa at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. Since sails are not limited by reaction mass, they provide continual acceleration, reduced only by the lifetime of the lightweight film in the space environment and the distance to the Sun. Practical solar sails can expand the number of possible missions, enabling new concepts that are difficult by conventional means. One of the current challenges is to develop strong, lightweight, and radiation resistant sail materials. This paper will discuss initial results from a Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) analysis of candidate solar sail materials.

  19. Further results from PIXE analysis of inks in Galileo's notes on motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Carmine, P.; Giuntini, L.; Hooper, W.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    We have recently analysed the inks in some of the folios of Vol. 72 of Manoscritti galileiani, kept at the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze, which contains a collection of loose handwritten sheets containing undated notes, data from experiments and propositions on the problems of motion from different periods of Galileo's life. This paper reports specific results obtained from the analysis of some of these propositions, which allowed to make a contribution to their chronological attribution and therefore to the solution of some historical controversies. Even in the case where the "absolute" chronological attributions could not be made on the basis of comparison with dated documents, the PIXE results provided useful information to deny or confirm the hypothesis that different propositions were written in the same or in different periods.

  20. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature.

  1. PIXE analysis of chromium phytoaccumulation by the aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F. R.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Módenes, A. N.; Palácio, S. M.; Silva, E. A.; Rossi, F. L.; Martin, N.; Szymanski, N.

    2009-04-01

    The uptake of hexavalent chromium in free living floating aquatic macrophytes Eicchornia crassipes cultivated in non-toxic chromium-doped hydroponic solutions is presented. A Cr-uptake bioaccumulation experiment was carried out using healthy macrophytes grown in a temperature controlled greenhouse. Six samples of nutrient media and plants were collected during the 23 day experiment. Roots and leaves were acid digested with the addition of an internal Gallium standard, for thin film sample preparation and quantitative Cr analysis by PIXE method. The Cr 6+ mass uptake by the macrophytes reached up to 70% of the initial concentration, comparable to former results and literature data. The Cr-uptake data were described using a non-structural first order kinetic model. Due to low cost and high removal efficiency, living aquatic macrophytes E. crassipes are a viable biosorbent in an artificial wetland of a water effluent treatment plant.

  2. PIXE analysis of urease isoenzymes isolated from Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Follmer, C.; Carlini, C. R.; Yoneama, M.-L.; Dias, J. F.

    2002-04-01

    The main goal of this work was to perform a stoichiometric analysis of metals, in particular Ni and Zn, in two isoforms of urease isolated from jack bean seeds. The urease isoforms were separated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The samples were prepared for PIXE by acetone precipitation of the proteins, which were deposited onto regenerated cellulose acetate membranes by filtration. The resulting mass of the samples was of the order of 0.20 mg (dry weight). The results show that urease contains two equivalents of Ni per 90 kDa monomer, in agreement with the results reported in the literature. For canatoxin, the other urease isoform, the presence of one equivalent of Zn per monomer was observed, besides Ni, previously detected by atomic absorption spectrometry as one equivalent per 90 kDa. Problems and further improvements concerning the preparation of the samples are discussed.

  3. Background considerations in the analysis of PIXE spectra by Artificial Neural Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Requena, I.; Miranda, J.; Barrera, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the importance of background in PIXE spectra to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosols using artificial neural systems ANS, two independently trained ANS were constructed, one which considered as input the net number of counts in the peak, and another which included the background. In the training and validation phases thirty eight spectra of aerosols collected in Santiago, Chile, were used. In both cases the elemental concentration values were similar. This fact was due to the intrinsic characteristic of ANS operating with normalized values of the net and total number of counts under the peaks, something that was verified in the analysis of 172 spectra obtained from aerosols collected in Mexico city. Therefore, networks operating under the mode which include background can reduce time and cost when dealing with large number of samples.

  4. Analysis of elemental composition of porcelains unearthed from Waguantan kiln site by PIXE-RBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Zhang, K.; Xia, C. D.; Liu, M. T.; Zhu, J. J.; An, Z.; Bai, B.

    2015-03-01

    A method combining proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) was used to determine the composition of 61 porcelain shards from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 A.D.) unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site at Tianzhu County in Guizhou Province, China. Based on our previous experimental setup, an electron gun device with a LaB6 crystal cathode was installed to solve the problem created when the incident proton beams generated electric charge accumulations on the surfaces of the insulating porcelain samples, which induced a large bremsstrahlung background. The use of the electron gun has largely eliminated the large bremsstrahlung background and has therefore improved the detection limits for elements, especially for trace elements, and made it possible to determine the origin of the porcelains based on the trace elements. Major and trace elemental compositions of the porcelain bodies and glazes measured by PIXE and RBS were analyzed by the factor analysis method. The factor analysis showed that a few pieces of porcelain with a style similar to the porcelain of the Longquan kiln among the unearthed porcelains from the Waguantan kiln site did not have obvious differences in elemental compositions from other remaining porcelains unearthed from the Waguantan kiln site, indicating that the pieces of unearthed porcelain with the Longquan kiln style did in fact belong to the product fired locally by imitating the model of the Longquan celadon with local raw materials. This result therefore indicated that the Longquan kiln technology that originated from the Five Dynasties (907-960 A.D.) had been propagated to the Waguantan kiln site of Guizhou Province in the Yuan Dynasty.

  5. alpha Pix enhances mutant huntingtin aggregation.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Makoto; Mizuta, Haruo; Luo, Shouqing; Kuroda, Yasuo; Hara, Hideo; Rubinsztein, David C

    2010-03-15

    Huntington's disease is caused by polyglutamine-expanded mutant huntingtin (muhtt), an aggregation-prone protein. We identified the Pak-interacting exchange factor (alpha Pix/Cool2) as a novel huntingtin (htt) interacting protein, after screening actin-cytoskeleton organization-related factors. Using immunoprecipitation experiments, we show that alpha Pix binds to both the N-terminal of wild-type htt (wthtt) and mutant htt (muthtt). Colocalization studies revealed that alpha Pix accumulates in muthtt aggregates. Deletion analysis suggested that the dbl homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of alpha Pix are required for its interaction with htt. Overexpression of alpha Pix enhanced muthtt aggregation by inducing SDS-soluble muthtt-muthtt interactions. Conversely, knocking down alpha Pix attenuated muhtt aggregation. These findings suggest that alpha Pix plays an important role in muthtt aggregation.

  6. Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

    1990-04-01

    Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

  7. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzutto, M. A.; Moro, M. V.; Silva, T. F.; Trindade, G. F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M. H.; Kajiya, E. M.; Campos, P. H. V.; Magalhães, A. G.; Barbosa, M.

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  8. Recent advances in nuclear and atomic spectrometric techniques for trace element analysis. A new look at the position of PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    1990-04-01

    The principles, instrumentation and methodological aspects of several nuclear and atomic spectrometric techniques for trace element analysis are briefly described. These techniques are nuclear activation analysis, mainly neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), including total reflection XRF (TXRF) and synchrotron radiation XRF (SR-XRF), atomic emission, atomic absorption and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AES, AAS and AFS), and atomic mass spectrometry, in particular inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Recent advances and new trends in each technique are indicated. The various techniques are intercompared with each other and with particle-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXE), and this is done from a number of viewpoints, including cost of the instrument and/or price per sample analyzed, speed of analysis, sample type and sample mass required for analysis, capability for multielement determinations, accuracy and detection limits. Particular emphasis is placed on assessing the present position of PIXE, and it is indicated for what sample types and/or analytical problems PIXE offers significant advantages over the other techniques.

  9. Aerosol Composition and Source Apportionment in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area with PIXE/PESA/STIM and Multivariate Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Kirsten S.; de Foy, B.; Zuberi, Bilal M.; Molina, Luisa; Molina, Mario J.; Xie, YuLong; Laskin, Alexander; Shutthanandan, V.

    2006-10-12

    Aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere but are poorly characterized, particularly in urban areas like the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). The chemical composition of urban particles must be known to assess their effects on the environment, and specific particulate emissions sources should be identified to establish ef- 5 fective pollution control standards. For these reasons, samples of particulate matter _2.5 µm (PM2.5) were collected during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign for elemental and multivariate analyses. Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton-Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) and Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) techniques were done to determine concentrations of 19 elements from Na to Pb, hydrogen, and 10 total mass, respectively. The most abundant elements from PIXE analysis were S, Si, K, Fe, Ca, and Al, while the major emissions sources associated with these elements were industry, wind-blown soil, and biomass burning. Wind trajectories suggest that metals associated with industrial emissions came from northern areas of the city whereas soil aerosols came from the southwest and increased in concentration during 15 dry conditions. Elemental markers for fuel oil combustion V and Ni correlated with a large SO2 plume to suggest an anthropogenic, rather than volcanic, emissions source. By subtracting major components of soil and sulfates determined by PIXE analysis from STIM total mass measurements, we estimate that approximately 50% of PM2.5 consisted of carbonaceous material.

  10. Target preparation procedure and PIXE analysis of selenium in different foods consumed in the region of Algiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amokrane, A.; Benamar, M. E. A.

    2002-03-01

    A procedure has been elaborated to measure the trace element selenium (Se) in onions and potatoes consumed in the Algiers region. The important chemical pre-concentration step includes wet sample oxidation and the reduction of Se to the element using co-precipitation with tellurium as carrier element and radioactive 75Se to control the chemical process yield. Finally, the filtered probe material is dissolved, labeled with yttrium as an internal PIXE standard and deposited on a thin foil of polycarbonate by solvent drip evaporation. The resulting targets are investigated by the PIXE analysis with 3-MeV proton beams. The low concentration of Se in the samples is determined by measuring the characteristic X-rays.

  11. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p < 0.005) while the levels of Ca, Cr and Ni were lower (p < 0.005) in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  12. In-air PIXE set-up for automatic analysis of historical document inks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Rupnik, Zdravko; Uršič, Mitja; Pelicon, Primož; Kolar, Jana; Strlič, Matija

    2004-06-01

    The iron gall inks were one of the writing materials mostly applied in historical documents of the western civilization. Due to the ink corrosive character, the documents are faced with a danger of being seriously, and in some cases also irreversibly changed. The elemental composition of the inks is an important information for taking the adequate conservation action [Project InkCor, http://www.infosrvr.nuk.uni-lj.si/jana/Inkcor/index.htm, and references within]. Here, the in-air PIXE analysis offers an indispensable tool due to its sensitivity and almost non-destructive character. An experimental approach developed for precise and automatic analysis of documents at Jožef Stefan Institute Tandetron accelerator is presented. The selected documents were mounted, one at the time, on the positioning board and the chosen ink spots on the sample were irradiated by 1.7 MeV protons. The data acquisition on the selected ink spots is done automatically throughout the measuring pattern determined prior to the measurement. The chemical elements identified in the documents ranged from Si to Pb, and between them the significant iron gall ink components like Fe, S, K, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni were deduced with precision of ±10%. The measurements were done non-destructively and no visible damage was observed on the irradiated documents.

  13. Alkali impregnated teflon as a filter for atmospheric SO 2 PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yatsuka; Cahill, Thomas A.

    1985-02-01

    In order to collect SO 2 gas on a stretched Teflon filter impregnated with an alkali solution for a PIXE analysis, an impregnation method has been developed. In this article, the following points are presented. a) It has been found to be necessary to replace the air trapped in filter pores by methanol, and then to replace the methanol by an alkali solution, b) The resistance for air flow through an impregnated Teflon filter is not high and it has been checked that an ordinary pump can be used for the air sampling with the impregnated filter, with the usual flow rate aerosol sampling, c) The impurity levels of the reagents used for impregnants were small enough for sulfur analysis, d) The collection efficiencies of the impregnants, 20%NaOH + 10%glycerin and 20%NaOH + 10%TEA, which are the most suitable ones, did not decrease with flow rate in the range of 0-10 {1}/{min} per filter of 25 mm in diameter. A cross check experiment on the collection of ambient SO 2 gas with the three kinds of filter (A: 5%NaOH + 5%glycerin impregnated Whatman-41 filter, B: 20%NaOH + 10%TEA coated Nuclepore filter, C: 20%NaOH + 10%TEA impregnated stretched Teflon filter) was done. The results showed a satisfactory tolerance for the practical use of Teflon impregnated filter.

  14. PIXE analysis of jewels from an Achaemenid tomb (IVth century BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querré, G.; Bouquillon, A.; Calligaro, T.; Dubus, M.; Salomon, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ion beam analysis has seldom been applied to gemmology. The privileged location of the Laboratoire de recherche des musées de France, close to some of the most prestigious art collections, along with the implementation of the AGLAE IBA facility, have allowed us to initiate several gemmological research programs since 1991. The latest of these deals with a series of Achaemenid jewels (IVth century BC) exhibited in the Louvre museum. The aim of the present research is three-fold: determination of the coloured materials inlayed in gold, composition of the golden alloys and the inlay fixation technique. Analyses have been carried out by PIXE using an external proton beam under conditions set from test experiments on reference gemstones in order to optimise the experimental parameters. Quantitative chemical analysis of both major and trace elements has allowed us to distinguish between 15 types of fine or ornamental stones as well as man-made materials and to identify a peculiar cement technique. We will describe the analytical procedure in detail, then present the main results obtained on coloured inlays and cement and underline a potential drawback of the technique, i.e. a transient colour variation of the target under the impact of the beam, which needs further investigation.

  15. Biomedical studies by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afarideh, H.; Amirabadi, A.; Hadji-Saeid, S. M.; Mansourian, N.; Kaviani, K.; Zibafar, E.

    1996-04-01

    In the present biomedical research, PIXE a powerful technique for elemental analysis was employed to illustrate the importance of multi-elemental determination of serum trace elements in two cases of great medical interest. Those are evaluation of the desferroxamine drug (DPO), a widely used therapy for patient with β-thalassemia-Major (β-thal-M), and investigation of elemental variations in blood-serum in hyperbilirubinamia new-borns before and after blood transfusion (BT). The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the various aspects of PIXE analysis by some practical examples as well as to draw some general conclusions regarding the cure of those patients with the above mentioned disorders or diseases. To present in details each case, we divide the paper in two parts: part 1 and part 2 to consider the experimental procedure as well as the results individually.

  16. Elemental analysis of edible grains by micro-PIXE: Common buckwheat case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Kreft, I.; Regvar, M.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was the adaptation of the micro-PIXE method for analysis of nutritionally relevant heavy elements in different tissues of the grain of common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum), as a representative nutritionally interesting grain food source. At 57% of the buckwheat grain biomass, the endosperm was a modest nutrient source when compared to the cotyledons, at 17% of the biomass. These latter contained high concentrations of trace elements, representing 91% of the total grain Zn, 87% for P, 70% for S, 62% for Mg, 60% for K, 54% for Cu, 53% for Mn and 35% for Fe. The husk provided storage for 85% of the total Ca, 84% for Al, 83% for Si, 76% for Cl, 69% for Ti and 46% for Fe. Knowledge on these preferential elemental constitutions of the different grain tissues makes the possibility of designing target products with nutritionally optimal constitution more feasible. These data represent a basis for a more targeted approach to nutritional improvement of grains intended for human consumption.

  17. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  18. Microprobe PIXE analysis of aluminium in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Horino, Y.; Mokuno, Y.; Kakimi, S.; Fujii, K.

    1996-04-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), we examined aluminium (Al) in the rat liver, and in the brains (hippocampus) of Alzheimer's disease patients using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobe and proton (2 MeV) microprobe PIXE analysis. Heavy ion microprobes (3 MeV Si 2+) have several time's higher sensitivity for Al detection than 2 MeV proton microprobes. (1) In the rat liver, Al was detected in the cell nuclei, where phosphorus (P) was most densely distributed. (2) We also demonstrated Al in the cell nuclei isolated from Alzheimer's disease brains using heavy ion (5 MeV Si 3+) microprobes. Al spectra were detected using 2 MeV proton microprobes in the isolated brain cell nuclei. Al could not be observed in areas where P was present in relatively small amounts, or was absent. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of Al in the nuclei of brain cells.

  19. In-vacuum micro-PIXE analysis of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylko, G.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.

    2007-07-01

    The first in-vacuum measurements of biological specimens in frozen-hydrated state using proton microbeam have been performed at Materials Research Group, iThemba LABS, South Africa. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen in propane cooled by liquid nitrogen, fractured, carbon coated and transferred onto the cold stage (100 K) in the nuclear microprobe chamber. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. Quantitative results were obtained by standardless method, tested using 20% gelatine standards with added PbCl 2. The differences between the concentrations obtained for frozen-hydrated and next freeze-dried specimens and the value calculated on the basis of weighted mass of PbCl 2 added to gelatine were statistically insignificant. Leaf tissue of Senecio anomalochrous and larvae of Chysolina pardalina were used as examples of plant and animal tissue. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed the same distribution pattern in both cases.

  20. Non-destructive analysis of coins using high-energy PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Griesser, M.; Denk, R.; Winter, H.

    2004-11-01

    At the Ionenstrahllabor (ion beam laboratory) a great variety of ions with variable energies up to several MeV/u can be produced. Performing proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) with protons of 68 MeV, heavy elements can be detected via the K X-rays in addition to their L X-rays. The large proton range and the small absorption coefficients for the K X-rays result in an analysable depth of several millimeters. The L-K line intensity ratio yields further information on the composition of the objects. The objects of the study were so-called "Wiener Pfennige" found in Tulln, Austria. The "hoard of Tulln" contains about 11 000 of these silver coins which were strongly corroded and agglomerated to a single block. After the restoration non-destructive analysis should provide information about the elemental composition. The goal was to show the evolution of the copper content of the coins and the verification of the actual coin classification.

  1. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    PubMed

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attempts to improve PIXE quantitative trace element analysis of biomedical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J. M.; Roelandts, I.; Bartsch, P.; Collignon, A.

    1981-03-01

    PIXE is used to study a possible modification of blood oligo-element composition during hemodialysis and trace element distribution in lungs and interbronchial lymph nodes. Methodological details concerning sample preparation and choice of backing materials are discussed. NBS reference materials are analysed in order to assess the accuracy of the present method. Special attention is paid to quantitative measurements.

  3. PIXE analysis of trace metals in selenium and copper deficient mice exposed to influenza virus and salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, J. M.; Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Small, P. A.; Maenhaut, W.; Vandenhaute, J.

    1987-03-01

    Reye's syndrome is an acute illness in children manifested by encephalopathy, fatty infiltration of liver, and thymic hypoplasia. The syndrome usually occurs in a susceptible individual with a viral illness who has ingested salicylate. We previously investigated the metal status of children with this syndrome; serum Se and Cu levels were noted to be decreased. Chronic aspirin treatment of rats also produced alterations of serum Se, and liver Se and Cu. We now report our observations for an experimental model of Reye's syndrome. Analysis by PIXE of various metals in Se- and Cu-deficient mice exposed to virus and salicylate are discussed.

  4. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.

    2016-03-01

    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  5. Calibration, linearity, precision, and accuracy of a PIXE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, F.-W.; Wätjen, U.

    1984-04-01

    An accuracy and precision of better than 10% each can be achieved with PIXE analysis, with both thin and thick samples. Measures we took to obtain these values for routine analyses in the Marburg PIXE system are discussed. The advantages of an experimental calibration procedure, using thin evaporated standard foils, over the "absolute" method of employing X-ray production cross sections are outlined. The importance of X-ray line intensity ratios, even of weak transitions, for the accurate analysis of interfering elements of low mass content is demonstrated for the Se K α-Pb L ηline overlap. Matrix effects including secondary excitation can be corrected for very well without degrading accuracy under certain conditions.

  6. PIXE analysis of some medicinal plants used in cleaning teeth in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olabanji, S O; Adesina, S K; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; Moschini, G

    2007-05-01

    Sixteen medicinal plants used for cleaning teeth in southwestern Nigeria were analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. These medicinal plants have other therapeutic uses, but the emphasis and main focus were on their beneficial effects on human teeth. PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padova Italy. The results showed the presence of 18 different elements at different concentrations, 2 plants had traces of gold, and none of the plants contained any toxic heavy metals. The metabolic roles of the detected elements were discussed especially as they affected the formation, growth, development, and protection of human teeth. The results of this study are presented and discussed.

  7. Results from the nuclear microprobe PIXE analysis of selected rare earth fluor compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerman, William A.; Gates, Earl; Boudreaux, Philip; Glass, Gary A.

    2002-04-01

    Most previous research measures fluorescence properties over the macroscopic regime. Properties of individual microscopic grains could be significantly different than those measured over the macroscopic scale. Until recently, it was difficult to measure properties of individual fluor grains. Existing characterization techniques like scanning electron microscopy are not practical, since the resulting fluorescence masks the electron surface profile. Starting in September 2000, a research program was initiated at the Acadiana Research Laboratory to determine microscopic fluorescence properties for selected inorganic rare earth compounds. The initial phase of this program utilized microscopic proton induced X-ray emission (μPIXE) to characterize the elemental composition of individual fluor grains. Results show that both individual grains and small clusters of grains could be seen using μPIXE. Maps of this type can be used to estimate grain dimensions for the selected rare earth fluor. This technique is a new and innovative method to characterize a fluor material.

  8. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Bailey, M. J.; Coley, H.; Kirkby, K. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2010-06-01

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  9. PIXE simulation: Models, methods and technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Batic, M.; Pia, M. G.; Saracco, P.; Weidenspointner, G.

    2013-04-19

    The simulation of PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) is discussed in the context of general-purpose Monte Carlo systems for particle transport. Dedicated PIXE codes are mainly concerned with the application of the technique to elemental analysis, but they lack the capability of dealing with complex experimental configurations. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes provide powerful tools to model the experimental environment in great detail, but so far they have provided limited functionality for PIXE simulation. This paper reviews recent developments that have endowed the Geant4 simulation toolkit with advanced capabilities for PIXE simulation, and related efforts for quantitative validation of cross sections and other physical parameters relevant to PIXE simulation.

  10. Ion-beam analysis for cultural heritage on the AGLAE facility: impact of PIXE/RBS combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, J.; Dran, J.-C.; Guillou, T.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Walter, P.; Mathis, F.

    2008-07-01

    The combination of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) is particularly fruitful for the study of cultural heritage objects. Several set-ups have been developed at the AGLAE facility of the Louvre Laboratory to implement these techniques with an external beam. Successively have been tested the simultaneous use of PIXE and RBS with a single beam of protons, the sequential application of PIXE with protons and RBS with 4He2+ ions and finally the simultaneous implementation of PIXE and RBS with high-energy 4He2+ ions. Several examples illustrate the benefits of these combinations of techniques.

  11. PIXE analysis for the study of toxic effects of aluminium in vines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. R.; Le Roux, E.; Renan, M. J.; Peisach, M.

    1984-04-01

    Elemental concentrations of Mg, A1, Si, P, S, Cl, K and Ca were determined by PIXE in various parts of grape vines grown in a Hoagland water culture with and without added aluminium. The presence of Al enhanced the uptake of P, S and K in leaves and stems, but depressed Mg and Ca. In the roots the Al concentration was very high, while that of Mg was reduced compared to the control samples. The toxic effects of aluminium produced symptoms reminiscent of calcium deficiency.

  12. Trace Element Analysis of Prostate Cancer Patient Blood Plasma using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogle, M. R.; Toburen, L. H.; Shinpaugh, J. L.; Justiniano, E. L. B.; Kovacs, C. J.; Daly, B.

    1999-11-01

    It is suggested in various sources of literature that neoplastic disorders induce a shift in the essential trace elements in the blood. A method employing proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure the essential trace elements Cu, Zn, Br, Fe, and Se in the plasma of prostate cancer patients of various stages. The concentration levels of each element and the Cu/Zn ratios were then tracked through the treatment period. Results indicate that early stage prostate cancer patients show little variation in concentration of the individual elements as well as Cu/Zn ratio, while advanced stages show a significant increase in the Cu/Zn ratio.

  13. Analysis of glassy spherules extracted from Carpathian Mesozoic lime stone by μPIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzonyi, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Solt, P.; Dosztály, L.; Kákay Szabó, O.; Detre, Cs. H.

    1998-04-01

    Twenty-four glassy spherules collected from three Mesozoic sites of the Carpathian Basin have been analysed for major, minor and trace element composition using the scanning proton microprobe facility of the Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI) in Debrecen. μPIXE analyses revealed surprisingly high Ca and Ba concentrations (CaO ˜40%, BaO ˜2.5%) which have never been reported before. Samples proved to be homogeneous for the major elements (Si, Ca). From geological considerations it may be inferred that these spherules are terrestrial impact products, though, the details of the impact events have not been fully cleared yet.

  14. PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS analysis of Cu-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Yang, C.; Wang, J. Z.; Shi, L. Q.; Cheng, H. S.

    2014-08-01

    Cu-doped ZnO films were prepared by rf magnetron sputtering on sapphire substrate at different atmosphere. Microstructure of these films and Cu occupation sites were investigated using PIXE, SR-XRD and EXAFS. Only 2.9 at.% Cu, no other magnetic impurities (e.g., Fe, Co and Ni) were detected. The ZnO:Cu films possessed the wurtzite ZnO structures and no precipitates (e.g., CuO and Cu2O or Cu cluster) were found. Cu atoms were incorporated into ZnO crystal lattice by occupying Zn atomic sites.

  15. Virtual PIXE and RBS laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlic, I.; Zhou, Shijun; Sanchez, J. L.; Watt, F.; Tang, S. M.

    1999-04-01

    An interactive software package for a complete simulation of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Backscattering Spectra (BS) is being developed. The user is in a position to define all experimental parameters such as incident ions (protons, deuterons or He ions), their energy, excitation and detection geometry, detector parameters and filters as well as sample composition and thicknesses of a number of layers. This is all done through an easy to operate interactive user interface. Simulated PIXE and RBS spectra are immediately displayed on the screen and can be saved either as bitmaps and/or files suitable for further processing. Each output comes with a complete set of experimental parameters, absolute and relative line intensities (including all major K and L lines), peak to background ratio and detection limits for all elements of interest. The program has also a number of utility routines to calculate various fundamental parameters such as photon cross sections, K and L shell ionization and production cross sections, energy loss, and detector efficiency. All these routines use the state-of-the art data base sources. The program operates on a personal computer under the MS Windows operating system. The simulation is fast and the program is easy to operate. The package will be useful in many ways. Firstly, it will be an excellent teaching tool for researchers/students without experience with PIXE/RBS. Secondly, it will be of immense help in planning and optimizing PIXE and/or RBS experiments. The user can 'run' a simulated experiment for any sample/experimental parameters and test various settings/scenarios to achieve optimal results without actually carrying out the experiment, thereby saving a lot of expensive machine time that would otherwise have been spent on trial and error experiments.

  16. Fluorine analysis of human dentin surrounding resin composite after fluoride application by μ-PIGE/PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuyama, Katsushi; Komatsu, Hisanori; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Pereira, Patricia N. R.; Bedran-Russo, Ana K.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Sato, Takahiro; Sano, Hidehiko

    2011-10-01

    The use of fluoride for the prevention of caries is based on the transformation of hydroxylapatite to fluoroapatite in the presence of fluoride ions, thereby strengthening tooth structure. Adhesion of dentin and resin composite (tooth-colored restoration material) requires a dentin bonding system, since resin composite is not able to adhere to dentin directly. Demineralization of dentin by acid etching is an important step in the dentin bonding system, however, demineralization also introduces weaknesses in tooth structure. If the demineralized dentin could be strengthened by the application of fluoride, then the dentin-resin composite bond strength might also improve. To test this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the influence of fluoride applications on the strength of the dentin-resin composite bond by (1) tensile strength testing analyses, (2) SEM analyses of tooth structure, and (3) detection of calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) distribution patterns by micro proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) and micro proton-induced gamma-ray emission (μ-PIGE) analyses conducted at the Takasaki Ion Accelerators for Advanced Radiation Application (TIARA) at the Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute (TARRI). In this study, the dentin in extracted human molars was exposed by grinding and the dentin was etched with 35% phosphoric acid. Fluoride was applied at two concentrations, 0.022% (100 ppm F) and 2.21% (10,000 ppm F) NaF solution, for two time periods, 30 and 60 s, prior to bonding the resin composite with the treated dentin. Controls were prepared in the same manner, but without the fluoride application. Bond strength was measured with a micro-tensile testing unit, and the fluorine and calcium distributions at the interface between dentin and resin composite were detected by μ-PIGE and μ-PIXE analysis, respectively. Results indicate that the 10,000 ppm F applications resulted in higher bond strengths than observed in either the 100 ppm F applications or

  17. Comparative analysis of urban atmospheric aerosol by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), and aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS).

    PubMed

    Johnson, K S; Laskin, A; Jimenez, J L; Shutthanandan, V; Molina, L T; Salcedo, D; Dzepina, K; Molina, M J

    2008-09-01

    A multifaceted approach to atmospheric aerosol analysis is often desirable in field studies where an understanding of technical comparability among different measurement techniques is essential. Herein, we report quantitative intercomparisons of particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton elastic scattering analysis (PESA), performed of fline under a vacuum, with analysis by aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) carried out in real-time during the MCMA-2003 Field Campaign in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area. Good agreement was observed for mass concentrations of PIXE-measured sulfur (assuming it was dominated by SO4(2-)) and AMS-measured sulfate during most of the campaign. PESA-measured hydrogen mass was separated into sulfate H and organic H mass fractions, assuming the only major contributions were (NH4)2SO4 and organic compounds. Comparison of the organic H mass with AMS organic aerosol measurements indicates that about 75% of the mass of these species evaporated under a vacuum. However approximately 25% of the organics does remain under a vacuum, which is only possible with low-vapor-pressure compounds, and which supports the presence of high-molecular-weight or highly oxidized organics consistent with atmospheric aging. Approximately 10% of the chloride detected by AMS was measured by PIXE, possibly in the form of metal-chloride complexes, while the majority of Cl was likely present as more volatile species including NH4Cl. This is the first comparison of PIXE/PESA and AMS and, to our knowledge, also the first report of PESA hydrogen measurements for urban organic aerosols.

  18. PIGE-PIXE analysis of medicinal plants and vegetables of pharmacological importance.

    PubMed

    Olabanji, S O; Makanju, O V; Ceccato, D; Buoso, M C; Haque, A M; Cherubini, R; Moschini, G

    1997-09-01

    PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed to the study of elemental constituents of some traditional medicinal plants generally used in curing many diseases and ailments in southwestern Nigeria. Analyses were also carried out on commonly edible vegetables of medicinal and pharmacological importance. PIGE measurements were carried out using 3.5-MeV collimated protons from the 7 mV CN Van-de-Graaff accelerator of INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova), Italy, whereas the PIXE measurements were carried out using 1.8 MeV from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van-de-Graaff accelerator of the same laboratory. The results show that many of the medicinal plants contain elements of cardinal importance in human metabolism. The results from the vegetables also show the presence of vital elements that are needed for growth and development. In addition, some of the toxic elements, which include As, Cd, Hg, and so forth, were not detected. However, some of the recipes contain trace amounts of Pb at very low concentrations. This calls for proper control of dose rates in some samples to prevent the attendant negative cumulative effects.

  19. Pix Proteins and the Evolution of Centrioles

    PubMed Central

    Woodland, Hugh R.; Fry, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    We have made a wide phylogenetic survey of Pix proteins, which are constituents of vertebrate centrioles in most eukaryotes. We have also surveyed the presence and structure of flagella or cilia and centrioles in these organisms, as far as is possible from published information. We find that Pix proteins are present in a vast range of eukaryotes, but not all. Where centrioles are absent so are Pix proteins. If one considers the maintenance of Pix proteins over evolutionary time scales, our analysis would suggest that their key function is to make cilia and flagella, and the same is true of centrioles. Moreover, this survey raises the possibility that Pix proteins are only maintained to make cilia and flagella that undulate, and even then only when they are constructed by transporting ciliary constituents up the cilium using the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system. We also find that Pix proteins have become generally divergent within Ecdysozoa and between this group and other taxa. This correlates with a simplification of centrioles within Ecdysozoa and a loss or divergence of cilia/flagella. Thus Pix proteins act as a weathervane to indicate changes in centriole function, whose core activity is to make cilia and flagella. PMID:19020665

  20. Pix proteins and the evolution of centrioles.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Hugh R; Fry, Andrew M

    2008-01-01

    We have made a wide phylogenetic survey of Pix proteins, which are constituents of vertebrate centrioles in most eukaryotes. We have also surveyed the presence and structure of flagella or cilia and centrioles in these organisms, as far as is possible from published information. We find that Pix proteins are present in a vast range of eukaryotes, but not all. Where centrioles are absent so are Pix proteins. If one considers the maintenance of Pix proteins over evolutionary time scales, our analysis would suggest that their key function is to make cilia and flagella, and the same is true of centrioles. Moreover, this survey raises the possibility that Pix proteins are only maintained to make cilia and flagella that undulate, and even then only when they are constructed by transporting ciliary constituents up the cilium using the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system. We also find that Pix proteins have become generally divergent within Ecdysozoa and between this group and other taxa. This correlates with a simplification of centrioles within Ecdysozoa and a loss or divergence of cilia/flagella. Thus Pix proteins act as a weathervane to indicate changes in centriole function, whose core activity is to make cilia and flagella.

  1. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis.

    PubMed

    Módenes, A N; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Santos, G H F; Borba, C E; Rizzutto, M A

    2013-10-15

    In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  2. Sample preparation methods of tree-rings for PIXE-PIGE multielemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Gene S.

    1990-04-01

    Tree-rings were collected from various sites within the United States to investigate the effects of atmospheric deposition on the growth of trees. Three different sample preparations were investigated to maximize detection limits and sample throughput, and to minimize element losses and sample contamination. The preparation methods included dry ashing at 450° C, cryogenic pulverization, and microwave wet digestion. Since PIXE-PIGE was used to determine the elements Li-U in the tree-rings at low concentrations, the method of cryogenic pulverization could not be used. Dry ashing was the preferred method and it was used to analyze the trace element concentrations in individual tree-rings. Detailed sample preparation methods are described along with applications for studying the affects of climate on the uptake of different elements in the rings.

  3. Heavy metal distribution in Suillus luteus mycorrhizas - as revealed by micro-PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnau, K.; Przybyłowicz, W. J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J.

    2001-07-01

    Suillus luteus/Pinus sylvestris mycorrhizas, collected from zinc wastes in Southern Poland, were selected as potential biofilters on the basis of earlier studies carried out with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) microanalytical system coupled to scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) nuclear microprobe, elemental concentrations in the ectomycorrhiza parts were for the first time estimated quantitatively. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) true elemental maps from freeze-dried and chemically fixed mycorrhizas revealed strong accumulation of Ca, Fe, Zn and Pb within the fungal mantle and in the rhizomorph. Vascular tissue was enriched with P, S and K, while high concentrations of Si and Cl were present in the endodermis. Cu was the only element showing elevated concentrations in the cortex region. Elemental losses and redistributions were found in mycorrhizas prepared by chemical fixation. Some problems related to elemental imaging are discussed.

  4. PIXE and ICP-MS Analysis of Andrographis Paniculata Medicinal Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekhar Rao, J.; Naidu, B. G.; Sarita, P.; Srikanth, S.; Naga Raju, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The concentrations of elements Li, Be, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb and U in Andrographis Paniculata medicinal plant used in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus were determined by using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) techniques. This plant was collected from four different geographical locations in Andhra Pradesh, India in order to assess the regional variation of elemental concentrations. Appreciable levels of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu and Zn determined in this plant can be correlated to the antidiabetic property of Andrographis Paniculata since these elements are known to regulate and potentiate insulin action. Presence of toxic elements As, Cd and Pb necessitates the adoption of precautionary measures while prescribing dosage of the herbal medicine prepared from this plant for the treatment diabetes mellitus.

  5. Elemental analysis of lichens from the intermountain western USA using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, R. N.; Casellas, R. C.; Mangelson, N. F.; Rees, L. B.; Clair, L. L. St.; Schaalje, G. B.; Swalberg, K. D.

    1996-04-01

    Thirty-six lichen samples that were collected from five wilderness areas and a national monument in the intermountain western United States have been analyzed by PIXE for the determination of 21 elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb. Samples were powdered and spiked with Y as an internal standard. The powder was analyzed directly as a sample of moderate thickness. Elemental concentration means and ranges were generally consistent with concentration ranges from other studies of unimpacted lichens. Some samples, however, had high concentrations of S, Cu, As, and a few other elements. There are interpretations of the data that imply some wilderness areas are being impacted to some degree by industrial-plant atmospheric emissions.

  6. Quantitative PIXE and PIGME analysis of milligram samples of biomineralized tissue in the limpet Patella vulgata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-S.; Webb, J.; Macey, D. J.; Cohen, D. D.

    1987-03-01

    Procedures have been developed to determine, by thick target PIXE and PIGME, the quantitative elemental composition of biological samples with a mass of approximately 1 mg. Systems of particular interest are the biomineralized tissues of chitons and limpets, marine invertebrates of global distribution whose radula teeth and associated tissue contain, variously, inorganic components at different stages of mineralization, e.g. Fe, Ca, P, F, Si, Cu. For the biomineralized teeth and tissue in the limpet Patella vulgata the content of Fe, Ca and P increases rapidly at an early stage of mineralization, while the Si content increases somewhat later. In fully mineralized teeth, the Fe and Si contents are comparable. These data are compared with previous results (Trends Biochem. Sci. 10 (1985) 6) obtained using the Oxford scanning proton microprobe.

  7. Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

  8. Mutational And Structural Studies Of The PixD BLUF Output Signal That Affects Light-Regulated Interactions With PixE

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hua; Dragnea, Vladimira; Wu, Qiong; Gardner, Kevin H.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    PixD (Slr1694) is a BLUF (blue-light using FAD) photoreceptor used by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to control phototaxis toward blue light. In this study we probe the involvement of a conserved Tyr8-Gln50-Met93 triad in promoting an output signal upon blue light excitation of the bound flavin. Analysis of acrylamide quenching of Trp91 fluorescence shows that the side chain of this residue remains partially solvent exposed in both the lit and dark states. Mutational analysis demonstrates that substitution mutations at Tyr8 and Gln50 result in the loss of the photocycle while a mutation of Met93 does not appreciably disturb the formation of the light excited state and only minimally accelerates its decay from 5.7 s to 4.5 s. However, mutations in Tyr8, Gln50 and Met93 disrupt the ability of PixD dimers to interact with PixE to form a higher ordered PixD10-PixE5 complex, which is indicative of a lit conformational state. Solution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallographic analyses confirm that a Tyr8 to Phe mutation is locked in a pseudo light excited state revealing flexible areas in PixD that likely constitute part of an output signal upon light excitation of wild type PixD. PMID:21688827

  9. SOAR Sandia Optimization and Analysis Routines

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-20

    SOAR is a suite of problem specific desktop welding software applications to develop optimal automatic weld procedures. Applications provide interative displays of fusion zone dimensions versus input parameter levels in a weldment. SOAR also displays heat affected zones, temperature contours, process efficiencies, and sensitivity parameters, by computing solutions to analytical and/or empirical heat transfer models. SOAR provides the knowledgeable user valuable analysis tools to investigate the impact of changes in weld procedures on weld characteristics. SOAR operates via graphical user system input and returns both numerical and graphical output in both electronic and hardcopy form.

  10. PIXE Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosol Samples in an Urban Area in Upstate NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadareski, Benjamin; Ali, Salina; Yoskowitz, Josh; Vineyard, Michael; Labrake, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in the aerosol samples including, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb. The elemental composition and concentrations of these elements were determined using GUPIX. Many of the elements suggest airborne soils, however we see trace amounts of lead concentrations only at the minimal level of detection around 1 ng / m3. Preliminary results suggest that lead pollution is not significant however; we believe that the trace amounts of lead detected are due to fuel emissions from small aircraft due to the sampling site near an airport. Extremely fine particles (PM2.5) are found to penetrate deep into the lungs and hence, are found to have harmful health effects on humans. Atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady, NY were analyzed for evidence for air pollution; specifically lead pollution over the past 12 months. Air samples were collected on 7 μm Kapton foils using a nine-stage cascade impactor that separates the particulate matter by aerodynamic size. A 2.2 MeV proton beam impacts the target samples. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra was produced using an Amptek silicon drift detector. Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques were used to analyze the energy spectra and we determined a range of 16 elements present in

  11. Cross-linking analysis reveals the putative dimer structure of the cyanobacterial BLUF photoreceptor PixD.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shukun; Sugimoto, Yuki; Kobayashi, Taichi; Masuda, Shinji

    2015-07-08

    PixD is a blue light using flavin (BLUF)-type blue-light photoreceptor controlling phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The crystal structure of PixD shows a decamer, although in solution an equilibrium is maintained between the dimer and decamer. Because the ratio of these two conformers is altered by illumination, the equilibrium state determines photosensitivity. However, no structural information is available for the PixD dimer. Here, we report a predicted structure for the dimer based on docking simulation, mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry-based cross-linking analyses. The results indicate the importance of the PixD C-terminus for dimer preference and photosensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation of archaeological ceramics and clays using an external-beam PIXE analysis of the major elemental constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, S. R.; Fischbeck, H. J.; Chesnut, K.

    1985-05-01

    Time-consuming trace-element analysis is often used to determine the origin of archaeological artifacts. In an effort to locate the source of clay used to manufacture archaeological ceramics from eastern Oklahoma, we find that a determination of major elemental constituents using external-beam PIXE analysis is a useful technique for determining the probability of common origin. Using a 7 nA, 1.5 MeV external proton beam, it takes less than one minute to determine the concentration of the major elements to an accuracy of better than 5%. This rapid analysis makes it possible to quickly select pottery sherds of similar composition and eliminate clay samples which are not strongly correlated with the sherds. Trace-element analysis of these strongly correlated samples can then in principle be used to make an absolute identification. Major elemental analysis is thus useful for survey work where many samples must be examined. The effects of sample inhomogeneity and the firing process, as well as the probability of false correlations, are discussed.

  13. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-01

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  14. Trace elemental analysis in cancer-afflicted tissues of penis and testis by PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; John Charles, M.; Bhuloka Reddy, S.; Sarita, P.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Rama Lakshmi, P. V. B.; Vijayan, V.

    2005-04-01

    PIXE technique was employed to estimate the trace elemental concentrations in the biological samples of cancerous penis and testis. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results it can be seen that the concentrations of Cl, Fe and Co are lower in the cancerous tissue of the penis when compared with those in normal tissue while the concentrations of Cu, Zn and As are relatively higher. The concentrations of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Br, Sr and Pb are in agreement within standard deviations in both cancerous and normal tissues. In the cancerous tissue of testis, the concentrations of K, Cr and Cu are higher while the concentrations of Fe, Co and Zn are lower when compared to those in normal tissue of testis. The concentrations of Cl, Ca, Ti and Mn are in agreement in both cancerous and normal tissues of testis. The higher levels of Cu lead to the development of tumor. Our results also support the underlying hypothesis of an anticopper, antiangiogenic approach to cancer therapy. The Cu/Zn ratios of both penis and testis were higher in cancer tissues compared to that of normal.

  15. PIXE analysis of airborne particulate matter from Xalostoc, Mexico: winter to summer comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores M, J.; Aldape, F.; Díaz, R. V.; Hernández-Méndez, B.; García G, R.

    1999-04-01

    A study of elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from the industrial city of Xalostoc, Estado de México, was performed using PIXE. The place has a great variety of industries, it is a heavily populated, and it is a part of Mexico City's conurbation, thus contributing significantly to its atmospheric pollution. At present, there is few information available about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that region. In this study, two sets of samples of airborne particulate matter were collected daily during periods of four weeks in summer 1996 and winter 1997; two samples a day, 12 h each, night-time and day-time. Results revealed important information about elemental contents in airborne particulate matter from that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5. Comparison of night and day figures showed the presence of some elements such as Cu, Zn, and Pb, attributed, as it was expected, to uninterrupted industrial processes. Appearance of some other elements was more consistent only in either day-time or night-time due to diurnal or nocturnal industrial activities, or produced by human activities such as fuel combustion of automotive vehicles. Comparison of winter to summer results showed some other important features such as higher concentrations of pollutants in winter, because of the dry and cold weather, while summer samples exhibited lower concentrations mainly due to the presence of rain showers.

  16. PIXE Analysis of Metal Hull Bolts From HMB DeBraak

    SciTech Connect

    Correll, Francis D.; Cole, Lord K.; Slater, Charles J.; Vanhoy, Jeffrey R.; Fithian, Charles H.

    2009-03-10

    HMB DeBraak was a 16-gun British brig-sloop that sank in a squall on May 25, 1798 off Cape Henlopen, Delaware. Silt covered the wooden hull shortly after it sank, preserving it until DeBraak was raised in 1986. The items recovered from the ship include metal bolts that held the hull together. We used PIXE to measure the compositions of 45 of the bolts and found that they are nearly pure copper (98.3% on average), with most also containing small amounts of iron (0.87%), nickel (0.039%), arsenic (0.43%), silver (0.089%), lead (0.18%), and bismuth (0.12%). A few contain a little indium, tin, or antimony, but none contain zinc above the quantization level. The compositions are similar to those reported for 18th-century English copper, but different from several copper alloys also used to make hull bolts. We conclude that, when DeBraak was last fitted out in 1795-1797, the Royal Navy was still using bolts similar to William Forbes's mechanically hardened pure copper bolts. Forbes's process represents the successful innovation and application of new technology in Royal Navy ships during the wars of the late 18th century.

  17. A methodological test of external beam PIXE analysis on inks of ancient manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambria, R.; Del Carmine, P.; Grange, M.; Lucarelli, F.; Mandò, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    Extensive scientific investigations on the materials used for preparing inks in medieval and Renaissance manuscripts (before invention of printing) are still missing. With our external PIXE setup, we are beginning such an investigation. The present paper deals with a preliminary methodological research aimed at the identification of the critical compositional parameters and at the definition of operating procedures which permit reliable information to be obtained and in particular the homogeneity of the home-made inks to be checked. We chose three 11th century manuscripts of well known origin, and performed composition measurements on five ink areas on each of six pages per manuscript. On one of the five areas a scan in steps of 200 μm was also performed with the purpose of checking ink composition homogeneity even at this small scale. Five measurements on each of the six pages' parchments allowed us to evaluate the contribution to the collected "ink" spectra arising from the underlying parchment. Critical parameters for ink characterization have been found to be e.g. the K contents, the FeCuZnPb compositional pattern, and the sulphur to metals ratio. In addition, we have detected ink-parchment physico-chemical interactions altering the apparent CI and Ca contents.

  18. High Energy PIXE at the ARRONAX Facility for Multi Elemental Analysis of Thick Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumeir, C.; Haddad, F.; Metivier, V.; Servagent, N.; de la Bernardie, X.; Garrido, E.; Ragheb, D.

    2011-12-01

    Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using high energy protons is a nondestructive multi-elemental technique that can analyze medium and heavy trace elements on thick samples. A new experimental setup is being built at the ARRONAX facility (Nantes, France) for this purpose. Experiments on multi-layer targets have been made in order to identify the sequences and to measure the different layer thicknesses. Our approach is to consider the relative intensities of Kα/Kβ lines in different layers as well as the gamma intensity ray ratio from each layer versus the reference layer. Two multi-layer targets were used: the first one composed of 10 μm Au, 30μm Bi and 250 μm Cu, and the second composed of 125 μm Ti, 10 μm Au and 50 μm Ag. In both cases, we used Al 100 μm as a reference layer. This work emphasizes the importance of having both X-ray and gamma-ray information in multi-layer analyses.

  19. Combined PIXE/PIGE and IBIL with external beam applied to the analysis of Merovingian glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, F.; Othmane, G.; Vrielynck, O.; Calvo del Castillo, H.; Chêne, G.; Dupuis, T.; Strivay, D.

    2010-06-01

    New improvements on our archaeometry line at the cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear and Atomic Physics and of Spectrometry of the University of Liège have allowed the use of PIXE/PIGE and IBIL in-air for the analysis of cultural heritage objects. The extraction is performed through a 100 nm thick Si 3N 4 window. The detection set-up consists now of two X-ray and one γ-ray detectors, together with a fiber optic UV-visible spectrometer. This set-up has already been tested for the analysis of modern corundum [1] and is now adapted to the analysis of archaeological artefacts. In this work, we have used it to analyse 216 out of the 5000 Merovingian glass beads that come from the necropolis of Bossut-Gottechain (Belgium), one of the most important ever found in Belgium. The IBA analyses confirmed the typological division of different beads groups through chemical composition that gives us new insights on fabrication techniques of glass matrices and colorants.

  20. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  1. WITS-HEX: A renovated code for analysis of PIXE X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Bauman, S.; Molokomme, T.; Walker, A. J.

    1990-04-01

    The code REX [H.C. Kaufmann and K.R. Akselsson, Adv. X-ray Anal. 18 (1975) 353] and its successor, HEX were developed at Florida State University and University of Lund in the early seventies for quantitative reduction of PIXE spectra. HEX modelled many of the physical processes, including target self-absorption. Lack of adequate documentation and several inherent software related problems hampered widespread adoption and further development. HEX was designed using a hierarchical functional design approach, coded in FORTRAN IV. Its element library and request list are tightly constrained. ANSI standard FORTRAN provides few structured constructs, nor does it support dynamic data structures. HEX has a batch mode of interaction which affords minimal (interim) user interactions. To overcome these limitations we have modernised the program to run on IBM PC compatible computers by using object-oriented design techniques, documented in Program Description Language (pseudo-code) and implemented in a modern programming language, Pascal. Turbo Pascal 5.5 provides an integrated program development environment, a high resolution graphics library, an operating system interface and many software development tools to improve programmer productivity. A menu-based highly interactive screen management library is used for the user interface. A demonstration version is available for user evaluation. Further rigorous testing and the development of user acquired spectra interfacing code will be developed before the first release. The renovated code, WITS-HEX, has extracted the intellectual value embodied in HEX. It will be inherently more stable, reliable, versatile, maintainable and easy to use to facilitate future process modifications.

  2. Programs for visualization, handling and quantification of PIXE maps at the AGLAE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Lemasson, Q.; Moignard, B.; Pacheco, C.

    2015-11-01

    The external beam setup of the AGLAE facility has been developed in order to combine PIXE with PIGE, EBS and recently IBIL for the analysis of cultural heritage artefacts. The upgraded external beam end-station integrates five large solid angle X-ray detectors either to reduce the risk of damage on sensitive artworks by decreasing the beam intensity or to routinely acquire elemental maps at various scales. While many programs are available to process PIXE maps acquired with nuclear microprobes, a software to process the major and trace elements PIXE maps point by point using GUPIX is not available. The present paper describes three programs developed for the AGLAE facility to process numerous maps obtained with multiple detectors. AGLAEMAP allows to handle maps and pixel groups within maps, TRAUPIXE to process quantitatively PIXE spectra of all pixels and DATAIMAGING to display the resulting quantitative elemental maps. The benefits of this software suite are demonstrated by processing a dataset acquired on a pellet of geostandard reference material and on a terre mêlée pottery shard sample created by the famous ceramist Bernard Palissy (1510-1589), highlighting chemical elements present in this polychrome ceramic.

  3. Multiparametric Analysis of Cell Shape Demonstrates that β-PIX Directly Couples YAP Activation to Extracellular Matrix Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Sero, Julia E; Bakal, Chris

    2017-01-25

    Mechanical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular geometry regulate the nuclear translocation of transcriptional regulators such as Yes-associated protein (YAP). Elucidating how physical signals control the activity of mechanosensitive proteins poses a technical challenge, because perturbations that affect cell shape may also affect protein localization indirectly. Here, we present an approach that mitigates confounding effects of cell-shape changes, allowing us to identify direct regulators of YAP localization. This method uses single-cell image analysis and statistical models that exploit the naturally occurring heterogeneity of cellular populations. Through systematic depletion of all human kinases, Rho family GTPases, GEFs, and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), together with targeted chemical perturbations, we found that β-PIX, a Rac1/Ccd42 GEF, and PAK2, a Rac1/Cdc42 effector, drive both YAP activation and cell-ECM adhesion turnover during cell spreading. Our observations suggest that coupling YAP to adhesion dynamics acts as a mechano-timer, allowing cells to rapidly tune gene expression in response to physical signals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Void and cavity determination in micro-PIXE analysis of composed material using binocular detectors: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami Hatam, Ebrahim

    2017-08-01

    This study presents a new method to determine the location, size and depth of the pores in the material that is based on the asymmetry in the X-ray yield induced by proton micro-beam acquired in samples by a pair of X-ray detectors. Most of the samples have cavities within their structures that may affect the quantitative elemental concentration. Although, there are several methods to measure the porosity that are based on a physical fact. Here, we demonstrate a study that is based on the lack of X-ray absorption induced by proton along the void region. In fact, we have different X-ray absorption along the sample which results in asymmetry X-ray yield in two spectrometers positioned at backward of the probing beam. The presented approach introduces an asymmetry factor of the X-ray intensity in each of the detector to obtain an image asymmetry map. Our calculation was employed on silicon-based devices to estimate the size of the proposed cavity and the localized depth of the hole in composed material in micro-PIXE analysis. It was deduced that the presented approach is sensitive to the depth and the size of the hole in the composed material.

  5. Fixed and free line ratio DT2 PIXE fitting and simulation package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; Marques, J. P.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-01-01

    The DATTPIXE software package, which full extent version become operational in 1992, has been largely used both in academic research and for standard analysis. Developments of a new PIXE setup, having an X-ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (XMS) EDS high resolution detection system and a CdTe detector, raised the need for a deep revision of the software used to fit PIXE spectra and interpret data. First steps taken in 2007 essentially comprised a new fitting code based on a proven Bayesian inference routine. Meanwhile, fundamental processes associated to PIXE spectra, which became more evident in X-ray Microcalorimeter spectrometer (XMS) high resolution EDS spectra, made clear the need for a full new code. Using some of the routines developed in DATTPIXE, the new DT2 package is written in Fortran 2003 and includes both the fitting and data handling codes. DT2 is now designed to include in the fitting model and deal with diagram lines as well as with satellite lines (Radiative Auger Emission (RAE), multi-ionization satellites and even chemically shifted lines) or even lines having other origins such as low energy γ-rays. In this communication we present the new DT2 package and discuss its new features, such as the possibility of fixing or leave free the relative intensity of spectra lines, even if they belong to transitions to the same shell.

  6. An attempt to diagnose cancer by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uda, M.; Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Yokode, Y.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE is suitable especially for trace elemental analysis for atoms with high atomic numbers, which are contained in matrices composed mainly of light elements such as biological materials. An attempt has been made to distinguish elemental concentrations of cancer tissues from those of normal ones. Kidney, testis and urinary bladder cancer tissues were examined by PIXE. Key elements to diagnose these cancers were Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe and Zn. Enrichment of Fe and Ti, and deficiency of Zn could be seen in the kidney cancer. An opposite tendency was observed in the testicular cancer. Imbalance of these elemental concentrations in characteristic organs might give us a possibility for cancer diagnosis.

  7. Analysis of HgI{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} crystals and detectors by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and ion backscattering spectroscopy (IBS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G.S.; Heikkinen, D.W.; Antolak, A.J.; Morse, D.H.; Pontau, A.E.; James, R.B.; David, D.C.; Burger, A.; Van Den Berg, L.

    1993-03-01

    The Ion Micro-Analysis Group (IMAG) in Livermore conducts quantitative trace elemental analysis with PIXE and depth profiling with IBS using an MeV ion microbeam. The system has the capability to produce two-dimensional trace element and IBS images. PIXE analyses have been conducted on HgI{sub 2} and PbI{sub 2} crystals and detector materials in order to identify and quantify near surface trace contaminants. IBS measurements have been conducted to investigate elemental depth distributions in various materials. The results of measurements on several different samples are reported and a discussion of factors affecting quantitative in vacuo microanalysis of these materials is presented.

  8. Application of PIXE in pollution control of the Matola River in Mozambique-analysis of fish scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guambe, J. F.; Mars, J. A.; Day, J.

    2012-02-01

    Since PIXE is able to distinguish concentrations of elements at very small spatial scales, it can be used for estimating levels of metal pollution in biological material. This paper provides a preliminary report of a pilot study on the use of PIXE for the identification and quantification of elements (Al (3 wt%), Si 0.5 wt%), S (1.5 wt%), Cl (15 ppm), Mn (5 ppm), Fe (50 ppm), Ni (3 ppm), Zn (2 ppm), Rb (2 ppm), Sr (800 ppm) and Se (3 ppm)) in scales of the estuarine fish Pomadasys kaakan caught in the Matola River upstream from the Maputo estuary and, downstream of an aluminium smelter. Concentrations of both aluminium and sulphur were high (3 wt% and 1.5 wt%, respectively).

  9. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  10. Micro-PIXE analysis and imaging of radio-photoluminescence glass bead microdosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, S.; Kada, W.; Matsubara, Y.; Satoh, T.; Sakai, M.; Parajuli, R. K.; Yamada, N.; Koka, M.; Miura, K.; Hanaizumi, O.; Kamiya, T.

    2017-09-01

    Sub-millimeter-sized radio photoluminescence (RPL) glass bead microdosimeters using Ag and Cu activators were developed for micrometer-scale dose measurement in particle therapy. To obtain the desired size of RPL glass beads, the RPL glasses containing Ag or Cu activators were heated with carbon microparticles. The elemental composition of RPL glass beads with diameters of 400 μm were evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis using proton microbeam probe with different energy of 1.7 and 3 MeV. A nearly uniform elemental distribution was observed in both the Ag and Cu dosimeters indicating the uniform distribution of activator ions, which create the luminescence centers. These results indicate that the sub-millimeter-sized RPL glass bead dosimeters possess the basic properties required for particle dosimetry.

  11. Trace elemental analysis of carcinoma kidney and stomach by PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. Bhuloka; John Charles, M.; Naga Raju, G. J.; Vijayan, V.; Seetharami Reddy, B.; Ravi Kumar, M.; Sundareswar, B.

    2003-07-01

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in the biological samples of carcinoma kidney and stomach using particle induced X-ray emission technique. A 2 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. From the present results, the levels of elements K, Ca, Fe, Ni and Se are lower and those of the elements Ti, Co, Zn, As and Cd are higher in the cancer tissue of kidney than those observed in the normal tissue. In the case of stomach, the concentrations of elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu and Zn are lower while concentrations of elements Cr, Ni, As and Br are higher in the cancer tissue of stomach than those observed in the normal tissue. The observed deficiency or excess of certain elements is correlated to carcinogenesis of that organ. The present results of carcinoma stomach support the previous observations that nickel and chromium are carcinogenic agents. The low levels of selenium observed in the carcinoma tissue of kidney and the low levels of manganese observed in the carcinoma tissue of stomach support the view that selenium and manganese inhibit the growth of cancer in kidney and stomach respectively. The observed high levels of zinc in the cancer tissue of kidney suggest that zinc is involved in the tumor growth and development of neoplastic transformation in kidney while the observed low levels of zinc in the carcinoma tissue of stomach suggest that zinc inhibits the growth of cancer in this organ. For correctly assessing the role played by the trace elements in initiating, promoting or inhibiting cancer in various organs, there is a need for acquisition of more data by trace elemental analysis from several investigations of this type undertaken in different regions.

  12. μ-PIXE mapping of archeological glazed pottery from Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, H.

    2015-03-01

    μ-PIXE has been successfully applied in analysis of archaeological materials, it has many advantages. In this work μ-PIXE used in analysis of ancient Egyptian glazed pottery from Al-Fustat excavation repository have been chosen to represent different chemical compositions (fluxes and colorants) of glaze depending on its color. The chemical compositions with deterioration factors (humidity and temperature) worked together to make chemical changes on the surface of glaze.

  13. Proton microprobe and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis for studies of pathological brain tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Malmqvist, K.G.; Brun, A.; Inamura, K.; Martins, E.; Salford, L.G.; Siesjoe, B.K.T.; Tapper, U.A.; Themner, K.

    1988-09-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission and proton microprobe analyses have been applied for the investigation of regional elemental distributions in connection with various pathological states in the brain. Malignant brain tumors and adjacent histologically intact tissue removed during surgery were analysed with PIXE. Systematic elemental variations, e.g., for calcium and selenium, were observed in the tumor front. The proton microprobe was applied to study the Ca and K concentrations in various cell strata in hippocampus following transient ischaemia in rat brain. Significant increases in the Ca level occurred in selectively vulnerable cells within 48 h after the ischaemia.

  14. miniPixD: a compact sample analysis system which combines X-ray imaging and diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Robert; Crews, Chiaki; Wilson, Matthew; Speller, Robert

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces miniPixD: a new, compact system that utilises transmission X-ray imaging and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to locate and identify materials of interest within an otherwise opaque volume. The system and the embodied techniques have utility in security screening, medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and quality assurance (QA). This paper outlines the design of the system including discussion on the choice of components and presents some data from relevant samples which are compared to other energy dispersive and angular dispersive XRD techniques.

  15. A PIXE study of vitrification of carnation in vitro culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, H. Y.; Lin, E. K.; Wang, C. W.; Yu, Y. C.; Chang, C. H.; Yang, Y. C.; Chang, C. Y.

    1996-04-01

    PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) is a well-known method for elemental analyses of specimens in applied studies. In this paper, we report results of an application of PIXE in trace-element analysis of normal and vitrified carnations in vitro culture. Experiments were performed to study the vitrification in connection with the trace elements in carnation tissues. About two hundred PIXE spectra were obtained from seventy samples with an irradiation of 3 MeV protons from the NEC 9SDH-2 Pelletron tandem accelerator. From the PIXE analysis we determined the trace element composition of normal and vitrified carnations. Our results indicate that there is a significant change of K, Ca, Fe and Zn contents in the vitrification process.

  16. Analysis of glass from the post-Roman settlement Tonovcov grad (Slovenia) by PIXE-PIGE and LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Milavec, T.; Fajfar, H.; Rehren, Th.; Lankton, J. W.; Gratuze, B.

    2013-09-01

    The combined PIXE-PIGE method was used for the analysis of 43 glass fragments from the archaeological site Tonovcov grad in western Slovenia, with 10 of these additionally being analysed by LA-ICP-MS. The glass objects were attributed to the Late Antique production of the 4th-7th c. AD, with two examples of early Roman glass and three glass beads, one of them presumably of oriental origin. The analysis showed typical natron-type glass, produced in the Levantine region around the river Belus, and a few examples of HIMT glass, which could be recognized also in several other recycled objects. Only one glass bead, found in Early Medieval context, was made of the ash of halophytic plants.

  17. Fluorine analysis of human enamel around fluoride-containing materials under different pH-cycling by μ-PIGE/PIXE system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Matsuda, Y.; Kijimura, T.; Kinugawa, M.; Okuyama, K.; Nomachi, M.; Yasuda, K.; Satoh, T.; Oikawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials (FCMs) might depend on the caries risk of the individuals. Two pairs of demineralizing and remineralizing solutions of pH-cycling were prepared for simulating low and high caries risk. The purpose of this study was to determine fluorine (F) uptake into human enamel around FCMs under different pH-cycling using the in-air μ-PIGE/PIXE system. Fluoride-containing glass ionomer cement (Fuji IXGP FAST CAPSULE (FN)), and composite resin (BEAUTIFIL II with FLUORO BOND SHAKE ONE (BS)) were used in this study. The pH-cycling (pH 6.8-4.5) was carried out for 5 weeks. After pH-cycling, the caries progression was analyzed using transverse micro-radiography (TMR). The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the PIGE/PIXE system. From TMR analysis, there was a difference in caries risk between the two kinds of pH-cycling. Although the caries preventive effect of BS and FN was confirmed at low risk, the effect at high risk was confirmed for FN only. From the analysis of the fluorine uptake in the outer 200 μm of the lesion we concluded that there was no significant difference between the pH-cycling solutions. However, we found different fluorine concentrations in the enamel for the two FCMs. The decreased caries progression under high risk for FN indicated that an adequate amount of fluorine supplied from the material is required at higher caries risk. It was confirmed that the caries preventive effect of FCM depends on the caries risk. The fluorine analysis of teeth under various pH-cycling conditions gives information to evaluate the caries preventive effect of fluoride-containing materials according to the caries risk.

  18. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenbol, Eugène

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, "baskets", pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  19. Plea for routinely presenting prediction intervals in meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    IntHout, Joanna; Ioannidis, John P A; Rovers, Maroeska M; Goeman, Jelle J

    2016-07-12

    Evaluating the variation in the strength of the effect across studies is a key feature of meta-analyses. This variability is reflected by measures like τ(2) or I(2), but their clinical interpretation is not straightforward. A prediction interval is less complicated: it presents the expected range of true effects in similar studies. We aimed to show the advantages of having the prediction interval routinely reported in meta-analyses. We show how the prediction interval can help understand the uncertainty about whether an intervention works or not. To evaluate the implications of using this interval to interpret the results, we selected the first meta-analysis per intervention review of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issues 2009-2013 with a dichotomous (n=2009) or continuous (n=1254) outcome, and generated 95% prediction intervals for them. In 72.4% of 479 statistically significant (random-effects p<0.05) meta-analyses in the Cochrane Database 2009-2013 with heterogeneity (I(2)>0), the 95% prediction interval suggested that the intervention effect could be null or even be in the opposite direction. In 20.3% of those 479 meta-analyses, the prediction interval showed that the effect could be completely opposite to the point estimate of the meta-analysis. We demonstrate also how the prediction interval can be used to calculate the probability that a new trial will show a negative effect and to improve the calculations of the power of a new trial. The prediction interval reflects the variation in treatment effects over different settings, including what effect is to be expected in future patients, such as the patients that a clinician is interested to treat. Prediction intervals should be routinely reported to allow more informative inferences in meta-analyses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Characterization of tannery effluent wastewater by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis to investigate their role in water pollution.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Lubna; Ejaz, Sohail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nisar; Javeed, Aqeel

    2012-02-01

    Over the last few decades, the chromium-based tanning industry has shown rapid growth in Pakistan. However, the rules and regulations promulgated by the government are not strictly followed for processing the effluent discharge from the tanneries. Consequently, tannery effluents have become a great source of water pollution in surrounding areas. In this case study, characterization of tannery effluent wastewater (TW), shallow groundwater (SW), and deep groundwater (DW) samples was carried out to determine the source of water pollution in the district of Kasur, Pakistan. The concentrations of calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), potassium (K), Mg, sulfur (S), silicon (Si), and Sr in TW were significantly higher than SW and DW, which also exceeded the international limits. In addition, increased concentrations of major toxic elements (Cl, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, and Si) were also observed in SW, which were higher in comparison to DW. Strikingly, the concentrations of Cr and Si in various DW samples were also beyond World Health Organization (WHO) safe limit, which reinforced the trend that water pollution in the area is directly linked to the distance from the source (TW). The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) indices also suggested that TW is a main contributory source of water-based pollution in the area, which is imposing great threat to local inhabitants due to known hazardous and carcinogenic potential of these elements. Protecting the water resources will be a formidable challenge in the study area, which requires modernization of tannery industry, thereby improving the recovery and recycling of TW. Moreover, PIXE analysis presented here as a successful tool, could serve as landmark for the contemporary research in environmental toxicology.

  1. PIXE at rutgers university: Biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. S.; Roach, N.; Naumann, M.; Simmons, U.; Cong, H.

    1984-04-01

    We have constructed an external beam PIXE system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and PIXE setup are described for analysis of maternal scalp hair, amniotic fluid, human placenta, and colostrum samples. The study was conducted to obtain trace element data on important biological tissues for incorporation into a large data base that will be used to assess fetal and infant well-being. A 3.5 MeV external proton beam was used to produce X rays in the samples after they were low-temperature ashed. Detection limits for essential and toxic elements are less than 0.4 μg/g for a 6 min irradiation time.

  2. The Guelph PIXE software package IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.; Boyd, N. I.; Grassi, N.; Bonnick, P.; Maxwell, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    Following the introduction of GUPIXWIN in 2005, a number of upgrades have been made in the interests of extending the applicability of the program. Extension of the proton upper energy limit to 5 MeV facilitates the simultaneous use of PIXE with other ion beam analysis techniques. Also, the increased penetration depth enables the complete PIXE analysis of paintings. A second database change is effected in which recently recommended values of L-subshell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields are adopted. A Monte Carlo code has been incorporated in the GUPIX package to provide detector efficiency values that are more accurate than those of the previous approximate analytical formula. Silicon escape peak modeling is extended to the back face of silicon drift detectors. An improved description of the attenuation in dura-coated beryllium detector windows is devised. Film thickness determination is enhanced. A new batch mode facility is designed to handle two-detector PIXE, with one detector measuring major elements and the other simultaneously measuring trace elements.

  3. Corrosion studies with pixe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the possible causes of corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes of a major international cosmetic product manufacturer, the elemental compositions of corroded and clean unused tubes were compared, using PIXE. It was observed that some of the corroded tubes contained much higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn than the clean tubes, while the concentrations of Cr and Ni showed no significant difference between the two types of tubes. Only certain regions of one of the tubes were found to contain higher concentrations of Cu. Those regions were badly corroded and had the highest concentrations of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, too. It is suggested that the presence of higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, and especially of Cu, in the aluminium sheets used to manufacture the tooth paste tubes, may be one of the reasons for the corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes.

  4. The free routine postcatheterization urogram: a cost/benefit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, J.D.; Kaplan, G.W.; Rummerfield, P.S.; Gilpin, E.A.; Kirkpatrick, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Postangiography urography has become routine procedure in most centers performing cardiac catheterization in children. We analyzed the x-radiation dosage and clinical yield of this procedure. Using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters, radiation exposure to the abdomen and gonads was measured in 35 children during postangiography urography. Results of 334 consecutive routine postangiography cine-urograms were evaluated based on clinical significance and compared to previous reports on this subject. Average absorbed abdominal radiation dosage was 241 mR +/- 240 from cine-urography, 16 mR +/- 13 from fluoroscopy, and 107 mR +/- 111 from a single abdominal roentgenogram. Gonadal dosage averaged 8 mR and was uniformly less than 27 mR. Of 334 routine postangiography cineurograms, 282 (84%) were normal, 30 (9%) were technically inadequate, 12 (3%) had abnormalities that were clinically insignificant or were falsely positive and in 10 (3%), clinically significant urologic conditions were confirmed. Because of the low yield of clinically significant anomalies and the added radiation exposure, we no longer perform routine postangiography cine-urography in children. Following cardiac angiography, the upper renal collecting systems are examined fluoroscopically. If abnormalities are suspected or fluoroscopy is equivocal, a single abdominal roentgenogram is performed. Using this procedure, mean average absorbed abdominal radiation dose can be reduced from 241 mR to 30.5 mR.

  5. Rasch Analysis of the Routines-Based Interview Implementation Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boavida, Tânia; Akers, Kate; McWilliam, R. A.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2015-01-01

    The Routines-­Based Interview (RBI) is useful for developing functional outcomes/goals, for establishing strong relationships with families, and for assessing the family's true needs. In this study, the authors investigated the psychometric properties of the RBI Implementation Checklist, conducted by 120 early intervention professionals,…

  6. Identification of histological markers for malignant glioma by genome-wide expression analysis: dynein, alpha-PIX and sorcin.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Takashi; Kouno, Jun; Adachi, Koji; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Teramoto, Akira; Matsumoto, Koshi; Sugisaki, Yuichi; Onda, Masamitsu; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most malignant class of glial neoplasm (grade IV in WHO criteria), carries the worst clinical prognosis among primary brain tumors in adults. To identify a set of genes involved in the tumorigenesis of GBM, we evaluated expression profiles of GBM tissues from 11 patients using a cDNA microarray representing 25,344 human genes. By comparing the profiles with those of normal brain tissue, we identified a number of differentially expressed genes: 54 with increased expression and 45 with reduced expression in GBMs. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR experiments with 6 of those genes confirmed higher expression of DNCH2, ARHGEF6, NPM1 and SRI and lower expression of NRGN and TM4SF2 in GBM tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for 3 of the respective gene products, dynein (product of DNCH2), alpha-PIX (product of ARHGEF6), and sorcin (product of SRI) indicated that this technique might be useful for histological grading of glial tumors. To establish criteria for this diagnostic approach, we scored glial tumor tissues of different histological grades according to the staining results; the scores were significantly higher in anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs than in diffuse astrocytomas or normal brain tissues. These findings indicated that levels of these three proteins might serve as histological markers for malignant glioma classification.

  7. PIXE and XRF analysis of atmospheric aerosols from a site in the West area of Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. V.; López-Monroy, J.; Miranda, J.; Espinosa, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to geographical factors, most of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City features, on average, similar heights above the sea level, climate, wind speed and direction, with very uniform pollution degrees in most of the frequently studied sites. A site with different characteristics, Cuajimalpa de Morelos, was studied. It is located to the West of the urban area at 2760 m above sea level, in contrast to other sites (2240 m). Here, the wind is mostly directed towards the center of the city. Then, the site should not be affected by pollutants from the Northern/Northeastern industrial zones, so lower aerosol concentrations are expected. In this work, the elemental composition of coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) fractions of atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Cuajimalpa is studied. The sampling period covered the cold-dry season in 2004-2005 (December 1st, 2004 to March 31, 2005), exposing polycarbonate filters with a Stacked Filter Unit of the Gent design along 24 h, every two days. The samples were analyzed with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), to obtain elemental concentrations. The EPA code UNMIX was used to determine the number of possible influencing polluting sources, which were then identified through back-trajectory simulations with the HYSPLIT modeling software. Four sources (mostly related to soil) were found in the coarse fraction, while the fine fraction presented three main sources (fuel oil, industry and biomass burning).

  8. Micro-PIXE analysis of an ancient Egyptian papyrus: Identification of pigments used for the ``Book of the Dead''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, A.-M. B.; Calligaro, T.; Colinart, S.; Dran, J. C.; Lövestam, N. E. G.; Moignard, B.; Salomon, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper reports a study of colours and inks of an ancient Egyptian papyrus using an external proton microprobe in PIXE mode. Representing the Book of the Dead, this papyrus is dated from the 19th dynasty, New Kingdom (c.1295-1186 BC). Elemental maps were obtained by moving the papyrus under a fixed focused external beam using a motorised support. The maps were compared to photographic pictures taken in visible light. Inks used in the hieroglyph text appeared to be based on carbon (black) and iron oxide (red). Coloured drawings illustrating the text showed a wider palette: hematite, ochre, orpiment, Egyptian blue, verdigris. Most intriguing was the observation in several parts of the drawing of a whitish pigment containing strontium. Deposits of strontium-rich minerals (e.g. strontianite, celestite) have been identified in Egypt. The exact nature and the archaeological implications of this pigment have still to be determined. Finally, fine powder and coarse grains of arsenic oxide were observed, probably remaining from an early preservation treatment against insect attacks after excavation.

  9. Structural analysis of the SH3 domain of beta-PIX and its interaction with alpha-p21 activated kinase (PAK).

    PubMed

    Mott, Helen R; Nietlispach, Daniel; Evetts, Katrina A; Owen, Darerca

    2005-08-23

    The PAK Ser/Thr kinases are important downstream effectors of the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, partly mediating the role of these G proteins in cell proliferation and cytoskeletal rearrangements. As well as small G proteins, PAK interacts with the Cdc42/Rac exchange factor beta-PIX via the PIX SH3 domain and a nontypical Pro-rich region in PAK. This interaction is thought to affect the localization of PAK, as well as increased GTP/GDP exchange of Rac and Cdc42. We have determined the structure of the PIX-SH3/PAK peptide complex and shown that it differs from typical Src-like SH3/peptide complexes. The peptide makes contacts through the Pro-rich sequence in a similar way to standard SH3/peptide complexes, even though the Pro residue positions are not conserved. In addition, there are interactions with a Pro and Lys in the PAK, which are C-terminal to the conserved Arg found in all SH3-binding sequences. These contact a fourth binding pocket on the SH3 domain. We have measured the affinity of PIX-SH3 for the PAK peptide and found that it is of intermediate affinity. When PAK is activated, Ser-199 in the PIX-binding site is phosphorylated. This phosphorylation is sufficient to reduce the affinity for PIX 6-fold.

  10. A Descriptive Analysis of Neck Myoclonus During Routine Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Frauscher, Birgit; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Gschliesser, Viola; Falkenstetter, Tina; Furtner, Martin T.; Ulmer, Hanno; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    : Frauscher B; Brandauer E; Gschliesser V; Falkenstetter T; Furtner MT; Ulmer H; Poewe W; Högl B. A descriptive analysis of neck myoclonus during routine polysomnography. SLEEP 2010;33(8):1091-1096. PMID:20815192

  11. Towards intelligent spectrum analyzing system for industry-oriented PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Murozono, K.; Ishii, K.; Kitamura, M.

    1997-02-01

    Outstanding features of a new method called `pattern analysis method' are its analysis speed and easy handling, therefore enabling us to automatize the PIXE spectrum analysis. We address the following tasks within the framework of the pattern analysis method towards realization of more intelligent system for the industrial PIXE: adoption of more detailed models for all the reference X-ray spectra of element, of continuum from the Bremsstrahlung process and of the summing effect; real time inference of the content elements based on the iterative Bayes' theorem, which could be effective in the selection of candidate elements and monitoring the status of the spectrum accumulation; use of the suitable X-ray absorber with accurate data for penetration rate, being indispensable to make PAM analysis more reliable; and development of iterative method for thick sample PIXE where various non-linear effects become significant.

  12. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  13. Analysis of routine communication in the air traffic control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Herbert H.; Morrow, Daniel; Rodvoid, Michelle

    1990-08-01

    The present project has three related goals. The first is to describe the organization of routine controller-pilot communication. This includes identifying the basic units of communication and how they are organized into discourse, how controllers and pilots use language to achieve their goals, and what topics they discuss. The second goal is to identify the type and frequency of problems that interrupt routine information transfer and prompt pilots and controllers to focus on the communication itself. The authors analyze the costs of these problems in terms of communication efficiency, and the techniques used to resolve these problems. Third, the authors hope to identify factors associated with communication problems, such as deviations from conventional air traffic control procedures.

  14. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc.

  15. Advanced flight design systems subsystem performance models. Sample model: Environmental analysis routine library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, K. C.; Torian, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A sample environmental control and life support model performance analysis using the environmental analysis routines library is presented. An example of a complete model set up and execution is provided. The particular model was synthesized to utilize all of the component performance routines and most of the program options.

  16. Long-term analysis of elemental content in airborne particulate matter by PIXE and positive matrix factorization: Annual trends and seasonal variability during 2003 and 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pražnikar, Jure; Cepak, Franka; Žibert, Janez

    2014-09-01

    In the presented study a comprehensive statistical analysis of the chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out. The data were collected from April 2003 to August 2008 with a 7-day time resolution in the Northern Adriatic Port of Koper and analyzed by the Proton Induced X-ray method (PIXE). The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of fifteen chemical elements identified six source factors, three natural-regional sources and three local-anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery, industry and iron ore factor were marked as anthropogenic sources. Heavy machinery source was represented by the elements V, Ni and Cu. The elements Fe and Mn are attributed to the Iron ore source and were explained by the proximity of the bulk-cargo warehouse and the intense handling of iron ore in Port of Koper. The heavy industry source represented by Pb and Zn was the only anthropogenic factor, which shows clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the local-anthropogenic source factors, natural and regional source factors show significant negative trend. The reduction of the crustal elements Ca, Ti and Sr, joined in a soil source, and sulfur-biomass source, represented by elements K and S, have been attributed to more intense precipitation and to the negative trend of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. The negative trend of the Cl and Br elements was in line with the negative trend of the wind speed above the sea surface and the significant sea-wave height.

  17. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission): A non-destructive analysis method adapted to the thin decorative coatings of antique ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Y.; Sciau, Ph.; Bouquillon, A.; Pichon, L.; de Parseval, Ph.

    2012-11-01

    Recent trends in study of Greek and Roman potteries have been to develop non-abrasive methods to determine the elemental composition of their thin coatings. This paper investigates the potential of PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) in this field. This technique has been currently used to determine the bulk elemental composition of several types of artifacts because of its fast and simultaneous ability to measure a large number of elements with good accuracy and without any damage to the sample. However, until now it has never been applied to the measurement of the composition of thin layers owing to the difficulty in limiting the depth of analysis to the layer thickness. In this paper, we show, through a comparative study of reference clay pellets and thin coatings of Terra Sigillata ceramics that reducing the energy of the particle beam the problem can be solved. The decrease of proton energy from 3 MeV (standard condition) to 1.5 MeV allowed us to limit the analyzed depth to the coating thickness without significant alteration of the results. Quantitative elemental analysis remains possible and the quality of results is similar to the one obtained from electron microprobe.

  18. Application of micro-PIXE method to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Murao, S.; Hamasaki, S.; Sie, S. H.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Hu, X.

    1999-06-10

    Specific examples of ore mineral analysis by micro-PIXE are presented in this paper. For mineralogical usage it is essential to construct a specimen chamber which is designed exclusively for mineral analysis. In most of the analysis of natural minerals, selection of absorbers is essential in order to obtain optimum results. Trace element data reflect the crystallographic characteristics of each mineral and also geologic settings of sampling locality, and can be exploited in research spanning mineral exploration to beneficiation. Micro-PIXE thus serves as a bridge between small-scale mineralogical experiments and understanding of large-scale geological phenomenon on the globe.

  19. PIXE elemental mapping on original manuscripts with an external microbeam. Application to manuscripts damaged by iron-gall ink corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remazeilles, Céline; Quillet, Véronique; Calligaro, Thomas; Claude Dran, Jean; Pichon, Laurent; Salomon, Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) mapping and PIXE spot analysis have been performed on three original manuscripts. We observed that the precision of the spot measurements for the analysis of the ink composition is limited by the heterogeneity of the writing. PIXE mapping proved to be a complementary technique which is much more sensitive, and which makes it possible to evaluate the migration of some elements, such as sulphur, iron and calcium around inscriptions.

  20. Toward the routine aerodynamic analysis of complex configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Michael D.; Erickson, Larry L.

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the ability of the TranAir CFD code to routinely compute the aerodynamic characteristics of complex subsonic and supersonic aircraft configurations. TranAir solves the full-potential equation for transonic flow about completely arbitrary geometries, using the surface-paneling PanAir technique in geometry definition. The uniform global grid may be locally refined in regions where flow properties are rapidly changing, such as regions where shocks arise, and around wing leading edges. Unlike panel method codes, TranAir solutions are not undermined by small-perturbation assumptions. Illustrative results are presented for such configurations as the F-16A with wingtip-mounted missiles and underwing fuel tanks, a generic fighter configuration, and a model of NASA-Ames' 12-ft Pressure Wind Tunnel.

  1. Analysis of the myosinII-responsive focal adhesion proteome reveals a role for β-Pix in negative regulation of focal adhesion maturation

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Han, Xuemei; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Yates, John R.; Waterman, Clare M.

    2011-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) undergo myosinII-mediated maturation wherein they grow and change composition to modulate integrin signaling for cell migration, growth and differentiation. To determine how FA composition is modulated by myosinII activity, we performed proteomic analysis of isolated FAs and compared protein abundance in FAs from cells with and without myosinII inhibition. We identified FA 905 proteins, 459 of which changed in FA abundance with myosinII inhibition, defining the myosinII-responsive FA proteome. FA abundance of 73% of proteins was enhanced by contractility, including those involved in Rho-mediated FA maturation and endocytosis- and calpain-dependent FA disassembly. 27% of proteins, including those involved in Rac-mediated lamellipodial protrusion, were enriched in FA by myosinII inhibition, establishing for the first time negative regulation of FA protein recruitment by contractility. We focused on the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor, β-PIX, documenting its role in negative regulation of FA maturation and promotion of lamellipodial protrusion, FA turnover to drive cell migration. PMID:21423176

  2. Analysis of the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome reveals a role for β-Pix in negative regulation of focal adhesion maturation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jean-Cheng; Han, Xuemei; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Yates, John R; Waterman, Clare M

    2011-04-01

    Focal adhesions undergo myosin-II-mediated maturation wherein they grow and change composition to modulate integrin signalling for cell migration, growth and differentiation. To determine how focal adhesion composition is affected by myosin II activity, we performed proteomic analysis of isolated focal adhesions and compared protein abundance in focal adhesions from cells with and without myosin II inhibition. We identified 905 focal adhesion proteins, 459 of which changed in abundance with myosin II inhibition, defining the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome. The abundance of 73% of the proteins in the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome was enhanced by contractility, including proteins involved in Rho-mediated focal adhesion maturation and endocytosis- and calpain-dependent focal adhesion disassembly. During myosin II inhibition, 27% of proteins in the myosin-II-responsive focal adhesion proteome, including proteins involved in Rac-mediated lamellipodial protrusion, were enriched in focal adhesions, establishing that focal adhesion protein recruitment is also negatively regulated by contractility. We focused on the Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-Pix, documenting its role in the negative regulation of focal adhesion maturation and the promotion of lamellipodial protrusion and focal adhesion turnover to drive cell migration. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  3. The VeloPix ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Llopart, X.; Wong, W.; Campbell, M.; Wyllie, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Schipper, J.; Miryala, S.; Gromov, V.

    2017-01-01

    VeloPix, a 130 nm CMOS technology chip with data driven and zero suppressed readout, will be used as a readout chip for the hybrid pixel system of the LHCb Vertex Locator (VELO) upgrade. The upgrade, scheduled for LHC Run-3, will enable the experiment to be read out at 40 MHz in trigger-less mode, with event selection being performed in the CPU farm. The highest occupancy ASICs will experience rates of more than 900 Mhits/s, and the closest pixels are 5.1 mm from the LHC beams. This paper will present the VeloPix ASIC along with the first test results without a sensor.

  4. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querré, G.

    1999-04-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies : one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional gemological observations.

  5. Role of routine early angiography post-fibrinolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction--a meta-regression analysis using angiography rate in the non-routine arm.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheuk-Kit; Leon de la Barra, Sophia; Herbison, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The current European and American Guidelines differ with regard to the recommended level for the use of routine early angiography after fibrinolysis for STEMI. Previous meta-analyses on randomized controlled trials have supported the routine early approach, but its advantage may be because of an excessively low angiography rate among patients in the non-routine strategy arm of the trials. We update the meta-analysis and apply meta-regression to evaluate whether the difference in outcome between the 2 randomized arms could be explained by the angiography rates in the non-routine strategy arm. Because reinfarction and recurrent ischemia are often the reported indication for angiography, we only use mortality endpoint in our meta-regression analysis. Among the eight trials included with 3195 patients, the angiography rate in the non-routine strategy arms ranges from 15% to 100%. The overall odds ratio for 30-day mortality comparing the routine early angiography arm vs the non-routine arm is 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.60-1.24). On the plot listing the eight trials according to angiography rates, there is no visual trend in the odds ratio estimates for mortality when comparing the 2 treatment strategies as angiography rate decreases. In meta-regression analysis, angiography rate does not predict 30-day mortality (p=0.461). For STEMI, mortality endpoint trumps the softer endpoints of recurrent infarction and ischemia. The current study shows that the equipoise between the routine early invasive versus the non-routine strategy on 30-day mortality cannot be explained by the variable performance of angiography in the non-routine strategy arm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Down Woody Material Data Processing Routines

    Treesearch

    Christopher W. Woodall; Duncan C. Lutes

    2005-01-01

    Weight per unit area (load) estimates of Down Woody Material (DWM) are the most common requests by users of the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program's DWM inventory. Estimating of DWM loads requires the uniform compilation of DWM transect data for the entire United States. DWM weights may vary by species, level of decay, woody...

  7. Werner Brandt legacy to PIXE: Past and present perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapicki, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Inner-shell ionization cross sections used in Particle-Induced X-ray Elemental (PIXE) analyses are routinely calculated in the ECPSSR [W. Brandt, G. Lapicki, Phys. Rev. A 23 (1981) 1717-1729] theory and/or semiempirical formulas scaled to that theory. Thirty years after the passing of Werner Brandt, with recognition of his seminal contributions to other research on positron physics and stopping power problems, the work and articles that progressed into the ECPSSR theory for inner-shell ionization by protons and heavier ions are recalled as Brandt's past legacy to the PIXE community. Applications of the ECPSSR and its evolution into the ECUSAR [G. Lapicki, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 189 (2002) 8-20] theory over the last three decades are reviewed with perspectives on Brandt's present legacy.

  8. Toward the Routine Analysis of Diverse Data Types

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Cox, Dennis; Daly, Don S.; Foote, Harlan P.; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Sloughter, James M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a great time to be a data analyst. The variety and quantity of data, in digitized forms, are increasing. The growth of computer networking and the corresponding use of the network via the World Wide Web have provided, in the form of text, a large dynamic information store. There is wide access to more financial data than can typically be understood. Digital imagery is on the rise; an explosion in the amount of digital video is forthcoming. And, information from scientific instruments is provided across a network with increasing frequency. However, data analysis tools and the corresponding theory are not keeping pace with this scale and diversity of data.

  9. PESA as a complementary tool to PIXE at CTU Prague

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltr, Josef; Král, Jaroslav; Nejedlý, Zdenĕ K

    1999-04-01

    Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) is a simple convenient method for hydrogen analysis in thin samples. A Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) target chamber was equipped with a PIPS detector for detection of forward-scattered protons. One of the objectives was to perform PIXE and PESA analyses of air particulate targets simultaneously. Tests and calibrations were fulfilled mainly with Mylar foils 1.5-6.5 μm thick in the proton energy region between 1.35 and 2.3 MeV. The energy dependence of scattering cross section is different from the Rutherford formula. Comparison of PIXE/PESA analysis with the Guelph Scanning Proton Microprobe Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Canada on seven aerosol samples was carried out. The intercomparison results validated our PESA/PIXE quality assurance protocol. In addition, repeated measurements of Gelman Teflo TM filters indicated a gradual increase of hydrogen content by 1 ng/cm 2 per 1 μC/cm 2 proton dose.

  10. Present role of PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy

    2015-11-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s nearly half of the elemental analyses of atmospheric aerosol samples were performed by PIXE. Since then, other techniques for elemental analysis became available and there has been a steady increase in studies on organic aerosol constituents and other aspects of aerosols, especially in the areas of nucleation (new particle formation), optical properties, and the role of aerosol particles in cloud formation and properties. First, a brief overview and discussion is given of the developments and trends in atmospheric aerosol analysis and research of the past three decades. Subsequently, it is indicated that there is still invaluable work to be done by PIXE in atmospheric aerosol research, especially if one teams up with other aerosol researchers and performs complementary measurements, e.g., on small aerosol samples that are taken with high-time resolution. Fine examples of such research are the work done by the Lund group in the CARIBIC aircraft studies and the analysis of circular streaker samples by the Florence PIXE group. These and other examples are presented and other possibilities of PIXE are indicated.

  11. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu, I. V.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Ene, A.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-23

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  12. Analytical Applications Of Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, I. V.; Ene, A.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Badica, T.; Ghisa, V.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper a complex study of the capabilities of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique for the determination of major, minor and trace constituents of metallurgical, biological and environmental samples has been done. The elements identified in the metallurgical samples (steels) using PIXE were: K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, W, Ga, As, Pb, Mo, Rb, In, Rh, Zr, Pd, Nb, Sn and Sb. In the investigated biological and environmental samples (vegetals leaves, soil and mosses) PIXE analysis allowed determination of: S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Hg and Pb.

  13. The Determination of Soil-plant Transfer Coefficients of Cesium-137 and Other Elements by γ-Ray Measurement and PIXE Analysis, for use in the Remediation of Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Fujita, A.; Toyama, S.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Osada, N.; Takyu, S.; Matsuyama, T.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ito, S.; Kasahara, K.

    Edible wild plants growing in the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remain contaminated. It is important to identify plants with low levels of contamination for the restoration of agriculture in the area. We collected specimens of 10 wild plant species growing in Iitate village which is one of the most highly contaminated areas and also sampled the soil beneath each plant. We measured the specific activity of 137Cs and the concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Rb and Sr in these samples using a germanium detector and PIXE analysis, respectively. We compared the soil-plant transfer coefficient of 137Cs with those of each element and determined their correlation with 137Cs. It was found that a low Sr transfer coefficient could be used to determine the plants with a low 137Cs transfer coefficient. We suggest that PIXE analysis is a useful analysis technique for agricultural remediation projects in highly contaminated areas around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

  14. Innovative aerosol sampling devices based upon PIXE capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Thomas A.

    1981-03-01

    Within the past few years, the critical roles of particle size and chemistry have been recognized in areas of atmospheric physics and chemistry. Earlier hopes that one or the other would suffice for an adequate characterization of aerosols have faded under the stress of new data, and extensive efforts have now been devoted to obtaining such information. The physics of the particle sizing process, however, has placed severe constraints on the amount of mass that can be collected for the subsequent chemical or elemental analyses. Generally, only a few monolayers of particles can be collected, limited either by particle bounce phenomena in inertial impactors or by clogging in filters. Such small amounts of mass are ideal for PIXE. In addition, the variability of meteorological parameters demands many such analyses for an adequate understanding of atmospheric processes, and thus the ability of PIXE systems to automate reduces costs to manageable proportions. Once PIXE has a role to play in such analyses, devices can be designed to take advantage of the small analysis areas of ion beams, and new classes of light, cheap, and accurate particle sizing devices have appeared. The nature of the match between PIXE and these devices will be considered for the Florida State streaker, the Batelle impactor, the Lundgren impactor, and the Davis Stacked Filter Units, with discussion of efforts to make such devices independent of traditional power sources.

  15. Fish gelatin thin film standards for biological application of PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, Jack E.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Deaton, James; Luyombya, Henry; Briski, Karen P.; Glass, Gary A.

    2014-08-01

    There exists a critical need to understand the flow and accumulation of metallic ions, both naturally occurring and those introduced to biological systems. In this paper the results of fabricating thin film elemental biological standards containing nearly any combination of trace elements in a protein matrix are presented. Because it is capable of high elemental sensitivity, particle induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) is an excellent candidate for in situ analysis of biological tissues. Additionally, the utilization of microbeam PIXE allows the determination of elemental concentrations in and around biological cells. However, obtaining elemental reference standards with the same matrix constituents as brain tissue is difficult. An excellent choice for simulating brain-like tissue is Norland® photoengraving glue which is derived from fish skin. Fish glue is water soluble, liquid at room temperature, and resistant to dilute acid. It can also be formed into a thin membrane which dries into a durable, self-supporting film. Elements of interest are introduced to the fish glue in precise volumetric additions of well quantified atomic absorption standard solutions. In this study GeoPIXE analysis package is used to quantify elements intrinsic to the fish glue as well as trace amounts of manganese added to the sample. Elastic (non-Rutherford) backscattered spectroscopy (EBS) and the 1.734 MeV proton-on-carbon 12C(p,p)12C resonance is used for a normalization scheme of the PIXE spectra to account for any discrepancies in X-ray production arising from thickness variation of the prepared standards. It is demonstrated that greater additions of the atomic absorption standard cause a viscosity reduction of the liquid fish glue resulting in thinner films but the film thickness can be monitored by using simultaneous PIXE and EBS proton data acquisition.

  16. Procedural and Conceptual Difficulties with Slope: An Analysis of Students' Mistakes on Routine Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Peter; Nagle, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    This study extends past research on students' understanding of slope by analyzing college students' mistakes on routine tasks involving slope. We conduct both quantitative and qualitative analysis of students' mistakes on common slope tasks to extract information regarding procedural proficiencies and conceptual underpinnings required in order for…

  17. Epidural analgesia during labour, routinely or on request: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bonouvrié, Kimberley; van den Bosch, Anouk; Roumen, Frans J M E; van Kuijk, Sander M; Nijhuis, Jan G; Evers, Silvia M A A; Wassen, Martine M L H

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of routine labour epidural analgesia (EA), from a societal perspective, as compared with labour analgesia on request. Women delivering of a singleton in cephalic presentation beyond 36+0 weeks' gestation were randomly allocated to routine labour EA or analgesia on request in one university and one non-university teaching hospital in the Netherlands. Costs included all medical, non-medical and indirect costs from randomisation to 6 weeks postpartum. Effectiveness was defined as a non-operative, spontaneous vaginal delivery without EA-related maternal adverse effects. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was defined as the ratio of the difference in costs and the difference in effectiveness between both groups. Data were analysed according to intention to treat and divided into a base case analysis and a sensitivity analysis. Total delivery costs in the routine EA group (n=233) were higher than in the labour on request group (n=255) (difference -€ 322, 95% CI -€ 60 to € 355) due to more medication costs (including EA), a longer stay in the labour ward, and more operations including caesarean sections. Total postpartum hospital costs in the routine EA group were lower (difference -€ 344, 95% CI -€ 1338 to € 621) mainly due to less neonatal admissions (difference -€ 472, 95% CI -€ 1297 to € 331), whereas total postpartum home and others costs were comparable (difference -€ 20, 95% CI -€ 267 to € 248, and -€ 1, 95% CI -€ 67 to € 284, respectively). As a result, the overall mean costs per woman were comparable between the routine EA group and the analgesia on request group (€ 8.708 and € 8.710, respectively, mean difference -€ 2, 95% CI -€ 1.012 to € 916). Routine labour EA resulted in more deliveries with maternal adverse effects, nevertheless the ICER remained low (€ 8; bootstrap 95% CI -€ 6.120 to € 8.659). The cost-effectiveness acceptability curve indicated a low probability that

  18. Biochemical characterization of the Cool (Cloned-out-of-Library)/Pix (Pak-interactive exchange factor) proteins.

    PubMed

    Baird, Daniel; Feng, Qiyu; Cerione, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    The Cool (Cloned out of Library)/Pix (Pak interactive exchange factor) proteins have been implicated in a diversity of biological activities, ranging from pathways initiated by growth factors and chemoattractants to X-linked mental retardation. Initially discovered through yeast two-hybrid and biochemical analyses as binding partners for the Cdc42/Rac-target/effector, Pak (p21 activated kinase), the sequences for the Cool/Pix proteins revealed a DH (Dbl homology) domain. Because the DH domain is the limit functional unit for stimulating guanine nucleotide exchange on Rho family GTP-binding proteins, it was assumed that the Cool/Pix proteins would act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rho proteins. Of the three known isoforms, (p50Cool-1, p85Cool-1/beta-Pix, and 90Cool-2/alpha-Pix), only Cool-2/alpha-Pix has exhibited significant GEF activity. A number of experimental techniques have been used to characterize Cool-2, and in vitro analysis has revealed that its GEF activity is under tight control through intramolecular interactions involving several binding partners. Here we describe the biochemical methods used to study the Cool/Pix proteins and, in particular, the regulation of the GEF activity of Cool-2/alpha-Pix.

  19. The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.

  20. The statistical analysis of circadian phase and amplitude in constant-routine core-temperature data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the phases and amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature series is crucial for making inferences about the properties of the human biological clock from data collected under this protocol. This paper presents a set of statistical methods based on a harmonic-regression-plus-correlated-noise model for estimating the phases and the amplitude of the endogenous circadian pacemaker from constant-routine core-temperature data. The methods include a Bayesian Monte Carlo procedure for computing the uncertainty in these circadian functions. We illustrate the techniques with a detailed study of a single subject's core-temperature series and describe their relationship to other statistical methods for circadian data analysis. In our laboratory, these methods have been successfully used to analyze more than 300 constant routines and provide a highly reliable means of extracting phase and amplitude information from core-temperature data.

  1. Mastectomy scars following breast reconstruction: should routine histologic analysis be performed?

    PubMed

    Warner, Robert M; Wallace, David L; Ferran, Nicholas A; Erel, Ertan; Park, Alan J; Prinsloo, Daniel J; Waters, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    There is some debate in the recent literature regarding the routine submission of mastectomy scars for histologic analysis when performing delayed breast reconstructions. The aim of this study was to review the relevant publications and evaluate the practice of routine histologic examination of mastectomy scars. The authors conducted a retrospective review, across three regional plastic and reconstructive surgery units, of 433 patients who had 455 scars routinely sent for histologic examination following delayed breast reconstruction between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients with clinical evidence of recurrent carcinoma were excluded. Data from 433 patients revealed an average age at reconstruction of 49.9 years (range, 25 to 77 years). The mean interval from primary breast surgery to reconstruction was 3.9 years (range, 2 months to 32 years), and the average length of patient follow-up, from primary surgery, was 6.4 years (range, 1 to 40 years). The majority of the initial operations were carried out for invasive carcinoma (89 percent). Four mastectomy scars in three patients were positive for carcinoma recurrence. The publications related to the practice of routine histologic analysis of mastectomy scars provide conflicting conclusions. As a proportion of patients may benefit from the early detection and treatment of locoregional recurrence, the authors suggest that the routine submission of mastectomy scars will allow for the earlier detection of soft-tissue recurrences that may affect long-term outcome. In keeping with cancer surgery principles, the authors recommend routine histologic examination of mastectomy scars following delayed breast reconstruction.

  2. Should endocervical curettage routinely be performed at the time of colposcopy? A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan P; Guido, Richard; Lowder, Jerry L

    2014-04-01

    Endocervical curettage (ECC) has been used with colposcopy-directed biopsy to increase diagnostic sensitivity for detecting cellular abnormality. Our objective was to determine if routine ECC was cost-effective compared with colposcopy alone in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cervical cytology, who are older and younger than 50 years. We generated a cost-effectiveness model using outcomes from cervical screening including repeat Pap smears, colposcopy, and loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Cervical cancer costs, survival, as well as incidence and complications after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (preterm birth, cervical stenosis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility) were modeled. Cost and probability values were obtained from published literature and Medicare databases. Direct medical costs were analyzed in 2011 US dollars. Effectiveness outcomes were cervical cancer deaths and incident cases of cancer prevented. Model robustness was evaluated using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. For women older than 50 years, routine ECC is the dominant strategy (less expensive and more effective at reducing cervical cancer deaths/incidence). For women younger than 50 years, routine ECC costs $96,737 more per cervical cancer death prevented. Cost per incident cancer case prevented ranged from $21,894 (local spread or greater) to $235,873 (distal spread). Sensitivity analysis confirmed these conclusions. In women older than 50 years, routine ECC was always the most likely cost-effective choice. In women younger than 50, routine ECC was most likely cost-effective for all willingness-to-pay thresholds greater than $80,000 to prevent 1 cancer death. In women older than 50 years, routine ECC is favored over colposcopy alone because this strategy is cost saving and reduces the number of cancer deaths and incident cancer cases. For women younger than 50 years, cost-effectiveness is

  3. Analysis of diatomite sediments from a paleolake in central Mexico using PIXE, X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Vilaclara, G.; Rico-Montiel, R.; Macías, V. M.; Ruvalcaba, J. L.; Zenteno, M. A.

    1994-03-01

    Diatomite samples from paleolake Tlaxcala, in Central Mexico, have been analyzed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), X-ray tomography and X-ray diffraction. Chiseled blocks were scanned with a 0.7 MeV proton beam, 0.1 mm in diameter, in 0.25 mm steps across the sediments. X-ray tomography with the same step sizes was then applied, in order to compare the concentrations obtained with PIXE and the material density in the sediment layers. Three different kinds of layers were found, related to their colors: dark, white and gray. The composition of the layers is fairly uniform. The dark zone is enriched in Al, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe. This dark layer may be associated with eruptions of the Malitzin volcano. The white zone is found to contain diatomite of a high purity, with traces of K, Ca, and Fe, while the gray zones are also Al enriched, suggesting a clay contamination of the diatomite. X-ray diffraction of materials obtained from each main layer showed that the white and gray phases are highly amorphous, with a small component of cristobalite, as expected from the diatom sediment diagenesis, while the dark layer contains also important amounts of anorthite and orthoclase, supporting the volcanic origin of this layer.

  4. Analytical approaches to expanding the use of capillary electrophoresis in routine food analysis.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Gregorio; Rodríguez-Flores, Juana; Ríos, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is becoming an ever more powerful analytical technique for the separation, identification, and quantification of a wide variety of compounds of interest in many application fields. Particularly in food analysis this technique can offer interesting advantages over chromatographic techniques because of its greater simplicity and efficiency. Nevertheless, CE needs to advance with regard to compatibility with sample matrices, sensitivity, and robustness of the methodologies in order to gain even wider acceptance in food analysis laboratories, specially for routine work. This article presents various approaches to expanding the analytical usefulness of CE in food analysis, discussing their advantages over conventional CE. These approaches focus on sample screening, automated sample preparation with on-line CE arrangements, and the automatic integration of calibration in routine analytical work with CE.

  5. Development of a bio-PIXE setup at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Uzonyi, I.; Simon, A.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2005-04-01

    On the growing need of an accurate, quantitative method for the analysis of thin biological tissues down to the cell level, a measurement setup and data evaluating system has been developed at the Debrecen scanning proton microprobe facility, using its unique capability of the PIXE-PIXE technique. Quantitative elemental concentrations and true elemental maps from C to U can be produced in the case of thin (10-50 μm), inhomogeneous samples of organic matrix with a 2 μm lateral resolution. The method is based on the combined application of on-axis STIM and PIXE-PIXE ion beam analytical techniques. STIM spectra and maps are used to determine the morphology and the area density of the samples. PIXE spectra and maps of an ultra thin windowed and a conventional Be-windowed Si(Li) X-ray detectors are used to quantify concentrations and distributions of elements in the C to Fe (light and medium) and S to U (medium and heavy) atomic number regions, separately. For cross-checking the validation of the obtained data in a few cases RBS technique was used simultaneously. The application of the new bio-PIXE method is shown through an example, the study of the penetration and clearance of ultra-fine particles containing heavy metals (TiO2) of physical bodycare cosmetics in different layers of skin within the frame of the NANODERM EU5 project.

  6. The external pixe milliprobe at davis: laser alignment, pixe calibration, and quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, Robert A.; Kusko, Bruce H.; Cahill, Thomas A.

    1984-04-01

    An external beam PIXE system has been developed at the Davis cyclotron, which is being used extensively for the analysis of the inks and papers of historical documents. This system has several important features. First, because the system is used in valuable and fragile documents, we have kept the heat loss very small. The amount of beam on the sample is minimized by a close detector geometry and by on-demand beam pulsing. A computer driven beam stop allows beam on the sample only when the data is being acquired. Second, the 1 to 2 mm 2 beam spot can be accurately and quickly located at the desired position using a laser alignment system. With this system we can analyze single letters on one side of a page. Third, the beam on sample is internally monitored using the argon present in the 3 cm gap between the exit window and the sample. This is essential for thick targets which stop the beam. Finally, the elemental results are corrected for the decrease of beam energy at the target and for the X-ray attenuation between the target and the detector, and verified by thin standard foils. Similar corrections are made for the finite thickness of the samples. Multiple measurements on the inks of a single page show good consistency, whether done during the same cyclotron run or at another time. Our work indicates that external beam PIXE can be a very safe and accurate tool in historical research.

  7. Widely applicable MATLAB routines for automated analysis of saccadic reaction times.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Jukka M; Forssman, Linda; Kaatiala, Jussi; Yrttiaho, Santeri; Wass, Sam

    2015-06-01

    Saccadic reaction time (SRT) is a widely used dependent variable in eye-tracking studies of human cognition and its disorders. SRTs are also frequently measured in studies with special populations, such as infants and young children, who are limited in their ability to follow verbal instructions and remain in a stable position over time. In this article, we describe a library of MATLAB routines (Mathworks, Natick, MA) that are designed to (1) enable completely automated implementation of SRT analysis for multiple data sets and (2) cope with the unique challenges of analyzing SRTs from eye-tracking data collected from poorly cooperating participants. The library includes preprocessing and SRT analysis routines. The preprocessing routines (i.e., moving median filter and interpolation) are designed to remove technical artifacts and missing samples from raw eye-tracking data. The SRTs are detected by a simple algorithm that identifies the last point of gaze in the area of interest, but, critically, the extracted SRTs are further subjected to a number of postanalysis verification checks to exclude values contaminated by artifacts. Example analyses of data from 5- to 11-month-old infants demonstrated that SRTs extracted with the proposed routines were in high agreement with SRTs obtained manually from video records, robust against potential sources of artifact, and exhibited moderate to high test-retest stability. We propose that the present library has wide utility in standardizing and automating SRT-based cognitive testing in various populations. The MATLAB routines are open source and can be downloaded from http://www.uta.fi/med/icl/methods.html .

  8. Applications of PIXE to studies in dental and mental healths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Ainsworth, T.

    1981-03-01

    The elemental composition of healthy and diseased teeth from 25 South Australian children have been determined using thick-target PIXE analysis. Different dental hard tissues, namely enamel, dentine, cementum and the amelodentinal junction, were analysed independently. A number of elements, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb have been detected, and their concentrations measured. The concentrations of some of the elements were found to vary considerably between: (a) healthy and diseased teeth, (b) teeth of the same type, and (c) different parts of the same tooth. Attempts have been made to correlate the concentrations of the various elements with the health of the teeth. In a pilot study, PIXE has also been applied for Pb analysis in the teeth of a few mentally retarded children. The teeth of all the children, with the exception of one who was suffering from Downe's syndrome, were found to contain appreciable amounts of lead. It is suggested that PIXE would provide a more convenient and accurate form of analysis than destructive chemical methods, for correlating Pb in children's teeth with their mental abilities.

  9. Thermal and flow analysis subroutines for the SINDA-version 9 computer routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Fluid flow analysis, special thermal analysis and input/output capabilities of the MOTAR routine were incorporated into the SINDA routine. All the capabilities were added in the form of user subroutines so that they may be added to different versions of SINDA with a minimum of programmer effort. Two modifications were made to the existing subroutines of SINDA/8 to incorporate the above subroutines. These were: (1) A modification to the preprocessor to permit actual values of array numbers, conductor numbers, node numbers or constant numbers supplied as array data to be converted to relative numbers. (2) Modifications to execution subroutine CNFAST to make it compatible with the radiant interchange user subroutine, RADIR. This modified version of SINDA has been designated SINDA/version 9. A detailed discussion of the methods used for the capabilities added is presented. The modifications for the SINDA subroutines are described, as well as user subroutines. All subroutines added or modified are listed.

  10. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuharik, J. C.; Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Ross, J. P.

    2003-08-01

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  11. Elemental Levels Analyzed by PIXE in Florida Alligators

    SciTech Connect

    Kuharik, J.C.; Kravchenko, I.I.; Dunnam, F.E.; Rinsvelt, H.A. van; Ross, J.P.

    2003-08-26

    Unusual and alarming mortality of alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) has been reported from Lake Griffin, Florida, where almost 400 dead alligators have been observed since 1997. In addition, the hatch rate for alligator eggs around Lake Griffin fell below 10% and remains low (30-45%) while the normal hatch rate is typically 80%. Standard diagnostic methods have been ineffective in determining the cause of the phenomenon. Many possibilities have been considered including pollutants, nutrition, and toxic algae. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis is highly suitable for investigating concentrations of a wide range of elements in animal tissue. Liver, kidney and spinal cord tissues from healthy and sick alligators have been analyzed by PIXE for elemental content. Initial results showed positive correlation between certain elements and neural impairment and morbidity of alligators in Lake Griffin, but have failed to prove significant.

  12. Is routine histological examination of mastectomy scars justified? An analysis of 619 scars.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Arash; Tran, Pelu; Dunlap, Jonathan; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-02-01

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer is paralleled by an increasing demand for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. At the time of breast reconstruction routine submission of mastectomy scars has been considered appropriate clinical practice to ensure that no residual cancer exists. However, this practice has been challenged by some and has become the topic of controversy. In a retrospective analysis we wished to assess whether routine submission of mastectomy scars altered treatment. Utilizing the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with routine histological analysis of mastectomy scars were identified. The following parameters were retrieved and analyzed: age, cancer histology, cancer stage (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system), receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], Her2neu), time interval between mastectomy and reconstruction, and scar histology. A total of 442 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range, 22-73 years) were included in the study. Mastectomy with subsequent reconstruction was performed for in-situ disease and invasive cancer in 83 and 359 patients, respectively. A total of 619 clinically unremarkable mastectomy scars were sent for histological analysis, with the most common finding being unremarkable scar tissue (i.e. collagen fibers). Of note, no specimen revealed the presence of carcinoma. According to published reports routine histological examination of mastectomy scars may detect early local recurrence. However, we were not able to detect this benefit in our patient population. As such, particularly in the current health-care climate the cost-effectiveness of this practice deserves further attention. A more selective use of histological analysis of mastectomy scars in patients with tumors that display poor prognostic indicators may be a more reasonable utilization of

  13. Is Routine Histological Examination of Mastectomy Scars Justified? – An Analysis of 619 Scars

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Arash; Tran, Pelu; Dunlap, Jonathan; Lee, Gordon K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increasing incidence of breast cancer is paralleled by an increasing demand for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. At the time of breast reconstruction routine submission of mastectomy scars has been considered appropriate clinical practice to ensure that no residual cancer exists. However, this practice has been challenged by some and has become the topic of controversy. In a retrospective analysis we wished to assess whether routine submission of mastectomy scars altered treatment. Methods Utilizing the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with routine histological analysis of mastectomy scars were identified. The following parameters were retrieved and analyzed: age, cancer histology, cancer stage (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system), receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], Her2neu), time interval between mastectomy and reconstruction, and scar histology. Results A total of 442 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range, 22 to 73 years) were included in the study. Mastectomy with subsequent reconstruction was performed for in-situ disease and invasive cancer in 83 and 359 patients, respectively. A total of 619 clinically unremarkable mastectomy scars were sent for histological analysis, with the most common finding being unremarkable scar tissue (i.e. collagen fibers). Of note, no specimen revealed the presence of carcinoma. Conclusion According to published reports routine histological examination of mastectomy scars may detect early local recurrence. However, we were not able to detect this benefit in our patient population. As such, particularly in the current health-care climate the cost-effectiveness of this practice deserves further attention. A more selective use of histological analysis of mastectomy scars in patients with tumors that display poor prognostic indicators may be

  14. On the Design, Development, and Analysis of Optimized Matrix-Vector Multiplication Routines for Coprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Khairul; Haidar, Azzam; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.

  15. TOF plotter—a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-03-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x- y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems.

  16. SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.

  17. PIXE and PESA aspects of the Guelph Visibility and Fine Particulate Monitoring Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejedlý, Z.; Campbell, J. L.; Teesdale, W. J.; Gielen, C.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the analytical equipment, data processing, and quality assurance protocol of the Visibility and Particulate Monitoring Program run by the Guelph Scanning Proton Microprobe (GSPM) laboratory at the University of Guelph. The focus of the discussion is the ion beam analyses used in the program. A new experimental chamber for Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) of particulate samples is presented. The chamber provides a fast and reliable analysis of thin samples by PIXE and PESA. The PIXE spectra are collected simultaneously by two Si(Li) detectors to increase sensitivity and reliability of the measurement. Several aspects of thin target PIXE calibration are discussed. An extension to the GUPIX software package for automatic analysis of aerosol samples is presented. Three levels of quality assurance are described, including analysis of fly ash particles on artificial filter, linear regression between the two PIXE detectors, intra- and interlaboratory comparisons, and calculation of the reconstructed mass (RCMA) from composite variables and its comparison to fine mass.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of clinically indicated versus routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters.

    PubMed

    Tuffaha, Haitham W; Rickard, Claire M; Webster, Joan; Marsh, Nicole; Gordon, Louisa; Wallis, Marianne; Scuffham, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    Millions of peripheral intravenous catheters are used worldwide. The current guidelines recommend routine catheter replacement every 72-96 h. This practice requires increasing healthcare resource use. The clinically indicated catheter replacement strategy is proposed as an alternative. To assess the cost effectiveness of clinically indicated versus routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters. A cost-effectiveness analysis from the perspective of Queensland Health, Australia, was conducted alongside a randomized controlled trial. Adult patients with an intravenous catheter of expected use for longer than 4 days were randomly assigned to receive either clinically indicated replacement or third-day routine replacement. The primary outcome was phlebitis during catheterization or within 48 h after catheter removal. Resource use data were prospectively collected and valued (2010 prices). The incremental net monetary benefit was calculated with uncertainty characterized using bootstrap simulations. Additionally, value of information (VOI) and value of implementation analyses were performed. The clinically indicated replacement strategy was associated with a cost saving per patient of AU$7.60 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.96-10.62) and a non-significant difference in the phlebitis rate of 0.41% (95% CI -1.33 to 2.15). The incremental net monetary benefit was AU$7.60 (95% CI 4.96-10.62). The expected VOI was zero, whereas the expected value of perfect implementation of the clinically indicated replacement strategy was approximately AU$5 million over 5 years. The clinically indicated catheter replacement strategy is cost saving compared with routine replacement. It is recommended that healthcare organizations consider changing to a policy whereby catheters are changed only if clinically indicated.

  19. Establishing routines to cope with the loneliness associated with widowhood: a narrative analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Crowe, M; Whitehead, L

    2016-10-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Loneliness in older adults has been identified as an important public health issue in many countries. Widowhood is a time when many older people experience loneliness. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Little is known about strategies that are effective in mitigating experiences of loneliness and this paper explores this with older people who have been through the process. The narratives of the older people in this study described a trajectory in which loneliness was experienced as both a loss of spouse and a loss of routines that enabled them to maintain connections with others. This trajectory moved onto the establishment of new routines that enabled connections to be developed. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Loneliness is strongly associated with depression and anxiety in the elderly and mental health nurses should be encouraged to screen for loneliness when undertaking assessments. Interventions that facilitate the development of meaningful routines could be integrated into mental health nursing care of older people. Background Loneliness in older people is a public health concern in many Western countries. While not necessarily a symptom of mental disorder, it is often associated with depression and anxiety. Widowhood is a transition period during which many older people experience acute loneliness but over time develops strategies to manage it. Little is known about effective strategies that older people have used to manage the experience. The strategies older people used to manage this was the focus of this paper. Aim The aim was to examine older widows' experiences of loneliness. Design The design of this study was a qualitative narrative analysis with thematic analysis and the participants were 40 older widow/widowers aged between 70 and 97 years. Findings The study found that the participants negotiated the experience of loneliness following widowhood from an acute phase of experiencing an absence and

  20. [Routine analysis of public health surveillance data: which statistical procedures to use?].

    PubMed

    Sanches, O

    1993-08-01

    In recent years an increasing interest in epidemiological surveillance (that we prefer to label public health surveillance) has emerged. The viewpoint that the ease of access to computers and statistical software may permit the use of more sophisticated statistical methodologies in the analysis of surveillance data has been profounded in many studies. It is a cause of concern that this attitude, when used indiscriminated by, may lead to analysis lacking in theoretical support. Thus, first, a viewpoint about surveillance in public health is presented and the basic propositions of the theory of statistical hypothesis tests and interval estimation are described briefly and without technicalities. The nature of surveillance data, their nonsampling character and non-random selection are also commented on. Some descriptive procedures that may be used without loss of quality in analysis are described than some procedures that are proposed in the relevant international literature but that need fuller investigation before being introduced in routine data analysis are given.

  1. Routine blood examinations combined with morphological analysis for the diagnosis of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huanling; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Zhifen; Li, Xiangli; Li, Yuantang; Li, Li; Xu, Rui; Wang, Zie; Tian, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a new hematological neoplasm category; myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), which included four main subcategories. This disease is often misdiagnosed, which delays effective therapy. The present study evaluated the role of routine blood examinations and morphological analysis of peripheral blood cells in the reliable diagnosis of MDS/MPN. In total, 236 adult MDS/MPN patients were analyzed. The analysis included 10 routine blood parameters measured using a Sysmex XE-2100™, 3 differential percentage parameters and 7 morphological features of peripheral blood cells which were analyzed by optical microscopy, and 3 differential absolute count numbers obtained based on the corresponding differential percentages and absolute count of blood cells. The parameters were compared among the subcategories and a value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The median white blood cell and hemoglobin counts of the patients were 18.0×109/l and 88 g/l, respectively. The proportion of monocytes increased to 8% (1.82×109/l), the proportion of blast cells increased to 1% (0.5×109/l) and that of neutrophil precursors increased to 10% (1.98×109/l). A total of 87% of all patients presented with hypogranulation and 71% presented with abnormal condensed nuclear chromatin in granulocytes. Atypical monocytes were observed in 73% of all patients and Pseudo-Pelger cells were observed in 60%. Significant differences were detected among the subcategories. The present study demonstrated that combining blood routine parameters and the morphological analysis of peripheral blood cells have an essential role in the reliable diagnosis of MDS/MPN based on WHO categories. PMID:27895799

  2. Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols Collected in an Urban Area in Upstate NY Using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jeremy; Ali, Salina; Nadareski, Benjamin; Safiq, Alexandrea; Yoskowitz, Joshua; Labrake, Scott; Vineyard, Michael

    2013-10-01

    We examined atmospheric aerosol samples collected in Schenectady NY for evidence of pollution. We collected aerosol samples using a nine stage cascade impactor which distributes the particulate matter by aerodynamic size onto 7.5 μm Kapton foils. We then used a 1MV electrostatic Pelletron accelerator to produce a 2.2 MeV proton beam to hit the impacted foils. X-ray intensity versus energy spectra were collected using an Amptek x-ray detector where the x-rays are produced from the proton beam interacting with the sample. This is called PIXE. The elemental composition and concentrations of the elements present in the aerosol samples were determined using a software package called GUPIX. We have found elements ranging from Al to Pb and in particular have found significant amounts of Pb and Br on some of our impacted foils, with a Br/Pb ratio of 0.6 +/- 0.2 which agrees with previous studies. This result suggests the presence of leaded aviation fuel perhaps due to the proximity of the collection site to a small airport with a significant amount of general aviation traffic. Union College.

  3. Routine chest x-rays in intensive care units: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Chest x-rays (CXRs) are the most frequent radiological tests performed in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, the utility of performing daily routine CXRs is unclear. Methods We searched Medline and Embase (1948 to March 2011) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before-after observational studies comparing a strategy of routine CXRs to a more restrictive approach with CXRs performed to investigate clinical changes among critically ill adults or children. In duplicate, we extracted data on the CXR strategy, study quality and clinical outcomes (ICU and hospital mortality; duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU and hospital stay). Results Nine studies (39,358 CXRs; 9,611 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Three trials (N = 870) of moderate to good quality provided information on the safety of a restrictive routine CXR strategy; only one trial systematically assessed for missed findings. Pooled data from trials showed no evidence of effect of a restrictive approach on ICU mortality (risk ratio [RR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 1.28, P = 0.72; two trials, N = 776), hospital mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41, P = 0.91; two trials, N = 259), ICU length of stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.86 days, 95% CI -2.38 to 0.66 days, P = 0.27; three trials, N = 870), hospital length of stay (WMD -2.50 days, 95% CI -6.62 to 1.61 days, P = 0.23; two trials, N = 259), or duration of mechanical ventilation (WMD -0.30 days, 95% CI -1.48 to 0.89 days, P = 0.62; three trials, N = 705). Adding data from six observational studies, one of which systematically screened for missed findings, gave similar results. Conclusions This meta-analysis did not detect any harm associated with a restrictive chest radiograph strategy. However, confidence intervals were wide and harm was not rigorously assessed. Therefore, the safety of abandoning routine CXRs in patients admitted to the ICU remains uncertain. PMID

  4. Ultrasonic dispersion of soils for routine particle size analysis: recommended procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, P.R.; Hayden, R.E.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic techniques were found to be more effective than standard mechanical techniques to disperse soils for routine particle-size analysis (i.e., using a dispersing agent and mechanical mixing). Soil samples were tested using an ultrasonic homogenizer at various power outputs. The samples varied widely in texture and mineralogy, and included sands, silts, clays, volcanic soils, and soils high in organic matter. A combination of chemical and ultrasonic dispersion techniques were used in all tests. Hydrometer techniques were used for particle-size analysis. For most materials tested, clay percentage values indicated that ultrasonic dispersion was more complete than mechanical dispersion. Soils high in volcanic ash or iron oxides showed 10 to 20 wt % more clay when using ultrasonic mixing rather than mechanical mixing. The recommended procedure requires ultrasonic dispersion of a 20- to 40-g sample for 15 min at 300 W with a 1.9-cm-diameter ultrasonic homogenizer. 12 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  5. Accuracy and usefulness of the AVOXimeter 4000 as routine analysis of carboxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Junko; Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naoko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Takeshita, Haruo

    2013-07-01

    The measurement of blood carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) is important to determine the cause of death. The AVOXimeter 4000 (AVOX), a portable CO-oximeter, has the advantages of a low purchase price and operating cost, ease of operation, and rapid results. Little information is available on the usefulness of AVOX in the forensic sample, and the previous study investigated only six samples. Therefore, in this study, we confirmed the usefulness of the AVOX through a comparison of its results with data previously obtained using the double wavelength spectrophotometric method in autopsies. Regression analysis was performed between CO-Hb levels measured by the AVOX and those measured by the conventional double wavelength spectrophotometric method in postmortem blood samples: a significant correlation was observed. This study suggests the usefulness of the AVOX to analyze postmortem blood, and the AVOX is suitable for routine forensic analysis and can be applied at the crime scene.

  6. Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teti, Nicholas M.

    1993-01-01

    The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

  7. Microcomputer spacecraft thermal analysis routines (MSTAR) Phase I: The user interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teti, Nicholas M.

    1993-01-01

    The Microcomputer Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Routines (MSTAR) software package is being developed for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center by Swales and Associates, Inc. (S&AI). In December 1992, S&AI was awarded a phase I Small Business Inovative Research contract fronm NASA to develop a microcomputer based thermal analysis program to replace the current SSPTA and TRASYS programs. Phase I consists of a six month effort which will focus on developing geometric model generation and visualization capabilities using a graphical user interface (GUI). The information contained in this paper encompasses the work performed during the Phase I development cycle; with emphasis on the development of the graphical user interface (GUI). This includes both the theory behind and specific examples of how the MSTAR GUI was implemented. Furthermore, this report discusses new applications and enhancements which will improve the capabilities and commercialization of the MSTAR program.

  8. The PIX-2 experiment: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    The second Plasma Interactions Experiment (PIX-2) was launched in January 1983 as a piggyback on the second stage of the Delta launch vehicle that carried IRAS into orbit. Placed in a 870 km circular polar orbit, it returned 18 hrs of data on the plasma current collection and arcing behavior of solar arrays biased to +/-1000 V in steps. The four 500 sq cm solar array segments were biased singly and in combinations. In addition to the array segments PIX-2 carried a Sun sensor, a Langmuir probe to measure electron currents, and a hot-wire filament electron emitter to control vehicle potential during positive array bias sequences. The PIX-2 experiment is reviewed from program and operational perspectives.

  9. PIXE determination of Pb in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsonya, A.; Guguianu, O.; Demeter, I.; Hollós-Nagy, Katalin; Kovács, I.; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Z.

    2002-04-01

    The permissible level of the Pb content in wine varies in the range of 200-300 μg/l in different countries. These values are below the detection limit for standard PIXE spectrometry. Initiated by an intercomparison action of The International Measurement Evaluation Programme (IMEP, Geel, Belgium), an attempt was made to lower the detection limit of PIXE without introducing any additional chemical steps. Wine samples of 5 ml were gradually condensed below an infrared lamp and 8 μl aliquots were taken from time to time and pipetted onto filter paper. The samples were analysed by standard PIXE technique, with the analyte addition method used for calibration. A detection limit of about 50 ppb was finally achieved. Comparing this value to the permissible levels, this simple and fast technique can be used for screening purposes. As an application, the lead content of three Hungarian market wines was also measured.

  10. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Pope, D J; Cutajar, D L; George, S P; Guatelli, S; Bucci, J A; Enari, K E; Miller, S; Siegele, R; Rosenfeld, A B

    2015-06-07

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences.Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  11. Single Particle ICP-MS: Advances toward routine analysis of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Montaño, Manuel D; Olesik, John W; Barber, Angela G; Challis, Katie; Ranville, James F

    2016-07-01

    From its early beginnings in characterizing aerosol particles to its recent applications for investigating natural waters and waste streams, single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) has proven to be a powerful technique for the detection and characterization of aqueous dispersions of metal-containing nanomaterials. Combining the high-throughput of an ensemble technique with the specificity of a single particle counting technique and the elemental specificity of ICP-MS, spICP-MS is capable of rapidly providing researchers with information pertaining to size, size distribution, particle number concentration, and major elemental composition with minimal sample perturbation. Recently, advances in data acquisition, signal processing, and the implementation of alternative mass analyzers (e.g., time-of-flight) has resulted in a wider breadth of particle analyses and made significant progress toward overcoming many of the challenges in the quantitative analysis of nanoparticles. This review provides an overview of spICP-MS development from a niche technique to application for routine analysis, a discussion of the key issues for quantitative analysis, and examples of its further advancement for analysis of increasingly complex environmental and biological samples. Graphical Abstract Single particle ICP-MS workflow for the analysis of suspended nanoparticles.

  12. Trace metal content in aspirin and women's cosmetics via proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Hichwa, B.P.; Pun, D.D.; Wang, D.

    1981-04-01

    A multielemental analysis to determine the trace metal content of generic and name-brand aspirins and name-brand lipsticks was done via proton induced x-ray (PIXE) measurements. The Hope College PIXE system is described as well as the target preparation methods. The trace metal content of twelve brands of aspirin and aspirin substitutes and fourteen brands of lipstick are reported. Detection limits for most elements are in the range of 100 parts per billion (ppb) to 10 parts per million (ppm).

  13. PIXE study of Cuban quaternary paleoclimate geological samples and speleothems.

    PubMed

    Montero, M E; Aspiazu, J; Pajón, J; Miranda, S; Moreno, E

    2000-02-01

    PIXE elemental analysis of sediments, speleothems, and other geological formations related to the karst of the Sierra de San Carlos is presented. The similarity of the elemental composition of the sediments studied, as well as the alluvial regime which created them, indicate their common origin at each location. The Sr/Ca concentration ratio of a stalactite indicates that the average atmospheric temperature 12,000 and 18,000 years B.P. was colder than that of 6000 years B.P.

  14. PIXE investigation of aerosol composition over the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meter, S. L.; Formenti, P.; Piketh, S. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1999-04-01

    Atmospheric sulphate aerosol concentrations are of interest in climate change studies because of their negative climate forcing potential. Quantification of their forcing strength requires the compilation of global sulphur emission inventories to determine the magnitude of regional sources. We report on measurements of the ambient aerosol concentrations in proximity to a copper refinery in the central African Copperbelt, along the border of Zambia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This region is historically regarded as one of the largest African sources of sulphate aerosols. Sulphate is produced by oxidation in the atmosphere of SO 2 emitted during the pyrometallurgical processing of Cu-Co sulphide ores. Since the last quantification of sulphur emissions (late 1960s), there has been large-scale reduction in copper production and more frequent use of the leaching technique with negligible sulphur emissions. Samples were collected over four weeks, November-December 1996, at Kitwe, Zambia. A low volume two-stage time-resolving aerosol sampler (streaker) was used. Coarse and fine mode aerosols were separated at >2.5 and >10 μmad. Hourly elemental concentrations were determined by 3.2 MeV PIXE, and routinely yielded Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn, above detection limits. Si, K, Ca and Fe (major crustal components) dominated the coarse elemental mass. In the fine stage, S and Si accounted for up to 80% of the measured mass, and S alone up to 60%. Time series analysis allowed the division of sulphur and crustal elements (Si, K, Ca, Fe) between (i) background concentrations representative of synoptic scale air masses; and (ii) contributions from local sources, i.e., copper smelter and re-suspended soil dust. Short duration episodes of S concentrations, up to 26 μg/m 3, were found simultaneously with enhanced Cu, Fe and Zn. Contributions from individual pyrometallurgic processes and the cobalt slag dump could be distinguished from the elemental signatures

  15. Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Martinková, Patrícia; Drabinová, Adéla; Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, an analytic method useful for identifying potentially biased items in assessments. After explaining a number of methodological approaches, we test for gender bias in two scenarios that demonstrate why DIF analysis is crucial for developing assessments, particularly because simply comparing two groups’ total scores can lead to incorrect conclusions about test fairness. First, a significant difference between groups on total scores can exist even when items are not biased, as we illustrate with data collected during the validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory. Second, item bias can exist even when the two groups have exactly the same distribution of total scores, as we illustrate with a simulated data set. We also present a brief overview of how DIF analysis has been used in the biology education literature to illustrate the way DIF items need to be reevaluated by content experts to determine whether they should be revised or removed from the assessment. Finally, we conclude by arguing that DIF analysis should be used routinely to evaluate items in developing conceptual assessments. These steps will ensure more equitable—and therefore more valid—scores from conceptual assessments. PMID:28572182

  16. GridPix detectors - introduction and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, J.; Bilevych, Y.; Desch, K.; Krieger, C.; Lupberger, M.

    2017-02-01

    GridPix detectors are a new kind of detectors combining a high density pixelized readout ASIC with a Micromegas gas amplification stage. Because of the alignment of mesh holes and pixels, a high efficiency for detecting and separating single primary electrons is reached. This feature leads to excellent spatial and energy resolutions as demonstrated by several different setups.

  17. The investigation of prostatic calcifications using μ-PIXE analysis and their dosimetric effect in low dose rate brachytherapy treatments using Geant4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, D. J.; Cutajar, D. L.; George, S. P.; Guatelli, S.; Bucci, J. A.; Enari, K. E.; Miller, S.; Siegele, R.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-06-01

    Low dose rate brachytherapy is a widely used modality for the treatment of prostate cancer. Most clinical treatment planning systems currently in use approximate all tissue to water, neglecting the existence of inhomogeneities, such as calcifications. The presence of prostatic calcifications may perturb the dose due to the higher photoelectric effect cross section in comparison to water. This study quantitatively evaluates the effect of prostatic calcifications on the dosimetric outcome of brachytherapy treatments by means of Monte Carlo simulations and its potential clinical consequences. Four pathological calcification samples were characterised with micro-particle induced x-ray emission (μ-PIXE) to determine their heavy elemental composition. Calcium, phosphorus and zinc were found to be the predominant heavy elements in the calcification composition. Four clinical patient brachytherapy treatments were modelled using Geant4 based Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of the distribution of brachytherapy seeds and calcifications in the prostate. Dose reductions were observed to be up to 30% locally to the calcification boundary, calcification size dependent. Single large calcifications and closely placed calculi caused local dose reductions of between 30-60%. Individual calculi smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter showed minimal dosimetric impact, however, the effects of small or diffuse calcifications within the prostatic tissue could not be determined using the methods employed in the study. The simulation study showed a varying reduction on common dosimetric parameters. D90 showed a reduction of 2-5%, regardless of calcification surface area and volume. The parameters V100, V150 and V200 were also reduced by as much as 3% and on average by 1%. These reductions were also found to relate to the surface area and volume of calcifications, which may have a significant dosimetric impact on brachytherapy treatment, however, such impacts depend strongly on specific factors

  18. Optimization of capillary array electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for routine molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Larsen, Lars Allan; Baba, Shingo; Kukita, Yoji; Tahira, Tomoko; Christiansen, Michael; Vuust, Jens; Hayashi, Kenshi; Andersen, Paal Skytt

    2006-10-01

    Mutation screening is widely used for molecular diagnostics of inherited disorders. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the present and future identification of genetic risk factors for complex disorders will increase the need for high-throughput mutation screening technologies. Capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) SSCP analysis is a low-cost, automated method with a high throughput and high reproducibility. Thus, the method fulfills many of the demands to be met for application in routine molecular diagnostics. However, the need for performing the electrophoresis at three temperatures between 18 degrees C and 35 degrees C for achievement of high sensitivity is a disadvantage of the method. Using a panel of 185 mutant samples, we have analyzed the effect of sample purification, sample medium and separation matrix on the sensitivity of CAE-SSCP analysis to optimize the method for molecular diagnostic use. We observed different effects from sample purification and sample medium at different electrophoresis temperatures, probably reflecting the complex interplay between sequence composition, electrophoresis conditions and sensitivity in SSCP analysis. The effect on assay sensitivity from three different polymers was tested using a single electrophoresis temperature of 27 degrees C. The data suggest that a sensitivity of 98-99% can be obtained using a 10% long chain poly-N,N-dimethylacrylamide polymer.

  19. [The correlation analysis of coagulation detection and blood routine parameters of sudden hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Bao, Fengxiang; Zhang, Shujia; Zhang, Yanping; Zhu, Xuetao; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of coagulation convention and blood routine parameters of sudden hearing loss (SHL) patients, further prove the correlation of sudden deafness and the the inner ear microcirculation, to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment. Select 424 patients (448 ears) with sudden deafness in our department to SHL group. According to hearing curve is classified into low intermediate frequency descent group, high frequency drop and full frequency group, and drawing 244 cases in the same period of hospitalization deviated septum, vocal cord polyp patients as control group. All patients' coagulation detection, D-dimer, blood leukocytes, neutrophils and platelet count percentages were analyzed. Then a meaningful factor multivariate Logistic regression analysis was made. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups' prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time measurement, fibrinogen, D-dimer, platelet count, white blood cell, neutrophil ratio(P<0.05); Logistic regression analysis showed that the prothrombin, thrombin time measurement, fibrinogen, D-dimer, neutrophil incidence of sudden hearing loss associated risk factors. SHL in patients with coagulation dysfunction may be involved in the occurrence of SHL development mechanism, and there is a correlation of the SHL and the dysfunction of inner ear microcirculation.

  20. Micro-PIXE in plant sciences: Present status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.

    2002-04-01

    Fundamental processes of plant physiology are affected or regulated by mineral nutrients. Hence understanding the mechanisms of nutrient uptake and their functions in plant metabolism is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant studies. The present knowledge of ion uptake mechanisms is based mostly on techniques for bulk analysis, including analysis of small (mg-sized) samples but without spatially resolved results. On the other hand, advanced studies of elemental transport at a cellular level are conducted using techniques with high and very high spatial resolution, but with low sensitivity for elemental analysis. Thus the results obtained are usually restricted to macronutrients or elements present in high quantities. There is a high demand for studies of the functions of trace elements. In addition, it is known that, depending on their concentrations, elements can play different roles in plant life. Studies related to elemental deficiency and toxicity, as well as environmental pollution, require accurate, fully quantitative methods with good spatial resolution. Ideally, these studies should be conducted on organs and tissues as far down as the cellular level. This is where micro-PIXE has been applied until present and can in the near future play a much more important role. Progress is subject to closer collaboration between plant biologists and the PIXE community in terms of addressing problems of specimen preparation, refinement of analytical protocols such as quantitative elemental mapping and the interpretation of results.

  1. Detecting, reporting, and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    An essential component of a public health surveillance system is its ability to detect priority diseases which fall within the mandate of public health officials at all levels. Early detection, reporting and response to public health events help to reduce the burden of mortality and morbidity on communities. Analysis of reliable surveillance data provides relevant information which can enable implementation of timely and appropriate public health interventions. To ensure that a resilient system is in place, the World Health Organization (WHO) has provided guidelines for detection, reporting and response to public health events in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy. This case study provides training on detection, reporting and analysis of priority diseases for routine public health surveillance in Liberia and highlights potential errors and challenges which can hinder effective surveillance. Table-top exercises and group discussion lead participants through a simulated verification and analyses of summary case reports in the role of the District Surveillance Officer. This case study is intended for public health training in a classroom setting and can be accomplished within 2 hours 30 minutes. The target audience include residents in Frontline Epidemiology Training Programs (FETP-Frontline), Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs), and others who are interested in this topic.

  2. Focused molecular analysis of small cell lung cancer: feasibility in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Abdelraouf, Fatma; Sharp, Adam; Maurya, Manisha; Mair, Debbie; Wotherspoon, Andrew; Leary, Alex; Gonzalez de Castro, David; Bhosle, Jaishree; Nassef, Ayatallah; Gaafar, Taghrid; Popat, Sanjay; Yap, Timothy A; O'Brien, Mary

    2015-11-18

    There is an urgent need to identify molecular signatures in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) that may select patients who are likely to respond to molecularly targeted therapies. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of undertaking focused molecular analyses on routine diagnostic biopsies in patients with SCLC. A series of histopathologically confirmed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded SCLC specimens were analysed for epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR), KRAS, NRAS and BRAF mutations, ALK gene rearrangements and MET amplification. EGFR and KRAS mutation testing was evaluated using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR cobas(®)), BRAF and NRAS mutations using multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation analysis, and ALK and MET aberrations with fluorescent in situ hybridization. All genetic aberrations detected were validated independently. A total of 105 patients diagnosed with SCLC between July 1990 and September 2006 were included. 60 (57 %) patients had suitable tumour tissue for molecular testing. 25 patients were successfully evaluated for all six pre-defined molecular aberrations. Eleven patients failed all molecular analysis. No mutations in EGFR, KRAS and NRAS were detected, and no ALK gene rearrangements or MET gene amplifications were identified. A V600E substitution in BRAF was detected in a Caucasian male smoker diagnosed with SCLC with squamoid and glandular features. The paucity of patients with sufficient tumour tissue, quality of DNA extracted and low frequency of aberrations detected indicate that alternative molecular characterisation approaches are necessary, such as the use of circulating plasma DNA in patients with SCLC.

  3. Informatics Enhanced SNP Microarray Analysis of 30 Miscarriage Samples Compared to Routine Cytogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Lathi, Ruth B.; Loring, Megan; Massie, Jamie A. M.; Demko, Zachary P.; Johnson, David; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Gemelos, George; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The metaphase karyotype is often used as a diagnostic tool in the setting of early miscarriage; however this technique has several limitations. We evaluate a new technique for karyotyping that uses single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays (SNP). This technique was compared in a blinded, prospective fashion, to the traditional metaphase karyotype. Methods Patients undergoing dilation and curettage for first trimester miscarriage between February and August 2010 were enrolled. Samples of chorionic villi were equally divided and sent for microarray testing in parallel with routine cytogenetic testing. Results Thirty samples were analyzed, with only four discordant results. Discordant results occurred when the entire genome was duplicated or when a balanced rearrangement was present. Cytogenetic karyotyping took an average of 29 days while microarray-based karytoyping took an average of 12 days. Conclusions Molecular karyotyping of POC after missed abortion using SNP microarray analysis allows for the ability to detect maternal cell contamination and provides rapid results with good concordance to standard cytogenetic analysis. PMID:22403611

  4. Development of instrumentation for routine ToF-SIMS imaging analysis of biological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliff, B.; Lockyer, N. P.; Corlett, C.; Vickerman, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    The routine analysis of frozen-hydrated biological material is a goal that is highly sought after in the ToF-SIMS community. To this end we have developed a system based on an existing protocol developed elsewhere, but with several crucial advances. Here we report on the major design initiatives, some early performance characteristics and experimental data obtained. The system was designed with ease-of-use and reliability in mind in addition to performance, this should make the results repeatable. The device works on a freeze-fracture type method to expose pristine surface for SIMS analysis. An important performance characteristic that has emerged is one of time; the fracture stage can be cooled down to operating temperature within 30 min beginning of cooling. This is important as it minimises dead time at the beginning of an experimental session. We also present here images of freeze-fractured liposomes obtained with this hardware, showing two differing fracture regimes, we believe they are of similar quality to those obtained using other techniques.

  5. Detection and Real Time Spectroscopy of Charged Particles with the TimePix Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Jakubek, Jan; Platkevic, Michal; Pospisil, Stanislav; Vykydal, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    We tested the position—, spectral— and time—resolution capability of the TimePix semiconductor detector together with the USB readout interface and Pixelman control and DAQ software tool for detection and visualization of particles. Event—by—event spectroscopy can be achieved by real time analysis of the characteristic tracks and specific response of different radiation in the pixel detector.

  6. Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments.

    PubMed

    Martinková, Patrícia; Drabinová, Adéla; Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Sanders, Elizabeth A; McFarland, Jenny L; Price, Rebecca M

    2017-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, an analytic method useful for identifying potentially biased items in assessments. After explaining a number of methodological approaches, we test for gender bias in two scenarios that demonstrate why DIF analysis is crucial for developing assessments, particularly because simply comparing two groups' total scores can lead to incorrect conclusions about test fairness. First, a significant difference between groups on total scores can exist even when items are not biased, as we illustrate with data collected during the validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory. Second, item bias can exist even when the two groups have exactly the same distribution of total scores, as we illustrate with a simulated data set. We also present a brief overview of how DIF analysis has been used in the biology education literature to illustrate the way DIF items need to be reevaluated by content experts to determine whether they should be revised or removed from the assessment. Finally, we conclude by arguing that DIF analysis should be used routinely to evaluate items in developing conceptual assessments. These steps will ensure more equitable-and therefore more valid-scores from conceptual assessments. © 2017 P. Martinková et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J.; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    Background China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010–2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6–71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. Methods and Findings We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7–US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below

  8. Routine Pediatric Enterovirus 71 Vaccination in China: a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Joseph T; Jit, Mark; Zheng, Yaming; Leung, Kathy; Xing, Weijia; Yang, Juan; Liao, Qiaohong; Cowling, Benjamin J; Yang, Bingyi; Lau, Eric H Y; Takahashi, Saki; Farrar, Jeremy J; Grenfell, Bryan T; Leung, Gabriel M; Yu, Hongjie

    2016-03-01

    China accounted for 87% (9.8 million/11.3 million) of all hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported to WHO during 2010-2014. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is responsible for most of the severe HFMD cases. Three EV71 vaccines recently demonstrated good efficacy in children aged 6-71 mo. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of routine pediatric EV71 vaccination in China. We characterized the economic and health burden of EV71-associated HFMD (EV71-HFMD) in China using (i) the national surveillance database, (ii) virological surveillance records from all provinces, and (iii) a caregiver survey on the household costs and health utility loss for 1,787 laboratory-confirmed pediatric cases. Using a static model parameterized with these data, we estimated the effective vaccine cost (EVC, defined as cost/efficacy or simply the cost of a 100% efficacious vaccine) below which routine pediatric vaccination would be considered cost-effective. We performed the base-case analysis from the societal perspective with a willingness-to-pay threshold of one times the gross domestic product per capita (GDPpc) and an annual discount rate of 3%. We performed uncertainty analysis by (i) accounting for the uncertainty in the risk of EV71-HFMD due to missing laboratory data in the national database, (ii) excluding productivity loss of parents and caregivers, (iii) increasing the willingness-to-pay threshold to three times GDPpc, (iv) increasing the discount rate to 6%, and (v) accounting for the proportion of EV71-HFMD cases not registered by national surveillance. In each of these scenarios, we performed probabilistic sensitivity analysis to account for parametric uncertainty in our estimates of the risk of EV71-HFMD and the expected costs and health utility loss due to EV71-HFMD. Routine pediatric EV71 vaccination would be cost-saving if the all-inclusive EVC is below US$10.6 (95% CI US$9.7-US$11.5) and would remain cost-effective if EVC is below US$17.9 (95% CI US$16.9-US$18.8) in

  9. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  10. Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Of Silicate Coatings On High Impact Resistance Polycarbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qian; Hart, M. A.; Culbertson, R. J.; Bradley, J. D.; Herbots, N.; Wilkens, Barry J.; Sell, David A.; Watson, Clarizza Fiel

    2011-06-01

    Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis was employed to characterize hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) C32H60O19 polymer film via areal density measurement on silicon-based substrates utilizing the differential PIXE concept, and compared with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results. It is demonstrated in this paper that PIXE and RBS measurements both yield comparable results for areal densities ranging from 1018 atom/cm2 to several 1019 atom/cm2. A collection of techniques including PIXE, RBS, tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM), and contact angle analysis were used to compute surface free energy, analyze surface topography and roughness parameters, determine surface composition and areal density, and to predict the water affinity and condensation behaviors of silicates and other compounds used for high impact resistance vision ware coatings. The visor surface under study is slightly hydrophilic, with root mean square of surface roughness on the order of one nm, and surface wavelength between 200 nm and 300 nm. Water condensation can be controlled on such surfaces via polymers adsorption. HPMC polymer areal density measurement supports the analysis of the surface water affinity and topography and the subsequent control of condensation behavior. HPMC film between 1018 atom/cm2 and 1019 atom/cm2 was found to effectively alter the water condensation pattern and prevents fogging by forming a wetting layer during condensation.

  11. Preliminary Analysis of Perfusionists’ Strategies for Managing Routine and Failure Mode Scenarios in Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Power, Gerald; Miller, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a complex task requiring high levels of practitioner expertise. Although some education standards exist, few are based on an analysis of perfusionists’ problem-solving needs. This study shows the efficacy of work domain analysis (WDA) as a framework for analyzing perfusionists’ conceptualization and problem-solving strategies. A WDA model of a CPB circuit was developed. A high-fidelity CPB simulator (Manbit) was used to present routine and oxygenator failure scenarios to six proficient perfusionists. The video-cued recall technique was used to elicit perfusionists’ conceptualization strategies. The resulting recall transcripts were coded using the WDA model and analyzed for associations between task completion times and patterns of conceptualization. The WDA model developed was successful in being able to account for and describe the thought process followed by each participant. It was also shown that, although there was no correlation between experience with CPB and ability to change an oxygenator, there was a link between the between specific thought patterns and the efficiency in undertaking this task. Simulators are widely used in many fields of human endeavor, and in this research, the attempt was made to use WDA to gain insights into the complexities of the human thought process when engaged in the complex task of conducting CPB. The assumption that experience equates with ability is challenged, and rather, it is shown that thought process is a more significant determinant of success when engaged in complex tasks. WDA analysis in combination with a CPB simulator may be used to elucidate successful strategies for completing complex tasks. PMID:17972450

  12. UMMPerfusion: an open source software tool towards quantitative MRI perfusion analysis in clinical routine.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Frank G; Weisser, Gerald; Reich, Marcel; Kaiser, Sven; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Sourbron, Steven P; Schad, Lothar R

    2013-04-01

    To develop a generic Open Source MRI perfusion analysis tool for quantitative parameter mapping to be used in a clinical workflow and methods for quality management of perfusion data. We implemented a classic, pixel-by-pixel deconvolution approach to quantify T1-weighted contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging (DCE-MRI) perfusion data as an OsiriX plug-in. It features parallel computing capabilities and an automated reporting scheme for quality management. Furthermore, by our implementation design, it could be easily extendable to other perfusion algorithms. Obtained results are saved as DICOM objects and directly added to the patient study. The plug-in was evaluated on ten MR perfusion data sets of the prostate and a calibration data set by comparing obtained parametric maps (plasma flow, volume of distribution, and mean transit time) to a widely used reference implementation in IDL. For all data, parametric maps could be calculated and the plug-in worked correctly and stable. On average, a deviation of 0.032 ± 0.02 ml/100 ml/min for the plasma flow, 0.004 ± 0.0007 ml/100 ml for the volume of distribution, and 0.037 ± 0.03 s for the mean transit time between our implementation and a reference implementation was observed. By using computer hardware with eight CPU cores, calculation time could be reduced by a factor of 2.5. We developed successfully an Open Source OsiriX plug-in for T1-DCE-MRI perfusion analysis in a routine quality managed clinical environment. Using model-free deconvolution, it allows for perfusion analysis in various clinical applications. By our plug-in, information about measured physiological processes can be obtained and transferred into clinical practice.

  13. Can endobronchial biopsy analysis be recommended to discriminate between asthma and COPD in routine practice?

    PubMed Central

    Bourdin, A; Serre, I; Flamme, H; Vic, P; Neveu, D; Aubas, P; Godard, P; Chanez, P

    2004-01-01

    Background: International guidelines stress the importance of accurately discriminating between asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although characteristic pathological features have been described for both conditions, their discriminatory power has never been systematically assessed. Methods: Endobronchial biopsy (EBB) specimens from patients with a clear clinical diagnosis of asthma and COPD (50 per group) were examined by three pathologists in a double blind manner. They were asked to propose a pathological diagnosis of either asthma or COPD and to analyse qualitatively the most frequent abnormalities reported in the literature. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of EBB ranged from 36% to 48% and from 56% to 79%, respectively. Eosinophils strongly biased the pathological diagnoses in favour of asthma, whereas their estimated prevalence was similar (11–37% in asthma and 13–41% in COPD). Metaplasia (11–39% in COPD, 1–18% in asthma) and epithelial inflammation (28–61% in COPD, 11–38% in asthma) tended to be specific to COPD, whereas epithelial desquamation (80–98% in asthma, 61–88% in COPD) and basement membrane thickening (71–94% in asthma, 53–88% in COPD) tended to be associated with asthma. There was acceptable intra- and inter-observer agreement only for metaplasia and epithelial eosinophils. Conclusions: Specific histopathological features of asthma and COPD probably exist, but current routine analysis procedures to assess EBB specimens are not sufficiently discriminatory. This might be rectified by improving pathological definitions. PMID:15170031

  14. Routine Liver Biopsy During Bariatric Surgery: an Analysis of Evidence Base.

    PubMed

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Parmar, Chetan; Graham, Yitka; Abouleid, Ayman; Carr, William R J; Jennings, Neil; Schroeder, Norbert; Small, Peter K

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are common in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis can progress to cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Non-invasive methods of diagnosing non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis are not as accurate as liver biopsy, and bariatric surgery presents a unique opportunity to carry out a simultaneous liver biopsy. Routine liver biopsy can help early and accurate diagnosis of obesity-associated liver conditions. This has led some surgeons to argue for routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery. However, most bariatric surgeons remain unconvinced and liver biopsy is currently not routine practice with bariatric surgery. This review examines published scientific literature to ascertain the usefulness of routine liver biopsy at the time of bariatric surgery.

  15. Application of micro-PIXE, MRI and light microscopy for research in wood science and dendroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merela, M.; Pelicon, P.; Vavpetič, P.; Regvar, M.; Vogel-Mikuš, K.; Serša, I.; Poličnik, H.; Pokorny, B.; Levanič, T.; Oven, P.

    2009-06-01

    Beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) branches were topped and after five months the wound response was analyzed by PIXE, 3D-MRI and light microscopy. From freshly cut and deeply frozen sample 30 μm thick longitudinal-radial tissue sections were prepared for anatomical investigations and micro-PIXE analysis. Light microscopy revealed the structural response to wounding, i.e. occurrence of the reaction zone between the exposed and dehydrated dead tissue and healthy sound wood. The reaction zone was characterized by tylosis in vessels and accumulation of colored deposits in parenchyma cells, fibres and vessels. 3D MRI of a parallel sample showed that the moisture content in the reaction zone was three times higher than in normal healthy wood. Micro-PIXE mapping at margins of compromised wood in beech revealed an increased concentration of potassium in the reaction zone. The increase in the calcium concentration was associated with the dehydrated tissue adjacent to reaction zones. In addition, micro-PIXE was used to determine the elemental distribution in annual tree rings. This may be relevant for retrospective assessment of environmental pollution in wood by measuring yearly increments as a biomonitoring tool. The analysis of European larch ( Larix decidua Mill.) wood revealed a high similarity between optical characteristics (i.e. late versus earlywood) and elemental (e.g. Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Zn) distribution.

  16. Terminology spectrum analysis of natural-language chemical documents: term-like phrases retrieval routine.

    PubMed

    Alperin, Boris L; Kuzmin, Andrey O; Ilina, Ludmila Yu; Gusev, Vladimir D; Salomatina, Natalia V; Parmon, Valentin N

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to develop, test and assess a methodology for automatic extraction of a complete set of 'term-like phrases' and to create a terminology spectrum from a collection of natural language PDF documents in the field of chemistry. The definition of 'term-like phrases' is one or more consecutive words and/or alphanumeric string combinations with unchanged spelling which convey specific scientific meanings. A terminology spectrum for a natural language document is an indexed list of tagged entities including: recognized general scientific concepts, terms linked to existing thesauri, names of chemical substances/reactions and term-like phrases. The retrieval routine is based on n-gram textual analysis with a sequential execution of various 'accept and reject' rules with taking into account the morphological and structural information. The assessment of the retrieval process, expressed quantitatively with a precision (P), recall (R) and F1-measure, which are calculated manually from a limited set of documents (the full set of text abstracts belonging to 5 EuropaCat events were processed) by professional chemical scientists, has proved the effectiveness of the developed approach. The term-like phrase parsing efficiency is quantified with precision (P = 0.53), recall (R = 0.71) and F1-measure (F1 = 0.61) values. The paper suggests using such terminology spectra to perform various types of textual analysis across document collections. This sort of the terminology spectrum may be successfully employed for text information retrieval, for reference database development, to analyze research trends in subject fields of research and to look for the similarity between documents.Graphical abstractTerminology spectrum building process with term-like phrases retrieval.

  17. PIXE measurements of Renaissance silverpoint drawings at VERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milota, Petra; Reiche, Ina; Duval, Alain; Forstner, Oliver; Guicharnaud, Hélène; Kutschera, Walter; Merchel, Silke; Priller, Alfred; Schreiner, Manfred; Steier, Peter; Thobois, Elisabeth; Wallner, Anton; Wünschek, Barbara; Golser, Robin

    2008-05-01

    Silverpoint drawings from the Renaissance are among the most precious and rarest treasures of graphical art. Our research group is particularly interested in the analysis of silverpoint drawings by Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528). A very sensitive and non-destructive analytical method, either spatially resolved synchrotron-radiation induced X-ray fluorescence (SY-XRF) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), is needed to determine the chemical composition of the very faint silver marks on such drawings. Dürer drawings from the collection of the Albertina, Vienna, were analyzed to amend existing data on Dürer drawings. For this purpose an external-beam PIXE setup was installed at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). It allows to analyze a spot of ∼0.15 mm on the object in air with 3 MeV protons, and to detect the emitted X-rays that are characteristic for the chemical composition with very good sensitivity and without harming the precious objects. After successful measurements on artificial test samples, four original silverpoint drawings were investigated: two portraits from Albrecht Dürer's very early period (self-portrait and portrait of his father) and two drawings from Dürer's sketch book of his travel to the Netherlands 1520/21.

  18. Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, N. T.; Stevens, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    An auxiliary payload package called PIX (plasma interaction experiment) was launched on March 5, 1978, on the LANDSAT 3 launch vehicle to study interactions between the space charged-particle environment and surfaces at high applied positive and negative voltages. Three experimental surfaces were used in this package: a plain disk to act as a control, a disk on a Kapton sheet to determine the effect of surrounding insulation on current collection, and a small solar-array segment to evaluate the effect of distributing biased surfaces among an array of insulators. Only half of the results from the 4 hours of PIX operations were recovered. The results did verify effects found in ground simulation testing. The results of this experiment are discussed in detail.

  19. PIXE and the mysteries of Legionnaires' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    The authors describe the use of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) to analyse the nickel concentrations of the autopsy specimens from victims of Legionnaires' disease. They show that the high nickel concentrations in the lung specimens from the first recognized Legionnaires' cases in Philadelphia in 1976 were due to contamination during the autopsies. Recently the authors have used PIXE to show that the selenium concentrations in the sera of the acutely ill Legionnaires' patients are significantly lower than in their matching convalescent-phase sera. This finding may be related to the patient's response to the disease or to the specific characteristics of the Legionella pneumophila itself. Studies show that the disease is not a rare illness but a worldwide one. General criteria concerning specimen collection are described.

  20. Diagnosis of river pollution by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Sasa, Y.; Maeda, M.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE has been applied to analyse suspended particulates in urban river water. Samples were collected from the Tama River, which flows into Tokyo Bay, at nine locations in the lower reaches up to 25 km from its river mouth. The major element, Si, and minor elements, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca. Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe and Cu, were detected. The minor elements could be divided into four groups originated from natural ((1) seawater and (2) minerals) and human ((3) industrial and (4) livings) activities. The contents of elements from minerals were high upper stream and at turbulent areas, while those resulting from human activities increased from the middle areas. The results of ICP and AAS were consistent with the PIXE data.

  1. Unsuspected Malignancies in Routine Femoral Head Histopathologic Examination During Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Agrawal, Kshitijkumar; Anderson, David W; Freiberg, Andrew A; Rubash, Harry E; Kwon, Young-Min

    2017-03-01

    Routine femoral head histopathology during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been recently reported as a potentially useful screening tool for bone- and bone marrow-associated malignancies. However, cost-effectiveness of routine histopathology during THA remains unclear due to low prevalence of significant medical findings which alter patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine histopathology in diagnosing unsuspected malignancy in patients undergoing primary THA. From 1993 to 2011, we retrospectively analyzed routine histopathologic findings of 3200 femoral head specimens from 2725 patients that underwent primary THA. Preoperative and postoperative diagnoses were classified into concordant (clinical diagnosis concurred with pathologic diagnosis), discrepant (differing diagnosis with no resultant impact on patient management), and discordant (differing diagnosis with subsequent change in patient management). Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the incremental cost-utility ratio. A total of 3055 of 3200 pathologic samples were concordant with the preoperative diagnosis (95.4%), 140 of 3200 were discrepant (4.4%), and 5 of 3200 were discordant (0.2%). Routine histopathology revealed 1 unsuspected malignancy out of 640 (5 of 3200) femoral heads. The total cost of histopathologic screening was $614,664.80. The average cost to identify a discrepant case was $4390.46, and the cost to identify a discordant case was $122,932.96. The incremental cost-utility ratio was $49,569.74 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Our study indicates routine femoral head histopathology may be cost-effective in diagnosing unsuspected malignancy at $49,569.74/QALY gained (less than World Health Organization recommended threshold $159,000/QALY gained), providing useful clinical information for surgeons considering the value of routine femoral head histopathology in patients undergoing THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  2. Longitudinal medical records as a complement to routine drug safety signal analysis.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Watson, Sarah; Sandberg, Lovisa; Johansson, Jeanette; Edwards, I Ralph

    2015-05-01

    To explore whether and how longitudinal medical records could be used as a source of reference in the early phases of signal detection and analysis of novel adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in a global pharmacovigilance database. Drug and ADR combinations from the routine signal detection process of VigiBase® in 2011 were matched to combinations in The Health Improvement Network (THIN). The number and type of drugs and ADRs from the data sets were investigated. For unlabelled combinations, graphical display of longitudinal event patterns (chronographs) in THIN was inspected to determine if the pattern supported the VigiBase combination. Of 458 combinations in the VigiBase data set, 190 matched to corresponding combinations in THIN (after excluding drugs with less than 100 prescriptions in THIN). Eighteen percent of the VigiBase and 9% of the matched THIN combinations referred to new drugs reported with serious reactions. Of the 112 unlabelled combinations matched to THIN, 52 chronographs were inconclusive mainly because of lack of data; 34 lacked any outstanding pattern around the time of prescription; 24 had an elevation of events in the pre-prescription period, hence weakened the suspicion of a drug relationship; two had an elevated pattern of events exclusively in the post-prescription period that, after review of individual patient histories, did not support an association. Longitudinal medical records were useful in understanding the clinical context around a drug and suspected ADR combination and the probability of a causal relationship. A drawback was the paucity of data for newly marketed drugs with serious reactions. © 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Application of micro-PIXE technique to uptake study of cesium by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Ozaki, Takuo; Narumi, Issei; Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Sakai, Takuro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Oikawa, Masakazu

    2003-09-01

    We examined the accumulation and distribution of Cs, and the presence of other elements in yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells by the micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) system developed at the TIARA facility, JAERI, and by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) coupled to a scanning electron microscope. The effects of Cs on yeast growth were determined by measuring the optical density at 600 nm. Addition of 1 mM Cs did not have any effect on the growth of the yeast. Micro-PIXE analysis of cells grown in the presence of Cs showed that Cs was uniformly distributed in the cells. Using PIXE, Cs, P, K and Fe can be detected, whereas only P and S can be determined by the EDS. Cells exposed to Cs showed an increase in Cs peak intensity, and decrease in P, K and Fe with time. These results suggest that micro-PIXE is a useful technique to detect low concentration of toxic elements in microorganisms as well as to monitor their changes as function of growth.

  4. Costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated care in Germany: results of a routine data analysis in Bavaria

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Antonius; Donnachie, Ewan; Tauscher, Martin; Gerlach, Roman; Maier, Werner; Mielck, Andreas; Linde, Klaus; Mehring, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The efficiency of a gatekeeping system for a health system, as in Germany, remains unclear particularly as access to specialist ambulatory care is not restricted. The aim was to compare the costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated patients (UP) in ambulatory care; with additional subgroup analysis of patients with mental disorders. Design Retrospective routine data analysis of patients with statutory health insurance, using claims data held by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. A patient was defined as uncoordinated if he or she visited at least 1 specialist without a referral from a general practitioner within a quarter. Outcomes were compared with propensity score matching analysis. Participants The study encompassed all statutorily insured patients in Bavaria contacting at least 1 ambulatory specialist in the first quarter of 2011 (n=3 616 510). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was total costs of ambulatory care; secondary outcomes were financial claims of general physicians, specialists and for medication. Results The average age was 55.3 years for coordinated patients (CP, n=1 629 302), 48.3 years for UP (n=1 825 840). CP more frequently had chronic diseases (85.4%) as compared with UP (67.5%). The total unadjusted financial claim per patient was higher for UP (€234.52) than for CP (€224.41); the total adjusted difference was −€9.65 (95% CI −11.64 to −7.67), indicating lower costs for CP. The cost differences increased with increasing age. Total adjusted difference per patient with mental diseases as documented with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 F-diagnosis, was −€20.31 (95% CI −26.43 to −14.46). Conclusions Coordination of care is associated with lower ambulatory healthcare expenditures and is of particular importance for patients who are more vulnerable to medical interventions, especially for elderly and patients with mental disorders

  5. Interaction between the Helicobacter pylori CagA and alpha-Pix in gastric epithelial AGS cells.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Yeon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2007-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) translocates the CagA protein into epithelial cells by a type IV secretion process. Upon translocation into the host cell cytosol, CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of CagA occurs within the C terminus of the protein and is mediated by members of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of as yet unidentified cellular proteins, rearrangements of the host cell actin cytoskeleton, and cell scattering. This article aims to determine the cellular protein that interacts with CagA. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were stimulated with CagA-positive H. pylori (NCTC11637, at a bacteria/cell ratio of 500:1) and cultured in antibiotic-free medium. Proteins were isolated from the cells with or without H. pylori infection. CagA-interactive protein was determined by immunoprecipitation using anti-CagA antibody and proteomic analysis. We found that alpha-Pix interacts with CagA and alpha-Pix was constitutively expressed in AGS cells. Upon H. pylori stimulation, CagA was translocated into the cells and the expression of alpha-Pix (PAK-interactive exchange factor) was increased in AGS cells time dependently. The interaction of alpha-Pix with CagA was increased by H. pylori infection in AGS cells. Phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of alpha-Pix in AGS cells. alpha-Pix is a family of PAK-binding proteins that strongly activates PAK (p21-activated tyrosine kinase). PAK regulates changes in gene expression and mediates actin cytoskeletal and cell morphological changes. The novel finding of this study is that phosphorylation of CagA induces the dephosphorylation of alpha-Pix, which may modulate cytoskeletal changes of gastric epithelial cells through PAK.

  6. Expanding functions of GIT Arf GTPase-activating proteins, PIX Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GIT-PIX complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Li, Xiaobo; Premont, Richard T

    2016-05-15

    The GIT proteins, GIT1 and GIT2, are GTPase-activating proteins (inactivators) for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins, and function to limit the activity of Arf proteins. The PIX proteins, α-PIX and β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF6 and ARHGEF7, respectively), are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (activators) for the Rho family small GTP-binding protein family members Rac1 and Cdc42. Through their multi-domain structures, GIT and PIX proteins can also function as signaling scaffolds by binding to numerous protein partners. Importantly, the constitutive association of GIT and PIX proteins into oligomeric GIT-PIX complexes allows these two proteins to function together as subunits of a larger structure that coordinates two distinct small GTP-binding protein pathways and serves as multivalent scaffold for the partners of both constituent subunits. Studies have revealed the involvement of GIT and PIX proteins, and of the GIT-PIX complex, in numerous fundamental cellular processes through a wide variety of mechanisms, pathways and signaling partners. In this Commentary, we discuss recent findings in key physiological systems that exemplify current understanding of the function of this important regulatory complex. Further, we draw attention to gaps in crucial information that remain to be filled to allow a better understanding of the many roles of the GIT-PIX complex in health and disease. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Measuring routine nursing service efficiency: a comparison of cost per patient day and data envelopment analysis models.

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, T R

    1983-01-01

    This article provides an illustrative application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology to the measurement of routine nursing service efficiency at a group of Wisconsin hospitals. The DEA efficiency ratings and cost savings estimates are then compared to those resulting from application of Medicare's routine cost limitation to the sample data. DEA is also used to determine if any changes in the potential for efficient operations occurred during the 1978-1979 period. Empirical results were representative of the fundamental differences existing between the DEA and cost per patient day approaches. No evidence was found to support the notion that the overall potential for efficient delivery of routine services by the sample institutions was greater in one year than another. PMID:6874357

  8. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  9. The impact of electronic health records on collaborative work routines: A narrative network analysis.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chia-An

    2016-10-01

    This study examined collaborative work routines and changes after the implementation of a perinatal EHR. The change process and underlying drivers were analyzed to offer insight into why changes - intended or unintended - did or did not occur and their implications for EHR design and implementation. This mixed-method case study included both qualitative and quantitative information. Pre- and post-implementation observations took place over an 18-month period totaling 90h. Formal and informal interviews with administrative and clinical staff, pre- and post-implementation surveys, project meeting observations, and artifact review supplemented data gathered from the observations. Workflow and narrative network analyses of work routines were used to identify changes pre- and post-EHR and to represent different perspectives of work routines. EHR improved documentation efficiency and in- and out-patient information exchange, but increased variability in documentation. Some variabilities were institutionally sanctioned or tolerated, but other variabilities - while ingenious and emblematic of the generative nature of routines enabled by the EHR - were problematic. EHR's support for clinician communication and coordination was limited and its cognitive support insufficient. In some cases, EHR increased cognitive load as the unlocalized EHR scattered information, and the lengthy printouts contributed to information fragmentation and made information retrieval more difficult. The process of the EHR implementation and the changes observed was the confluence of three factors: resource constraint - in particular EHR expertise and experience - not uncommon in many community hospitals; the functional properties of the EHR focusing on information aggregation, storage, and retrieval; and the extant culture and practice of healthcare emphasizing autonomy and flexibility. While collaborative and communication changes were prompted by EHR implementation, the system played a minimal

  10. On the autarchic use of solely PIXE data in particulate matter source apportionment studies by receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of aerosol samples allows simultaneous detection of several elements, including important tracers of many particulate matter sources. This capability, together with the possibility of analyzing a high number of samples in very short times, makes PIXE a very effective tool for source apportionment studies by receptor modeling. However, important aerosol components, like nitrates, OC and EC, cannot be assessed by PIXE: this limitation may strongly compromise the results of a source apportionment study if based on PIXE data alone. In this work, an experimental dataset characterised by an extended chemical speciation (elements, EC-OC, ions) is used to test the effect of reducing input species in the application of one of the most widely used receptor model, namely Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The main effect of using only PIXE data is that the secondary nitrate source is not identified and the contribution of biomass burning is overestimated, probably due to the similar seasonal pattern of these two sources.

  11. The influence of matrix composition and ink layer thickness on iron gall ink determination by the PIXE method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uršič, Mitja; Budnar, Miloš; Simčič, Jure; Pelicon, Primož

    2006-06-01

    The elemental composition of iron gall inks in historical documents can be effectively studied using the non-destructive proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The in-air proton beam experimental set-up installed at the Microanalytical Centre of the Jožef Stefan Institute was used for this purpose. The aim of the present investigation was to model and evaluate the uncertainties in the analysis due to the incompletely known matrix composition and iron gall ink layer thickness. Estimation of these uncertainties helped in quantifying the accuracy of multi-elemental PIXE analysis of historical documents.

  12. PIXE/RBS as a tool to study cementitious materials: Application to the dynamic leaching of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, I.; Castellote, M.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Ynsa, M. D.; Muñoz-Martin, A.; de Viedma, P. G.; Castillo, A.; Martínez, I.; Andrade, C.; Zuloaga, P.; Ordoñez, M.

    2009-12-01

    The suitability of the application of Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectrometry (PIXE) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) to elemental depth profiling in concrete is analysed, studying hardened samples of concrete prior to and after a dynamic leaching test. A calibration of the data has been done by comparing the results obtained by IBA techniques with those obtained by Chemical and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG/DTA). From PIXE and RBS data relevant information about the migration of minor elements, within the concrete matrix after leaching is obtained.

  13. Routine activities and sexual assault: an analysis of individual- and school-level factors.

    PubMed

    Cass, Amy I

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of routine activities theory is examined to explain sexual assault on the college campus. Although many research studies have utilized routine activities theory to predict sexual assault using individual-level factors, little is known about the effect of school-level factors on a student's risk of sexual assault. Based on interviews from 3,036 randomly selected students and surveys from 11 randomly selected colleges in the United States, a hierarchical linear model was created to predict student victimizations by school characteristics. For the individual, results reveal that being female, drug use, and marital status are statistically significant for predicting the probability of a sexual assault. At the institutional level, however, none of the variables are significant in predicting sexual assault among college coeds. Policy implications for prevention measures on college campuses are discussed.

  14. The cost structure of routine infant immunization services: a systematic analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Geng, Fangli; Suharlim, Christian; Brenzel, Logan; Resch, Stephen C; Menzies, Nicolas A

    2017-10-01

    Little information exists on the cost structure of routine infant immunization services in low- and middle-income settings. Using a unique dataset of routine infant immunization costs from six countries, we estimated how costs were distributed across budget categories and programmatic activities, and investigated how the cost structure of immunization sites varied by country and site characteristics. The EPIC study collected data on routine infant immunization costs from 319 sites in Benin, Ghana, Honduras, Moldova, Uganda, Zambia, using a standardized approach. For each country, we estimated the economic costs of infant immunization by administrative level, budget category, and programmatic activity from a programme perspective. We used regression models to describe how costs within each category were related to site operating characteristics and efficiency level. Site-level costs (incl. vaccines) represented 77-93% of national routine infant immunization costs. Labour and vaccine costs comprised 14-69% and 13-69% of site-level cost, respectively. The majority of site-level resources were devoted to service provision (facility-based or outreach), comprising 48-78% of site-level costs across the six countries. Based on the regression analyses, sites with the highest service volume had a greater proportion of costs devoted to vaccines, with vaccine costs per dose relatively unaffected by service volume but non-vaccine costs substantially lower with higher service volume. Across all countries, more efficient sites (compared with sites with similar characteristics) had a lower cost share devoted to labour. The cost structure of immunization services varied substantially between countries and across sites within each country, and was related to site characteristics. The substantial variation observed in this sample suggests differences in operating model for otherwise similar sites, and further understanding of these differences could reveal approaches to improve

  15. Analysis of Investigational Drugs in Biological Fluids Method Development and Routine Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-12

    The purpose of work under this contract is to develop and routinely use analytical methods for the determination of the concentration in biological specimens of investigational drugs in support of pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies undertaken for the purpose of new drug development for the US military establishment. Accepted scientific procedures including normal and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, post column derivatization, and protein precipitation and

  16. Use of deep sequencing data for routine analysis of HIV resistance in newly diagnosed patients

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Caballero, Jose-Angel; Chueca, Natalia; Alvarez, Marta; Gonzalez, Dimitri; García, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Use of deep sequencing is becoming a critical tool in clinical virology, with an important impact in the HIV field for routine diagnostic purposes. Here, we present the comparison of deep and Sanger sequencing in newly diagnosed HIV patients, and the use of DeepChek v1.3 & VisibleChek for their interpretation and integration with virological and clinical data. Patients and Methods Plasma samples from 88 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients were included in the study. Median age (IQR) was 37 (27–47), median CD4 count (IQR) was 387 (220–554), and 85% were males. Median Viral Load (Log, IQR) was 5.03 (4.51–5.53). Deep sequencing was obtained using a GS-Junior (Roche). Sequences were preprocessed with the 454 AVA software; aligned reads were uploaded into the DeepChek v1.3 system (ABL SA). Sanger sequences (Trugene), were uploaded in parallel. Stanford algorithm (version 7.0) resistance interpretation to first line drugs and all the mutations (score≥5) were analyzed. For deep sequencing, 1%, 5% and 10% thresholds were chosen for resistance interpretation. Results Using VisibleChek for analysis, we were able to describe the detection of any mutation using Sanger in 37/88 patients, with a total number of 50 Stanford ≥5 mutations, K103N and E138A being the most prevalent (n=4). Using UDS-1%, we found 72/88 patients with at least one mutation (total of 206 Stanford ≥5 mutations). Using Sanger data, 9/88 patients (10.22%) showed any resistance to NNRTIs, while none showed resistance to NRTIs or PIs. Using UDS-10% increased resistance to NRTIs [3/88 (3.40%)], to NNRTIs 12/88 (13.63%), and to a lesser extent to PIs [1/88 (1.13%)]. Using UDS-5% increased resistance to NRTIs [4/88 (4.54%)] and to NNRTIs [12/88 (13.63%)], but not to PIs. Using UDS-1% increased resistance to all classes: NRTIs [14/88 (15.90%)], NNRTIs [26/88 (30.68%)], and PIs [6/88 (6.81]. Conclusions DeepChek and VisibleChek allow for an easy, reliable and rapid analysis of UDS data

  17. Use of deep sequencing data for routine analysis of HIV resistance in newly diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Caballero, Jose-Angel; Chueca, Natalia; Alvarez, Marta; Gonzalez, Dimitri; García, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Use of deep sequencing is becoming a critical tool in clinical virology, with an important impact in the HIV field for routine diagnostic purposes. Here, we present the comparison of deep and Sanger sequencing in newly diagnosed HIV patients, and the use of DeepChek v1.3 & VisibleChek for their interpretation and integration with virological and clinical data. Plasma samples from 88 newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected patients were included in the study. Median age (IQR) was 37 (27-47), median CD4 count (IQR) was 387 (220-554), and 85% were males. Median Viral Load (Log, IQR) was 5.03 (4.51-5.53). Deep sequencing was obtained using a GS-Junior (Roche). Sequences were preprocessed with the 454 AVA software; aligned reads were uploaded into the DeepChek v1.3 system (ABL SA). Sanger sequences (Trugene), were uploaded in parallel. Stanford algorithm (version 7.0) resistance interpretation to first line drugs and all the mutations (score≥5) were analyzed. For deep sequencing, 1%, 5% and 10% thresholds were chosen for resistance interpretation. Using VisibleChek for analysis, we were able to describe the detection of any mutation using Sanger in 37/88 patients, with a total number of 50 Stanford ≥5 mutations, K103N and E138A being the most prevalent (n=4). Using UDS-1%, we found 72/88 patients with at least one mutation (total of 206 Stanford ≥5 mutations). Using Sanger data, 9/88 patients (10.22%) showed any resistance to NNRTIs, while none showed resistance to NRTIs or PIs. Using UDS-10% increased resistance to NRTIs [3/88 (3.40%)], to NNRTIs 12/88 (13.63%), and to a lesser extent to PIs [1/88 (1.13%)]. Using UDS-5% increased resistance to NRTIs [4/88 (4.54%)] and to NNRTIs [12/88 (13.63%)], but not to PIs. Using UDS-1% increased resistance to all classes: NRTIs [14/88 (15.90%)], NNRTIs [26/88 (30.68%)], and PIs [6/88 (6.81]. DeepChek and VisibleChek allow for an easy, reliable and rapid analysis of UDS data from HIV-1. Compared to Sanger data, UDS detected a higher

  18. Role of Routine Follow-up Coronary Angiography After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Misumida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Akihiro; Kim, Sun Moon; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Ziada, Khaled M

    2017-07-29

    Prior studies have shown that routine follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) increases the incidence of revascularization without a clear reduction in major adverse clinical events. However, none of these prior studies were adequately powered to evaluate hard clinical endpoints such as myocardial infarction (MI) or death and thus the clinical utility of such practice remains to be determined.Methods and Results:We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials that compared clinical outcomes after PCI between patients who underwent routine follow-up CAG and those who only had clinical follow-up. Five randomized trials, totaling 4,584 patients met our inclusion criteria, including studies that used sub-randomization and ones that assigned consecutive patients per study protocol. Our results showed that routine follow-up CAG was associated with a lower rate of MI (odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-0.91; P=0.01) without reduction in all-cause mortality (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.59-1.28; P=0.48), and a higher rate of target lesion revascularization (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.42-2.11; P<0.001). Our meta-analysis demonstrated that routine follow-up CAG after PCI was associated with a higher rate of revascularization, but also with a reduction in the rate of subsequent MI. Further studies investigating the potential role of routine follow-up angiography may be warranted.

  19. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M.; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3–8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges. PMID:26792974

  20. Transforming Parent-Child Interaction in Family Routines: Longitudinal Analysis with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3-8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges.

  1. A policy of routine umbilical cord blood gas analysis decreased missing samples from high-risk births.

    PubMed

    Ahlberg, M; Elvander, C; Johansson, S; Cnattingius, S; Stephansson, O

    2017-01-01

    This study compared obstetric units practicing routine or selective umbilical cord blood gas analysis, with respect to the risk of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. This was a Swedish population-based cohort study that used register data for 155 235 deliveries of live singleton infants between 2008 and 2014. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to estimate the association between routine and selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling strategies and the risk of missing samples. Selective sampling increased the risk ratios when routine sampling was used as the reference, with a value of 1.0, and these were significant in high-risk deliveries and birth asphyxia. The risk ratios for selective sampling were large-for-gestational age (9.07), preterm delivery at up to 36 weeks of gestation (8.24), small-for-gestational age (7.94), two or more foetal scalp blood samples (5.96), an Apgar score of less than seven at one minute (2.36), emergency Caesarean section (1.67) and instrumental vaginal delivery (1.24). Compared with routine sampling, selective umbilical cord blood gas sampling significantly increased the risks of missing samples in high-risk deliveries and in infants with birth asphyxia. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of routine immunization for varicella in Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi; Oikawa, Kaoru; Haneda, Noriyuki; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Kato, Fumihide; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2006-05-01

    Immunization for varicella is not currently included in routine immunizations in Japan. This study was conducted to assess test its cost-effectiveness when it becomes a routine. We surveyed and collected information for the year beginning 15th June 2004 in one area. Almost all 11 pediatric clinics or hospitals in the area cooperated in this survey. There was a questionnaire form for families and for doctors. Absent days from routine tasks, i.e., job, housekeeping or study, for family nursing and others were asked on family form. Medical costs and other costs were asked on doctor form. Neither form included the patient's name or name of the medical institution. Doctors explained this survey to patients' family on their first visiting day and asked to cooperate. If they refused the doctor form was also discarded. Since family form was written after recovery and mailed, cooperation in this survey was voluntary. Opportunity cost for family nursing is estimated as opportunity cost based on the 2002 Basic Surveillance of Wage Structure. The burden of sequel cases was estimated assuming six million yen per Quality-adjusted Life Years (QALY). Total number of patients was estimated to be 0.84 million, which includes unvaccinated people in a birth cohort. We adopted incremental benefit cost ratios form societal viewpoint as a measure. We collected 402 data from the doctor form and 265 from the family form. Total disease burden in all of Japan is estimated to be 52.2 billion yen, but opportunity cost accounted for 80%. The incremental benefit cost rations averaged more than 4 when vaccination cost is assumed to be five to twelve thousand yen. The lower limit of the confidence intervals is about 1.5. The disease burden of varicella was greater than measles in 2000, when there were measles 0.2 million patients. The incremental benefit cost ratio showed that there will almost surely be an additional benefit due to routine immunization is greater than the additional cost

  3. Environmental impact of fertilizer industries evaluated by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, J. E.; Bolívar, J. P.; Respaldiza, M. A.; García-Tenorio, R.; da Silva, M. F.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper the environmental impact of several phosphogypsum piles sited in the southwest of Spain is studied using multielemental analysis by PIXE of 12 salt marsh and soil samples collected in their surroundings. The piles are used to store the main by-product formed in the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizers. The samples collected were bombarded with 2.5 MeV protons from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the ITN at Sacavèm (Portugal), and 20 elements from Al to Pb were detected. The results obtained reinforce previous radioanalytical determinations concerning the significant radioactive contamination pathways (leaching or/and dissolution of elements by water from the piles) and the negligible pathways (atmospheric and direct aquatic transport).

  4. μ-PIXE and X-PIXE for radiological forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencio, Paula; Doyle, Barney; Antolak, Arlyn; Morse, Daniel; Richardson, Charles

    2005-09-01

    Sandia is evaluating methods for identifying and quantifying trace signatures in field collection samples to support national deterrence policies. The first step in this process is to identify which combination of major, minor, and trace elements in a recovered collection sample provides the most reliable forensic information, and then to be able to quickly, accurately, and, in some cases, nondestructively measure these components. Conventional approaches have typically required a long, complex series of sample preparations followed by radiochemical analysis, often yielding only qualitative results. We report on our investigations to assess accelerator-based ion beam analysis methods by cross-calibrating with other methods, performing in-air analyses of bagged samples in anticipation of inspecting poorly constituted radioactive materials, and quantifying the uncertainties for detected elements.

  5. Fourier Transform Emission Spectroscopy of the A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A1Pi-X1Sigma+ Systems of IrN.

    PubMed

    Ram; Bernath

    1999-02-01

    The emission spectrum of IrN has been investigated in the 10 000-20 000 cm-1 region at 0.02 cm-1 resolution using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The bands were excited in an Ir hollow cathode lamp operated with a mixture of 2 Torr of Ne and a trace of N2. Numerous bands have been classified into two transitions labeled as A1Pi-X1Sigma+ and A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ by analogy with the isoelectronic PtC molecule. Ten bands involving vibrational levels up to Kv = 4 in the ground and excited states have been identified in the A1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. This electronic transition has been previously observed by [A. J. Marr, M. E. Flores, and T. C. Steimle, J. Chem. Phys. 104, 8183-8196 (1996)]. To lower wavenumbers, five additional bands with R heads near 12 021, 12 816, 13 135, 14 136, and 15 125 cm-1 have been assigned as the 0-1, 3-3, 0-0, 1-0, and 2-0 bands, respectively, of the new A' 1Pi-X1Sigma+ transition. A rotational analysis of these bands has been carried out and equilibrium constants for the ground and excited states have been extracted. The Kv = 2 and 3 vibrational levels of the A' 1Pi state interact with the Kv = 0 and 1 levels of the A1Pi state and cause global perturbations in the bands. The ground state equilibrium constants for 193IrN are: omegae = 1126.176360(61) cm-1, omegaexe = 6.289697(32) cm-1, Be = 0.5001033(20) cm-1, alphae = 0.0032006(20) cm-1, and re = 1.6068276(32) Å. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Investigation on trace and major elements in anti-asthmatic medicinal plants by PIXE and PIGE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanisana Devi, R. K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.; Kumar, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Five widely used anti-asthmatic medicinal plants of north-eastern region of India have been investigated by using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced Gamma ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The elements namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Br were detected with different concentrations (in ppm level) by PIXE technique whereas light elements namely F, Na, Mg, Al, P and Cl by PIGE technique in the studied plants. No toxic heavy metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd were detected. Analysis was performed on thick targets (pellets) prepared using the powders of specimens through a series of processing steps. Thick targets of plant based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) were served as standardization of PIXE and PIGE set up. The trace elements present in the studied plants have been correlated with their medicinal properties.

  7. Routine surveillance imaging after end of therapy for pediatric extracranial tumors: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakkis, Farah; Alaiwi, Sarah Abou; Naffaa, Lena; Atweh, Lamya; Khoury, Nabil; Abboud, Miguel; Muwakkit, Samar; Tarek, Nidale; El Solh, Hassan; Saab, Raya

    2017-07-20

    Frequent surveillance imaging is routine practice for pediatric patients after cancer therapy. This retrospective study evaluated the follow-up of 301 children with extracranial tumors diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, at a tertiary pediatric cancer center in Beirut, Lebanon. Recurrence occurred in 15% of patients, at a median of 12 months after end of primary therapy. Outcome was not different comparing patients with recurrence detected via imaging surveillance versus clinically. False positive findings in 55 patients led to further interventions. These results raise important questions regarding benefit of current surveillance practices as standard care, especially in countries with limited resources. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it’s application to μ-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Kachenko, A. G.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D. D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of μ-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 μm resolution was achieved for μ-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  9. PIXE analysis of PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) for air quality assessment of Islamabad, Pakistan: application of chemometrics for source identification.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Shahida; Jaafar, Muhammad Z; Siddique, Naila; Markwitz, Andreas; Brereton, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A Gent sampler was used to collect 379 pairs of filters from Nilore, a suburban area of Islamabad city. The study was designed to assess the concentration variations of trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter due to anthropogenic activities and naturally occurring events. Source identification was performed by applying MATLAB software for principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA). The average fine and coarse particulate masses during the study period were 15.1 ± 11.9 and 37.3 ± 28.0 μg/m(3) respectively which complies with the 24-h air quality limits set by the government of Pakistan. The application of PCA to PM(2.5) data suggests the PM contribution from sources such as soil, automobile exhaust and coal combustion, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood combustion, biomass burning and fertilizers and fungicides whereas for the PM(2.5-10) data shows signatures of suspended soil, automobile exhaust, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood and biomass burning, refuse incineration, Ni smelter, fertilizers and fungicides are obtained. Cluster analysis of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) datasets reveals that there are mainly three contributory pollution sources and these are suspended soil particles, automobile related sources and wood and coal combustion.

  10. The GIT/PIX complex: an oligomeric assembly of GIT family ARF GTPase-activating proteins and PIX family Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    PubMed

    Premont, Richard T; Perry, Stephen J; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Roseman, J Tyler; Xing, Yanghui; Claing, Audrey

    2004-09-01

    GIT proteins are GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTP-binding proteins, and interact with the PIX family of Rac1/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factors. GIT and PIX transiently localize p21-activated protein kinases (PAKs) to remodeling focal adhesions through binding to paxillin. To understand the role of these interactions, the association of GIT and PIX proteins was examined in detail. Two separable binding interactions link GIT and PIX proteins, GIT and PIX proteins each dimerize and a beta-PIX fragment containing the GIT-binding region failed to inhibit the association of the GIT and PIX proteins. Endogenous GIT and PIX co-fractionate at a very high molecular size. Purified 6xHis-tagged beta-PIX from Sf9 cells co-expressing untagged GIT1 yields recombinant GIT1/beta-PIX complexes that have equal amounts of beta-PIX and GIT1 and co-fractionate at the same large size as native GIT/PIX complexes. Thus, GIT and PIX proteins are tightly associated as a multimeric nexus capable of linking together important signaling molecules, including PAKs.

  11. NASCAP simulation of PIX 2 experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, J. C.; Mandell, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The latest version of the NASCAP/LEO digital computer code used to simulate the PIX 2 experiment is discussed. NASCAP is a finite-element code and previous versions were restricted to a single fixed mesh size. As a consequence the resolution was dictated by the largest physical dimension to be modeled. The latest version of NASCAP/LEO can subdivide selected regions. This permitted the modeling of the overall Delta launch vehicle in the primary computational grid at a coarse resolution, with subdivided regions at finer resolution being used to pick up the details of the experiment module configuration. Langmuir probe data from the flight were used to estimate the space plasma density and temperature and the Delta ground potential relative to the space plasma. This information is needed for input to NASCAP. Because of the uncertainty or variability in the values of these parameters, it was necessary to explore a range around the nominal value in order to determine the variation in current collection. The flight data from PIX 2 were also compared with the results of the NASCAP simulation.

  12. PIXE studies of osteoporosis preventive treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Pinheiro, T.; Ager, F. J.; Alves, L. C.; Millán, J. C.; Gómez-Zubelbia, M. A.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2002-04-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear microprobe (NMP) have been used in an exploratory work to study elemental alterations in tissues of experimental animals submitted to osteoporosis preventive treatments. Osteopathologies have been associated with several factors, such as hormonal disturbances, metabolic aberrations, low dietary Ca and vitamin D intake, excess of iron, among other possible factors. Hormonal treatments seem to be beneficial to the incorporation of Ca in bone but breast and endometrial cancers constitute significant side effects that cannot be ignored. Wistar female rats were used to test the effect of estrogen therapy in osteoporosis progression. The variations of elemental concentrations in uterus and the Ca content of femoral bones of ovariectomised rats under estrogen therapy were investigated. PIXE, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and secondary electron microscopy techniques were applied for the characterisation of biological materials, with respect to morphology and trace element distribution determination. The increase of Ca and Fe concentrations in uterus and the variations for Ca distribution patterns in bone of rats submitted to estrogen therapy were the major features observed.

  13. Micro-PIXE quantification of histochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Cichocki, T.; Divoux, S.; Gonsior, B.; Höfert, M.; Jarczyk, L.; Strzalkowski, A.; Sych, M.

    1990-04-01

    The proton induced X-ray emission in combination with a proton microprobe (micro-PIXE) was used for the quantitative determination of a locally bound histochemical reaction end-product. The determination of proteoglycans (PG) content in the cartilage is described in detail. The cartilage from the femur and the skull of 17-19 days old embryos and from ribs of mature CBA strain mice was investigated. The 8 μm cryomicrotome sections, placed on a formvar backing, were incubated in colloidal iron or in alcian blue (dye molecule contains Cu) solutions. The determination of PG contents was made indirectly by assessment of the Fe or Cu concentrations. Differences in the PG contents were observed within all investigated cartilage types. The embryonal cartilage contains more PG than that obtained from mature animals. For the cartilage from the femur the highest content of PG was found in the mineralization front while fully formed bone trabeculae exhibited a PG level 10 times lower. In the case of intramembranaceous ossification the content of PG was also higher in the skull cartilage than in the loose connective tissue. On the basis of the performed studies some methodological conclusions can be drawn. For PG determination, the alcian blue method is more reliable than the colloidal iron technique. The review of the histochemical procedures which may be combined with the micro-PIXE method is also given.

  14. Structures of dimeric GIT1 and trimeric beta-PIX and implications for GIT-PIX complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Oliver; Rittinger, Katrin

    2009-02-20

    GIT (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein) and PIX (p21-activated kinase-interacting exchange factor) family proteins integrate signaling pathways involving Arf and Rho family GTPases. GIT1 and beta-PIX form a constitutively associated complex that acts as a scaffold to allow the formation of large multiprotein assemblies that regulate synaptogenesis, cell polarity and cell migration among other physiological processes. Complex formation is mediated by the GIT binding domain (GBD) in beta-PIX, which recognizes the Spa homology domain of GIT1. Both binding domains are adjacent to predicted coiled-coil segments that allow homo-oligomerization of GIT1 and beta-PIX, respectively. Oligomerization of GIT and PIX proteins is important for their physiological functions, and deletion of the coiled-coil domains interferes with correct subcellular localization and the GEF (guanine nucleotide exchange factor) activity of PIX. We have solved the crystal structures of the CC domains of GIT1 and beta-PIX and determined the stoichiometry of complex formation between the two proteins in order to understand the molecular architecture of the GIT1-beta-PIX complex. The crystal structure of the CC domain of GIT1 solved at 1.4 A resolution shows a dimeric, parallel CC that spans 67 A in length. Unexpectedly, and in contrast to prevalent dimeric models, the structure of the CC region of beta-PIX determined at 2.8 A resolution, combined with hydrodynamic studies, reveals that this protein forms a parallel trimer. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dimeric GIT and trimeric PIX form an unusual high-affinity heteropentameric complex in which each Spa homology domain of the GIT1 dimer recognizes one GBD of the beta-PIX trimer, leaving one GBD unoccupied. These results can serve as a basis to better understand oligomerization-dependent GIT1-beta-PIX-regulated signaling events and provide an insight into the architecture of large signaling complexes involving GIT1 and beta-PIX.

  15. Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs by HPLC. An efficient method for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Catalán, Jesús; Piqué, Ester; Falcó, Gemma; Borrego, Natividad; Rodamilans, Miquel; Llobet, Juan M

    2005-01-01

    A fast and easy to perform method for the routine determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs was developed. The described method involves a single-step extraction with a non-chlorinated solvent, an immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Whilst assays with naturally contaminated and with spiked samples of several herbs showed that the recoveries were somewhat low and dependent on the kind of sample and the degree of grinding, the intra-batch reproducibility was good, allowing a reliable quantitation by the standard-addition method. Good linearity, repeatability and accuracy were demonstrated in assays involving several medicinal herbs. The limit of quantitation was of the order of 0.05-0.1 ng/g, being dependent of the species analysed, and the method required no tedious concentration or back-extraction steps.

  16. Validation of the Scan RDI for routine microbiological analysis of process water.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Stephen P; Borazjani, Roya N; McCormick, Patrick J

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we review the validation methods and criteria specified in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 "Evaluation, Validation, and Implementation of New Microbiological Testing Methods" against data generated on the Chemunex Scan RDI. For each parameter, we have either reported data obtained in-house or reviewed information and documentation available from the manufacturer of the system. For all specified requirements, the Scan RDI produced data that was within the specifications suggested in the PDA Technical Report or suitable information was obtained from the manufacturer. The results of the study indicate that the Scan RDI can be validated for routine use in a pharmaceutical environment and provide results equivalent to current methods, but in a much shorter time frame.

  17. Routine application of the in situ soil analysis technique by the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.C.; McCurdy, D.E.; Laurenzo, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Using a technique developed by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) for field spectrometry, the Yankee Atomic Environmental Laboratory (YAEL) has routinely performed in situ soil measurements in the vicinity of five nuclear power stations for more than a decade. As a special research endeavor, several locations at the FURNAS Angra 1 site in Brazil having high natural backgrounds were also measured in 1987. The technical basis of the technique, a comparison of soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil radionuclide concentrations predicted by the in situ technique to soil analyses from the same sites, the advantages and disadvantages of the in situ methodology, and the evolution of the portable equipment utilized at YAEL for the field measurements are presented in this paper.

  18. Cost-benefit analysis of using large-format histology sections in routine diagnostic breast care.

    PubMed

    Tot, Tibor

    2010-08-01

    Large-format histopathology allows correct documentation of tumor size, lesion distribution, disease extent, and surgical margins, and facilitates better understanding of the complex morphology of breast carcinoma. Large-format histology slides are optimal tools for radiology-pathology correlations. Adapted to the needs of diagnostic routine, this method has the advantages of the conventional small block techniques while being able to analyze large contiguous pieces of breast tissue. The costs connected to implementing and utilizing this technique, analyzed in detail in this paper, exceed those of conventional histopathology only if the conventional sampling is limited and specimen work-up is insufficient. Documenting equally large tissue surfaces with thorough conventional sampling is much more expensive and laborious than when using large-format sections. Thus, large-format histopathology is the only cost-effective histotechnology method that meets the needs of modern multidisciplinary diagnostic breast care. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcription units of E1a, E1b and pIX regions of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed

    Zheng, B J; Graham, F L; Prevec, L

    1999-07-01

    The major mRNA species in the E1 region of the genome of bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV3) have been defined by using a combination of PCR, 5' RACE, Northern analysis and DNA sequencing. Independent transcription initiation sites were identified for each of the E1a, E1b and protein IX (pIX) transcription units, but all mRNA species terminated at the same poly(A) addition site immediately downstream of the pIX open reading frame. Thus, the BAV3 E1 region, which consists of the E1a and E1b genes together with that for pIX, functions as a nested overlapping transcription unit. One major mRNA species encoding the E1a protein was found and two mRNAs encoding E1b species, the smaller of which encodes the E1b 17K protein alone and the larger encodes both 17K and 47K E1b proteins, were identified. One mRNA species encodes pIX. The E1a transcript, encoding the predicted 214 residue E1a protein, has four exons. The smaller E1b mRNA has two exons, the second of which corresponds to the last exon of E1a. No introns were detected in the larger E1b mRNA that encodes both the E1b 17K and 47K proteins nor in the mRNA encoding pIX. The relative times of appearance of the mRNAs from the E1-pIX gene region following infection of bovine cells with BAV3 was determined.

  20. Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project from PIX to NICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The PIX follow-up project NICS is described. The purpose of PIX was access to X.25, the DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office. The development and implementation of higher protocols for levels 4-7 in the ISOSINN was the actual problem here. Results of the PIX project are given. NICS (Stuttgart Interconnection Network Project) is presented. International Protocols are reviewed. PAD service is described, which allows terminal access to DATEX-P network of the Federal German Post Office.

  1. Micro-PIXE elemental imaging of pyrites from the Bulawayan-Bubi Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xenophontos, L.; Stevens, G.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

    1999-04-01

    Micro-PIXE at the NAC nuclear microprobe was used for studies of a sequence of unusual pyrite-bearing carbonate sediments from the east of Turk Mine, Bubi Greenstone Belt, Zimbabwe. This pyrite mineralization shows a variety of textures, and its petrographic interpretation needed more solid geochemical evidence. Elemental maps were obtained using Dynamic Analysis (DA) (a rapid matrix transform method) which forms part of the GeoPIXE software package, and were complemented by point analyses in selected areas. The implemented on-demand beam deflection system allowed for count rates of the order of 3000 counts/s with negligible dead time. The distribution of As and other elements confirmed the petrographic interpretation of three different pyrite generations. In addition, point analyses showed that Sb and Pb were significantly elevated in the zones of As enrichment.

  2. Clinical utility and cost analysis of routine postoperative head CT in elective aneurysm clippings.

    PubMed

    Zygourakis, Corinna C; Winkler, Ethan; Pitts, Lawrence; Hannegan, Lisa; Franc, Benjamin; Lawton, Michael T

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Postoperative head CT scanning is performed routinely at the authors' institution on all neurosurgical patients after elective aneurysm clippings. The goal of this study was to determine how often these scans influence medical management and to quantify the associated imaging costs. METHODS The authors reviewed the medical records and accounting database of 304 patients who underwent elective (i.e., nonruptured) aneurysm clipping performed by 1 surgeon (M.T.L.) from 2010 to 2014 at the University of California, San Francisco. Specifically, the total number of postoperative head CT scans, radiographic findings, and the effect of these studies on patient management were determined. The authors obtained the total hospital costs for these patients, including the cost of imaging studies, from the hospital accounting database. RESULTS Overall, postoperative CT findings influenced clinical management in 3.6% of cases; specifically, they led to permissive hypertension in 4 patients for possible ischemia, administration of mannitol for edema and high-flow oxygen for pneumocephalus in 2 patients each, seizure prophylaxis in 1 patient, Plavix readjustment in 1 patient, and return to the operating room for an asymptomatic epidural hematoma evacuation in 1 patient. When patients were stratified on the basis of postoperative neurological examination, findings on CT scans altered management in 1.1%, 4.8%, and 9.0% of patients with no new neurological deficits, a nonfocal examination, and focal deficits, respectively. The mean total hospital cost for treating patients who undergo elective aneurysm clipping was $72,227 (± $53,966) (all values are US dollars), and the cost of obtaining a noncontrast head CT scan was $292. Neurologically intact patients required 99 head CT scans, at a cost of $28,908, to obtain 1 head CT scan that influenced medical management. In contrast, patients with a focal neurological deficit required only 11 head CT scans, at a cost of $3212, to

  3. A new on-line electrocardiographic records database and computer routines for data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ledezma, Carlos A; Severeyn, Erika; Perpiñán, Gilberto; Altuve, Miguel; Wong, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Gathering experimental data to test computer methods developed during a research is a hard work. Nowadays, some databases have been stored online that can be freely downloaded, however there is not a wide range of databases yet and not all pathologies are covered. Researchers with low resources are in need of more data they can consult for free. To cope with this we present an on-line portal containing a compilation of ECG databases recorded over the last two decades for research purposes. The first version of this portal contains four databases of ECG records: ischemic cardiopathy (72 patients, 3-lead ECG each), ischemic preconditioning (20 patients, 3-lead ECG each), diabetes (51 patients, 8-lead ECG each) and metabolic syndrome (25 subjects, 12-lead ECG each). In addition, one computer program and three routines are provided in order to correctly read the signals, and two digital filters along with two ECG waves detectors are provided for further processing. This portal will be constantly growing, other ECG databases and signal processing software will be uploaded. With this project, we give the scientific community a resource to avoid hours of data collection and to develop free software.

  4. Routine Pre-cesarean Staphylococcus aureus Screening and Decolonization: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Mitgang, Elizabeth A.; McGlone, Sarah M.; Afriyie, Abena N.; Song, Yeohan; Beigi, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the economic value of screening pregnant women for Staphylococcus aureus carriage before cesarean delivery. Study Design Computer simulation model. Methods We used computer simulation to assess the cost-effectiveness, from the third-party payer perspective, of routine screening for S aureus (and subsequent decolonization of carriers) before planned cesarean delivery. Sensitivity analyses explored the effects of varying S aureus colonization prevalence, decolonization treatment success rate (for the extent of the puerperal period), and the laboratory technique (agar culture vs polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) utilized for screening and pathogen identification from wound isolates. Results Pre-cesarean screening and decolonization were only cost-effective when agar was used for both screening and wound cultures when the probability of decolonization success was ≥50% and colonization prevalence was ≥40%, or decolonization was ≥75% successful and colonization prevalence was ≥20%. The intervention was never cost-effective using PCR-based laboratory methods. The cost of agar versus PCR and their respective sensitivities and specificities, as well as the probability of successful decolonization, were important drivers of the economic and health impacts of preoperative screening and decolonization of pregnant women. The number needed to screen ranged from 21 to 2294, depending on colonization prevalence, laboratory techniques used, and the probability of successful decolonization. Conclusions Despite high rates of cesarean delivery, presurgical screening of pregnant women for S aureus and decolonization of carriers is unlikely to be cost-effective under prevailing epidemiologic circumstances. PMID:22106462

  5. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  6. Advanced, enhanced HEX program for PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, A. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kneen, M. A.

    1993-04-01

    The REX code and subsequent HEX code, originating at Florida State University, have been extensively used for PIXE spectra fitting. In 1989 we produced a renovated HEX package: WITS-HEX, enabling the original Fortran program to be more accessible to the PIXE community. We modernised the user interface by replacing the batch mode of operation with an integrated, menu-driven environment. We added the ability to edit support data files from within the program, provided detailed feedback during the fitting process and enhanced spectral plots using high resolution colour graphics. Our prototype also permitted the inclusion of many more peaks and absorption coefficients into the element library than the original HEX, permitting a more extensive element request list to be used during the fitting operation. We have now completed the second phase of the renewal of HEX. The man-machine interface has been upgraded to conform to the IBM SAA Common User Access (CUA) standard. This eliminated several of the sequential (modal) human-computer dialogues, replacing them with a single parallel system. The support utility used in WITS-HEX to convert the binary format of spectra captured using foreign data acquisition systems has been replaced by code to directly access data in ASCII format. The program is now equipped with context-sensitive help and a tutorial. The polynomial background model has been supplemented by a digital filter model, eliminating the associated instability from the fitting process and other spectral features modelled. The program has been validated by comparing results with those obtained from the former versions: WITS-HEX and HEX. A demonstration version is available on request for evaluation purposes.

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Clinically Driven versus Routine Laboratory Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Medina Lara, Antonieta; Kigozi, Jesse; Amurwon, Jovita; Muchabaiwa, Lazarus; Nyanzi Wakaholi, Barbara; Mujica Mota, Ruben E.; Walker, A. Sarah; Kasirye, Ronnie; Ssali, Francis; Reid, Andrew; Grosskurth, Heiner; Babiker, Abdel G.; Kityo, Cissy; Katabira, Elly; Munderi, Paula; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Darbyshire, Janet; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have rarely been evaluated. Methods Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779). Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM) or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM); individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial. Results 3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM) symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR) age 37 (32,42); CD4 86 (31,139) cells/mm3) were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days) survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks). CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term. Conclusions There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis of clinically driven versus routine laboratory monitoring of antiretroviral therapy in Uganda and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Medina Lara, Antonieta; Kigozi, Jesse; Amurwon, Jovita; Muchabaiwa, Lazarus; Nyanzi Wakaholi, Barbara; Mujica Mota, Ruben E; Walker, A Sarah; Kasirye, Ronnie; Ssali, Francis; Reid, Andrew; Grosskurth, Heiner; Babiker, Abdel G; Kityo, Cissy; Katabira, Elly; Munderi, Paula; Mugyenyi, Peter; Hakim, James; Darbyshire, Janet; Gibb, Diana M; Gilks, Charles F

    2012-01-01

    Despite funding constraints for treatment programmes in Africa, the costs and economic consequences of routine laboratory monitoring for efficacy and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have rarely been evaluated. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted in the DART trial (ISRCTN13968779). Adults in Uganda/Zimbabwe starting ART were randomised to clinically-driven monitoring (CDM) or laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM); individual patient data on healthcare resource utilisation and outcomes were valued with primary economic costs and utilities. Total costs of first/second-line ART, routine 12-weekly CD4 and biochemistry/haematology tests, additional diagnostic investigations, clinic visits, concomitant medications and hospitalisations were considered from the public healthcare sector perspective. A Markov model was used to extrapolate costs and benefits 20 years beyond the trial. 3316 (1660LCM;1656CDM) symptomatic, immunosuppressed ART-naive adults (median (IQR) age 37 (32,42); CD4 86 (31,139) cells/mm(3)) were followed for median 4.9 years. LCM had a mean 0.112 year (41 days) survival benefit at an additional mean cost of $765 [95%CI:685,845], translating into an adjusted incremental cost of $7386 [3277,dominated] per life-year gained and $7793 [4442,39179] per quality-adjusted life year gained. Routine toxicity tests were prominent cost-drivers and had no benefit. With 12-weekly CD4 monitoring from year 2 on ART, low-cost second-line ART, but without toxicity monitoring, CD4 test costs need to fall below $3.78 to become cost-effective (<3xper-capita GDP, following WHO benchmarks). CD4 monitoring at current costs as undertaken in DART was not cost-effective in the long-term. There is no rationale for routine toxicity monitoring, which did not affect outcomes and was costly. Even though beneficial, there is little justification for routine 12-weekly CD4 monitoring of ART at current test costs in low-income African countries. CD4 monitoring, restricted to

  9. On the Reliability of PIXE and SXRF Microanalyses of Interplanetary Dust Paticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, P.; Flynn, G. J.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: The trace element contents of stratospheric interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) eventually provide clues as to their origin(s). Since the masses of IDPs are on the order of nanograms, their trace element contents typically amount to only ab out 10^8 atoms. Therefore all analytical techniques are operating near their limits of detection (LODs) and the question is: how reliable are the trace element data of IDPs? At present three different analytical techniques are applied to measure trace elements in IDPs: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (SXRF), and Time Of Flight- or double-focusing Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (T OF-SIMS/SIMS). In 1989 we performed a crosscheck between minor and trace element data obtained by SXRF in Hamburg and by PIXE in Heidelberg and found non-conflicting results [1]. Here we report on a new chrosscheck between results acquired with the new He idelberg PIXE facility [2] and the actual SXRF facility in Brookhaven [3]. Measurements: Three IDPs, L2005AB2 (~12 micrometers), L2011K1 (~15 x 25 micrometers), and L2011R13 (~17 x 34 micrometers), were first analyzed with SXRF in 1994 and re-analyzed with PIXE in March 1995. The PIXE data were aquired in two runs with different absorbers in front of the detector. One spectrum was obtained with a 45 micrometers Be-absorber and a 5 pA beam of 2x2 micrometers^2 during 20-50 min for each particle. For a second analysis we used a 155 micrometers Al-absorber and a 5x5 micrometers^2 beam of ~300 pA for 60-120 min. The SXRF data were aquired in one ru n (<30 min) with a thick Al-absorber and a beam size of roughly 20x20 micrometers^2. Results: The resulting element weight-ratios normalized to iron (set to be =19.04%=CI [4]) are presented in Tab.1. Abundances normalized to Fe and to the respective CI(=solar) ratios from Anders and Grevesse are shown in Fig.1. With only a few exceptions, there is a very good agreement between the PIXE and the SXRF

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant universal routine pneumococcal vaccination in Malaysia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wu, David Bin-Chia; Roberts, Craig; Lee, Vivian Wing Yan; Hong, Li-Wen; Tan, Kah Kee; Mak, Vivienne; Lee, Kenneth Kwing Chin

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal disease causes large morbidity, mortality and health care utilization and medical and non-medical costs, which can all be reduced by effective infant universal routine immunization programs with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). We evaluated the clinical and economic benefits of such programs with either 10- or 13-valent PCVs in Malaysia and Hong Kong by using an age-stratified Markov cohort model with many country-specific inputs. The incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was calculated to compare PCV10 or PCV13 against no vaccination and PCV13 against PCV10 over a 10-year birth cohort's vaccination. Both payer and societal perspectives were used. PCV13 had better public health and economic outcomes than a PCV10 program across all scenarios considered. For example, in the base case scenario in Malaysia, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD (+2,296), pneumonia (+705,281), and acute otitis media (+376,967) and save more lives (+6,122) than PCV10. Similarly, in Hong Kong, PCV13 would reduce more cases of IPD cases (+529), pneumonia (+172,185), and acute otitis media (+37,727) and save more lives (+2,688) than PCV10. During the same time horizon, PCV13 would gain over 74,000 and 21,600 additional QALYs than PCV10 in Malaysia and Hong Kong, respectively. PCV13 would be cost saving when compared against similar program with PCV10, under both payer and societal perspective in both countries. PCV13 remained a better choice over PCV10 in multiple sensitivity, scenario, and probabilistic analyses. PCV13s broader serotype coverage in its formulation and herd effect compared against PCV10 were important drivers of differences in outcomes. PMID:26451658

  12. Major depression treatment in Germany-descriptive analysis of health insurance fund routine data and assessment of guideline-adherence.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Hauke Felix; Sievers, Christoph; Schillinger, Matthias; Godemann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Guideline oriented treatment strategies of Major depressive disorder (MDD) improve treatment outcomes and reduce risks of chronicity and recurrence. Description of routine treatment reality and analysis of guideline fidelity in first episode MDD in Germany. Indicators: patients with severe or psychotic depression or severe psychiatric comorbidities' treatment by specialists, adequate antidepressant pharmacotherapy, permanent treatment with more than one antidepressant, long-term benzodiazepine treatment and provision of psychotherapy. Descriptive analysis of routine data of the German statutory health insurance fund Barmer GEK in the index year 2011 that covers a population of 7,501,110. 236,843 patients were diagnosed a depressive episode. 53.0% of the patients with severe depression, 34.4% with psychotic depression and 50.9% with severe psychiatric comorbidities were treated by specialists; of the patients treated by a general practitioner 48.1% with severe and 47.3% with psychotic depression received an antidepressant; 9.7% of all patients with MDD got two antidepressants simultaneously; 8.3% received longterm benzodiazepine prescriptions; 26.1% got psychotherapy. the analyses depends on the indicators definitions that cannot cope with the variety of individual treatment path; comparison with guidelines was complicated by a large fraction of patients with recurrent MDD that was wrongly diagnosed with first episode depression; due to the data structure, not all guideline recommendations could be examined Routine practice was oriented upon the guidelines recommendations. However some aspects could be identified that bear potential for improvements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Routine prophylactic central neck dissection for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Zanocco, Kyle; Elaraj, Dina; Sturgeon, Cord

    2013-12-01

    Routine prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) after total thyroidectomy (TTX) for low-risk papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) offers the potential to decrease disease recurrence but may increase operative complications. We hypothesized that routine pCND is not cost-effective in low-risk PTC. A Markov transition-state model was constructed to compare TTX with and without pCND. Outcome probabilities, utilities, and costs were estimated on the basis of literature review. The threshold for cost-effectiveness was $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year. Sensitivity analysis was used to examine model uncertainty. pCND cost $10,315 and produced an effectiveness of 23.785 quality-adjusted life years. This strategy was more costly and less effective than TTX without pCND and was therefore dominated. pCND became cost-effective when the probability of recurrence increased from 6% to 10.3%, cost of reoperation for recurrence increased from $8,900 to $26,120, or added probabilities of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and hypoparathyroidism due to pCND were less than 0.20% and 0.18% during 2-way sensitivity analysis. Monte Carlo simulation showed that pCND was not cost-effective in 97.3% of iterations. Routine pCND for low-risk PTC is not cost-effective unless the recurrence rate is greater than 10.3%. Application of pCND should be individualized based on risk of recurrence and added complications.

  14. Diagnostic performance of guaiac-based fecal occult blood test in routine screening: state-wide analysis from Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Birkner, Berndt; Stock, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Randomized trials have shown that annual or biannual screening by guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality. Few clinical studies have evaluated diagnostic performance of gFOBT through validation by colonoscopy in all participants. We aimed for a comprehensive evaluation of diagnostic performance of gFOBT by age and sex under routine screening conditions. Our analysis is based on 20,884 colonoscopies following up a positive gFOBT and 182,956 primary screening colonoscopies documented in a state-wide quality assurance program in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+), which represent an integrative measure of diagnostic performance, were derived, by age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74 years) and sex, from a joint and comparative analysis of prevalences of colorectal neoplasms in both groups. Overall LR+ (95% confidence intervals) were 1.11 (1.06-1.15), 1.80 (1.72-1.88), and 5.04 (4.64-5.47) for non-advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma, and cancer, respectively. Assuming a specificity of gFOBT of 95.2%, as recently observed in a German study among 2,235 participants of screening colonoscopy, these LR+ would translate to sensitivities of 5.3%, 8.6%, and 24.2% for the three outcomes, respectively. Diagnostic performance was similarly poor among women and men and across age groups. The performance of gFOBT under routine screening conditions is even worse than previously estimated from clinical studies. In routine screening application, gFOBTs are expected to miss more than 9 out of 10 advanced adenomas and 3 out of 4 cancers. These results underline the need and the potential for better noninvasive CRC screening tests.

  15. Family routines within the ecological niche: an analysis of the psychological well-being of U.S. caregivers of children with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Elizabeth; Miller-Bishoff, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Using mixed methods, this study examined the relationship of caregivers of children with disabilities’ psychological well-being (PWB) and their orchestration of daily routines within their ecological niche. Thirty-nine U.S. caregivers completed in-depth interviews, PWB Scales, and Family Time and Routines Index (FTRI). We used a multi-step analysis. Interview data was coded and vignettes created without knowledge of PWB and FTRI ratings. Next, the relationship of quantitative measures was analyzed. Four groups were created using FTRI-extent and PWB means: (1) low routine-low PWB, (2) low routine-high PWB, (3) high routine-low PWB, and (4) high routine-high PWB. We examined qualitative differences in key features between groups. Findings: Total PWB and FTRI scores were not significantly correlated, PWB Purpose in Life and FTRI-extent scores were moderately positively correlated, and PWB Environmental Mastery and FTRI-extent correlation approached significance. Qualitative findings describe caregivers’ structuring of routines, intensity of oversight, support in routines, management of dinner, paid work, and needs for respite. The four groups differed in paid work, household support, degree the child could self-occupy, Environmental Mastery, and opportunities to recuperate. Caregivers with higher levels of well-being and more regular routines did paid work, had supportive spouses, had children who more often could follow routines, had higher Environmental Mastery, could orchestrate a family meal, and had breaks from care in either work or leisure. All Native American caregivers and Mexican American caregivers with spouses were in the high routine-high PWB group. Insight into this complex negotiation between family members within daily routines may provide practitioners a better understanding of how to work within family circles to foster therapeutic alliances, identify focused intervention targets, and promote positive family wide outcomes. PMID:24910625

  16. Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinková, Patricia; Drabinová, Adéla; Liaw, Yuan-Ling; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; McFarland, Jenny L.; Price, Rebecca M.

    2017-01-01

    We provide a tutorial on differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, an analytic method useful for identifying potentially biased items in assessments. After explaining a number of methodological approaches, we test for gender bias in two scenarios that demonstrate why DIF analysis is crucial for developing assessments, particularly because…

  17. Characterisation by PIXE RBS of metallic contamination of tissues surrounding a metallic prosthesis on a knee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, G.; Irigaray, J. L.; Moretto, Ph.; Sauvage, T.; Kemeny, J. L.; Cazenave, A.; Jallot, E.

    2006-09-01

    Implants used as biomaterials have to fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and sometimes bioactivity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bioceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. This debris may develop toxicity, inflammation and prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters influencing the tissue responses. In this paper, we characterised metallic contamination produced by knee prosthesis, composed with TiAl 6V 4 or Co-Cr-Mo alloys, into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviour, content, size and nature of debris by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) method associated with RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy). Debris distribution in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrates several thousand micrometers in tissues, with a characteristic decrease. Solid metallic particles of about micrometer size are found in the most polluted samples, in both alloys TiAl 6V 4 and Cr-Co-Mo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the concentration mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TiAl 6V 4 debris and show the chemical evolution of Cr-Co-Mo debris. Development of a protocol to prepare thin targets permits us to correlate PIXE and histological analysis in the same zone. The fibrous tissue (collagen fibres, fibroblasts) and macrophage cells are observed with optical microscope in polluted areas. This protocol could locate other pathologies in ppm contamination range, thanks to the great sensitivity of the PIXE method.

  18. Nuclear microprobe - synchrotron synergy: towards integrated quantitative real-time elemental imaging using PIXE and SCRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, C. G.; Etschmann, B. E.; Vogt, S.; Maser, J.; Harland, C. L.; van Achterbergh, E.; Legnini, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; CSIRO Exploration and Mining; Australian Synchrotron Research Program, ANSTO

    2005-01-01

    The Dynamic Analysis (DA) method, for the projection of quantitative elemental images using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), has been extended for use with energy-dispersive Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) data collected with the X-ray microprobe by making use of similarities and synergy with nuclear microscopy. The broad element sensitivity of PIXE is complemented by the selective nature of SXRF, where the beam energy can be tuned to optimize the sensitivity in a portion of the periodic table. PIXE combined with Proton Induced {gamma}-ray Emission (PIGE) in this study provided images of geological samples of 25 elements, including characteristic X-rays up to the energy of the Nd K lines (37 keV). Maximum sensitivity was achieved for elements around Z {approx} 33 with detection limits of {approx}250 ppb (in 5 h). SXRF using a 16.1 keV photon microbeam provided images of 16 elements, with optimum sensitivity around Z {approx} 35 with detection limits of {approx}70 ppb (in 11 h), an improvement of {approx}2.4 times when corrected for acquisition time.

  19. A PIXE Study of Trace Elements in Sediments of Toledo River, Parana, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Hellen C.; Rizzutto, Marcia; Added, Nemitala; Espinoza-Quinones, Fernando

    2009-06-03

    In this work we characterize sediment samples from several points in the River Toledo--PR, using the PIXE (Particle Induced X-Ray Emission) spectroscopy technique, in order to quantify trace elements in these samples aiming to provide information about pollution levels for trace elements. The samples were collected in six points of river, during a period of twelve months (12/2001 to 11/2002). The collected material was air-dried at room temperature and then pressed in pellets. The samples were irradiated under vacuum using a H beam of 2,39 MeV in the LAMFI (Laboratorio de Analises de Materials por Feixe Ionico). Produced x-rays were detected using a Si(Li) detector and a standard electronics. Using the Axil program to analyze PIXE spectra it was possible to identify and quantify some elements present in the samples. A multi-elemental referenced material (Buffalo River sediment--RM 8704) was used to validate the PIXE analysis with thick targets. Twelve months of monitoring of six river points were analyzed and these allowed us to identify 18 elements such as Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr e Pb. The following elements were monitored: V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn e Pb.

  20. Usefulness of component resolved analysis of cat allergy in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Eder, Katharina; Becker, Sven; San Nicoló, Marion; Berghaus, Alexander; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Cat allergy is of great importance, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Cat allergens and house dust mite allergens represent the major indoor allergens; however, they are ubiquitous. Cat sensitization and allergy are known risk factors for rhinitis, bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma. Thus, the diagnosis of sensitization to cats is important for any allergist. 70 patients with positive skin prick tests for cats were retrospectively compared regarding their skin prick test results, as well as their specific immunoglobulin E antibody profiles with regard to their responses to the native cat extract, rFel d 1, nFel d 2 and rFel d 4. 35 patients were allergic to cats, as determined by positive anamnesis and/or nasal provocation with cat allergens, and 35 patients exhibited clinically non-relevant sensitization, as indicated by negative anamnesis and/or a negative nasal allergen challenge. Native cat extract serology testing detected 100% of patients who were allergic to cats but missed eight patients who showed sensitization in the skin prick test and did not have allergic symptoms. The median values of the skin prick test, as well as those of the specific immunoglobulin E antibodies against the native cat extract, were significantly higher for allergic patients than for patients with clinically non-relevant sensitization. Component based diagnostic testing to rFel d 1 was not as reliable. Sensitization to nFel d 2 and rFel d 4 was seen only in individual patients. Extract based diagnostic methods for identifying cat allergy and sensitization, such as the skin prick test and native cat extract serology, remain crucial in routine clinical practice. In our study, component based diagnostic testing could not replace these methods with regard to the detection of sensitization to cats and differentiation between allergy and sensitization without clinical relevance. However, component resolved allergy diagnostic tools have individual implications, and future

  1. Quality-assurance results for routine water analysis in US Geological Survey laboratories, water year 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maloney, T.J.; Ludtke, A.S.; Krizman, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    The US. Geological Survey operates a quality- assurance program based on the analyses of reference samples for the National Water Quality Laboratory in Arvada, Colorado, and the Quality of Water Service Unit in Ocala, Florida. Reference samples containing selected inorganic, nutrient, and low ionic-strength constituents are prepared and disguised as routine samples. The program goal is to determine precision and bias for as many analytical methods offered by the participating laboratories as possible. The samples typically are submitted at a rate of approximately 5 percent of the annual environmental sample load for each constituent. The samples are distributed to the laboratories throughout the year. Analytical data for these reference samples reflect the quality of environmental sample data produced by the laboratories because the samples are processed in the same manner for all steps from sample login through data release. The results are stored permanently in the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System. During water year 1991, 86 analytical procedures were evaluated at the National Water Quality Laboratory and 37 analytical procedures were evaluated at the Quality of Water Service Unit. An overall evaluation of the inorganic (major ion and trace metal) constituent data for water year 1991 indicated analytical imprecision in the National Water Quality Laboratory for 5 of 67 analytical procedures: aluminum (whole-water recoverable, atomic emission spectrometric, direct-current plasma); calcium (atomic emission spectrometric, direct); fluoride (ion-exchange chromatographic); iron (whole-water recoverable, atomic absorption spectrometric, direct); and sulfate (ion-exchange chromatographic). The results for 11 of 67 analytical procedures had positive or negative bias during water year 1991. Analytical imprecision was indicated in the determination of two of the five National Water Quality Laboratory nutrient constituents: orthophosphate as phosphorus and

  2. Concordance and robustness of quality indicator sets for hospitals: an analysis of routine data.

    PubMed

    Stausberg, Jürgen; Halim, Axel; Färber, Robert

    2011-05-18

    Hospitals are increasingly being evaluated with respect to the quality of provided care. In this setting, several indicator sets compete with one another for the assessment of effectiveness and safety. However, there have been few comparative investigations covering different sets. The objective of this study was to answer three questions: How concordant are different indicator sets on a hospital level? What is the effect of applying different reference values? How stable are the positions of a hospital ranking? Routine data were made available to three companies offering the Patient Safety Indicators, an indicator set from the HELIOS Hospital Group, and measurements based on Disease Staging™. Ten hospitals from North Rhine-Westphalia, comprising a total of 151,960 inpatients in 2006, volunteered to participate in this study. The companies provided standard quality reports for the ten hospitals. Composite measures were defined for strengths and weaknesses. In addition to the different indicator sets, different reference values for one set allowed the construction of several comparison groups. Concordance and robustness were analyzed using the non-parametric correlation coefficient and Kendall's W. Indicator sets differing only in the reference values of the indicators showed significant correlations in most of the pairs with respect to weaknesses (maximum r = 0.927, CI 0.714-0.983, p < 0.001). There were also significant correlations between different sets (maximum r = 0.829, CI 0.417-0.958, p = 0.003) having different indicators or when different methods for performance assessment were applied. The results were weaker measuring hospital strengths (maximum r = 0.669, CI 0.068-0.914, p = 0.034). In a hospital ranking, only two hospitals belonged consistently either to the superior or to the inferior half of the group. Even altering reference values or the supplier for the same indicator set changed the rank for nine out of ten hospitals. Our results reveal an

  3. Do men consult less than women? An analysis of routinely collected UK general practice data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Hunt, Kate; Nazareth, Irwin; Freemantle, Nick; Petersen, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether gender differences in primary care consultation rates (1) vary by age and deprivation status and (2) diminish when consultation for reproductive reasons or common underlying morbidities are accounted for. Design Cross-sectional study of a cohort of patients registered with general practice. Setting UK primary care. Subjects Patients (1 869 149 men and 1 916 898 women) registered with 446 eligible practices in 2010. Primary outcome measures Primary care consultation rate. Results This study analyses routinely collected primary care consultation data. The crude consultation rate was 32% lower in men than women. The magnitude of gender difference varied across the life course, and there was no ‘excess’ female consulting in early and later life. The greatest gender gap in primary care consultations was seen among those aged between 16 and 60 years. Gender differences in consulting were higher in people from more deprived areas than among those from more affluent areas. Accounting for reproductive-related consultations diminished but did not eradicate the gender gap. However, consultation rates in men and women who had comparable underlying morbidities (as assessed by receipt of medication) were similar; men in receipt of antidepressant medication were only 8% less likely to consult than women in receipt of antidepressant medication (relative risk (RR) 0.916, 95% CI 0.913 to 0.918), and men in receipt of medication to treat cardiovascular disease were just 5% less likely to consult (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.948 to 0.952) than women receiving similar medication. These small gender differences diminished further, particularly for depression (RR=0.950, 95% CI 0.947 to 0.953), after also taking account of reproductive consultations. Conclusions Overall gender differences in consulting are most marked between the ages of 16 and 60 years; these differences are only partially accounted for by consultations for reproductive reasons

  4. The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García López, J.; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A.

    2008-04-01

    The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

  5. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  6. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the effects of routine fingermark detection techniques on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues on various substrates.

    PubMed

    King, Sam; Benson, Sarah; Kelly, Tamsin; Lennard, Chris

    2013-12-10

    An offender who has recently handled bulk explosives would be expected to deposit latent fingermarks that are contaminated with explosive residues. However, fingermark detection techniques need to be applied in order for these fingermarks to be detected and recorded. Little information is available in terms of how routine fingermark detection methods impact on the subsequent recovery and analysis of any explosive residues that may be present. If an identifiable fingermark is obtained and that fingermark is found to be contaminated with a particular explosive then that may be crucial evidence in a criminal investigation (including acts of terrorism involving improvised explosive devices). The principal aims of this project were to investigate: (i) the typical quantities of explosive material deposited in fingermarks by someone who has recently handled bulk explosives; and (ii) the effects of routine fingermark detection methods on the subsequent recovery and analysis of explosive residues in such fingermarks. Four common substrates were studied: paper, glass, plastic (polyethylene plastic bags), and metal (aluminium foil). The target explosive compounds were 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), as well as chlorate and nitrate ions. Recommendations are provided in terms of the application of fingermark detection methods on surfaces that may contain explosive residues.

  8. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; JingxiuYang; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-15

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with gamma=1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  9. Quantitative analysis of routine chemical constituents in tobacco by near-infrared spectroscopy and support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Cong, Qian; Xie, Yunfei; Yang, Jingxiu; Zhao, Bing

    2008-12-01

    It is important to monitor quality of tobacco during the production of cigarette. Therefore, in order to scientifically control the tobacco raw material and guarantee the cigarette quality, fast and accurate determination routine chemical of constituents of tobacco, including the total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, the total nitrogen and so on, is needed. In this study, 50 samples of tobacco from different cultivation areas were surveyed by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, and the spectral differences provided enough quantitative analysis information for the tobacco. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), artificial neural network (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM), were applied. The quantitative analysis models of 50 tobacco samples were studied comparatively in this experiment using PLSR, ANN, radial basis function (RBF) SVM regression, and the parameters of the models were also discussed. The spectrum variables of 50 samples had been compressed through the wavelet transformation technology before the models were established. The best experimental results were obtained using the (RBF) SVM regression with γ = 1.5, 1.3, 0.9, and 0.1, separately corresponds to total sugar, reducing sugar, Nicotine, and total nitrogen, respectively. Finally, compared with the back propagation (BP-ANN) and PLSR approach, SVM algorithm showed its excellent generalization for quantitative analysis results, while the number of samples for establishing the model is smaller. The overall results show that NIR spectroscopy combined with SVM can be efficiently utilized for rapid and accurate analysis of routine chemical compositions in tobacco. Simultaneously, the research can serve as the technical support and the foundation of quantitative analysis of other NIR applications.

  10. Integration Of SIMS Into A General Purpose IBA Data Analysis Code

    SciTech Connect

    Barradas, N. P.; Alves, E.; Alves, L. C.; Likonen, J.; Hakola, A.; Coad, P.; Widdowson, A.

    2011-06-01

    IBA techniques such as RBS, ERDA, NRA, or PIXE are highly complementary, and are often combined to maximize the extracted information. In particular, they have different sensitivities to various elements and probe different depth scales. The same is true for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), that can have much better detection limits for many species. Quantification of SIMS data normally requires careful calibration of the exact system being studied, and often the results are only semi-quantitative. Nevertheless, when SIMS is used together with other IBA techniques, it would be highly desirable to integrate the data analysis. We developed a routine to analyse SIMS data, and implemented it in NDF, a standard IBA data analysis code, that already supported RBS, ERDA, resonant and non-resonant NRA, and PIXE. Details of this new routine are presented in this work.

  11. Application of a PIXE Scanning Ion Microprobe to Meteoritic Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Meehan, B. T.; Correll, F. D.; Moore, D. M.

    1995-09-01

    A scanning ion microprobe has been developed and utilized to study elemental concentration correlations on surfaces. Proton beams produced by the Naval Academy's 1.7 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator are focussed onto the sample with a beam spot diameter of ~30 micrometers. The sample is mounted on a 5-axis computer-controlled goniometer which moves the sample around in the beam. Elemental concentrations are determined with the Proton-Induced X-Ray technique (PIXE). Scans have been made on a variety of inclusions in the Allende meteorite in situ. Scans typically cover 20 x 20 grids with a stepsize of 25-100 micrometers. These scans require approximately 5 hours of beamtime. Concentrations of elements were extracted from the X- Ray spectra with the automated fitting routine GUPIX [1]. There is a great deal of information buried in these 2-dimensional scans. We have employed two methods to visualize and quantify the concentration information. One method is to generate an "X-ray" image of the scan region for individual elementals. Another technique is to examine the correlation between any two elements by plotting the concentrations against each other on a graph. The distribution of points readily indicates whether the two chosen elements are directly, inversely, or randomly correlated. Numerical techniques may be applied to these correlation plots to quantify the variation in concentration as a function of position in the sample. This information is perhaps most useful near chondrule boundaries where these concentration maps may reveal the extent of elemental transport and mixing. References: [1] Maxwell J.A. (1993) Code GUPIX93, University of Guelph, Ontario.

  12. The usefulness of routine histopathology of bilateral nasal polyps - a systematic review, meta-analysis, and cost evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jay S M; Hoffbauer, Stephanie; Yeh, David H; Rotenberg, Brian; Gupta, Michael; Sommer, Doron D

    2015-11-04

    Controversy regarding the usefulness of routine histopathological examination of bilateral nasal polyps removed during endoscopic sinus surgery to identify occult diagnoses still exists. There is a paucity of high-level evidence in the literature. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. Two independent reviewers were used. Pooled proportions and numbers needed to screen were calculated. A cost per life year model was generated based on varying survival benefits and compared to other Canadian screening programs to provide financial context. Six studies (n = 3772 patients) were included. Of the 3772 patients, 3751 had a pre-operative clinical and post-operative pathological diagnosis of inflammatory nasal polyps. Agreement proportion was 99.44 %. There were 18 unexpected benign and three unexpected malignant diagnoses identified. This translated to a proportion of 0.48 and 0.08 % respectively. Number needed to screen was 210 and 1258 respectively. Pooled proportion for expected findings using a random effect model was 0.99 (95 % CI = 0.99-1). Pooled proportion for unexpected benign findings using a random effect model was 0.00522 (95 % CI = 0.00133-0.01). Pooled proportion for unexpected malignant findings using a random effect model was 0.00107 (95 % CI = 0.000147-0.00283). The cost to pick up one unexpected benign diagnosis was $14557.2. The cost to pick up 1 unexpected malignant diagnosis was $87204.56. Cost per quality life year calculated ranged from 3211.83 to $64677.58 based on varying assumptions on the survival benefits of identifying an unexpected malignancy. Routine pathological examination in screening for neoplasia may be low yield, however, no compelling evidence was found to cease such practice. Surgeons should exercise individual judgment in requesting routine examination.

  13. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  14. Modifications to the accuracy assessment analysis routine SPATL to produce an output file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The SPATL is an analysis program in the Accuracy Assessment Software System which makes comparisons between ground truth information and dot labeling for an individual segment. In order to facilitate the aggregation cf this information, SPATL was modified to produce a disk output file containing the necessary information about each segment.

  15. Modifications to the accuracy assessment analysis routine MLTCRP to produce an output file

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications are described that were made to the analysis program MLTCRP in the accuracy assessment software system to produce a disk output file. The output files produced by this modified program are used to aggregate data for regions greater than a single segment.

  16. Use of the Endocuff during routine colonoscopy examination improves adenoma detection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Matthew; Karnes, William; Jamal, M Mazen; Lee, John G; Lee, Robert; Samarasena, Jason; Bechtold, Matthew L; Nguyen, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To perform meta-analysis of the use of Endocuff during average risk screening colonoscopy. METHODS Scopus, Cochrane databases, MEDLINE/PubMed, and CINAHL were searched in April 2016. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week, United European Gastroenterology, and the American College of Gastroenterology meeting were also searched from 2004-2015. Studies comparing EC-assisted colonoscopy (EAC) to standard colonoscopy, for any indication, were included in the analysis. The analysis was conducted by using the Mantel-Haenszel or DerSimonian and Laird models with the odds ratio (OR) to assess adenoma detection, cecal intubation rate, and complications performed. RESULTS Nine studies (n = 5624 patients) were included in the analysis. Compared to standard colonoscopy, procedures performed with EC had higher frequencies for adenoma (OR = 1.49, 95%CI: 1.23-1.80; P = 0.03), and sessile serrated adenomas detection (OR = 2.34 95%CI: 1.63-3.36; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in cecal intubation rates between the EAC group and standard colonoscopy (OR = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.70-2.27, I2 = 0%; P = 0.44). EAC was associated with a higher risk of complications, most commonly being superficial mucosal injury without higher frequency for perforation. CONCLUSION The use of an EC on colonoscopy appears to improve pre-cancerous polyp detection without any difference in cecal intubation rates compared to standard colonoscopy. PMID:27920485

  17. Routine Responses to Disruption of Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guha, Mahua

    2015-01-01

    "Organisational routines" is a widely studied research area. However, there is a dearth of research on disruption of routines. The few studies on disruption of routines discussed problem-solving activities that are carried out in response to disruption. In contrast, this study develops a theory of "solution routines" that are a…

  18. An analysis of human motion detection systems use during elder exercise routines.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Gregory L; Havens, Timothy C; Rantz, Marilyn; Keller, James; Casanova Abbott, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Human motion analysis provides motion pattern and body pose estimations. This study integrates computer-vision techniques and explores a markerless human motion analysis system. Using human-computer interaction (HCI) methods and goals, researchers use a computer interface to provide feedback about range of motion to users. A total of 35 adults aged 65 and older perform three exercises in a public gym while human motion capture methods are used. Following exercises, participants are shown processed human motion images captured during exercises on a customized interface. Standardized questionnaires are used to elicit responses from users during interactions with the interface. A matrix of HCI goals (effectiveness, efficiency, and user satisfaction) and emerging themes are used to describe interactions. Sixteen users state the interface would be useful, but not necessarily for safety purposes. Users want better image quality, when expectations are matched satisfaction increases, and unclear meaning of motion measures decreases satisfaction.

  19. The impact of pneumatic tube system on routine laboratory parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kapoula, Georgia V; Kontou, Panagiota I; Bagos, Pantelis G

    2017-05-05

    Pneumatic tube system (PTS) is a widely used method of transporting blood samples in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the PTS transport in certain routine laboratory parameters as it has been implicated with hemolysis. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were conducted. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched (up until November 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of PTS transport in hematological, biochemical and coagulation measurements. The random-effects model was used in the meta-analysis utilizing the mean difference (MD). Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the Cohran's Q and the I2 index. Subgroup analysis, meta-regression analysis, sensitivity analysis, cumulative meta-analysis and assessment of publication bias were performed for all outcomes. From a total of 282 studies identified by the searching procedure, 24 were finally included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis yielded statistically significant results for potassium (K) [MD=0.04 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.015-0.065; p=0.002], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (MD=10.343 U/L; 95% CI=6.132-14.554; p<10-4) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (MD=1.023 IU/L; 95% CI=0.344-1.702; p=0.003). Subgroup analysis and random-effects meta-regression analysis according to the speed and distance of the samples traveled via the PTS revealed that there is relation between the rate and the distance of PTS with the measurements of K, LDH, white blood cells and red blood cells. This meta-analysis suggests that PTS may be associated with alterations in K, LDH and AST measurements. Although these findings may not have any significant clinical effect on laboratory results, it is wise that each hospital validates their PTS.

  20. AGANTG: a Microsoft EXCEL 5.0-visual basic routine for the analysis of dose-response data.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P J; Buckner, S

    1998-08-01

    A Microsoft EXCEL 5.0 program was developed to evaluate data from biochemical and functional bioassays, an important step in drug discovery. The program accommodates both agonist and antagonist data. The program, written entirely in Visual Basic, is compatible with both Macintosh and PC platforms. Data are conveniently entered into a worksheet following only a few simple rules. The program performs complex data analysis and outputs calculated and graphic results to EXCEL worksheets. A set-up routine with a convenient dialog box offers the user controls regarding data analysis and results formats. After determining if the data are from an agonist or antagonist assay, the program automatically performs the analysis and outputs results in the proper format. Calculations support Schild analysis for antagonists. An agonist and antagonist were analyzed to illustrate program usage and results generated by the analysis. EXCEL-Visual Basic is a useful and convenient tool for evaluating bioassay data. Data entry is greatly simplified and custom reports can be generated with relative ease. Data are stored in a format that allows for easy editing re-analysis.

  1. Rapid screening for Native American mitochondrial and Y-chromosome haplogroups detection in routine DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuccarelli, Gala; Alechine, Evguenia; Caputo, Mariela; Bobillo, Cecilia; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Aiming to detect individuals of Native American maternal or paternal ancestry a rapid screening approach has been developed. Its strategy was based on SNP typing by Real Time PCR (rt-PCR) followed by High Resolution Melting analysis (HRM). After extraction, DNA was quantitated by rt-PCR using commercial kits; samples were then submitted to two multiplex reactions in order to determine the major Native American mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups by HRM. One cocktail included primers flanking nucleotide substitutions that define mtDNA haplogroup C and sub-haplogroups A2, B2, and D1. The other included primers flanking Y-SNPs M3, M269 and U179 that allowed discriminating Q and non-Q haplogroups. In all cases amplicons were <125 nucleotides long in order to increase the peak resolution. The accuracy of the results obtained was established by means of sequencing analysis of the amplicons. The new working-flow here proposed facilitates and speeds-up the screening process that may preclude a detailed sequencing analysis of particular samples, or for further molecular epidemiological investigations in which continental origin influences might be relevant.

  2. The value of routine polymerase chain reaction analysis of intraocular fluid specimens in the diagnosis of infectious posterior uveitis.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Marius A; Lecuona, Karin A; Rogers, Graeme; Bunce, Catey; Corcoran, Craig; Michaelides, Michel

    2013-01-01

    To assess the value of routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on intraocular fluid from patients presenting with a first episode of suspected active infectious posterior uveitis in a population with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Retrospective, interventional case series. Participants. 159 consecutive patients presenting at a tertiary care hospital over a five-year period. PCR analysis was performed for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Toxoplasma gondii, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PCR analysis confirmed the initial clinical diagnosis in 55 patients (35%) and altered the initial clinical diagnosis in 36 patients (23%). The clinical diagnosis prior to PCR testing was nonspecific (uncertain) in 51 patients (32%), with PCR providing a definitive final diagnosis in 20 of these patients (39%); necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and ocular toxoplasmosis were particularly difficult to diagnose correctly without the use of PCR analysis. The clinical phenotype alone was unreliable in diagnosing the underlying infectious cause in a quarter of patients in this study. Since the outcome of incorrectly treated infective uveitis can be blinding, PCR analysis of ocular fluids is recommended early in the disease even in resource poor settings.

  3. Validating the Construct of Coercion in Family Routines: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment with Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Irvin, Larry K; Blumberg, E Richard; Laverty, Robelyn; Horner, Robert H; Sprague, Jeffrey R

    2004-06-01

    We conducted an observational study of parent-child interaction in home activity settings (routines) of families raising young children with developmental disabilities and problem behavior. Our aim was to empirically investigate the construct validity of coercion in typical but unsuccessful family routines. The long-term goal was to develop an expanded ecological unit of analysis that may contribute to sustainable behavioral family intervention. Ten children with autism and/or mental retardation and their families participated. Videotaped observations were conducted in typical but unsuccessful home routines. Parent-child interaction in routines was coded in real time and sequential analyses were conducted to test hypotheses about coercive processes. Following observation, families were interviewed about the social validity of the construct. Results confirmed the presence of statistically significant, attention-driven coercive processes in routines in which parents were occupied with non-child centered tasks. Results partially confirmed the presence of escape-driven coercive processes in routines in which parent demands are common. Additional analysis revealed an alternative pattern with greater magnitude. Family perspectives suggested the social validity of the construct. Results are discussed in terms of preliminary, partial evidence for coercive processes in routines of families of children with developmental disabilities. Implications for behavioral assessment and intervention design are discussed.

  4. Routine sample preparation and HPLC analysis for ascorbic acid (vitamin C) determination in wheat plants and Arabidopsis leaf tissues.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Gabriella; Janda, T; Pál, Magda

    2014-06-01

    Plants have developed various mechanisms to protect themselves against oxidative stress. One of the most important non-enzymatic antioxidants is ascorbic acid. There is thus a need for a rapid, sensitive method for the analysis of the reduced and oxidised forms of ascorbic acid in crop plants. In this paper a simple, economic, selective, precise and stable HPLC method is presented for the detection of ascorbate in plant tissue. The sensitivity, the short retention time and the simple isocratic elution mean that the method is suitable for the routine quantification of ascorbate in a high daily sample number. The method has been found to be better than previously reported methods, because of the use of an economical, readily available mobile phase, UV detection and the lack of complicated extraction procedures. The method has been tested on Arabidopsis plants with different ascorbate levels and on wheat plants during Cd stress.

  5. The reality of routine practice: a pooled data analysis on chronic wounds treated with TLC-NOSF wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Münter, K C; Meaume, S; Augustin, M; Senet, P; Kérihuel, J C

    2017-02-01

    A number of randomised controlled trials (RCT) have compared control groups with TLC-NOSF dressings (UrgoStart) on chronic wounds. Our aim was to determine whether the clinical trials' results translate into routine management of such wounds, by pooling the data from real-life observational studies. Observational studies, conducted in France and Germany, evaluating current practices in patients suffering from non-selected chronic wounds treated with a TLC-NOSF dressing were identified. Demographic data, baseline description of wounds and description of their evolution during treatment were extracted and combined. We used two main indicators of clinical outcomes to measure the impact of the TLC-NOSF dressing on this population: time to wound closure and time to 50% reduction of the Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score. In total, data from 10,220 patients were included, with 7903 leg ulcers (LUs), 1306 diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and 1011 pressure ulcers (PUs). The overall closure rate was 30.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI): 29.9-31.7 %]. While the country, patient age, and number of wounds were identified as independent prognosis factors of healing, the most significant were wound duration and baseline area. The delay in initiating TLC-NOSF dressings treatment was also found to be significant. Overall the average time to complete closure was 112.5 days [95%CI: 105.8-119.3] for LUs, 98.1 days [95 %CI: 88.8-107.5] for DFUs and 119.5 days [95%CI: 94.6-144.3] for PUs. Based on a subgroup analysis of the French cohort, time to closure is substantially shorter for wounds treated with the TLC-NOSF dressing as a first-line intervention compared with those where it has been prescribed as a second-line intervention. Compared with available data on time to complete closure of chronic wounds managed by 'standard' care, the data from this pooled data analysis showed healing time is reduced, which is consistent with the results of RCTs on TLC-NOSF. That these data are

  6. Integrating HIV testing into cervical cancer screening in Tanzania: an analysis of routine service delivery statistics.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marya; Besana, Giulia V R; Yuma, Safina; Kim, Young Mi; Kulindwa, Yusuph; Kabole, Fatma; Lu, Enriquito; Giattas, Mary Rose

    2014-09-30

    While the lifetime risk of developing cervical cancer (CaCx) and acquiring HIV is high for women in Tanzania, most women have not tested for HIV in the past year and most have never been screened for CaCx. Good management of both diseases, which have a synergistic relationship, requires integrated screening, prevention, and treatment services. The aim of this analysis is to assess the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of integrating HIV testing into CaCx prevention services in Tanzania, so as to inform scale-up strategies. We analysed 2010-2013 service delivery data from 21 government health facilities in four regions of the country, to examine integration of HIV testing within newly introduced CaCx screening and treatment services, located in the reproductive and child health (RCH) section of the facility. Analysis included the proportion of clients offered and accepting the HIV test, reasons why testing was not offered or was declined, and HIV status of CaCx screening clients. A total of 24,966 women were screened for CaCx; of these, approximately one-quarter (26%) were referred in from HIV care and treatment clinics. Among the women of unknown HIV status (n = 18,539), 60% were offered an HIV test. The proportion of women offered an HIV test varied over time, but showed a trend of decline as the program expanded. Unavailability of HIV test kits at the facility was the most common reason for a CaCx screening client not to be offered an HIV test (71% of 6,321 cases). Almost all women offered (94%) accepted testing, and 5% of those tested (582 women) learned for the first time that they were HIV-positive. Integrating HIV testing into CaCx screening services was highly acceptable to clients and was an effective means of reaching HIV-positive women who did not know their status; effectiveness was limited, however, by shortages of HIV test kits at facilities. Integration of HIV testing into CaCx screening services should be prioritized in HIV

  7. A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for urinary free cortisol analysis: suitable for routine purpose.

    PubMed

    Persichilli, Silvia; Gervasoni, Jacopo; Iavarone, Federica; Zuppi, Cecilia

    2010-10-01

    The best index of adrenal dysfunction is urinary free cortisol (UFC) measurements performed using a 24-h urine collection. This measurement is also useful in the investigation of Cushing's syndrome. In this paper, we report a simple and selective method for the analysis of UFC by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) suitable for use in a high-volume clinical laboratory routine. The results were compared to those obtained using a commercial immunoassay method used in our laboratory. Urine samples containing 50 ng of internal standard (Cortisol-9,11,12,12-d(4)) were deproteinized using centrifugal filters with a molecular weight 10,000 Da cut-off and injected on a reversed phase column. Cortisol was analyzed in highly selective reaction monitoring in positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode, at a resolution of 0.4 amu full width half maximum, and following the transitions related to the precursor 363.2 for cortisol and 367.2 for deuterated cortisol. The method validation included analysis of precision, linearity, sensitivity, recovery and interference from structurally similar steroids. UFC from 230 subjects was measured using LC-MS/MS and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) methods. The calibration curves exhibited linearity and reproducibility in the range 7-10,000 nmol/L. Total imprecision was lower than 10%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2 and 7 nmol/L, respectively. Mean recovery was higher than 90%. Structurally similar steroids do not interfere in the proposed method, but cause a significant change in the ECLIA results. Cortisol values obtained using the ECLIA method were always higher than those obtained using the LC-MS/MS method, with the bias directly proportional to cortisol concentrations. The reference values calculated using 180 normal subjects were 11-70 μg/day. The proposed method is sensitive, simple, free from interferences and reliable for routine use.

  8. Is it necessary to insert nasogastric tube routinely after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion? A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tao; Huang, Long; Tian, Yiyang; Wang, Haizhou; Wei, Qiang; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the necessity of using nasogastric tube (NGT) for patients undergoing radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Methods: Literature was searched from PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. We identified randomized controlled trials, Cohort study, and Case-control analysis that compared the individuals with or without nasogastric tube after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. We performed the meta-analysis to evaluate the role of nasogastric tube in decompression after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Result: Two randomized controlled trial and four Cohort studies (780 patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. There was significant difference between the time (days) commencement of a liquid diet and the development of bowel sounds in patients without nasogastric tube than those with NGT (nasogastric tube) [P < 0.0001, standard mean difference (SMD) = -0.35, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.18; P < 0.00001, SMD = -0.43, 95% CI -0.60 to 0.26, respectively]. Additionally, there was no significant differences in pulmonary complications and wound complication [P = 0.25, odds ratio (OR) = 0.60 95% CI 0.25 to 1.43; P = 0.66 OR = 1.16 95% CI 0.60 to 2.25, respectively]. But the differences were significant in the paralytic ileus or bowel obstruction (P = 0.010, OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.88) after surgery. Furthermore, the difference of the duration of hospital stay (days) between the NGT group and Without NGT group (P = 0.0005, SMD = -0.30, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.13). Conclusion: It cannot shorten the time of gastrointestinal function recovery or reduce the incidence of complications after radical cystectomy by using the nasogastric tube routinely. Routinely use of nasogastric tube after radical cystectomy with urinary diversion was not recommended. PMID:25663959

  9. Extended-release naltrexone: A qualitative analysis of barriers to routine use

    PubMed Central

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H.; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX. PMID:26654934

  10. Performing discovery-driven neonatal research by transcriptomic analysis of routinely discarded biofluids

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Jill L.; Dietz, Jessica A.; Parkin, Christopher; Johnson, Kirby L.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform discovery-driven research on the neonatal salivary and cord blood transcriptomes. Methods Two separate cohorts of infants were enrolled in this study. In one, cord blood (n = 10) and in the other, saliva samples (n = 10) were collected at term gestation. Total RNA was extracted, amplified and hybridized onto Affymetrix HG U133a gene expression microarrays. Following normalization, genes expressed in the highest quintile (≥ 80%) across all subjects in each biofluid were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Over-represented pathways relating to organ specific development and physiological functions in the newborn were explored. Results There were 303 genes in neonatal saliva and 282 genes in umbilical cord blood that met statistical criteria. Of these, 114 were common to both biofluids. Pathway analyses revealed the important roles of redox balance, cellular proliferation, and smooth muscle relaxation. In blood, hematopoiesis and immune response pathways predominated. In saliva, pathways associated with the gastrointestinal system were highlighted. Conclusions Neonatal cord blood and saliva provide a wealth of transcriptomic information. These normally discarded biofluids should be considered an important source of real-time gene expression data that may elucidate key pathways in neonatal physiology and pathology. PMID:22920923

  11. Extended-Release Naltrexone: A Qualitative Analysis of Barriers to Routine Use.

    PubMed

    Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Croff, Raina; Ford, James H; Johnson, Kim; Chalk, Mady; Schmidt, Laura; McCarty, Dennis

    2016-03-01

    The Medication Research Partnership (a national health plan and nine addiction treatment centers contracted with the health plan) sought to facilitate the adoption of pharmacotherapy for alcohol and opioid use disorders. Qualitative analysis of interviews with treatment center change leaders, individuals working for the manufacturer and its technical assistance contractor, and health plan managers extracted details on the processes used to order, store, bill for, and administer extended-release naltrexone. Qualitative themes were categorized using domains from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, and provider characteristics). Characteristics of XR-NTX that inhibited use included the complexity of ordering and using the medication; cost was also a barrier. Outer setting barriers reflected patient needs and external health plan policies on formulary coverage, benefit management, and reimbursement. Program structures, the lack of physician linkages, a culture resistant to the use of medication, and unease with change were inner setting elements that limited use of XR-NTX. Patient stereotypes and a lack of knowledge about XR-NTX affected practitioner willingness to treat patients and prescribe XR-NTX. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research provided a useful lens to understand and interpret the processes affecting access to XR-NTX.

  12. Target preparation techniques for PIXE and XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, F. A. J.; Kivits, H. P. M.; Castelijns, C. A. M.; Wijnhoven, G. P. J.; de Goeij, J. J. M.

    1981-03-01

    For PIXE and XRF fast, simple and reproducible target preparation techniques for liquid and solid samples have been developed. Liquids which behave like a real solution are mixed with an alcohol. Aliquots of 50 μl are dispensed on a rotating (18 000 rpm) cellulose acetate filter and air dried afterwards (preparation times less than 1 min). By changing the physical behaviour of suspensions into that of a real solution, this target preparation technique may also be used for suspensions: blood, for instance, after pretreatment with NaOH. The resulting targets are homogeneous (inhomogeneity less than 2%) and uniform (non-uniformity less than 3%). It is shown that trace-element losses may occur during irradiation. These losses can be prevented by adequate fixation or sealing procedures which do not deteriorate the original homogeneity and uniformity. For pulverised solid samples a thin target preparation technique is developed. Pulverised solid material (particle size below 10 μm) is mixed with a Formvar-dioxane solution. Aliquots of 200 μl are dispensed on a water wetted rotating cellulose acetate filter. Afterwards the resulting Formvar foil (less than 1 mg/cm 2), in which the solid sample is embedded, is pulled from the filter.

  13. Handheld NIRS sensors for routine compound feed quality control: Real time analysis and field monitoring.

    PubMed

    Modroño, Sagrario; Soldado, Ana; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña

    2017-01-01

    Significant advances achieved in different sensor technologies and computer processing data have made possible to respond the needs of livestock sector, providing precise and rapid information on feed composition, being an alternative to real time quality control on compound feed the use of handheld NIRS sensors. This work aimed to evaluate two hand-held portable NIR spectrophotometers for on-site and real time analysis of nutritive parameters in raw compound feed: Phazir 1624 Polychromix Inc (PhIR) and MicroNIR(TM) 1700 by JDSU (MICRO). For computing data, different combinations of pre-treatments and multivariate statistical methods have been assayed to extract the valuable information of spectra data and to develop appropriate calibrations. The calibration models displayed greatest predictive capacity for Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF) and Starch (STCH) and the determination coefficients of cross validation were 0.90-0.88 for CP, 0.85-0.91 for CF, 0.89-0.88 and 0.89-0.91 for STCH using PhIR and MICRO instruments respectively. Dry Matter showed the lowest determination coefficients of cross validation 0.67-0.73. Accuracy achieved 99-101% for both NIRS instruments and no differences were found when applying tstudent-test comparing reference and predicted data. Results obtained with both instruments were compared by using standard deviation and not significant differences were observed at the 5% level. Results so far have demonstrated the potential of these handheld NIRS instruments proposed here to estimate the individual compound feeds composition changes at farms level instantly, time avoiding the disadvantage of moving the samples to the lab.

  14. Routine Histopathologic Examination of Appendectomy Specimens: Retrospective Analysis of 1255 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Arif; Akbulut, Sami; Bozdag, Zehra; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Kanlioz, Murat; Emre, Rabia; Sahin, Nurhan

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical benefit of histopathologic analysis of appendectomy specimens from patients with an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and histopathologic data of 1255 patients (712 males, 543 females; age range, 17–85 years) who underwent appendectomy to treat an initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients who underwent incidental appendectomy during other surgeries were excluded from the study. Histopathologic findings of the appendectomy specimens were used to confirm the initial diagnosis. Ninety-four percent of the appendectomy specimens were positive for appendicitis. Of those, 880 were phlegmonous appendicitis, 148 were gangrenous appendicitis with perforation, and the remaining 88 showed unusual histopathologic findings. In the 88 specimens with unusual pathology, fibrous obliteration was observed in 57 specimens, carcinoid tumor in 11, Encheliophis vermicularis parasite infection in 8, granulatomous inflammation in 6, appendiceal endometriosis in 2, and 1 specimen each showed mucocele, eosinophilic infiltration, Taenia saginata parasite infection, and appendicular diverticulitis. All carcinoid tumors were located in the distal appendix. Six of the 11 carcinoid tumors were defined by histopathology as involving tubular cells, and the other 5 as involving enterochromaffin cells. Six patients had muscularis propria invasion, 2 patients had submucosa invasion, 2 patients had mesoappendix invasion, and 1 patient had serosal invasion. All patients with tumors remained disease free during the follow-up (range, 1–27 months). We conclude that when the ratio of unusual pathologic findings for appendectomy specimens is considered, it is evident that all surgical specimens should be subjected to careful histologic examination. PMID:24229023

  15. A new automatic device for routine cord blood banking: critical analysis of different volume reduction methodologies.

    PubMed

    Solves, Pilar; Mirabet, Vicente; Blanquer, Amando; Delgado-Rosas, Francisco; Planelles, Dolores; Andrade, Margarita; Carbonell-Uberos, Francisco; Soler, M Angeles; Roig, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Volume reduction is the usual process in cord blood banking that has some advantages regarding reducing the storage space and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) quantity in the final product. The volume reduction methodology must guarantee high cell recovery and red blood cell (RBC) depletion by reducing all the umbilical cord blood (UCB) units to a standard volume. We analyzed and compared critically three different volume reduction methods [hydroxyethylstarch (HES), top and bottom with Optipress II and Compomat G4, and AXP] used at the Valencia Cord Blood Bank over 10 years. The highest significant RBC depletion was achieved with the AXP system (P<0.001), while the top and bottom system with Compomat G4 and an adjusted buffy coat (BC) volume to 41 mL enabled the best total nucleated cell (TNC) recovery (P<0.001). TNC recovery and RBC depletion were similar for AXP and HES with an adjusted volume to 21 mL. In the multivariate analysis, when analyzing all cases, the BC volume set significantly influenced TNC, CD34+ and lymphocyte recoveries and RBC depletion (P<0.001). RBC depletion was significantly influenced by the initial volume and initial RBC content of UCB units (P<0.001). AXP is a highly efficient method for RBC depletion, providing the same TNC recovery as HES method with a final volume of 41 mL. AXP has the advantages of being an automatic and functionally closed system that shortens and better standardizes the proceedings. Top and bottom is a closed system that allows better TNC recoveries when the BC volume set is 41 mL.

  16. The role of PIXE in the AIRUSE project "testing and development of air quality mitigation measures in Southern Europe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarelli, F.; Chiari, M.; Calzolai, G.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Querol, X.; Amato, F.; Alves, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-11-01

    The European AIRUSE LIFE+ project aims at testing existing and future mitigation measures and developing new strategies for the improvement of air quality in Southern European countries. The project involves public and private institutions of Spain, UK, Portugal, Italy and Greece. PM10 and PM2.5 daily samplings have been scheduled for one year (from January 2013) in four urban sites, Barcelona (Spain), Porto (Portugal), Athens (Greece), and Florence (Italy). The daily data set gives an overall representative picture of the PM composition in these urban sites. The project includes also samplings with hourly resolution for limited periods. Hourly samples give an easier identification of the different aerosol sources due to the capability of tracking rapid changes as the ones occurring in many particulate emissions as well as in atmospheric transport and dilution processes. The role of PIXE technique within the project has been described in this paper. The comparison of data obtained by different techniques (e.g. PIXE, IC and ICP) assured a quality assurance control on the huge quantity of data obtained in the project. PIXE data together with those obtained by other analytical techniques have been used to reconstruct the average aerosol chemical composition and in Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis to determine the aerosol sources and their impact on PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In particular the high sensitivity of PIXE for all the crustal elements (including Si which is not easily detected by ICP) allows the direct determination of the Saharan dust contribution. Finally, the 1-h resolution data, which can be obtained only by PIXE, confirmed and reinforced the identification of the aerosol sources obtained by the daily concentrations.

  17. In-depth elemental characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells by means of RBS and PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karydas, A. G.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Streeck, C.; Kaufmann, C.; Caballero, R.; Rissom, T.; Kanngießer, B.; Beckhoff, B.; Jaksic, M.; Barradas, N. P.

    2014-07-01

    Thin films based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 are used as absorber cells in photovoltaic devices. In and Ga graded depth profiles are designed to optimize the solar cell performance. Simultaneous Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) with 3 MeV 4He ions were used in conjunction to determine the depth profile of all the heavy elements in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers and complete solar cells. The RBS and PIXE data from one sample were analyzed synergistically, providing reliable depth profiles that satisfy all the data collected. An uncertainty analysis was done, probing the sensitivity of the analysis to different assumptions. The analytical possibilities of the combined RBS/PIXE alpha beam measurements of the CIGSe thin film solar cells, as well as the uncertainties induced in the quantitative methodology are discussed and critically assessed.

  18. Reappraisal of routine oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate for patients receiving mechanical ventilation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Klompas, Michael; Speck, Kathleen; Howell, Michael D; Greene, Linda R; Berenholtz, Sean M

    2014-05-01

    Regular oral care with chlorhexidine gluconate is standard of care for patients receiving mechanical ventilation in most hospitals. This policy is predicated on meta-analyses suggesting decreased risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia, but these meta-analyses may be misleading because of lack of distinction between cardiac surgery and non-cardiac surgery studies, conflation of open-label vs double-blind investigations, and insufficient emphasis on patient-centered outcomes such as duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, and mortality. To evaluate the impact of routine oral care with chlorhexidine on patient-centered outcomes in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science from inception until July 2013 without limits on date or language. Randomized clinical trials comparing chlorhexidine vs placebo in adults receiving mechanical ventilation. Of 171 unique citations, 16 studies including 3630 patients met inclusion criteria. Eligible trials were independently identified, evaluated for risk of bias, and extracted by 2 investigators. Differences were resolved by consensus. We stratified studies into cardiac surgery vs non-cardiac surgery and open-label vs double-blind investigations. Eligible studies were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, antibiotic prescribing. There were fewer lower respiratory tract infections in cardiac surgery patients randomized to chlorhexidine (relative risk [RR], 0.56 [95% CI, 0.41-0.77]) but no significant difference in ventilator-associated pneumonia risk in double-blind studies of non-cardiac surgery patients (RR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.66-1.16]). There was no significant mortality difference between chlorhexidine and placebo in cardiac surgery studies (RR, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.25-2.14]) and nonsignificantly increased mortality in non-cardiac surgery studies (RR

  19. Routine vs "on demand" postoperative ERCP for small bile duct calculi detected at intraoperative cholangiography. Clinical evaluation and cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Ammori, B J; Birbas, K; Davides, D; Vezakis, A; Larvin, M; McMahon, M J

    2000-12-01

    The detection of small and often asymptomatic gallbladder calculi within the bile duct at intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) frequently poses a management dilemma. Therefore, we set out to compare the outcomes and costs of two management strategies for small stones that remain in the bile duct after LC-routine postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) vs observation alone with "on-demand" ERCP. We studied 70 patients with bile duct stones among 922 consecutive patients who underwent LC between 1990 and 1997. Data were collected prospectively. Bile duct calculi were detected in 70 of 705 patients (9.9%) with successful IOC. Of these, 44 patients had large calculi (> or =5 mm in diameter) and were subjected to a laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. The remaining 26 patients had small calculi (<5 mm in diameter); four of them had undergone preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance and were therefore excluded from analysis. Patients with small duct calculi were assigned, according to individual surgeon policy, to either routine postoperative ERCP (group A, n = 8) or observation (group B, n = 14). ERCP was reserved for those who become symptomatic. The two groups were comparable for age and sex distribution. No complications developed during the follow-up period in patients assigned to observation, although four became symptomatic and underwent ERCP. In group A, ERCP demonstrated a clear biliary tree in four patients and bile duct calculi in three patients; it failed in one patient. In group B, ERCP demonstrated a clear bile duct in one patient and bile duct calculi in two patients; it also failed in one patient. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and duct clearance were achieved in all patients with demonstrable bile duct calculi at ERCP. There was no morbidity or mortality associated with ERCP. The overall hospital stay was significantly longer in group A than in group B (median 5 vs 1

  20. Lapis lazuli provenance study by means of micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Alessandro; Giudice, Alessandro Lo; Angelici, Debora; Calusi, Silvia; Giuntini, Lorenzo; Massi, Mirko; Pratesi, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report about the micro-PIXE characterisation of lapis lazuli, for a provenance study of this semi-precious stone, used for glyptic as early as 7000 years ago. The final aim is to find markers permitting to identify the origin of the raw material coming from three quarries in regions of historical importance: Afghanistan, Pamir Mountains and Siberia. This may help to reconstruct trade routes, especially for ancient objects for which written testimonies are scanty or absent at all. Due to the heterogeneity of lapis lazuli we concentrate our attention on single phases instead of the whole stone; in particular we focused on two of the main phases: lazurite, responsible for the blue colour, and diopside, the most frequent accessory mineral. This study was preceded and completed by means of microanalysis with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDX) and Cold-Cathodoluminescence (cold-CL) analysis. Despite the limited number of analysed samples, results are sufficient to exclude/suggest a few features as provenance markers, partly confirming what has been previously published in literature.

  1. On-demand beam deflection system for PIXE milliprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltr, J.; Král, J.; Černý, J.; Švejda, J.

    2002-04-01

    Application of an on-demand beam deflection system in PIXE analysis has numerous advantages. The suppression of pile-up is accomplished much better than by using pile-up rejection electronic circuits only. In the case of biological and other sensitive types of samples, it is important to minimize the radiation and thermal load. In the case of samples with very different concentrations, the need for beam current correction between sample analyses is not as critical. An on-demand beam deflection system for the analytical facility at the CTU in Prague has been developed and implemented. A pair of electrodes was inserted in the beam line in front of the target chamber. The electrodes are supplied with positive high voltage up to 1 kV and they are a U-shape cross-section to reduce their beam distortion effect. Temporarily, one of the electrodes is shorted to ground potential. The shorting, by a HEXFET ® transistor, occurs in a period of about 100 ns after the edge of the triggering pulse. A description of the system as well as the results of the tests are presented.

  2. Differential PIXE for investigating the layer structure of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandò, P. A.; Fedi, M. E.; Grassi, N.; Migliori, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports an example of how the differential PIXE technique can be successfully applied to the investigation of wood or canvas paintings. The work analysed is a famous wood painting by Leonardo da Vinci, the "Madonna dei fusi" (ex-Reford version, 1501), chosen for a pilot study in a wide international project aimed at analysing Leonardo's works of art by means of non-destructive techniques. While illustrating the results obtained concerning the identification of pigments and the discrimination of the stratigraphy of layers, the merits and limits of differential PIXE in general are pointed out.

  3. A sub-minute CZE method to determine nitrate and nitrite in meat products: An alternative for routine analysis.

    PubMed

    Della Betta, Fabiana; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Valese, Andressa Camargo; Daguer, Heitor; Fett, Roseane; Vitali, Luciano; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    A sub-minute capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was optimized and a simple sample preparation procedure based on the extraction of the analytes with water and sodium tetraborate was developed for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite levels in meat products. The background electrolyte (BGE) was composed of 20mmolL(-1) perchloric acid and 65mmolL(-1) β-alanine at pH3.83. Thiocyanate was used as the internal standard. The proposed method was validated and the uncertainty estimated according to Eurachem guidelines. The run time was only 30s, allowing analyzing more than 25samples/h, the good analytical performance confirms the suitability of the method for the analysis of meat products. One sample presented residual nitrite levels above the limit established by MERCOSUL legislation (150mgkg(-1)). The use of a fast method in association with a simple sample preparation step means that this procedure represents a possible alternative to fulfill the demand for high throughput in routine laboratory analysis.

  4. Distinguishing between native and smelted coppers using PIXE spectrometry: a case history from early colonial America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, S. J.; Swann, C. P.

    2000-03-01

    During the recent excavation of a native American village at Governor's Land, in Virginia, two burials were unearthed, each of which contained a jumble of human bones, some fabric and a large number of copper tube beads. PIXE analysis of a representative group of these beads showed that about one-third of them were shaped from pieces of native copper, while the remainder were fashioned from scraps of smelted copper. Since the latter must have come from Europe, these data place the village's occupation in the decade either side of A.D. 1607, when the English first settled at nearby Jamestown.

  5. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  6. Studies of rare earth element distribution and action in human erythrocyte and animal hepatocyte by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Mi, Y.; Shen, H.; Yao, H. Y.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, J. X.

    2002-04-01

    PIXE analysis is applied to investigate a long-term disputed issue whether the rare earth element (REE) can enter the cell across the cell membrane or not. It has been illustrated that REE could travel across the biomembrane into the cells by cell studies in vitro as well as in studies of animals fed with REEs diet. The binding of REE by membrane changes its permeability and makes intracellular ion transportable. Entrance of REEs may influence the cellular function. In addition, the REE distribution and behavior in cell are discussed.

  7. Development of fast enantioselective gas-chromatographic analysis using gas-chromatographic method-translation software in routine essential oil analysis (lavender essential oil).

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Blumberg, Leonid; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Liberto, Erica

    2010-02-26

    The study aimed to find the best trade-off between separation of the most critical peak pair and analysis time, in enantioselective GC-FID and GC-MS analysis of lavender essential oil, using the GC method-translation approach. Analysis conditions were first optimized for conventional 25 m x 0.25 mm inner diameter (dc) column coated with 6(I-VII)-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2(I-VII)-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral stationary phase (CSP) diluted at 30% in PS086 (polymethylphenylpolysiloxane, 15% phenyl), starting from routine analysis. The optimal multi-rate temperature program for a pre-set column pressure was determined and then used to find the pressures producing the efficiency-optimized flow (EOF) and speed-optimized flow (SOF). This method was transferred to a shorter narrow-bore (NB) column (11 m x 0.10 mm) using method-translation software, keeping peak elution order and separation. Optimization of the enantioselective GC method with the translation approach markedly reduced the analysis time of the lavender essential oil, from about 87 min with the routine method to 40 min with an optimal multi-rate temperature program and initial flow with a conventional inner diameter column, and to 15 min with FID as detector or 13.5 min with MS with a corresponding narrow-bore column, while keeping enantiomer separation and efficiency.

  8. Reliability of fibres in solid-phase microextraction for routine analysis of the headspace of aromatic and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2007-06-08

    This article evaluates the HS-SPME recovery repeatability, intermediate precision and their performance over time when applied to HS-SPME sampling for quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. Experiments were carried out on two sets of fibres coated with two different coatings and belonging to different lots (i.e 100 microm polydimethylsyloxane (PDMS) and Carboxen/divinylbenzene/PDMS 50/30 microm, l: 1 cm (CAR/DVB/PDMS)) and on chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), sage (Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl.) and a standard solution containing 3-hexanol, isoamyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and menthol in diisobutyl phthalate. The performance of each set of fibres was evaluated by determining a group of complementary statistical parameters including: (i) repeatability of the absolute areas of each marker from each matrix with each fibre; (ii) intra-fibre repeatability of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with each fibre of each set; (iii) inter-fibre intermediate precision of the total absolute areas of the markers of each matrix obtained with all fibres of each set; and (iv) analysis of variance by one-way ANOVA with Fisher and Tukey tests. The influence of the number of analyses on fibre effectiveness (fibre life-time) was studied by linear regression analysis (LRA). The results proved that HS-SPME can successfully be used for routine control analysis of aromatic ad medicinal plants since both types of fibres showed good repeatability and intermediate precision of analytes recovery and consistency over time. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, CAR/DVB/PDMS coated fibres gave better results than those coated with PDMS. The fibre-life seemed mainly to be influenced by the number and conditions of samplings and nature of the matrix investigated.

  9. Application of PIXE, RBS and high energy proton microbeams to the elemental analysis of coal and coal waste. [Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission and Rutherford backscattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kraner, H.W.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Oakley, S.A.; Duedall, I.W.; Woodhead, P.M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Proton and x-ray induced x-ray emission have proved to be sensitive and convenient methods to measure major trace element concentrations in bulk quantities of coal and coal waste materials. These techniques are complementary in their sensitivities as a function of atomic number, and both require little sample preparation. The PIXE measurements were made with the proton beam in air in a microprobe configuration. Collimated proton beam scans were made on several thin sections of fly ash/sludge block materials and good trace sensitivities were observed for small specific volumes; SEM scans showed a high degree of material homogeneity which precluded significant elemental variations at the approx. 100 ..mu..m spatial resolution used. Rutherford backscattering was used to directly observe major and minor elemental concentrations in coal waste materials and in several representative ranks of coals. RBS is useful for only trace concentrations of heavy elements, but it does provide a method independent of fluoresced x rays for detection of possible middle Z interferences. Arsenic, present in trace amounts in coal, is an element of concern and is enriched in fly ash. The form of As in fly ash is unknown. However, because of its volatility most of the As probably becomes attached to the surfaces of the fly ash particles during and subsequent to combustion processes. This view is supported by the fact that As is rapidly mobilized in aqueous solutions whose pH > 9.

  10. Routine analysis of amphetamine class drugs as their naphthaquinone derivatives in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Talwar, D; Watson, I D; Stewart, M J

    1999-12-10

    We describe a simple HPLC method which is suitable for the routine confirmation of immunoassay positive amphetamine urine samples. The precolumn derivisation method employing sodium naphthaquinone-4-sulphonate was found to have adequate sensitivity, selectivity and precision for the measurement of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) at 500 microg/l cutoff level for confirmatory analysis of amphetamines in urine. The specificity of the method is enhanced by detecting the peaks at two different wavelengths. The ratios of the peak heights measured at the two wavelengths were different for each of the 5 amphetamines analysed. There was no interference from other phenylethylamine analogues that are commonly found in "over the counter" preparations. The HPLC method is compared to a commercial TLC system for detecting amphetamines in urine of drug abusers attending drug rehabilitation programmes. The HPLC confirmatory method described is a viable alternative to GC or to the more complex and costly GC-MS techniques for confirming amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA and MDEA in urine of drug abusers especially when used in a clinical care setting.

  11. Hospital bed utilisation in the NHS, Kaiser Permanente, and the US Medicare programme: analysis of routine data.

    PubMed

    Ham, Chris; York, Nick; Sutch, Steve; Shaw, Rob

    2003-11-29

    To compare the utilisation of hospital beds in the NHS in England, Kaiser Permanente in California, and the Medicare programme in the United States and California. Analysis of routinely available data from 2000 and 2001 on inpatient admissions, lengths of stay, and bed days in populations aged over 65 for 11 leading causes of use of acute beds. Comparison of NHS data with data from Kaiser Permanente in California and the Medicare programme in California and the United States; interviews with Kaiser Permanente staff and visits to Kaiser facilities. Bed day use in the NHS for the 11 leading causes is three and a half times that of Kaiser's standardised rate, almost twice that of the Medicare California's standardised rate, and more than 50% higher than the standardised rate in Medicare in the United States. Kaiser achieves these results through a combination of low admission rates and relatively short stays. The lower use of bed days in Medicare in California compared with Medicare in the United States suggests there is a "California effect" as well as a "Kaiser effect" in hospital utilisation. The NHS can learn from Kaiser's integrated approach, the focus on chronic diseases and their effective management, the emphasis placed on self care, the role of intermediate care, and the leadership provided by doctors in developing and supporting this model of care.

  12. Routine immunofluorescent and histochemical analysis of bone marrow involvement of lymphoma/leukaemia: the use of cryostat sections.

    PubMed Central

    Chilosi, M.; Pizzolo, G.; Fiore-Donati, L.; Bofill, M.; Janossy, G.

    1983-01-01

    Enzyme histochemical and immunohistological (immuno-fluorescence and -peroxidase) techniques have been routinely used for investigating over 70 normal and pathological bone marrow samples. This recently standardized diagnostic procedure is very quick and can be performed in a few hours. In 6 cases the clinical diagnosis of leukaemia/lymphoma has become apparent only after the immunohistological analysis of the bone marrow. In 6 other cases the information about the staging of B cell malignancies was superior in the frozen biopsies to the paraffin embedded preparations. Amongst many other features the monoclonality of B CLL/lymphomas, the special features of B CLL infiltrates (RFA-1+, Leu-1+, HLA-DR+, SmIg+), follicular lymphoma deposits (containing follicular dendritic cells) and non-T, non-B acute lymphoblastic leukaemic blasts (terminal transferase+, HLA-DR+) as well as the sometimes conspicuous presence of infiltrating normal T cells could be clearly and reproducibly demonstrated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:6360192

  13. Plasma interaction experiment 2 (PIX 2): Laboratory and flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, N. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Experiments 1 and 2 (PIX 1 and 2) were designed as first steps toward understanding interactions between high-voltage solar arrays and the surrounding plasma. The PIX 2 consisted of an approximately 2000-sq cm array divided into four equal segments. Each of the segments could be biased independently and the current measured separately. In addition to the solar array segments, PIX 2 had a hot-wire-filament electron emitter and a spherical Langmuir probe. The emitter was operated when the array segments were biased positively bove 125 V. Thermal electrons from the emitter aided in balancing the electron currents collected by the array. Laboratory and flight results of PIX 2 are presented. At high positive voltages on the solar array segments, the flight currents were approximately an order of magnitude larger than the ground test currents. This is attributed to the tank walls in the laboratory interfering with the electron currents to the array segments. From previous tests it is known that the tank walls limit the electron currents at high voltages. This was the first verification of the extent of the laboratory tank effect on the plasma coupling current.

  14. CdTe detector based PIXE mapping of geological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, P. C.; Taborda, A.; de Oliveira, D. P. S.; Reis, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    A sample collected from a borehole drilled approximately 10 km ESE of Bragança, Trás-os-Montes, was analysed by standard and high energy PIXE at both CTN (previous ITN) PIXE setups. The sample is a fine-grained metapyroxenite grading to coarse-grained in the base with disseminated sulphides and fine veinlets of pyrrhotite and pyrite. Matrix composition was obtained at the standard PIXE setup using a 1.25 MeV H+ beam at three different spots. Medium and high Z elemental concentrations were then determined using the DT2fit and DT2simul codes (Reis et al., 2008, 2013 [1,2]), on the spectra obtained in the High Resolution and High Energy (HRHE)-PIXE setup (Chaves et al., 2013 [3]) by irradiation of the sample with a 3.8 MeV proton beam provided by the CTN 3 MV Tandetron accelerator. In this paper we present results, discuss detection limits of the method and the added value of the use of the CdTe detector in this context.

  15. Biomedical application of PIXE in university of liege

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Delbrouck, J. M.; Roelandts, I.; Dideberg, O.; Bartsch, P.; De Pauw, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    Three biomedical applications of charged particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) are outlined. The different fields investigated include biophysics (protein study), cancer chemotherapy (cis-dichlorodiamineplatinum (II) associated to liposomes as carriers) and lung pathology (serum and broncho-alveolar lavages). The samples were irradiated with 3 MeV protons (cyclotron) in a nitrogen atmosphere.

  16. PIXE as an analytical tool: An external-beam system in helium and the role of sample preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.T.; Finston, H.L.

    1981-04-01

    A PIXE system in which samples in a helium-filled target chamber are irradiated by an external proton beam is described. The system is well suited for study of a wide range of materials, some merely calling for qualitative analysis, and others requiring quantitative measurements. This variety mandates a flexible approach to sample preparation in order to obtain full sensitivity of the system. Some examples taken from our work are given.

  17. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G. P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-02-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave "La grotte du Renne" in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000-34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe-K or Mn-K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  18. Study of the respirable immission levels for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic using PIXE as analytical technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, W.; Thiessen, L.; Verduyn, G.

    1990-04-01

    The respirable immission levels of 11 paniculate elements (i.e. Si, S, K., Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, and Pb) for a cyclist in Brussels' traffic were assessed. To this end, a personal aerosol sampler (in which the respirable size fraction was collected on a Nuclepore filter) was carried on about 180 bicycle trips between a private home in a Brussels' suburb and an institute in the city center. All filter samples were analyzed by PIXE. The respirable immission levels of S, Pb and Zn were related to the results from stationary total aerosol collectors which are operated on a routine basis at various locations in the greater Brussels area. It was found that the cyclist's respirable immission levels can quite well be predicted from the stationary data for S, only to some extent for Pb, and not really for Zn. The 3- to 5-element data sets from the stationary samplers (with levels for S, Zn, and Pb, and occasionally also for Mn and Cu) were examined for interstation and interelement correlations. It appeared that the interelement correlations at each station were weaker than the interstation correlations for each element. The data set with concentrations of 11 elements in the bicycle trip samples was subjected to absolute principal components analysis in order to assess the dominant sources of the elements and to apportion the elemental concentrations to the sources. Four source types (components) were identified, i.e. a traffic component, a mixed road dust/soil dust/coal fly ash source, a sulfate component, and a component which was tentatively assigned to a mixture of industrial and incinerator emissions. The traffic source was responsible for most of the Pb and Br, but it was also the major source for Cu and Fe; Si, Ca and Ti originated predominantly from the mixed dust source; the sulfate component was responsible for most of the S; and the contributions from the industrial/incinerator emissions were least pronounced.

  19. The GIT-PIX complexes regulate the chemotactic response of rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Gavina, Manuela; Za, Lorena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; de Curtis, Ivan

    2010-01-14

    Cell motility entails the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking for effective protrusion. The GIT-PIX protein complexes are involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion and in the endocytic traffic of members of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have investigated the function of the endogenous GIT complexes in the regulation of cell motility stimulated by fMLP (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) peptide, in a rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cell line stably expressing an HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged receptor for the fMLP peptide. Our analysis shows that RBL cells stably transfected with the chemoattractant receptor expressed both GIT1-PIX and GIT2-PIX endogenous complexes. We have used silencing of the different members of the complex by small interfering RNAs to study the effects on a number of events linked to agonist-induced cell migration. We found that cell adhesion was not affected by depletion of any of the proteins of the GIT complex, whereas agonist-enhanced cell spreading was inhibited. Analysis of agonist-stimulated haptotactic cell migration indicated a specific positive effect of GIT1 depletion on trans-well migration. The internalization of the formyl-peptide receptor was also inhibited by depletion of GIT1 and GIT2. The effects of the GIT complexes on trafficking of the receptors was confirmed by an antibody-enhanced agonist-induced internalization assay, showing that depletion of PIX, GIT1 or GIT2 protein caused decreased perinuclear accumulation of internalized receptors. Our results show that endogenous GIT complexes are involved in the regulation of chemoattractant-induced cell motility and receptor trafficking, and support previous findings indicating an important function of the GIT complexes in the regulation of different G-protein-coupled receptors. Our results also indicate that endogenous GIT1 and GIT2 regulate distinct subsets of agonist-induced responses and suggest a possible functional link between the

  20. The GIT–PIX complexes regulate the chemotactic response of rat basophilic leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Gavina, Manuela; Za, Lorena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Curtis, Ivan de

    2009-01-01

    Background information. Cell motility entails the reorganization of the cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking for effective protrusion. The GIT–PIX protein complexes are involved in the regulation of cell motility and adhesion and in the endocytic traffic of members of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We have investigated the function of the endogenous GIT complexes in the regulation of cell motility stimulated by fMLP (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe) peptide, in a rat basophilic leukaemia RBL-2H3 cell line stably expressing an HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged receptor for the fMLP peptide. Results. Our analysis shows that RBL cells stably transfected with the chemoattractant receptor expressed both GIT1–PIX and GIT2–PIX endogenous complexes. We have used silencing of the different members of the complex by small interfering RNAs to study the effects on a number of events linked to agonist-induced cell migration. We found that cell adhesion was not affected by depletion of any of the proteins of the GIT complex, whereas agonist-enhanced cell spreading was inhibited. Analysis of agonist-stimulated haptotactic cell migration indicated a specific positive effect of GIT1 depletion on trans-well migration. The internalization of the formyl-peptide receptor was also inhibited by depletion of GIT1 and GIT2. The effects of the GIT complexes on trafficking of the receptors was confirmed by an antibody-enhanced agonist-induced internalization assay, showing that depletion of PIX, GIT1 or GIT2 protein caused decreased perinuclear accumulation of internalized receptors. Conclusions. Our results show that endogenous GIT complexes are involved in the regulation of chemoattractant-induced cell motility and receptor trafficking, and support previous findings indicating an important function of the GIT complexes in the regulation of different G-protein-coupled receptors. Our results also indicate that endogenous GIT1 and GIT2 regulate distinct subsets of agonist-induced responses and

  1. Structures of cyanobacteriochromes from phototaxis regulators AnPixJ and TePixJ reveal general and specific photoconversion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Narikawa, Rei; Ishizuka, Takami; Muraki, Norifumi; Shiba, Tomoo; Kurisu, Genji; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-15

    Cyanobacteriochromes are cyanobacterial tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors that share a bilin-binding GAF domain with photoreceptors of the phytochrome family. Cyanobacteriochromes are divided into many subclasses with distinct spectral properties. Among them, putative phototaxis regulators PixJs of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1 (denoted as AnPixJ and TePixJ, respectively) are representative of subclasses showing red-green-type and blue/green-type reversible photoconversion, respectively. Here, we determined crystal structures for the AnPixJ GAF domain in its red-absorbing 15Z state (Pr) and the TePixJ GAF domain in its green-absorbing 15E state (Pg). The overall structure of these proteins is similar to each other and also similar to known phytochromes. Critical differences found are as follows: (i) the chromophore of AnPixJ Pr is phycocyanobilin in a C5-Z,syn/C10-Z,syn/C15-Z,anti configuration and that of TePixJ Pg is phycoviolobilin in a C10-Z,syn/C15-E,anti configuration, (ii) a side chain of the key aspartic acid is hydrogen bonded to the tetrapyrrole rings A, B and C in AnPixJ Pr and to the pyrrole ring D in TePixJ Pg, (iii) additional protein-chromophore interactions are provided by subclass-specific residues including tryptophan in AnPixJ and cysteine in TePixJ. Possible structural changes following the photoisomerization of the chromophore between C15-Z and C15-E are discussed based on the X-ray structures at 1.8 and 2.0-Å resolution, respectively, in two distinct configurations.

  2. Metal stoichiometry of isolated and arsenic substituted metallothionein: PIXE and ESI-MS study.

    PubMed

    Garla, Roobee; Mohanty, Biraja P; Ganger, Renuka; Sudarshan, M; Bansal, Mohinder P; Garg, Mohan L

    2013-12-01

    The stoichiometric analysis of the metal induced Metallothionein (MT) is pertinent for understanding the metal-MT interactions. Despite innumerable publications on MT, the literature addressing these aspects is limited. To bridge this gap, PIXE and ESI-MS analysis of the commercial rabbit liver MT1 (an isoform of MT), zinc induced isolated rat liver MT1, apo and Arsenic substituted rabbit liver MT1 have been carried out. These techniques in combination provide information about number and the signature of all the metal ions bound to MT. By using ESI-MS in the rabbit MT1, ions of Zn n MT1 (n = 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7) whereas, in rat MT1, the Zn1MT1 and Zn5MT1 ions are observed. PIXE analysis shows that some copper along with zinc is also present in the rabbit as well as rat MT1 which could not be assessed with ESI-MS. During As metallation reaction with rabbit MT1, with increase in arsenic concentration, the amount of arsenic bound to MT1 also increases, though not proportionally. The presence of both Zn and Cu in MT1 on Zn supplementation can be related to the role of MT in Zn and Cu homeostasis. Further, the presence of partially metallated MT1 suggests that MT1 may donate fractional amount of metal from it's fully metallated form to other proteins where Zn acts as a cofactor.

  3. Quantitative elemental imaging of octopus stylets using PIXE and the nuclear microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubleday, Zoë; Belton, David; Pecl, Gretta; Semmens, Jayson

    2008-01-01

    By utilising targeted microprobe technology, the analysis of elements incorporated within the hard bio-mineralised structures of marine organisms has provided unique insights into the population biology of many species. As hard structures grow, elements from surrounding waters are incorporated effectively providing a natural 'tag' that is often unique to the animal's particular location or habitat. The spatial distribution of elements within octopus stylets was investigated, using the nuclear microprobe, to assess their potential for determining dispersal and population structure in octopus populations. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was conducted using the Dynamic Analysis method and GeoPIXE software package, which produced high resolution, quantitative elemental maps of whole stylet cross-sections. Ten elements were detected within the stylets which were heterogeneously distributed throughout the microstructure. Although Ca decreased towards the section edge, this trend was consistent between individuals and remained homogeneous in the inner region of the stylet, and thus appears a suitable internal standard for future microprobe analyses. Additional analyses used to investigate the general composition of the stylet structure suggested that they are amorphous and largely organic, however, there was some evidence of phosphatic mineralisation. In conclusion, this study indicates that stylets are suitable for targeted elemental analysis, although this is currently limited to the inner hatch region of the microstructure.

  4. Identification of deposit types of natural corundum by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-07-01

    Natural corundum, one of the most important exports of Thailand, is a rare, durable and valuable gemstone. The value of these precious stones is determined by their visual appearances, including brilliance, color, fire (light dispersion) and luster. Corundum is an allochromatic mineral whose trace element concentration depends on the origin and has influence on price setting. This work attempts to use an alternative method to identify the geological deposits of rubies and sapphires found in the Thai market which came from various countries, e.g., Africa, Cambodia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand and USA. Interrelations between most important major trace elements are the main results of this work. Quantitative analysis of trace elements were performed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, using 2-MeV proton beam generated and accelerated by the 1.7 MV tandem accelerator at Chiang Mai University. The trace elements of interest are Ti, Cr, Fe and Ga. We have found that the relationships between the ratios of trace element concentration can be used to classify the deposit type. Moreover, this method shows a clear separation between two main types of geological deposits, basaltic and metamorphic deposits, which further helps in determining the gemstone origin. For example, the gemstones from Cambodia, Thailand and the USA can be classified as the basaltic deposits with their high concentration in Fe but low in Ti, while the gemstones from Africa, Myanmar and Sri Lanka are metamorphic deposits because they have low Fe but high Ti concentrations. Both deposits required plots of pairs of trace elements and their ratios in population field appearance in order to distinguish their origins. The advantageous of these methods appear to be a new and a sustainable procedure for determining gemstone origins.

  5. PIXE and GC-MS investigation for the determination of the chemical composition of Syrian Cuminum cyminum L.

    PubMed

    Rihawy, M S; Bakraji, E H; Odeh, A

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition and concentration of Syrian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) were investigated. The particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique was used to analyze a wide range of elements from Mg to Sr. The advantages and disadvantages of the PIXE technique in plant material elemental analysis are discussed. A high level of iron was detected in the cumin samples, clarifying the possible contribution of cumin to maintaining the immune system. The contribution of the elements in cumin seeds to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) of elements was evaluated. Additionally, GC-MS measurements were performed to determine the chemical composition of cumin essential oil. Twenty-one components were identified, and cuminaldehyde, γ-terpinene, o-cymene, limonene and β-pinene were determined to be the major constituents. A correlation between the chemical composition of cumin seeds and their use as a traditional remedy is proposed.

  6. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) characterization of special glasses and multi-coated lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Y. H.; Cahill, T. A.; Kim, S. J.; Shackelford, J. F.; Castaneda, C.

    2001-04-01

    The manganese values for the same brand of glass made at the same manufacturing plant were analyzed by PIXE. Manganese impurity levels in A2 and A4 likely result from tin. Enhanced zirconium values on the air side for samples C and D and iron values for sample B were almost 5 times higher on the tin side than the air side. For Rutherford backscattering analysis, the fit to the thickness data by calculations obtained using SIMNRA, was very reasonable. The PIXE technique was proved to be adequate and powerful in characterizing specifications, as well as being a monitor of impurities introduced during the fabrication process, in special glasses and multi-coated lenses.

  7. Access to Routine Immunization: A Comparative Analysis of Supply-Side Disparities between Northern and Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboreime, Ejemai; Abimbola, Seye; Bozzani, Fiammetta

    2015-01-01

    Background The available data on routine immunization in Nigeria show a disparity in coverage between Northern and Southern Nigeria, with the former performing worse. The effect of socio-cultural differences on health-seeking behaviour has been identified in the literature as the main cause of the disparity. Our study analyses the role of supply-side determinants, particularly access to services, in causing these disparities. Methods Using routine government data, we compared supply-side determinants of access in two Northern states with two Southern states. The states were identified using criteria-based purposive selection such that the comparisons were made between a low-coverage state in the South and a low-coverage state in the North as well as between a high-coverage state in the South and a high-coverage state in the North. Results Human resources and commodities at routine immunization service delivery points were generally insufficient for service delivery in both geographical regions. While disparities were evident between individual states irrespective of regional location, compared to the South, residents in Northern Nigeria were more likely to have vaccination service delivery points located within a 5km radius of their settlements. Conclusion Our findings suggest that regional supply-side disparities are not apparent, reinforcing the earlier reported socio-cultural explanations for disparities in routine immunization service uptake between Northern and Southern Nigeria. Nonetheless, improving routine immunisation coverage services require that there are available human resources and that health facilities are equitably distributed. PMID:26692215

  8. The role of beta(1)Pix/caveolin-1 interaction in endothelin signaling through Galpha subunits.

    PubMed

    Chahdi, Ahmed; Sorokin, Andrey

    2010-01-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent mitogen that transmits signals through its cognate G protein-coupled receptors to stimulate extracellular signal-regulated kinase Erk1/2. Endothelin-1 receptors (ET-Rs) are known to interact with caveolin-1 and co-localize in caveolae which integrate different receptor and signaling proteins. We have recently shown that beta(1)Pix binds specifically to ET-Rs. Here, we show that beta(1)Pix binding to caveolin-1 is dependent on heterotrimeric G proteins activation state. beta(1)Pix interaction with different G proteins is increased in the presence of the G protein activator AMF. Moreover, extraction of cholesterol with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin disrupts the binding of beta(1)Pix to Galpha(q), Galpha(12) and phospho-Erk1/2 but not the binding of beta(1)Pix to G(beta1). The disruption of beta(1)Pix dimerization strongly reduced the binding of caveolin-1, Galpha(q) and Galpha(12). Constitutively active mutants of Galpha(q) and Galpha(12) increased Cdc42 activation when co-expressed with beta(1)Pix but not in the presence of beta(1)Pix dimerization deficient mutant beta(1)PixDelta (602-611). ET-1 stimulation increased the binding of phosphorylated Erk1/2 to beta(1)Pix but not to beta(1)PixDelta (602-611). RGS3 decreased ET-1-induced Cdc42 activation. These results strongly suggest that the activation of ET-Rs leads to the compartmentalization and the binding of Galpha(q) to beta(1)Pix in caveolae, where dimeric beta(1)Pix acts as platform to facilitate the binding and the activation of Erk1/2. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear microprobe performance in high-current proton beam mode for micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavpetič, P.; Kelemen, M.; Jenčič, B.; Pelicon, P.

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a nuclear microprobe is dominantly determined by the brightness of the injected ion beam. At Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI), negative hydrogen ion beams are created in a multicusp ion source and injected into a 2 MV tandetron accelerator. The output characteristics of the multicusp ion source were tuned in order to obtain matching proton beam intensities for the ion accelerator and for the object slits as well. For the optimal focusing of the proton beam in a high-current mode (I > 100 pA) to the sub-micrometer dimensions, dedicated thin nanostructures with sharp edges have been manufactured. Set of nanostructures was micromachined by focused ion beam (FIB) at film reference material, produced by Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) and constituted of 57 μg/cm2 of titanium on vitreous carbon substrate. The proton beam profiles were measured by beam scans across the nanostructures over long measuring times, indicating eventual slow drifts of the sample from a reference beam direction. Overall, proton beam dimensions of 600 nm were obtained, demonstrating appropriate stability for micro-PIXE (micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission) at sub-micrometer resolution for elemental analysis of biological tissue samples prepared in a freeze-dried state or in a frozen-hydrated state. The resulting performance required for micro-PIXE analysis in a high current mode with a 3 MeV proton beam is presented.

  10. PIXE and receptor models applied to remote aerosol source apportionment in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Orsini, Celso

    1987-03-01

    We have used PIXE together with receptor modeling for quantiative source apportionment of remote aerosols. The Sao Paulo PIXE system uses an 8 MeV alpha particle beam, and it can detect elements with Z > 11 with a detection limit between 1 and 30 ng m 3 . We sampled atmospheric aerosols in six remote sites: Amazon Basin. Atlantic Forest, Arembepe, Fernando de Noronha, Firminopolis and Itaherai. Sampling was performed using stacked filter units, cascade impactors with 6 or 10 stages and linear streakers. Source apportionment of the coarse mode aerosols was done using three receptor models: chemical mass balance, principal factor analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Three sources of aerosols were quantiatively distinguished: marine aerosols, soil dust and aerosols released by plants. The emission of aerosols by vegetation is very clear for all sampling sites and with all three receptor models. In the Amazon Basin and Atlantic Forest the aerosol released by plants is the major source and accounts for 60-80% of airborne concentrations.

  11. A performance analysis of the PASLIB version 2.1X SEND and RECV routines on the finite element machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The Finite Element Machine is an experimental array processor designed to support research in parallel algorithms and architectures. This report presents a case study of communications using the SENDa and RECV system software routines on the Finite Element Machine, followed by a discussion of the effect of I/O performance on the efficiency of parallel algorithms.

  12. [Documentation of the surgical report with graphic statistical data analysis--a simplification of daily routine work].

    PubMed

    Schramm, W; Wierrani, F; Grünberger, W

    1990-09-01

    A data collection system on microcomputer connected with an automatic medical report system for operations, was developed to facilitate both medical report as well as documentation. Linking different commercial software products by use of a Pascal programme, we were able to speed up daily routine work as well as establish efficient graphical statistics of patient data.

  13. Future of ePix detectors for high repetition rate FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, G. Caragiulo, P.; Carini, G.; Dragone, A.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herbst, R.; Kenney, C.; Markovic, B.; Pines, J.; Segal, J.; Tamma, C.; Tomada, A.; Nishimura, K.

    2016-07-27

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) made the imaging of atoms and molecules in motion possible, opening new science opportunities with high brilliance, ultra-short x-ray laser pulses at up to 120 Hz. Some new or upgraded FEL facilities will operate at greatly increased pulse rates (kHz to MHz), presenting additional requirements on detection. We will present the ePix platform for x-ray detectors and the current status of the ePix detectors: ePix100 for low noise applications, ePix10k for high dynamic range applications, and ePixS for spectroscopic applications. Then we will introduce the plans to match the ePix detectors with the requirements of currently planned high repetition rate FELs (mainly readout speed and energy range).

  14. Direct GSK-3β inhibition enhances mesenchymal stromal cell migration by increasing expression of β-PIX and CXCR4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Seo; Noh, Min Young; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Hyun-Jeung; Kim, Kyung Suk; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are emerging as candidate cells for the treatment of neurological diseases because of their neural replacement, neuroprotective, and neurotrophic effects. However, the majority of MSCs transplanted by various routes fail to reach the site of injury, and they have demonstrated only minimal therapeutic benefit in clinical trials. Therefore, enhancing the migration of MSCs to target sites is essential for this therapeutic strategy to be effective. In this study, we assessed whether inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) increases the migration capacity of MSCs during ex vivo expansion. Human bone marrow MSCs (hBM-MSCs) were cultured with various GSK-3β inhibitors (LiCl, SB-415286, and AR-A014418). Using a migration assay kit, we found that the motility of hBM-MSCs was significantly enhanced by GSK-3β inhibition. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of migration-related signaling proteins such as phospho-GSK-3β, β-catenin, phospho-c-Raf, phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-β-PAK-interacting exchange factor (PIX), and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), membrane-type MMP-1 (MT1-MMP), and β-PIX. In the reverse approach, treatment with β-PIX shRNA or CXCR4 inhibitor (AMD 3100) reduced hBM-MSC migration. These findings suggest that inhibition of GSK-3β during ex vivo expansion of hBM-MSCs may enhance their migration capacity by increasing expression of β-catenin, phospho-c-Raf, phospho-ERK, and β-PIX and the subsequent up-regulation of CXCR4. Enhancing the migration capacity of hBM-MSCs by treating these cells with GSK-3β inhibitors may increase their therapeutic potential.

  15. Decline in diarrhea mortality and admissions after routine childhood rotavirus immunization in Brazil: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Yen, Catherine; Cortes, Jennifer; Siqueira, Alessandra Araújo; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; Lopman, Ben; Flannery, Brendan; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Carmo, Eduardo Hage; Patel, Manish

    2011-04-01

    In 2006, Brazil began routine immunization of infants <15 wk of age with a single-strain rotavirus vaccine. We evaluated whether the rotavirus vaccination program was associated with declines in childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions by monitoring disease trends before and after vaccine introduction in all five regions of Brazil with varying disease burden and distinct socioeconomic and health indicators. National data were analyzed with an interrupted time-series analysis that used diarrhea-related mortality or hospitalization rates as the main outcomes. Monthly mortality and admission rates estimated for the years after rotavirus vaccination (2007-2009) were compared with expected rates calculated from pre-vaccine years (2002-2005), adjusting for secular and seasonal trends. During the three years following rotavirus vaccination in Brazil, rates for diarrhea-related mortality and admissions among children <5 y of age were 22% (95% confidence interval 6%-44%) and 17% (95% confidence interval 5%-27%) lower than expected, respectively. A cumulative total of ~1,500 fewer diarrhea deaths and 130,000 fewer admissions were observed among children <5 y during the three years after rotavirus vaccination. The largest reductions in deaths (22%-28%) and admissions (21%-25%) were among children younger than 2 y, who had the highest rates of vaccination. In contrast, lower reductions in deaths (4%) and admissions (7%) were noted among children two years of age and older, who were not age-eligible for vaccination during the study period. After the introduction of rotavirus vaccination for infants, significant declines for three full years were observed in under-5-y diarrhea-related mortality and hospital admissions for diarrhea in Brazil. The largest reductions in diarrhea-related mortality and hospital admissions for diarrhea were among children younger than 2 y, who were eligible for vaccination as infants, which suggests that the reduced diarrhea burden in this

  16. Decline in Diarrhea Mortality and Admissions after Routine Childhood Rotavirus Immunization in Brazil: A Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Yen, Catherine; Cortes, Jennifer; Siqueira, Alessandra Araújo; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Cortez-Escalante, Juan José; Lopman, Ben; Flannery, Brendan; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Hage Carmo, Eduardo; Patel, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Brazil began routine immunization of infants <15 wk of age with a single-strain rotavirus vaccine. We evaluated whether the rotavirus vaccination program was associated with declines in childhood diarrhea deaths and hospital admissions by monitoring disease trends before and after vaccine introduction in all five regions of Brazil with varying disease burden and distinct socioeconomic and health indicators. Methods and Findings National data were analyzed with an interrupted time-series analysis that used diarrhea-related mortality or hospitalization rates as the main outcomes. Monthly mortality and admission rates estimated for the years after rotavirus vaccination (2007–2009) were compared with expected rates calculated from pre-vaccine years (2002–2005), adjusting for secular and seasonal trends. During the three years following rotavirus vaccination in Brazil, rates for diarrhea-related mortality and admissions among children <5 y of age were 22% (95% confidence interval 6%–44%) and 17% (95% confidence interval 5%–27%) lower than expected, respectively. A cumulative total of ∼1,500 fewer diarrhea deaths and 130,000 fewer admissions were observed among children <5 y during the three years after rotavirus vaccination. The largest reductions in deaths (22%–28%) and admissions (21%–25%) were among children younger than 2 y, who had the highest rates of vaccination. In contrast, lower reductions in deaths (4%) and admissions (7%) were noted among children two years of age and older, who were not age-eligible for vaccination during the study period. Conclusions After the introduction of rotavirus vaccination for infants, significant declines for three full years were observed in under-5-y diarrhea-related mortality and hospital admissions for diarrhea in Brazil. The largest reductions in diarrhea-related mortality and hospital admissions for diarrhea were among children younger than 2 y, who were eligible for vaccination as infants

  17. Paintings on copper by the Flemish artist Frans Francken II: PIXE characterization by external microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corregidor, V.; Oliveira, A. R.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Alves, L. C.

    2015-04-01

    Resorting to an external proton microbeam, PIXE analyses of three oil paintings on copper support dated from the XVII century and attributed to the Flemish artist Frans Francken II, were undertaken. The present work aims to contribute to the compositional study of the painting materials employed by XVII century artists that exploited copper as a support for oil painting, and specifically the materials used by Francken's workshop, particularly copper plates. Because of the low thickness of the pictorial layers of this type of paintings and its non-destructive character, PIXE is the ideal technique to study the elemental composition of the paintings. Several spots in each painting were chosen for analysis in order to cover almost all the pigments used in the colour palette. Lead and calcium were detected in practically every analysed regions, probably related to the presence of lead white and chalk, usually used as ground layer on copper paintings. Small quantities of gold were also detected, which is present in many of this artist's works to embellish some details of the representations. Also this work reports the first application of the external proton microbeam set-up available at CTN/IST in Portugal for the characterization of oil paintings.

  18. The role of micro-NRA and micro-PIXE in carbon mapping of organic tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niekraszewicz, L. A. B.; de Souza, C. T.; Stori, E. M.; Jobim, P. F. C.; Amaral, L.; Dias, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    This study reports the work developed in the Ion Implantation Laboratory (Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil) in order to implement the micro-NRA technique for the study of light elements in organic tissues. In particular, the work was focused on nuclear reactions employing protons and alphas with carbon. The (p,p) resonances at 0.475 and 1.734 were investigated. The (α,α) resonance at 4.265 MeV was studied as well. The results indicate that the yields for the 0.475 and 1.734 MeV resonances are similar. Elemental maps of different structures obtained with the micro-NRA technique using the 1.734 MeV resonance were compared with those obtained with micro-PIXE employing a SDD detector equipped with an ultra-thin window. The results show that the use of micro-NRA for carbon at 1.734 MeV resonance provides good results in some cases at the expense of longer beam times. On the other hand, micro-PIXE provides enhanced yields but is limited to surface analysis since soft X-rays are greatly attenuated by matter.

  19. Micro-PIXE analyses of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. D.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Tylko, G.; Barnabas, A. D.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

    2013-07-01

    Cryo-micro-PIXE system and methodology of microanalysis of frozen-hydrated semi-thick biological sections is described. A commercially available cryotransfer system used in electron microscopy has been adapted for this purpose. The analyzed material was frozen by metal-mirror method and sections of 20-50 micron thickness were prepared. Micro-PIXE and simultaneous proton backscattering was performed using 3 MeV proton beam. Monitoring of water vapour composition during the proton bombardment showed good stability of the analyzed material. The results of repetitive analyses of standards prepared from gelatin-glycerol solution with added known concentrations of K, Ni, Cu, Zn were in good agreement with expected, calculated values. Mass losses and changes of elemental composition were monitored. Elemental maps obtained for frozen-hydrated semi-thick section of Ni hyperaccumulator Senecio coronatus showed excellent preservation of leaf morphology and the distribution of elements. Quantitative elemental mapping of frozen-hydrated specimens compared with subsequent analysis of the same areas after freeze-drying revealed similar distribution pattern in both cases. It is clear, however, that freeze-drying induces some distortion of cell morphology and specimen shrinkage.

  20. The Plasma Interaction Experiment (PIX) description and test program. [electrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignaczak, L. R.; Haley, F. A.; Domino, E. J.; Culp, D. H.; Shaker, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The plasma interaction experiment (PIX) is a battery powered preprogrammed auxiliary payload on the LANDSAT-C launch. This experiment is part of a larger program to investigate space plasma interactions with spacecraft surfaces and components. The varying plasma densities encountered during available telemetry coverage periods are deemed sufficient to determine first order interactions between the space plasma environment and the biased experimental surfaces. The specific objectives of the PIX flight experiment are to measure the plasma coupling current and the negative voltage breakdown characteristics of a solar array segment and a gold plated steel disk. Measurements will be made over a range of surface voltages up to plus or minus kilovolt. The orbital environment will provide a range of plasma densities. The experimental surfaces will be voltage biased in a preprogrammed step sequence to optimize the data returned for each plasma region and for the available telemetry coverage.

  1. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, C. S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC-Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  2. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, D.; Yang, F. J.; Sun, X. M.; Guo, M. S.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  3. DeltaPhage—a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display

    PubMed Central

    Nilssen, Nicolay R.; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å.

    2012-01-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  4. DeltaPhage--a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Nicolay R; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2012-09-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems.

  5. External beam pixe programs at the University of California, Davis

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, R.A.

    1983-04-01

    A PIXE system in which large or delicate samples are excited by a low-current external proton beam is described. This system has been used to analyze historical printed books and manuscripts, as well as a large variety of archeological artifacts. The steps used to protect the sample from unnecessary beam current are examined. A recent thorough study of the first volume of the Gutenberg 42-line Bible is described in some detail.

  6. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preventive Care: An Analysis of Routine Physical Examination Among Adolescents, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nitardy, Charlotte M; Duke, Naomi N; Pettingell, Sandra L; Borowsky, Iris W

    2016-12-01

    Routine health care plays a central role in health promotion and disease prevention for children and in reducing health disparities. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of routine physical examination among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents at 5 different time points. The study used data from the Minnesota Student Survey. Measures include frequency of physical examination by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure. The analytic sample included 351 510 adolescents (1998, n = 67 239; 2001, n = 69 177; 2004, n = 71 084; 2007, n = 72 312; and 2010, n = 71 698). There were significant differences by racial/ethnic group at each time point. For example, in 2010, never having a physical examination was reported by 9.2% American Indian, 8.7% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 7.0% Hispanic/Latino, 4.3% Black/African American, 3.7% mixed race, and 2.6% of White respondents ( P < .001). Patterns of association emerged when the measure of routine physical examination was stratified by poverty and family structure.

  8. GridPix application to dual phase TPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, Matteo; van Bakel, Niels; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Decowski, Michael Patrick; van der Graaf, Harry; Schön, Rolf; Tiseni, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    GridPix is a gas-filled detector with an aluminium mesh stretched 50 μm above the Timepix CMOS pixel chip. This defines a high electric field where gas amplification occurs. A feasibility study is ongoing at Nikhef for the application of the GridPix technology as a charge sensitive device in a dual phase noble gas Time Projection Chamber (TPC), within the framework of the DARWIN design study for next generation dark matter experiments. The smallness of the device and well defined materials allow for high radio-purity and low outgassing. The high granularity of a pixel readout and the high detection efficiency of single electrons of GridPix bring benefits especially in terms of energy resolution for small energy deposits. This feature is interesting also for the measurement of the scintillation yield and the ionisation yield of noble liquids. The accurate measurements of such quantities have a direct impact on the data interpretation of dark matter experiments. The application in dual phase argon or xenon TPCs implies several technological challenges, such as the survival of the device at cryogenic temperature as well as the operation in a pure noble gas atmosphere without discharges. We describe here the recent developments of the project.

  9. Pitfalls in the assessment, analysis, and interpretation of routine outcome monitoring (ROM) Data: results from an outpatient clinic for integrative mental health.

    PubMed

    Hoenders, Rogier H J; Bos, Elisabeth H; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Vollbehr, Nina K; van der Ploeg, Karen; de Jonge, Peter; de Jong, Joop T V M

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable debate about routine outcome monitoring (ROM) for scientific or benchmarking purposes. We discuss pitfalls associated with the assessment, analysis, and interpretation of ROM data, using data of 376 patients. 206 patients (55 %) completed one or more follow-up measurements. Mixed-model analysis showed significant improvement in symptomatology, quality of life, and autonomy, and differential improvement for different subgroups. Effect sizes were small to large, depending on the outcome measure and subgroup. Subtle variations in analytic strategies influenced effect sizes substantially. We illustrate how problems inherent to design and analysis of ROM data prevent drawing conclusions about (comparative) treatment effectiveness.

  10. Applicability and Efficiency of NGS in Routine Diagnosis: In-Depth Performance Analysis of a Complete Workflow for CFTR Mutation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pagin, Adrien; Devos, Aurore; Figeac, Martin; Truant, Maryse; Willoquaux, Christelle; Broly, Franck; Lalau, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Background Actually, about 2000 sequence variations have been documented in the CFTR gene requiring extensive and multi-step genetic testing in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders. We present a two phases study, with validation and performance monitoring, of a single experiment methodology based on multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing that allows detection of all variants, including large rearrangements, affecting the coding regions plus three deep intronic loci. Methods A total of 340 samples, including 257 patients and 83 previously characterized control samples, were sequenced in 17 MiSeq runs and analyzed with two bioinformatic pipelines in routine diagnostic conditions. We obtained 100% coverage for all the target regions in every tested sample. Results We correctly identified all the 87 known variants in the control samples and successfully confirmed the 62 variants identified among the patients without observing false positive results. Large rearrangements were identified in 18/18 control samples. Only 17 patient samples showed false positive signals (6.6%), 12 of which showed a borderline result for a single amplicon. We also demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect allele specific dropout of amplicons when a sequence variation occurs at a primer binding site thus limiting the risk for false negative results. Conclusions We described here the first NGS workflow for CFTR routine analysis that demonstrated equivalent diagnostic performances compared to Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This study illustrates the advantages of NGS in term of scalability, workload reduction and cost-effectiveness in combination with an improvement of the overall data quality due to the simultaneous detection of SNVs and large rearrangements. PMID:26900683

  11. Adequacy of cellular material in split-sampling of cervical scrapings for routine cancer screening: an analysis of 702 smears.

    PubMed

    Othman, Norodiyah; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cells (split-sample) that were retained on sampling devices used to collect conventional Pap smears (primary smears) in order to evaluate specimen adequacy and cytological diagnosis of scrapings that are routinely discarded. Cervical scrapings from women attending routine cervical cancer screening were obtained using a cervical brush. Following primary conventional smear preparation, the same sampling devices were rinsed in Preservcyt solution (Cytyc) for subsequent monolayered thin smear (split-sample/discarded sample). The smears (conventional and ThinPrep monolayer) were examined independently by pathologists and classified using the Bethesda System. The diagnoses from discarded samples (split-sample smears) were then compared with the diagnoses made on primary conventional Pap smears. 702 samples were studied. Cell abnormalities was found in 14/702 conventional smear and 12/702 split-sample thin smear. The adequacy of sampling in primary smears was 94.7% compared to 88.9% in split-sample smears. Six cases of Human Papillomavirus infection was found in split-sample smear, whereas only 5 cases found in primary smear. Cohen's Kappa was 0.61 showing substantial agreement between both sampling cytological results. The cervical brush discarded after conventional smear retain adequate number of cells for diagnostic purposes.

  12. Visualization of trace-element zoning in fluorapatite using BSE and CL imaging, and EPMA and μPIXE/μPIGE mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Michalak, Przemysław P.; Munnik, Frans; Götze, Jens; Rhede, Dieter

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, zonation patterns of trace elements in fluorapatite are discussed that were visualized using four analytical techniques, namely back-scattered electrons (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), and micro-proton-induced X-ray/gamma ray emission (μPIXE/μPIGE) mapping. Each method demonstrates the in-grain compositional variations in a slightly different way. Both BSE and CL provide qualitative data, and the internal textures are displayed in most detail. Additionally, CL points to specific elements enriched in certain growth zones. Qualitative EPMA maps show detailed zonation patterns for specific elements (with high spatial resolution), which are in general correspondence with the patterns observed in BSE and CL images. The μPIXE/μPIGE maps are fully quantitative and the detection limits are relatively low compared to EPMA mapping. In present spot measurements μPIXE demonstrates lower detection limits than EPMA, however, the latter could be considerably improved by extending the acquisition times. There is no significant overlap of REE (rare earth elements) peaks in the acquired μPIXE energy spectra, however, when multiple REEs are present with sufficiently high concentrations, peak deconvolution may pose some difficulties. Spatial resolution of μPIXE/μPIGE images is not sufficiently high to reflect minor textural features, which also result from the greater interaction depth of the proton beam. However, major growth zones are distinguishable. Even though each method has their advantages and limitations, when applied together, they provide an almost complete characterization of compositional variability in trace-element-bearing minerals.

  13. Genomic structure of the human beta-PIX gene and its alteration in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong you; Wang, You jie; Song, Jian ping; Kataoka, Hideki; Yoshii, Shigeto; Gao, Chang ming; Wang, Ya ping; Zhou, Jian nong; Ota, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Sugimura, Haruhiko

    2002-03-28

    beta-PIX, a newly identified p21-activated kinase (PAK)-interacting exchange factors (PIX), encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho guanosine triphosphatases. Characterization of beta-PIX gene was performed using the BAC Library method. The beta-PIX gene has 17 exons and an A/T polymorphism at the 32nd base upstream of the intron/exon junction of exon 7. The frequencies of genotypes A/T, A/A and T/T were 23.6% (13/55), 72.7% (40/55) and 3.6% (2/55), respectively; these frequencies are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Two out of 14 informative tumors (14.3%) were shown to have lost their heterozygosity at this locus, but no mutations in the remaining alleles were detected. In addition, we examined the gene-expression profile in another set of 30 gastric samples, but no significant over-expression of either the beta-PIX gene or the alpha-PIX gene was found. Though the beta-PIX gene has been speculated to potentially have tumor-related biological characteristics, the findings of the present study suggest that the involvement of beta-PIX gene in human gastric carcinogenesis is minimal.

  14. Characterization of aerosol particles from Buenos Aires City and its subway system: PIXE and SEM/EDX

    SciTech Connect

    Murruni, L. G.; Debray, M. E.; Minsky, D.; Kreiner, A. J.; Burlon, A.; Davidson, M.; Davidson, J.; Ozafran, M.; Vazquez, M. E.; Rosenbusch, M.; Ulke, A. G.; Solanes, V.

    2007-02-12

    This study analyzes total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected at two sites of Buenos Aires City (34S, 58W). One site (San Martin) placed 17 km from city center, and the other one at an underground subway station (Diagonal Norte) in downtown Buenos Aires. In both cases, gravimetric analysis has been performed, while elemental analysis using PIXE has been only carried out in the first case. To the best our knowledge, this is the first airborne particle measurement perform at a Buenos Aires underground subway station.

  15. Sample preparation and system calibration for proton-induced X-ray emission analysis of hair from occupationally exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.; Wooller, K.K.

    1985-05-01

    Blood and urine collections are commonly used to monitor trace element concentration in the body. Hair may also be used. The concentration of many elements is much higher in hair than in either blood or urine and may provide a ready record of a period of exposure to heavy metals. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used to study trace elements in hair. A method of preparing samples by charring hair and mixing with yttrium-spiked graphite has been developed. Thick targets suitable for PIXE analysis are made. The trace elements K, Ca, Tl, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br, Rb, and Sr are routinely measured in most samples and Cr, Co, As, Bi, Se, Zr, and Cd can be measured in occupationally exposed workers. Helium backscattering and elastic recoil detection are used to determine the major component H, C, N, O, and S. 23 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Costs of cancer care for use in economic evaluation: a UK analysis of patient-level routine health system data.

    PubMed

    Hall, P S; Hamilton, P; Hulme, C T; Meads, D M; Jones, H; Newsham, A; Marti, J; Smith, A F; Mason, H; Velikova, G; Ashley, L; Wright, P

    2015-03-03

    The rising financial burden of cancer on health-care systems worldwide has led to the increased demand for evidence-based research on which to base reimbursement decisions. Economic evaluations are an integral component of this necessary research. Ascertainment of reliable health-care cost and quality-of-life estimates to inform such studies has historically been challenging, but recent advances in informatics in the United Kingdom provide new opportunities. The costs of hospital care for breast, colorectal and prostate cancer disease-free survivors were calculated over 15 months from initial diagnosis of cancer using routinely collected data within a UK National Health Service (NHS) Hospital Trust. Costs were linked at patient level to patient-reported outcomes and registry-derived sociodemographic factors. Predictors of cost and the relationship between costs and patient-reported utility were examined. The study population included 223 breast cancer patients, 145 colorectal and 104 prostate cancer patients. The mean 15-month cumulative health-care costs were £12 595 (95% CI £11 517-£13 722), £12 643 (£11 282-£14 102) and £3722 (£3263-£4208), per-patient respectively. The majority of costs occurred within the first 6 months from diagnosis. Clinical stage was the most important predictor of costs for all cancer types. EQ-5D score was predictive of costs in colorectal cancer but not in breast or prostate cancer. It is now possible to evaluate health-care cost using routine NHS data sets. Such methods can be utilised in future retrospective and prospective studies to efficiently collect economic data.

  17. c-Cbl regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Min Woo; Park, Ji Ho; Yoo, Hee Min; Yang, Seung Wook; Oh, Kyu Hee; Ka, Seung Hyeun; Park, Dong Eun; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chung, Chin Ha

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • c-Cbl ubiquitinates αPix for proteasome-mediated degradation. • C6 and A172 glioma cells lack c-Cbl, which leads to stabilization of αPix. • The accumulated αPix promotes migration and invasion of the cancer cells. • The lack of c-Cbl in the cells appears responsible for their malignant behavior. - Abstract: c-Cbl, a RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase, down-regulates receptor tyrosine kinases, including EGF receptor, and inhibits cell proliferation. Moreover, c-Cbl mutations are frequently found in patients with myeloid neoplasm. Therefore, c-Cbl is known as a tumor suppressor. αPix is expressed only in highly proliferative and mobile cells, including immune cells, and up-regulated in certain invasive tumors, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we showed that c-Cbl serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase for proteasome-mediated degradation of αPix, but not βPix. Remarkably, the rat C6 and human A172 glioma cells were unable to express c-Cbl, which leads to a dramatic accumulation of αPix. Depletion of αPix by shRNA markedly reduced the ability of the glioma cells to migrate and invade, whereas complementation of shRNA-insensitive αPix promoted it. These results indicate that c-Cbl negatively regulates αPix-mediated cell migration and invasion and the lack of c-Cbl in the C6 and A172 glioma cells is responsible for their malignant behavior.

  18. Compositional and structural studies of the bone-cartilage interface using PIXE and SAXS techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaabar, W.; laklouk, A.; Bunk, O.; Baily, M.; Farquharson, M. J.; Bradley, David

    2010-07-01

    Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) analysis has been employed in investigating the presence of number of essential anions and cations in thin sections of diseased human articular cartilage affected by osteoarthritis (OA). Distribution maps for Ca, P, K and S in diseased sections show marked alterations in the concentrations of these at the bone-cartilage interface compared to normal tissue. For a decalcified section of human articular cartilage, organisational changes of the collagen network were investigated by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The established gradual reorientation of collagen fibres from vertical to the surface of the joint to normal to the bone-cartilage interface is observed to be heavily disrupted in OA.

  19. Salerno Exultet: its characterization by Raman and PIXE-α analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicchieri, Marina; Nardone, Michele; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Lighea; Romano, Francesco P.; Russo, Pio A.; Sodo, Armida

    2001-10-01

    Two non-destructive techniques, Raman spectroscopy and particle induced x-ray emission spectrometry, were used for a compete connotation of the Salerno Exultet, an illuminated parchment dated back to 13th century. The Salerno Exultet exhibits several areas which have underdone restoration treatments during the years. The complete connotation of this masterpiece was necessary in order to identify and to distinguish the original and the added pigments. Owing to its dimensions, it has been impossible to analyze the Salerno Exultet directly under the microscope of our Micro- Raman spectrometer. We have therefore used optical fibers connected to a three axis micro-positioned measurement head mounted on a large metal frame. PIXE analysis was performed using the portable instrumentation set up by the INFN-LANDIS Laboratory, Catania, Italy. The combination of these two complementary techniques allowed us to reveal a palette formed by lapis-lazuli, cinnabar, verdigris, earths organic lakes and chalk.

  20. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  1. Uptake of cadmium by synthetic mica and apatite: Observation by micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, Naofumi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Satoh, Takahiro

    2003-09-01

    This study investigated the uptake of Cd by a mixture containing equal mass of two powerful sorbents for Cd, a synthetic mica named 'Na-4-mica' and an apatite, by micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. Divalent Cd ions were found to be selectively taken up by the apatite from the mixture even though it has one order of magnitude lower distribution coefficient for Cd 2+ than Na-4-mica. This was mainly attributed to the fact that the kinetics of uptake by the apatite were more rapid than those by Na-4-mica. Regarding the uptake of Cd colloids containing hydroxides and carbonates, no clear selectivity for solid phases was observed and Cd colloids appeared to be preferentially taken up by smaller particles of solid phases.

  2. Volatility in the lunar crust: Trace element analyses of lunar minerals by PIXE proton microprobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    In situ determination of mineral compositions using microbeam techniques can characterize magma compositions through mineral-melt partitioning, and be used to investigate fine-grained or rare phases which cannot be extracted for analysis. Abundances of Fe, Mn, Sr, Ga, Zr, Y, Nb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Se, and Sb were determined for various mineral phases in a small number of lunar highlands rocks using the PIXE proton microprobe. Sr/Ga ratios of plagioclase and Mn/Zn ratios of mafic silicates show that the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite cumulates are depleted in volatile lithophile elements to about the same degree compared with chondrites and the Earth. This links the entire lunar crust to common processes or source compositions. In contrast, secondary sulfides in Descartes breccia clasts are enriched in chalcophile elements such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb, and represent a potential resource in the lunar highlands.

  3. Studies of blood lead levels in children by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE).

    PubMed

    Lal, M; Joseph, D; Choudhury, R K; Bajpai, H N; Gauba, I; Lokeshwar, M R; Wagle, C S

    1991-04-15

    Blood lead levels of children admitted to Sion Hospital, Bombay (India), from the adjoining Dharavi slum areas have been determined by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Blood samples were collected from 36 children with suspected lead poisoning and from 20 control children. The analysis showed that the lead concentration of the patients varied from 0.1 to 6.0 micrograms ml-1. In addition to lead, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Rb were also detected simultaneously, of which the concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb and Pb were determined. The high blood lead levels of the children from this area may be ascribed to environmental pollution due to heavy vehicular traffic and industrial sources.

  4. Microanalysis of materials by PIXE using focused MeV heavy ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuji, Horino; Yoshiaki, Mokuno; Kanenaga, Fujii

    1993-04-01

    MeV heavy ion microprobes, 3 MeV C 2+, Si 2+ and Ni 2+ were applied for micro-PIXE measurements. It was found that the X-ray yields vary drastically as a function of the combination of the atomic number of incident ions and target atoms, which indicates that there is a best combination for specific element analysis. This was demonstrated by an investigation of human nail by a silicon microprobe which was compared with the case of proton. Furthermore, the minimum detectable gold weights in silicon were also estimated as a practical case and it was found that a carbon microprobe was best for measuring gold atoms in silicon.

  5. Constitutive episomal expression of polypeptide IX (pIX) in a 293-based cell line complements the deficiency of pIX mutant adenovirus type 5.

    PubMed Central

    Caravokyri, C; Leppard, K N

    1995-01-01

    The human adenovirus type 5 capsid is composed of a number of distinct polypeptides. It has been shown previously that one of these, polypeptide IX (pIX), is not absolutely required for the production of viable virus. However, viruses lacking this polypeptide have a significantly reduced packaging limit and, in the one case studied, also show a thermolabile virion phenotype. This report describes the use of eukaryotic episomal vectors based on the Epstein-Barr virus replicon to generate cells which stably express pIX. These cells provide pIX that is efficiently incorporated into virions that are genetically pIX-; such enhanced thermostability. These cells have also been used to isolate a genetically pIX- virus having a genome of length some 2.3 kbp in excess of the previously defined packaging limit for pIX- virus; the resulting virions have wild-type thermostability. These cells expand the theoretical capacity of adenovirus vectors for foreign DNA to around 9.2 kbp and may therefore be useful in gene therapy applications in which vector capacity is limiting. PMID:7474071

  6. Calibration of PIXE yields using Cu as a reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayama, I.; Sekiba, D.; Zhao, Q.; Vantomme, A.; Vandervorst, W.; Meersschaut, J.

    2017-09-01

    We have evaluated a systematic deviation from unity of the relative correction factor, h, for calibration of the X-ray yields in particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). For this, we estimated the values of h for various elements in the range 22 ≤ Z ≤ 79, and with Cu as a reference material. The value of h for the elements with a characteristic X-ray energy <20 keV is close to one with an accuracy of 5%. The uncertainty on the h values is comparable to the uncertainty of the ionization cross sections and fluorescence yields.

  7. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Pei, Ma; MacArthur, J. D.; Roeder, P. L.; Mariano, A. N.

    1993-04-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, > 0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found.

  8. Determination of trace pollutants in urban snow using PIXE techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jervis, R. E.; Landsberger, S.; Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.

    1982-02-01

    The absolute concentrations of 25 elements in urban snow samples have been determined by PIXE techniques. Detection limits between 0.2 and 147 ppb for the following elements: Na, Mg, Al, P, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd and Pb were achieved by a simple pre-concentration method. Proton beams of 1.6 MeV and 3.0 MeV were employed to bombard the targets. Comparisons of unconcentrated and pre-concentrated snow samples, blank determinations, sensitivity measurements vs bombarding time and reproducibility tests were also carried out.

  9. Archaeological obsidian from La Sierra Gorda Mexico, by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juárez-Cossío, D.; Terreros, E.; Quiroz-Moreno, J.; Romero-Sánchez, S.; Calligaro, T. F.; Tenorio, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, M.; Rios, M. De Los

    2009-04-01

    The chemical compositions of 42 obsidian pre-Hispanic artifacts from Tancama and Purísima, both archaeological sites of La Sierra Gorda Valleys, México, were analyzed by PIXE technique. These obsidians came from four sources: Sierra de Pachuca Hidalgo, Paraíso Querétaro, Ucareo Michoacán and mainly from Zacualtipán/Metzquititlán Hidalgo. According to archaeological evidences, La Sierra Gorda valleys participated in commercial exchange with other regional sites, from Classic to Post-classic periods (A.D. 300-1500).

  10. Quantification of indium in steel using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.; Rickards, J.; Cheang, J. C.

    1989-04-01

    The quantitative analysis of steel for endodontics tools was carried out using low-energy protons (≤ 700 keV). A computer program for a thick-target analysis which includes enhancement due to secondary fluorescence was used. In this experiment the L-lines of indium are enhanced due to the proximity of other elements' K-lines to the indium absorption edge. The results show that the ionization cross section expression employed to evaluate this magnitude is important.

  11. Improved method for the routine analysis of acetylcholine release in vivo: quantitation in the presence and absence of esterase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Greaney, M D; Marshall, D L; Bailey, B A; Acworth, I N

    1993-12-22

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using electrochemical detection (ED) is described capable of routinely measuring the low levels of acetylcholine (ACh) typically found in rat brain microdialysis samples. Microdialysis was performed in the striatum of the urethane anesthetized rat using a 4-mm membrane length, high recovery (40% at 1.0 microliters/min; ambient conditions), loop-design probe perfused with an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) solution containing physiologically normal calcium levels (1.2 mM). The HPLC method utilizes a polymeric stationary phase to resolve choline (Ch) from ACh. These analytes are then converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by a solid-phase reactor (containing immobilized choline oxidase and acetylcholinesterase enzymes). The H2O2 is detected amperometrically and quantitated on a platinum (Pt) working electrode (+300 mV; with a unique analytical cell featuring a solid-state palladium reference electrode). Two designs of the Pt working electrode were examined, differing only in the support material used (Kel-F or PEEK). The Kel-F/Pt electrode had a limit of detection (LOD) for both analytes of < 30 fmol per 10 microliters with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. Striatal microdialysis perfusates were monitored for ACh and Ch over a 0-1000 nM range of neostigmine (NEO) in the CSF perfusion medium. Using the 4-mm probe, basal ACh and Ch levels were detected with a NEO level as low as 10 nM and were found to be 37 +/- 3 fmol and 22 +/- 1 pmol per 10 microliters (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 6 replicates) respectively. In similar experiments using 3-mm concentric probes comparable (lower) levels of ACh were found with the 50 and 1000 nM NEO doses (n = 4-21 animals). ACh could not be reliably quantitated when animals were perfused with the 10 nM dose of NEO (n = 4). The PEEK/Pt electrode had an improved LOD of < 20 fmol per 10 microliters due to a two- to three-fold decrease in the background noise component. Basal

  12. A new small-footprint external-beam PIXE facility for cultural heritage applications using pulsed proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadrucci, M.; Bazzano, G.; Borgognoni, F.; Chiari, M.; Mazzinghi, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Ruberto, C.; Taccetti, F.

    2017-09-01

    In the framework of the COBRA project, elemental analyses of cultural heritage objects based on the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) are planned in a collaboration between the APAM laboratory of ENEA-Frascati and the LABEC laboratory of INFN in Florence. With this aim a 3-7 MeV pulsed proton beam, driven by the injector of the protontherapy accelerator under construction for the TOP-IMPLART project, will be used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique with a small-footprint pulsed accelerator to Italian small and medium enterprises interested in the composition analysis of ancient artifacts. The experimental set-up for PIXE analysis on the TOP-IMPLART machine consists of a modified assembly of the vertical beam line usually dedicated to radiobiology experiments: the beam produced by the injector (RFQ + DTL, a PL7 ACCSYSHITACHI model) is bent to 90° by a magnet, is collimated by a 300 μm aperture inserted in the end nozzle and extracted into ambient pressure by an exit window consisting of a Upilex foil 7.5 μm thick. The beam is pulsed with a variable pulse duration of 20-100 μs and a repetition rate variable from 10 to 100 Hz. The X-ray detection system is based on a Ketek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) with 7 mm2 active area and 450 μm thickness, with a thin Beryllium entrance window (8 μm). The results of the calibration of this new PIXE set-up using thick target standards and of the analysis of the preliminary measurements on pigments are presented.

  13. Routine Chromosomal Microarray Analysis is Necessary in Korean Patients With Unexplained Developmental Delay/Mental Retardation/Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Saeam; Yu, Nae; Choi, Jong Rak; Jeong, Seri

    2015-01-01

    Background All over the world, chromosomal microarray (CMA) is now the first tier diagnostic assay for genetic testing to evaluate developmental delay (DD), mental retardation (MR), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with unknown etiology. The average diagnostic yield of the CMA test is known to be about 12.2%, while that of conventional G-banding karyotype is below 3%. This study aimed to assess the usefulness of CMA for the purpose of clinical diagnostic testing in the Korean population. Methods We performed CMA and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) tests in 96 patients with normal karyotype and unexplained DD, MR, or ASD. The CMA was conducted with CytoScan 750K array (Affymetrix, USA) with an average resolution of 100 kb. Results Pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) were detected in 15 patients by CMA and in two patients by MLPA for four known microdeletion syndromes (Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome and Williams syndrome) designated by National Health Insurance system in Korea. The diagnostic yield was 15.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Thirteen (13.5%) patients (excluding cases with pathogenic CNVs) had variants of uncertain clinical significance. There was one patient with a 17.1-megabase (Mb) region of homozygosity on chromosome 4q. Conclusions Our findings suggest the necessity of CMA as a routine diagnostic test for unexplained DD, MR, and ASD in Korea. PMID:26206688

  14. Systematic Reviews Published in Emergency Medicine Journals Do Not Routinely Search Clinical Trials Registries: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Keil, Lukas G; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-10-01

    Publication bias compromises the validity of systematic reviews. This problem can be addressed in part through searching clinical trials registries to identify unpublished studies. This study aims to determine how often systematic reviews published in emergency medicine journals include clinical trials registry searches. We identified all systematic reviews published in the 6 highest-impact emergency medicine journals between January 1 and December 31, 2013. Systematic reviews that assessed the effects of an intervention were further examined to determine whether the authors described searching a clinical trials registry and whether this search identified relevant unpublished studies. Of 191 articles identified through PubMed search, 80 were confirmed to be systematic reviews. Our sample consisted of 41 systematic reviews that assessed a specific intervention. Eight of these 41 (20%) searched a clinical trials registry. For 4 of these 8 reviews, the registry search identified at least 1 relevant unpublished study. Systematic reviews published in emergency medicine journals do not routinely include searches of clinical trials registries. By helping authors identify unpublished trial data, the addition of registry searches may improve the validity of systematic reviews. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Loss of β-PIX inhibits focal adhesion disassembly and promotes keratinocyte motility via myosin light chain activation.

    PubMed

    Hiroyasu, Sho; Stimac, Gregory P; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2017-07-15

    During healing of the skin, the cytoskeleton of keratinocytes and their matrix adhesions, including focal adhesions (FAs), undergo reorganization. These changes are coordinated by small GTPases and their regulators, including the guanine nucleotide exchange factor β-PIX (also known as ARHGEF7). In fibroblasts, β-PIX activates small GTPases, thereby enhancing migration. In keratinocytes in vitro, β-PIX localizes to FAs. To study β-PIX functions, we generated β-PIX knockdown keratinocytes. During wound closure of β-PIX knockdown cell monolayers, disassembly of FAs is impaired, and their number and size are increased. In addition, in the β-PIX knockdown cells, phosphorylated myosin light chain (MLC; also known as MYL2) is present not only in the leading edge of cells at the wound front, but also in the cells following the front, while p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a regulator of MLC kinase (MYLK), is mislocalized. Inhibition or depletion of MYLK restores FA distribution in β-PIX knockdown cells. Traction forces generated by β-PIX knockdown cells are increased relative to those in control cells, a result consistent with an unexpected enhancement in the migration of single β-PIX knockdown cells and monolayers of such cells. We propose that targeting β-PIX might be a means of promoting epithelialization of wounds in vivo. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Pre-Hispanic ceramics analyzed using PIXE and radiographic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. C.; Rizzutto, M. A.; Added, N.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Trindade, G. F.; Fleming, M. I. D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Ceramics objects are the most common artifacts found during excavation of archaeological sites and often depicts cultural habits and manufacturing technologies of the culture. The determination of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the ceramic objects such as the ceramic porosity, addition of tempers in the clay, main chemical components and the trace elements present in the ceramic can reveal many aspects about the manufacturing processes used by the culture, its degree of development, the provenance of the raw materials and the exchange networks. Also the radiography can help to investigate the manufactured processes, the size of the tempers used and the conservation status of the artifacts. In this present work two non-destructive techniques, radiography and PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) were used to characterize one set of thirty-six pre-Hispanic ceramic pieces from the Chimu Culture conserved in the Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia (MAE/USP). The PIXE analyses performed in the external beam setup at LAMFI (Laboratório de Análise de Materiais por Feixes Iônicos) allowed measure the principal chemical elements such as Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe and Ca, present in this group of pieces. X-ray imagings allowed identify the manufacture processes, the granularity of the tempers used, as well as the similarity and the differences between the pieces studied.

  17. Verification of a three-dimensional nodal transient neutronics routine for the TRAC-PF1/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Bandini, B.R.; Ivanov, K.N.; Baratta, A.J.; Steinke, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    The verification of a three-dimensional nodal transient neutronics routine in the TRAC-PF1/MOD3 Version 1.0 thermal-hydraulic system analysis computer code is discussed. This neutronics algorithm is based on a fully implicit transient version of the well-known nodal expansion method. Results from running TRAC-PF1/MOD3 with this new neutronics routine were compared with the results of running two established neutronics/thermal-hydraulic space-time codes. HERMITE and ARROTTA. The transient chosen of this code verification was a rapid ejection of an off-center control rod in a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor, which is initially at hot standby. This severe prompt-critical transient provides a stringent test of TRAC-PF1/MOD3`s new multidimensional neutronics routine and its coupling to the existing thermal-hydraulic solution methodology. Because of its speed, the transient tests only the fuel rod heat conduction coupling and not the coolant thermal-hydraulic coupling. Acceptable agreement as obtained among the results from TRAC-PF1/MOD3, HERMITE, and ARROTTA during all phases of this transient. Agreement was in the areas of time dependence of total-core and peak-assembly powers, as well as the time dependence of the core-average and peak-assembly fuel temperatures. In addition, comparison of several steady-state calculations that provide initial conditions for the transient analysis showed acceptable agreement in the calculated eigenvalues and normalized assembly-power distributions.

  18. THE MAGNESIUM ISOTOPOLOGUES OF MgH IN THE A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Wallace, Lloyd; Ram, Ram S.; Bernath, Peter F.; Sneden, Christopher; Lucatello, Sara E-mail: wallace@noao.edu E-mail: pbernath@odu.edu E-mail: sara.lucatello@oapd.inaf.it

    2013-08-15

    Using laboratory hollow cathode spectra we have identified lines of the less common magnesium isotopologues of MgH, {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH, in the A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system. Based on the previous analysis of {sup 24}MgH, molecular lines have been measured and molecular constants derived for {sup 25}MgH and {sup 26}MgH. Term values and linelists, in both wavenumber and wavelength units, are presented. The A {sup 2}{Pi}-X {sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +} system of MgH is important for measuring the magnesium isotope ratios in stars. Examples of analysis using the new linelists to derive the Mg isotope ratio in a metal poor dwarf and giant are shown.

  19. A method for the generation of combinatorial antibody libraries using pIX phage display.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changshou; Mao, Shenlan; Kaufmann, Gunnar; Wirsching, Peter; Lerner, Richard A; Janda, Kim D

    2002-10-01

    For more than a decade, phage displayed combinatorial antibody libraries have been used to generate and select a wide variety of antibodies. We previously reported that the phage coat proteins pVII and pIX could be used to display the heterodimeric structure of the antibody Fv region. Herein, aspects of this technology were invoked and extended to construct a large, human single-chain Fv (scFv) library of 4.5 x 10(9) members displayed on pIX of filamentous bacteriophage. Furthermore, the diversity, quality, and utility of the library were demonstrated by the selection of scFv clones against six different protein antigens. Notably, more than 90% of the selected clones showed positive binding for their respective antigens after as few as three rounds of panning. Analyzed scFvs were also found to be of high affinity. For example, kinetic analysis (BIAcore) revealed that scFvs against staphylococcal enterotoxin B and cholera toxin B subunit had a nanomolar and subnanomolar dissociation constant, respectively, affording affinities comparable to, or exceeding that, of mAbs obtained from immunization. High specificity was also attained, not only between very distinct proteins, but also in the case of the Ricinus communis ("ricin") agglutinins (RCA(60) and RCA(120)), despite >80% sequence homology between the two. The results suggested that the performance of pIX-display libraries can potentially exceed that of the pIII-display format and make it ideally suited for panning a wide variety of target antigens.

  20. Micro-pixe study on sorption behaviors of cobalt by lichen biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Sakai, Takuro; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Satoh, Takahiro; Oikawa, Masakazu

    2003-09-01

    Sorption behavior of Cobalt (Co) by lichen biomass has been studied in the foliose lichen Permotrema tinctorum in solution between pH 3 and 5. Disc of P. tinctorum, weighing ≈9 mg was incubated in 25 ml 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing 1 mM Co for up to 96 h. Concentrations of Co in the solutions were measured at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h by ICP-AES. Spatial distribution of Co, K, P and Fe in the cross-section of P. tinctorum was examined by in-air μ-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) technique developed in the TIARA facility of JAERI. Sorption of Co by P. tinctorum reached equilibrium within 24 h. Co uptake was averaged to be 27 dry wt.%, and was independent of solution pHs between 3 and 5. Two-dimensional distribution of Co indicates that the sorbed Co was localized, and the density of Co in the lichen was ordered lower surface > upper surface, medullary layer > algal layer. Highest density in the two-dimensional distribution of Co is obtained in the lower surface suggesting that Co was sorbed by melanin-like pigment contained in the lower surface. Two-dimensional distribution of Co did not correspond to Fe indicating that Co was not adsorbed on the Fe-containing minerals trapped on P. tinctorum. It is concluded that μ-PIXE analysis is a useful technique to detect the distribution of low concentration of elements in lichen biomass.

  1. Targeting and activation of Rac1 are mediated by the exchange factor beta-Pix.

    PubMed

    ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Jaffer, Zahara M; Chernoff, Jonathan; Hordijk, Peter L

    2006-02-27

    Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are critical regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and control complex functions such as cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and cell division. It is generally accepted that localized GTPase activation is required for the proper initiation of downstream signaling events, although the molecular mechanisms that control targeting of Rho GTPases are unknown. In this study, we show that the Rho GTPase Rac1, via a proline stretch in its COOH terminus, binds directly to the SH3 domain of the Cdc42/Rac activator beta-Pix (p21-activated kinase [Pak]-interacting exchange factor). The interaction with beta-Pix is nucleotide independent and is necessary and sufficient for Rac1 recruitment to membrane ruffles and to focal adhesions. In addition, the Rac1-beta-Pix interaction is required for Rac1 activation by beta-Pix as well as for Rac1-mediated spreading. Finally, using cells deficient for the beta-Pix-binding kinase Pak1, we show that Pak1 regulates the Rac1-beta-Pix interaction and controls cell spreading and adhesion-induced Rac1 activation. These data provide a model for the intracellular targeting and localized activation of Rac1 through its exchange factor beta-Pix.

  2. Indoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider before starting an exercise program . Circuit Training Circuit training is 1 type of routine ... your hips and knees until your thighs are parallel to the floor. Return to starting position. 15 ...

  3. Daily exercise routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on daily exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: daily exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.

  4. Routine sputum culture

    MedlinePlus

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:409- ...

  5. Detection of X chromosome aneuploidy using Southern blot analysis during routine population-based screening for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adir, Vardit; Shahak, Elena; Dar, Hanna; Borochowitz, Zvi U

    2003-01-01

    We report herein two cases where detection of X chromosome aneuploidy (cytogenetically proved 45,X/46XX and 47,XXX) was made possible by molecular diagnosis during population-based carrier screening for Fragile X syndrome, using Southern blot analysis. This study emphasizes the value of molecular analysis for gene dosage to suggest chromosomal aneuploidy.

  6. Scintigraphic changes of osteoarthritis: An analysis of findings during routine bone scans to evaluate the incidence in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Aban M; Jain, HM

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The reported prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) varies according to the method that is used to detect it. X-rays are commonly used in the diagnosis of OA. However, marked osteoarthritic damage must be present to detect characteristic changes with radiologic imaging. Our intention was to evaluate bone scans (1) he occurrence of such changes, (2) he incidence of OA (single or multiple joints) in the general population (a mixture of urban and rural) who were asymptomatic. Data on OA incidence in India is sketchy and sparse as against more detailed information obtained from USA and European nations. Also, clinical rheumatologists are not well-versed with the potential application of bone scans in the management of arthritides. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty nine planar images of routine bone scans were randomly evaluated by two trained nuclear medicine physicians. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to over 80 years. Results: It is observed that as the age increases, the incidence of joint involvement increases. However, it is worth noting that even in the age group of 20-40 years, as many as 34% of asymptomatic persons have involvement of the joints. In this age group, as the manifestation is probably in the inception stage, there is a tendency for single joint involvement as against multiple joints seen in the older age groups. Another point to note is that the incidence of joint involvement was not affected by weight. In our patient population, gross obesity was not seen. The predominant joints involved are the knees and hips, followed by the shoulders and ankles. Females show a higher incidence than males. Some patients would be having only a single site or multiple site involvement. This observation is important as in a single, simple test whole body survey gives more information with low radiation burden. Conclusion: Scintigraphic prevalence of OA is higher than reported in US, Europe, and Asia as this test is more sensitive in detecting

  7. Efficient identification of flavones, flavanones and their glycosides in routine analysis via off-line combination of sensitive NMR and HPLC experiments.

    PubMed

    Blunder, Martina; Orthaber, Andreas; Bauer, Rudolf; Bucar, Franz; Kunert, Olaf

    2017-03-01

    We present a standardized, straightforward and efficient approach applicable in routine analysis of flavonoids combining sensitive NMR and HPLC experiments. The determination of the relative configuration of sugar moieties usually requires the acquisition of (13)C NMR shift values. We use a combination of HPLC and sensitive NMR experiments (1D-proton, 2D-HSQC) for the unique identification of known flavones, flavanones, flavonols and their glycosides. Owing to their broad range of polarity, we developed HPLC and UHPLC methods (H2O/MeOH/MeCN/HCOOH) which we applied and validated by analyzing 46 common flavones and flavanones and exemplified for four plant extracts. A searchable data base is provided with full data comprising complete proton and carbon resonance assignments, expansions of HSQC-spectra, HPLC parameters (retention time, relative retention factor), UV/Vis and mass spectral data of all compounds, which enables a rapid identification and routine analysis of flavones and flavanones from plant extracts and other products in nutrition and food chemistry.

  8. A fast and effective routine method based on HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS for the analysis of organotin compounds in biota samples.

    PubMed

    Noventa, Seta; Barbaro, Jvan; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Gion, Claudia; Rampazzo, Federico; Brusà, Rossella Boscolo; Gabellini, Massimo; Berto, Daniela

    2015-02-09

    This work validated an automated, fast, and low solvent- consuming methodology suited for routine analysis of tributyltin (TBT) and degradation products (dibutyltin, DBT; monobutyltin, MBT) in biota samples. The method was based on the headspace solid-phase microextraction methodology (HS-SPME), coupled with gas chromatographic separation and tandem mass-spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The effectiveness of the matrix-matched signal ratio external calibration was tested for quantification purposes. The exclusion of matrix influences in the calibration curves proved the suitability of this versatile quantification method. The method detection limits obtained were of 3 ng Sn g(-1) dw for all the analytes. The analysis of references materials showed satisfying accuracy under optimum calibration conditions (% recovery between 87-111%; |Z-scores|<2). The repeatability RSD% and intra-laboratory reproducibility RSD% were lower than 9.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The work proved the remarkable analytical performances of the method and its high potential for routine application in monitoring organotin compounds (OTC). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The PIX-GIT complex: a G protein signaling cassette in control of cell shape.

    PubMed

    Frank, Scott R; Hansen, Steen H

    2008-06-01

    Arf and Rho GTP-binding proteins coordinately regulate membrane dynamics and cytoskeletal rearrangements. The Cdc42/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor PIX and the Arf GTPase-activating protein GIT form a stable complex in cells. The PIX-GIT complex functions to integrate signaling among Arf, Cdc42, and Rac proteins in response to cues emanating from integrins, heterotrimeric G proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases, and cell-cell interactions. A concept that emerges from the literature is that the PIX-GIT complex serves as a cassette to elicit changes in cell shape essential for polarized cell responses in a wide range of biological contexts.

  10. Evaluation of a carbon-rod atomizer for routine determination of trace metals by atomic-absorption spectroscopy applications to analysis of lubricating oil and crude oil.

    PubMed

    Hall, G; Bratzel, M P; Chakrabarti, C L

    1973-08-01

    A carbon-rod atomizer (CRA) fitted with a 'mini-Massmann' carbon rod was evaluated for routine analysis of petroleum and petroleum products for trace metal content by atomic-absorption spectroscopy. Aspects investigated included sensitivity, detection limit, effect of solvent type, and interferences. The results of analysis of oil samples with this technique were compared with those obtained by other techniques. Metals studied were silver, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. Sensitivity and detection limit values obtained with the CRA were similar to those obtained with the carbon-filament atomizer. Strong 'solvent effects' were observed as well as interference by cations. On the basis of this study, design changes for the CRA are suggested, with the object of minimizing 'solvent effects' and interferences, increasing the atomization efficiency, and increasing the residence time of the atomic vapour in the optical path of the instrumental system.

  11. X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Analysis: One of the Few Advanced Physical Measuring Techniques That Have Established Themselves for Routine Application in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nierlich, Wolfgang; Gegner, Jürgen

    The conventional procedure of X-ray diffraction (XRD) residual stress measurement is improved by means of a modification of the beam path of the diffractometer and an iterative technique that includes a pre-analysis of the nearpeak line-profile. The achieved short measuring times of 5 and around 10 min per residual stress value and retained austenite content, respectively, serve as precondition for routine industrial applications over the last three decades within SKF. The line width represents a measure of material ageing within the lifetime cycle of a rolling bearing: calibration curves for the (near-) surface and the sub-surface failure mode are presented. Material response analysis permits differentiation of these failure modes and between low- and high-cycle fatigue.

  12. Elemental content of anagen hairs in a normal Caucasian population studies with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    SciTech Connect

    Forslind, B.; Li, H.K.; Malmqvist, K.G.; Wiegleb, D.

    1986-01-01

    The elemental content of anagen hair fibers in a Caucasian population of healthy females and males in the age range 10-69 years was performed to constitute a baseline for further studies of pathological conditions. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses were performed on single hair fibers in triplicate from 103 individuals in order to determine sulfur, zinc, calcium, and chlorine content. The hair fibers were all anagen hairs collected from a site little influenced by genetic and hormonal influences 1.5 cm above the right ear of the probands. An area 5-8 mm from the follicle bottom was chosen for the analysis in all cases to minimize effect of hair-do contamination. The average sulfur content was 0.049 g/g and the average zinc content 170 micrograms/g. These results were not significantly influenced by chloroform/ethanol rinsing before analysis. The calcium and chlorine contents were 330 micrograms/g and 0.0033 g/g respectively. The latter data are expected to be more seriously influenced by external factors (e.g., contamination) than sulfur and zinc. No correlation between elemental concentration and sex was found for sulfur and zinc in the present material. PIXE analysis of single hair fibers yields valuable information on the elemental composition of hair fibers and can be rapidly and efficiently performed after simple mounting procedures.

  13. Methods for routine control of irradiated food: Determination of the irradiation status of shellfish by thermoluminescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, G. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Helle, N.; Bögl, K. W.

    1994-06-01

    In some countries, clearance has been given for treating certain types of shellfish by ionizing radiation in order to increase the shelf-life and to reduce health hazards which might be caused by contaminating microorganisms. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) analysis was used to examine the irradiation status of shellfish products purchased from local suppliers. For analysis minerals were isolated from the guts of the animals. Although on none of the examined products an irradiation treatment prior to analysis could be shown, the results obtained on non-irradiated and irradiated products have revealed that irradiation within the commercially used dose range can clearly be detected. Already first glow TL intensities of minerald indicated irradiation treatments. Normalized TL signals of non-irradiated and irradiated samples were clearly separated. By calculation of differences of TL intensities and TL signals between non-irradiated and irradiated samples in dependency of integration temperature an optimized integration area for glow curves was determined. The result of this study agree well with results obtained by two large-scale intercomparisons between food control laboratories to detect irradiation treatment of spices and herbal products as well as of fruit and vegetables by TL analysis of contaminating minerals.

  14. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kortüm, Fanny; Harms, Frederike Leonie; Hennighausen, Natascha; Rosenberger, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow. PMID:26177020

  15. Opportunities and challenges in conducting secondary analysis of HIV programmes using data from routine health information systems and personal health information.

    PubMed

    Gloyd, Stephen; Wagenaar, Bradley H; Woelk, Godfrey B; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    HIV programme data from routine health information systems (RHIS) and personal health information (PHI) provide ample opportunities for secondary data analysis. However, these data pose unique opportunities and challenges for use in health system monitoring, along with process and impact evaluations. Analyses focused on retrospective case reviews of four of the HIV-related studies published in this JIAS supplement. We identify specific opportunities and challenges with respect to the secondary analysis of RHIS and PHI data. Challenges working with both HIV-related RHIS and PHI included missing, inconsistent and implausible data; rapidly changing indicators; systematic differences in the utilization of services; and patient linkages over time and different data sources. Specific challenges among RHIS data included numerous registries and indicators, inconsistent data entry, gaps in data transmission, duplicate registry of information, numerator-denominator incompatibility and infrequent use of data for decision-making. Challenges specific to PHI included the time burden for busy providers, the culture of lax charting, overflowing archives for paper charts and infrequent chart review. Many of the challenges that undermine effective use of RHIS and PHI data for analyses are related to the processes and context of collecting the data, excessive data requirements, lack of knowledge of the purpose of data and the limited use of data among those generating the data. Recommendations include simplifying data sources, analysis and reporting; conducting systematic data quality audits; enhancing the use of data for decision-making; promoting routine chart review linked with simple patient tracking systems; and encouraging open access to RHIS and PHI data for increased use.

  16. Bedside quantification of dead-space fraction using routine clinical data in patients with acute lung injury: secondary analysis of two prospective trials

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dead-space fraction (Vd/Vt) has been shown to be a powerful predictor of mortality in acute lung injury (ALI) patients. The measurement of Vd/Vt is based on the analysis of expired CO2 which is not a part of standard practice thus limiting widespread clinical application of this method. The objective of this study was to determine prognostic value of Vd/Vt estimated from routinely collected pulmonary variables. Methods Secondary analysis of the original data from two prospective studies of ALI patients. Estimated Vd/Vt was calculated using the rearranged alveolar gas equation: Vd/Vt=1−[(0.86×V˙CO2est)/(VE×PaCO2)] where V˙CO2est is the estimated CO2 production calculated from the Harris Benedict equation, minute ventilation (VE) is obtained from the ventilator rate and expired tidal volume and PaCO2 from arterial gas analysis. Logistic regression models were created to determine the prognostic value of estimated Vd/Vt. Results One hundred and nine patients in Mayo Clinic validation cohort and 1896 patients in ARDS-net cohort demonstrated an increase in percent mortality for every 10% increase in Vd/Vt in a dose response fashion. After adjustment for non-pulmonary and pulmonary prognostic variables, both day 1 (adjusted odds ratio-OR = 1.07, 95%CI 1.03 to 1.13) and day 3 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.18) estimated dead-space fraction predicted hospital mortality. Conclusions Elevated estimated Vd/Vt predicts mortality in ALI patients in a dose response manner. A modified alveolar gas equation may be of clinical value for a rapid bedside estimation of Vd/Vt, utilizing routinely collected clinical data. PMID:20670411

  17. A PIXE method for investigating the time changes of halothane content during anaesthesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazur, Janina; Jarczyk, Lucjan; Rokita, Eugeniusz; Słomińska, Dorota; Strzałkowski, Adam; Sych, Marek

    1981-03-01

    The PIXE method was applied to determine the time variation of the bromine content in blood during and after anaesthesia. A mathematical model to describe the processes responsible for the bromine distribution is proposed.

  18. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  19. A cost-benefit analysis of a routine varicella vaccination program for United States Air Force Academy cadets.

    PubMed

    Burnham, B R; Wells, T S; Riddle, J R

    1998-09-01

    The United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) is one of the nation's military universities, with the mission to educate and motivate cadets to be career Air Force officers. This diverse population arrives at the USAFA with varying immunization records and disease histories. A review of USAFA cadet medical records identified an alarming cost of treating a simple, preventable, generally childhood disease: chickenpox. In July 1995, a cost-benefit analysis was performed on the use of varicella vaccine among cadets and preparatory school students at the USAFA. Based on this analysis, the USAFA implemented a strategy of serologic screening and vaccination. Although this study does not establish causation, follow-up data showed a dramatic decrease in cases, associated hospitalizations, and therefore costs during the first year after implementation. Fiscal projections indicate that these costs savings should increase through year 4 of the program and continue thereafter. At year 4, the total cadet population will have been serologically screened and/or vaccinated against chickenpox.

  20. A modified routine analysis of arsenic content in drinking-water in Bangladesh by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Wahed, M A; Chowdhury, Dulaly; Nermell, Barbro; Khan, Shafiqul Islam; Ilias, Mohammad; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Persson, Lars Ake; Vahter, Marie

    2006-03-01

    The high prevalence of elevated levels of arsenic in drinking-water in many countries, including Bangladesh, has necessitated the development of reliable and rapid methods for the determination of a wide range of arsenic concentrations in water. A simple hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) method for the determination of arsenic in the range of microg/L to mg/L concentrations in water is reported here. The method showed linearity over concentrations ranging from 1 to 30 microg/L, but requires dilution of samples with higher concentrations. The detection limit ranged from 0.3 to 0.5 microg/L. Evaluation of the method, using internal quality-control (QC) samples (pooled water samples) and spiked internal QC samples throughout the study, and Standard Reference Material in certain lots, showed good accuracy and precision. Analysis of duplicate water samples at another laboratory also showed good agreement. In total, 13,286 tubewell water samples from Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh, were analyzed. Thirty-seven percent of the water samples had concentrations below 50 microg/L, 29% below the WHO guideline value of 10 microg/L, and 17% below 1 microg/L. The HG-AAS was found to be a precise, sensitive, and reasonably fast and simple method for analysis of arsenic concentrations in water samples.

  1. Evaluation of metal trace detachment from dosing pumps using PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Omar; Mejia, Jorge; Laloy, Julie; Alpan, Lütfiye; Toussaint, Olivier; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Metal trace detachment evaluation is essential for instruments destined for pharmaceutical applications, such as pumps. Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was used to determine and quantify metal traces originated from stainless steel and ceramic dosing pumps. Metal traces were quantified from either distilled water samples or cellulose filters in two tests: a short-term test of 16 h mimicking a daily cycle of a dosing pump for industrial applications, and a long-term test of 9 days evaluating the pump wearing. The main result is that ceramic dosing pumps present lower metal detachment than stainless steel counterparts. Traces of Si and Al were found originating from pieces around the pumps (pipes and joints).

  2. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Khademi Nadooshan, F.

    2012-10-01

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  3. Microcharacterizing zircon mineral grain by ionoluminescence combined with PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C.; Homman, N. P.-O.; Johansson, L.; Malmqvist, K. G.

    1994-03-01

    When MeV ions impinge on certain materials, UV, visible and/or near IR light is emitted. In an on-going project this process, ionoluminescence (IL), is combined with μ-PIXE at the Lund nuclear microprobe facility, and applied to microcharacterization of geological materials. The IL method is unique in obtaining chemical information that is not readily available with other IBA techniques. Use of IL microscopy and spectroscopy is demonstrated in this paper. The origin of intrinsic and extrinsic ionoluminescence, especially IL from rare earth elements (REE) are discussed. The possibility of performing IL microscopy to study mineral growth zoning structures and to locate inherited core assisting ion-probe for detailed age dating is discussed. We intend to demonstrate that combined with other IBA methods ionoluminescence is a powerful microcharacterization method in geosciences.

  4. Tang dynasty (618-907) bowl measured with PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, M.; Käyhkö, M.; Hahn, G.; von Uexküll-Güldenband, N.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    Brownish bowl originating from an underwater shipwreck located near Belitung island in the Java Sea, some 600 km south-east from Singapore, has been measured with particle induced X-ray emission. This study was a pilot project for the - now a spin-off company - Recenart research team where one target was to evaluate the authenticity of the different type of art objects. PIXE measurements were done from three different material positions from a single bowl received from a customer. These locations were categorized as a bluish/greenish pigment (under glaze), thick glaze and the body clay. When the obtained data was compared to the other references from different dynasties and kiln sites, the closest match was indeed the Tang dynasty, Tongguan/Ghangsha kiln-site potsherds - from where the bowl in question was also suspected to originate.

  5. Plating of archaeological metallic objects studies by differential PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmit, Ž.; Istenič, J.; Knific, T.

    2008-05-01

    The differential PIXE method using an external proton beam up to 3 MeV energy was applied to examine plated layers of tin, silver and gold on bronze, brass, iron and silver objects from Roman and Early Medieval period. The concentration profiles were deduced from the measurements by the method of virtual slicing the target into layers, and minimizing the differences between the measured and calculated X-ray yields. The tinned layers were usually thin (about 1 μm), but the thickness of silver and gold layers was in several cases thicker and exceeded the proton range. The plating techniques were identified as application of the molten metal for tinning, and as fire gilding for the gilded objects.

  6. VeloPix: the pixel ASIC for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poikela, T.; De Gaspari, M.; Plosila, J.; Westerlund, T.; Ballabriga, R.; Buytaert, J.; Campbell, M.; Llopart, X.; Wyllie, K.; Gromov, V.; van Beuzekom, M.; Zivkovic, V.

    2015-01-01

    The LHCb Vertex Detector (VELO) will be upgraded in 2018 along with the other subsystems of LHCb in order to enable full readout at 40 MHz, with the data fed directly to the software triggering algorithms. The upgraded VELO is a lightweight hybrid pixel detector operating in vacuum in close proximity to the LHC beams. The readout will be provided by a dedicated front-end ASIC, dubbed VeloPix, matched to the LHCb readout requirements and the 55 × 55 μm VELO pixel dimensions. The chip is closely related to the Timepix3, from the Medipix family of ASICs. The principal challenge that the chip has to meet is a hit rate of up to 900 Mhits/s, resulting in a required output bandwidth of more than 16 Gbit/s. The occupancy across the chip is also very non-uniform, and the radiation levels reach an integrated 400 Mrad over the lifetime of the detector.VeloPix is a binary pixel readout chip with a data driven readout, designed in 130 nm CMOS technology. The pixels are combined into groups of 2 × 4 super pixels, enabling a shared logic and a reduction of bandwidth due to combined address and time stamp information. The pixel hits are combined with other simultaneous hits in the same super pixel, time stamped, and immediately driven off-chip. The analog front-end must be sufficiently fast to accurately time stamp the data, with a small enough dead time to minimize data loss in the most occupied regions of the chip. The data is driven off chip with a custom designed high speed serialiser. The current status of the ASIC design, the chip architecture and the simulations will be described.

  7. Low-risk young adult patients with chest pain may not benefit from routine cardiac stress testing: a Bayesian analysis.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Matthew; Youngquist, Scott; Bledsoe, Joseph; Madsen, Troy; Bossart, Philip; Davis, Virgil; Barton, Erik

    2010-09-01

    Low-risk emergency department (ED) chest pain patients with a nondiagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) and negative cardiac biomarkers are commonly evaluated with cardiac stress testing to detect undiagnosed coronary artery disease. Provocative testing incurs certain costs and may require additional time investment either in the ED or in an observation setting. Recent research has questioned the utility of provocative testing in young adults with negative cardiac biomarkers and nondiagnostic ECG. We sought to evaluate the utility of cardiac stress testing in our population of young adult patients with chest pain. We performed a retrospective chart review of all chest pain patients aged 40 years and younger who were admitted to our ED observation unit over the 14-month period between April 2006 and May 2007. We included all patients who were admitted to the observation unit for serial biomarkers and provocative testing and had normal or nondiagnostic ECG, no history of coronary disease, and an initial negative troponin. We recorded baseline characteristics and stress test results of these patients and reviewed the patient charts for the 30-day period following discharge to identify repeat hospital visits and adverse events. We used Bayesian analysis to estimate the rate of true-positive stress testing in this population, using the only prior study of unit patients showing as high as 2 of 220 patients testing positive as a prior estimate. A total of 36 patients met inclusion criteria; average age was 34.6 years old (range: 22-40 years) and 61% were male. Patient risk factors included hypertension (19%), diabetes (6%), family history (42%), and smoking (44%). All patients had negative serial cardiac biomarkers and a negative treadmill stress echocardiogram. Thirty-day follow-up demonstrated no adverse cardiac events. We performed Bayesian analysis through the addition of the 36 patients to the 220 patients represented by prior data. The posterior probability distribution

  8. Routine DNA testing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Routine DNA testing. It’s done once you’ve Marker-Assisted Breeding Pipelined promising Qantitative Trait Loci within your own breeding program and thereby established the performance-predictive power of each DNA test for your germplasm under your conditions. By then you are ready to screen your par...

  9. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  10. Graph-Plotting Routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1987-01-01

    Plotter routine for IBM PC (AKPLOT) designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as integral parts of their documentation. Allows user to generate graph and edit its appearance on cathode-ray tube. Graph may undergo many interactive alterations before finally dumped from screen to be plotted by printer. Written in BASIC.

  11. Learning from Homeschooling Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the routines of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…

  12. When Denial Becomes Routine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuper, Leo

    1991-01-01

    Claims denial of genocide has become a routine defense as a result of the United Nations definition of international crimes. Describes grounds for denial by various governments and list arguments they have made to justify genocidal policies. Argues some academics assist in the process of denial by using revisionist strategies. (NL)

  13. PROPER: Optical propagation routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krist, John E.

    2014-05-01

    PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Distributed as IDL source code, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).

  14. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  15. Learning from Homeschooling Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a rare opportunity to look inside the homeschool and to observe the routines of homeschooling families from across the United States. With more than 1000 survey participants, and nine parents selected for interviews, the compiled data were analyzed through open coding techniques. Meaningful aspects that arose from the routines…

  16. Application of CZE Method in Routine Analysis for Determination of B-Complex Vitamins in Pharmaceutical and Veterinary Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Marina; Jasionowska, Renata; Salvatore, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    A competitive CZE method for quality control analysis of multivitamin preparations and veterinary products containing B-group vitamins was developed. Vitamins of interest are thiamine hydrochloride (B1), thiamine monophosphate chloride (B1a), riboflavine (B2), riboflavine-5′monophosphate (B2a), nicotinamide (B3), d-pantothenic acid calcium salt (B5), pyridoxine hydrochloride (B6), folic acid (B9), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (B10). These analytes were separated optimizing the experimental conditions in 20 mM tetraborate buffer pH = 9.2 as a BGE (background electrolyte), on a Beckman P/ACE System MDQ instrument, using uncoated fused silica capillary. The effective capillary length was of 49.5 cm, I.D. = 50 μm, the applied voltage 20 kV and the temperature 25°C. Detection was performed by a diode array detector at 214 nm for all vitamins except B5 (190 nm) and B2a (260 nm). Separation time was about 9 min. After experimental conditions optimization, the proposed method was validated. Precision of migration time and corrected peak area, linearity range, LOD and LOQ, accuracy (recovery), robustness, and ruggedness were evaluated for each analyte demonstrating the good reliability of the method. Analyses of the pharmaceutical real samples were performed and confirmed the versatility of this method. PMID:22536244

  17. Targeting and activation of Rac1 are mediated by the exchange factor β-Pix

    PubMed Central

    ten Klooster, Jean Paul; Jaffer, Zahara M.; Chernoff, Jonathan; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2006-01-01

    Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are critical regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and control complex functions such as cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and cell division. It is generally accepted that localized GTPase activation is required for the proper initiation of downstream signaling events, although the molecular mechanisms that control targeting of Rho GTPases are unknown. In this study, we show that the Rho GTPase Rac1, via a proline stretch in its COOH terminus, binds directly to the SH3 domain of the Cdc42/Rac activator β-Pix (p21-activated kinase [Pak]–interacting exchange factor). The interaction with β-Pix is nucleotide independent and is necessary and sufficient for Rac1 recruitment to membrane ruffles and to focal adhesions. In addition, the Rac1–β-Pix interaction is required for Rac1 activation by β-Pix as well as for Rac1-mediated spreading. Finally, using cells deficient for the β-Pix–binding kinase Pak1, we show that Pak1 regulates the Rac1–β-Pix interaction and controls cell spreading and adhesion-induced Rac1 activation. These data provide a model for the intracellular targeting and localized activation of Rac1 through its exchange factor β-Pix. PMID:16492808

  18. β-Pix modulates actin-mediated recruitment of synaptic vesicles to synapses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Bamji, Shernaz X

    2011-11-23

    Presynaptic compartments are formed through the recruitment of preassembled clusters of proteins to points of cell-cell contact, however, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying this process remains unclear. We demonstrate that clusters of polymerized actin can recruit and maintain synaptic vesicles to discrete sites along the axon, and that cadherin/β-catenin/scribble/β-pix complexes play an important role in this event. Previous work has demonstrated that β-catenin and scribble are important for the clustering of vesicles at synapses. We demonstrate that β-pix, a Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), forms a complex with cadherin, β-catenin, and scribble at synapses and enhances localized actin polymerization in rat hippocampal neurons. In cells expressing β-pix siRNA or dominant-negative β-pix that lacks its GEF activity, actin polymerization at synapses is dramatically reduced, and synaptic vesicle localization is disrupted. This β-pix phenotype can be rescued by cortactin overexpression, suggesting that β-pix-mediated actin polymerization at synapses regulates vesicle localization.

  19. [Investigations into the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers based on the analysis of results of extraordinary health examinations].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M

    1998-11-01

    School teachers are regarded as one of the danger groups in contracting tuberculosis infection and are subjected to strict tuberculosis controls, since when they develop tuberculosis, many school children are exposed to infection to the disease. However, the recent decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Japan has led to disputes concerning the significance of routine mass health examinations for tuberculosis. In this study, the significance of routine health examinations for tuberculosis in teachers was investigated by the analysis of the results of extraordinary health examinations carried out for tuberculosis in teachers as the index cases. A total of 496 extraordinary health examinations were carried out by Nagoya City from 1975 to 1986 and by Aichi Prefecture from 1980 to 1995. In 49 instances of these examinations, teachers were regarded as index cases, which included 25 teachers of public primary, middle or high schools and 14 teachers of private schools, including private instructors for piano, painting or calligraphy, and teachers for supplementary education. The results of these examinations in both groups were compared, regarding the routes of notification, the disease status of the index cases, and the frequency and the scale of the infections of tuberculosis observed among contacts with the index cases. "Group infections of tuberculosis" was defined as instances the infection in which 20 or more cases were infected by the index case, "small scale group infection" as 5-19 infected cases, and "cases with infection" as 1-4 infected cases. The result obtained were as follows. 1. The response rates to routine health examinations were 99.9% in the teachers of public primary, middle or high schools, and about 20-30% in the teachers of private schools. 2. The proportion of the cases notefied by routine examinations were 68.0% in the former group and 21.4% in the latter group. The cases notefied before the onset of the symptoms in the former group was

  20. Using ICP and micro-PIXE to investigate possible differences in the mineral composition of genetically modified versus wild-type sorghum grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndimba, R.; Cloete, K.; Mehlo, L.; Kossmann, J.; Mtshali, C.; Pineda-Vargas, C.

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, possible differences in the mineral composition of transgenic versus non-transgenic sorghum grains were investigated using inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES); and, in-tissue elemental mapping by micro Proton-Induced X-ray Emission (micro-PIXE) analysis. ICP AES was used to analyse the bulk mineral content of the wholegrain flour derived from each genotype; whilst micro-PIXE was used to interrogate localised differences in mineral composition specific to certain areas of the grain, such as the bran layer and the central endosperm tissue. According to the results obtained, no significant difference in the average Fe, Zn or Ca content was found to differentiate the transgenic from the wild-type grain using ICP-AES. However, using micro-PIXE, a significant reduction in zinc could be detected in the bran layer of the transgenic grains relative to wild-type. Although it is difficult to draw firm conclusions, as a result of the small sample size used in this study, micro-PIXE has nonetheless proven itself as a useful technique for highlighting the possibility that there may be reduced levels of zinc accumulation in the bran layer of the transgenic grains. Given that the genetic modification targets proteins that are highly concentrated in certain parts of the bran tissue, it seems plausible that the reduced levels of zinc may be an unintended consequence of the silencing of kafirin proteins. Although no immediate health or nutritional concerns emerge from this preliminary finding, it is noted that zinc plays an important biological role within this part of the grain as a structural stabiliser and antioxidant factor. Further study is therefore needed to assess more definitively the extent of the apparent localised reduction in zinc in the transgenic grains and how this may affect other important grain quality characteristics.