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Sample records for routine primary care

  1. Self-management support in routine primary care by nurses.

    PubMed

    Westland, Heleen; Schröder, Carin D; de Wit, Jessica; Frings, Judith; Trappenburg, Jaap C A; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2017-09-27

    To examine how and to what extent self-management support, including behaviour change support, is provided by primary care nurses in routine consultations with chronically ill patients. Observational study design. Routine consultations of primary care nurses in the Netherlands with chronically ill patients were audio-taped and analysed. The analysis identified health topics addressed according to health care standards, self-management topics addressed using a validated set of topics, and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) using the Behaviour Change Techniques Taxonomy v1. Seventy-eight routine consultations of 17 primary care nurses with chronically ill patients were included in the analysis. Nurses addressed both health topics and self-management topics in brief, fragmented, and often inconsistent manners. Dietary intake and physical activity were the most frequently addressed topics. Nurses applied 21 BCTs to target behaviour change, but the use of these techniques was mainly inconsistent and implicit. The most consistently used BCTs were review behaviour goal(s) (56.4%) and feedback on behaviour (51.3%). Nurses addressed both health topics and self-management topics in their routine consultations. The duration, frequency, and number of addressed topics differed throughout the consultations. Nurses tended to prioritize the monitoring and optimization of patients' medical treatment and provided limited self-management support. Nurses seldom deepened their focus on behaviour change and infrequently used effective techniques to support this change. Adoption of self-management in primary care, including behaviour change, might be enhanced if nurses consistently and explicitly use effective BCTs in their consultations. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Primary care nurses play a pivotal role in self-management support for patients with a chronic condition. Adequate self-management support requires nurses to activate patients and enhance

  2. Utilization of Routine Primary Care Services Among Dancers.

    PubMed

    Alimena, Stephanie; Air, Mary E; Gribbin, Caitlin; Manejias, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the current utilization of primary and preventive health care services among dancers in order to assess their self-reported primary care needs. Participants were 37 dancers from a variety of dance backgrounds who presented for a free dancer health screening in a large US metropolitan area (30 females, 7 males; mean age: 27.5 ± 7.4 years; age range: 19 to 49 years; mean years of professional dancing: 6.4 ± 5.4 years). Dancers were screened for use of primary care, mental health, and women's health resources using the Health Screen for Professional Dancers developed by the Task Force on Dancer Health. Most dancers had health insurance (62.2%), but within the last 2 years, only approximately half of them (54.1%) reported having a physical examination by a physician. Within the last year, 54.1% of dancers had had a dental check-up, and 56.7% of female dancers received gynecologic care. Thirty percent of female participants indicated irregular menstrual cycles, 16.7% had never been to a gynecologist, and 16.7% were taking birth control. Utilization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation was 27.0% and 29.7%, respectively, and 73.0% were interested in nutritional counseling. A high rate of psychological fatigue and sleep deprivation was found (35.1%), along with a concomitant high rate of self-reported need for mental health counseling (29.7%). Cigarette and recreational drug use was low (5.4% and 5.4%); however, 32.4% engaged in binge drinking within the last year (based on the CDC definition). These findings indicate that dancers infrequently access primary care services, despite high self-reported need for nutritional, mental, and menstrual health counseling and treatment. More studies are warranted to understand dancers' primary health care seeking behavior.

  3. Routine primary care screening for intimate partner violence and other adverse psychosocial exposures: what's the evidence?

    PubMed

    McLennan, John D; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2016-08-03

    Family physicians and other primary care practitioners are encouraged or expected to screen for an expanding array of concerns and problems including intimate partner violence (IPV). While there is no debate about the deleterious impact of violence and other adverse psychosocial exposures on health status, the key question raised here is about the value of routine screening in primary care for such exposures. Several characteristics of IPV have led to consideration for routine IPV screening in primary care and during other healthcare encounters (e.g., emergency room visits) including: its high prevalence, concern that it may not be raised spontaneously if not prompted, and the burden of suffering associated with this exposure. Despite these factors, there are now three randomized controlled trials showing that screening does not reduce IPV or improve health outcomes. Yet, recommendations to routinely screen for IPV persist. Similarly, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have several characteristics (e.g., high frequency, predictive power of such experiences for subsequent health problems, and concerns that they might not be identified without screening) suggesting they too should be considered for routine primary care screening. However, demonstration of strong associations with health outcomes, and even causality, do not necessarily translate into the benefits of routine screening for such experiences. To date, there have been no controlled trials examining the impact and outcomes - either beneficial or harmful - of routine ACEs screening. Even so, there is an expansion of calls for routine screening for ACEs. While we must prioritize how best to support and intervene with patients who have experienced IPV and other adverse psychosocial exposures, we should not be lulled into a false sense of security that our routine use of "screeners" results in better health outcomes or less violence without evidence for such. Decisions about implementation of routine

  4. Tobacco Use Patterns and Attitudes among Teens Being Seen for Routine Primary Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Jack F.; Polen, Michael R.; Lichtenstein, Edward; Whitlock, Evelyn P.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the tobacco-related attitudes, behaviors, and needs of smoking and nonsmoking teens being seen for routine primary care, identifying tobacco use predictors. Most teens approached were willing to receive tobacco and diet interventions. Smoking predictors included older age, lower educational aspirations, having parents or friends who…

  5. Tobacco Use Patterns and Attitudes among Teens Being Seen for Routine Primary Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Jack F.; Polen, Michael R.; Lichtenstein, Edward; Whitlock, Evelyn P.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the tobacco-related attitudes, behaviors, and needs of smoking and nonsmoking teens being seen for routine primary care, identifying tobacco use predictors. Most teens approached were willing to receive tobacco and diet interventions. Smoking predictors included older age, lower educational aspirations, having parents or friends who…

  6. Correlates of routine HIV testing practices: a survey of New York State primary care physicians, 2011.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mary; Leung, Shu-Yin J; Akkaya-Hocagil, Tugba; Rowe, Kirsten A; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Smith, Lou C

    2015-01-01

    The New York State (NYS) HIV Testing Law of 2010 mandates that medical providers offer HIV testing to patients aged between 13 and 64 years during primary care, to increase the number of people aware of their infection status, and to ensure linkage to medical treatment. To assess physician practices related to this legislation, we conducted a study to identify the frequency and correlates of routine HIV testing behavior among primary care physicians approximately 15 months after the new law went into effect. During September 2011 to January 2012, we mailed self-administered surveys to a representative sample of NYS primary care physicians drawn from the AMA Masterfile of Physicians. Questions included physician practices, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs related to routine HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate analyses with a sample of 973 physicians were conducted to identify the most influential predictors of routine HIV testing behaviors. A minority of physicians reported "always" or "frequently" practicing behaviors consistent with routine HIV testing, with 41.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 37.4 to 46.2] routinely offering tests to patients aged 13-64 years, 40.5% (95% CI: 36.3 to 44.8) to new patients, and 33.3% (95% CI: 29.4 to 37.6) to patients during routine physicals. Only 61.4% (95% CI: 57.4 to 65.6) said they had heard of the new law. In multivariate analyses, specialty, perceived barriers, familiarity with the law, and interaction terms representing familiarity by region and self-efficacy by region were significant predictors across the 3 scenarios of routine HIV testing behavior. Additional technical assistance and training is needed for physicians on adopting routine testing behaviors, minimizing barriers and enhancing skills.

  7. Quantifying low-value services by using routine data from Austrian primary care.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Martin; Robausch, Martin; Moser, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    Open debates about the reduction of low-value services, unnecessary diagnostic tests and ineffective therapeutic procedures and initiatives like "Choosing Wisely "in the USA and Canada are still absent in Austria. The objectives of this study are: (i) to establish a list of ineffective or low-value services possibly provided in Austrian primary care, (ii) to explore how many of these services are quantifiable using routine data and (iii) to estimate the number of affected beneficiaries and avoidable costs arising from the provision of these services. In May 2014, we identified low-value care services relevant for primary care in Austria. For our analysis we used routine data sets from the Austrian health insurance. All analysis refer to the insured population of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund (n = 1 168 433) in the year 2013. (i) We found 453 low-value services possibly offered in Austrian primary care. (ii) Only 34 (7.5%) services were quantifiable using routine data. (iii) In the year 2013, these 34 services were provided to at least 246 131 beneficiaries and the estimated avoidable costs arising were at least 11.38 million Euros. This accounts for 1.2% of overall spending of the Lower Austrian Sickness Fund for drugs and services provided by primary care doctors in the year 2013. The absence of a homogeneous, transparent and accessible coding system for diagnosis in Austrian primary care restrained our assessment. However, our study findings illustrate the potential utility and limitations of using claims-based measures to identify low-value care. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Tailoring intervention procedures to routine primary health care practice; an ethnographic process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Yvonne J F M; de Bont, Antoinette; Foets, Marleen; Bruijnzeels, Marc; Bal, Roland

    2007-08-07

    Tailor-made approaches enable the uptake of interventions as they are seen as a way to overcome the incompatibility of general interventions with local knowledge about the organisation of routine medical practice and the relationship between the patients and the professionals in practice. Our case is the Quattro project which is a prevention programme for cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients in primary health care centres in deprived neighbourhoods. This programme was implemented as a pragmatic trial and foresaw the importance of local knowledge in primary health care and internal, or locally made, guidelines. The aim of this paper is to show how this prevention programme, which could be tailored to routine care, was implemented in primary care. An ethnographic design was used for this study. We observed and interviewed the researchers and the practice nurses. All the research documents, observations and transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. Our ethnographic process evaluation showed that the opportunity of tailoring intervention procedures to routine care in a pragmatic trial setting did not result in a well-organised and well-implemented prevention programme. In fact, the lack of standard protocols hindered the implementation of the intervention. Although it was not the purpose of this trial, a guideline was developed. Despite the fact that the developed guideline functioned as a tool, it did not result in the intervention being organised accordingly. However, the guideline did make tailoring the intervention possible. It provided the professionals with the key or the instructions needed to achieve organisational change and transform the existing interprofessional relations. As tailor-made approaches are developed to enable the uptake of interventions in routine practice, they are facilitated by the brokering of tools such as guidelines. In our study, guidelines facilitated organisational change and enabled the transformation of existing

  9. Tailoring intervention procedures to routine primary health care practice; an ethnographic process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Yvonne JFM; de Bont, Antoinette; Foets, Marleen; Bruijnzeels, Marc; Bal, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Background Tailor-made approaches enable the uptake of interventions as they are seen as a way to overcome the incompatibility of general interventions with local knowledge about the organisation of routine medical practice and the relationship between the patients and the professionals in practice. Our case is the Quattro project which is a prevention programme for cardiovascular diseases in high-risk patients in primary health care centres in deprived neighbourhoods. This programme was implemented as a pragmatic trial and foresaw the importance of local knowledge in primary health care and internal, or locally made, guidelines. The aim of this paper is to show how this prevention programme, which could be tailored to routine care, was implemented in primary care. Methods An ethnographic design was used for this study. We observed and interviewed the researchers and the practice nurses. All the research documents, observations and transcribed interviews were analysed thematically. Results Our ethnographic process evaluation showed that the opportunity of tailoring intervention procedures to routine care in a pragmatic trial setting did not result in a well-organised and well-implemented prevention programme. In fact, the lack of standard protocols hindered the implementation of the intervention. Although it was not the purpose of this trial, a guideline was developed. Despite the fact that the developed guideline functioned as a tool, it did not result in the intervention being organised accordingly. However, the guideline did make tailoring the intervention possible. It provided the professionals with the key or the instructions needed to achieve organisational change and transform the existing interprofessional relations. Conclusion As tailor-made approaches are developed to enable the uptake of interventions in routine practice, they are facilitated by the brokering of tools such as guidelines. In our study, guidelines facilitated organisational change and

  10. General Internists' Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceived Barriers to Routine HIV Screening in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Korthuis, P. Todd; Berkenblit, Gail V.; Sullivan, Lynn E.; Cofrancesco, Joseph; Cook, Robert L.; Bass, Michael; Bashook, Philip G.; Edison, Marcia; Asch, Steve M.; Sosman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HIV screening in primary care but little is known about general internists' views of this practice. We conducted a national, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of 446 general internists in 2009 regarding their HIV screening behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers to routine HIV screening in outpatient internal medicine practices. Internists' awareness of revised CDC guidelines was high (88%), but only 52% had increased HIV testing, 61% offered HIV screening regardless of risk, and a median 2% (range 0-67%) of their patients were tested in the past month. Internists practicing in perceived higher risk communities reported greater HIV screening. Consent requirements were a barrier to screening, particularly for VA providers and those practicing in states with HIV consent statutes inconsistent with CDC guidelines. Interventions that promote HIV screening regardless of risk and streamlined consent requirements will likely increase adoption of routine HIV screening in general medicine practices. PMID:21689038

  11. Effectiveness of open-access endoscopy in routine primary-care practice.

    PubMed

    Charles, Roger J; Cooper, Gregory S; Wong, Richard C K; Sivak, Michael V; Chak, Amitabh

    2003-02-01

    Direct referral of patients for endoscopic procedures without prior consultation (open-access endoscopy) has become commonplace. However, the effect of open-access endoscopy on the care of patients in routine clinical practice has not been studied. The impact of open-access endoscopy was examined in 168 consecutive patients referred from 8 primary-care practices to our tertiary hospital-based endoscopy center. The effectiveness of open-access endoscopy was assessed by review of office medical records at the primary-care practice sites for a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Outcome measures evaluated included postprocedure communication between primary-care physician and patient, primary-care physician adherence to postprocedure recommendations, and the need for subsequent diagnostic evaluation and/or consultation. The mean age of the 168 patients was 60 years; 56 (33%) underwent EGD and 112 (67%) had colonoscopy; 65% were from hospital-based practices and 35% from community practices. The indication(s) for 77% of the procedures met American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy guidelines for the appropriate use of endoscopy. An office follow-up was noted for 82% of patients after the open-access procedure. Discussion of results was documented in 61% of the patient charts. Compliance with diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations was documented, respectively, in 75% and 90% of patient charts. A follow-up GI consultation was requested for only 7% of the patients. Open-access endoscopy in the primary-care setting is effective to the extent that subsequent GI consultations are rare and the level of compliance with endoscopist recommendations is high. However, documentation of communication of the results of endoscopy with the patient can be improved.

  12. Implementing Routine Cognitive Screening of Older Adults in Primary Care: Process and Impact on Physician Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Scanlan, James; Hummel, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Kathy; Lessig, Mary; Zuhr, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive impairment is a goal of high-quality geriatric medical care, but new approaches are needed to reduce rates of missed cases. Objective To evaluate whether adding routine cognitive screening to primary care visits for older adults increases rates of dementia diagnosis, specialist referral, or prescribing of antidementia medications. Setting Four primary care clinics in a university-affiliated primary care network. Design A quality improvement screening project and quasiexperimental comparison of 2 intervention clinics and 2 control clinics. The Mini-Cog was administered by medical assistants to intervention clinic patients aged 65+ years. Rates of dementia diagnoses, referrals, and medication prescribing were tracked over time using computerized administrative data. Results Twenty-six medical assistants successfully screened 70% (n = 524) of all eligible patients who made at least 1 clinic visit during the intervention period; 18% screened positive. There were no complaints about workflow interruption. Relative to baseline rates and control clinics, Mini-Cog screening was associated with increased dementia diagnoses, specialist referrals, and prescribing of cognitive enhancing medications. Patients without previous dementia indicators who had a positive Mini-Cog were more likely than all other patients to receive a new dementia diagnosis, specialty referral, or cognitive enhancing medication. However, relevant physician action occurred in only 17% of screen-positive patients. Responses were most related to the lowest Mini-Cog score level (0/5) and advanced age. Conclusion Mini-Cog screening by office staff is feasible in primary care practice and has measurable effects on physician behavior. However, new physician action relevant to dementia was likely to occur only when impairment was severe, and additional efforts are needed to help primary care physicians follow up appropriately on information suggesting cognitive

  13. Transitioning to routine breast cancer risk assessment and management in primary care: what can we learn from cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Steel, Emma J; Collins, Ian; Emery, Jon; Pirotta, Marie; Mann, G Bruce; Butow, Phyllis; Hopper, John L; Trainer, Alison; Moreton, Jane; Antoniou, Antonis C; Cuzick, Jack; Keogh, Louise

    2016-01-01

    To capitalise on advances in breast cancer prevention, all women would need to have their breast cancer risk formally assessed. With ~85% of Australians attending primary care clinics at least once a year, primary care is an opportune location for formal breast cancer risk assessment and management. This study assessed the current practice and needs of primary care clinicians regarding assessment and management of breast cancer risk. Two facilitated focus group discussions were held with 17 primary care clinicians (12 GPs and 5 practice nurses (PNs)) as part of a larger needs assessment. Primary care clinicians viewed assessment and management of cardiovascular risk as an intrinsic, expected part of their role, often triggered by practice software prompts and facilitated by use of an online tool. Conversely, assessment of breast cancer risk was not routine and was generally patient- (not clinician-) initiated, and risk management (apart from routine screening) was considered outside the primary care domain. Clinicians suggested that routine assessment and management of breast cancer risk might be achieved if it were widely endorsed as within the remit of primary care and supported by an online risk-assessment and decision aid tool that was integrated into primary care software. This study identified several key issues that would need to be addressed to facilitate the transition to routine assessment and management of breast cancer risk in primary care, based largely on the model used for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Primary eye care skills scores for health workers in routine and enhanced supervision settings.

    PubMed

    Okwen, M; Lewallen, S; Courtright, P

    2014-01-01

    Primary health care in Tanzania is provided at two types of health units, the dispensary and the health centre. Theoretically, primary health workers (with knowledge of primary eye care [PEC]) are ideally placed to identify people in need of eye care services. In Tanzania, they are expected to be able to identify, treat, or correctly refer a number of eye conditions including cataract, trauma, presbyopia, and the 'red eye'. They are also expected to be able to measure visual acuity correctly and to educate the community about prevention. The objective was to determine the effect of enhanced supervision of health workers on PEC knowledge and skills in Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. This was a quasi-experimental, cluster randomized intervention study of an enhanced supervisory method compared to a routine supervisory method; 36 dispensaries were randomly allocated into the two groups. Health workers based at government dispensaries in Mwanga District. Participants were interviewed pre and post intervention and the information was recorded using a standardized pretested questionnaire. Mean scores of knowledge in healthcare workers was higher in the intervention group (score = 6.43, 80.4% improvement) compared to the non-intervention group (score = 4.71, 58.9% improvement). The ability to describe and demonstrate vision testing was better (score = 1.8) in the enhanced supervision group compared to the routine supervision group (score = 0.88, P = 0.03). There was a high level of attrition (24%) within one year from the time of baseline survey, especially amongst clinical officers (44%). During the pilot study, enhanced supervision improved PEC knowledge and skills of health workers compared to health workers with routine supervision. Training in PEC needs revision to become more practicum-based. There is need to revise supervision guidelines (to be skills-based) and the supervision skills of district eye coordinators (DECs) need to be enhanced. There is a huge need to

  15. Effect of routine mental health screening in a low-resource pediatric primary care population.

    PubMed

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; McCord, Mary; Gallagher, Trish; Olfson, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Despite evidence for its feasibility, the usage of mental health screening in primary care practices with overburdened providers and few referral options remains unclear. This study explores the effects of routine screening on mental health problem identification and management in a low-resource setting. Medical records of 5 to 12 year-old children presenting for well visits before and after screening was implemented were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between study period and identification/management practices. Changes in the number of visits and wait times for a co-located referral service were assessed post hoc. Parents disclosed more mental health problems, and providers initiated more workups but referred fewer patients after screening was implemented. The proportion of new visits and wait times for the referral service did not change. Even in low-resource settings, screening may facilitate parental disclosure and increase clinical attention to mental health problems without overburdening referral services.

  16. Nurse perspectives on the implementation of routine telemonitoring for high-risk diabetes patients in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Vest, Bonnie M; Hall, Victoria M; Kahn, Linda S; Heider, Arvela R; Maloney, Nancy; Singh, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this qualitative evaluation was to explore the experience of implementing routine telemonitoring (TM) in real-world primary care settings from the perspective of those delivering the intervention; namely the TM staff, and report on lessons learned that could inform future projects of this type.

  17. Comparison of dementia recorded in routinely collected hospital admission data in England with dementia recorded in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna; Kirichek, Oksana; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Beral, Valerie; Sudlow, Cathie; Gallacher, John; Green, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Electronic linkage of UK cohorts to routinely collected National Health Service (NHS) records provides virtually complete follow-up for cause-specific hospital admissions and deaths. The reliability of dementia diagnoses recorded in NHS hospital data is not well documented. For a sample of Million Women Study participants in England we compared dementia recorded in routinely collected NHS hospital data (Hospital Episode Statistics: HES) with dementia recorded in two separate sources of primary care information: a primary care database [Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), n = 340] and a survey of study participants' General Practitioners (GPs, n = 244). Dementia recorded in HES fully agreed both with CPRD and with GP survey data for 85% of women; it did not agree for 1 and 4%, respectively. Agreement was uncertain for the remaining 14 and 11%, respectively; and among those classified as having uncertain agreement in CPRD, non-specific terms compatible with dementia, such as 'memory loss', were recorded in the CPRD database for 79% of the women. Agreement was significantly better (p < 0.05 for all comparisons) for women with HES diagnoses for Alzheimer's disease (95 and 94% agreement with any dementia for CPRD and GP survey, respectively) and for vascular dementia (88 and 88%, respectively) than for women with a record only of dementia not otherwise specified (70 and 72%, respectively). Dementia in the same woman was first mentioned an average 1.6 (SD 2.6) years earlier in primary care (CPRD) than in hospital (HES) data. Age-specific rates for dementia based on the hospital admission data were lower than the rates based on the primary care data, but were similar if the delay in recording in HES was taken into account. Dementia recorded in routinely collected NHS hospital admission data for women in England agrees well with primary care records of dementia assessed separately from two different sources, and is sufficiently reliable for epidemiological

  18. Implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF for routine point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis at the primary care level.

    PubMed

    Clouse, Kate; Page-Shipp, Liesl; Dansey, Heather; Moatlhodi, Bridgette; Scott, Lesley; Bassett, Jean; Stevens, Wendy; Sanne, Ian; Van Rie, Annelies

    2012-09-07

    Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) offers rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. However, little is known about routine point-of-care (POC) use in high TB/HIV burden settings. We describe our experiences of launching Xpert as the POC, initial diagnostic for all TB suspects at a primary healthcare clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Noted important benefits of POC Xpert were fewer clinic visits, rapid detection of TB and rifampicin resistance, real-time assessment of accompanying household members of new TB cases, and increased staff motivation for TB screening. While Xpert results are available within 2 hours, actual turn-around time was longer for most patients because of sample preparation time and clinic congestion. Consequently, a GX4 instrument did not result in a 16-test capacity during an 8-hour working day, and some patients did not receive same-day results. Loss to follow-up was an unforeseen challenge, overcome by clinic flow changes, marking of clinic files, documenting patients' physical description and locating patients in the clinic by cell phone. Staff with high school education successfully performed the assay after minimal training. Human resource requirements were considerable, with a minimum of 2 staff needed to supervise sputum collection, process sputum, perform assays, and document results for an average of 15 TB suspects daily. POC placement of the instrument transferred logistical responsibilities to the clinic, including quality assurance, maintenance, stock control and cartridge disposal. POC use of Xpert is feasible at the primary healthcare level but must be accompanied by financial, operational and logistical support.

  19. Implementing Routine Health Literacy Assessment in Hospital and Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cawthon, Courtney; Mion, Lorraine C.; Willens, David E.; Roumie, Christianne L.; Kripalani, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with inadequate health literacy often have poorer health outcomes and increased utilization and costs, compared to those with adequate health literacy skills. The Institute of Medicine has recommended that health literacy assessment be incorporated into health care information systems, which would facilitate large-scale studies of the effects of health literacy, as well as evaluation of system interventions to improve care by addressing health literacy. As part of the Health Literacy Screening (HEALS) study, a brief health literacy screen (BHLS) was incorporated into the electronic health record (EHR) at a large academic medical center. Methods Changes were implemented to the nursing intake documentation across all adult hospital units, the emergency department, and three primary care practices. The change involved replacing previous education screening items with the BHLS. Implementation was based on a quality improvement framework, with a focus on acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity and sustainability. Support was gained from nursing leadership, education and training was provided, a documentation change was rolled out, feedback was obtained, and uptake of the new health literacy screening items was monitored. Results Between November 2010 and April 2012, there were 55,611 adult inpatient admissions, and from November 2010 to September 2011, 23,186 adult patients made 39,595 clinic visits to the three primary care practices. The completion (uptake) rate in the hospital for November 2010 through April 2012 was 91.8%. For outpatient clinics, the completion rate between November 2010 and October 2011 was 66.6%. Conclusions Although challenges exist, it is feasible to incorporate health literacy screening into clinical assessment and EHR documentation. Next steps are to evaluate the association of health literacy with processes and outcomes of care across inpatient and outpatient populations. PMID:24716329

  20. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). Results The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. Conclusions This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German

  1. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices--how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Juliana J; Paulitsch, Michael A; Mergenthal, Karola; Gensichen, Jochen; Hansen, Heike; Weyerer, Siegfried; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Fuchs, Angela; Maier, Wolfgang; Bickel, Horst; König, Hans-Helmut; Wiese, Birgitt; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Scherer, Martin; Dahlhaus, Anne

    2014-08-07

    In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German primary care practices, the

  2. Implementation of self management support for long term conditions in routine primary care settings: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Reeves, David; Blakeman, Tom; Bowen, Robert; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Eden, Martin; Fullwood, Catherine; Gaffney, Hannah; Gardner, Caroline; Lee, Victoria; Morris, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne; Richardson, Gerry; Sanders, Caroline; Swallow, Angela; Thompson, David; Rogers, Anne

    2013-05-13

    To determine the effectiveness of an intervention to enhance self management support for patients with chronic conditions in UK primary care. Pragmatic, two arm, cluster randomised controlled trial. General practices, serving a population in northwest England with high levels of deprivation. 5599 patients with a diagnosis of diabetes (n=2546), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n=1634), and irritable bowel syndrome (n=1419) from 43 practices (19 intervention and 22 control practices). Practice level training in a whole systems approach to self management support. Practices were trained to use a range of resources: a tool to assess the support needs of patients, guidebooks on self management, and a web based directory of local self management resources. Training facilitators were employed by the health management organisation. Primary outcomes were shared decision making, self efficacy, and generic health related quality of life measured at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were general health, social or role limitations, energy and vitality, psychological wellbeing, self care activity, and enablement. We randomised 44 practices and recruited 5599 patients, representing 43% of the eligible population on the practice lists. 4533 patients (81.0%) completed the six month follow-up and 4076 (72.8%) the 12 month follow-up. No statistically significant differences were found between patients attending trained practices and those attending control practices on any of the primary or secondary outcomes. All effect size estimates were well below the prespecified threshold of clinically important difference. An intervention to enhance self management support in routine primary care did not add noticeable value to existing care for long term conditions. The active components required for effective self management support need to be better understood, both within primary care and in patients' everyday lives. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90940049.

  3. A primary care-based asthma program improves recognition and treatment of persistent asthma in inner-city children compared to routine care.

    PubMed

    Warman, Karen; Silver, Ellen

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether a primary care-based asthma program that applies the Expert Panel Report 3 (EPR-3): Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-2007 criteria to classify asthma severity increases detection of persistent asthma in inner-city children and affects "step of care" compared to routine care. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 97 consecutive children referred to the asthma program from 2011-2013. Asthma severity documented during routine health care maintenance visits was compared to the asthma severity assessed during the asthma program visit using five standardized questions and spirometry. Medication plan "step of care" was compared pre- and post- the asthma program visit. 79 children, ages 5-19 years old (mean = 9.6), had spirometry tracings meeting American Thoracic Society criteria and were included in this study. 53% were male. The majority of children were Latino (45.6%) or African American (35.4%). At the asthma program visit, more children were identified with moderate or severe persistent asthma based upon clinical questions (47.9%), spirometry (56.9%) or combined criteria (75.3%) than had been identified during routine care (15.2%); all p < .05. After the asthma program visit, more children were prescribed controller medications (82.3% vs 63.3%; p < .05) and 40.6% had their medication plan stepped up. In this population of inner-city children, asthma severity was under-recognized and undertreated during routine care. A primary care based asthma program, which formalized applying EPR-3 criteria, increased detection of persistent asthma and led to "step-ups" in treatment plans.

  4. Effectiveness of physical activity advice and prescription by physicians in routine primary care: a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Grandes, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Alvaro; Sanchez-Pinilla, Ricardo Ortega; Torcal, Jesus; Montoya, Imanol; Lizarraga, Kepa; Serra, Javier

    2009-04-13

    Physical activity promotion is a priority, but contribution of physicians' interventions is unclear. The effectiveness of the PEPAF ("Experimental Program for Physical Activity Promotion"), which was implemented exclusively by physicians in routine primary care from October 2003 to December 2004, was assessed. Fifty-six Spanish family physicians were randomized to either the intervention (n = 29) or standard care (n = 27) arm of the trial. The physicians recruited 4317 physically inactive patients (2248 for intervention and 2069 for control protocols) from a systematic sample after assessing their physical activity in routine practice. Intervention physicians provided advice to all patients and a physical activity prescription to the subgroup attending an additional appointment (30%). The main outcome measure was the change in physical activity measured by blinded nurses using the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Secondary outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life. At 6 months, intervention patients increased physical activity more than controls (adjusted difference, 18 min/wk [95% confidence interval, 6-31 min/wk]; metabolic equivalent tasks x hours per week, 1.3 [95% CI, 0.4-2.2]). The proportion of the population achieving minimal physical activity recommendations was 3.9% higher in the intervention group (1.2%-6.9%; number needed to treat, 26). No differences were found in secondary outcomes. The effect of intervention was positively modified in subjects older than 50 years (P < or = .01) and in the prescription subgroup (P < .001). Family physicians were effective for increasing physical activity of primary care patients. Overall clinical effect was small but relevant for population public health. Within the intervention program, clinically relevant effects were seen in patients receiving a physical activity prescription. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00131079.

  5. Feasibility of an implementation strategy for the integration of health promotion in routine primary care: a quantitative process evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Grandes, Gonzalo; Cortada, Josep M; Pombo, Haizea; Martinez, Catalina; Corrales, Mary Helen; de la Peña, Enrique; Mugica, Justo; Gorostiza, Esther

    2017-02-17

    routine primary care. Sources of heterogeneity and instability in these indicators may improve our understanding of factors required to attain adequate program adoption and implementation through improved implementation strategies.

  6. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Silvestre, Carmen; Sauto, Regina; Martínez, Catalina; Grandes, Gonzalo

    2012-11-16

    The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14) and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity); while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice.

  7. Feasibility and effectiveness of the implementation of a primary prevention programme for type 2 diabetes in routine primary care practice: a phase IV cluster randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to perform an independent evaluation of the feasibility and effectiveness of an educational programme for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in high risk populations in primary care settings, implanted within the Basque Health Service - Osakidetza. Methods/design This is a prospective phase IV cluster clinical trial conducted under routine conditions in 14 primary health care centres of Osakidetza, randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. We will recruit a total sample of 1089 individuals, aged between 45 and 70 years old, without diabetes but at high risk of developing the condition (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, FINDRISC ≥ 14) and follow them up for 2 years. Primary health care nursing teams of the intervention centres will implement DE-PLAN, a structured educational intervention program focused on changing healthy lifestyles (diet and physical activity); while the patients in the control centres will receive the usual care for the prevention and treatment of DM2 currently provided in Osakidetza. The effectiveness attributable to the programme will be assessed by comparing the changes observed in patients exposed to the intervention and those in the control group, with respect to the risk of developing DM2 and lifestyle habits. In terms of feasibility, we will assess indicators of population coverage and programme implementation. Discussion The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for disseminate the programme to the remaining primary health centres in Osakidetza, as a novel way of addressing prevention of DM2. The study design will enable us to gather information on the effectiveness of the intervention as well as the feasibility of implementing it in routine practice. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365013 PMID:23158830

  8. Organisational quality, nurse staffing and the quality of chronic disease management in primary care: observational study using routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Peter; Maben, Jill; Murrells, Trevor

    2011-10-01

    An association between quality of care and staffing levels, particularly registered nurses, has been established in acute hospitals. Recently an association between nurse staffing and quality of care for several chronic conditions has also been demonstrated for primary care in English general practice. A smaller body of literature identifies organisational factors, in particular issues of human resource management, as being a dominant factor. However the literature has tended to consider staffing and organisational factors separately. We aim to determine whether relationships between the quality of clinical care and nurse staffing in general practice are attenuated or enhanced when organisational factors associated with quality of care are considered. We further aim to determine the relative contribution and interaction between these factors. We used routinely collected data from 8409 English general practices. The data, on organisational factors and the quality of clinical care for a range of long term conditions, is gathered as part of "Quality and Outcomes Framework" pay for performance system. Regression models exploring the relationship of staffing and organisational factors with care quality were fitted using MPLUS statistical modelling software. Higher levels of nurse staffing, clinical recording, education and reflection on the results of patient surveys were significantly associated with improved clinical care for COPD, CHD, Diabetes and Hypothyroidism after controlling for organisational factors. There was some evidence of attenuation of the estimated nurse staffing effect when organisational factors were considered, but this was small. The effect of staffing interacted significantly with the effect of organisational factors. Overall however, the characteristics that emerged as the strongest predictors of quality of clinical care were not staffing levels but the organisational factors of clinical recording, education and training and use of patient

  9. Quality of routine health data collected by health workers using smartphone at primary health care in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Medhanyie, Araya Abrha; Spigt, Mark; Yebyo, Henock; Little, Alex; Tadesse, Kidane; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Blanco, Roman

    2017-05-01

    Mobile phone based applications are considered by many as potentially useful for addressing challenges and improving the quality of data collection in developing countries. Yet very little evidence is available supporting or refuting the potential and widely perceived benefits on the use of electronic forms on smartphones for routine patient data collection by health workers at primary health care facilities. A facility based cross sectional study using a structured paper checklist was prepared to assess the completeness and accuracy of 408 electronic records completed and submitted to a central database server using electronic forms on smartphones by 25 health workers. The 408 electronic records were selected randomly out of a total of 1772 maternal health records submitted by the health workers to the central database over a period of six months. Descriptive frequencies and percentages of data completeness and error rates were calculated. When compared to paper records, the use of electronic forms significantly improved data completeness by 209 (8%) entries. Of a total 2622 entries checked for completeness, 2602 (99.2%) electronic record entries were complete, while 2393 (91.3%) paper record entries were complete. A very small percentage of error rates, which was easily identifiable, occurred in both electronic and paper forms although the error rate in the electronic records was more than double that of paper records (2.8% vs. 1.1%). More than half of entry errors in the electronic records related to entering a text value. With minimal training, supervision, and no incentives, health care workers were able to use electronic forms for patient assessment and routine data collection appropriately and accurately with a very small error rate. Minimising the number of questions requiring text responses in electronic forms would be helpful in minimizing data errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. What Makes Me Screen for HIV? Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Conducting Recommended Routine HIV Testing among Primary care Physicians in the Southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    White, Becky L.; Walsh, Joan; Rayasam, Swati; Pathman, Donald E.; Adimora, Adaora A.; Golin, Carol E.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended routinely testing patients (aged 13–64) for HIV since 2006. However, many physicians do not routinely test. From January 2011- March 2012, we conducted 18 in-depth individual interviews and explored primary care physicians’ perceptions of barriers and facilitators to implementing routine HIV testing in North Carolina. Physicians’ comments were categorized thematically and fell into five groups: policy, community, practice, physician and patient. Lack of universal reimbursement was identified as the major policy barrier. Participants believed endorsement from the United States Preventive Services Tasks Force would facilitate adoption of routine HIV testing policies. Physicians reported HIV/AIDS stigma, socially conservative communities, lack of confidentiality, and rural geography as community barriers. Physicians believed public HIV testing campaigns would legitimize testing and decrease stigma in communities. Physicians cited time constraints and competing clinical priorities as physician barriers that could be overcome by delegating testing to nursing staff. HIV test refusal, low HIV risk perception, and stigma emerged as patient barriers. Physicians recommended adoption of routine HIV testing for all patients to facilitate and destigmatize testing. Physicians continue to experience a variety of barriers when implementing routine HIV testing in primary care settings. Our findings support multilevel approaches to enhance physician routine HIV testing in primary care settings. PMID:24643412

  11. Predicting dementia risk in primary care: development and validation of the Dementia Risk Score using routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    Walters, K; Hardoon, S; Petersen, I; Iliffe, S; Omar, R Z; Nazareth, I; Rait, G

    2016-01-21

    Existing dementia risk scores require collection of additional data from patients, limiting their use in practice. Routinely collected healthcare data have the potential to assess dementia risk without the need to collect further information. Our objective was to develop and validate a 5-year dementia risk score derived from primary healthcare data. We used data from general practices in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database from across the UK, randomly selecting 377 practices for a development cohort and identifying 930,395 patients aged 60-95 years without a recording of dementia, cognitive impairment or memory symptoms at baseline. We developed risk algorithm models for two age groups (60-79 and 80-95 years). An external validation was conducted by validating the model on a separate cohort of 264,224 patients from 95 randomly chosen THIN practices that did not contribute to the development cohort. Our main outcome was 5-year risk of first recorded dementia diagnosis. Potential predictors included sociodemographic, cardiovascular, lifestyle and mental health variables. Dementia incidence was 1.88 (95% CI, 1.83-1.93) and 16.53 (95% CI, 16.15-16.92) per 1000 PYAR for those aged 60-79 (n = 6017) and 80-95 years (n = 7104), respectively. Predictors for those aged 60-79 included age, sex, social deprivation, smoking, BMI, heavy alcohol use, anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes, stroke/TIA, atrial fibrillation, aspirin, depression. The discrimination and calibration of the risk algorithm were good for the 60-79 years model; D statistic 2.03 (95% CI, 1.95-2.11), C index 0.84 (95% CI, 0.81-0.87), and calibration slope 0.98 (95% CI, 0.93-1.02). The algorithm had a high negative predictive value, but lower positive predictive value at most risk thresholds. Discrimination and calibration were poor for the 80-95 years model. Routinely collected data predicts 5-year risk of recorded diagnosis of dementia for those aged 60-79, but not those aged 80+. This

  12. Awareness level of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during routine unstructured interviews of a standardized patient by primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Reuveni, Haim; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Wainstock, Tamar; Ziv, Amitai; Elhayany, Asher; Tal, Asher

    2004-12-15

    To assess the awareness level of primary care physicians of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome during patient-physician encounters. A prospective study using a standardized patient approach, conducted between December 2001 and March 2002. Ten sleep experts reviewed and approved the checklist questionnaire. Primary care clinics of Clalit Health Care Services, in the central region of Israel. Thirty physicians (100% compliance) randomly selected (matched by age, sex, board certification) from the 261 primary care givers in the region. A standardized patient incorporated into the physicians' daily practices. From the original checklist questionnaire, we identified 2 related question areas that at least 90% of sleep experts would pursue in light of the presenting scenario, "Do the patients snore, choke, or stop breathing in sleep?" and "Does the patient have sleepiness, unrefreshed sleep/fall asleep at undesirable times?" During the unstructured interview, only 10% of the physicians asked 3 or more questions. More than 85% of primary care physicians identified the need for polysomnography evaluation (27 physicians) or continuous positive airway pressure (26 physicians) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. However, only 16% and 50% discussed possible complications of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome such as motor vehicle and work accidents and cardiovascular events, respectively. Primary care physicians cannot identify a common disorder associated with cardiovascular and neurobehavioral disease and could not identify the sleepiness as a source of dangerous driving. While understanding the algorithms for the diagnosis of sleep apnea, physicians cannot identify the patients for whom the diagnostics are needed. Education programs need to be developed to increase the level of suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among practicing primary care physicians. Activities can be monitored and evaluated over time in the daily practice by standardized patients

  13. Teaching systems-based practice to primary care physicians to foster routine implementation of evidence-based depression care.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Scott E; Fotiades, John; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Gilman, Stuart C; Vivell, Susan; Chaney, Edmund; Yano, Elizabeth M; Felker, Bradford

    2007-02-01

    Although health care organizations seeking to improve quality often must change the system for delivering care, there is little available evidence on how to educate staff and providers about this change. As part of a 2002-2003 Veterans Health Administration multisite project using collaborative care to improve the management of depression, the authors implemented the Translating Initiatives for Depression into Effective Solutions (TIDES) program. Five steps were followed for teaching systems-based practice: (1) determine providers' educational needs (through administrative data, expert opinion, and provider discussion), (2) develop educational materials (based on needs assessed), (3) help each of seven sites develop an educational intervention, (4) implement the intervention, and (5) monitor the intervention's effectiveness. Sites relied primarily on passive educational strategies. There was variable implementation of the different components (e.g., lecture, educational outreach). No site chose to write up its education plan, as was suggested. The authors thus suggest that the educational model was successful at identifying providers' needs and creating appropriate materials, because the program was not advertised in other ways and because almost all providers referred patients to the program. However, the educational model was only partially successful at getting sites to develop and implement an educational plan, although provider behavior did change. Overall, the program was somewhat effective at teaching systems-based practice. The authors believe the best way to enhance effectiveness is to build education into the system rather than rely on a separate system for education.

  14. Linking Primary and Secondary Care after Psychiatric Hospitalization: Comparison between Transitional Case Management Setting and Routine Care for Common Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bonsack, Charles; Golay, Philippe; Gibellini Manetti, Silvia; Gebel, Sophia; Ferrari, Pascale; Besse, Christine; Favrod, Jérome; Morandi, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    To improve engagement with care and prevent psychiatric readmission, a transitional case management intervention has been established to link with primary and secondary care. The intervention begins during hospitalization and ends 1 month after discharge. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this short intervention in terms of the level of engagement with outpatient care and the rate of readmissions during 1 year after discharge. Individuals hospitalized with common mental disorders were randomly assigned to be discharged to routine follow-up by private psychiatrists or general practitioners with (n = 51) or without (n = 51) the addition of a transitional case management intervention. Main outcome measures were number of contacts with outpatient care and rate of readmission during 12 months after discharge. Transitional case management patients reported more contacts with care service in the period between 1 and 3 months after discharge (p = 0.004). Later after discharge (3-12 months), no significant differences of number of contacts remained. The transitional case management intervention had no statistically significant beneficial impact on the rate of readmission (hazard ratio = 0.585, p = 0.114). The focus on follow-up after discharge during hospitalization leads to an increased short-term rate of engagement with ambulatory care despite no differences between the two groups after 3 months of follow-up. This short transitional intervention did, however, not significantly reduce the rate of readmissions during the first year following discharge. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02258737.

  15. Case-finding for common mental disorders of anxiety and depression in primary care: an external validation of routinely collected data.

    PubMed

    John, Ann; McGregor, Joanne; Fone, David; Dunstan, Frank; Cornish, Rosie; Lyons, Ronan A; Lloyd, Keith R

    2016-03-15

    The robustness of epidemiological research using routinely collected primary care electronic data to support policy and practice for common mental disorders (CMD) anxiety and depression would be greatly enhanced by appropriate validation of diagnostic codes and algorithms for data extraction. We aimed to create a robust research platform for CMD using population-based, routinely collected primary care electronic data. We developed a set of Read code lists (diagnosis, symptoms, treatments) for the identification of anxiety and depression in the General Practice Database (GPD) within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at Swansea University, and assessed 12 algorithms for Read codes to define cases according to various criteria. Annual incidence rates were calculated per 1000 person years at risk (PYAR) to assess recording practice for these CMD between January 1(st) 2000 and December 31(st) 2009. We anonymously linked the 2799 MHI-5 Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Survey (CHSNS) respondents aged 18 to 74 years to their routinely collected GP data in SAIL. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the various algorithms using the MHI-5 as the gold standard. The incidence of combined depression/anxiety diagnoses remained stable over the ten-year period in a population of over 500,000 but symptoms increased from 6.5 to 20.7 per 1000 PYAR. A 'historical' GP diagnosis for depression/anxiety currently treated plus a current diagnosis (treated or untreated) resulted in a specificity of 0.96, sensitivity 0.29 and PPV 0.76. Adding current symptom codes improved sensitivity (0.32) with a marginal effect on specificity (0.95) and PPV (0.74). We have developed an algorithm with a high specificity and PPV of detecting cases of anxiety and depression from routine GP data that incorporates symptom codes to reflect GP coding behaviour. We have demonstrated that using diagnosis and current treatment alone to identify cases for

  16. An educational intervention, involving feedback of routinely collected computer data, to improve cardiovascular disease management in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, S

    2007-01-01

    To report the lessons learned from eight years of feeding back routinely collected cardiovascular data in an educational context There are distinct educational and technical components. The educational component provides peer-led learning opportunities based on comparative analysis of quality of care, as represented in computer records. The technical part ensures that relevant evidence-based audit criteria are identified; an appropriate dataset is extracted and processed to facilitate quality improvement. Anonymised data are used to provide inter-practice comparisons, with lists of identifiable patients who need interventions left in individual practices. The progressive improvement in cholesterol management in ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is used as an exemplar of the changes achieved. Over three iterations of the cardiovascular programme the standardised prevalence of IHD recorded in GP computer systems rose from 3.8% to 4.0%. Cholesterol recording rose from 47.6% to 89.0%; and the mean cholesterol level fell from 5.18 to 4.67 mmol/L; while statin prescribing rose from 46% to 57% to 68%. The atrial fibrillation, heart failure and renal programmes (more people with chronic kidney disease go on to die from cardiovascular cause than from end-stage renal disease) are used to demonstrate the range of cardiovascular interventions amenable to this approach. Technical progress has meant that larger datasets can be extracted and processed. Feedback of routinely collected data in an educational context is acceptable to practitioners and results in quality improvement. Further research is needed to assess its utility as a strategy and cost-effectiveness compared with other methods.

  17. Standard, routine and non-routine processes in health care.

    PubMed

    Lillrank, Paul; Liukko, Matti

    2004-01-01

    Quality management methods have been introduced into health care with variable success. Industrial approaches, such as standardization, are not always applicable professional services, because of fundamental differences in conceptions of aims and the predictability of the results of action. Processes in health care can be classified into standard, routine and non-routine depending on the level of repetition and amount of variation, variety and uncertainty. Quality problems are different in each type: standard processes may produce deviations from targets, routines errors in classification, and non-routines failures in interpretation. Different management approaches for each type are discussed. A metaphor to assist discussion, The Broom, is introduced.

  18. The impact of polio eradication on routine immunization and primary health care: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M; Landis, R Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A; Pont, W Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. The Impact of Polio Eradication on Routine Immunization and Primary Health Care: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Closser, Svea; Cox, Kelly; Parris, Thomas M.; Landis, R. Matthew; Justice, Judith; Gopinath, Ranjani; Maes, Kenneth; Banteyerga Amaha, Hailom; Mohammed, Ismaila Zango; Dukku, Aminu Mohammed; Omidian, Patricia A.; Varley, Emma; Tedoff, Pauley; Koon, Adam D.; Nyirazinyoye, Laetitia; Luck, Matthew A.; Pont, W. Frank; Neergheen, Vanessa; Rosenthal, Anat; Nsubuga, Peter; Thacker, Naveen; Jooma, Rashid; Nuttall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background. After 2 decades of focused efforts to eradicate polio, the impact of eradication activities on health systems continues to be controversial. This study evaluated the impact of polio eradication activities on routine immunization (RI) and primary healthcare (PHC). Methods. Quantitative analysis assessed the effects of polio eradication campaigns on RI and maternal healthcare coverage. A systematic qualitative analysis in 7 countries in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa assessed impacts of polio eradication activities on key health system functions, using data from interviews, participant observation, and document review. Results. Our quantitative analysis did not find compelling evidence of widespread and significant effects of polio eradication campaigns, either positive or negative, on measures of RI and maternal healthcare. Our qualitative analysis revealed context-specific positive impacts of polio eradication activities in many of our case studies, particularly disease surveillance and cold chain strengthening. These impacts were dependent on the initiative of policy makers. Negative impacts, including service interruption and public dissatisfaction, were observed primarily in districts with many campaigns per year. Conclusions. Polio eradication activities can provide support for RI and PHC, but many opportunities to do so remain missed. Increased commitment to scaling up best practices could lead to significant positive impacts. PMID:24690667

  20. Costs, effects and implementation of routine data emergency admission risk prediction models in primary care for patients with, or at risk of, chronic conditions: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Mark Rhys; Evans, Bridie Angela; Nelson, Kayleigh; Hutchings, Hayley; Russell, Ian; Snooks, Helen

    2016-03-01

    Emergency admission risk prediction models are increasingly used to identify patients, typically with one or more chronic conditions, for proactive management in primary care to avoid admissions, save costs and improve patient experience. To identify and review the published evidence on the costs, effects and implementation of emergency admission risk prediction models in primary care for patients with, or at risk of, chronic conditions. We shall search for studies of healthcare interventions using routine data-generated emergency admission risk models. We shall report: the effects on emergency admissions and health costs; clinician and patient views; and implementation findings. We shall search ASSIA, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, HMIC, ISI Web of Science, MEDLINE and Scopus from 2005, review references in and citations of included articles, search key journals and contact experts. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment will be performed by two independent reviewers. No ethical permissions are required for this study using published data. Findings will be disseminated widely, including publication in a peer-reviewed journal and through conferences in primary and emergency care and chronic conditions. We judge our results will help a wide audience including primary care practitioners and commissioners, and policymakers. CRD42015016874; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Improvement of Physical Activity by a Kiosk-based Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention in Routine Primary Health Care: Patient-Initiated Versus Staff-Referred.

    PubMed

    Leijon, Matti; Arvidsson, Daniel; Nilsen, Per; Stark Ekman, Diana; Carlfjord, Siw; Andersson, Agneta; Johansson, Anne Lie; Bendtsen, Preben

    2011-11-22

    Interactive behavior change technology (eg, computer programs, Internet websites, and mobile phones) may facilitate the implementation of lifestyle behavior interventions in routine primary health care. Effective, fully automated solutions not involving primary health care staff may offer low-cost support for behavior change. We explored the effectiveness of an electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) deployed through a stand-alone information kiosk for promoting physical activity among sedentary patients in routine primary health care. We further tested whether its effectiveness differed between patients performing the e-SBI on their own initiative and those referred to it by primary health care staff. The e-SBI screens for the physical activity level, motivation to change, attitudes toward performing the test, and physical characteristics and provides tailored feedback supporting behavior change. A total of 7863 patients performed the e-SBI from 2007 through 2009 in routine primary health care in Östergötland County, Sweden. Of these, 2509 were considered not sufficiently physically active, and 311 of these 2509 patients agreed to participate in an optional 3-month follow-up. These 311 patients were included in the analysis and were further divided into two groups based on whether the e-SBI was performed on the patient´s own initiative (informed by posters in the waiting room) or if the patient was referred to it by staff. A physical activity score representing the number of days being physically active was compared between baseline e-SBI and the 3-month follow-up. Based on physical activity recommendations, a score of 5 was considered the cutoff for being sufficiently physically active. In all, 137 of 311 patients (44%) were sufficiently physically active at the 3-month follow-up. The proportion becoming sufficiently physically active was 16/55 (29%), 40/101 (40%), and 81/155 (52%) for patients with a physical activity score at baseline of 0, 1 to

  2. Improvement of Physical Activity by a Kiosk-based Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention in Routine Primary Health Care: Patient-Initiated Versus Staff-Referred

    PubMed Central

    Nilsen, Per; Stark Ekman, Diana; Carlfjord, Siw; Andersson, Agneta; Johansson, Anne Lie; Bendtsen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Background Interactive behavior change technology (eg, computer programs, Internet websites, and mobile phones) may facilitate the implementation of lifestyle behavior interventions in routine primary health care. Effective, fully automated solutions not involving primary health care staff may offer low-cost support for behavior change. Objectives We explored the effectiveness of an electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) deployed through a stand-alone information kiosk for promoting physical activity among sedentary patients in routine primary health care. We further tested whether its effectiveness differed between patients performing the e-SBI on their own initiative and those referred to it by primary health care staff. Methods The e-SBI screens for the physical activity level, motivation to change, attitudes toward performing the test, and physical characteristics and provides tailored feedback supporting behavior change. A total of 7863 patients performed the e-SBI from 2007 through 2009 in routine primary health care in Östergötland County, Sweden. Of these, 2509 were considered not sufficiently physically active, and 311 of these 2509 patients agreed to participate in an optional 3-month follow-up. These 311 patients were included in the analysis and were further divided into two groups based on whether the e-SBI was performed on the patient´s own initiative (informed by posters in the waiting room) or if the patient was referred to it by staff. A physical activity score representing the number of days being physically active was compared between baseline e-SBI and the 3-month follow-up. Based on physical activity recommendations, a score of 5 was considered the cutoff for being sufficiently physically active. Results In all, 137 of 311 patients (44%) were sufficiently physically active at the 3-month follow-up. The proportion becoming sufficiently physically active was 16/55 (29%), 40/101 (40%), and 81/155 (52%) for patients with a physical

  3. The health informatics cohort enhancement project (HICE): using routinely collected primary care data to identify people with a lifetime diagnosis of psychotic disorder

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that routinely collected primary care data can be used to identify potential participants for trials in depression [1]. Here we demonstrate how patients with psychotic disorders can be identified from primary care records for potential inclusion in a cohort study. We discuss the strengths and limitations of this approach; assess its potential value and report challenges encountered. Methods We designed an algorithm with which we searched for patients with a lifetime diagnosis of psychotic disorders within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage (SAIL) database of routinely collected health data. The algorithm was validated against the "gold standard" of a well established operational criteria checklist for psychotic and affective illness (OPCRIT). Case notes of 100 patients from a community mental health team (CMHT) in Swansea were studied of whom 80 had matched GP records. Results The algorithm had favourable test characteristics, with a very good ability to detect patients with psychotic disorders (sensitivity > 0.7) and an excellent ability not to falsely identify patients with psychotic disorders (specificity > 0.9). Conclusions With certain limitations our algorithm can be used to search the general practice data and reliably identify patients with psychotic disorders. This may be useful in identifying candidates for potential inclusion in cohort studies. PMID:22333117

  4. Utility and feasibility of integrating pulse oximetry into the routine assessment of young infants at primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Emdin, Connor A; Mir, Fatima; Sultana, Shazia; Kazi, A M; Zaidi, Anita K M; Dimitris, Michelle C; Roth, Daniel E

    2015-09-30

    Hypoxemia may occur in young infants with severe acute illnesses or congenital cardiac anomalies, but is not reliably detected on physical exam. Pulse oximetry (PO) can be used to detect hypoxemia, but its application in low-income countries has been limited, and its feasibility in the routine assessment of young infants (aged 0-59 days) has not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to characterize the operational feasibility and parent/guardian acceptability of incorporating PO into the routine clinical assessment of young infants in a primary care setting in a low-income country. This was a cross-sectional study of 862 visits by 529 infants at two primary care clinics in Karachi, Pakistan (March to June, 2013). After clinical assessment, oxygen saturation (Sp02) was measured by a handheld PO device (Rad-5v, Masimo Corporation) according to a standardized protocol. Performance time (PT) was the time between sensor placement and attainment of an acceptable PO reading (i.e., stable SpO2 + 1% for at least 10 s, heart rate displayed, and adequate signal indicators). PT included the time for one repeat attempt at a different anatomical site if the first attempt did not yield an acceptable reading within 1 min. Parent/guardian acceptability of PO was based on a questionnaire and unprompted comments about the procedure. All infants underwent physician assessment. Acceptable PO readings were obtained in ≤ 1 and ≤ 5 min at 94.4% and 99.8% of visits, respectively (n = 862). Median PT was 42 s (interquartile range 37; 50). Parents/guardians overwhelmingly accepted PO (99.6% overall satisfaction, n = 528 first visits). Of 10 infants with at least one visit with Sp02 <92% on a first PO attempt, 3 did not have a significant acute illness on physician assessment. There were no PO-related adverse events. Using a commercially available handheld pulse oximeter, acceptable Sp02 measurements were obtained in nearly all infants in under 1 minute. The procedure was

  5. Treating patients with fibromyalgia in primary care settings under routine medical practice: a claim database cost and burden of illness study

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas, Javier; Navarro, Ruth; Blanca, Milagrosa; Morcillo, Ángela; Larios, Raquel; Velasco, Soledad; Villarroya, Carme

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze health care and non-health care resource utilization under routine medical practice in a primary care setting claims database and to estimate the incremental average cost per patient per year of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) compared with a reference population. Methods A 12-month cross-sectional and retrospective study was completed using computerized medical records from a health provider database. Analyses were conducted from the perspective of the provider and from the viewpoint of society. Health care and non-health care resource utilization included drugs, complementary tests, all types of medical visits, referrals, hospitalizations, sick leave, and early retirement because of disability due to FMS. Patients with a diagnosis of FMS in accordance with ICD-10 (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision) criteria were included in the analysis if they had at least one claim for FMS during the 12 months prior to the end of May 2007. A non-FMS comparison group was also created with the remaining subjects. Results Of the 63,526 patients recruited for the study, 1,081 (1.7%) (96.7% of whom were women, 54.2 [10.1] years old) met the criteria for FMS. After an adjustment for age and gender, FMS subjects used significantly more health care resources than the reference population and had more sick leave and the percentage of subjects with premature retirement was also significantly higher (P < 0.001 in all cases). As a result, FMS subjects showed an incremental adjusted per-patient per-year total cost of €5,010 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3,494 to 6,076, +153%, P < 0.001) on average compared with non-FMS subjects. Significantly higher differences were observed in both health care and non-health care adjusted costs: €614 (404 to 823, +66%) and €4,394 (3,373 to 5,420, +189%), respectively (P < 0.001 in both cases). Annual drug expenditure per patient on

  6. General practitioners’ perceptions of introducing near-patient testing for common infections into routine primary care: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher C.; Simpson, Sharon; Wood, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Objective Near-patient tests are promoted for guiding management of common infections in primary care with a view to enhancing the effectiveness of prescribing decisions and containing antimicrobial resistance. Changes in clinical practice should be based on appraisals of the factors that might influence change, viewed from the perspective of those expected to implement the change. We therefore explored the views of general practitioners concerning the possible introduction of near-patient tests for managing common infections. Design Qualitative semi-structured interview study. Interviews were recorded and analysed using thematic content analysis. Setting General practices in south-east Wales, UK. Subjects A total of 26 general practitioners (GPs) from high fluroquinolone antibiotics prescribing practices and 14 GPs from practices that prescribed fluroquinolones close to the south-east Wales mean. Results There was strong enthusiasm for a hypothetical near-patient, finger-prick blood tests that could distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Many GPs emphasized that such tests would be valuable in “selling” decisions not to prescribe antibiotics to patients. Concerns included limited additional useful information to guide prescribing above clinical diagnosis alone, that patients might deteriorate even if the tests correctly identified a viral aetiology, and that GPs would need to be convinced by research evidence supporting uptake. Several indicated that tests would be useful only for a limited number of patients and they were concerned by time pressures, apparatus maintenance and quality control, cost, and possible objections from patients, especially children. Conclusions Despite GP enthusiasm for the concept of a rapid test to distinguish viral from bacterial infection, strategies to promote uptake would be enhanced if concerns were addressed regarding the importance and feasibility of such tests in daily practice. PMID:18297558

  7. The effects of implementing a point-of-care electronic template to prompt routine anxiety and depression screening in patients consulting for osteoarthritis (the Primary Care Osteoarthritis Trial): A cluster randomised trial in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Martyn; Green, Daniel; Kigozi, Jesse; Belcher, John; Clarkson, Kris; Lingard, Zoe; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A.; Croft, Peter; Hay, Elaine M.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs) to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain outcomes. Methods and findings We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire–2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder–2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0–10 numerical rating scale]). The template signposted GPs to follow National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines for anxiety, depression, and OA and was supported by a brief training package. The template in control practices prompted GPs to ask the pain intensity question only. The primary outcome was patient-reported current pain intensity post-consultation and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and general health. During the trial period, 7,279 patients aged ≥45 y consulted with a relevant OA-related code, and 4,240 patients were deemed potentially eligible by participating GPs. Templates were completed for 2,042 patients (1,339 [31.6%] in the control arm and 703 [23.1%] in the intervention arm). Of these 2,042 patients, 1,412 returned questionnaires (501 [71.3%] from 20 intervention practices, 911 [68.0%] from 24 control practices). Follow-up rates were similar in both arms, totalling 1,093 (77.4%) at 3 mo, 1,064 (75.4%) at 6 mo, and 1,017 (72.0%) at 12 mo. For the primary endpoint, multilevel modelling yielded significantly higher average pain intensity across follow-up to 12 mo in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted mean difference 0.31; 95% CI 0

  8. The effects of implementing a point-of-care electronic template to prompt routine anxiety and depression screening in patients consulting for osteoarthritis (the Primary Care Osteoarthritis Trial): A cluster randomised trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mallen, Christian D; Nicholl, Barbara I; Lewis, Martyn; Bartlam, Bernadette; Green, Daniel; Jowett, Sue; Kigozi, Jesse; Belcher, John; Clarkson, Kris; Lingard, Zoe; Pope, Christopher; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Croft, Peter; Hay, Elaine M; Peat, George

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether prompting general practitioners (GPs) to routinely assess and manage anxiety and depression in patients consulting with osteoarthritis (OA) improves pain outcomes. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 45 English general practices. In intervention practices, patients aged ≥45 y consulting with OA received point-of-care anxiety and depression screening by the GP, prompted by an automated electronic template comprising five questions (a two-item Patient Health Questionnaire-2 for depression, a two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 questionnaire for anxiety, and a question about current pain intensity [0-10 numerical rating scale]). The template signposted GPs to follow National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guidelines for anxiety, depression, and OA and was supported by a brief training package. The template in control practices prompted GPs to ask the pain intensity question only. The primary outcome was patient-reported current pain intensity post-consultation and at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and general health. During the trial period, 7,279 patients aged ≥45 y consulted with a relevant OA-related code, and 4,240 patients were deemed potentially eligible by participating GPs. Templates were completed for 2,042 patients (1,339 [31.6%] in the control arm and 703 [23.1%] in the intervention arm). Of these 2,042 patients, 1,412 returned questionnaires (501 [71.3%] from 20 intervention practices, 911 [68.0%] from 24 control practices). Follow-up rates were similar in both arms, totalling 1,093 (77.4%) at 3 mo, 1,064 (75.4%) at 6 mo, and 1,017 (72.0%) at 12 mo. For the primary endpoint, multilevel modelling yielded significantly higher average pain intensity across follow-up to 12 mo in the intervention group than the control group (adjusted mean difference 0.31; 95% CI 0.04, 0.59). Secondary outcomes were

  9. Setting the standard for routine asthma consultations: a discussion of the aims, process and outcomes of reviewing people with asthma in primary care.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Hilary; Fletcher, Monica; Holmes, Steve; Keeley, Duncan; Leyshon, Jane; Price, David; Russell, Richard; Versnel, Jenny; Wagstaff, Bronwen

    2010-03-01

    Globally, asthma morbidity remains unacceptably high. If outcomes are to be improved, it is crucial that routine review consultations in primary care are performed to a high standard. Key components of a review include: * Assessment of control using specific morbidity questions to elucidate the presence of symptoms, in conjunction with the frequency of use of short-acting bronchodilators and any recent history of acute attacks * After consideration of the diagnosis, and an assessment of compliance, inhaler technique, smoking status, triggers, and rhinitis, identification of poor control should result in a step-up of treatment in accordance with evidence-based guideline recommendations * Discussion should address understanding of the condition, patient-centred management goals and attitudes to regular treatment, and should include personalised self-management education Regular review of people with asthma coupled with provision of self-management education improves outcomes. Underpinned by a theoretical framework integrating professional reviews and patient self-care we discuss the practical barriers to implementing guided selfmanagement in routine clinical practice.

  10. Is the routine recording of primary care consultations possible … and desirable? Lessons for researchers from a consultation with multiple stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Rushmer, Rosemary; Themessel-Huber, Mark; Coyle, Joanne; Humphris, Gerry; Dowell, Jon; Williams, Brian

    2011-02-01

    To explore stakeholders' attitudes towards routine, longitudinal recording of primary care consultations for research purposes, and to identify legal, ethical, and practical barriers and facilitators. 183 stakeholders (including patients, researchers and practice staff) were identified using a purposeful sampling strategy. Stakeholders participated in focus groups and interviews. The data was analysed thematically in an iterative manner with themes and questions from earlier discussions being raised with later participants. Most participants supported the creation of a database and believed it would benefit patient care. They suggested it could be used to train doctors, aid understanding of conditions, and feed information back to practices to improve performance. However, enthusiasm was tempered by concerns about the ownership security and access of the data; quality and limitations of the dataset; impact on behaviour; and workload. Safeguards were suggested that protected vulnerable individuals, enabled participation, gave control to participants, and clarified data use. The findings show that collecting such longitudinal data is possible, valuable and acceptable providing certain safeguards are in place. Future studies employing routine recordings of consultations should: Attend to confidentiality, access and governance of the archive. Collect quality data, and store it securely. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving care coordination using organisational routines.

    PubMed

    Prætorius, Thim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to systematically apply theory of organisational routines to standardised care pathways. The explanatory power of routines is used to address open questions in the care pathway literature about their coordinating and organising role, the way they change and can be replicated, the way they are influenced by the organisation and the way they influence health care professionals. Theory of routines is systematically applied to care pathways in order to develop theoretically derived propositions. Care pathways mirror routines by being recurrent, collective and embedded and specific to an organisation. In particular, care pathways resemble standard operating procedures that can give rise to recurrent collective action patterns. In all, 11 propositions related to five categories are proposed by building on these insights: care pathways and coordination, change, replication, the organisation and health care professionals. Research limitations/implications - The paper is conceptual and uses care pathways as illustrative instances of hospital routines. The propositions provide a starting point for empirical research. The analysis highlights implications that health care professionals and managers have to consider in relation to coordination, change, replication, the way the organisation influences care pathways and the way care pathways influence health care professionals. Originality/value - Theory on organisational routines offers fundamental, yet unexplored, insights into hospital processes, including in particular care coordination.

  12. Integrating evidence-based treatments for common mental disorders in routine primary care: feasibility and acceptability of the MANAS intervention in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sudipto; Chowdhary, Neerja; Pednekar, Sulochana; Cohen, Alex; Andrew, Gracy; Andrew, Gracy; Araya, Ricardo; Simon, Gregory; King, Michael; Telles, Shirley; Verdeli, Helena; Clougherty, Kathleen; Kirkwood, Betty; Patel, Vikram

    2008-02-01

    Common mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, pose a major public health burden in developing countries. Although these disorders are thought to be best managed in primary care settings, there is a dearth of evidence about how this can be achieved in low resource settings. The MANAS project is an attempt to integrate an evidence based package of treatments into routine public and private primary care settings in Goa, India. Before initiating the trial, we carried out extensive preparatory work, over a period of 15 months, to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the planned intervention. This paper describes the systematic development and evaluation of the intervention through this preparatory phase. The preparatory stage, which was implemented in three phases, utilized quantitative and qualitative methods to inform our understanding of the potential problems and possible solutions in implementing the trial and led to critical modifications of the original intervention plan. Investing in systematic formative work prior to conducting expensive trials of the effectiveness of complex interventions is a useful exercise which potentially improves the likelihood of a positive result of such trials.

  13. A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of a guided self-help intervention versus a waiting list control in a routine primary care mental health service.

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mike; Kirby, Rebecca; Wainwright, Nigel

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVES. To evaluate the effectiveness of a two session guided self-help (GSH) intervention provided by primary care graduate mental health workers (PCGMHWs) in a primary care mental health service. DESIGN. Pragmatic randomized trial, with a wait list control design. METHOD. Patients presenting with significant anxiety and depression problems were given one or more self-help booklets at screening and randomly allocated to an immediate (ITG) or delayed treatment group (DTG). Following this, a two-session GSH intervention was provided by one of two PCGMHWs, with a review session to decide on the need for further intervention. The DTG began the intervention 8 weeks after the screening and the primary outcome was Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) scores after 8 weeks. RESULTS. A total of 63 patients were allocated to the ITG, 59 to the DTG. Analysis of covariance, carried out on an intention to treat basis, showed a significant treatment effect, F(1,98) = 15, p < .001, and a comparison of means at 8 weeks showed a significant difference, t(116) = 2.1 (95% CI [1.1, 5.9]), p= .042 with an effect size, d= 0.375. Taking the two groups together, CORE-OM scores for patients who completed the intervention reduced between screening and the review session by an average of 7.9 (95% CI [6.3, 9.5]), effect size of 1.2. Between screening and the review session, 47% showed a reliable and clinically significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS. The study provides some support for the effectiveness of a two-session GSH intervention and a stepped-care service model. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Continuous and routine EEG in intensive care

    PubMed Central

    van der Goes, David N.; Nuwer, Marc R.; Nelson, Lonnie; Eccher, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring on inpatient mortality, hospital charges, and length of stay. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset representing 20% of inpatient discharges in nonfederal US hospitals. Adult discharge records reporting mechanical ventilation and EEG (routine EEG or cEEG) were included. cEEG was compared with routine EEG alone in association with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality and secondary outcomes of total hospital charges and length of stay. Demographics, hospital characteristics, and medical comorbidity were used for multivariate adjustments of the primary and secondary outcomes. Results: A total of 40,945 patient discharges in the weighted sample met inclusion criteria, of which 5,949 had reported cEEG. Mechanically ventilated patients receiving cEEG were younger than routine EEG patients (56 vs 61 years; p < 0.001). There was no difference in the 2 groups in income or medical comorbidities. cEEG was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality in both univariate (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.45–0.64; p < 0.001) and multivariate (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.51–0.76; p < 0.001) analyses. There was no significant difference in costs or length of stay for patients who received cEEG relative to those receiving only routine EEG. Sensitivity analysis showed that adjusting for diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) for any neurologic diagnoses, DRGs for neurologic procedures, and specific DRGs for epilepsy/convulsions did not substantially alter the association of cEEG with reduced inpatient mortality. Conclusions: cEEG is favorably associated with inpatient survival in mechanically ventilated patients, without adding significant charges to the hospital stay. PMID:24186910

  15. Routine Self-administered, Touch-Screen Computer Based Suicidal Ideation Assessment Linked to Automated Response Team Notification in an HIV Primary Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Sarah T.; Willig, James H.; Crane, Heidi M.; Ye, Jiatao; Aban, Inmaculada; Lober, William; Nevin, Christa R.; Batey, D. Scott; Mugavero, Michael J.; McCullumsmith, Cheryl; Wright, Charles; Kitahata, Mari; Raper, James L.; Saag, Micheal S.; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The implementation of routine computer-based screening for suicidal ideation and other psychosocial domains through standardized patient reported outcome instruments in two high volume urban HIV clinics is described. Factors associated with an increased risk of self-reported suicidal ideation were determined. Background HIV/AIDS continues to be associated with an under-recognized risk for suicidal ideation, attempted as well as completed suicide. Suicidal ideation represents an important predictor for subsequent attempted and completed suicide. We sought to implement routine screening of suicidal ideation and associated conditions using computerized patient reported outcome (PRO) assessments. Methods Two geographically distinct academic HIV primary care clinics enrolled patients attending scheduled visits from 12/2005 to 2/2009. Touch-screen-based, computerized PRO assessments were implemented into routine clinical care. Substance abuse (ASSIST), alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C), depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (PHQ-A) were assessed. The PHQ-9 assesses the frequency of suicidal ideation in the preceding two weeks. A response of “nearly every day” triggered an automated page to pre-determined clinic personnel who completed more detailed self-harm assessments. Results Overall 1,216 (UAB= 740; UW= 476) patients completed initial PRO assessment during the study period. Patients were white (53%; n=646), predominantly males (79%; n=959) with a mean age of 44 (± 10). Among surveyed patients, 170 (14%) endorsed some level of suicidal ideation, while 33 (3%) admitted suicidal ideation nearly every day. In multivariable analysis, suicidal ideation risk was lower with advancing age (OR=0.74 per 10 years;95%CI=0.58-0.96) and was increased with current substance abuse (OR=1.88;95%CI=1.03-3.44) and more severe depression (OR=3.91 moderate;95%CI=2.12-7.22; OR=25.55 severe;95%CI=12.73-51.30). Discussion Suicidal ideation was associated with current substance abuse and

  16. Implementing guidelines to routinely prevent chronic vascular disease in primary care: the Preventive Evidence into Practice cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mark Fort; Parker, Sharon M; Litt, John; van Driel, Mieke; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Del Mar, Chris; Lloyd, Jane; Smith, Jane; Zwar, Nicholas; Taylor, Richard; Powell Davies, Gawaine

    2015-12-11

    To evaluate an intervention to improve implementation of guidelines for the prevention of chronic vascular disease. 32 urban general practices in 4 Australian states. Stratified randomisation of practices. 122 general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) were recruited at baseline and 97 continued to 12 months. 21,848 patient records were audited for those aged 40-69 years who attended the practice in the previous 12 months without heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cognitive impairment or severe mental illness. The practice level intervention over 6 months included small group training of practice staff, feedback on audited performance, practice facilitation visits and provision of patient education and referral information. Primary: 1. Change in proportion of patients aged 40-69 years with smoking status, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) recorded and for those aged 45-69 years with lipids, fasting blood glucose and cardiovascular risk in the medical record. 2. Change in the level of risk for each factor. change in self-reported frequency and confidence of GPs and PNs in assessment. Risk recording improved in the intervention but not the control group for WC (OR 2.52 (95% CI 1.30 to 4.91)), alcohol consumption (OR 2.19 (CI 1.04 to 4.64)), smoking status (OR 2.24 (1.17 to 4.29)) and cardiovascular risk (OR 1.50 (1.04 to 2.18)). There was no change in recording of BP, lipids, glucose or BMI and no significant change in the level of risk factors based on audit data. The confidence but not reported practices of GPs and PNs in the intervention group improved in the assessment of some risk factors. This intervention was associated with improved recording of some risk factors but no change in the level of risk at the follow-up audit. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000578808, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  17. Implementing guidelines to routinely prevent chronic vascular disease in primary care: the Preventive Evidence into Practice cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Sharon M; Litt, John; van Driel, Mieke; Russell, Grant; Mazza, Danielle; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Del Mar, Chris; Lloyd, Jane; Smith, Jane; Zwar, Nicholas; Taylor, Richard; Powell Davies, Gawaine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate an intervention to improve implementation of guidelines for the prevention of chronic vascular disease. Setting 32 urban general practices in 4 Australian states. Randomisation Stratified randomisation of practices. Participants 122 general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) were recruited at baseline and 97 continued to 12 months. 21 848 patient records were audited for those aged 40–69 years who attended the practice in the previous 12 months without heart disease, stroke, diabetes, chronic renal disease, cognitive impairment or severe mental illness. Intervention The practice level intervention over 6 months included small group training of practice staff, feedback on audited performance, practice facilitation visits and provision of patient education and referral information. Outcome measures Primary: 1. Change in proportion of patients aged 40–69 years with smoking status, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP) recorded and for those aged 45–69 years with lipids, fasting blood glucose and cardiovascular risk in the medical record. 2. Change in the level of risk for each factor. Secondary change in self-reported frequency and confidence of GPs and PNs in assessment. Results Risk recording improved in the intervention but not the control group for WC (OR 2.52 (95% CI 1.30 to 4.91)), alcohol consumption (OR 2.19 (CI 1.04 to 4.64)), smoking status (OR 2.24 (1.17 to 4.29)) and cardiovascular risk (OR 1.50 (1.04 to 2.18)). There was no change in recording of BP, lipids, glucose or BMI and no significant change in the level of risk factors based on audit data. The confidence but not reported practices of GPs and PNs in the intervention group improved in the assessment of some risk factors. Conclusions This intervention was associated with improved recording of some risk factors but no change in the level of risk at the follow-up audit. Trial registration number

  18. Should Dental Schools Train Dentists to Routinely Provide Limited Preventive Primary Medical Care? Two Viewpoints: Viewpoint 1: Dentists Should Be Trained to Routinely Provide Limited Preventive Primary Care and Viewpoint 2: Dentists Should Be Trained in Primary Care Medicine to Enable Comprehensive Patient Management Within Their Scope of Practice.

    PubMed

    Giddon, Donald B; Donoff, R Bruce; Edwards, Paul C; Goldblatt, Lawrence I

    2017-05-01

    This Point/Counterpoint acknowledges the transformation of dental practice from a predominantly technically based profession with primary emphasis on restoration of the tooth and its supporting structures to that of a more medically based specialty focusing on the oral and maxillofacial complex. While both viewpoints accept the importance of this transformation, they differ on the ultimate desired outcome and how changes should be implemented during training of dentists as oral health professionals. Viewpoint 1 argues that, in response to a shortage of both primary care providers and access to affordable oral health care, dentists need to be able and willing to provide limited preventive primary care (LPPC), and dental educators should develop and implement training models to prepare them. Among changes proposed are consideration of three types of practitioners: oral physicians with sufficient training to provide LPPC; dentists with excellent technical proficiency but minimal medical and surgical training; and mid-level providers to provide simple restorative and uncomplicated surgical care. Viewpoint 2 argues that the objective of dentists' education in primary care medicine is to help them safely and effectively provide all aspects of oral health care, including appropriate preventive medical care, that already fall within their scope of knowledge and practice. Dental educators should encourage students to use this knowledge to take full ownership of non-tooth-related pathologic conditions of the oral and maxillofacial complex not currently managed in the dental setting, but encouraging graduates to expand into non-dental LPPC outside the recognized scope of practice will only further exacerbate fragmentation of care.

  19. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development - A study based on the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Lindegaard, Hanne; Vestergaard, Hanne; Felding, Peter; de Fine Olivarius, Niels; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2014-09-01

    Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of malignant disease and a host anti-tumor effect. The association between eosinophilia and the development of solid tumors has never before been examined in an epidemiological setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (< 0.5 × 10(9)/l), mild (≥ 0.5-1.0 × 10(9)/l) or severe (≥ 1.0 × 10(9)/l) eosinophilia. From the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Cancer Registry we ascertained all-cause death and solid tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's Comorbidity Index. The risk of bladder cancer was increased with mild eosinophilia [OR 1.93 (CI 1.29-2.89), p = 0.0013]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for the remaining solid cancers. We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associates with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution.

  20. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development - A study based on The Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Lindegaard, Hanne; Vestergaard, Hanne; Felding, Peter; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2013-12-20

    Background. Eosinophilia may represent an early paraclinical sign of malignant disease and a host anti-tumor effect. The association between eosinophilia and the development of solid tumors has never before been examined in an epidemiological setting. The aim of the present study was to investigate eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. Material and methods. From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the eosinophil count during 2000-2007. From these, one DIFF was randomly chosen and categorized according to no (< 0.5 × 10(9)/l), mild (≥ 0.5-1.0 × 10(9)/l) or severe (≥ 1.0 × 10(9)/l) eosinophilia. From the Danish Cancer Registry we ascertained solid tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's comorbidity index. Results. The risk for breast cancer was significantly lower in individuals exhibiting mild eosinophilia than in individuals with normal eosinophil counts [OR (95% confidence intervals) = 0.51 (0.35-0.76), p = 0.0005]. The risk of bladder cancer, however, increased with severity of eosinophilia [2.27 (1.53-3.39), p < 0.0001 and 2.62 (0.96-7.14), p = 0.0592 for mild and severe eosinophilia, respectively]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for remaining solid cancers. Conclusion. We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associate with a decreased risk of breast cancer and an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance

  1. A Cost-Consequences analysis of the effect of Pregabalin in the treatment of peripheral Neuropathic Pain in routine medical practice in Primary Care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain (NeP) is a common symptom of a group of a variety of conditions, including diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, or postherpetic neuralgia. Prevalence of NeP has been estimated to range between 5-7.5%, and produces up to 25% of pain clinics consultations. Due to its severity, chronic evolution, and associated co-morbidities, NeP has an important individual and social impact. The objective was to analyze the effect of pregabalin (PGB) on pain alleviation and longitudinal health and non-health resources utilization and derived costs in peripheral refractory NeP in routine medical practice in primary care settings (PCS) in Spain. Methods Subjects from PCS were older than 18 years, with peripheral NeP (diabetic neuropathy, post-herpetic neuralgia or trigeminal neuralgia), refractory to at least one previous analgesic, and included in a prospective, real world, and 12-week two-visit cost-of-illness study. Measurement of resources utilization included both direct healthcare and indirect expenditures. Pain severity was measured by the Short Form-McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Results One-thousand-three-hundred-fifty-four PGB-naive patients [58.8% women, 59.5 (12.7) years old] were found eligible for this secondary analysis: 598 (44%) switched from previous therapy to PGB given in monotherapy (PGBm), 589 (44%) received PGB as add-on therapy (PGB add-on), and 167 (12%) patients changed previous treatments to others different than PGB (non-PGB). Reductions of pain severity were higher in both PGBm and PGB add-on groups (54% and 51%, respectively) than in non-PGB group (34%), p < 0.001. Incremental drug costs, particularly in PGB subgroups [€34.6 (80.3), €160.7 (123.9) and €154.5 (133.0), for non-PGB, PGBm and PGBadd-on, respectively (p < 0.001)], were off-set by higher significant reductions in all other components of health costs yielding to a greater total cost reductions: -€1,045.3 (1,989.6),-€1,312.9 (1,543.0), and -€1

  2. Evaluation of total purchasing pilots in England and Scotland and implications for primary care groups in England: personal interviews and analysis of routine data

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Nicholas; Mays, Nicholas; McLeod, Hugh; Malbon, Gill; Raftery, James

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the reported achievements of the 52 first wave total purchasing pilot schemes in 1996-7 and the factors associated with these; and to consider the implications of these findings for the development of the proposed primary care groups. Design: Face to face interviews with lead general practitioners, project managers, and health authority representatives responsible for each pilot; and analysis of hospital episode statistics. Setting: England and Scotland for evaluation of pilots; England only for consideration of implications for primary care groups. Main outcome measures: The ability of total purchasers to achieve their own objectives and their ability specifically to achieve objectives in the service areas beyond fundholding included in total purchasing. Results: The level of achievement between pilots varied widely. Achievement was more likely to be reported in primary than in secondary care. Reported achievements in reducing length of stay and emergency admissions were corroborated by analysis of hospital episode statistics. Single practice and small multipractice pilots were more likely than large multipractice projects to report achieving their objectives. Achievements were also associated with higher direct management costs per head and the ability to undertake independent contracting. Large multipractice pilots required considerable organisational development before progress could be made. Conclusion: The ability to create effective commissioning organisations the size of the proposed primary care groups should not be underestimated. To be effective commissioners, these care groups will need to invest heavily in their organisational development and in the short term are likely to need an additional development budget rather than the reduction in spending on NHS management that is planned by the government. Key messages The level of reported achievement between the total purchasing pilots in 1996-7 varied widely; achievement was more

  3. Measuring Quality of Healthcare Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes from Routine Data: a Seven-nation Survey Conducted by the IMIA Primary Health Care Working Group.

    PubMed

    Hinton, W; Liyanage, H; McGovern, A; Liaw, S-T; Kuziemsky, C; Munro, N; de Lusignan, S

    2017-08-01

    Background: The Institute of Medicine framework defines six dimensions of quality for healthcare systems: (1) safety, (2) effectiveness, (3) patient centeredness, (4) timeliness of care, (5) efficiency, and (6) equity. Large health datasets provide an opportunity to assess quality in these areas. Objective: To perform an international comparison of the measurability of the delivery of these aims, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from large datasets. Method: We conducted a survey to assess healthcare outcomes data quality of existing databases and disseminated this through professional networks. We examined the data sources used to collect the data, frequency of data uploads, and data types used for identifying people with T2DM. We compared data completeness across the six areas of healthcare quality, using selected measures pertinent to T2DM management. Results: We received 14 responses from seven countries (Australia, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the UK). Most databases reported frequent data uploads and would be capable of near real time analysis of healthcare quality.The majority of recorded data related to safety (particularly medication adverse events) and treatment efficacy (glycaemic control and microvascular disease). Data potentially measuring equity was less well recorded. Recording levels were lowest for patient-centred care, timeliness of care, and system efficiency, with the majority of databases containing no data in these areas. Databases using primary care sources had higher data quality across all areas measured. Conclusion: Data quality could be improved particularly in the areas of patient-centred care, timeliness, and efficiency. Primary care derived datasets may be most suited to healthcare quality assessment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.

  4. Merging ultrasound in the intensive care routine.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, Daniel J; Shemesh, Iftach

    2013-11-01

    Goal-oriented ultrasound examination is gaining a place in the intensive care unit. Some protocols have been proposed but the applicability of ultrasound as part of a routine has not been studied. To assess the influence of ultrasound performed by intensive care physicians. This retrospective descriptive clinical study was performed in a medical-surgical intensive care unit of a university-affiliated general hospital. Data were collected from patients undergoing ultrasound examinations performed by a critical care physician during the period 2010 to June 2011. A total of 299 ultrasound exams were performed in 113 mechanically ventilated patients (70 males, mean age 65 years). Exams included trans-cranial Doppler (n = 24), neck evaluation before tracheostomy (n = 15), chest exam (n = 83), focuse cardiac echocardiography (n = 60), abdominal exam (n = 41), and comprehensive screening at patient admission (n = 30). Ultrasound was used to guide invasive procedures for vascular catheter insertion (n = 42), pleural fluid drainage (n = 24), and peritoneal fluid drainage (n = 7). One pneumothorax was seen during central venous line insertion but no complications were observed after pleural or abdominal drainage. The ultrasound study provided good quality visualization in 86% (258 of 299 exams) and was a diagnostic tool that induced a change in treatment in 58% (132 of 226 exams). Bedside ultrasound examinations performed by critical care physicians provide an important adjunct to diagnostic and therapeutic performance, improving quality of care and patient safety.

  5. Antibiotic prescribing for acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) - guideline adherence in the German primary care setting: An analysis of routine data.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Eva Maria; Pelzl, Steffen; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Laux, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine. Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of consultations. General practitioners' decision of whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic was congruent with the guideline in 52% of consultations and the antibiotic choice congruence was 51% of antibiotic prescriptions. Hence, a congruent prescribing decision and a prescription of recommendation was found in only 25% of antibiotic prescriptions. Split by diagnosis we found that around three quarters of antibiotics prescribed for cough (73%) and acute bronchitis (78%) were not congruent to the guidelines. In contrast to that around one quarter of antibiotics prescribed for community acquired pneumonia (28%) were not congruent to the guidelines. Our results show that there is a big gap between guideline recommendation and actual prescribing, in the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. This gap could be closed by periodic quality circles on antibiotic prescribing for GPs.

  6. Antibiotic prescribing for acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) – guideline adherence in the German primary care setting: An analysis of routine data

    PubMed Central

    Pelzl, Steffen; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Laux, Gunter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Antibiotic overprescribing in primary care has major impacts on the development of antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study is to provide insight in antibiotics prescriptions for patients suffering from cough, acute bronchitis or community acquired pneumonia in primary care. Methods Data from 2009 to 2013 of electronic health records of 12,880 patients in Germany were obtained from a research database. The prescription of antibiotics for acute lower respiratory tract infections was compared to the national S3 guideline cough from the German Society of General Practitioners and Family Medicine. Results Antibiotics were prescribed in 41% of consultations. General practitioners’ decision of whether or not to prescribe an antibiotic was congruent with the guideline in 52% of consultations and the antibiotic choice congruence was 51% of antibiotic prescriptions. Hence, a congruent prescribing decision and a prescription of recommendation was found in only 25% of antibiotic prescriptions. Split by diagnosis we found that around three quarters of antibiotics prescribed for cough (73%) and acute bronchitis (78%) were not congruent to the guidelines. In contrast to that around one quarter of antibiotics prescribed for community acquired pneumonia (28%) were not congruent to the guidelines. Conclusions Our results show that there is a big gap between guideline recommendation and actual prescribing, in the decision to prescribe and the choice of antibiotic agent. This gap could be closed by periodic quality circles on antibiotic prescribing for GPs. PMID:28350820

  7. Food insecurity and mental health: an analysis of routine primary care data of pregnant women in the Born in Bradford cohort.

    PubMed

    Power, Madeleine; Uphoff, Eleonora; Kelly, Brian; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-04-01

    Since 2008, use of food banks has risen sharply in the UK; however, evidence on the epidemiology of UK food insecurity is sparse. The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory of common mental disorder across the pre-pregnancy, pregnancy and postnatal period for food secure compared with food insecure women. Data from the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort, the nested BiB1000 study and primary care records were linked based on National Health Service (NHS) numbers. Data linkage was completed for 1297, and primary care records were available from 18 months prior to 40 months after birth of the cohort child. Incidence rates of common mental disorders per 1000 patient years at risk were compared between food secure and insecure women, and for Pakistani compared with white British women, in 10 6-month periods around pregnancy. Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios, adjusted for ethnicity and exposure. Food insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of common mental disorder before and during pregnancy (incidence rate ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.8, p=0.001) and after giving birth (incidence rate ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7, p=0.029). Our study shows that food insecure women have worse mental health than food secure women, and that this difference is most pronounced for white British pregnant women. These findings provide evidence for concerns expressed by public health experts that food insecurity may become the next public health emergency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. The routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for long-term conditions in primary care: a cohort survey

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Michele; Crocker, Helen; Jenkinson, Crispin; Doll, Helen; Fitzpatrick, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for long-term conditions (LTCs) in primary care. Design A cohort postal survey conducted from September 2010 to April 2012. Setting Primary care practices (n=33) in London and the North-West of England. Participants 4484 patients with a diagnosis of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, epilepsy, heart failure or stroke were sent a survey at baseline. Main outcome The main outcome was to evaluate the feasibility of and the recruitment strategies for collecting PROMs data in LTCs by assessing the response rates for the baseline and follow-up surveys. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of change scores of the EQ-5D index and visual analogue scale (VAS) between baseline and follow-up surveys. Results The baseline survey achieved a response rate of 38.4% (n=1721/4485) and at follow-up 71.5% (n=1136/1589). Response rates varied by LTC. Little change was found in health-related quality of life for the total sample (−0.001 for the EQ-5D index score and 0.12 for the EQ-5D VAS) between patients responding to both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusions The response rate to the baseline survey was similar to that of other general practice surveys. Current UK policy aims to assess health service performance in LTCs by means of using PROMs. It thus would be desirable to improve response rates by making the invitation to self-reports of health-related quality of life more engaging for patients. Results on the EQ-5D score raise questions about optimal indicators for LTCs and appropriate timelines for assessment. PMID:24561495

  9. Routine failures in the process for blood testing and the communication of results to patients in primary care in the UK: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Hill, Ann; McManus, Richard J; Lilford, Richard; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The testing and result communication process in primary care is complex. Its successful completion relies on the coordinated efforts of a range of staff in primary care and external settings working together with patients. Despite the importance of diagnostic testing in provision of care, this complexity renders the process vulnerable in the face of increasing demand, stretched resources and a lack of supporting guidance. We conducted a series of focus groups with patients and staff across four primary care practices using process-improvement strategies to identify and understand areas where either unnecessary delay is introduced, or the process may fail entirely. We then worked with both patients and staff to arrive at practical strategies to improve the current system. A total of six areas across the process were identified where improvements could be introduced. These were: (1) delay in phlebotomy, (2) lack of a fail-safe to ensure blood tests are returned to practices and patients, (3) difficulties in accessing results by telephone, (4) role of non-clinical staff in communicating results, (5) routine communication of normal results and (6) lack of a protocol for result communication. A number of potential failures in testing and communicating results to patients were identified, and some specific ideas for improving existing systems emerged. These included same-day phlebotomy sessions, use of modern technology methods to proactively communicate routine results and targeted training for receptionists handling sensitive data. There remains an urgent need for further work to test these and other potential solutions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Routine failures in the process for blood testing and the communication of results to patients in primary care in the UK: a qualitative exploration of patient and provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Hill, Ann; McManus, Richard J; Lilford, Richard; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    Background The testing and result communication process in primary care is complex. Its successful completion relies on the coordinated efforts of a range of staff in primary care and external settings working together with patients. Despite the importance of diagnostic testing in provision of care, this complexity renders the process vulnerable in the face of increasing demand, stretched resources and a lack of supporting guidance. Methods We conducted a series of focus groups with patients and staff across four primary care practices using process-improvement strategies to identify and understand areas where either unnecessary delay is introduced, or the process may fail entirely. We then worked with both patients and staff to arrive at practical strategies to improve the current system. Results A total of six areas across the process were identified where improvements could be introduced. These were: (1) delay in phlebotomy, (2) lack of a fail-safe to ensure blood tests are returned to practices and patients, (3) difficulties in accessing results by telephone, (4) role of non-clinical staff in communicating results, (5) routine communication of normal results and (6) lack of a protocol for result communication. Conclusions A number of potential failures in testing and communicating results to patients were identified, and some specific ideas for improving existing systems emerged. These included same-day phlebotomy sessions, use of modern technology methods to proactively communicate routine results and targeted training for receptionists handling sensitive data. There remains an urgent need for further work to test these and other potential solutions. PMID:26251507

  11. Primary Care's Dim Prognosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alper, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    Given the chorus of approval for primary care emanating from every party to the health reform debate, one might suppose that the future for primary physicians is bright. Yet this is far from certain. And when one looks to history and recognizes that primary care medicine has failed virtually every conceivable market test in recent years, its…

  12. Primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kitai, A

    1986-07-01

    Development of primary care in Japan in still relatively unorganized and unstructured. As mentioned above, the author describes some strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese primary care system. In addressing the weaknesses the following suggestions are offered for the Japanese primary care delivery system: Increase the number of emergency rooms for all day, especially on holidays and at night. Introduce an appointment system. Introduce an open system of hospitals. Coordinate with public hospitals and primary care clinics. Organize the referral system between private practitioners and community hospitals. Increase the number of paramedical staff. Strengthen group practice among primary care physicians. Increase the establishment of departments of primary care practice with government financial incentives to medical schools and teaching hospitals. Develop a more active and direct teaching role for primary care practice or family practice at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Improve and maintain present health insurance payment method, shifting from quantity of care to quality and continuity of care. Introduce formal continuing education. Introduce formal training programs of primary care and strengthen ambulatory care teaching programs.

  13. Routine coagulation testing in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Musca, Steven; Desai, Shilpa; Roberts, Brigit; Paterson, Timothy; Anstey, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    To test a simple clinical guideline to reduce unnecessary routine testing of coagulation status. A prospective, unblinded, observational study of coagulation testing frequency before and after introduction of a simple clinical guideline. We included 253 patients admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit: 100 patients consecutively enrolled before our intervention (May - July 2015) and 153 patients consecutively enrolled after our intervention (August - September 2015). We introduced a clinical guideline and educational program in the ICU from 18 August 2015. The number of coagulation tests performed per patient bed-day, and the associated pathology costs. Over the 3-month sample period, 999 coagulation profiles were performed for 253 patients: 720 (72%) in 100 patients before, and 279 (28%) in 153 patients after our intervention. The testing frequency fell from 1.12 to 0.41 per patient bed-day (P < 0.001). A total of 463 pre-intervention coagulation profiles (64%) were classified as unnecessary, and the cost of all coagulation tests fell by 60.5% per bedday after the intervention. A simple clinical guideline and educational package reduced unnecessary coagulation tests and costs in a tertiary referral ICU.

  14. Integrating nurse-led Self-Management Support (SMS) in routine primary care: design of a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study among type 2 diabetes patients with problems of daily functioning and emotional distress: a study protocol.

    PubMed

    van Dijk-de Vries, Anneke; van Bokhoven, Marloes A; Terluin, Berend; van der Weijden, Trudy; van Eijk, Jacques Th M

    2013-06-07

    Psychosocial problems are more prevalent among patients with chronic diseases than among the general population. They may lead to a downward spiral of poor adherence, deterioration of the condition and decline in daily functioning. In addition to medical management, systematic attention to emotional and role management tasks during routine chronic care seems mandatory. We intend to integrate an existing nurse-led minimal psychological intervention to support patients' self-management, which appeared to be effective and cost-effective, in routine care by primary care nurses, so we adjusted it to fit the host setting. The resulting Self-Management Support (SMS) programme involves early detection of patients with emotional distress and problems of daily functioning, as well as self-management support through problem solving and reattribution techniques. Strategies to embed SMS in daily practice include training and booster sessions for practice nurses as well as organisational and financial arrangements. This study aims to simultaneously evaluate the implementation process and effects of SMS in routine care, using a hybrid effectiveness-implementation design. Registration data, questionnaires and interviews will be used to explore the facilitators, barriers and costs regarding successful implementation of SMS. The effects of SMS will be evaluated in a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with a baseline measurement and follow-up measurements after 4 and 12 months. The population will consist of 46 practice nurses and their type 2 diabetes patients (N = 460; 10 per practice nurse). The practice nurses will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Practice nurses of the intervention group will receive SMS training. Patients for the intervention and control groups will be recruited by a researcher-led self-administered screening procedure to decide which patients of those scheduled for routine consultation are likely to be detected by the

  15. Integrating nurse-led Self-Management Support (SMS) in routine primary care: design of a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study among type 2 diabetes patients with problems of daily functioning and emotional distress: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial problems are more prevalent among patients with chronic diseases than among the general population. They may lead to a downward spiral of poor adherence, deterioration of the condition and decline in daily functioning. In addition to medical management, systematic attention to emotional and role management tasks during routine chronic care seems mandatory. We intend to integrate an existing nurse-led minimal psychological intervention to support patients’ self-management, which appeared to be effective and cost-effective, in routine care by primary care nurses, so we adjusted it to fit the host setting. The resulting Self-Management Support (SMS) programme involves early detection of patients with emotional distress and problems of daily functioning, as well as self-management support through problem solving and reattribution techniques. Strategies to embed SMS in daily practice include training and booster sessions for practice nurses as well as organisational and financial arrangements. This study aims to simultaneously evaluate the implementation process and effects of SMS in routine care, using a hybrid effectiveness–implementation design. Methods/Design Registration data, questionnaires and interviews will be used to explore the facilitators, barriers and costs regarding successful implementation of SMS. The effects of SMS will be evaluated in a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial with a baseline measurement and follow-up measurements after 4 and 12 months. The population will consist of 46 practice nurses and their type 2 diabetes patients (N = 460; 10 per practice nurse). The practice nurses will be randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Practice nurses of the intervention group will receive SMS training. Patients for the intervention and control groups will be recruited by a researcher-led self-administered screening procedure to decide which patients of those scheduled for routine consultation are

  16. Folic acid use by women receiving routine gynecologic care.

    PubMed

    Cleves, Mario A; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Collins, H Breck; Andrews, Nancy; Smith, Laura N; Robbins, James M

    2004-04-01

    Many health professional groups recommend folic acid supplementation for all women able to become pregnant. In this study, we document folic acid supplement use among a sample of women receiving routine gynecologic care. A short questionnaire was administered to 322 women aged 18-45 years who were seeking routine gynecologic care at participating clinics in Little Rock, Arkansas. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements, pregnancy intention, and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Primary study outcomes were self-reported folic acid awareness, daily or weekly use of folic acid supplements, and intention to begin taking folic acid. Factors affecting study outcomes were examined individually by computing crude odd ratios and adjusted for other covariates using unconditional logistic regression. Although 61.8% of women reported awareness of the association between folic acid and birth defects prevention, only 27.1% of these women, and 22.7% of all study participants, reported daily use of a folic acid supplement. Substantially more women (39.8%) were taking a folic acid supplement at least once per week. Age, race, educational level, folic acid awareness, marital status, pregnancy intent, and other preventive health behaviors were the most important predictors of compliance. The results indicate a need for targeted interventions directed toward minority women, young women, and those of lower socioeconomic and educational status. The routine gynecologic visit is an ideal opportunity to counsel women of reproductive age to take folic acid daily. III

  17. Methods for evaluating the impact of vertical programs on health systems: protocol for a study on the impact of the global polio eradication initiative on strengthening routine immunization and primary health care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of vertical programs on health systems is a much-debated topic, and more evidence on this complex relationship is needed. This article describes a research protocol developed to assess the relationship between the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, routine immunization, and primary health care in multiple settings. Methods/Design This protocol was designed as a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods, making use of comparative ethnographies. The study evaluates the impact of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative on routine immunization and primary health care by: (a) combining quantitative and qualitative work into one coherent study design; (b) using purposively selected qualitative case studies to systematically evaluate the impact of key contextual variables; and (c) making extensive use of the method of participant observation to create comparative ethnographies of the impact of a single vertical program administered in varied contexts. Discussion The study design has four major benefits: (1) the careful selection of a range of qualitative case studies allowed for systematic comparison; (2) the use of participant observation yielded important insights on how policy is put into practice; (3) results from our quantitative analysis could be explained by results from qualitative work; and (4) this research protocol can inform the creation of actionable recommendations. Here, recommendations for how to overcome potential challenges in carrying out such research are presented. This study illustrates the utility of mixed-methods research designs in which qualitative data are not just used to embellish quantitative results, but are an integral component of the analysis. PMID:22938708

  18. Primary care research ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R; Murphy, E; Crosland, A

    1995-01-01

    Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered. PMID:8554844

  19. [Primary care in Ireland].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-03-27

    Spanish doctors are still leaving the country to look for quality work. Ireland is not a country with many Spanish professionals but it is interesting to know its particular Health care system. Ireland is one of the countries with a national health care system, although it has a mixture of private health care insurance schemes. People have a right to health care if they have been living in Ireland at least for a year. Access to the primary care health system depends on age and income: free of charge for Category 1 and co-payments for the rest. This division generates great inequalities among the population. Primary Care doctors are self-employed, and they work independently. However, since 2001 they have tended to work in multidisciplinary teams in order to strengthen the Primary Care practice. Salary is gained from a combination of public and private incomes which are not differentiated. The role of the General Practitioner consists in the treatment of acute and chronic diseases, minor surgery, child care, etc. There is no coordination between Primary and Secondary care. Access to specialised medicine is regulated by the price of consultation. Primary Care doctors are not gatekeepers. To be able to work here, doctors must have three years of training after medical school. After that, Continuing Medical Education is compulsory, and the college of general practitioners monitors it annually. The Irish health care system does not fit into the European model. Lack of a clear separation between public and private health care generates great inequalities. The non-existence of coordination between primary and specialised care leads to inefficiencies, which Ireland cannot allow itself after a decade of economic crisis. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Using routine data to improve palliative and end of life care

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Joanna M; Gao, Wei; Sleeman, Katherine E; Lindsey, Katie; Murtagh, Fliss E; Teno, Joan M; Deliens, Luc; Wee, Bee; Higginson, Irene J; Verne, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Palliative and end of life care is essential to healthcare systems worldwide, yet a minute proportion of research funding is spent on palliative and end of life care research. Routinely collected health and social care data provide an efficient and useful opportunity for evaluating and improving care for patients and families. There are excellent examples of routine data research in palliative and end of life care, but routine data resources are widely underutilised. We held four workshops on using routinely collected health and social care data in palliative and end of life care. Researchers presented studies from the UK, USA and Europe. The aim was to highlight valuable examples of work with routine data including work with death registries, hospital activity records, primary care data and specialist palliative care registers. This article disseminates that work, describes the benefits of routine data research and identifies major challenges for the future use of routine data, including; access to data, improving data linkage, and the need for more palliative and end of life care specific data. PMID:26928173

  1. Using routine data to improve palliative and end of life care.

    PubMed

    Davies, Joanna M; Gao, Wei; Sleeman, Katherine E; Lindsey, Katie; Murtagh, Fliss E; Teno, Joan M; Deliens, Luc; Wee, Bee; Higginson, Irene J; Verne, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Palliative and end of life care is essential to healthcare systems worldwide, yet a minute proportion of research funding is spent on palliative and end of life care research. Routinely collected health and social care data provide an efficient and useful opportunity for evaluating and improving care for patients and families. There are excellent examples of routine data research in palliative and end of life care, but routine data resources are widely underutilised. We held four workshops on using routinely collected health and social care data in palliative and end of life care. Researchers presented studies from the UK, USA and Europe. The aim was to highlight valuable examples of work with routine data including work with death registries, hospital activity records, primary care data and specialist palliative care registers. This article disseminates that work, describes the benefits of routine data research and identifies major challenges for the future use of routine data, including; access to data, improving data linkage, and the need for more palliative and end of life care specific data. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Sparking, supporting and steering change: grounding an accountability framework with viewpoints from Nigerian routine immunization and primary health care government officials.

    PubMed

    George, Asha S; Erchick, Daniel J; Zubairu, Mustafa Mahmud; Barau, Inuwa Yau; Wonodi, Chizoba

    2016-11-01

    Existing accountability efforts in Nigeria primarily serve as retrospective policing. To enable accountability to guide change prospectively and preemptively, we drew from a literature review to develop a framework that highlights mutually reinforcing dimensions of accountability in health systems along three counterbalancing axes. The axis of power sparks change by wielding 'sticks' that curb the potential abuse of power, but also by offering 'carrots' that motivate constructive agency. The axis of ability supports change by enabling service delivery actors with formal rules that appropriately expand their authority to act, but also the informal norms and inputs for improved performance. Last, the axis of justice orients the strategic direction of change, balancing political representation, community ownership and social equity, so that accountability measures are progressive, rather than being captured by self-interests. We consulted Nigerian government officials to understand their viewpoints on accountability and mapped their responses to our evolving framework. All government officials (n = 36) participating in three zonal workshops on routine immunization filled out questionnaires that listed the top three opportunities and challenges to strengthening accountability. Thematically coded responses highlighted dimensions of accountability within the axes of ability and power: clarifying formal roles and responsibilities; transparency, data and monitoring systems; availability of skilled health personnel that are motivated and supervised; addressing informal norms and behaviours; and availability of inputs regarding funding and supplies. Other dimensions of accountability were mentioned but were not as critical from their viewpoints: managerial discretion; sanctions and enforcements; political influence and community engagement. Strikingly, almost no respondents mentioned social equity as being an important aspect of accountability, although a few mentioned

  3. Teaching primary care obstetrics

    PubMed Central

    Koppula, Sudha; Brown, Judith B.; Jordan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the experiences and recommendations for recruitment of family physicians who practise and teach primary care obstetrics. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting Six primary care obstetrics groups in Edmonton, Alta, that were involved in teaching family medicine residents in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Alberta. Participants Twelve family physicians who practised obstetrics in groups. All participants were women, which was reasonably representative of primary care obstetrics providers in Edmonton. Methods Each participant underwent an in-depth interview. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The investigators independently reviewed the transcripts and then analyzed the transcripts together in an iterative and interpretive manner. Main findings Themes identified in this study include lack of confidence in teaching, challenges of having learners, benefits of having learners, and recommendations for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. While participants described insecurity and challenges related to teaching, they also identified positive aspects, and offered suggestions for recruiting learners to primary care obstetrics. Conclusion Despite describing poor confidence as teachers and having challenges with learners, the participants identified positive experiences that sustained their interest in teaching. Supporting these teachers and recruiting more such role models is important to encourage family medicine learners to enter careers such as primary care obstetrics. PMID:24627402

  4. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Primary care in Italy].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-05-25

    Italy is not a country where Spanish doctors emigrate, as there is an over-supply of health care professionals. The Italian Servizio Sanitario Nazionale has some differences compared to the Spanish National Health System. The Servizio Sanitario Nazionale is financed by national and regional taxes and co-payments. There are taxes earmarked for health, and Primary Care receives 50% of the total funds. Italian citizens and residents in Italy have the right to free health cover. However, there are co-payments for laboratory and imaging tests, pharmaceuticals, specialist ambulatory services, and emergencies. Co-payments vary in the different regions. The provision of services is regional, and thus fragmentation and major inequities are the norm. Doctors in Primary Care are self-employed and from 2000 onwards, there are incentives to work in multidisciplinary teams. Salary is regulated by a national contract and it is the sum of per-capita payments and extra resources for specific activities. Responsibilities are similar to those of Spanish professionals. However, medical care is more personal. Relationships between Primary Care and specialised care depend on the doctors' relationships. Primary Care doctors are gatekeepers for specialised care, except for gynaecology, obstetrics and paediatrics. Specialised training is compulsory in order to work as general practitioner. The Italian Health Care System is a national health system like the Spanish one. However, health care professionals are self-employed, and there are co-payments. In spite of co-payments, Italians have one of the highest average life expectancy, and they support a universal and publicly funded health-care system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Mehus, Christopher J.; Hawkins, J. David; Boat, Thomas; McCabe, Mary Ann; Barkin, Shari; Perrin, Ellen C.; Metzler, Carol W.; Prado, Guillermo; Tait, V. Fan; Brown, Randall; Beardslee, William

    2017-01-01

    Family-focused prevention programs have been shown to effectively reduce a range of negative behavioral health outcomes but have had limited reach. Three key barriers must be overcome to expand the reach of family-focused prevention programs and thereby achieve a significant public health impact. These barriers are: (1) current social norms and perceptions of parenting programs; (2) concerns about the expertise and legitimacy of sponsoring organizations to offer parenting advice; and (3) a paucity of stable, sustainable funding mechanisms. Primary healthcare settings are well positioned to overcome these barriers. Recent changes within health care make primary care settings an increasingly favorable home for family-focused prevention and suggest possibilities for sustainable funding of family-focused prevention programs. This paper discusses the existing advantages of primary care settings and lays out a plan to move toward realizing the potential public health impact of family-focused prevention through widespread implementation in primary healthcare settings. PMID:27498167

  7. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Ashley; Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-03-15

    this increased risk could persist for up to six months (odds ratio 13.23, 95% confidence interval 7.84 to 22.31). Prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care in children with urinary tract infections caused by E coli is high, particularly in countries outside the OECD, where one possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics over the counter. This could render some antibiotics ineffective as first line treatments for urinary tract infection. Routine use of antibiotics in primary care contributes to antimicrobial resistance in children, which can persist for up to six months after treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in paediatric urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and association with routine use of antibiotics in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Alastair D; Lane, Isabel F; Thornton, Hannah V; Wootton, Mandy; Costelloe, Céire

    2016-01-01

    previous prescriptions for antibiotics in primary care were more likely to be resistant to antibiotics, and this increased risk could persist for up to six months (odds ratio 13.23, 95% confidence interval 7.84 to 22.31). Conclusions Prevalence of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics in primary care in children with urinary tract infections caused by E coli is high, particularly in countries outside the OECD, where one possible explanation is the availability of antibiotics over the counter. This could render some antibiotics ineffective as first line treatments for urinary tract infection. Routine use of antibiotics in primary care contributes to antimicrobial resistance in children, which can persist for up to six months after treatment. PMID:26980184

  9. Primary care for refugees.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Barbara

    2011-02-15

    Over the past decade, at least 600,000 refugees from more than 60 different countries have been resettled in the United States. The personal history of a refugee is often marked by physical and emotional trauma. Although refugees come from many different countries and cultures, their shared pattern of experiences allows for some generalizations to be made about their health care needs and challenges. Before being accepted for resettlement in the United States, all refugees must pass an overseas medical screening examination, the purpose of which is to identify conditions that could result in ineligibility for admission to the United States. Primary care physicians have the opportunity to care for members of this unique population once they resettle. Refugees present to primary care physicians with a variety of health problems, including musculoskeletal and pain issues, mental and social health problems, infectious diseases, and longstanding undiagnosed chronic illnesses. Important infectious diseases to consider in the symptomatic patient include tuberculosis, parasites, and malaria. Health maintenance and immunizations should also be addressed. Language barriers, cross-cultural medicine issues, and low levels of health literacy provide additional challenges to caring for this population. The purpose of this article is to provide primary care physicians with a guide to some of the common issues that arise when caring for refugee patients.

  10. Transsexual primary care.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Christopher O

    2010-08-01

    Transsexual presentations in primary care stress mainstream health care physical resources, institutional organization, and the cultural flexibility of providers and interdisciplinary staff. This article describes the ethical landscape, examines gender identity culture, and considers gender reassignment physiology. Nurse practitioners are challenged to advocate for this population. Sources for the discussion derive from published institutional guidelines, institutional and civic policies, web-based information in the public domain, and professional journal articles. Advocacy for cultural sensitivity, institutional policy change,and professional integrity will determine healthcare quality for this population. Advocacy for cultural awareness and institutional change has begun in larger institutions and metropolitan areas, but is necessary across primary care settings. Caring for transsexuals requires knowledge of anatomical reassignments, hormonal therapy effects, and cultural sensitivities particular to the gender identity community. Healthcare screening and physical exam modifications for these presentations require forethought and appropriate adjustments.

  11. Primary care development zones.

    PubMed

    Beardshaw, V; Gordon, P; Plamping, D

    1993-01-30

    Most commentators on the Tomlinson report have agreed with its emphasis on improving primary and community care. The three elements of such a strategy are a remedial programme to bring primary care up to national standards, a programme to provide such services to people with non-standard needs such as mobile Londoners, ethnic minorities, and homeless people, and the development of an expanded model of primary care. No one model will be appropriate across all of London. The process should start with an audit of existing resources and services within each community, together with an analysis of needs. From this would develop a local programme with specific plans for investment in premises, staffing, training, and management. New contractual mechanisms may be needed to attract practitioners, improve their premises, secure out of hours services, and provide medical cover for community beds. There should also be incentives for closer working between primary and secondary services. No developments on the scale needed for London have been carried out in primary care within the lifetime of the NHS--but their success will be critical to the calibre of health services for Londoners into the next century.

  12. Benefits of Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism in Chronic Kidney Disease (BARACK D) trial–a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded end-point, 36-month study of 2,616 patients within primary care with stage 3b chronic kidney disease to compare the efficacy of spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes versus routine care alone: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and increasing in prevalence. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and death in CKD, though of a different phenotype to the general CVD population. Few therapies have proved effective in modifying the increased CVD risk or rate of renal decline in CKD. There are accumulating data that aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARA) may offer cardio-protection and delay renal impairment in patients with the CV phenotype in CKD. The use of ARA in CKD has therefore been increasingly advocated. However, no large study of ARA with renal or CVD outcomes is underway. Methods The study is a prospective randomised open blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial set in primary care where patients will mainly be identified by their GPs or from existing CKD lists. They will be invited if they have been formally diagnosed with CKD stage 3b or there is evidence of stage 3b CKD from blood results (eGFR 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2) and fulfil the other inclusion/exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised to either spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care or routine care alone and followed-up for 36 months. Discussion BARACK D is a PROBE trial to determine the effect of ARA on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes (onset or progression of CVD) in patients with stage 3b CKD. Trial registration EudraCT: 2012-002672-13 ISRTN: ISRCTN44522369 PMID:24886488

  13. Acupuncture in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jun J.; Kapur, Rahul

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Acupuncture is an ancient traditional Chinese medical therapy that is used widely around the world. When practiced by a certified provider, it is safe and often perceived as calming and relaxing for patients. Animal and human studies have found a physiological basis for acupuncture needling in that it affects the complex central and peripheral neuro-hormonal network. Although it is unclear whether acupuncture is beneficial over sham/placebo acupuncture, acupuncture care yields clinically relevant short- and long-term benefits for low back pain, knee osteoarthritis, chronic neck pain, and headache. The integration of acupuncture into a primary care setting also appears to be cost-effective. Furthermore, the practice of acupuncture in primary care involves rigorous training, financial discipline, and art of communication. When it is done correctly, acupuncture proves to be beneficial for both patients and providers. PMID:20189001

  14. [Primary care in Belgium].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2017-09-01

    Belgium is an attractive country to work in, not just for doctors but for all Spanish workers, due to it having the headquarters of European Union. The health job allure is double; on the one hand, the opportunity to find a decent job, and on the other, because it is possible to develop their professional abilities with patients of the same nationality in a health system with a different way of working. The Belgium health care system is based on security social models. Health care is financed by the government, social security contributions, and voluntary private health insurance. Primary care in Belgium is very different to that in Spain. Citizens may freely choose their doctor (general practitioner or specialist) increasing the lack of coordination between primary and specialized care. This leads to serious patient safety problems and loss of efficiency within the system. Belgium is a European country with room to improve preventive coverage. General practitioners are self-employed professionals with free choice of setting, and their salary is linked to their professional activity. Ambulatory care is subjected to co-payment, and this fact leads to great inequities on access to care. The statistics say that there is universal coverage but, in 2010, 14% of the population did not seek medical contact due to economic problems. It takes 3 years to become a General Practitioner and continuing medical education is compulsory to be revalidated. In general, Belgian and Spaniards living and working in Belgium are happy with the functioning of the health care system. However, as doctors, we should be aware that it is a health care system in which access is constrained for some people, and preventive coverage could be improved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model.

    PubMed

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation.

  16. [Primary care in Sweden].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-09-01

    Sweden was one of the first European Union countries that saw the opportunity in the free movement of professionals. First offers for jobs were managed in 2000. Since then, a large number of professionals have taken the opportunity of a decent job and have moved from Spain to Sweden. The Swedish health care model belongs to the group of national health systems. The right to health care is linked to legal citizenship. Health is financed through regional taxes, but there is a compulsory co-payment regardless of the financial situation of the patient. The provision of health care is decentralised at a regional level, and there is a mixture of private and public medical centres. Primary care is similar to that in Spain. Health professionals work as a team with a division of tasks. Like in Spain, waiting lists and coordination between primary and specialised care are a great problem. Patients may register with any public or private primary care centre and hospital provider within their region. Access to diagnostic tests and specialists are restricted to those selected by specialists. Doctors are salaried and their job and salary depend on their experience, professional abilities and regional needs. Medicine is curative. General practitioners are the gateway to the system, but they do not act as gatekeeper. Hospitals offer a number of training post, and the access is through an interview. Continuing medical education is encouraged and financed by the health centre in order to increase its revenues. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Primary care: the next renaissance.

    PubMed

    Showstack, Jonathan; Lurie, Nicole; Larson, Eric B; Rothman, Arlyss Anderson; Hassmiller, Susan

    2003-02-04

    Three decades ago, a renaissance helped create the foundations of primary care as we know it today. In recent years, however, new challenges have confronted primary care. We believe that the current challenges can be overcome and may, in fact, present an opportunity for a new renaissance of primary care to address the needs of our population. In this paper, we suggest seven core principles and a set of actions that will support a renaissance in, and a positive future for, primary care. The seven principles are 1) Health care must be organized to serve the needs of patients; 2) the goal of primary care systems should be the delivery of the highest-quality care as documented by measurable outcomes; 3) information and information systems are the backbone of the primary care process; 4) current health care systems must be reconstructed; 5) the health care financing system must support excellent primary care practice; 6) primary care education must be revitalized, with an emphasis on new delivery models and training in sites that deliver excellent primary care; and 7) the value of primary care practice must be continually improved, documented, and communicated. At the start of the 21st century, a vital, patient-centered primary care system has much to offer a rapidly changing population with increasingly diverse needs and expectations. If we keep the needs of persons and patients clearly in sight and design systems to meet those needs, primary care will thrive and our patients will be well served.

  18. Spirometry in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Allan L; Graham, Brian L; McFadden, Robin G; McParland, Colm; Moosa, Dilshad; Provencher, Steeve; Road, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) clinical guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) specify that spirometry should be used to diagnose these diseases. Given the burden of asthma and COPD, most people with these diseases will be diagnosed in the primary care setting. The present CTS position statement was developed to provide guidance on key factors affecting the quality of spirometry testing in the primary care setting. The present statement may also be used to inform and guide the accreditation process for spirometry in each province. Although many of the principles discussed are equally applicable to pulmonary function laboratories and interpretation of tests by respirologists, they are held to a higher standard and are outside the scope of the present statement. PMID:23457669

  19. Diabetes care provision in UK primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P

    2012-01-01

    Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.

  20. Diabetes Care Provision in UK Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Gillian; Hrisos, Susan; Stamp, Elaine; Elovainio, Marko; Francis, Jill J.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hunter, Margaret; Johnston, Marie; Presseau, Justin; Steen, Nick; Eccles, Martin P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care. Methods Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices. Results 326/361 (90.3%) doctors, 163/186 (87.6%) nurses and 3591 patients (41.8%) returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise) more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42%) and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients’ reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range) of 21% (3% to 39%) of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management. Conclusions Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation. PMID:22859997

  1. Increasing Day Care Staff Members' Interactions during Caregiving Routines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venn, Martha L.; Wolery, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Four paraprofessional staff members in a mainstreamed day care program were trained to engage in positive interactive behaviors during diaper changing. Results indicated that staff increased frequency of game playing and other interactive behaviors during diapering, but increases were not generalized to feeding routines. (Author/JDD)

  2. Epigenetics and primary care.

    PubMed

    Wright, Robert; Saul, Robert A

    2013-12-01

    Epigenetics, the study of functionally relevant chemical modifications to DNA that do not involve a change in the DNA nucleotide sequence, is at the interface between research and clinical medicine. Research on epigenetic marks, which regulate gene expression independently of the underlying genetic code, has dramatically changed our understanding of the interplay between genes and the environment. This interplay alters human biology and developmental trajectories, and can lead to programmed human disease years after the environmental exposure. In addition, epigenetic marks are potentially heritable. In this article, we discuss the underlying concepts of epigenetics and address its current and potential applicability for primary care providers.

  3. A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort.

    PubMed

    Crooks, C J; West, J; Card, T R

    2015-06-05

    Hospital admission records provide snapshots of clinical histories for a subset of the population admitted to hospital. In contrast, primary care records provide continuous clinical histories for complete populations, but might lack detail about inpatient stays. Therefore, combining primary and secondary care records should improve the ability of comorbidity scores to predict survival in population-based studies, and provide better adjustment for case-mix differences when assessing mortality outcomes. Cohort study. English primary and secondary care 1 January 2005 to 1 January 2010. All patients 20 years and older registered to a primary care practice contributing to the linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink from England. The performance of the Charlson index with mortality was compared when derived from either primary or secondary care data or both. This was assessed in relation to short-term and long-term survival, age, consultation rate, and specific acute and chronic diseases. 657,264 people were followed up from 1 January 2005. Although primary care recorded more comorbidity than secondary care, the resulting C statistics for the Charlson index remained similar: 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Higher consultation rates and restricted age bands reduced the performance of the Charlson index, but the index's excellent performance persisted over longer follow-up; the C statistic was 0.87 over 1 year, and 0.85 over all 5 years of follow-up. The Charlson index derived from secondary care comorbidity had a greater effect than primary care comorbidity in reducing the association of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality. However, they had a similar effect in reducing the association of diabetes with mortality. These findings support the use of the Charlson index from linked data and show that secondary care comorbidity coding performed at least as well as that derived from primary care in predicting survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  4. Project DULCE: Strengthening Families through Enhanced Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sege, Robert; Kaplan-Sanof, Margot; Morton, Samantha J.; Velasco-Hodgson, M. Carolina; Preer, Genevieve; Morakinyo, Grace; DeVos, Ed; Krathen, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Project DULCE (Developmental understanding and legal Collaboration for everyone) integrated the Strengthening families approach to building family protective factors into routine health care visits for infants in a primary health care setting. The core collaborators--Boston medical Center pediatric primary care, the medical-legal partnership |…

  5. Project DULCE: Strengthening Families through Enhanced Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sege, Robert; Kaplan-Sanof, Margot; Morton, Samantha J.; Velasco-Hodgson, M. Carolina; Preer, Genevieve; Morakinyo, Grace; DeVos, Ed; Krathen, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Project DULCE (Developmental understanding and legal Collaboration for everyone) integrated the Strengthening families approach to building family protective factors into routine health care visits for infants in a primary health care setting. The core collaborators--Boston medical Center pediatric primary care, the medical-legal partnership |…

  6. [Antibiotics in primary care].

    PubMed

    Steciwko, Andrzej; Lubieniecka, Małgorzata; Muszyńska, Agnieszka

    2011-05-01

    Discovered in the forties of the twentieth century antimicrobial agents have changed the world. Currently, due to their overuse, we are threatened by the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, and soon we may face a threat of inability to fight these pathogens. For that reason, the world, European and national organizations introduce antibiotics protection programs. In Poland since 2004, the National Program of Protection of Antibiotics is being held. The concept of rational antibiotic therapy is associated not only with the appropriate choice of therapy or antimicrobial dosage but also with a reduction in costs associated with a refund of medicines. Antibiotics are prescribed mostly by primary care physicians (GP), and about one fifth of visits to family doctor's office ends with prescribing antimicrobial drug. These trends are probably related to both the difficulty in applying the differential diagnosis of viral and bacterial infection in a primary care doctor's office, as well as patient's conviction about the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in viral infections. However, although patients often want to influence the therapeutic decisions and ask their doctor for prescribing antimicrobial drug, the right conversation with a doctor alone is the critical component in satisfaction with medical care. Many countries have established standards to clarify the indications for use of antibiotics and thereby reduce their consumption. The next step is to monitor the prescribing and use of these drugs and to assess the rise of drug resistance in the area. In Poland, the recommendations regarding outpatient respiratory tract infections treatment were published and usage of antimicrobial agents monitoring has begun. However, lack of publications covering a broad analysis of antibiotic therapy and drug resistance on Polish territory is still a problem. Modem medicine has yet another tool in the fight against bacteria--they are bacteriophages. Phage therapy is

  7. Integrating the family into routine patient care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Cole-Kelly, K; Yanoshik, M K; Campbell, J; Flynn, S P

    1998-12-01

    The field of family medicine has been enriched by a family-oriented approach and the inclusion of family systems concepts. Keeping the family as a central focus of care has been a fundamental commitment of family medicine. This research examines how exemplary physicians ("exemplars") integrate a family-oriented approach into the routine care of individual patients. Four family physician exemplars were observed. A total of 16 days was spent observing the physicians; 137 physician-patient encounters were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed. Grounded theory was used for analysis, and a model of a family-oriented approach was developed. Visits were classified by the reason for visit and the intensity of family-oriented talk and actions. There was modest variation among the physicians in terms of intensity and time spent with patients. Overall, 19% of patient encounters had a high intensity of family-orientedness; 34% were of low intensity. The average time spent with patients was 13 minutes, with visits ranging from 3 to 39 minutes in length. Our study demonstrated that physicians integrate family systems concepts into routine individual patient care. The findings identify characteristics of the family-oriented approach and those circumstances that promote and hinder it. Family physicians can adapt specific components of the family-oriented approach into their routine individual patient care.

  8. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model

    PubMed Central

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. PMID:26951592

  9. Correlates of Family Satisfaction with Hospice Care: General Inpatient Hospice Care versus Routine Home Hospice Care.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jeremy; Brennsteiner, Alex; Chow, Elizabeth; Hebert, Randy S

    2016-01-01

    The quality of communication and support provided to families is associated with greater satisfaction with hospice care. Prior work has not explored whether the predictors of family satisfaction are different in different hospice care settings. The study objective was to explore whether correlates of family satisfaction are different in general inpatient hospice care versus routine home hospice care. Survey data from bereaved family members of approximately 1600 patients from a nonprofit, midsized hospice in western Pennsylvania were used. Data was obtained from Family Evaluation of Hospice Care (FEHC) survey responses from 2008-2013 and separated into two groups, general inpatient hospice care and routine home hospice care. The analysis was completed using a binomial logistic regression model. Three variables were associated with greater overall satisfaction in both care settings: being kept informed about the patient's condition (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 9.64, CI: 6.56-14.36); being provided with clear/consistent information (AOR: 2.34, CI: 1.47-3.72); and the perception that patients were provided with adequate treatment for anxiety (AOR: 2.64, CI: 1.19-5.81). Two variables, sufficient discussion with hospice team members concerning family members' religious or spiritual beliefs (AOR: 1.64, CI: 1.17-2.30) and being provided with the correct amount of emotional support after the patient's death (AOR: 2.01, CI: 1.10-3.66), were correlated with greater satisfaction in routine home hospice care only. Good communication is strongly associated with greater family satisfaction across hospice care settings. Hospices must ensure that they provide patients and families with consistent information and support.

  10. Registered Nurses in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Flinter, Margaret; Hsu, Clarissa; Cromp, DeAnn; Ladden, MaryJoan D.

    2017-01-01

    The years since the passage of the Affordable Care Act have seen substantial changes in the organization and delivery of primary care. These changes have emphasized greater team involvement in care and expansion of the roles of each team member including registered nurses (RNs). This study examined the roles of RNs in 30 exemplary primary care practices. We identified the emergence of new roles and activities for RNs characterized by greater involvement in face-to-face patient care and care management, their own daily schedule of patient visits and contacts, and considerable autonomy in the care of their patients. PMID:28323721

  11. Seeking, Delaying and Avoiding Routine Health Care Services: Patient Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Johnson, Kim M.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore/identify patient perspectives regarding seeking, delaying, and avoiding health care services, particularly barriers and facilitators. Design Face-to-face interviews with health plan survey respondents. Setting An integrated health plan providing comprehensive care to 480,000 people in Oregon and Washington. Participants Willing respondents randomly selected to maximize heterogeneity within the following strata: gender, health care utilization, and self-reported alcohol consumption (indicator of health practices). Participants were 75 men and 75 women (150 total), 21–64 years old, with ≥12 months of health plan membership. Method Participants were recruited by letter (52.5% agreed). Data collection stopped when planned interviews were completed; saturation (the point at which additional interviews were not producing novel information) was achieved for key study questions. Semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Reviews of codes related to care seeking and feelings/attitudes about providers produced common themes. Results Facilitators of care seeking included welcoming staff, collaborative relationships with providers, and education about the value of preventive care. Barriers included costs, time needed for appointments, and cumbersome processes. Some participants delayed procedures, some avoided care until absolutely necessary, others framed care as routinely necessary. Conclusion Increasing comfort, improving appointment and visit-related processes, having positive patient-physician relationships, and enhancing communication and clinician-provided education may facilitate appropriate use of preventive services. Further research is needed with larger, representative, samples to evaluate findings. PMID:23971522

  12. Primary health care models

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith Belle; French, Reta; McCulloch, Amy; Clendinning, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the knowledge and perceptions of fourth-year medical students regarding the new models of primary health care (PHC) and to ascertain whether that knowledge influenced their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Setting The Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry at The University of Western Ontario in London. Participants Fourth-year medical students graduating in 2009 who indicated family medicine as a possible career choice on their Canadian Residency Matching Service applications. Methods Eleven semistructured interviews were conducted between January and April of 2009. Data were analyzed using an iterative and interpretive approach. The analysis strategy of immersion and crystallization assisted in synthesizing the data to provide a comprehensive view of key themes and overarching concepts. Main findings Four key themes were identified: the level of students’ knowledge regarding PHC models varied; the knowledge was generally obtained from practical experiences rather than classroom learning; students could identify both advantages and disadvantages of working within the new PHC models; and although students regarded the new PHC models positively, these models did not influence their decisions to pursue careers in family medicine. Conclusion Knowledge of the new PHC models varies among fourth-year students, indicating a need for improved education strategies in the years before clinical training. Being able to identify advantages and disadvantages of the PHC models was not enough to influence participants’ choice of specialty. Educators and health care policy makers need to determine the best methods to promote and facilitate knowledge transfer about these PHC models. PMID:22518904

  13. Anxiety Disorders in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Danielle H; Mahoney, David; Freedy, John R

    2016-06-01

    Investigation for a possible anxiety disorder should be considered in patients with multiple or persistent anxiety symptoms or multiple somatic complaints without a clear somatic etiology. The ideal treatment for anxiety disorders is a combination of pharmacologic and behavioral strategies. As primary care health care evolves, it is expected that the management of mental health disorders (including anxiety disorders) will largely occur in the context of collaborative care models in which patients and primary care clinicians are assisted by trained case managers who help facilitate a more comprehensive, holistic treatment plan between primary care and mental health providers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. African Primary Care Research: qualitative interviewing in primary care.

    PubMed

    Reid, Steve; Mash, Bob

    2014-06-05

    This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews.There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals.

  15. Providing Perinatal Mental Health Services in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…

  16. Providing Perinatal Mental Health Services in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talmi, Ayelet; Stafford, Brian; Buchholz, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    After birth, newborns and their caregivers are seen routinely and frequently in pediatric primary care settings. The close succession of visits in the first few months of life puts pediatric primary care professionals in a unique position to enhance infant mental health by developing strong relationships with caregivers, supporting babies and…

  17. Comparative efficacy versus effectiveness of initial antiretroviral therapy in clinical trials versus routine care

    PubMed Central

    Routman, Justin S.; Willig, James H.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Abroms, Sarah R.; Varshney, Mohit; Adusumilli, Sunil; Allison, Jeroan J.; Savage, Karen G.; Saag, Michael S.; Mugavero, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The generalizability of clinical trial findings (efficacy) to routine care (effectiveness) may be limited. The present study found similar first year virologic and CD4 outcomes among antiretroviral-naïve patients treated through routine care vs. those participating in clinical trials. Background The generalizability of clinical trial findings (efficacy) to routine care (effectiveness) may be limited due to study eligibility criteria and volunteer bias. While well chronicled in many conditions, the efficacy vs. effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains understudied. Methods A retrospective study of the UAB 1917 Clinic Cohort evaluated naïve patients starting ART between 1/1/00–12/31/06. Patients received ART through clinical trials or routine care. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were fit to evaluate factors associated with virologic failure (VF=VL>50 copies/mL) and change from baseline CD4 count 6 and 12 months after ART initiation. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the impact of missing data on outcomes. Results Among 570 patients starting ART during the study period, 121 (21%) enrolled in clinical trials vs. 449 (79%) receiving ART via routine care. ART receipt through routine care was not associated with VF at either 6 (OR=1.00;95%CI=0.54–1.86) or 12 (OR=1.56;95%CI=0.80–3.05) months in primary analyses. No significant differences in CD4 count responses at 6 and 12 months were observed. Conclusions Though marked differences in efficacy vs. effectiveness have been observed in the therapeutic outcomes of other conditions, our analyses found no evidence of such divergence among our patients initiating antiretroviral therapy for HIV. PMID:20067423

  18. The Coming Primary Care Revolution.

    PubMed

    Ellner, Andrew L; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-04-01

    The United States has the most expensive, technologically advanced, and sub-specialized healthcare system in the world, yet it has worse population health status than any other high-income country. Rising healthcare costs, high rates of waste, the continued trend towards chronic non-communicable disease, and the growth of new market entrants that compete with primary care services have set the stage for fundamental change in all of healthcare, driven by a revolution in primary care. We believe that the coming primary care revolution ought to be guided by the following design principles: 1) Payment must adequately support primary care and reward value, including non-visit-based care. 2) Relationships will serve as the bedrock of value in primary care, and will increasingly be fostered by teams, improved clinical operations, and technology, with patients and non-physicians assuming an ever-increasing role in most aspects of healthcare. 3) Generalist physicians will increasingly focus on high-acuity and high-complexity presentations, and primary care teams will increasingly manage conditions that specialists managed in the past. 4) Primary care will refocus on whole-person care, and address health behaviors as well as vision, hearing, dental, and social services. Design based on these principles should lead to higher-value healthcare, but will require new approaches to workforce training.

  19. Determining Navy Primary Care Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    GMOs and UMOs) and flight surgeons, but not the interns and residents. The implicit assumption we made was that, for purposes of providing care to...than half of all of its providers being counted as providing primary care. This high value is attributable mainly to the large numbers of GMOs , UMOs...being either GMOs or contract civilians. The Navy couldn’t rely on only active-duty clinicians to provide primary care under the HMO system. The Navy

  20. Assessment of pain and other patient symptoms in routine clinical care as quantitative, standardised, "scientific" data.

    PubMed

    Chua, Jacquelin R; Castrejon, Isabel; Pincus, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Pain is the most common basis for visits to a rheumatologist, and reduction of pain is a primary goal of clinical care. Pain is assessed optimally by the patient on a self-report questionnaire. In clinical trials and other clinical research concerning pain and pain relief, detailed questionnaires are generally completed by patients. However, in routine clinical care, pain is generally assessed only according to narrative descriptions by the physician, and only a minority of settings assess pain using a standard, quantitative measure. Accurate, standard, quantitative assessment of pain in routine care is easily assessed in all patients with all diagnoses on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (VAS), by asking each patient to complete a 2-page multidimensional health assessment questionnaire/routine assessment of patient index data 3 (MDHAQ/RAPID3) at all visits. The MDHAQ includes VAS for pain, patient global assessment, and fatigue, as well as a quantitative physical function scale, RAPID3, review of systems, and recent medical history. The questionnaire provides the doctor with a 10-15 second overview of medical history data that otherwise would require about 10-15 minutes of conversation, saving time for the doctor and patient to focus on the most prominent concerns for the visit. MDHAQ scores from patients with 10 different rheumatic diagnoses, and specific data indicating similarity of scores in patients with osteoarthritis versus rheumatoid arthritis on the same questionnaire, are presented to illustrate the value of the MDHAQ in routine care.

  1. Obesity care strategies in primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Adolfo J; Ruch-Ross, Holly; Sawyer, Alexis; Batey, Sue; Maloney, Michelle; Wall, Tim; Hines, Valerie; Robles, Kattia; Sontag, Debbie; Haverkamp, Karen Susan; Lopez, Susan; Binns, Helen J

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated pediatric obesity clinics for internal referrals developed at 5 primary care offices. Clinics developed site-specific strategies: 1 group approach and 4 clinics providing individualized care only. Clinicians reported patient/family motivation as an important referral consideration and compliance as the greatest challenge and perceive clinics to have provided some help.

  2. Developing Primary Care: The Contribution of Primary Care Research Networks

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Stephen; Hutchison, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Canada's primary care sector remains lacklustre relative to other wealthy industrialized countries, and it has been suggested that a lack of investment in research and evaluation may be a cause. One approach to improving and sustaining primary care research is through research networks. Over the past few years, significant investments have begun to be made in developing primary care networks in Canada. While Canadian experience in this area is relatively new, in the United Kingdom primary care research networks were first established in the 1980s. Initially developed at a local level, these have more recently been incorporated into large-scale national networks. This paper reviews the UK experience and highlights potential lessons for the development of networks in Canada. PMID:23968616

  3. African Primary Care Research: Qualitative interviewing in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Mash, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series on African Primary Care Research and focuses on the topic of qualitative interviewing in primary care. In particular it looks at issues of study design, sample size, sampling and interviewing in relation to individual and focus group interviews. There is a particular focus on helping postgraduate students at a Masters level to write their research proposals. PMID:26245436

  4. A randomised controlled trial of flexibility in routine antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Jewell, D; Sharp, D; Sanders, J; Peters, T J

    2000-10-01

    To assess changes in satisfaction associated with a flexible approach to antenatal care schedules offered to women at low obstetric risk. Randomised controlled trial. Eleven primary care centres providing midwifery care in Avon. Six hundred and nine women at low risk of obstetric complications presenting for antenatal care. A standard antenatal care schedule ('traditional care') was compared with a schedule based on a minimum number of visits and additional visits with timing agreed between women and midwives ('flexible care'). Women's attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood using a subscale of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes scale, satisfaction with antenatal care, and perception of the speed of recognition of antenatal complications. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of attitudes to pregnancy and motherhood (mean difference on Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes scale -0.64, 95% CI -1.39 to 0.11, P = 0.068) and no difference in the proportions of women reporting antenatal problems as soon as possible (traditional group 74.5%, flexible group 76.4%, difference -2%, 95% CI -12.1 to 8.2, P = 0.70). Women receiving traditional care reported higher levels of satisfaction for the care provided by community midwives (P < 0.01). Women receiving flexible care were more likely to report having a choice over the number and timing of their antenatal visits (P < 0.001), but were also more likely to report that they would like to have been seen more often (P < 0.01). There was no difference between the groups in rates of obstetric complications. An imposed reduction in antenatal visits has been reported to increase dissatisfaction in other studies. In this study, encouraging women to adopt a flexible approach to antenatal care resulted in a similar finding. Successful implementation of such approaches may depend on more careful selection of women who welcome such an approach, more encouragement to pregnant women to express their own

  5. Primary care. The odd couple.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Nick

    2004-06-24

    Acute and primary care trust relationships can be fraught with baggage, vagueness and stereotypes. Changing that is about overt behaviours as well as structural and strategic issues. Payment by results and attitudes to commissioning pose significant challenges.

  6. Primary medical care in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T

    1990-01-01

    The extremely complex and rapidly but unevenly developing system of primary care in Spain is described. The health centre movement in Spain merits close attention, and could be a useful model for our own service. PMID:2117951

  7. Choosing a primary care provider

    MedlinePlus

    Family doctor - how to choose one; Primary care provider - how to choose one; Doctor - how to choose a family doctor ... A PCP is your main health care provider in non-emergency ... and teach healthy lifestyle choices Identify and treat common ...

  8. Implementing cognitive therapies into routine psychosis care: organisational foundations.

    PubMed

    Dark, Frances; Whiteford, Harvey; Ashkanasy, Neal M; Harvey, Carol; Crompton, David; Newman, Ellie

    2015-08-05

    Treatment outcomes for people diagnosed with psychosis remain suboptimal due in part to the limited systematic application of evidence based practice (Adm Policy Ment Health, 36: 1-7, 2009) [1]. The Implementation science literature identifies a number of factors organisationally that need to be considered when planning to introduce a particular EBP. Profiling these organisational characteristics at baseline, prior to commencement of service reform can determine the focus of a subsequent implementation plan. This study examined the organisational baseline factors existing in two services promoting the routine use of cognitive interventions for psychosis. One of the services studied has since undertaken organisational structural reform to facilitate the greater uptake of Evidence Based Practice (EBP). The results of this study were used to design an implementation strategy to make cognitive therapies a part of routine psychosis care. One hundred-and-six mental health staff from two metropolitan mental health services in Australia was surveyed to ascertain their attitudes, competencies and interest in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis (CBTp) and Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT). In addition perceptions of organisational values were profiled using the Organisational Culture Profile (OCP). Fifty five participants were excluded because they completed less than 50% of the survey. The final sample consisted of 51 participants. 48.1% of surveys were completed. Over 50% of staff were interested in CBTp and CRT approaches to psychosis. Staff were aware of existing CBTp and CRT programs but these were not uniformly available throughout the services. Fourteen percent of staff identified as CBT therapist and 35% were trained CRT facilitators. Only 12% of staff were receiving therapy specific supervision. The Organisational Culture Profile (OCP) at baseline revealed highest scores amongst leadership, planning, and humanistic workplace domains, with communication

  9. Mental Health Collaborative Care and Its Role in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, David E.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Nord, Kristina M.; Bauer, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative care models (CCMs) provide a pragmatic strategy to deliver integrated mental health and medical care for persons with mental health conditions served in primary care settings. CCMs are team-based intervention to enact system-level redesign by improving patient care through organizational leadership support, provider decision support, and clinical information systems as well as engaging patients in their care through self-management support and linkages to community resources. The model is also a cost-efficient strategy for primary care practices to improve outcomes for a range of mental health conditions across populations and settings. CCMs can help achieve integrated care aims under healthcare reform yet organizational and financial issues may affect adoption into routine primary care. Notably, successful implementation of CCMs in routine care will require alignment of financial incentives to support systems redesign investments, reimbursements for mental health providers, and adaptation across different practice settings and infrastructure to offer all CCM components. PMID:23881714

  10. The future and primary care.

    PubMed

    Alpert, J J

    1994-12-01

    Primary care is about the intimate contact that takes place when a patient comes to the physician because that individual is concerned that he or she, son or daughter, parent or grandparent is sick, or is well and wants to stay well. Our history has been that we have paid attention to important problems but we have missed so far on primary care as a megatrend. As noted, one of our most important societal megatrends is proverty and how poverty places children at risk. Poverty and primary care are linked. The reality that all of our citizens do not have access to primary care is not just our failure but it is society's as well. We pediatricians face many problems. In developing solutions, historically our profession has never lost sight of the fact that we are a helping and caring discipline. We are an advocate for the poor, advocates for children, advocates for community, and that is a large job. But the challenge is real, and we do not have much time. Now is not the time to be timid. We need to achieve consensus, accepting and acting on the megatrend of securing the future for primary care.

  11. Sustained partnership in primary care.

    PubMed

    Leopold, N; Cooper, J; Clancy, C

    1996-02-01

    In 1994, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the Committee on the Future of Primary Care to provide a clearer understanding of the essential and desirable attributes of primary care. Perhaps the committee's most striking addition to the IOM's 1978 definition was the concept that primary care includes a sustained partnership with patients. Development of the partnership is considered an explicit responsibility of the primary care clinician. Although there is an extensive and growing body of literature on the effects of clinician-patient communication on outcomes such as patient satisfaction, adherence, symptom abatement, and physiological measures of health status, the impact of a sustained partnership in a clinician-patient relationship remains largely unstudied. There is also no consensus regarding either the definition or achievement of a sustained partnership. This paper reviews selected relevant literature and proposes a theoretical basis for assessing the existence, antecedents, and outcomes of sustained partnerships between clinicians and patients. At a time when there is increased discussion and clarification of optimal clinician and patient roles in a rapidly evolving health care delivery system, we believe this mode can provide guidance to clinicians and provider organizations seeking to improve the quality of primary care.

  12. Primary care training in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Morikawa, Masahiro J

    2003-06-01

    Primary care training during and after conflicts is one of the most challenging health care issues but is often neglected compared to emergency medical care. Recently, family medicine has been increasingly used as a model strategy to reconstruct primary care delivery systems in communities torn by conflicts. The lessons learned through providing primary pediatric care training in Kosovo, in two periods, both shortly before the NATO air strike and after the war in Kosovo, are shared in this paper. The training program was organized and provided in collaboration with the Kosovar nongovernmental organization, Mother Teresa Society, and Kinderberg International in support of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees as a pilot program. This paper provides a narrative description of training experiences that focused on practical bedside training and morale support throughout these two periods. Based on our evaluation, providing morale support at the field level to encourage the health care providers' motivation for learning and collegial support while suffering physical difficulties was beneficial. International primary care organizations should maintain collegial dialogue to support indigenization of family medicine, a process that adapts the principles of family medicine into their own needs in their communities.

  13. Dual-Routine HCV/HIV Testing: Seroprevalence and Linkage to Care in Four Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Catelyn; Kwakwa, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012-August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013-May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads to increased HCV and HIV screening

  14. Dual-Routine HCV/HIV Testing: Seroprevalence and Linkage to Care in Four Community Health Centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Kwakwa, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. Methods National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012–August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013–May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. Results A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. Conclusion The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads

  15. Primary medical care in Seychelles.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, F M; Shamlaye, C

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes some of the current health problems faced by a tropical country whose standard of living and lifestyle is approaching that of many countries in Western Europe. Long-term health problems such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes have become at least as important as infectious diseases. A change in approach to a more proactive style of primary care is needed to allow the contribution of community doctors to be effective. The system of primary care in the Republic of Seychelles is based on the UK model of general practice where recent improvements in education and organization are raising standards. How some of these improvements might be transferred elsewhere is discussed.

  16. Anxiety disorders in primary care.

    PubMed

    Combs, Heidi; Markman, Jesse

    2014-09-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric condition presenting to primary care practitioners. Yet they can be easily overlooked or misdiagnosed. Patients that struggle with anxiety disorders are more likely to seek treatment from primary care providers than mental health specialists. Given the costs in terms of debilitation and associated financial burden, and increased risk of suicide, the identification and successful treatment of anxiety is imperative. By means of clinical acumen and the use of screening tools, the provider can develop expertise in recognition and effective treatment of anxiety disorders.

  17. Phytotherapy in primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Gisele Damian; Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; Moretti-Pires, Rodrigo Otavio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the integration of phytotherapy in primary health care in Brazil. METHODS Journal articles and theses and dissertations were searched for in the following databases: SciELO, Lilacs, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Theses Portal Capes, between January 1988 and March 2013. We analyzed 53 original studies on actions, programs, acceptance and use of phytotherapy and medicinal plants in the Brazilian Unified Health System. Bibliometric data, characteristics of the actions/programs, places and subjects involved and type and focus of the selected studies were analyzed. RESULTS Between 2003 and 2013, there was an increase in publications in different areas of knowledge, compared with the 1990-2002 period. The objectives and actions of programs involving the integration of phytotherapy into primary health care varied: including other treatment options, reduce costs, reviving traditional knowledge, preserving biodiversity, promoting social development and stimulating inter-sectorial actions. CONCLUSIONS Over the past 25 years, there was a small increase in scientific production on actions/programs developed in primary care. Including phytotherapy in primary care services encourages interaction between health care users and professionals. It also contributes to the socialization of scientific research and the development of a critical vision about the use of phytotherapy and plant medicine, not only on the part of professionals but also of the population. PMID:25119949

  18. Implementing shared decision making in routine mental health care.

    PubMed

    Slade, Mike

    2017-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) in mental health care involves clinicians and patients working together to make decisions. The key elements of SDM have been identified, decision support tools have been developed, and SDM has been recommended in mental health at policy level. Yet implementation remains limited. Two justifications are typically advanced in support of SDM. The clinical justification is that SDM leads to improved outcome, yet the available empirical evidence base is inconclusive. The ethical justification is that SDM is a right, but clinicians need to balance the biomedical ethical principles of autonomy and justice with beneficence and non-maleficence. It is argued that SDM is "polyvalent", a sociological concept which describes an idea commanding superficial but not deep agreement between disparate stakeholders. Implementing SDM in routine mental health services is as much a cultural as a technical problem. Three challenges are identified: creating widespread access to high-quality decision support tools; integrating SDM with other recovery-supporting interventions; and responding to cultural changes as patients develop the normal expectations of citizenship. Two approaches which may inform responses in the mental health system to these cultural changes - social marketing and the hospitality industry - are identified. © 2017 World Psychiatric Association.

  19. Implementing shared decision making in routine mental health care

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) in mental health care involves clinicians and patients working together to make decisions. The key elements of SDM have been identified, decision support tools have been developed, and SDM has been recommended in mental health at policy level. Yet implementation remains limited. Two justifications are typically advanced in support of SDM. The clinical justification is that SDM leads to improved outcome, yet the available empirical evidence base is inconclusive. The ethical justification is that SDM is a right, but clinicians need to balance the biomedical ethical principles of autonomy and justice with beneficence and non‐maleficence. It is argued that SDM is “polyvalent”, a sociological concept which describes an idea commanding superficial but not deep agreement between disparate stakeholders. Implementing SDM in routine mental health services is as much a cultural as a technical problem. Three challenges are identified: creating widespread access to high‐quality decision support tools; integrating SDM with other recovery‐supporting interventions; and responding to cultural changes as patients develop the normal expectations of citizenship. Two approaches which may inform responses in the mental health system to these cultural changes – social marketing and the hospitality industry – are identified. PMID:28498575

  20. Routine Paediatric Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Outpatient Care in a Rural Kenyan Hospital: Utilization and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Amendah, Djesika D.; Mukamah, George; Komba, Albert; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 70% of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are born in sub-Saharan Africa where the prevalence at birth of this disease reaches 2% or higher in some selected areas. There is a dearth of knowledge on comprehensive care received by children with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa and its associated cost. Such knowledge is important for setting prevention and treatment priorities at national and international levels. This study focuses on routine care for children with SCD in an outpatient clinic of the Kilifi District Hospital, located in a rural area on the coast of Kenya. Objective To estimate the per-patient costs for routine SCD outpatient care at a rural Kenyan hospital. Methods We collected routine administrative and primary cost data from the SCD outpatient clinic and supporting departments at Kilifi District Hospital, Kenya. Costs were estimated by evaluating inputs - equipment, medication, supplies, building use, utility, and personnel - to reflect the cost of offering this service within an existing healthcare facility. Annual economic costs were similarly calculated based on input costs, prorated lifetime of equipment and appropriate discount rate. Sensitivity analyses evaluated these costs under different pay scales and different discount rate. Results We estimated that the annual economic cost per patient attending the SCD clinic was USD 138 in 2010 with a range of USD 94 to USD 229. Conclusion This study supplies the first published estimate of the cost of routine outpatient care for children born with SCD in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study provides policy makers with an indication of the potential future costs of maintaining specialist outpatient clinics for children living with SCD in similar contexts. PMID:23593408

  1. Managing depression in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Kerry A.; Wolfe, Vicky V.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne; Steele, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate family physicians’ practice patterns for managing depression and mental health concerns among adolescent and adult patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING London, Ont, a mid-sized Canadian city. PARTICIPANTS One hundred sixty-three family physicians identified through the London and District Academy of Medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Practice patterns for managing depression, including screening, pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, shared care, and training needs. RESULTS Response rate was 63%. Family physicians reported spending a substantial portion of their time during patient visits (26% to 50%) addressing mental health issues, with depression being the most common issue (51% to 75% of patients with mental health issues). About 40% of respondents did routine mental health screening, and 60% screened patients with risk factors for depression. Shared care with mental health professionals was common (care was shared for 26% to 50% of patients). Physicians and patients were moderately satisfied with shared care, but were frustrated by long waiting lists and communication barriers. Most physicians provided psychotherapy to patients in the form of general advice. Differences in practice patterns were observed; physicians treated more adults than adolescents with depression, and they reported greater comfort in treating adults. Although 33% of physicians described using cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), they reported having little training in CBT. Moderate interest was expressed in CBT training, with a preference for a workshop format. CONCLUSION Although 40% of family physicians routinely screen patients for mental health issues, depression is often not detected. Satisfaction with shared care can be increased through better communication with mental health professionals. Physicians’ management of adolescent patients can be improved by further medical training, consultation, and collaboration with mental health professionals

  2. Incorporating Spirituality in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Kathleen S; Hay, Jennifer L; Lubetkin, Erica I

    2016-06-01

    Addressing cultural competency in health care involves recognizing the diverse characteristics of the patient population and understanding how they impact patient care. Spirituality is an aspect of cultural identity that has become increasingly recognized for its potential to impact health behaviors and healthcare decision-making. We consider the complex relationship between spirituality and health, exploring the role of spirituality in primary care, and consider the inclusion of spirituality in existing models of health promotion. We discuss the feasibility of incorporating spirituality into clinical practice, offering suggestions for physicians.

  3. Perception of primary care doctors and nurses about care provided to sickle cell disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Xavier Gomes, Ludmila Mourão; de Andrade Barbosa, Thiago Luis; Souza Vieira, Elen Débora; Caldeira, Antônio Prates; de Carvalho Torres, Heloísa; Viana, Marcos Borato

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the perception of primary care physicians and nurses about access to services and routine health care provided to sickle cell disease patients. Methods This descriptive exploratory study took a qualitative approach by surveying thirteen primary care health professionals who participated in a focus group to discuss access to services and assistance provided to sickle cell disease patients. The data were submitted to thematic content analysis. Results Access to primary care services and routine care for sickle cell disease patients were the categories that emerged from the analysis. Interaction between people with sickle cell disease and primary care health clinics was found to be minimal and limited mainly to scheduling appointments. Patients sought care from the primary care health clinics only in some situations, such as for pain episodes and vaccinations. The professionals noted that patients do not recognize primary care as the gateway to the system, and reported that they feel unprepared to assist sickle cell disease patients. Conclusion In the perception of these professionals, there are restrictions to accessing primary care health clinics and the primary care assistance for sickle cell disease patients is affected. PMID:26190428

  4. Healthcare Provider Attitudes, Practices, and Recommendations for Enhancing Routine HIV Testing and Linkage to Care in the Mississippi Delta Region

    PubMed Central

    Sison, Nathan; Yolken, Annajane; Poceta, Joanna; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A.; Barnes, Arti; Smith, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Mississippi Delta region is one of the communities most heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. To understand local provider attitudes and practices regarding HIV testing and care, we conducted 25 in-depth qualitative interviews with local primary care providers and infectious disease specialists. Interviews explored attitudes and practices regarding HIV testing and linkage to care. Most providers did not routinely offer HIV testing, noting financial barriers, financial disincentives to offer routine screening, misperceptions about local informed consent laws, perceived stigma among patients, and belief that HIV testing was the responsibility of the health department. Barriers to enhancing treatment and care included stigma, long distances, lack of transportation, and paucity of local infectious disease specialists. Opportunities for enhancing HIV testing and care included provider education programs regarding billing, local HIV testing guidelines, and informed consent, as well as telemedicine services for underserved counties. Although most health care providers in our study did not currently offer routine HIV testing, all were willing to provide more testing and care services if they were able to bill for routine testing. Increasing financial reimbursement and access to care, including through the Affordable Care Act, may provide an opportunity to enhance HIV/AIDS services in the Mississippi Delta. PMID:23991689

  5. Healthcare provider attitudes, practices, and recommendations for enhancing routine HIV testing and linkage to care in the Mississippi Delta region.

    PubMed

    Sison, Nathan; Yolken, Annajane; Poceta, Joanna; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Barnes, Arti; Smith, Erin; Nunn, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The Mississippi Delta region is one of the communities most heavily impacted by HIV/AIDS in the United States. To understand local provider attitudes and practices regarding HIV testing and care, we conducted 25 in-depth qualitative interviews with local primary care providers and infectious disease specialists. Interviews explored attitudes and practices regarding HIV testing and linkage to care. Most providers did not routinely offer HIV testing, noting financial barriers, financial disincentives to offer routine screening, misperceptions about local informed consent laws, perceived stigma among patients, and belief that HIV testing was the responsibility of the health department. Barriers to enhancing treatment and care included stigma, long distances, lack of transportation, and paucity of local infectious disease specialists. Opportunities for enhancing HIV testing and care included provider education programs regarding billing, local HIV testing guidelines, and informed consent, as well as telemedicine services for underserved counties. Although most health care providers in our study did not currently offer routine HIV testing, all were willing to provide more testing and care services if they were able to bill for routine testing. Increasing financial reimbursement and access to care, including through the Affordable Care Act, may provide an opportunity to enhance HIV/AIDS services in the Mississippi Delta.

  6. Treating impetigo in primary care.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Impetigo is a superficial, but contagious, bacterial infection of the skin that predominantly affects children and is common in primary care. In UK general practice, around half of the people with impetigo are treated with topical fusidic acid. However, bacterial resistance to this antibacterial drug is increasing. Here we discuss how patients with impetigo should be treated.

  7. Developmental monitoring in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, C. E.; Roberts, W.

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring child development is an essential part of primary health care. Successful surveillance depends on physicians' thorough knowledge of normal progress along the four developmental streams: motor, language, cognitive, and social and emotional. Being alert to "red flags" that suggest problems is important. Effective interventions can minimize developmental problems. PMID:8792021

  8. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  9. Chlorhexidine for routine PD catheter exit-site care.

    PubMed

    Olga, Balafa; Fotis, Zarzoulas; Margarita, Ikonomou; Sofia, Xiromeriti; Konstantinos, Siamopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Although guidelines suggest the routine use of mupirocin or gentamicin at the exit site of PD catheter, our PD unit has been using chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5 % as exit-site care protocol. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether mupirocin application is superior to the traditionally applied chlorhexidine-regarding prevention of exit-site infections and peritonitis in our unit. Stable incident and prevalent patients of our unit were randomized to apply mupirocin or chlorhexidine at exit site. The study started on July 1, 2010, and continued till December 2014. End point was the first episode of exit-site infection or peritonitis. Sixty-two patients (mean age 58.5 ± 14.6 years) were randomized. At the end of follow-up, there were 33 patients on mupirocin treatment and 29 on chlorhexidine. The two groups had no differences in age, sex, PD vintage or PD mode. The only difference between the two groups was the percentage of patients with diabetes, 28 % in chlorhexidine group versus 10 % in mupirocin group. Mean time of follow-up was 28.46 ± 16.37 months. Twenty-four episodes of infections (peritonitis and exit site) were recorded. Time to first infection episode was 32 months in mupirocin group (95 % CI 21.4-42.5) versus 29 months (95 % CI 8.6-49.4) in chlorhexidine group. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed no difference in the infections between the two protocols (log-rank test, p = 0.477). Mupirocin is not superior in preventing infections comparing with chlorhexidine in this cohort of patients.

  10. Use of Primary Care Data for Detecting Impetigo Trends, United Kingdom, 1995–2010

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M.; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995–2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases. PMID:24047615

  11. Use of primary care data for detecting impetigo trends, United kingdom, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Shallcross, Laura J; Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995-2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.

  12. Pediatric primary care as a component of systems of care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jonathan D

    2010-02-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of care is defined as serving only children and youth with serious emotional disturbance and their families and does not fully embrace the concept of primary prevention. Although similarities in the definitions of primary care and systems of care may provide a theoretical foundation for including primary care within the systems of care framework, a definition of systems of care that incorporates the idea of prevention and takes into account the broad population served in primary care would provide communities with a definition that can be used to further the work of integrating primary care into systems of care.

  13. Learning from UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard

    2009-03-01

    The Australian Government is wise to examine other health care systems as it strives to improve the quality of care and address rising costs to both governments and individuals. Focus is currently on the United Kingdom, whose National Health Service (NHS) stands out as one that delivers good care at a reasonable price to all who need it. The Australian and UK systems have many similarities: universal access, tax payer support, no or low cost at point of delivery, and good population health outcomes. They also face similar pressures on services from aging, increasingly unwell yet expectant populations.However, there are also differences, largely in the way that health care is funded, organised and delivered. The NHS is a huge system for 60 million people in four home countries with diverging policies. Within England, the system is managed through 10 strategic health authorities, each responsible for about 5 million people and having the right to interpret national policy. Population based health care, including tertiary care, is funded locally via primary care trusts.

  14. Costing interventions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kernick, D

    2000-02-01

    Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, studies that relate benefits of health interventions to the resources they consume will be an important part of any decision-making process in primary care, and an accurate assessment of costs will be an important part of any economic evaluation. Although there is no such thing as a gold standard cost estimate, there are a number of basic costing concepts that underlie any costing study. How costs are derived and combined will depend on the assumptions that have been made in their derivation. It is important to be clear what assumptions have been made and why in order to maintain consistency across comparative studies and prevent inappropriate conclusions being drawn. This paper outlines some costing concepts and principles to enable primary care practitioners and researchers to have a basic understanding of costing exercises and their pitfalls.

  15. Results of an initiative to charge for previously uncompensated care in an academic primary care practice.

    PubMed

    Dunham, Daniel P; Marcelo, Karen; Baker, David W

    2013-01-01

    Increasing clinical workload with dwindling compensation has challenged primary care medical practices over the past decade. This has led to more physicians leaving and fewer medical trainees entering primary care. In an effort to make primary care practices viable, many groups routinely charge for providing care that was uncompensated in the past. We initiated a program in our practice that charged for certain after-hour and electronic communications, completion of forms outside of office visits, and failure to show for appointments. We assessed the effect on workload, patient adherence to appointments, and financial outcomes. This initiative decreased our physicians' workload, increased physicians' satisfaction, and produced a modest increase in revenues.

  16. Primary Care Providers' Views regarding Assessing and Treating Suicidal Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Ryan D.; Rudd, M. David; Bryan, Craig J.

    2011-01-01

    Primary care providers (PCPs) usually do not explore patient suicidality during routine visits. Factors that predict PCP attitudes toward the assessment and treatment of suicidality were examined via an online survey of 195 practicing PCPs affiliated with medical schools in the United States. PCPs who perceived themselves as competent to work with…

  17. End-of-life care in intensive care units: family routines and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Fridh, Isabell; Forsberg, Anna; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe family care routines and to explore environmental factors when patients die in Swedish intensive care units (ICUs). The main research questions were: what are the physical environmental circumstances and facilities when caring for patients in end-of-life and are there any routines or guidelines when caring for dying patients and their families? A questionnaire was sent to 79 eligible Swedish ICUs in December 2003, addressed to the unit managers. The response rate was 94% (n = 74 units). The findings show that, despite recommendations highlighting the importance of privacy for dying ICU patients and their families, only 11% of the respondents stated that patients never died in shared rooms in their ICU. If a patient dies in a shared room, nurses strive to ensure a dignified goodbye by moving the body to an empty room or to one specially designated for this purpose. The majority (76%) of the units had waiting rooms within the ICU. The study also revealed that there is a need for improvements in the follow-up routines for bereaved families. Many units reported (51%) that they often or almost always offer a follow-up visit, although in most cases the bereaved family had to initiate the follow-up by contacting the ICU. Guidelines in the area of end-of-life care were used by 25% of the ICUs. Further research is necessary to acquire a deeper knowledge of the circumstances under which patients die in ICUs and what impact the ICU environment has on bereaved families.

  18. Primary vaccine failure to routine vaccines: Why and what to do?

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Ursula; Garner-Spitzer, Erika; Wagner, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    There are 2 major factors responsible for vaccine failures, the first is vaccine-related such as failures in vaccine attenuation, vaccination regimes or administration. The other is host-related, of which host genetics, immune status, age, health or nutritional status can be associated with primary or secondary vaccine failures. The first describes the inability to respond to primary vaccination, the latter is characterized by a loss of protection after initial effectiveness. Our studies concentrate on the evaluation of immunological characteristics responsible for primary vaccine failures in different (risk) populations for which the underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we summarise current knowledge and findings from our studies. About 2-10% of healthy individuals fail to mount antibody levels to routine vaccines. Comparing the immune responses to different vaccines in non-responder and high-responder vaccinees revealed that hypo-responsiveness is antigen/vaccine-specific at the humoral but not at the cellular level. We found that T-regulatory as well as B-regulatory cells and the production of IL-10 are involved in non/hypo-responsiveness. Non-responsiveness increases with age and in particular vaccination to a novel vaccine in persons > 65 years is associated with a high low/non-responder rate, indicating that vaccine schedules and doses (at least for primary vaccination) should be adapted according to age. In light of the growing number of allergic but also obese people, our current studies concentrate on these risk groups to reveal whether different vaccination approaches are necessary for optimal protection compared to healthy individuals. These studies are in line with the significant paradigm shift taking place in many fields of medical research and care, and will extend the concept of personalised medicine into the field of vaccinology.

  19. Primary Care Clinics and Accountable Care Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chiung-Ya; Lin, Yi-Ling; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie

    2016-01-01

    Background The Accountable Care Organization (ACO) is one of the new models of health care delivery in the U.S. To date, little is known about the characteristics of health care organizations that have joined ACOs. We report on the findings of a survey of primary care clinics, the objective of which was to investigate the opinions of clinic management about participation in ACOs, and the characteristics of clinic organizational structure that may contribute to joining ACOs or be willing to do so. Methods A 27-item survey questionnaire was developed and distributed by mail in 3 annual waves to all Rural Health Clinics (RHCs) in 9 states. Two dependent variables - participation in ACOs and willingness to join ACOs - were created and analyzed using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach. Results 257 RHCs responded to the survey. A small percentage (5.2%) of the respondent clinics reported that they were participating in ACOs. RHCs in isolated areas were 78% less likely to be in ACOs (odds= 0.22, p= 0.059). Non-profit RHCs indicated a higher willingness to join an ACO than for-profit RHCs (B= 1.271, p= 0.054). There is a positive relationship between RHC size and willingness to join an ACO (B= 0.402, p=0.010). Conclusions At this early stage of ACO development, many RHC personnel are unfamiliar with the ACO model. Rural providers’ limited technological and human resources, and the lack of ACO development in rural areas, may delay or prevent their participation in ACOs. PMID:26900587

  20. What's a Primary Care Physician (PCP)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Internet What's a Primary Care Physician (PCP)? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's a Primary Care Physician ( ... getting the right amount of exercise. Types of PCPs Different types of PCPs treat kids and teens. ...

  1. Primary care physicians shortage: a Korean example.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Roh, Yong-Kyun

    2003-01-01

    A mismatch in the demand and supply of primary care physicians could give rise to a disorganization of the health care system and public confusion about health care access. There is much evidence in Korea of the existence of a primary care physician shortage. The appropriate required ratio of primary care physicians to the total number of physicians is estimated by analyzing data for primary care insurance consumption in Korea. Sums of primary care expenditure and claims were calculated to estimate the need for primary care physicians by analyzing the nationwide health insurance claims data of the Korean National Medical Insurance Management Corporation (KNMIMC) between the years 1989-1998. The total number of physicians increased 183% from 1989 to 1998. However, the number of primary care physicians including general physicians, family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians showed an increase of only 169% in those 10 years. The demand for primary care physicians reaches at least 58.6%, and up to 83.7%, of the total number of physicians in Korea. However, the number of primary care physicians comprises up to 22.0% of the total number of active physicians during the same research period, which showed a large gap between demand and supply of primary care physicians in Korea. To provide high quality care overall, a balanced supply of primary care physicians and specialists is required, based on the nation's demand for health services.

  2. Oral Health Prevention and Toddler Well-Child Care: Routine Integration in a Safety Net System

    PubMed Central

    Moultrie, Nicolette M.; Heckman, Barbara; Gansky, Stuart A.; Potter, Michael B.; Walsh, Margaret M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Applying topical fluoride varnish (FV) to young children’s teeth is an effective therapeutic strategy for preventing early childhood caries (ECC). In 2008, the pediatricians at Contra Costa Regional Medical Center and Health Centers became concerned that our low-income pediatric patients had high rates of ECC and very limited access to dental care. We formed an interdisciplinary safety net-academic partnership with the University of California San Francisco to implement routine FV applications, along with oral health education, screening, and referral during well-child exams for children aged 1 to 5 years. METHODS: Over 3 years, the team developed clinical policies, educational materials, billing, and support systems to facilitate implementation in the primary care setting. A pilot study was performed in 2 health centers; improvements to the implementation plan were made. A team of local providers and academic partners performed system-wide didactic and hands-on trainings and spread this intervention to the remaining 6 health centers. Continued improvement strategies and provider feedback were pursued with each measurement cycle. RESULTS: In August 2012, 95% of all children aged 1 to 5 years who were seen for well-child checkups received a FV application and oral health education during their primary care well visit. Repeat measurement in April 2014 showed a sustained rate of 97% application of FV for children in this age group seen for well-child visits. CONCLUSIONS: With institutional commitment and an academic partnership, a safety net institution can integrate routine FV applications and oral health interventions into well-child visits to reduce ECC. PMID:26647374

  3. Integrating Bipolar Disorder Management in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O’Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care. PMID:23001382

  4. Primary Care Dentistry in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; Ferla, Alcindo Antônio; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between sociodemographic characteristics, health care indicators, work process characteristics, and the performance of preventive dental procedures by oral health care teams (OHCTs) assessed during the first phase of the PMAQ in Brazil. A census of 10 334 primary OHCTs was conducted. The outcome included topical application of fluoride, application of sealants, detection of oral lesions, and monitoring of suspected or confirmed cases of oral cancer. The multilevel Poisson regression model was used to obtain crude and adjusted prevalence ratios. The performance of preventive dental procedures was 29.46% (3044/10 334; 95% confidence interval, 28.57-30.33), which was considered low. PMID:28252501

  5. Ethical religion in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Torry, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Religion is increasingly significant in UK society, and is highly significant for many patients and primary care practitioners. An important task for the practitioner is to ensure that the place of religion in the patient/practitioner relationship is treated with the same ethical seriousness as every other aspect of that relationship. The article finds the ‘four principles of biomedical ethics’ to be applicable, and recent GMC guidelines to be consistent with the four principles. The article applies the four principles to the particular case of practitioners wearing religious symbolism. PMID:28811838

  6. Screening and Identification in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonian, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews issues related to behavioral screening in pediatric primary care settings. Structural-organizational issues affecting the use of pediatric primary care screening are discussed. This study also reviewed selected screening instruments that have utility for use in the primary care setting. Clinical and research issues related to…

  7. 45 CFR 96.47 - Primary care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care. 96.47 Section 96.47 Public Welfare... and Tribal Organizations § 96.47 Primary care. Applications for direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the primary care block grant must comply with 42 CFR Part 51c (Grants...

  8. Screening and Identification in Pediatric Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonian, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews issues related to behavioral screening in pediatric primary care settings. Structural-organizational issues affecting the use of pediatric primary care screening are discussed. This study also reviewed selected screening instruments that have utility for use in the primary care setting. Clinical and research issues related to…

  9. [Quality management in intensive care medicine. Indispensable for daily routine].

    PubMed

    Martin, J; Braun, J-P

    2012-05-01

    In areas requiring maximum safety like intensive care units or operating room departments, modern quality management and risk management are essential. Treatment of critically ill patients is associated with high risk and, therefore, demands risk management and quality management. External quality assessment in intensive care medicine has been developed based on a core data set and quality indicators. A peer review procedure has been established. In addition, regional networks of intensive care physicians result in improved local networking. In intensive care medicine, this innovative modular system of quality management and risk management is pursued more consequently than in any other specialty.

  10. Issues in Primary Care: The Academic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersdorf, Robert G.

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the problems requiring restructuring of programs to prepare two new types of primary care physicians: a family physician who is predominantly an ambulatory care specialist and a primary care internist, pediatrician, or obstetrician who cares for most diseases in office and hospital. (JT)

  11. Primary and managed care. Ingredients for health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Bindman, A B

    1994-01-01

    The use of primary and managed care is likely to increase under proposed federal health care reform. I review the definition of primary care and primary care physicians and show that this delivery model can affect access to medical care, the cost of treatment, and the quality of services. Because the use of primary care is often greater in managed care than in fee-for-service, I compare the two insurance systems to further understand the delivery of primary care. Research suggests that primary care can help meet the goal of providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality care, but that changes in medical education and marketplace incentives will be needed to encourage students and trained physicians to enter this field. PMID:7941522

  12. Primary Care for Adults with Down Syndrome: Adherence to Preventive Healthcare Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, K. M.; Taylor, L. C.; Davis, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to significant medical improvements, persons with Down syndrome now live well into adulthood. Consequently, primary care for adults with Down syndrome needs to incorporate routine care with screening for condition-specific comorbidities. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary care physicians to age- and…

  13. Primary Care for Adults with Down Syndrome: Adherence to Preventive Healthcare Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, K. M.; Taylor, L. C.; Davis, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to significant medical improvements, persons with Down syndrome now live well into adulthood. Consequently, primary care for adults with Down syndrome needs to incorporate routine care with screening for condition-specific comorbidities. This study seeks to evaluate the adherence of primary care physicians to age- and…

  14. Blueprint for an Undergraduate Primary Care Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Sara B; Demasi, Monica; Farren, Erin; Frankl, Susan; Gottlieb, Barbara; Hoy, Jessica; Johnson, Amanda; Kasper, Jill; Lee, Patrick; McCarthy, Claire; Miller, Kathe; Morris, Juliana; O'Hare, Kitty; Rosales, Rachael; Simmons, Leigh; Smith, Benjamin; Treadway, Katherine; Goodell, Kristen; Ogur, Barbara

    2016-07-12

    In light of the increasing demand for primary care services and the changing scope of health care, it is important to consider how the principles of primary care are taught in medical school. While the majority of schools have increased students' exposure to primary care, they have not developed a standardized primary care curriculum for undergraduate medical education. In 2013, the authors convened a group of educators from primary care internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics, as well as five medical students to create a blueprint for a primary care curriculum that could be integrated into a longitudinal primary care experience spanning undergraduate medical education and delivered to all students regardless of their eventual career choice.The authors organized this blueprint into three domains: care management, specific areas of content expertise, and understanding the role of primary care in the health care system. Within each domain, they described specific curriculum content, including longitudinality, generalism, central responsibility for managing care, therapeutic alliance/communication, approach to acute and chronic care, wellness and prevention, mental and behavioral health, systems improvement, interprofessional training, and population health, as well as competencies that all medical students should attain by graduation.The proposed curriculum incorporates important core features of doctoring, which are often affirmed by all disciplines but owned by none. The authors argue that primary care educators are natural stewards of this curriculum content and can ensure that it complements and strengthens all aspects of undergraduate medical education.

  15. The state of routine and emergency obstetric and neonatal care in Southern Province, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Owens, Lauren; Semrau, Katherine; Mbewe, Reuben; Musokotwane, Kebby; Grogan, Caroline; Maine, Deborah; Hamer, Davidson H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of health facilities in Southern Province, Zambia, to perform routine obstetric care and emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC). Surveys were completed at 90 health centers and 10 hospitals between September 1, 2011, and February 28, 2012. An expanded set of signal functions for routine care and EmONC was used to assess the facilities' capacity to provide obstetric and neonatal care. Interviews were completed with 172 health workers. Comprehensive EmONC was available in only six of 10 hospitals; the remaining four hospitals did not perform all basic EmONC signal functions. None of the 90 health centers performed the basic set of EmONC signal functions. Performance of routine obstetric care functions, health worker EmONC training, and facility infrastructure and staffing varied. Assessment of the indicators for routine care revealed that several low-cost interventions are currently underused in Southern Province. There is substantial room for improvement in emergency and routine obstetric and neonatal care at the surveyed facilities. Efforts should focus on improving infrastructure and supplies, EmONC training, and adherence to the UN guidelines for routine and emergency obstetric care. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in Young Adult Primary Care Under the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Carol A.; French, Benjamin; Rubin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe changes in young adults’ routine care and usual sources of care (USCs), according to provider specialty, after implementation of extended dependent coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010. Methods. We used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data from 2006 to 2012 to examine young adults’ receipt of routine care in the preceding year, identification of a USC, and USC provider specialties (pediatrics, family medicine, internal medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Results. The percentage of young adults who sought routine care increased from 42.4% in 2006 to 49.5% in 2012 (P < .001). The percentage identifying a USC remained stable at approximately 60%. Among young adults with a USC, there was a trend between 2006 and 2012 toward increasing percentages with pediatric (7.6% vs 9.1%) and family medicine (75.9% vs 80.9%) providers and declining percentages with internal medicine (11.5% vs 7.6%) and obstetrics and gynecology (5.0% vs 2.5%) providers. Conclusions. Efforts under the ACA to increase health insurance coverage had favorable effects on young adults’ use of routine care. Monitoring routine care use and USC choices in this group can inform primary care workforce needs and graduate medical education priorities across specialties. PMID:26447914

  17. Incorporating immunizations into routine obstetric care to facilitate Health Care Practitioners in implementing maternal immunization recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Heather; Street, Jackie; Marshall, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against pertussis, influenza, and rubella reduces morbidity and mortality in pregnant women and their offspring. Health care professionals (HCPs) caring for women perinatally are uniquely placed to reduce maternal vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). Despite guidelines recommending immunization during the perinatal period, maternal vaccine uptake remains low. This qualitative study explored the role of obstetricians, general practitioners, and midwives in maternal vaccine uptake. Semi-structured interviews (n = 15) were conducted with perinatal HCPs at a tertiary maternity hospital in South Australia. HCPs were asked to reflect on their knowledge, beliefs, and practice relating to immunization advice and vaccine provision. Interviews were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis. Data collection and analysis was an iterative process, with collection ceasing with theoretical saturation. Participants unanimously supported maternal vaccination as an effective way of reducing risk of disease in this vulnerable population, however only rubella immunity detection and immunization is embedded in routine care. Among these professionals, delegation of responsibility for maternal immunization was unclear and knowledge about maternal immunization was variable. Influenza and pertussis vaccine prevention measures were not included in standard pregnancy record documentation, information provision to patients was “ad hoc” and vaccinations not offered on-site. The key finding was that the incorporation of maternal vaccinations into standard care through a structured process is an important facilitator for immunization uptake. Incorporating vaccine preventable disease management measures into routine obstetric care including incorporation into the Pregnancy Record would facilitate HCPs in implementing recommendations. Rubella prevention provides a useful “template” for other vaccines. PMID:24509790

  18. The quality of clinical maternal and neonatal healthcare - a strategy for identifying 'routine care signal functions'.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Stephan; De Allegri, Manuela; Gabrysch, Sabine; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Sarker, Malabika; Muula, Adamson S

    2015-01-01

    A variety of clinical process indicators exists to measure the quality of care provided by maternal and neonatal health (MNH) programs. To allow comparison across MNH programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a core set of essential process indicators is needed. Although such a core set is available for emergency obstetric care (EmOC), the 'EmOC signal functions', a similar approach is currently missing for MNH routine care evaluation. We describe a strategy for identifying core process indicators for routine care and illustrate their usefulness in a field example. We first developed an indicator selection strategy by combining epidemiological and programmatic aspects relevant to MNH in LMICs. We then identified routine care process indicators meeting our selection criteria by reviewing existing quality of care assessment protocols. We grouped these indicators into three categories based on their main function in addressing risk factors of maternal or neonatal complications. We then tested this indicator set in a study assessing MNH quality of clinical care in 33 health facilities in Malawi. Our strategy identified 51 routine care processes: 23 related to initial patient risk assessment, 17 to risk monitoring, 11 to risk prevention. During the clinical performance assessment a total of 82 cases were observed. Birth attendants' adherence to clinical standards was lowest in relation to risk monitoring processes. In relation to major complications, routine care processes addressing fetal and newborn distress were performed relatively consistently, but there were major gaps in the performance of routine care processes addressing bleeding, infection, and pre-eclampsia risks. The identified set of process indicators could identify major gaps in the quality of obstetric and neonatal care provided during the intra- and immediate postpartum period. We hope our suggested indicators for essential routine care processes will contribute to streamlining MNH program

  19. Primary health care is viable.

    PubMed

    Segall, M

    1987-01-01

    'Selective primary health care' and other recent vertical health strategies have been justified on the grounds that the broad primary health care (PHC) approach cannot be afforded by developing countries in the present constrained economic circumstances. This judgement is too sweeping. A simulated case example is presented, starting with baseline health expenditure data that are representative of the situation in many developing countries. It is assumed that real economic growth occurs and that government funding of health care is allowed to grow in parallel. Two annual growth rates are considered: 2 and 5 per cent. Two restrictive conditions are applied: none of the main health services is subjected to absolute cuts; and, additional funds from existing or new sources of finance are not considered. It is shown that, even with slow growth rates, substantial increases in the funding of priority (rural and PHC) services can be achieved if the growth in expenditures of lower-priority services is curtailed. Also, savings from improved health service efficiency can be channelled to priority services. The message is that the PHC approach is viable even with slow economic growth. What is required is the technical capacity to identify and plan resource flows in the health sector, and the political will to effect resource allocations according to PHC priorities. A strategic policy like PHC should not be 'adjusted' out of effective existence because of reversible economic problems. Rather, actions should be taken to reverse the adverse economic environment. International health-related agencies should continue to support countries to develop national health systems based on PHC, and should campaign for reforms in the world economy to create at least the minimum economic conditions necessary for PHC implementation.

  20. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  1. Pediatric Primary Care as a Component of Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    Systems of care should be defined in a manner that includes primary care. The current definition of systems of care shares several attributes with the definition of primary care: both are defined as community-based services that are accessible, accountable, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally competent, and family focused. However, systems of…

  2. Attracting and retaining nurses in primary care.

    PubMed

    Drennan, Vari; Andrews, Sarah; Sidhu, Rajinder; Peacock, Richard

    2006-06-01

    There is increasing demand for nurses to work in primary care. This is driven in part by the need to retain current levels but also by the modernisation plans for primary care services, which require new roles for nurses, new ways of working and more nurses in primary care settings. While campaigns for increased recruitment of hospital nurses and doctors has been largely successful in recent years, primary care has still to see the impact. This article reports on a Department of Health (England) funded project that aimed to identify strategies and exemplars to assist primary care trusts (PCTs) and the workforce development confederations (WDCs) in strategic health authorities in attracting and retaining nurses to primary care at registered nurse level. It reports on the range of initiatives identified, the perceived benefits and challenges. It concludes by proposing a strategic model for planning for the recruitment and retention of primary care nurses.

  3. Improving morning care routines of nursing home residents with dementia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J C; Holm, M B; Burgio, L D; Granieri, E; Hsu, C; Hardin, J M; McDowell, B J

    1999-09-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral rehabilitation intervention for improving the performance of morning care activities of daily living (ADL) of nursing home residents with dementia. Participants and their caregivers were observed for 5 days each under conditions of Usual Care (naturalistic) and Skill Elicitation (intervention), and for 15 days under Habit Training (intervention follow-up). Observations involved the ADL categories of DRESSING, OTHER ADL, and NO ADL. A 3 x 3 design (condition x ADL category) was used. Observations occurred in five proprietary nursing homes in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The participants were 58 women and 26 men, mean age 82 years (range = 64-97, SD = 6.3), with Probable Alzheimer 's disease (AD) (n = 19) and Possible AD (n = 65), with a mean MMSE score of 6.07. Condition 1, Usual Care, was the naturalistic caregiving condition. Condition 2, Skill Elicitation, consisted of an individualized behavioral rehabilitation intervention designed to identify and elicit retained ADL skills. Under Condition 3, Habit Training, the behavioral rehabilitation intervention was continued to reinforce and solidify retained skills and to facilitate further functional gains. A computer-assisted data collection system was used to document in real-time the assists used by caregivers, the participants' ADL performance, and the participants' responses to caregiving, including disruptive behavior. Compared with Usual Care, during Skill Elicitation participants increased the proportion of time engaged in nonassisted and assisted dressing significantly and increased their overall participation in ADL, with a concomitant significant decrease in disruptive behavior. These functional gains were demonstrated within 5 days of initiating the behavioral rehabilitation intervention and were maintained for 3 weeks during Habit Training. Physical assists were provided for significantly smaller proportions of a morning care session during Skill

  4. Utility of the new rheumatoid arthritis 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria in routine clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Kennish, Lauren; Labitigan, Monalyn; Budoff, Sam; Filopoulos, Maria T; McCracken, W Andrew; Swearingen, Christopher J; Yazici, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The new 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been designed to classify early onset RA, but has not been studied to identify RA in patients with arthritis seen in routine clinical care where correct ‘classification’ of patients, when they are not selected for having RA would be important. Design Prospective, consecutive patients cohort. Setting Outpatient clinic of a university rheumatology centre. Participants A total of 126 patients with joint symptoms were consecutively recruited. Interventions The ACR/EULAR RA criteria were applied, with questions followed by a targeted musculoskeletal exam. The gold standard for the diagnosis of RA was the primary rheumatologist's diagnosis. Primary outcome measure Number of patients with non-RA diagnosis who were classified as having RA by the new classification criteria. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the 2010 criteria in classifying RA were 97% and 55%, respectively, compared with the 1987 RA criteria which were 93% and 76%, respectively. The 2010 criteria as applied to this group of patients had a poorer positive predictive (44% vs 61%) and a similar negative predictive value (98% vs 97%) compared with the 1987 criteria. More specifically, 66.7% of systemic lupus erythematosus patients, 50% of osteoarthritis, 37.5% of psoriatic arthritis and 27.2% of others fulfilled the new criteria and could have been classified as RA. Conclusions In this, we believe, the first study to examine the new 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria among consecutive patients seen in routine care, we found the criteria to have low specificity, and therefore incorrectly label those as having RA when, in fact, they may have a different type of inflammatory arthritis. Physicians need to be aware of this when applying the new criteria for classifying their patients for any purpose. PMID:23035013

  5. How to strengthen primary health care

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pratyush

    2016-01-01

    Realization of health care as primary objective is necessary to strengthen primary health care (PHC). There is a need to build financial viable and sustainable PHC based on rational principles to fulfill the goals of providing quality health services on an affordable and equitable basis and also ensuring fiscal prudence. Health-care leadership, innovations in primary care, family medicine specialists, and effective and accountable health governance are the key steps toward our goal. PMID:28217580

  6. [The Articulator of Primary Health Care Program: an innovative proposal for qualification of Primary Health Care].

    PubMed

    Doricci, Giovanna Cabral; Guanaes-Lorenzi, Carla; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa

    2017-06-01

    In 2009, the Secretary of State for Health of Sao Paulo created a Program with a view to qualify the primary care in the state. This proposal includes a new job function, namely the articulator of primary care. Due to the scarcity of information about the practice of these new professionals in the scientific literature, this article seeks to analyze how articulators interpret their function and how they describe their daily routines. Thirteen articulators were interviewed. The interviews were duly analyzed by qualitative delineation. The results describe three themes: 1)Roles of the articulator: technical communicator and political advisor; 2) Activities performed to comply with the expected roles, examples being diagnosis of the municipalities, negotiation of proposals, participation in meetings, visits to municipalities; and 3) Challenges of the role, which are configured as challenges to the health reform process, examples being the lack of physical and human resources, activities of professionals in the medical-centered model, among others. The conclusion drawn is that the Program has great potential to provide input for the development and enhancement of Primary Care. Nevertheless, there are a series of challenges to be overcome, namely challenges to the context per se.

  7. Mental disorders in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mühlig, Stephan; Beesdo, Katja

    2003-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that 50% of the population experience at least one mental disorder in their lifetime and that at least 25% have suffered a mental disorder in the past year. recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and referral depend overwhelmingly on general practitioners, at least one third of whose consultations have a direct and explicit psychological component. Yet despite this intensive familiarization with the presentation of mental pathology, and the appropriateness of the primary care setting to its management, even the most recent surveys indicate that performance is best described by the rule of diminishing halves: only half the patients with a thresh-old disorder are recognized; only half of those recognized are treated; and only half of those treated are effectively treated. There is no single solution to this problem, only multiple solutions, which must be aimed, consistently and simultaneously, at the patient, practitioner, practice, and research levels. PMID:22034245

  8. Delivering stepped care: an analysis of implementation in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Richards, David A; Bower, Peter; Pagel, Christina; Weaver, Alice; Utley, Martin; Cape, John; Pilling, Steve; Lovell, Karina; Gilbody, Simon; Leibowitz, Judy; Owens, Lilian; Paxton, Roger; Hennessy, Sue; Simpson, Angela; Gallivan, Steve; Tomson, David; Vasilakis, Christos

    2012-01-16

    In the United Kingdom, clinical guidelines recommend that services for depression and anxiety should be structured around a stepped care model, where patients receive treatment at different 'steps,' with the intensity of treatment (i.e., the amount and type) increasing at each step if they fail to benefit at previous steps. There are very limited data available on the implementation of this model, particularly on the intensity of psychological treatment at each step. Our objective was to describe patient pathways through stepped care services and the impact of this on patient flow and management. We recorded service design features of four National Health Service sites implementing stepped care (e.g., the types of treatments available and their links with other treatments), together with the actual treatments received by individual patients and their transitions between different treatment steps. We computed the proportions of patients accessing, receiving, and transiting between the various steps and mapped these proportions visually to illustrate patient movement. We collected throughput data on 7,698 patients referred. Patient pathways were highly complex and very variable within and between sites. The ratio of low (e.g., self-help) to high-intensity (e.g., cognitive behaviour therapy) treatments delivered varied between sites from 22:1, through 2.1:1, 1.4:1 to 0.5:1. The numbers of patients allocated directly to high-intensity treatment varied from 3% to 45%. Rates of stepping up from low-intensity treatment to high-intensity treatment were less than 10%. When services attempt to implement the recommendation for stepped care in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines, there were significant differences in implementation and consequent high levels of variation in patient pathways. Evaluations driven by the principles of implementation science (such as targeted planning, defined implementation strategies, and clear activity

  9. Population-Level Cost-Effectiveness of Implementing Evidence-Based Practices into Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Fortney, John C; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Burgess, James F

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this research was to apply a new methodology (population-level cost-effectiveness analysis) to determine the value of implementing an evidence-based practice in routine care. Data Sources/Study Setting Data are from sequentially conducted studies: a randomized controlled trial and an implementation trial of collaborative care for depression. Both trials were conducted in the same practice setting and population (primary care patients prescribed antidepressants). Study Design The study combined results from a randomized controlled trial and a pre-post-quasi-experimental implementation trial. Data Collection/Extraction Methods The randomized controlled trial collected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) from survey and medication possession ratios (MPRs) from administrative data. The implementation trial collected MPRs and intervention costs from administrative data and implementation costs from survey. Principal Findings In the randomized controlled trial, MPRs were significantly correlated with QALYs (p = .03). In the implementation trial, patients at implementation sites had significantly higher MPRs (p = .01) than patients at control sites, and by extrapolation higher QALYs (0.00188). Total costs (implementation, intervention) were nonsignificantly higher ($63.76) at implementation sites. The incremental population-level cost-effectiveness ratio was $33,905.92/QALY (bootstrap interquartile range −$45,343.10/QALY to $99,260.90/QALY). Conclusions The methodology was feasible to operationalize and gave reasonable estimates of implementation value. PMID:25328029

  10. Primary care for the Roma in Europe: Position paper of the European forum for primary care

    PubMed Central

    Rotar Pavlič, Danica; Zelko, Erika; Vintges, Marga; Willems, Sara; Hanssens, Lise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Roma populations’ low health status and limited access to health services, including primary care, has been documented in many European countries, and warrants specific health policies and practices. A variety of experiences shows how primary care can adjust its practices to reduce the barriers to primary care for Roma populations. At local level, establishing collaboration with Roma organisations helps primary care to improve mutual relations and quality of care. Mediation has proved to be an effective tool. Skills training of primary care practitioners may enhance their individual competences. Research and international sharing of experiences are further tools to improve primary care for the Roma people. PMID:27703542

  11. Are primary care providers implementing evidence-based care for breast cancer survivors?

    PubMed Central

    Luctkar-Flude, Marian; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Mary Ann; Tranmer, Joan; Langley, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the implementation of key best practice guideline recommendations for posttreatment breast cancer survivorship care by primary care providers (PCPs). Design Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Setting Southeastern Ontario. Participants Eighty-two PCPs: 62 family physicians (FPs) and 20 primary health care nurse practitioners (PHCNPs). Main outcome measures Twenty-one “need-to-know” breast cancer survivorship care guideline recommendations rated by participants as “implemented routinely,” “aware of guideline recommendation but not implemented routinely,” or “not aware of guideline recommendation.” Results Overall, FPs and PHCNPs in our sample reported similar practice patterns in terms of implementation of breast cancer survivorship guideline recommendations. The PCPs reported routinely implementing approximately half (46.4%, 9.7 of 21) of the key guideline recommendations with breast cancer survivors in their practices. Implementation rates were higher for recommendations related to prevention and surveillance aspects of survivorship care, such as mammography and weight management. Knowledge and practice gaps were highest for recommendations related to screening for and management of long-term effects such as fatigue and distress. There were only a few minor differences reported between FPs and PHCNPs. Conclusion There are knowledge and practice gaps related to implementation of the key guideline recommendations for breast cancer survivorship care in the primary care setting that could be targeted for improvement through educational or other interventions. PMID:26889509

  12. Are primary care providers implementing evidence-based care for breast cancer survivors?

    PubMed

    Luctkar-Flude, Marian; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Mary Ann; Tranmer, Joan; Langley, Hugh

    2015-11-01

    To describe the implementation of key best practice guideline recommendations for posttreatment breast cancer survivorship care by primary care providers (PCPs). Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Southeastern Ontario. Eighty-two PCPs: 62 family physicians (FPs) and 20 primary health care nurse practitioners (PHCNPs). Twenty-one “need-to-know” breast cancer survivorship care guideline recommendations rated by participants as “implemented routinely,” “aware of guideline recommendation but not implemented routinely,” or “not aware of guideline recommendation.” Overall, FPs and PHCNPs in our sample reported similar practice patterns in terms of implementation of breast cancer survivorship guideline recommendations. The PCPs reported routinely implementing approximately half (46.4%, 9.7 of 21) of the key guideline recommendations with breast cancer survivors in their practices. Implementation rates were higher for recommendations related to prevention and surveillance aspects of survivorship care, such as mammography and weight management. Knowledge and practice gaps were highest for recommendations related to screening for and management of long-term effects such as fatigue and distress. There were only a few minor differences reported between FPs and PHCNPs. There are knowledge and practice gaps related to implementation of the key guideline recommendations for breast cancer survivorship care in the primary care setting that could be targeted for improvement through educational or other interventions.

  13. Primary care practice composition in 34 countries.

    PubMed

    Groenewegen, Peter; Heinemann, Stephanie; Greß, Stefan; Schäfer, Willemijn

    2015-12-01

    Health care needs in the population change through ageing and increasing multimorbidity. Primary health care might accommodate to this through the composition of practices in terms of the professionals working in them. The aim of this article is to describe the composition of primary care practices in 34 countries and to analyse its relationship to practice circumstances and the organization of the primary care system. The data were collected through a survey among samples of general practitioners (n=7183) in 34 countries. In some countries, primary care is mainly provided in single-handed practices. Other countries which have larger practices with multiple professional groups. There is no overall relationship between the professional groups in the practice and practice location. Practices that are located further from other primary care practices have more different professions. Practices with a more than average share of socially disadvantaged people and/or ethnic minorities have more different professions. In countries with a stronger pro-primary care workforce development and more comprehensive primary care delivery the number of different professions is higher. In conclusion, primary care practice composition varies strongly. The organizational scale of primary care is largely country dependent, but this is only partly explained by system characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Knee osteoarthritis: Therapeutic alternatives in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Evaniew, Allison L; Evaniew, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To discusses pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic alternatives for managing knee osteoarthritis in primary care by primary health care nurse practitioners. METHODS A case example is presented, the evidence-based guideline recommendations of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are reviewed, and a plan of care is developed. RESULTS Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis seen in primary care, and it is a major public health issue because the aging population and widespread obesity have drastically increased incidence. Osteoarthritis is clinically associated with escalating chronic pain, physical disability, and decreased quality of life. Early diagnosis of mild osteoarthritis in relatively young patients presents an opportunity for primary health care providers to manage pain, increase quality of life, and decrease risk of disability. CONCLUSION Primary health care providers can implement these recommendations in their own practices to provide care to patients with knee osteoarthritis based on current best evidence. PMID:28251070

  15. Framework for advancing improvement in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kates, Nick; Hutchison, Brian; O'Brien, Patricia; Fraser, Brenda; Wheeler, Susan; Chapman, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    A consistent feature of effective healthcare delivery systems is a strong and well-integrated primary care sector. This paper presents a framework that describes the key elements of high-performing primary care and the supports required to attain it. The framework was developed by the Quality Improvement and Innovation Partnership in Ontario (now part of Health Quality Ontario) to guide the process of primary care transformation. The first section of this paper presents and describes the framework, the second proposes implementation strategies and the third identifies system-level structures and policies needed to support primary care transformation. The framework has three components: (1) the major constituencies that primary care serves – patients, families and their local communities; (2) the desired outcomes of primary care (better health, better care, better value); and (3) the attributes that will enable primary care organizations to attain these outcomes. These attributes are a population focus, patient engagement, partnerships with health and community services, innovation, performance measurement and quality improvement and team-based care.Proposed transformation strategies include building system capacity and capability, ensuring access to resources, providing support from coaches and employing effective spread and sustainability strategies. Broader system-level structures and policies necessary to support and sustain a high-performing and continually improving primary care sector include clear goals; a comprehensive approach to performance measurement; systematic evaluation of innovation; funding incentives aligned with quality outcomes; a system of local primary care organizations; support for inter-professional teams; funding for research to inform primary care policy, management and practice; patient enrolment with primary care providers; and mechanisms to support coordination and integration.

  16. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of antiretroviral therapy and improved access to care, the average life expectancy of patients with HIV infection receiving optimal treatment approaches that of patients in the general population. AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies are no longer the primary issues; instead, traditional age- and lifestyle-related conditions are a growing concern. Patients with HIV infection are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and some non-AIDS-related cancers than patients in the general population. Family physicians need to be knowledgeable about screening for and managing chronic comorbid conditions as this population ages. Health maintenance, including appropriate vaccinations, prophylaxis against opportunistic infections, and routine screening for sexually transmitted infections, remains an important part of care. As HIV infection becomes a chronic condition, emerging strategies in prevention, including preexposure prophylaxis, fall within the scope of practice of the family physician. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Safety and effectiveness of dabigatran and warfarin in routine care of patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Seeger, John D; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Bartels, Dorothee B; Huybrechts, Krista; Zint, Kristina; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2015-11-25

    The RE-LY study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of dabigatran relative to warfarin for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. It is important to further evaluate safety and effectiveness of drugs in routine care. This study used a sequential cohort design with propensity score matching to compare dabigatran with warfarin among patients in two commercial health insurance databases. New users of these anticoagulants were followed from initiation until discontinuation, the end of the study, or the occurrence of a study outcome (primary study outcomes were stroke and major bleeding). Proportional hazards regression was conducted separately within each data source and results were pooled. Among 19,189 matched dabigatran and warfarin initiators (mean age: 68 years, 36 % female), as-treated follow-up (average of 5 months for dabigatran, 4 months for warfarin) identified 62 and 69 strokes, respectively (pooled HR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.54 to 1.09), and 354 and 395 major haemorrhages, respectively (HR = 0.75; 0.65 to 0.87). No meaningful heterogeneity was identified across subgroups, but numeric trends suggest more pronounced stroke prevention by dabigatran relative to warfarin among patients age 75+ (HR = 0.57; 0.33 to 0.97) or with < 6 months of use (HR = 0.51; 0.19 to 1.42). Major bleeds were reduced more by dabigatran among patients aged < 55 (HR = 0.51; 0.30 to 0.87) and with CHADS2 < 2 (HR = 0.58; 0.44 to 0.77). In conclusion, in routine care of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, dabigatran treatment resulted in improved health outcomes compared with warfarin.

  18. Teaching nutrition skills to primary care practitioners.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Charles B; McBride, Patrick E; Gans, Kim A; Underbakke, Gail L

    2003-02-01

    Primary care physicians have the potential to decrease morbidity and mortality for many chronic diseases if they provide effective nutrition counseling. Given the time constraints of primary care practice, nutrition counseling needs to be brief, be part of an organized office system and refer appropriate patients to qualified nutrition professionals to be effective. This paper reviews a system of primary care nutrition counseling using the 5A's of patient-centered counseling, the elements necessary to develop an office-based system and some successful tools developed by nutrition researchers for the primary care setting to be used in an office-based system.

  19. Inadequate reimbursement for care management to primary care offices.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Luo, Zhehui; Alexanders, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Care management in primary care can be effective in helping patients with chronic disease improve their health; however, primary care practices are often challenged to identify revenue to pay for it. This study explored the impact of direct reimbursement on the provision of care management in a primary care physician organization. Using data on expenses and health plan reimbursement during the initial 16 months of care management implementation at 5 practices, we calculated the percentage of related costs that were covered by payments. Qualitative data from interviews with practice members were used to identify their perceived barriers to care management reimbursement and the impact of current reimbursement strategies on service delivery. Direct reimbursement for care management covered only 21% of the costs. Reimbursement varied by care manager background, patient diagnoses, insurer, and indication for the visit. Barriers to gaining reimbursement included patient resistance to copay, clinician hesitation to bill for care management visits (for fear the patient may receive a bill), differential reimbursement policies of insurers, and general lack of reimbursement for care management in many cases. Although practice-level quality improvement incentives were an alternative means of supporting care management, because these incentives were not directly tied to the service of care management, they were used for other activities ultimately supporting patient care. This study highlights the need for sufficient reimbursement to initiate and maintain care management for patients in primary care as proposed for service reforms under the Affordable Care Act. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  20. Evaluating primary care research networks.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Evelyn; Harvey, Janet; Sturt, Jackie

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework and tool kit, generated from the evaluation of five primary care research networks (PCRNs) funded by the then London, National Health Service (NHS) Executive. We employed qualitative methods designed to match the most important characteristics of PCRNs, conducting five contextualized case studies covering the five networks. A conceptual evaluation framework based on a review of the organization science literature was developed and comprised the broad, but inter-related organizational dimensions of structure, processes, boundaries and network self-evaluation as input factors and strategic emphasis as epitomized by network objectives. These dimensions were comprised of more detailed subdimensions designed to capture the potential of the networks to create ideas and knowledge, or intellectual capital, the key construct upon which our evaluation tool kit was based. We considered the congruence, or fit, between network objectives and input factors: greater congruence implied greater ability to achieve implicit and overt objectives. We conclude that network evaluation must take place, over time, recognizing stage of development and potential for long-term viability, but within a generic framework of inputs and outputs. If there is a good fit or congruence between their input factors and network objectives, networks will be internally coherent and able to operate at optimum effectiveness.

  1. Underuse of long-term routine hospital follow-up care in patients with a history of breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After primary treatment for breast cancer, patients are recommended to use hospital follow-up care routinely. Long-term data on the utilization of this follow-up care are relatively rare. Methods Information regarding the utilization of routine hospital follow-up care was retrieved from hospital documents of 662 patients treated for breast cancer. Utilization of hospital follow-up care was defined as the use of follow-up care according to the guidelines in that period of time. Determinants of hospital follow up care were evaluated with multivariate analysis by generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results The median follow-up time was 9.0 (0.3-18.1) years. At fifth and tenth year after diagnosis, 16.1% and 33.5% of the patients had less follow-up visits than recommended in the national guideline, and 33.1% and 40.4% had less frequent mammography than recommended. Less frequent mammography was found in older patients (age > 70; OR: 2.10; 95%CI: 1.62-2.74), patients with comorbidity (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.05-1.52) and patients using hormonal therapy (OR: 1.51; 95%CI: 1.01-2.25). Conclusions Most patients with a history of breast cancer use hospital follow-up care according to the guidelines. In older patients, patients with comorbidity and patients receiving hormonal therapy yearly mammography is performed much less than recommended. PMID:21708039

  2. Integrating Behavioral Health into Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Amy M.; Collins, Laura; Dugdale, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Depression is one of the more common diagnoses encountered in primary care, and primary care in turn provides the majority of care for patients with depression. Many approaches have been tried in efforts to improve the outcomes of depression management. This article outlines the partnership between the University of Washington (UW) Neighborhood Clinics and the UW Department of Psychiatry in implementing a collaborative care approach to integrating the management of anxiety and depression in the ambulatory primary care setting. This program was built on the chronic care model, which utilizes a team approach to caring for the patient. In addition to the patient and the primary care provider (PCP), the team included a medical social worker (MSW) as care manager and a psychiatrist as team consultant. The MSW would manage a registry of patients with depression at a clinic with several PCPs, contacting the patients on a regular basis to assess their status, and consulting with the psychiatrist on a weekly basis to discuss patients who were not achieving the goals of care. Any recommendation (eg, a change in medication dose or class) made by the psychiatrist was communicated to the PCP, who in turn would work with the patient on the new recommendation. This collaborative care approach resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients who achieved care plan goals. The authors believe this is an effective method for health systems to integrate mental health services into primary care. (Population Health Management 2016;19:81–87) PMID:26348355

  3. [The learning characteristics of primary care physicians].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjon

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the learning characteristics of primary care physicians that are necessary to develop proper educational support systems in continuing medical education. The research participants were 15 physicians with an average of 8 years of experience in primary care clinics. The data were collected through in-person interviews with each participant and analyzed by keyword coding, expert review, and content elaboration. The learning styles of primary care physicians were classified as "reactive," "organized," and "exploratory," according to their problem-solving approaches in clinics. The types of learning interaction were "unilateral acquisition," "mutual exchange," and "organization participation." The primary motives of learning in clinics were the primary care physicians' recognition of accountability and the intrinsic enjoyment of learning itself. For continuous professional development--i.e., the self-directed learning of primary care physicians with problem-solving approaches--learning interactions in professional communities should be considered in continuing educational support systems.

  4. Primary care career advice: a student perspective.

    PubMed

    Maddams, Jessica; Miller, Kathryn; Rushforth, Bruno

    2012-04-01

    In the UK, undergraduate curricula have evolved to include a greater proportion of community-based teaching. However, for most students it still remains predominantly a hospital-based training experience. With 50 per cent of all medical graduates in the UK now expected to work in the community, students need to be fully informed about career pathways and opportunities within primary care. A key driver for curriculum change in the UK has been the General Medical Council's guidance in Tomorrow's Doctors, which advocates experience in a variety of health care settings together with career advice at undergraduate level. However, the existing career guidance provision may be inadequate for the current needs of students. We explore what students are doing to combat the lack of primary care focused career guidance: from taking a year out to intercalate in primary care to setting up and running student-led primary care groups. We report on a new UK venture that we hope to launch in consultation with national primary care bodies to provide support and guidance for students considering a career in primary care. Primary care-focused career advice should be incorporated into the undergraduate curriculum. Student-led primary care groups can offer an alternative source of support and guidance. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  5. Learning in primary care--a report.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M

    2000-11-01

    A symposium on Learning in Primary Care was held in Cape Town, South Africa, as a pre-conference workshop to the 9th International Ottawa Conference on Medical Education. The aim of this report is to inform medical educationalists of important issues in learning in primary care and to stimulate further debate. Four international speakers gave presentations on their experiences in teaching and learning in primary care. Objective positive outcome measures include acquiring clinical skills equally well in general practice as in hospital, and improved history taking, physical examination and communication skills learning. Students regard the course as an essential requirement for learning and are appreciative of the wider aspect to learning provided by the community, giving a more holistic view of health. A SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) of teaching and learning in primary care identified that learning in primary care is of a generalist nature and reality based, but is hampered by a lack of resources. The increased professionalization of teaching in primary care results in better training, cost containment, and improved quality of health care at community level. It is important to focus on turning threats into opportunities. Academic credibility needs to be established by conducting research on learning in primary care and developing the conceptual basis of primary care.

  6. Introducing care pathway commissioning to primary dental care: the concept.

    PubMed

    Harris, R; Bridgman, C

    2010-09-11

    Care pathways are defined as 'a methodology for the mutual decision making and organisation of care for a well-defined group of patients during a well-defined period'. Although most often used in Europe as a tool to improve the quality of care and to aid the continuity of care between disciplines and settings, care pathways also have an application in underpinning the commissioning process. This paper describes the development of a new model of commissioning for general dental practice services based on a need and risk assessment linked to specified care pathways for preventive care. In this system dentists are monitored on adherence to care protocols based on nationally accepted guidelines for preventive care interventions as well as recommended recall intervals for routine dental examinations. A traffic light system to distinguish between patients with different levels of need and risk of disease is being used.

  7. Influence of the centrifuge time of primary plasma tubes on routine coagulation testing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Manzato, Franco; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2007-07-01

    Preparation of blood specimens is a major bottleneck in the laboratory throughput. Reliable strategies for reducing the time required for specimen processing without affecting quality should be acknowledged, especially for laboratories performing stat analyses. The present investigation was planned to establish a minimal suitable centrifuge time for primary samples collected for routine coagulation testing. Five sequential primary vacuum tubes containing 0.109 mol/l buffered trisodium citrate were collected from 10 volunteers and were immediately centrifuged on a conventional centrifuge at 1500 x g, at room temperature for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min, respectively. Hematological and routine coagulation testing, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen, were performed. The centrifugation time was inversely associated with residual blood cell elements in plasma, especially platelets. Statistically significant variations from the reference 15-min centrifuge specimens were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 5 min at most and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most. Meaningful biases related to the desirable bias were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most, and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 1 min at most. According to our experimental conditions, a 5-10 min centrifuge time at 1500 x g may be suitable for primary tubes collected for routine coagulation testing.

  8. Costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated care in Germany: results of a routine data analysis in Bavaria

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Antonius; Donnachie, Ewan; Tauscher, Martin; Gerlach, Roman; Maier, Werner; Mielck, Andreas; Linde, Klaus; Mehring, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The efficiency of a gatekeeping system for a health system, as in Germany, remains unclear particularly as access to specialist ambulatory care is not restricted. The aim was to compare the costs of coordinated versus uncoordinated patients (UP) in ambulatory care; with additional subgroup analysis of patients with mental disorders. Design Retrospective routine data analysis of patients with statutory health insurance, using claims data held by the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians. A patient was defined as uncoordinated if he or she visited at least 1 specialist without a referral from a general practitioner within a quarter. Outcomes were compared with propensity score matching analysis. Participants The study encompassed all statutorily insured patients in Bavaria contacting at least 1 ambulatory specialist in the first quarter of 2011 (n=3 616 510). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcome was total costs of ambulatory care; secondary outcomes were financial claims of general physicians, specialists and for medication. Results The average age was 55.3 years for coordinated patients (CP, n=1 629 302), 48.3 years for UP (n=1 825 840). CP more frequently had chronic diseases (85.4%) as compared with UP (67.5%). The total unadjusted financial claim per patient was higher for UP (€234.52) than for CP (€224.41); the total adjusted difference was −€9.65 (95% CI −11.64 to −7.67), indicating lower costs for CP. The cost differences increased with increasing age. Total adjusted difference per patient with mental diseases as documented with an International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 F-diagnosis, was −€20.31 (95% CI −26.43 to −14.46). Conclusions Coordination of care is associated with lower ambulatory healthcare expenditures and is of particular importance for patients who are more vulnerable to medical interventions, especially for elderly and patients with mental disorders

  9. Interventions for adolescent depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth E K; Zitner, Lauren E; Jensen, Peter S

    2006-08-01

    Depression in adolescents is underrecognized and undertreated despite its poor long-term outcomes, including risk for suicide. Primary care settings may be critical venues for the identification of depression, but there is little information about the usefulness of primary care interventions. We sought to examine the evidence for the treatment of depression in primary care settings, focusing on evidence concerning psychosocial, educational, and/or supportive intervention strategies. Available data on brief psychosocial treatments for adolescent depression in primary settings were reviewed. Given the paucity of direct studies, we also drew on related literature to summarize available evidence whether brief, psychosocial support from a member of the primary care team, with or without medication, might improve depression outcomes. We identified 37 studies relevant to treating adolescent depression in primary care settings. Only 4 studies directly examined the impact of primary care-delivered psychosocial interventions for adolescent depression, but they suggest that such interventions can be effective. Indirect evidence from other psychosocial/behavioral interventions, including anticipatory guidance and efforts to enhance treatment adherence, and adult depression studies also show benefits of primary care-delivered interventions as well as the impact of provider training to enhance psychosocial skills. There is potential for successful treatment of adolescent depression in primary care, in view of evidence that brief, psychosocial support, with or without medication, has been shown to improve a range of outcomes, including adolescent depression itself. Given the great public health problem posed by adolescent depression, the likelihood that most depressed adolescents will not receive specialty services, and new guidelines for managing adolescent depression in primary care, clinicians may usefully consider initiation of supportive interventions in their primary care

  10. Establishment of primary health care in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Birt, C A

    1990-08-01

    Basic demographic and epidemiological data relevant to health problems in Vietnam are described in this paper. Existing health service arrangements are referred to, with particular emphasis on the strategy for development of primary health care. The establishment of the paediatric centre in Ho Chi Minh City is reported, and examples of its valuable work in primary health care development are described.

  11. Teaching Primary Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Paul; Keogh, Johann J.; Keogh, Mariana

    1998-01-01

    Nursing and radiology students (n=15) at the University of Malta who completed an interdisciplinary module on primary health care reported they found the theoretical material applicable to practice; the module enabled them to learn about their potential role in primary health care. (SK)

  12. Teaching Primary Health Care: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezzina, Paul; Keogh, Johann J.; Keogh, Mariana

    1998-01-01

    Nursing and radiology students (n=15) at the University of Malta who completed an interdisciplinary module on primary health care reported they found the theoretical material applicable to practice; the module enabled them to learn about their potential role in primary health care. (SK)

  13. Teaching Primary Care in a Baccalaureate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Diane O.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The baccalaureate nursing program at Herbert H. Lehman College, Bronx, New York prepares students for primary care nursing by structuring the clinical experience to include the essential, interdependent components of: assessment, accountability, leadership, and management. Graduates are expected to be proficient in the primary care role in any…

  14. Primary Medical Care and Children's Learning Problems

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Feldman, William; Rosser, Walter

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe the major learning problems that confront the primary-care physician. They discuss why they believe that the primary-care physician has an important role in case finding, referral, case management, and advocacy for the child with learning problems and his or her family. PMID:21248891

  15. Teaching Primary Care in a Baccalaureate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGivern, Diane O.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The baccalaureate nursing program at Herbert H. Lehman College, Bronx, New York prepares students for primary care nursing by structuring the clinical experience to include the essential, interdependent components of: assessment, accountability, leadership, and management. Graduates are expected to be proficient in the primary care role in any…

  16. Primary Care as an Academic Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagin, Claire M.

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of the development of medical and nursing education make primary health care just one of medicine's specialities when it is actually the essence of the nursing profession. The author contends that primary care as an academic discipline within nursing is really the general discipline and should be so conceptualized. (MF)

  17. Embedding effective depression care: using theory for primary care organisational and systems change.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Jane M; Palmer, Victoria J; Dowrick, Christopher F; Herrman, Helen E; Griffiths, Frances E; Kokanovic, Renata; Blashki, Grant A; Hegarty, Kelsey L; Johnson, Caroline L; Potiriadis, Maria; May, Carl R

    2010-08-06

    Depression and related disorders represent a significant part of general practitioners (GPs) daily work. Implementing the evidence about what works for depression care into routine practice presents a challenge for researchers and service designers. The emerging consensus is that the transfer of efficacious interventions into routine practice is strongly linked to how well the interventions are based upon theory and take into account the contextual factors of the setting into which they are to be transferred. We set out to develop a conceptual framework to guide change and the implementation of best practice depression care in the primary care setting. We used a mixed method, observational approach to gather data about routine depression care in a range of primary care settings via: audit of electronic health records; observation of routine clinical care; and structured, facilitated whole of organisation meetings. Audit data were summarised using simple descriptive statistics. Observational data were collected using field notes. Organisational meetings were audio taped and transcribed. All the data sets were grouped, by organisation, and considered as a whole case. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was identified as an analytical theory to guide the conceptual framework development. Five privately owned primary care organisations (general practices) and one community health centre took part over the course of 18 months. We successfully developed a conceptual framework for implementing an effective model of depression care based on the four constructs of NPT: coherence, which proposes that depression work requires the conceptualisation of boundaries of who is depressed and who is not depressed and techniques for dealing with diffuseness; cognitive participation, which proposes that depression work requires engagement with a shared set of techniques that deal with depression as a health problem; collective action, which proposes that agreement is reached about how

  18. Embedding effective depression care: using theory for primary care organisational and systems change

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression and related disorders represent a significant part of general practitioners (GPs) daily work. Implementing the evidence about what works for depression care into routine practice presents a challenge for researchers and service designers. The emerging consensus is that the transfer of efficacious interventions into routine practice is strongly linked to how well the interventions are based upon theory and take into account the contextual factors of the setting into which they are to be transferred. We set out to develop a conceptual framework to guide change and the implementation of best practice depression care in the primary care setting. Methods We used a mixed method, observational approach to gather data about routine depression care in a range of primary care settings via: audit of electronic health records; observation of routine clinical care; and structured, facilitated whole of organisation meetings. Audit data were summarised using simple descriptive statistics. Observational data were collected using field notes. Organisational meetings were audio taped and transcribed. All the data sets were grouped, by organisation, and considered as a whole case. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was identified as an analytical theory to guide the conceptual framework development. Results Five privately owned primary care organisations (general practices) and one community health centre took part over the course of 18 months. We successfully developed a conceptual framework for implementing an effective model of depression care based on the four constructs of NPT: coherence, which proposes that depression work requires the conceptualisation of boundaries of who is depressed and who is not depressed and techniques for dealing with diffuseness; cognitive participation, which proposes that depression work requires engagement with a shared set of techniques that deal with depression as a health problem; collective action, which proposes that

  19. Treatment delivery and guidelines in primary care.

    PubMed

    Peveler, R; Kendrick, T

    2001-01-01

    Because depressive illness is so prevalent, the majority of patients are managed in primary care, without recourse to specialist services. Primary care management is seen to fall short of the standards set in secondary care, but unfortunately there is as yet relatively little evidence from primary care to guide management in this distinctive patient population. Guidelines have been introduced as a means of quality management, and their value in improving care has been assessed in trials. To date, the benefits of the implementation of guidelines have been marginal at best. By contrast, strategies which improve the access of patients to specialist services do seem to be beneficial. There is also evidence that such strategies may be associated with 'cost-offset'. Choice of antidepressant medication for maximum cost benefit should also be informed by an evidence base, which is beginning to be accumulated. Further research on this topic in the primary care context is still needed.

  20. Primary Health Care and Narrative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John W

    2015-01-01

    Primary health care has received a lot of attention since the Alma Ata Conference, convened by the World Health Organization in 1978. Key to the strategy to improve health care outlined at the Alma Ata conference is citizen participation in every phase of service delivery. Although the goals of primary health care have not been achieved, the addition of narrative medicine may facilitate these ends. But a new epistemology is necessary, one that is compatible with narrative medicine, so that local knowledge is elevated in importance and incorporated into the planning, implementation, and evaluation of health programs. In this way, relevant, sustainable, and affordable care can be provided. The aim of this article is to discuss how primary health care might be improved through the introduction of narrative medicine into planning primary health care delivery. PMID:26222094

  1. Describing Primary Care Encounters: The Primary Care Network Survey and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

    PubMed Central

    Binns, Helen J.; Lanier, David; Pace, Wilson D.; Galliher, James M.; Ganiats, Theodore G.; Grey, Margaret; Ariza, Adolfo J.; Williams, Robert

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to describe clinical encounters in primary care research networks and compare them with those of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). METHODS Twenty US primary care research networks collected data on clinicians and patient encounters using the Primary Care Network Survey (PRINS) Clinician Interview (PRINS-1) and Patient Record (PRINS-2), which were newly developed based on NAMCS tools. Clinicians completed a PRINS-1 about themselves and a PRINS-2 for each of 30 patient visits. Data included patient characteristics; reason for the visit, diagnoses, and services ordered or performed. We compared PRINS data with data obtained from primary care physicians during 5 cycles of NAMCS (1997–2001). Data were weighted; PRINS reflects participating networks and NAMCS provides national estimates. RESULTS By discipline, 89% of PRINS clinicians were physicians, 4% were physicians in residency training, 5% were advanced practice nurses/nurse-practitioners, and 2% were physician’s assistants. The majority (53%) specialized in pediatrics (34% specialized in family medicine, 9% in internal medicine, and 4% in other specialties). All NAMCS clinicians were physicians, with 20% specializing in pediatrics. When NAMCS and PRINS visits were compared, larger proportions of PRINS visits involved preventive care and were made by children, members of minority racial groups, and individuals who did not have private health insurance. A diagnostic or other assessment service was performed for 99% of PRINS visits and 76% of NAMCS visits (95% confidence interval, 74.9%–78.0%). A preventive or counseling/education service was provided at 64% of PRINS visits and 37% of NAMCS visits (95% confidence interval, 35.1%–38.0%). CONCLUSIONS PRINS presents a view of diverse primary care visits and differs from NAMCS in its methods and findings. Further examinations of PRINS data are needed to assess their usefulness for describing encounters that

  2. Is there a need for routine follow-up after primary total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Hacking, Craig; Weinrauch, Patrick; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Crawford, Ross W; Donnelly, William J

    2010-10-01

    The objective of routine outpatient assessment of well-functioning patients after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is to detect asymptomatic failure of prostheses to guide recommendations for early intervention. We have observed that the revision of THAs in asymptomatic patients is highly uncommon. We therefore question the need for routine follow-up of patients after THA. A prospective analysis of an orthopaedic database identified 158 patients who received 177 revision THAs over a four-year period. A retrospective chart review was conducted. Patient demographics, primary and revision surgery parameters and follow-up information were recorded and cross-referenced with Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry data. One hundred ten THAs in 104 patients (average age 70.4 (SD 9.8 years)). There were 70 (63.6%) in total, 13 (11.8%) femoral and 27 (24.5%) acetabular revisions. The indications for revision were aseptic loosening (70%), dislocation (8.2%), peri-prosthetic fracture (7.3%), osteolysis (6.4%) and infection (4.5%). Only four (3.6%) were asymptomatic revisions. A mean of 5.3 (SD 5.2 and 1.9 (SD 5.3)) follow-up appointments were required before revision in patients with and without symptoms, respectively. The average time from the primary to revision surgery was 11.8 (SD 7.23) years. We conclude that patients with prostheses with excellent long-term clinical results as validated by joint registries, routine follow-up of asymptomatic THA should be questioned and requires further investigation. Based on the work of this study, the current practice of routine follow-up of asymptomatic THA may be excessively costly and unnecessary, and a less resource-intensive review method may be more appropriate. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  3. Depression in primary care: assessing suicide risk

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Chung Wai Mark; How, Choon How; Ng, Yin Ping

    2017-01-01

    Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. This article describes the suicide risk assessment of a depressed patient, including practical aspects of history-taking, consideration of factors in deciding if a patient requires immediate transfer for inpatient care and measures to be taken if the patient is not hospitalised. It follows on our earlier article about the approach to management of depression in primary care. PMID:28210741

  4. Verbal communication among Alzheimer's disease patients, their caregivers, and primary care physicians during primary care office visits.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Karen L; Lingler, Jennifer H; Schulz, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Primary care visits of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) often involve communication among patients, family caregivers, and primary care physicians (PCPs). The objective of this study was to understand the nature of each individual's verbal participation in these triadic interactions. To define the verbal communication dynamics of AD care triads, we compared verbal participation (percent of total visit speech) by each participant in patient/caregiver/PCP triads. Twenty-three triads were audio taped during a routine primary care visit. Rates of verbal participation were described and effects of patient cognitive status (MMSE score, verbal fluency) on verbal participation were assessed. PCP verbal participation was highest at 53% of total visit speech, followed by caregivers (31%) and patients (16%). Patient cognitive measures were related to patient and caregiver verbal participation, but not to PCP participation. Caregiver satisfaction with interpersonal treatment by PCP was positively related to caregiver's own verbal participation. Caregivers of AD patients and PCPs maintain active, coordinated verbal participation in primary care visits while patients participate less. Encouraging verbal participation by AD patients and their caregivers may increase the AD patient's active role and caregiver satisfaction with primary care visits.

  5. Revitalizing primary care: a 10-point proposal.

    PubMed

    Koop, C E

    1993-10-15

    Even if all Americans had medical insurance, many of them still would not have access to adequate medical care, largely because of the lack of primary care physicians. Increasing their numbers is one aspect of health care reform in which the medical community can have a resounding impact. Specific recommendations for shaping the next generation of physicians are offered.

  6. Primary Mental Health Care in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…

  7. Primary Mental Health Care in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Bruno R.

    This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…

  8. Accessing primary care: a simulated patient study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, John L; Carter, Mary; Davey, Antoinette; Roberts, Martin J; Elliott, Marc N; Roland, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Simulated patient, or so-called ‘mystery-shopper’, studies are a controversial, but potentially useful, approach to take when conducting health services research. Aim To investigate the construct validity of survey questions relating to access to primary care included in the English GP Patient Survey. Design and setting Observational study in 41 general practices in rural, urban, and inner-city settings in the UK. Method Between May 2010 and March 2011, researchers telephoned practices at monthly intervals, simulating patients requesting routine, but prompt, appointments. Seven measures of access and appointment availability, measured from the mystery-shopper contacts, were related to seven measures of practice performance from the GP Patient Survey. Results Practices with lower access scores in the GP Patient Survey had poorer access and appointment availability for five out of seven items measured directly, when compared with practices that had higher scores. Scores on items from the national survey that related to appointment availability were significantly associated with direct measures of appointment availability. Patient-satisfaction levels and the likelihood that patients would recommend their practice were related to the availability of appointments. Patients’ reports of ease of telephone access in the national survey were unrelated to three out of four measures of practice call handling, but were related to the time taken to resolve an appointment request, suggesting responders’ possible confusion in answering this question. Conclusion Items relating to the accessibility of care in a the English GP patient survey have construct validity. Patients’ satisfaction with their practice is not related to practice call handling, but is related to appointment availability. PMID:23561783

  9. Physical activity assessed in routine care predicts mortality after a COPD hospitalisation

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Marilyn L.; Gould, Michael K.; Liu, In-Lu Amy; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    The independent relationship between physical inactivity and risk of death after an index chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalisation is unknown. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a large integrated healthcare system. Patients were included if they were hospitalised for COPD between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All-cause mortality in the 12 months after discharge was the primary outcome. Physical activity, expressed as self-reported minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), was routinely assessed at outpatient visits prior to hospitalisation. 1727 (73%) patients were inactive (0 min of MVPA per week), 412 (17%) were insufficiently active (1–149 min of MVPA per week) and 231 (10%) were active (≥150 min of MVPA per week). Adjusted Cox regression models assessed risk of death across the MVPA categories. Among 2370 patients (55% females and mean age 73±11 years), there were 464 (20%) deaths. Patients who were insufficiently active or active had a 28% (adjusted HR 0.72 (95% CI 0.54–0.97), p=0.03) and 47% (adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.34–0.84), p<0.01) lower risk of death, respectively, in the 12 months following an index COPD hospitalisation compared to inactive patients. Any level of MVPA is associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality after a COPD hospitalisation. Routine assessment of physical activity in clinical care would identify persons at high risk for dying after COPD hospitalisation. PMID:27730174

  10. Uncommon Caring: Primary Males and Implicit Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.

    The caring and nurturing of children, which characterize primary education culture, have tended to shape a public perception of primary teaching as "women's work." Several social factors influence men's underrepresentation in the profession of primary education, such as parents not wanting their children exposed to "soft"…

  11. 76 FR 61103 - Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Comprehensive Primary Care... announces a solicitation for health care payer organizations to participate in the Comprehensive Primary Care initiative (CPC), a multipayer model designed to improve primary care. DATES: Letter of...

  12. Parents' Traditional Cultural Values and Mexican-Origin Young Adults' Routine Health and Dental Care.

    PubMed

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; McHale, Susan M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the prospective associations between Mexican-origin mothers' and fathers' traditional cultural values and young adults' health and dental care utilization and to test the moderating role of youth gender. Mexican-origin parents and youth (N = 246 families) participated in home interviews and provided self-reports of parents' cultural values (time 1) and young adults' health status and routine health and dental care (time 2; 5 years later). Logistic regressions tested parents' traditional cultural values as predictors of routine health and dental care, accounting for parent nativity, parent acculturation, family socioeconomic status, youth gender, youth age, and youth physical health status. We also tested whether youth gender moderated the associations between parents' cultural values and young adults' routine care. Young adults whose mothers endorsed strong familism values when they were in mid-to-late adolescence were more likely to report at least one routine physician visit in the past year as young adults (odds ratio [OR] = 3.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-9.83, p = .019). Furthermore, for females only, mothers' more traditional gender role attitudes predicted reduced odds of receiving routine health (OR = .22; 95% CI: .08-.64, p = .005) and dental care (OR = .26; 95% CI: .09-.75, p < .012) in young adulthood. Our findings highlight the importance of examining intragroup variability in culturally specific mechanisms to identify targets for addressing ethnic/racial disparities in health care utilization among Mexican-origin young adults, during a period of increased risk for health-compromising behaviors and reduced access to care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Stuart K; Hinton, Cynthia F; Held, Patrice K; Jones, Elizabeth; Harry Hannon, W; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-11-01

    Routine second screening of most newborns at 8-14 days of life for a panel of newborn conditions occurs in 12 U.S. states, while newborns in the other states typically undergo only a single routine newborn screen. The study objective was to evaluate screening consequences for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in one- and two-screen states according to laboratory practices and medical or biochemical characteristics of screen-positive cases. Individual-level medical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2251 primary CH cases in one-screen (CA, WI) and two-screen (AL, DE, MD, OR, TX) states. Aggregate data were collected and analyzed for medical and biochemical characteristics of all screened newborns in the states. Among the states evaluated in this study, the detection rate of primary CH was higher in the one-screen states. In the two-screen states, 11.5% of cases were detected on the second screen. In multivariate analyses, only race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of cases identified on the first versus second screen, which likely reflects a physiologic difference in primary CH presentation. Newborn screening programs must heed the potential for newborns with CH not being detected by a single screen, particularly newborns of certain races/ethnicities. If the two-screen states converted to a single screen using their current algorithms, newborns currently identified on the routine second screen would presumably not be detected, resulting in probable delayed diagnosis and treatment. However, based on the one-screen state experiences, with appropriate modifications in screening method and algorithm, the two-screen states might convert to single screen operation for CH without loss in performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Single newborn screen or routine second screening for primary congenital hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Stuart K.; Hinton, Cynthia F.; Held, Patrice K.; Jones, Elizabeth; Hannon, W. Harry; Ojodu, Jelili

    2015-01-01

    Routine second screening of most newborns at 8–14 days of life for a panel of newborn conditions occurs in 12 U.S. states, while newborns in the other states typically undergo only a single routine newborn screen. The study objective was to evaluate screening consequences for primary congenital hypothyroidism (CH) in one- and two-screen states according to laboratory practices and medical or biochemical characteristics of screen-positive cases. Individual-level medical and biochemical data were retrospectively collected and analyzed for 2,251 primary CH cases in one-screen (CA, WI) and two-screen (AL, DE, MD, OR, TX) states. Aggregate data were collected and analyzed for medical and biochemical characteristics of all screened newborns in the states. Among the states evaluated in this study, the detection rate of primary CH was higher in the one-screen states. In the two-screen states, 11.5% of cases were detected on the second screen. In multivariate analyses, only race/ethnicity was a significant predictor of cases identified on the first versus second screen, which likely reflects a physiologic difference in primary CH presentation. Newborn screening programs must heed the potential for newborns with CH not being detected by a single screen, particularly newborns of certain races/ethnicities. If the two-screen states converted to a single screen using their current algorithms, newborns currently identified on the routine second screen would presumably not be detected, resulting in probable delayed diagnosis and treatment. However, based on the one-screen state experiences, with appropriate modifications in screening method and algorithm, the two-screen states might convert to single screen operation for CH without loss in performance. PMID:26293295

  15. Substitution of Hospital Care with Primary Care: Defining the Conditions of Primary Care Plus

    PubMed Central

    Kroese, Mariëlle Elisabeth Aafje Lydia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke Dingena; Elissen, Arianne Mathilda Josephus; Meerlo, Ronald Johan; Hanraets, Monique Margaretha Henriëtte; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyse barriers and facilitators in substituting hospital care with primary care to define preconditions for successful implementation. Methods: A descriptive feasibility study was performed to collect information on the feasibility of substituting hospital care with primary care. General practitioners were able to refer patients, about whom they had doubts regarding diagnosis, treatment and/or the need to refer to hospital care, to medical specialists who performed low-complex consultations at general practitioner practices. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with general practitioners and medical specialists, focus groups and notes from meetings in the Netherlands between April 2013 and January 2014. Data were analysed using a conventional content analysis which resulted in categorised barriers, facilitators and policy adjustments, after which preconditions were formulated. Results: The most important preconditions were make arrangements on governmental level, arrange a collective integrated IT-system, determine the appropriate profile for medical specialists, design a referral protocol for eligible patients, arrange deliberation possibilities for general practitioners and medical specialists and formulate a diagnostic protocol. Conclusions: The barriers, facilitators and formulated preconditions provided relevant input to change the design of substituting hospital care with primary care. PMID:27616956

  16. Endotracheal Suctioning in Preterm Infants Using Four-Handed versus Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Sharon; Pickler, Rita H.; Grap, Mary Jo; McGrath, Jacqueline; Wiley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of four-handed care on preterm infants’ physiologic and behavioral responses to and recovery from endotracheal suctioning versus routine endotracheal (ETT) suctioning. Design Randomized crossover design with infants as their own controls. Setting Single-family-room newborn intensive care unit in an academic health center. Participants Ten intubated infants on conventional ventilation with inline suctioning who were fewer than 37 weeks gestation at birth, and less than one week of age. Methods Each infant was observed twice on a single day. One observation involved routine ETT suctioning and one involved four-handed care. Physiologic and behavioral response data were collected. Results No differences were noted when comparing baseline heart rate (HR) or oxygen saturation (SpO2) data to those obtained during and after suctioning while in the routine care condition. In the four-handed care condition, mean SpO2 increased from preobservation 95.49 to during observation saturation 97.75 (p = .001). Salivary cortisol levels did not differ between groups at baseline or postsuctioning. No significant difference in behavior state was observed between the two conditions. More stress and defense behaviors occurred postsuctioning when infants received routine care as opposed to four-handed care (p = .001) and more self-regulatory behaviors were exhibited by infants during (p = .019) and after suctioning (p = .016) when receiving four-handed care. No statistical difference was found in the number of monitor call-backs postsuctioning. Conclusions Four-handed care during suctioning was associated with a decrease in stress and defense behaviors and an increase in self-regulatory behaviors. PMID:23316894

  17. Primary care teams work harder in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, R; Avery, A J; Marsh, P

    2002-03-01

    The NHS Plan promises an equitable distribution of resources within primary care. To inform the debate on the extent to which resources should be redistributed we examined the association between primary care activity and deprivation. We used the natural experiment of the organization of primary care in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, where town centre general practices have patients from electoral wards with a range of socio-economic characteristics who are subject to the same degree of supplier-induced demand and variations in data quality. We used one year's prospective data for two practices with 20,106 patients from 15 electoral wards. We performed linear regression analysis of directly age-standardized rates for different types of primary care activity and primary care morbidity-specific contacts against Townsend and Index of Multiple Deprivation 2000 scores. There were 44 per cent more out-of-hours contacts in more deprived areas (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 17-70 per cent), 18 per cent more surgery consultations (95 per cent CI 8-27 per cent), and 28 per cent more same-day consultations (95 per cent CI 12-44 per cent). Routine visits by doctors and contacts by district and practice nurses did not have substantial associations with deprivation. Morbidity-specific contacts for psychological problems and respiratory problems were associated with deprivation but there was no significant association for contacts for low back pain, asthma or menopausal problems. Different types of primary care activity and contacts for different morbidities had different associations with deprivation. This makes it difficult to recommend a simple list size adjustment; however, increased activity in deprived wards needs to be recognized in resource allocation, service configuration and performance management in primary care.

  18. LGBTQ Youth's Perceptions of Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Barbara K; Burack, Gail D; Petrova, Anna

    2016-10-13

    Despite published guidelines on the need to provide comprehensive care to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning/queer (LGBTQ) youth, there has been limited research related to the deliverance of primary health care to this population. The goals of this study were to learn about LGBTQ youth's experiences with their primary care physicians and to identify areas for improvement. Youth attending 1 of 5 community-based programs completed a written questionnaire and participated in a focus group discussion regarding experiences at primary care visits, including topics discussed, counselling received, and physician communication. Most of the youth did not feel their health care needs were well met. The majority acknowledged poor patient-provider communication, disrespect, and lack of discussions about important topics such as sexual and emotional health. Participants cited concerns about confidentiality and inappropriate comments as barriers to care. Youth expressed a strong desire to have physicians be more aware of their needs and concerns.

  19. Patient difficulty using tablet computers to screen in primary care.

    PubMed

    Hess, Rachel; Santucci, Aimee; McTigue, Kathleen; Fischer, Gary; Kapoor, Wishwa

    2008-04-01

    Patient-administered computerized questionnaires represent a novel tool to assist primary care physicians in the delivery of preventive health care. The aim of this study was to assess patient-reported ease of use with a self-administered tablet computer-based questionnaire in routine clinical care. All patients seen in a university-based primary care practice were asked to provide routine screening information using a touch-screen tablet computer-based questionnaire. Patients reported difficulty using the tablet computer after completion of their first questionnaire. Ten thousand nine hundred ninety-nine patients completed the questionnaire between January 2004 and January 2006. We calculated rates of reporting difficulty (no difficulty, some difficulty, or a lot of difficulty) using the tablet computers based on patient age, sex, race, educational attainment, marital status, and number of comorbid medical conditions. We constructed multivariable ordered logistic models to identify predictors of increased self-reported difficulty using the computer. The majority of patients (84%) reported no difficulty using the tablet computers to complete the questionnaire, with only 3% reporting a lot of difficulty. Significant predictors of reporting more difficulty included increasing age [odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.05)]; Asian race (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9); African American race (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.6); less than a high school education (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.6-3.4); and the presence of comorbid medical conditions (1-2: OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.5; > or =3: OR 1.7 95% CI 1.5-2.1). The majority of primary care patients reported no difficulty using a self-administered tablet computer-based questionnaire. While computerized questionnaires present opportunities to collect routine screening information from patients, attention must be paid to vulnerable groups.

  20. Supporting the Integration of HIV Testing Into Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Koester, Kimberly A.; Beane, Stephanie; Warren, Nancy; Beal, Jeffrey; Frank, Linda Rose

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the efforts of the US network of AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs) to increase HIV testing capacity across a variety of clinical settings. Methods. We used quantitative process data from 8 regional AETCs for July 1, 2008, to June 30, 2009, and qualitative program descriptions to demonstrate how AETC education helped providers integrate HIV testing into routine clinical care with the goals of early diagnosis and treatment. Results. Compared with other AETC training, HIV testing training was longer and used a broader variety of strategies to educate more providers per training. During education, providers were able to understand their primary care responsibility to address public health concerns through HIV testing. Conclusions. AETC efforts illustrate how integration of the principles of primary care and public health can be promoted through professional training. PMID:22515867

  1. Translating Evidence-Based Depression Management Services to Community-Based Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Amy M; Schulberg, Herbert C; Post, Edward P; Rollman, Bruce L; Belnap, Bea Herbeck; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2004-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of using treatment models for major depression in primary care settings. Nonetheless, translating these models into enduring changes in routine primary care has proved difficult. Various health system and organizational barriers prevent the integration of these models into primary care settings. This article discusses barriers to introducing and sustaining evidence-based depression management services in community-based primary care practices and suggests organizational and financial solutions based on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Depression in Primary Care Program. It focuses on strategies to improve depression care in medical settings based on adaptations of the chronic care model and discusses the challenges of implementing evidence-based depression care given the structural, financial, and cultural separation between mental health and general medical care. PMID:15595945

  2. Integration of Palliative Medicine Into Routine Oncological Care: What Does the Evidence Show Us?

    PubMed Central

    Debono, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Palliative medicine is now a recognized medical subspecialty. The goal of palliative medicine is to prevent and relieve suffering, and to support the best possible quality of life for patients and their families, regardless of the stage of their illness.1 Typically, palliative medicine teams consist of multiple disciplines (such as physicians, advanced practice nurses, social workers, and chaplains) to address several domains of the patient experience. Medical oncologists have routinely provided palliative care to their patients along with antineoplastic therapy. Nevertheless, there is a recognized need for an improvement in palliative care delivery to the patient with advanced cancer. This narrative review outlines recent clinical trials of palliative care being integrated into routine oncological care. PMID:22379414

  3. [Evolution of primary health care in Spain].

    PubMed

    Martínez Riera, José Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Coinciding with the celebration of the 35th anniversary of the journal of nursing, invented in 1977, conducted a systematic review of all issues published (371) to identify items (222) and news (94) related to primary care health. Events are arranged temporarily and refer to accompanying the evolution of primary care model. The Analysis Shows the evolution of primary care, since its inception in 1978, has been reflected in the type of articles and the content of news published, be an excellent indicator of its development and contribution for the nurses.

  4. Primary care providers’ bereavement care practices: Recommendations for research directions

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Patel, Sapana R.; Kaplan, Daniel B.; Bruce, Martha L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Bereaved patients are often seen in primary care settings. While most do not require formal support, physicians may be called upon to provide support to some bereaved, particularly those with bereavement-related mental health disorders like complicated grief and bereavement-related depression. Research evidence on physician bereavement care is scant. We make recommendations for future research in this area. Design Literature review, focusing on studies conducted between 1996 and 2013 in the United States. Searches of Medline and PsychInfo, along with hand searches of reference sections, was conducted. Results The limited existing research indicates substantial gaps in the research literature, especially in the areas of primary care physician skill and capacity, patient-level outcomes, and the quality of research methodology. No U.S. studies have focused specifically on care for bereavement-related mental health disorders. We provide recommendations about how to improve research about primary care bereavement care. Conclusions The primary care sector offers ample opportunities for research on bereavement care. With greater research efforts, there may be improvements to quality of bereavement care in primary care, in general, and also to the accurate detection and appropriate referral for bereavement-related mental health conditions. PMID:24955568

  5. Primary care nurses: effects on secondary care referrals for diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary care nurses play an important role in diabetes care, and were introduced in GP-practice partly to shift care from hospital to primary care. The aim of this study was to assess whether the referral rate for hospital treatment for diabetes type II (T2DM) patients has changed with the introduction of primary care nurses, and whether these changes were related to the number of diabetes-related contacts in a general practice. Methods Healthcare utilisation was assessed for a period of 365 days for 301 newly diagnosed and 2124 known T2DM patients in 2004 and 450 and 3226 patients in 2006 from general practices that participated in the Netherlands Information Network of General Practice (LINH). Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were used to analyse the effect of the introduction of primary care nurses on referrals to internists, ophthalmologists and cardiologists and diabetes-related contact rate. Separate analyses were conducted for newly diagnosed and known T2DM patients. Results Referrals to internists for newly diagnosed T2DM patients decreased between 2004 and 2006 (OR:0.44; 95%CI:0.22-0.87) in all practices. For known T2DM patients no overall decrease in referrals to internists was found, but practices with a primary care nurse had a lower trend (OR:0.59). The number of diabetes-related contacts did not differ between practices with and without primary care nurses. Cardiologists' and ophthalmologists' referral rate did not change. Conclusions The introduction of primary care nurses seems to have led to a shift of care from internists to primary care for known diabetes patients, while the diabetes-related contact rate seem to have remained unchanged. PMID:20691051

  6. Measuring access to primary care appointments: a review of methods

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Wendy; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Peter; Edwards, Adrian; Emmerson, Melody; Hibbs, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Background Patient access to primary care appointments is not routinely measured despite the increasing interest in this aspect of practice activity. The generation of standardised data (or benchmarks) for access could inform developments within primary care organisations and act as a quality marker for clinical governance. Logically the setting of targets should be based on a sound system of measurement. The practicalities of developing appropriate measures need debate. Therefore we aimed to search for and compare methods that have been published or are being developed to measure patient access to primary care appointments, with particular focus on finding methods using appointment system data. Method A search and review was made of the primary care literature from 1990 to 2001, which included an assessment of online resources (websites) and communication with recognised experts. The identified methods were assessed. Results The published literature in this specific area was not extensive but revealed emerging interest in the late 1990s. Two broad approaches to the measurement of waiting times to GP appointments were identified. Firstly, appointment systems in primary care organisations were analysed in differing ways to provide numerical data and, secondly, patient perceptions (reports) of access were evaluated using survey techniques. Six different methods were found which were based on appointment systems data. Conclusion The two approaches of either using patient questionnaires or appointment system data are methods that represent entirely different aims. The latter method when used to represent patient waiting times for 'routine' elective appointments seems to hold promise as a useful tool and this avoids the definitional problems that surround 'urgent' appointments. The purpose for which the data is being collected needs to be borne in mind and will determine the chosen methods of data retrieval and representation. PMID:12846934

  7. Is routine splintage following primary total knee replacement necessary? A prospective randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Horton, T C; Jackson, R; Mohan, N; Hambidge, J E

    2002-09-01

    It was hypothesised that routine splintage following primary total knee replacement has no affect on flexion deformity and offers no benefit over simple wool and crepe. Fifty-five patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were entered into a prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: The first group was rehabilitated without a splint and the second received an adjustable semi-rigid extension splint (Richards splint) for the first 48 h after surgery. Range of motion measurements were recorded pre-operatively and at 2 days, 1 week and 3 months post-operation by a research nurse blinded to the allocation. No statistically significant difference in flexion deformity was found at any stage (P>0.5). No difference was found in general or wound complications, or requirement for blood transfusion, and the post-operative stay was equal in the two groups. We conclude that routine use of a semi-rigid splint following primary total knee replacement has no advantage over simple wound dressings.

  8. Screening Adults for Depression in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Sarah; Pignone, Michael P

    2017-07-01

    The burden of depression in the United States is substantial. Evidence supports the benefits of screening for depression in all adults, including older patients and pregnant and postpartum women, when coupled with appropriate resources for management of disease. Developing, implementing, and sustaining a high-fidelity screening process is an important first step for improving the care of patients with depression in primary care. Initial treatment for depression should include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, or a combination of both. Collaborative care models are evidence-based approaches to depression treatment and follow-up that can be feasibly initiated in the primary care setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  10. Type 2 Diabetes: Step 4: Get Routine Care to Avoid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 4: Get Routine Care to Avoid Problems ... Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP—Part 3 of 4) Type 2 Diabetes The NIH, pharmaceutical companies, and nonprofit organizations have ...

  11. Everyday Routines: A Window into the Cultural Organization of Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonyan, Holli A.

    2015-01-01

    Eco(logical)-cultural Theory suggests that a daily routine results from individuals adapting cultural ideas to the constraints of a local context or ecology. Using Ecocultural Theory, this research examined family child care providers' descriptions of daily activities and overall approach to understand cultural models. The results highlighted a…

  12. Primary care and genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Scott, Joan; Trotter, Tracy

    2013-12-01

    With the recent expansion of genetic science, its evolving translation to clinical medicine, and the growing number of available resources for genomics in primary care, the primary care provider must increasingly integrate genetics and genomics into daily practice. Because primary care medicine combines the treatment of acute illness with disease prevention and anticipatory guidance, the primary care provider is in an ideal position to evaluate and treat patients for genetic disease. The notion that genetic knowledge is only rarely needed will have to be replaced with a comprehensive approach that integrates "genetic thinking" into every patient encounter. Genomic competencies will need to be added to the primary care provider's repertoire; such competencies include prevention, assessment, evaluation, and diagnosis of genetic conditions; the ordering and interpreting of genetic tests; communication with families; appropriate referrals; and the management or comanagement of care. The process of deciding when to order genetic tests, what tests to order, and how to interpret the results is complex, and the tests and their results have specific risks and benefits, especially for pediatric patients. The longitudinal nature of primary pediatric care provides the opportunity to obtain and continually update the family history, which is the most powerful initial genetic "test." The ongoing provider-family relationship, coupled with the astounding number of advances in genetic and genomic testing, also necessitates a constant re-evaluation of past diagnosis or nondiagnosis.

  13. Models of primary care for frail patients

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Wilson, C. Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To discuss models of care for frail seniors provided in primary care settings and those developed by Canadian FPs. Sources of information Ovid MEDLINE and the Cochrane database were searched from 2010 to January 2014 using the terms models of care, family medicine, elderly, and geriatrics. Main message New models of funding for primary care have opened opportunities for ways of caring for complex frail older patients. Severity of frailty is an important factor, and more severe frailty should prompt consideration of using an alternate model of care for a senior. In Canada, models in use include integrated care systems, shared care models, home-based care models, and family medicine specialty clinics. No one model should take precedence but FPs should be involved in developing and implementing strategies that meet the needs of individual patients and communities. Organizational and remunerative supports will need to be put in place to achieve widespread uptake of such models. Conclusion Given the increased numbers of frail seniors and the decrease in access to hospital beds, prioritized care models should include ones focused on optimizing health, decreasing frailty, and helping to avoid hospitalization of frail and well seniors alike. The Health Care of the Elderly Program Committee at the College of Family Physicians of Canada is hosting a repository for models of care used by FPs and is asking physicians to submit their ideas for how to best care for frail seniors. PMID:26380850

  14. Reducing the health consequences of opioid addiction in primary care.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction.

  15. Integrated Primary Care Information Database (IPCI)

    Cancer.gov

    The Integrated Primary Care Information Database is a longitudinal observational database that was created specifically for pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies, inlcuding data from computer-based patient records supplied voluntarily by general practitioners.

  16. New investments in primary care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Del Mar, Chris

    2011-02-17

    There is a crisis in primary care health workforce shortages in Australia. Its government has attempted to fix this by role-substitution (replacing medical work with nursing instead). This was not completely successful. Obstacles included entrenched social roles (leading to doctors 'checking' their nurse role-substituted work) and structures (nurses subservient to doctors)--both exacerbated by primary care doctors' ageing demographic; doctors owning their own practices; doctors feeling themselves to have primary responsibility for the care delivered; and greater attraction towards independence that may have selected doctors into primary care in the first place.Yet there is much to be optimistic about this social experiment. It was conducted, if not ideally, at least in an environment that the Australian government has enriched with capacity for research and evaluation.

  17. Many Primary Care Docs May Miss Prediabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... 167370.html Many Primary Care Docs May Miss Prediabetes Fewer than 1 in 10 surveyed named all ... can't identify all 11 risk factors for prediabetes, a small new survey finds. Researchers from Johns ...

  18. Primary care teams: New Zealand's experience with community-governed non-profit primary care.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Peter; Davis, Peter; Lay-Yee, Roy

    2005-05-01

    Community-governed non-profit primary care organisations started developing in New Zealand in the late 1980s with the aim to reduce financial, cultural and geographical barriers to access. New Zealand's new primary health care strategy aims to co-ordinate primary care and public health strategies with the overall objective of improving population health and reducing health inequalities. The purpose of this study is to carry out a detailed examination of the composition and characteristics of primary care teams in community-governed non-profit practices and compare them with more traditional primary care organisations, with the aim of drawing conclusions about the capacity of the different structures to carry out population-based primary care. The study used data from a representative national cross-sectional survey of general practitioners in New Zealand (2001/2002). Primary care teams were largest and most heterogeneous in community-governed non-profit practices, which employed about 3% of the county's general practitioners. Next most heterogeneous in terms of their primary care teams were practices that belonged to an Independent Practitioner Association, which employed the majority of the country's general practitioners (71.7%). Even though in absolute and relative terms the community-governed non-profit primary care sector is small, by providing a much needed element of professional and organisational pluralism and by experimenting with more diverse staffing arrangements, it is likely to continue to have an influence on primary care policy development in New Zealand.

  19. Automated office blood pressure measurement in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Martin G.; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Dawes, Martin; Godwin, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide FPs with detailed knowledge of automated office blood pressure (AOBP) measurement, its potential role in primary care, and its proper use in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Sources of information Comprehensive monitoring and collection of scientific articles on AOBP by the authors since its introduction. Main message Automated office blood pressure measurement maintains a role for blood pressure (BP) readings taken in the office setting. Clinical research studies have reported a substantially stronger relationship between awake ambulatory BP measurement and AOBP measurement compared with manual BP recorded during routine visits to the patient’s physician. Automated office blood pressure measurement produces mean BP values comparable to awake ambulatory BP and home BP values. Compared with routine manual office BP measurement, AOBP correlates more strongly with awake ambulatory BP measurement, shows less digit preference, is more consistent from visit to visit, is similar both within and outside of the physician’s office, virtually eliminates office-induced hypertension, and is associated with less masked hypertension. It is estimated that more than 25% of Canadian primary care physicians are now using AOBP measurement in their office practices. The use of AOBP to diagnose hypertension has been recommended by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program since 2010. Conclusion There is now sufficient evidence to incorporate AOBP measurement into primary care as an alternative to manual BP measurement. PMID:24522674

  20. Safer medicines management in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Anthony J; Sheikh, Aziz; Hurwitz, Brian; Smeaton, Lesley; Chen, Yen-Fu; Howard, Rachel; Cantrill, Judy; Royal, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Errors in the medicines management process represent an important source of iatrogenic harm in primary care. Most errors result from underlying systems-based problems that are amenable to intervention and potentially preventable. In this paper, we seek to identify the frequency of medication-related morbidity in primary care, understand the underlying systemic reasons that increase risk of medication-related errors and iatrogenic harm, and suggest strategies for improving the safety of medicines management. PMID:12389765

  1. Root Doctors as Providers of Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Stitt, Van J.

    1983-01-01

    Physicians in primary care recognize that as many as 65 percent of the patients seen in their offices are there for psychological reasons. In any southern town with a moderate population of blacks, there are at least two “root doctors.” These root doctors have mastered the power of autosuggestion and are treating these patients with various forms of medication and psychological counseling. This paper updates the practicing physician on root doctors who practice primary care. PMID:6887277

  2. [Geriatrics for internists in primary care].

    PubMed

    Swoboda, W; Hermens, T

    2011-08-01

    Internal medicine specialists involved in primary care will have a leading part in the treatment of geriatric patients with complex healthcare needs in the future. Approved models like specialized geriatric practices, ambulant or mobile geriatric rehabilitation and special geriatric services for nursing homes are available. Essential is a geriatric qualification that fits with the tasks of an internist in primary care. An incentive payment system has to be created for this purpose to improve the treatment of elderly patients.

  3. Primary care groups: allies in the challenge.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    Date: 8 July 1998 PLACE:The Marriott Hotel, Bristol Date: 9 July 1998 PLACE: Manchester Conference Centre, Manchester Cost: £58.75 (Incl.VAT) These two events provide an opportunity to participate in an open exchange with people experienced in setting up and running primary care groups. There will also be information provided on the ME) Intranet which is a major source of information on primary care groups.

  4. Pesticide exposure seen in primary care.

    PubMed

    Henry, T K

    1997-06-01

    The focus of this article is on recognition of signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure and poisoning in primary care settings. Providers have little problem evaluating clients with an acute exposure to pesticides because the client usually presents with symptoms of poisoning and/or a history of known exposure. The information presented supports the need to consider a history of pesticide exposure in the evaluation of some neurological, dermatologic, reproductive, and other signs and symptoms presented to primary care providers.

  5. A New Path to Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2016-03-01

    The University of North Texas Health Science Center and the Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine are partnering with Midland College and Midland Memorial Hospital to keep their own crop of future doctors in the area. The Primary Care Pathway identifies interested, high-achieving community college students likely to be successful in medical school and guarantees them an accelerated pathway to a doctor of osteopathic medicine degree, focusing earlier and more intensely on primary care.

  6. Exploring primary care activities in ACT teams.

    PubMed

    Vanderlip, Erik R; Williams, Nancy A; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Katon, Wayne

    2014-05-01

    People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive community treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients.

  7. Exploring Primary Care Activities in ACT Teams

    PubMed Central

    Vanderlip, Erik R.; Williams, Nancy A.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.; Katon, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Background People with serious mental illness often receive inadequate primary and preventive care services. Federal healthcare reform endorses team-based care that provides high quality primary and preventive care to at risk populations. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams offer a proven, standardized treatment approach effective in improving mental health outcomes for the seriously mentally ill. Much is known about the effectiveness of ACT teams in improving mental health outcomes, but the degree to which medical care needs are addressed is not established. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which ACT teams address the physical health of the population they serve. Methods ACT team leaders were invited to complete an anonymous, web-based survey to explore attitudes and activities involving the primary care needs of their clients. Information was collected regarding the use of health screening tools, physical health assessments, provision of medical care and collaboration with primary care systems. Results Data was analyzed from 127 team leaders across the country, of which 55 completed the entire survey. Nearly every ACT team leader believed ACT teams have a role in identifying and managing the medical co-morbidities of their clientele. ACT teams report participation in many primary care activities. Conclusions ACT teams are providing a substantial amount of primary and preventive services to their population. The survey suggests standardization of physical health identification, management or referral processes within ACT teams may result in improved quality of medical care. ACT teams are in a unique position to improve physical health care by virtue of having medically trained staff and frequent, close contact with their clients. PMID:24337472

  8. Primary Intimal Sarcoma of the Left Atrium: An Incidental Finding on Routine Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Gautam; Pau, Dhaval; Nalluri, Nikhil; Liu, Ying; Mohammad, Farhan; Atallah, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac sarcomas are extremely rare primary malignant tumors of the heart. In this article, we present the case of a 70-year-old female, who was found to have a left atrial mass during a routine outpatient transthoracic echocardiography. Further investigation with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a bilobulated mass with heterogeneous enhancement. Left atrial myxoma was the first diagnostic consideration, followed by other primary cardiac tumors, and thrombus. The patient subsequently underwent resection of the mass, utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Upon pathological examination, the mass was found to be an intimal sarcoma. The objective of this report is to describe a case of this rare disease entity, and to discuss its presentation, pathological findings and management. PMID:27994830

  9. [Alcohol-related problems in primary care].

    PubMed

    Ban, Nobutaro

    2015-09-01

    The approach to treating alcohol-related problems in primary care settings needs: 1) to recognize the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care settings; 2) to know the way of screening; 3) to know how to help patients; and 4) to know enough about treating alcoholism to appropriately refer patients for additional help. This article looks research evidence about the incidence of alcohol-related problems in primary care and recognition of incidence and way of screening of alcohol-related problems by primary care physicians in Japan. Then this article describes evidence-based as well as author's experience-based approach to treat the alcohol-related health problems in primary care settings. In line with the newly introduced law to prevent the alcohol-related health problems and the anticipating introduction of new specialty of general medicine, early intervention to alcohol-related problems in primary care settings will be much appreciated. To do so, enough amounts of education and research are needed.

  10. Midwives as primary care providers for women.

    PubMed

    Phillippi, Julia C; Barger, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB) are prepared to provide primary care to women from menarche across the lifespan and to well newborns to 28 days using consultation, collaboration, and referral to other providers as needed. The scope of midwifery in the United States did not always include primary care for women, although imprecise definitions of primary care make this difficult to study. The expansion of the scope of practice occurred in response to population needs and research on nurse-midwifery practice patterns. The scope of practice of midwifery is tied to educational standards through the regulation and licensure at the state level. Although the current scope of practice includes primary care for women, many certified nurse-midwives and certified midwives are unable to practice to the full extent of their education due to state-level licensure restrictions. We discuss the addition of primary care to midwifery and the current state of AMCB-certified midwives as primary care providers for women.

  11. [Determinants of primary care specialty choice].

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Bielecki, Jan

    2007-03-01

    This paper analyzes and synthesizes the literature on primary care specialty choice. Motivation for choosing medicine and its impact on recruitment to different types of medical work has been presented. Factors that influence medical students and young doctors to change specialty preference have also been explored. Variables, such as gender, martial status, age, income expectations and prestige, that affect medical students' specialty selection decisions for primary care, have been examined. Personality profiles of primary care physician have been evaluated and the influence of communication skills and knowledge of social psychology on his/her work have been analyzed. It is presented that other traits, such as patient-centeredness, needs to serve society and value orientation, is also associated with increases in numbers of students choosing primary care. The analyze shows that the preference for primary care is connected with being interested in diverse patients and health problems and also with being people-orientated. A survey conducted into Polish medical students' attitudes to primary care and family medicine is presented. There is a negative perception of family medicine among Polish students and doctors because of its long work hours and less time for family, insufficient diagnostic possibilities and monotony It is chosen because of lack of other possibilities, difficulties in employment and opportunity to become 'a specialist' in short time.

  12. Behavioral Health Integration in Health Care Settings: Lessons Learned from a Pediatric Hospital Primary Care System.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Leandra; Long, Melissa; Marschall, Donna; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Bokor, Brooke; Rhodes, Hope; Crumpton, Howard; Weissman, Mark; Beers, Lee

    2017-09-19

    Behavioral health integration within primary care has been evolving, but literature traditionally focuses on smaller scale efforts. We detail how behavioral health has been integrated across a large, urban pediatric hospital system's six primary care clinics (serving over 35,000 children annually and insured predominately through Medicaid) and discuss strategies for success in sustaining and expanding efforts to achieve effective integration of behavioral health into primary care. In a time span of 3 years, the clinics have implemented routine, universal behavioral health screening at well child visits, participated in a 15-month behavioral health screening quality improvement learning collaborative, and integrated the work of psychologists and psychiatrists. Additional work remains to be done in improving family engagement, further expanding services, and ensuring sustainability.

  13. Millennial transformation for primary care.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Michael

    2010-06-01

    We do not need a crystal ball to see the future. Our web-based future has already arrived in all other aspects of our lives--even our mobile phones. The tools for progress--Personal Health Records, Social Networks, and Online medical information--are widely available. The demand is at hand--Millennials are flexing consumer muscles as they enter the healthcare market. Real "Health Care Reform" requires fundamental changes in practice--which in turn requires effective use of information technologies and adaption to changing consumer expectations. The VHA and the MHS are uniquely capable of leveraging political, academic and technological forces to help move American health care through this millennial transformation. Federal health systems are positioned to demonstrate the value of innovation as America seeks healthcare reform.

  14. [Antiseptic use in primary care].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pérez, M Isabel; Lucio-Villegas Menéndez, M Eulalia; González, Laura López; Lluch, Natalia Aresté; Morató Agustí, M Luisa; Cachafeiro, Santiago Pérez

    2014-05-01

    Wounds can be classified according to their mechanism of action into surgical or traumatic (which may be incision wounds, such as those provoked by a sharp object; contusions, caused by a blunt force; puncture wounds, caused by long, sharp objects; lacerations, caused by tears to the tissue; or bites, which have a high risk of infection and consequently should not be sutured). Wounds can also be classified by their healing process into acute or chronic (pressure ulcers, vascular ulcers, neuropathic ulcers, acute wounds with torpid clinical course). The use of antiseptics in any of these wounds is usually limited to cleaning and initial care -up to 48 hours- and to washing of hands and instruments. The use of antiseptics in chronic or persistent wounds is more debatable. The same is true of burns, in which the use of formulations that encourage hydration is recommended. In the pediatric population, the use of antiseptics with a known safety profile and low absorption is usually recommended, especially in the care of the umbilical cord, in which evidence supports the use of chlorhexidine gluconate. Another use of antiseptics is the care of wounds produced by procedures used in body esthetics, such as piercings; in these procedures, it is advisable to use transparent antiseptics that allow visualization of the technique.

  15. Managing urticaria in primary care.

    PubMed

    Tidman, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Urticaria is characterised by transient wheals that consist of a swollen palpable centre often surrounded by an erythematous flare, associated with itching or, less commonly, a burning sensation. Individual wheals usually disappear within 1 to 24 hours leaving normal skin. Wheals may be accompanied by angioedema, a more deep-seated flesh-coloured or erythematous swelling of skin or mucous membrane, which may last longer than 24 hours. Urticaria is classified as acute when it resolves within six weeks and chronic when its duration exceeds six weeks. Chronic urticaria is now sub-classified into chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and chronic inducible urticaria. The prognosis for eventual recovery from spontaneous and inducible urticaria is excellent. However, the time course is unpredictable and may extend to years, often following a relapsing and remitting course. Urticaria results from the release of inflammatory mediators from dermal mast cells, resulting in vasodilatation, plasma extravasation, recruitment of immunologically active cells and sensory nerve stimulation. The cause of urticaria cannot usually be precisely identified for most affected individuals. IgE-mediated food allergy is rarely the cause of CSU in patients with the daily appearance of urticarial lesions, although it should be considered in CSU patients with intermittent symptoms. For patients with CSU a differential full blood count and inflammatory markers are all that are routinely recommended. It is also reasonable to test thyroid function and check for circulating thyroid autoantibodies as there is an association between CSU and thyroid autoimmunity.

  16. Multipronged strategy to reduce routine-priority blood testing in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Merkeley, Hayley L; Hemmett, Juliya; Cessford, Tara A; Amiri, Neda; Geller, Georgia S; Baradaran, Nazli; Norena, Monica; Wong, Hubert; Ayas, Najib; Dodek, Peter M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to reduce unnecessary ordering of routine-priority blood tests. In this before-after study, we studied all patients admitted to a 15-bed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU) from July 1, 2011, to June 27, 2013. Based on input from intensivists, acceptable indications for ordering routine-priority complete blood counts (CBCs) and electrolyte/renal panels were developed. Sequential interventions were (1) education sessions for ICU housestaff about the lack of evidence for routine-priority blood tests; (2) an item on the ICU rounds checklist to ask if routine-priority blood tests were indicated; (3) a rubber stamp, "routine bloodwork NOT indicated for tomorrow," was used in the chart; (4) a prompt in the electronic ordering system to allow only accepted indications; and (5) a second educational session for ICU housestaff. We measured numbers of tests done before and after these interventions. After introduction of interventions, there were 0.14 fewer routine-priority CBCs and 0.13 fewer routine-priority electrolyte/renal panels done per patient-day. Nonroutine CBCs and nonroutine electrolyte/renal panels increased by 0.03 and 0.02 tests per patient-day, respectively. This overall reduction in tests equates to an adjusted savings of $11,200.24 over 1 year in 1 ICU. There were no differences in demographics, severity of illness, length of stay, or number of red cell transfusions between the 2 periods. Sequential interventions to discourage the ordering of routine-priority blood tests in an ICU were associated with a significant decrease in the number of tests ordered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Learing Disabilities and the Primary Care Physician

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the population has learning disabilities (LD). Although the main manifestations occur in childhood, many of the primary and secondary manifestations of LD can continue into adult life. The high prevalence of LD and the current economic climate in Canada imply that the primary care physician must have a role in the identification, diagnosis, and management services for persons with LD. Information about the specific aspects of a particular person's LD should be incorporated into the evaluation and management of other health matters with which the primary care physician deals. PMID:21248890

  18. General and specialized media routinely employed for primary isolation of bacterial pathogens of fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of significant diseases among cultured and free-ranging freshwater fishes that have a bacterial etiology; these represent a variety of gram-negative and gram-positive genera. Confirmatory diagnosis of these diseases involves primary isolation of the causative bacterium on bacteriologic media. Frequently used "general" bacteriologic media simply provide the essential nutrients for growth. For most of the major pathogens, however, there are differential and/or selective media that facilitate primary recovery. Some specialized media are available as "ready-to-use" from suppliers, while others must be prepared. Differential media employ various types of indicator systems, such as pH indicators, that allow diagnosticians to observe assimilation of selected substrates. An advantage to the use of differential media for primary isolation is that they hasten bacterial characterization by yielding the appropriate positive or negative result for a particular substrate, often leading to a presumptive identification. Selective media also incorporate agent(s) that inhibit the growth of contaminants typically encountered with samples from aquatic environments. Media that incorporate differential and/or selective components are ideally based on characters that are unique to the targeted bacterium, and their use can reduce the time associated with diagnosis and facilitate early intervention in affected fish populations. In this review, the concepts of general and differential/selective bacteriologic media and their use and development for fish pathogens are discussed. The media routinely employed for primary isolation of the significant bacterial pathogens of fishes are presented. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  19. Computers in Primary Care Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Brian

    1990-01-01

    Physicians have used computers for years. Although the most popular applications are billing and scheduling software, physicians are increasingly turning to the computer as a tool for medical education. Computers can teach core topics to residents in family medicine and help assess their clinical competence, can help the program director monitor the quality of the educational experience for residents, and can help physicians improve the quality of patient care. Teachers in family medicine can play a role in apprising residents of these developments. PMID:21233941

  20. [Emotional map in Andalusian primary care teams].

    PubMed

    March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Romero Vallecillos, Manuel; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Danet, Alina

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the dynamics and establish the emotional map of 8 primary care teams. Descriptive, cross-sectional and multi-site study. Primary care centers in Granada, Cádiz and Málaga, Spain. Simple random sampling of 8 health centers and 272 primary care professionals. A self administered questionnaire with 10 Likert-type questions. Answers were classified by items, media and mode. Leadership is not integrated (0.42 points). Relationships between workers show rivalry, burnout and little sensation of being part of a team, but they are united by support and trust. There is a moderate enthusiasm of team objectives (1.36 points). Professional self esteem is generally positive (1.89 points). Emotional climate of the teams recorded medium values. Aspects as regards integrating leadership and increased enthusiasm towards the common work project need to be improved, following the inter-professional collaborative care model.

  1. Restructuring primary care for performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Kenneth J; Brummel, Stacy; Byrnes, John J

    2009-01-01

    Primary care practices can no longer consider ongoing quality assessment and management processes to be optional. There are ever-increasing demands from any number of interested parties for objectively measured proof of outcomes and quality of care. Primary Care Partners (PCP), a 16-site ambulatory affiliate of the Spectrum Health system in Grand Rapids, Michigan, began such a continuous quality improvement (CQI) effort in 2005. The intent was to develop an ongoing systematic process that would raise its performance potential and improve patient outcomes in the areas of chronic disease management and preventive services. This article describes the partnerships PCP established, specific benchmarks and measurements used, processes utilized, and results to date. This could be used as a roadmap for other primary care systems that are working to establish CQI in their daily operations.

  2. Integrating nutrition services into primary care

    PubMed Central

    Crustolo, Anne Marie; Kates, Nick; Ackerman, Sari; Schamehorn, Sherri

    2005-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Nutrition services can have an important role in prevention and management of many conditions seen by family physicians, but access to these services in primary care is limited. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To integrate specialized nutrition services into the offices of family physicians in Hamilton, Ont, in order to improve patient access to those services, to expand the range of problems seen in primary care, and to increase collaboration between family physicians and registered dietitians. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Registered dietitians were integrated into the offices of 80 family physicians. In collaboration with physicians, they assessed, treated, and consulted on a variety of nutrition-related problems. A central management team coordinated the dietitians’ activities. CONCLUSION Registered dietitians can augment and complement family physicians’ activities in preventing, assessing, and treating nutrition-related problems. This model of shared care can be applied to integrating other specialized services into primary care practices. PMID:16805083

  3. Primary Health Care: care coordinator in regionalized networks?

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Patty Fidelis; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO OBJECTIVE To analyze the breadth of care coordination by Primary Health Care in three health regions. METHODS This is a quantitative and qualitative case study. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews with municipal, regional and state managers were carried out, besides a cross-sectional survey with the administration of questionnaires to physicians (74), nurses (127), and a representative sample of users (1,590) of Estratégia Saúde da Família (Family Health Strategy) in three municipal centers of health regions in the state of Bahia. RESULTS Primary Health Care as first contact of preference faced strong competition from hospital outpatient and emergency services outside the network. Issues related to access to and provision of specialized care were aggravated by dependence on the private sector in the regions, despite progress observed in institutionalizing flows starting out from Primary Health Care. The counter-referral system was deficient and interprofessional communication was scarce, especially concerning services provided by the contracted network. CONCLUSIONS Coordination capacity is affected both by the fragmentation of the regional network and intrinsic problems in Primary Health Care, which poorly supported in its essential attributes. Although the health regions have common problems, Primary Health Care remains a subject confined to municipal boundaries. PMID:28099663

  4. Primary care--opportunities and threats. Developing prescribing in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, C. P.; Taylor, R. J.; Blenkinsopp, A.

    1997-01-01

    The latest white papers on the NHS focus on stimulating innovation in the delivery of primary care and removing barriers to further development. Some of this innovation relates directly to prescribing in primary care, and in this article the authors speculate on what might happen if the prescribing initiatives referred to in the white papers were extended and disseminated more widely. The initiatives which might have the biggest impact are those encouraging closer collaboration between general practitioners and community pharmacists and those aiding extension of the current nurse prescribing scheme in primary care. Both offer considerable opportunities to improve primary care, but both bear some potential risks. PMID:9116557

  5. The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care.

    PubMed

    Cueto, Marcos

    2004-11-01

    I present a historical study of the role played by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in the emergence and diffusion of the concept of primary health care during the late 1970s and early 1980s. I have analyzed these organizations' political context, their leaders, the methodologies and technologies associated with the primary health care perspective, and the debates on the meaning of primary health care. These debates led to the development of an alternative, more restricted approach, known as selective primary health care. My study examined library and archival sources; I cite examples from Latin America.

  6. The ORIGINS of Primary Health Care and SELECTIVE Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Cueto, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    I present a historical study of the role played by the World Health Organization and UNICEF in the emergence and diffusion of the concept of primary health care during the late 1970s and early 1980s. I have analyzed these organizations’ political context, their leaders, the methodologies and technologies associated with the primary health care perspective, and the debates on the meaning of primary health care. These debates led to the development of an alternative, more restricted approach, known as selective primary health care. My study examined library and archival sources; I cite examples from Latin America. PMID:15514221

  7. The Utility of Routine Intensive Care Admission for Patients Undergoing Intracranial Neurosurgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Cesar Cimonari; Boone, M Dustin; Laviv, Yosef; Kasper, Burkhard S; Chen, Clark C; Kasper, Ekkehard M

    2017-08-14

    Patients who have undergone intracranial neurosurgical procedures have traditionally been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for close postoperative neurological observation. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence for routine ICU admission in patients undergoing intracranial neurosurgical procedures and to evaluate the safety of alternative postoperative pathways. We were interested in identifying studies that examined selected patients who presented for elective, non-emergent intracranial surgery whose postoperative outcomes were compared as a function of ICU versus non-ICU admission. A systematic review was performed in July 2016 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist of the Medline database. The search strategy was created based on the following key words: "craniotomy," "neurosurgical procedure," and "intensive care unit." The nine articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria yielded a total of 2227 patients. Of these patients, 879 were observed in a non-ICU setting. The most frequent diagnoses were supratentorial brain tumors, followed by patients with cerebrovascular diseases and infratentorial brain tumors. Three percent (30/879) of the patients originally assigned to floor or intermediate care status were transferred to the ICU. The most frequently observed neurological complications leading to ICU transfer were delayed postoperative neurological recovery, seizures, worsening of neurological deficits, hemiparesis, and cranial nerves deficits. Our systematic review demonstrates that routine postoperative ICU admission may not benefit carefully selected patients who have undergone elective intracranial neurosurgical procedures. In addition, limiting routine ICU admission may result in significant cost savings.

  8. Implementing a stepped-care approach in primary care: results of a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2004, 'stepped-care models' have been adopted in several international evidence-based clinical guidelines to guide clinicians in the organisation of depression care. To enhance the adoption of this new treatment approach, a Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC) was initiated in the Netherlands. Methods Alongside the QIC, an intervention study using a controlled before-and-after design was performed. Part of the study was a process evaluation, utilizing semi-structured group interviews, to provide insight into the perceptions of the participating clinicians on the implementation of stepped care for depression into their daily routines. Participants were primary care clinicians, specialist clinicians, and other healthcare staff from eight regions in the Netherlands. Analysis was supported by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). Results The introduction of a stepped-care model for depression to primary care teams within the context of a depression QIC was generally well received by participating clinicians. All three elements of the proposed stepped-care model (patient differentiation, stepped-care treatment, and outcome monitoring), were translated and introduced locally. Clinicians reported changes in terms of learning how to differentiate between patient groups and different levels of care, changing antidepressant prescribing routines as a consequence of having a broader treatment package to offer to their patients, and better working relationships with patients and colleagues. A complex range of factors influenced the implementation process. Facilitating factors were the stepped-care model itself, the structured team meetings (part of the QIC method), and the positive reaction from patients to stepped care. The differing views of depression and depression care within multidisciplinary health teams, lack of resources, and poor information systems hindered the rapid introduction of the stepped-care model. The NPT constructs 'coherence' and

  9. Ontario primary care models: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Logan; Buckley, Gioia; Sweetman, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between 2001 and 2006, the Ontario government introduced a menu of new primary care models, with elements such as patient enrolment and minimum group sizes, and various combinations of fee-for-service, capitation, pay-for-performance and salary. From the statistical perspective of physicians, as opposed to patients, we looked at the distribution of physician characteristics, group size and patient visit patterns across models to describe primary care practice in Ontario. Methods: Using administrative data for fiscal year 2010/11 containing information on physician characteristics, patient rostering status, patient visits and other practice information, we described similarities and differences across primary care models. Results: Our sample included 11 626 family physicians. Compared with physicians in the new primary care models, physicians in fee-for-service models are much more likely to work part-time and many, particularly younger and female physicians, do not work in full-year full-scope practices. Among the new primary care models, physicians in capitated models are slightly younger, are less likely to be an international medical graduate, work in smaller physician teams and do not practice in urban areas. On average, physicians saw and rostered 1888 patients. Although there is still substantial variation within each model, fee-for-service physicians saw the fewest patients; physicians in capitated models saw somewhat more, and those in the noncapitated models saw the most patients. Interpretation: Practice and physician characteristics vary systematically across models. A high percentage of rostered patients see physicians outside the group with which they are rostered. Group-based primary care models may not have a large impact on group integration and continuity in the provision of primary care services. PMID:28018882

  10. Primary Care Teams, Composition, Roles, and Satisfaction of PA Students During Primary Care Rotations.

    PubMed

    Kayingo, Gerald; Deon Kidd, Vasco; Gilani, Owais; Warner, Mary L

    2015-06-01

    The goal of t his study was to describe the characteristics of primary care teams, activities, and ro les of physician assistant (PA) students as they encounter various primary care sites. An electronic survey was distributed to second year PA students in 12 programs who had completed at least 4 weeks in a primary care rotation. Of the 179 students who responded (response rate 41 %), 88% had completed their primary care rotations in urban settings, mostly in private practices (53%). Physician assistant students reported encountering many types of health care providers on their teams, and the 2 most favored features of the rotations were the interactions with their supervising clinicians and clinical responsibilities. About 68% interacted with other health profession students during their rotation(interprofessional experiential learning). Almost all students completed histories, physical examinations, and treatment plans, but less than 30% reported involvement in billing or care coordination and less than 10% participated in quality improvement projects. More than 60% were satisfied with team-based and interprofessional practices encountered during their primary care rotations, and 39% were more than likely to pursue primary care careers. Team-based prima ry ca re had a positive impact on students, but more exposure to underserved clinical settings, care coordination, quality improvement, and billing is needed to prepare PA students for the practice of the future. This study is t he first of its kind to explore the relationship between primary care sites and PA training in the era of health care reform.

  11. Primary Care Physicians' Dementia Care Practices: Evidence of Geographic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortinsky, Richard H.; Zlateva, Ianita; Delaney, Colleen; Kleppinger, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores primary care physicians' (PCPs) self-reported approaches and barriers to management of patients with dementia, with a focus on comparisons in dementia care practices between PCPs in 2 states. Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were mailed to 600 randomly selected licensed PCPs in…

  12. Primary Care Physicians' Dementia Care Practices: Evidence of Geographic Variation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortinsky, Richard H.; Zlateva, Ianita; Delaney, Colleen; Kleppinger, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores primary care physicians' (PCPs) self-reported approaches and barriers to management of patients with dementia, with a focus on comparisons in dementia care practices between PCPs in 2 states. Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were mailed to 600 randomly selected licensed PCPs in…

  13. The Swedish National Diabetes Register in clinical practice and evaluation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren Elfgren, Ing-Marie; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Törnvall, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Aim The purpose of this project is to describe the use of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in clinical practice in a Swedish county and to specifically monitor the diabetes care routines at two separate primary health-care centres (PHCC) with a special focus on older patients.

  14. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  15. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  16. Patient-Driven Computers in Primary Care: Their Use and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Fawcett, Julia; Mattick, Richard P.; Richmond, Robyn; Wodak, Alex; Harris, Mark F.; Doran, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the feasibility of using patient-driven, hand-held computers in primary care settings, in order to address the apparent failure to implement prevention initiatives into the routine delivery of health care services. Design/methodology/approach: During an eight-day period, patients of an English…

  17. Patient-Driven Computers in Primary Care: Their Use and Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Fawcett, Julia; Mattick, Richard P.; Richmond, Robyn; Wodak, Alex; Harris, Mark F.; Doran, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the feasibility of using patient-driven, hand-held computers in primary care settings, in order to address the apparent failure to implement prevention initiatives into the routine delivery of health care services. Design/methodology/approach: During an eight-day period, patients of an English…

  18. [Primary care in the United Kingdom].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-03-01

    The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Primary health care use and health care accessibility among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Barakat-Haddad, C; Siddiqua, A

    2015-05-19

    This study examined primary health care use and accessibility among adolescents living in the United Arab Emirates. In a cross-sectional study, we collected health care use, sociodemographic and residential data for a sample of 6363 adolescents. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine predictors of health care use. The most-consulted health professionals were dentists or orthodontists, family doctors and eye specialists. Local adolescents were more likely to attend public clinics/hospitals than private facilities, while the opposite was true for expatriates. In the previous 12 months 22.6% of the participants had not obtained the health care they needed and 19.5% had not had a routine health check-up. Common reasons for not obtaining care were busy schedules, dislike/fear of doctors and long waiting times. Predictors of not obtaining needed care included nationality and income, while those for having a routine check-up were mother's education and car ownership. Improvements to the health care sector may increase health care accessibility among adolescents.

  20. Prolotherapy in primary care practice.

    PubMed

    Rabago, David; Slattengren, Andrew; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2010-03-01

    Prolotherapy is an injection-based complementary and alternative medical therapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Prolotherapy techniques and injected solutions vary by condition, clinical severity, and practitioner preferences; over several treatment sessions, a fairly small volume of an irritant or sclerosing solution is injected at sites on painful ligament and tendon insertions and in adjacent joint space during several treatment sessions. Prolotherapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States and internationally and is actively used in clinical practice. Prolotherapy has been assessed as a treatment for various painful chronic musculoskeletal conditions that are refractory to "standard of care" therapies. Although anecdotal clinical success guides the use of prolotherapy for many conditions, clinical trial literature supporting evidence-based decision-making for the use of prolotherapy exists for low back pain, several tendinopathies, and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can health care teams improve primary care practice?

    PubMed

    Grumbach, Kevin; Bodenheimer, Thomas

    2004-03-10

    In health care settings, individuals from different disciplines come together to care for patients. Although these groups of health care personnel are generally called teams, they need to earn true team status by demonstrating teamwork. Developing health care teams requires attention to 2 central questions: who is on the team and how do team members work together? This article chiefly focuses on the second question. Cohesive health care teams have 5 key characteristics: clear goals with measurable outcomes, clinical and administrative systems, division of labor, training of all team members, and effective communication. Two organizations are described that demonstrate these components: a private primary care practice in Bangor, Me, and Kaiser Permanente's Georgia region primary care sites. Research on patient care teams suggests that teams with greater cohesiveness are associated with better clinical outcome measures and higher patient satisfaction. In addition, medical settings in which physicians and nonphysician professionals work together as teams can demonstrate improved patient outcomes. A number of barriers to team formation exist, chiefly related to the challenges of human relationships and personalities. Taking small steps toward team development may improve the work environment in primary care practices.

  2. Providers' Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators to Connecting Women Veterans to Alcohol-Related Care From Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Traci H; Lewis, Eleanor T; Cucciare, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Unhealthy drinking is relatively common among women U.S. military Veterans. Primary care is often the setting where patients first come into contact with the health care system, and providers in this setting play a critical role in connecting unhealthy drinkers to appropriate care. Little is known about primary care providers' perspectives on factors that affect whether women Veterans presenting to primary care with unhealthy drinking connect to alcohol-related care. Understanding factors that affect whether patients connect to alcohol-related care may improve providers' ability to support women Veterans with unhealthy drinking get needed care. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with 14 providers from two Veterans Administration Women's Health primary care clinics, including nurses, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants, and physicians, and colocated mental health providers. The interviews were transcribed, and themes pertaining to providers' perspectives on barriers and facilitators to connecting women Veterans' with unhealthy drinking to alcohol-related care were identified through template analysis. Primary care providers perceived numerous provider- and clinic-level factors as relevant to their ability to connect women Veterans to alcohol-related care. Barriers providers described were insufficient care resources, provider prioritization of alcohol-related care, insufficient knowledge of care options or the referral process among providers, time constraints during routine clinical visits, and the referral process for alcohol-related care. They also described resources available in primary care, primary care provider behaviors, and initiatives at the Veterans Administration as helpful. Although primary care providers are gatekeepers to specialty treatment services, ongoing education, and colocated mental health staff could help reduce barriers to these services, ultimately improving health outcomes for women Veterans and others with

  3. Primary care technicians: a solution to the primary care workforce gap.

    PubMed

    Kellermann, Arthur L; Saultz, John W; Mehrotra, Ateev; Jones, Spencer S; Dalal, Siddartha

    2013-11-01

    Efforts to close the primary care workforce gap typically employ one of three basic strategies: train more primary care physicians; boost the supply of nurse practitioners or physician assistants, or both; or use community health workers to extend the reach of primary care physicians. In this article we briefly review each strategy and the barriers to its success. We then propose a new approach adapted from the widely accepted model of emergency medical services. Translating this model to primary care and leveraging the capabilities of modern health information technology, it should be possible to create primary care technicians who can dramatically expand the impact and reach of patient-centered medical homes by providing basic preventive, minor illness, and stable chronic disease care in rural and resource-deprived communities.

  4. Clinical and Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Circulating Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin Concentration in Routine Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    DeGorter, Marianne K.; Tirona, Rommel G.; Schwarz, Ute I.; Choi, Yun-Hee; Dresser, George K.; Suskin, Neville; Myers, Kathryn; Zou, GuangYong; Iwuchukwu, Otito; Wei, Wei-Qi; Wilke, Russell A.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kim, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Background A barrier to statin therapy is myopathy associated with elevated systemic drug exposure. Our objective was to examine the association between clinical and pharmacogenetic variables and statin concentrations in patients. Methods and Results In total, 299 patients taking atorvastatin or rosuvastatin were prospectively recruited at an outpatient referral center. The contribution of clinical variables and transporter gene polymorphisms to statin concentration was assessed using multiple linear regression. We observed 45-fold variation in statin concentration among patients taking the same dose. After adjustment for gender, age, body mass index, ethnicity, dose, and time from last dose, SLCO1B1 c.521T>C (p < 0.001) and ABCG2 c.421C>A (p < 0.01) were important to rosuvastatin concentration (adjusted R2 = 0.56 for the final model). Atorvastatin concentration was associated with SLCO1B1 c.388A>G (p < 0.01) and c.521T>C (p < 0.05), and 4β-hydroxycholesterol, a CYP3A activity marker (adjusted R2 = 0.47). A second cohort of 579 patients from primary and specialty care databases were retrospectively genotyped. In this cohort, genotypes associated with statin concentration were not differently distributed among dosing groups, implying providers had not yet optimized each patient's risk-benefit ratio. Nearly 50% of patients in routine practice taking the highest doses were predicted to have statin concentrations greater than the 90th percentile. Conclusions Interindividual variability in statin exposure in patients is associated with uptake and efflux transporter polymorphisms. An algorithm incorporating genomic and clinical variables to avoid high atorvastatin and rosuvastatin levels is described; further study will determine if this approach reduces incidence of statin-myopathy. PMID:23876492

  5. The social worker. A member of the primary care team?

    PubMed

    Falloon, D

    1998-12-01

    The primary health care team at present does not include social workers as routine members. If however, we, accept the World Health Organization definition of health, which includes social well being, then it follows that the social worker should be considered as a member of the health team to attend to this aspect of health in the service delivery mix. This paper presents the experience of a social worker assigned to the August Town/Hermitage Type III health centre during the period March 1995 to February 1996 and her contribution to patient welfare. The expected roles of the social worker and his or her contribution to the health team are outlined.

  6. Fibromyalgia: management strategies for primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L M; Gebke, K B; Choy, E H S

    2016-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic disorder defined by widespread pain, often accompanied by fatigue and sleep disturbance, affects up to one in 20 patients in primary care. Although most patients with FM are managed in primary care, diagnosis and treatment continue to present a challenge, and patients are often referred to specialists. Furthermore, the lack of a clear patient pathway often results in patients being passed from specialist to specialist, exhaustive investigations, prescription of multiple drugs to treat different symptoms, delays in diagnosis, increased disability and increased healthcare resource utilisation. We will discuss the current and evolving understanding of FM, and recommend improvements in the management and treatment of FM, highlighting the role of the primary care physician, and the place of the medical home in FM management. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of FM by searching PubMed and references from relevant articles, and selected articles on the basis of quality, relevance to the illness and importance in illustrating current management pathways and the potential for future improvements. The implementation of a framework for chronic pain management in primary care would limit unnecessary, time-consuming, and costly tests, reduce diagnostic delay and improve patient outcomes. The patient-centred medical home (PCMH), a management framework that has been successfully implemented in other chronic diseases, might improve the care of patients with FM in primary care, by bringing together a team of professionals with a range of skills and training. Although there remain several barriers to overcome, implementation of a PCMH would allow patients with FM, like those with other chronic conditions, to be successfully managed in the primary care setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-06-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness.

  8. Homelessness: a problem for primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Anthony J; Harding, Geoffrey; Underwood, Martin R; Carter, Yvonne H

    2003-01-01

    Homelessness is a social problem that affects all facets of contemporary society. This paper discusses the concept of homelessness in terms of its historical context and the dominance of the pervasive 'victim blaming' ideologies, which, together with the worldwide economic changes that have contributed to a fiscal crisis of the state, and the resultant policies and circumstances, have led to an increase in the number of 'new homeless' people. This paper attempts to challenge the dominant political discourse on homelessness. The widespread healthcare problems and heterogeneity of homeless people have a particular impact on health services, with many homeless people inappropriately accessing local accident and emergency (A&E) departments because of barriers inhibiting adequate access to primary care. A number of primary care schemes have been successfully implemented to enable the homeless to have better access to appropriate care. However, there is no consistency in the level of services around the United Kingdom (UK), and innovations in service are not widespread and by their nature they are ad hoc. Despite the successes of such schemes, many homeless people still access health care inappropriately. Until homeless people are fully integrated into primary care the situation will not change. The question remains, how can appropriate access be established? A start can be made by building on some of the positive work that is already being done in primary care, but in reality general practitioners (GPs) will be 'swimming against the tide' unless a more integrated policy approach is adopted to tackle homelessness. PMID:12939894

  9. [Transforming health systems based on primary care].

    PubMed

    Durán-Arenas, Luis; Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Granados-García, Víctor; Martínez-Valverde, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Access to health services is a social basic determinant of health in Mexico unlike what happens in developed countries. The demand for health services is focused on primary care, but the design meets only the supply of hospital care services. So it generates a dissonance between the needs and the effective design of health services. In addition, the term affiliation refers to population contributing or in the recruitment process, that has been counted as members of these social security institutions (SS) and Popular Insurance (SP). In the case of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) three of four contributors are in contact with health services; while in the SP, this indicator does not exist. Moreover, the access gap between health services is found in the health care packages so that members of the SS and SP do not have same type of coverage. The question is: which model of health care system want the Mexicans? Primary care represents the first choice for increasing the health systems performance, as well as to fulfill their function of social protection: universal access and coverage based on needs, regardless whether it is a public or private health insurance. A central aspect for development of this component is the definition of the first contact with the health system through the creation of a primary health care team, led by a general practitioner as the responsible of a multidisciplinary health team. The process addresses the concepts of primary care nursing, consumption of inputs (mainly medical drugs), maintenance and general services. Adopting a comprehensive strategy that will benefit all Mexicans equally and without discrimination, this primary care system could be financed with a total operating cost of approximately $ 22,809 million by year.

  10. Large Independent Primary Care Medical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Casalino, Lawrence P.; Chen, Melinda A.; Staub, C. Todd; Press, Matthew J.; Mendelsohn, Jayme L.; Lynch, John T.; Miranda, Yesenia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In the turbulent US health care environment, many primary care physicians seek hospital employment. Large physician-owned primary care groups are an alternative, but few physicians or policy makers realize that such groups exist. We wanted to describe these groups, their advantages, and their challenges. METHODS We identified 21 groups and studied 5 that varied in size and location. We conducted interviews with group leaders, surveyed randomly selected group physicians, and interviewed external observers—leaders of a health plan, hospital, and specialty medical group that shared patients with the group. We triangulated responses from group leaders, group physicians, and external observers to identify key themes. RESULTS The groups’ physicians work in small practices, with the group providing economies of scale necessary to develop laboratory and imaging services, health information technology, and quality improvement infrastructure. The groups differ in their size and the extent to which they engage in value-based contracting, though all are moving to increase the amount of financial risk they take for their quality and cost performance. Unlike hospital-employed and multispecialty groups, independent primary care groups can aim to reduce health care costs without conflicting incentives to fill hospital beds and keep specialist incomes high. Each group was positively regarded by external observers. The groups are under pressure, however, to sell to organizations that can provide capital for additional infrastructure to engage in value-based contracting, as well as provide substantial income to physicians from the sale. CONCLUSIONS Large, independent primary care groups have the potential to make primary care attractive to physicians and to improve patient care by combining human scale advantages of physician autonomy and the small practice setting with resources that are important to succeed in value-based contracting. PMID:26755779

  11. Primary serous peritoneal carcinoma presenting first on a routine papanicolaou smear: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hangjun; Chen, Patrick C

    2010-01-01

    Primary peritoneal carcinoma (PPC) is a relatively uncommon malignancy, and its presentation is similar to that of advanced ovarian serous carcinoma. There have been afew case reports in which the malignant cells from PPC were discovered from routine Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. In 2006 a 49-year-old, asymptomatic female participated in the Hospital Health Fair. High grade adenocarcinoma was found by Pap smear. After negative cervical and endometrial curetting and loop electrosurgical excision procedure cone, laparoscopy revealed widespread peritoneal carcinomatosis. The subsequent surgical specimens showed primary peritoneal serous carcinoma. Although the Pap smear was originally designed to detect premalignant cervical lesions and cancer, it became apparent that malignant cells from extrauterine primaries might appear in the smears. This case illustrated the value of the Pap smear in discovering unsuspected extrauterine malignancies, including PPC. Review of 9 cases showed tumor cells in the fallopian tube lumen in 4 out of 9 cases, indicating the likely route of efflux of tumor cells to appear in the Pap smear. The new concept of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma as the origin of PPC suggests another source of tumor cells in Pap smears.

  12. Validation of Digital Pathology for Primary Histopathological Diagnosis of Routine, Inflammatory Dermatopathology Cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan J; Jedrych, Jaroslaw; Pantanowitz, Liron; Ho, Jonhan

    2017-07-28

    Digital pathology (DP) systems have been validated for routine, histopathological diagnosis by several investigators. The diagnostic matter in previous studies is composed mostly of neoplasms. However, in dermatopathology, inflammatory diseases constitute a greater proportion of cases and have been under-represented in this literature. Herein, we report the results of a prospective, DP side-by-side validation study comparing the histologic assessment of routine, clinical inflammatory dermatopathology cases by whole slide imaging (WSI) and traditional light microscopy (LM). Glass slides were digitized at ×40 magnification. Two dermatopathologists rendered diagnoses digitally and immediately thereafter by light microscopy. Additional recuts, special, and immunohistochemical stains obtained during workup were scanned and evaluated similarly. Morphological features used to make diagnoses and appreciable differences in histology were recorded. A total of 332 slides representing 93 cases were examined, including 157 hematoxylin & eosin sections, 132 special stains, and 43 immunohistochemical slides. In total, 333 microscopic features important for rendering inflammatory diagnoses were identified. Two discrepant instances were noted wherein Gram-positive cocci were identified using traditional microscopy but not by DP (×40 scan). Eosinophils, melanin granules, and mucin were identified on both modalities but were noted to have different appearances. Our findings indicate that DP is sufficient for primary diagnosis in inflammatory dermatopathology. Higher magnification scanning may be required to identify submicron features, such as microorganisms. Subtle differences in image quality between these 2 modalities may contribute to varied histologic interpretations of which pathologists should be aware when validating clinical DP systems.

  13. Rainbows: a primary health care initiative for primary schools.

    PubMed

    Munns, Ailsa; Forde, Karen A; Krouzecky, Miriam; Shields, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Within the current Australian health system is the understanding of a need to change from the predominate biomedical model to incorporate a comprehensive primary health care centred approach, embracing the social contexts of health and wellbeing. Recent research investigated the benefits of the primary health care philosophy and strategies in relation to the Rainbows programme which addresses grief and loss in primary school aged students in Western Australia. A multidisciplinary collaboration between the Western Australian Departments of Health and Education enabled community school health nurse coordinators to train teacher facilitators in the implementation of Rainbows, enabling support for students and their parents. The results of this qualitative study indicate that all participants regard Rainbows as effective, with many perceived benefits to students and their families.

  14. Pharmacy patrons 'awareness of pharmacists' education and routine patient care responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Oyelami-Adeleye, Ifemayowa; Abate, Marie A; Blommel, Mathew L

    2011-01-01

    To assess the similarities between pharmacists' and pharmacy patrons' views of pharmacists' roles and to explore the extent to which persons actually see pharmacists assuming certain roles. Cross-sectional survey was administered to pharmacists and patients who were filling prescriptions or seeking nonprescription medications in 9 community pharmacies in Morgantown, West Virginia. The survey assessed 11 routine patient care services. Main outcome measures include opinions of pharmacists and patients about responsibility for providing 11 routine care services and the extent to which these services are provided. Pharmacists and patients had similar opinions about services that pharmacists should provide for 7 of the 11 services evaluated. For the other 4 items for which opinions were divergent, the mean scores for the extent to which pharmacists provide these services indicated that pharmacists do not always provide these services. Pharmacy patrons might not attribute certain patient-related functions to pharmacists because pharmacists do not frequently perform these routine care-related services in actual practice. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  15. Seeking high reliability in primary care: Leadership, tools, and organization.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in health care increasingly recognize that improving health care quality and safety requires developing an organizational culture that fosters high reliability and continuous process improvement. For various reasons, a reliability-seeking culture is lacking in most health care settings. Developing a reliability-seeking culture requires leaders' sustained commitment to reliability principles using key mechanisms to embed those principles widely in the organization. The aim of this study was to examine how key mechanisms used by a primary care practice (PCP) might foster a reliability-seeking, system-oriented organizational culture. A case study approach was used to investigate the PCP's reliability culture. The study examined four cultural artifacts used to embed reliability-seeking principles across the organization: leadership statements, decision support tools, and two organizational processes. To decipher their effects on reliability, the study relied on observations of work patterns and the tools' use, interactions during morning huddles and process improvement meetings, interviews with clinical and office staff, and a "collective mindfulness" questionnaire. The five reliability principles framed the data analysis. Leadership statements articulated principles that oriented the PCP toward a reliability-seeking culture of care. Reliability principles became embedded in the everyday discourse and actions through the use of "problem knowledge coupler" decision support tools and daily "huddles." Practitioners and staff were encouraged to report unexpected events or close calls that arose and which often initiated a formal "process change" used to adjust routines and prevent adverse events from recurring. Activities that foster reliable patient care became part of the taken-for-granted routine at the PCP. The analysis illustrates the role leadership, tools, and organizational processes play in developing and embedding a reliable-seeking culture across an

  16. Perceptions of Primary Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Shawna V.; Miller, Suzanne M.; Bator, Alicja; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela A.; Somer, Robert A.; Ferrante, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obese breast cancer survivors (BCSs) are impacted by diminished quality of life (QOL), multiple comorbid conditions, and poor disease outcomes. Despite national guidelines recommending a healthy weight to improve QOL and outcomes posttreatment, support and education are not routinely provided to BCSs in primary care. To fill this gap, we assessed perceptions of primary care received among BCSs by weight status. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were administered to early-stage BCSs (N = 188) from 2 New Jersey cancer centers between May 2012 and July 2013. Sociodemographics, medical history, functional health status, perceived satisfaction with one’s primary care provider (PCP), and PCP involvement in follow-up care were assessed. Results: In total, 82% of overweight BCSs and 30% of obese BCSs reported not being told by their doctor that they were overweight or obese, despite these conditions being highly prevalent (35% and 35%, respectively). Obese BCSs were more likely than healthy weight BCSs to be African American, have a higher comorbidity score, poorer functional health, and greater satisfaction with their PCPs. Conclusion: The PCP–patient encounter may represent an opportunity for PCPs to correct misperceptions and promote weight reduction efforts among BCSs, thus improving QOL and disease outcomes. PMID:26120589

  17. Solar retinopathy in a hospital-based primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Stokkermans, T J; Dunbar, M T

    1998-10-01

    Most reports of solar retinopathy describe epidemics of patients who go to the eye doctor after viewing a solar eclipse. Rarely is it encountered by the primary eye care provider during a routine eye examination. For 26 months, patients who went to the primary care eye clinic and found to have macular lesions consistent with solar retinopathy were identified from the total clinic population. These patients were documented in a coded log and fundus photographs were obtained (when possible). Twenty-six eyes of twenty patients (0.14% incidence) were determined to have macular lesions consistent with solar retinopathy. Visual acuity was 20/25 or better in 100% of the patients and 85% were 20/20. Patients were predominantly men (75%) of middle age (average age, 43 years; SD, 11 years) with a history relevant for solar retinopathy (80%)--consisting of sungazing, 60%; looking at welding light without eye protection, 15%; substance abuse, 15%; and psychiatric condition, 5%. Forty percent had solar lesions in both eyes. Amsler grid testing revealed a defect in only 20%, and macular threshold visual-field testing was normal in all the eyes tested. This is the first report to characterize solar retinopathy in a primary eye care population. Management includes correct differentiation from other macular disorders, acquisition of a careful detailed history, and provision of patient education regarding the dangers of sungazing.

  18. [Generalized anxiety disorders in primary medical care].

    PubMed

    Hoyer, J; Wittchen, H U

    2003-09-01

    Based on new empirical findings in a large-scale primary care study, the quality of care for the most chronic and debilitating anxiety problem, generalised anxiety disorder, is examined. Following a brief introduction of this disorder, the core findings of the GAD-P study (generalised anxiety and depression in primary care) with more than 20,000 patients of 558 family doctor practices are summarised and measures to improve the quality of care of patients with generalised anxiety disorder, a disorder which is rarely adequately treated, are discussed. This paper particularly emphasises the standard use of time-efficient diagnostic screening instruments, because improved recognition and diagnosis is the prerequisite for appropriate treatment. Further the role of the media to increase awareness of this disorder as well as patient education materials to improve compliance and to enhance treatment outcome effects are highlighted.

  19. Infectious disease emergencies in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kwitkowski, V E; Demko, S G

    1999-01-01

    Infectious disease emergencies can be described as infectious processes that, if not recognized and treated immediately, can lead to significant morbidity or mortality. These emergencies can present as common or benign infections, fooling the primary care provider into using more conservative treatment strategies than are required. This review discusses the pathophysiology, history and physical findings, diagnostic criteria, and treatment strategies for the following infectious disease emergencies: acute bacterial meningitis, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, meningococcemia, necrotizing soft tissue infections, toxic shock syndrome, food-borne illnesses, and infective endocarditis. Because most of the discussed infectious disease emergencies require hospital care, the primary care clinician must be able to judge when a referral to a specialist or a higher-level care facility is indicated.

  20. Integrated Behavioral Health in Pediatric Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Wanjiku F M; Hostutler, Cody A; Schwartz, Billie S; Mautone, Jennifer A

    2016-12-01

    There are multiple barriers to accessing high quality, evidence-based behavioral health care for children and adolescents, including stigma, family beliefs, and the significant paucity of child and adolescent psychiatrists. Although equal access continues to be an unmet need in the USA, there is growing recognition that integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care have the potential to reduce health disparities and improve service utilization. In a joint position paper, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) highlighted the multiple benefits of children receiving initial behavioral health screening, assessment, and evidence-based behavioral health treatments in the medical home. The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of the literature related to integrated behavioral health services in pediatric primary care. Specifically, innovative models of integrated behavioral health care are discussed.

  1. Primary Care Practice Transformation Is Hard Work

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Nutting, Paul A.; Miller, William L.; McDaniel, Reuben R.; Stange, Kurt C.; Jaén, Carlos Roberto; Stewart, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Background Serious shortcomings remain in clinical care in the United States despite widespread use of improvement strategies for enhancing clinical performance based on knowledge transfer approaches. Recent calls to transform primary care practice to a patient-centered medical home present even greater challenges and require more effective approaches. Methods Our research team conducted a series of National Institutes of Health funded descriptive and intervention projects to understand organizational change in primary care practice settings, emphasizing a complexity science perspective. The result was a developmental research effort that enabled the identification of critical lessons relevant to enabling practice change. Results A summary of findings from a 15-year program of research highlights the limitations of viewing primary care practices in the mechanistic terms that underlie current or traditional approaches to quality improvement. A theoretical perspective that views primary care practices as dynamic complex adaptive systems with “agents” who have the capacity to learn, and the freedom to act in unpredictable ways provides a better framework for grounding quality improvement strategies. This framework strongly emphasizes that quality improvement interventions should not only use a complexity systems perspective, but also there is a need for continual reflection, careful tailoring of interventions, and ongoing attention to the quality of interactions among agents in the practice. Conclusions It is unlikely that current strategies for quality improvement will be successful in transforming current primary care practice to a patient-centered medical home without a stronger guiding theoretical foundation. Our work suggests that a theoretical framework guided by complexity science can help in the development of quality improvement strategies that will more effectively facilitate practice change. PMID:20856145

  2. Improving mental health through primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Dowrick, C

    1992-01-01

    The government white paper Health of the nation has highlighted mental health as a key issue for the next decade. Primary care is being encouraged to take a leading role in developing effective services for people with mental health problems. This paper reviews current research on key aspects of mental health in adults: the prevalence of mental health problems, improving detection and management of mental health problems, the role of counselling, and communication between primary and secondary care. Recommendations are made for initiatives in both research and service development. PMID:1457175

  3. Bulimia Nervosa: A Primary Care Review

    PubMed Central

    Rushing, Jona M.; Jones, Laura E.; Carney, Caroline P.

    2003-01-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a psychiatric condition that affects many adolescent and young adult women. The disorder is characterized by bingeing and purging behavior and can lead to medical complications. Thus, patients with bulimia nervosa commonly present in the primary care setting. Physical and laboratory examinations reveal markers of bulimia nervosa that are useful in making the diagnosis. Treatment is beneficial, and outcomes of early intervention are good. This article discusses the history, presentation, and tools needed for recognizing and treating bulimia nervosa in primary care. PMID:15213788

  4. Effective communication with primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen

    2014-08-01

    Effective communication requires direct interaction between the hospitalist and the primary care provider using a standardized method of information exchange with the opportunity to ask questions and assign accountability for follow-up roles. The discharge summary is part of the process but does not provide the important aspects of handoff, such as closed loop communication and role assignments. Hospital discharge is a significant safety risk for patients, with more than half of discharged patients experiencing at least one error. Hospitalist and primary care providers need to collaborate to develop a standardized system to communicate about shared patients that meets handoff requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconsidering the Family History in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Eugene C; Burke, Wylie; Heaton, Caryl J; Haga, Susanne; Pinsky, Linda; Short, M Priscilla; Acheson, Louise

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this paper is to review the role of the family history in predictive genetic testing, describe how family history taking is practiced in adult primary care, identify the current barriers to appropriate application of the family history, and outline the requirements for a new family history tool for primary care. DESIGN We reviewed current perspectives on the family history, identifying key references in the medical literature and web-based family history tools through discussions with multiple content experts in clinical genetics, family medicine, and internal medicine. We conducted a Medline query using the search terms family history and primary care to identify references from the past 10 years. To illustrate the usefulness of family history information, we calculated the predictive value of family history and genetic information for familial adenomatous polyposis using current references and standard formulas. We identified paper and web-based family history tools through discussions with content experts. We also conducted a search on the World Wide Web to identify resources for electronic medical record and family history. RESULTS The family history is the most important tool for diagnosis and risk assessment in medical genetics, and promises to serve as a critical element in the use of predictive genetic testing in primary care. Traditional medical education about family history has often been unsophisticated and use of family history in adult primary care has been limited, compounded by multiple substantive barriers. Although there are numerous paper and computer-based aides for taking the family history, none currently meets all the needs of adult primary care. CONCLUSIONS The patient's family history remains a critical element in risk assessment for many conditions, but substantive barriers impede application in primary care practice, and evidence for its contribution to improved health outcomes is limited in this setting. Short of

  6. Chemoprevention research: implications for primary care practice.

    PubMed

    Denicoff, A M; Padberg, R M

    2000-01-01

    The field of cancer prevention research is entering a time of growth and opportunity. This important research is identifying agents that are making a substantial difference by reducing cancer incidence in high-risk populations. Primary care providers are natural partners for this research because of their diversity, commitment to disease prevention, and long-term access to their patient population. Several national chemoprevention trials in breast and prostate cancer are open and seeking to affiliate with primary care providers. Information is provided on this research effort, the development of chemoprevention trials, and how to learn more.

  7. [Allergy diagnosis by primary care physicians].

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Philippe A

    2010-04-21

    Primary care physicians will conduct allergy diagnosis based on the history provided by the patient. In case of a possible IgE type allergy, investigations will be made by skin tests or measurement of specific IgE antibodies in the serum. Interpretation of positive tests will have to consider possible sensitizations in absence of allergic symptoms that should not lead to inadequate therapeutic measures or diet. This review will provide to primary care physicians guidance to choose the best method in the appropriate situations for allergy diagnosis.

  8. Primary care physician job satisfaction and turnover.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, S B; Wilson, M; Melick, C F; Powe, N R

    2001-07-01

    To examine the relationship of personal characteristics, organizational characteristics, and overall job satisfaction to primary care physician (PCP) turnover. A cohort of 507 postresident, nonfederally employed PCPs younger than 45 years of age, who completed their medical training between 1982 and 1985, participated in national surveys in 1987 and 1991. Psychological, economic, and sociological theories and constructs provided a conceptual framework. Primary care physician personal, organizational, and overall job satisfaction variables from 1987 were considered independent variables. Turnover-related responses from 1991 were dependent variables. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. More than half (55%) of all PCPs in the cohort left at least 1 practice between 1987 and 1991. Twenty percent of the cohort left 2 employers. PCPs dissatisfied in 1987 were 2.38 times more likely to leave (P < .001). Primary care physicians who believed that third-party payer influence would decrease in 5 years were 1.29 times more likely to leave (P < .03). Non-board certified PCPs were 1.3 times more likely to leave (P < .003). Primary care physicians who believed that standardized protocols were overused were 1.18 times more likely to leave (P < .05). Specialty, gender, age, race, and practice setting were not associated with PCP turnover. Turnover was an important phenomenon among PCPs in this cohort. The results of this study could enable policy makers, managed care organizations, researchers, and others to better understand the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover.

  9. Marketplace reforms and primary care career decisions.

    PubMed

    Retchin, S M; Boling, P A; Nettleman, M D; Mick, S S

    2001-04-01

    A dramatic shift in the postgraduate career choices of medical school graduates toward primary care occurred during the mid-1990s. While some attributed this shift to changes in medical school curricula, perceptions stemming from marketplace reforms were probably responsible. For the most part, these perceptions were probably generated through informal communications among medical students and through the media. More recently, additional marketplace influences, such as the consumer backlash toward managed care and unrealized gains in primary care physicians' personal incomes, may have fostered contrasting perceptions among medical students, leading to career choices away from primary care, particularly family practice. The authors offer two recommendations for enhancing the knowledge of medical students concerning workforce supply and career opportunities: an educational seminar in the second or third year of medical school, and a public-private partnership between the Bureau of Health Professions and the Association of American Medical Colleges to create a national database about the shape of the primary care and specialty workforces, accessible through the Internet for educators, students, and policymakers. The authors conclude that appropriate career counseling through these efficient methods could avoid future abrupt swings in specialty choices of medical school graduates and may facilitate a more predictable physician workforce supply.

  10. Ambulatory Assessment of Depression in Primary Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-29

    effects on quality of life, such as perceived health , increased disability days, and higher rates of health care utilization (Spitzer et al., 1994; Ormel...depression in primary care settings greatly improves depressive symptoms, health -related functioning, and quality of life (Jackson, DeZee, & Berbano...depressive symptom severity. After 12 months follow-up, the treatment group also reported improved social functioning and general health perception

  11. Using compensation to improve primary care.

    PubMed

    Holm, C E; Lipsky, M S

    1999-01-01

    Progressive primary care networks are now placing significant portions of physician salaries at risk by linking compensation to quantifiable measures such as net medical revenue (collections), reduced practice expenses, cost and utilization, quality of care and patient satisfaction. For most networks, a combination of productivity increases and expense reductions are critical to ensure financial survival. This case study illustrates how one network's unique incentive compensation program targeted higher productivity levels by incentivizing desirable behaviors.

  12. Physical Accessibility of Routine Prenatal Care for Women with Mobility Disability.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Wint, Amy J; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2015-12-01

    Routine prenatal care includes physical examinations and weight measurement. Little is known about whether access barriers to medical diagnostic equipment, such as examination tables and weight scales, affect prenatal care among pregnant women with physical disabilities. We conducted 2-hour, in-depth telephone interviews with 22 women using a semistructured, open-ended interview protocol. All women had significant mobility difficulties before pregnancy and had delivered babies within the prior 10 years. We recruited most participants through social networks. We sorted interview transcript texts using used NVivo software and conducted conventional content analyses to identify major themes. Interviewee's mean (standard deviation) age was 34.8 (5.3) years. Most were white, well-educated, and higher income; 8 women had spinal cord injuries, 4 cerebral palsy, and 10 had other conditions; 18 used wheeled mobility aids. Some women's obstetricians had height adjustable examination tables, which facilitated transfers for physical examinations. Other women had difficulty transferring onto fixed height examination tables and were examined while sitting in their wheelchairs. Family members and/or clinical staff sometimes assisted with transfers; some women reported concerns about transfer safety. No women reported being routinely weighed on an accessible weight scale by their prenatal care clinicians. A few were never weighed during their pregnancies. Inaccessible examination tables and weight scales impede some pregnant women with physical disabilities from getting routine prenatal physical examinations and weight measurement. This represents substandard care. Adjustable height examination tables and wheelchair accessible weight scales could significantly improve care and comfort for pregnant women with physical disabilities.

  13. Physical Accessibility of Routine Prenatal Care for Women with Mobility Disability

    PubMed Central

    Wint, Amy J.; Smeltzer, Suzanne C.; Ecker, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Routine prenatal care includes physical examinations and weight measurement. Little is known about whether access barriers to medical diagnostic equipment, such as examination tables and weight scales, affect prenatal care among pregnant women with physical disabilities. Methods: We conducted 2-hour, in-depth telephone interviews with 22 women using a semistructured, open-ended interview protocol. All women had significant mobility difficulties before pregnancy and had delivered babies within the prior 10 years. We recruited most participants through social networks. We sorted interview transcript texts using used NVivo software and conducted conventional content analyses to identify major themes. Results: Interviewee's mean (standard deviation) age was 34.8 (5.3) years. Most were white, well-educated, and higher income; 8 women had spinal cord injuries, 4 cerebral palsy, and 10 had other conditions; 18 used wheeled mobility aids. Some women's obstetricians had height adjustable examination tables, which facilitated transfers for physical examinations. Other women had difficulty transferring onto fixed height examination tables and were examined while sitting in their wheelchairs. Family members and/or clinical staff sometimes assisted with transfers; some women reported concerns about transfer safety. No women reported being routinely weighed on an accessible weight scale by their prenatal care clinicians. A few were never weighed during their pregnancies. Conclusions: Inaccessible examination tables and weight scales impede some pregnant women with physical disabilities from getting routine prenatal physical examinations and weight measurement. This represents substandard care. Adjustable height examination tables and wheelchair accessible weight scales could significantly improve care and comfort for pregnant women with physical disabilities. PMID:26484689

  14. Screening risks for intimate partner violence and primary care settings: implications for future abuse.

    PubMed

    Ross, Julie; Walther, Virginia; Epstein, Irwin

    2004-01-01

    Most health care intervention models for intimate partner violence (IPV) are crisis driven and targeted to survivors of injury following episodes of physical violence. Knowledge about anticipatory and preventive approaches with women who are at risk for abuse is scarce, limiting professionals' ability to respond fully and effectively to this problem. This paper describes a retrospective, practice-based research study of social work interventions in two hospital-based primary care practices. A total of 431 female patients completed a self-administered questionnaire developed for the early detection of IPV risk factors during routine health care visits. The study showed surprisingly high rates of multiple risk markers in an urban primary care population whose medical presentations ordinarily would not raise provider suspicion about abuse. Findings confirmed the willingness of primary care populations to freely partake in routine screening and support the value of early identification and intervention with populations at risk. Practice implications are discussed.

  15. Chinese primary care physicians and work attitudes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leiyu; Hung, Li-Mei; Song, Kuimeng; Rane, Sarika; Tsai, Jenna; Sun, Xiaojie; Li, Hui; Meng, Qingyue

    2013-01-01

    China passed a landmark health care reform in 2009, aimed at improving health care for all citizens by strengthening the primary care system, largely through improvements to infrastructure. However, research has shown that the work attitudes of primary care physicians (PCPs) can greatly affect the stability of the overall workforce and the quality and delivery of health care. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between reported work attitudes of PCPs and their personal, work, and educational characteristics. A multi-stage, complex sampling design was employed to select a sample of 434 PCPs practicing in urban and rural primary care settings, and a survey questionnaire was administered by researchers with sponsorship from the Ministry of Health. Four outcome measures describing work attitudes were used, as well as a number of personal-, work-, and practice-related factors. Findings showed that although most PCPs considered their work as important, a substantial number also reported large workloads, job pressure, and turnover intentions. Findings suggest that policymakers should focus on training and educational opportunities for PCPs and consider ways to ease workload pressures and improve salaries. These policy improvements must accompany reform efforts that are already underway before positive changes in reduced disparities and improved health outcomes can be realized in China.

  16. [Primary care. General principles and specific tasks].

    PubMed

    Belmar, R

    1990-07-01

    The initial rationale for primary health care (PHC) was that it was a necessary strategy for health maintenance, preventing disease, early detection of health problems and providing a diagnosis for a cure. This definition along with modern epidemiology served as the basis for introducing a new concept of "focalization" extending the definition to that of primary family oriented health care to the community. This has cleared the role of the community or population as the denominator rather than the cases in all PHC activities. PHC also refers to intersectorial activities that in addition to including the traditional activities of prevention, curative care, entrance to the health care system, comprehensiveness and equipment, also includes the objectives of equality, humanity, human rights, participation, intersectorial participation and decentralization. These principles and objectives establish a national health model that can be replicated in each community. Each community would have 3 types of dispensaries: 1) a 24 hour primary health care emergency services; 2) a dispensary from 5-8:00 p.m. providing a 3rd rotation; and 3) dispensaries that provide comprehensive health care during regular working hours.

  17. Effect of Primary Care Intervention on Breastfeeding Duration and Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Stuebe, Alison; Barnett, Josephine; Labbok, Miriam H.; Fletcher, Jason; Bernstein, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the effectiveness of primary care–based, and pre- and postnatal interventions to increase breastfeeding. Methods. We conducted 2 trials at obstetrics and gynecology practices in the Bronx, New York, from 2008 to 2011. The Provider Approaches to Improved Rates of Infant Nutrition & Growth Study (PAIRINGS) had 2 arms: usual care versus pre- and postnatal visits with a lactation consultant (LC) and electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP). The Best Infant Nutrition for Good Outcomes (BINGO) study had 4 arms: usual care, LC alone, EP alone, or LC+EP. Results. In BINGO at 3 months, high intensity was greater for the LC+EP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 6.84) and LC (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.14, 9.09) groups versus usual care, but not for the EP group alone. In PAIRINGS at 3 months, intervention rates exceeded usual care (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.21, 6.76); the number needed to treat to prevent 1 dyad from nonexclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was 10.3 (95% CI = 5.6, 50.7). Conclusions. LCs integrated into routine care alone and combined with EP guidance from prenatal care providers increased breastfeeding intensity at 3 months postpartum. PMID:24354834

  18. Navigating the Transition From Cancer Care to Primary Care: Assistance of a Survivorship Care Plan.

    PubMed

    Brant, Jeannine M; Blaseg, Karyl; Aders, Kathy; Oliver, Dona; Gray, Evan; Dudley, William N

    2016-11-01

    To examine symptom and quality-of-life (QOL) trajectories in breast cancer and lymphoma survivors enrolled in a survivorship navigation intervention and to explore patient, caregiver, and primary care provider (PCP) satisfaction with receipt of a survivorship care plan (SCP). 
. Prospective, cohort, longitudinal.
. The Billings Clinic, an integrated cancer center in Montana. 
. 67 patients with breast cancer or lymphoma who recently completed cancer treatment, along with 39 of their caregivers and 23 PCPs. 
. Data collection at one, three, and six months by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and satisfaction surveys.
. Symptoms, QOL, and satisfaction with the survivorship navigator and the SCP.
. Symptoms persisted six months following treatment. Symptoms and QOL indicators with worst intensity were energy, sleep, coping, and satisfaction with sex life. Patients with more comorbidities reported worse QOL, telephoned the survivorship navigator more often, and were more satisfied with the SCP. Patients with lymphoma reported higher QOL, but it was not significantly different from patients with breast cancer. Patients were significantly more satisfied than caregivers with the SCP at time 1. PCPs were highly satisfied with the SCP.
. Some symptoms persist, even when cancer treatment has ended. Patients with comorbidities are at higher risk for more severe symptoms and worse QOL and may benefit from ongoing support. SCPs can facilitate patients' transition to primary care following cancer treatment. 
. Healthcare professionals who care for breast cancer survivors need to routinely assess them for the presence of comorbid conditions. Obese breast cancer survivors may benefit from weight reduction interventions to possibly decrease their risk of developing lymphedema and improve their overall health status.

  19. Characterizing Primary Care Visit Activities at Veterans Health Administration Clinics.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jennifer C; Terwiesch, Christian; Pelak, Mary; Pettit, Amy R; Marcus, Steven C

    2015-01-01

    Medical home models seek to increase efficiency and maximize the use of resources by ensuring that all care team members work at the top of their licenses. We sought to break down primary care office visits into measurable activities to better under stand how primary care providers (PCPs) currently spend visit time and to provide insight into potential opportunities for revision or redistribution of healthcare tasks. We videotaped 27 PCPs during office visits with 121 patients at four Veterans Health Administration medical centers. Based on patterns emerging from the data, we identified a taxonomy of 12 provider activity categories that enabled us to quantify the frequency and duration of activities occurring during routine primary care visits. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses to examine associations between visit characteristics and provider and clinic characteristics. We found that PCPs spent the greatest percentage of their visit time discussing existing conditions (20%), discussing new conditions (18%), record keeping (13%), and examining patients (13%). Providers spent the smallest percentage of time on preventive care and coordination of care. Mean visit length was 22.9 minutes (range 7.9-58.0 minutes). Site-level ratings of medical home implementation were not associated with differences in how visit time was spent. These data provide a window into how PCPs are spending face-to-face time with patients. The methodology and taxonomy presented here may prove useful for future quality improvement and research endeavors, particularly those focused on opportunities to increase nonappointment care and to ensure that team members work at the top of their skill level.

  20. Primary health care in India--plans.

    PubMed

    Saigal, M D

    1982-09-01

    In India a draft Health Policy has been formulated with the following objectives: to improve and expand the health care delivery system to make primary health care services available to each individual; to make people conscious of their health needs and to encourage their involvement and participation in the planning and implementation of the health programs; to improve the standards of environmental sanitation and personal hygiene leading to reduction in the incidence of diseases and a healthier life; to improve maternal and child health services and to create such services; to control and eradicate common communicable and infectious desease; and to lower by about 50% maternal and infant mortality rates and other mortality rates. To achieve the general objectives, it is proposed to use certain specific indicators to plan and monitor the health programs. The indicators proposed, which are outlined, fall into the categories of health status indicators and indicators for provision of health services. The main objective of primary health care will be to provide better health care services to the rural areas and urban slums. The population will be encouraged both individually and collectively to participate in the development of health. The government and the medical profession will help the people to realize their responsibility by providing a large band of health volunteers from among the community itself to take care of the basic health needs of the community. There will be a more equitable distribution of health resources, and, to correct past imbalances, preferential allocations will be made for developing health facilities in rural areas. The primary emphasis will be on preventive, promotive, and rehabilitative aspects of health which will be integrated with functions and responsibilities of all these institutions which currently are providing only curative services. In providing primary health care, full advantage will be taken of the traditional methods and

  1. Patients in palliative care-Development of a predictive model for anxiety using routine data.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sonja; Hess, Stephanie; Klein, Carsten; Lindena, Gabriele; Radbruch, Lukas; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most common psychological symptoms in patients in a palliative care situation. This study aims to develop a predictive model for anxiety using data from the standard documentation routine. Data sets of palliative care patients collected by the German quality management benchmarking system called Hospice and Palliative Care Evaluation (HOPE) from 2007 to 2011 were randomly divided into a training set containing two-thirds of the data and a test set with the remaining one-third. We dichotomized anxiety levels, proxy rated by medical staff using the validated HOPE Symptom and Problem Checklist, into two groups with no or mild anxiety versus moderate or severe anxiety. Using the training set, a multivariable logistic regression model was developed by backward stepwise selection. Predictive accuracy was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) based on the test set. An analysis of 9924 data sets suggests a predictive model for anxiety in patients receiving palliative care which contains gender, age, ECOG, living situation, pain, nausea, dyspnea, loss of appetite, tiredness, need for assistance with activities of daily living, problems with organization of care, medication with sedatives/anxiolytics, antidepressants, antihypertensive drugs, laxatives, and antibiotics. It results in a fair predictive value (AUC = 0.72). Routinely collected data providing individual-, disease- and therapy-related information contain valuable information that is useful for the prediction of anxiety risks in patients receiving palliative care. These findings could thus be advantageous for providing appropriate support for patients in palliative care settings and should receive special attention in future research.

  2. Identifying intimate partner violence at entry to prenatal care: clustering routine clinical information.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Hebbeler, Donna L

    2002-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the greatest trauma-related risk to American women. Pregnant women are no exception, and escalation of IPV frequently occurs during pregnancy. Many studies have linked IPV during pregnancy to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. This study examined IPV at the beginning of prenatal care to identify correlates of routine entry-to-care information with responses on a validated IPV screening tool, the Abuse Assessment Screen. The purpose of the study was to identify specific data from routine, standard intake information, which could alert clinicians to the potential of violence even in the presence of a negative IPV score or no formally administered screening tool. The point prevalence of abuse, as measured by the Abuse Assessment Screen at entry to care, was slightly in excess of the national mean, reinforcing the need for continual assessment throughout pregnancy. Abused women in this study were more likely to be young, single, and without family or partner support. These women relied on friends for support, admitted to depression, and desired their pregnancies. The findings are consistent with previous studies. Further research needs to be conducted to determine if this cluster of findings at entry to care, with or without a positive score on an IPV screening tool, are consistent markers for an increased risk of IPV.

  3. Primary care physician use across the breast cancer care continuum

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Lofters, Aisha; Moineddin, Rahim; Decker, Kathleen; Groome, Patti; Kendell, Cynthia; Krzyzanowska, Monika; Li, Dongdong; McBride, Mary L.; Mittmann, Nicole; Porter, Geoff; Turner, Donna; Urquhart, Robin; Winget, Marcy; Zhang, Yang; Grunfeld, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe primary care physician (PCP) use and continuity of PCP care across the breast cancer care continuum. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study using provincial cancer registries linked to health administrative databases. Setting British Columbia, Manitoba, and Ontario. Participants All women with incident invasive breast cancer from 2007 to 2012 in Manitoba and Ontario and from 2007 to 2011 in British Columbia. Main outcome measures The number and proportions of visits to PCPs were determined. Continuity of care was measured using the Usual Provider of Care index calculated as the proportion of visits to the most-often-visited PCP in the 6 to 30 months before a breast cancer diagnosis (baseline) and from 1 to 3 years following a breast cancer diagnosis (survivorship). Results More than three-quarters of patients visited their PCPs 2 or more times during the breast cancer diagnostic period, and more than 80% of patients had at least 1 PCP visit during breast cancer adjuvant treatment. Contact with the PCP decreased over time during breast cancer survivorship. Of the 3 phases, women appeared to be most likely to not have PCP contact during adjuvant treatment, with 10.7% (Ontario) to 18.7% (British Columbia) of women having no PCP visits during this phase. However, a sizable minority of women had at least monthly visits during the treatment phase, particularly in Manitoba and Ontario, where approximately a quarter of women saw a PCP at least monthly. We observed higher continuity of care with PCPs in survivorship (compared with baseline) in all provinces. Conclusion Primary care physicians were generally involved throughout the breast cancer care continuum, but the level of involvement varied across care phases and by province. Future interventions will aim to further integrate primary and oncology care. PMID:27737994

  4. Neurologists as primary palliative care providers

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Maisha T.; Holloway, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose of review: To present current knowledge and recommendations regarding communication tasks and practice approaches for neurologists as they practice primary palliative care, including discussing serious news, managing symptoms, aligning treatment with patient preferences, introducing hospice/terminal care, and using the multiprofessional approach. Recent findings: Neurologists receive little formal palliative care training yet often need to discuss prognosis in serious illness, manage intractable symptoms in chronic progressive disease, and alleviate suffering for patients and their families. Because patients with neurologic disorders often have major cognitive impairment, physical impairment, or both, with an uncertain prognosis, their palliative care needs are particularly challenging and they remain largely uncharacterized and often unmanaged. Summary: We provide an overview of neuropalliative care as a fundamental skill set for all neurologists. PMID:26918202

  5. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... those in emergency rooms will be excluded. (e) Physicians who are suspended under provisions of the... excessive use of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (e) A substantial proportion (2/3 or....) (ii) There is excessive usage of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (iii) Waiting...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... those in emergency rooms will be excluded. (e) Physicians who are suspended under provisions of the... excessive use of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (e) A substantial proportion (2/3 or....) (ii) There is excessive usage of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (iii) Waiting...

  7. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Primary Medical Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... those in emergency rooms will be excluded. (e) Physicians who are suspended under provisions of the... excessive use of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (e) A substantial proportion (2/3 or....) (ii) There is excessive usage of emergency room facilities for routine primary care. (iii) Waiting...

  8. Impact of routine admission chest X-ray films on patient care

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, F.A.; Greenfield, S.; Tyler, J.L.; Chetty, K.; Wyle, F.A.

    1985-01-24

    The authors evaluated the impact of routine chest X-ray films, obtained on admission, on the treatment of patients on internal medicine wards of the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Long Beach, California - a population known to have a high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease. The reasons for ordering chest films were determined prospectively, and three Department of Medicine faculty members reviewed the charts of admitted patients to determine the impact of chest-film results on patient care. Routine chest X-ray films were ordered for 294 (60 per cent) of the 491 patients studied. Abnormalities were noted in 106 (36 per cent) of these 294 patients. The findings were previously known, chronic, and stable in 86 patients; they were new in only 20. Treatment was changed because of chest-film results in only 12 (4 per cent) of the patients. In only one of these patients would appropriate treatment probably have been omitted if a chest film had not been obtained, and the patient's outcome was not improved by the treatment instituted. The authors conclude that the impact of routine admission chest X-ray films on patient care is very small, even in a population with a high prevalence of cardiopulmonary disease. They recommend that such films not be ordered solely because of admission. 16 references, 3 tables.

  9. Variation in the definition of intrauterine growth restriction in routine antenatal care: a physician survey among gynecologists in Northwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Brand, Tilman; Petersen, Knud; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-07-04

    To assess how intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is defined by gynecologists in routine practice. We surveyed primary care gynecologists in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Northwest Germany, between January and July 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data; consensus was considered as 90% agreement among the respondents. Multiple logistic regression models were performed for the associations between respondents' background characteristics and choice of the small for gestational age (SGA) cutoff values. Overall, 185 primary care gynecologists participated in the survey. Consensus was only observed in two items: (1) an accurate determination of gestational age (91%) and (2) repeated measurement of the abdominal circumference (91%). Umbilical artery Doppler (76%) and repeated ultrasonography (76%) were the most frequently used methods to confirm suspected IUGR diagnoses, but different responses prevailed. Notably, only 46% of the respondents opted for the 10th percentile of estimated fetal weight as a cutoff for SGA classification, which is the internationally recommended value. The results of this survey indicate considerable practice variation regarding detection and management of IUGR pregnancies. There is a need for better agreement in terminology and definition of core aspects of IUGR in antenatal care.

  10. The role of nurses in screening for autistic spectrum disorder in pediatric primary care.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Souders, Margaret C; Giarelli, Ellen; Levy, Susan E

    2005-06-01

    This article addresses the issue of integration of routine screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in pediatric primary care. The relationship between screening and patient outcome is discussed. The ASD screening recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics and practical issues associated with their application are then reviewed. Finally, data from a pilot project to prepare nurses to conduct ASD screening during routine pediatric health visits are presented. The authors discuss the role of nurses in establishing systems within pediatric primary care to identify and refer children at risk for ASD.

  11. Service users' and caregivers' perspectives on continuity of care in out-of-hours primary care.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Niamh; MacFarlane, Anne; Murphy, Andrew W; Freeman, George K; Glynn, Liam G; Bradley, Colin P

    2013-03-01

    Modernization policies in primary care, such as the introduction of out-of-hours general practice cooperatives, signify a marked departure from many service users' traditional experiences of continuity of care. We report on a case study of accounts of service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers of continuity of care in an out-of-hours general practice cooperative in Ireland. Using Strauss and colleagues' Chronic Illness Trajectory Framework, we explored users' and caregivers' experiences of continuity in this context. Whereas those dealing with "routine trajectories" were largely satisfied with their experiences, those dealing with "problematic trajectories" (characterized by the presence of, for example, multimorbidity and complex care regimes) had considerable concerns about continuity of experiences in this service. Results highlight that modernization policies that have given rise to out-of-hours cooperatives have had a differential impact on service users with chronic conditions and their caregivers, with serious consequences for those who have "problematic" trajectories.

  12. Primary care of adults with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William F.; Berg, Joseph M.; Bradley, Elspeth; Cheetham, Tom; Denton, Richard; Heng, John; Hennen, Brian; Joyce, David; Kelly, Maureen; Korossy, Marika; Lunsky, Yona; McMillan, Shirley

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To update the 2006 Canadian guidelines for primary care of adults with developmental disabilities (DD) and to make practical recommendations based on current knowledge to address the particular health issues of adults with DD. Quality of evidence Knowledgeable health care providers participating in a colloquium and a subsequent working group discussed and agreed on revisions to the 2006 guidelines based on a comprehensive review of publications, feedback gained from users of the guidelines, and personal clinical experiences. Most of the available evidence in this area of care is from expert opinion or published consensus statements (level III). Main message Adults with DD have complex health issues, many of them differing from those of the general population. Good primary care identifies the particular health issues faced by adults with DD to improve their quality of life, to improve their access to health care, and to prevent suffering, morbidity, and premature death. These guidelines synthesize general, physical, behavioural, and mental health issues of adults with DD that primary care providers should be aware of, and they present recommendations for screening and management based on current knowledge that practitioners can apply. Because of interacting biologic, psychoaffective, and social factors that contribute to the health and well-being of adults with DD, these guidelines emphasize involving caregivers, adapting procedures when appropriate, and seeking input from a range of health professionals when available. Ethical care is also emphasized. The guidelines are formulated within an ethical framework that pays attention to issues such as informed consent and the assessment of health benefits in relation to risks of harm. Conclusion Implementation of the guidelines proposed here would improve the health of adults with DD and would minimize disparities in health and health care between adults with DD and those in the general population

  13. Geographic Maldistribution of Primary Care for Children

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Jia; Chang, Chiang-hua; Goodman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examines growth in the primary care physician workforce for children and examines the geographic distribution of the workforce. METHODS: National data were used to calculate the local per-capita supply of clinically active general pediatricians and family physicians, measured at the level of primary care service areas. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, the general pediatrician and family physician workforces expanded by 51% and 35%, respectively, whereas the child population increased by only 9%. The 2006 per-capita supply varied by >600% across local primary care markets. Nearly 15 million children (20% of the US child population) lived in local markets with <710 children per child physician (average of 141 child physicians per 100 000 children), whereas another 15 million lived in areas with >4400 children per child physician (average of 22 child physicians per 100 000 children). In addition, almost 1 million children lived in areas with no local child physician. Nearly all 50 states had evidence of similar extremes of physician maldistribution. CONCLUSIONS: Undirected growth of the aggregate child physician workforce has resulted in profound maldistribution of physician resources. Accountability for public funding of physician training should include efforts to develop, to use, and to evaluate policies aimed at reducing disparities in geographic access to primary care physicians for children. PMID:21172992

  14. Organisation of Prevention in Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report examines the possiblities of increasing the amount of preventive work being carried out by primary care workers in European communities. Before making practical recommendations about promoting prevention, an analysis is presented of the main present day problems. These center on the environment (not only physical but also social and…

  15. Primary health care: from aspiration to achievement.

    PubMed

    Diallo, I; Molouba, R; Sarr, L C

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of Senegal's response to the Bamako Initiative, aimed at strengthening primary health care. The experience gained is of broad interest since the basic principles involved are the same everywhere. Of particular importance are users' financial contributions and improved organization and management.

  16. The cost of primary care research.

    PubMed

    Beasley, J W; Hahn, D L; Wiesen, P; Plane, M B; Manwell, L

    2000-11-01

    A significant portion of research project costs is incurred before the receipt of grant funds. This poses a problem for the initiation of primary care research, especially in community practice settings. Potential investigators need financial support for staff time, training, pilot work, and grant proposal writing if primary care researchers are to compete successfully for grant funds. To find this support, we need to understand and eventually quantify the actual costs of research with attention to those that are incurred before the receipt of grant funds. We outline 10 phases of the research process and provide a model for understanding where costs are incurred and by whom. Costs include those associated with maintaining practice interest in research, supporting practice participation, and disseminating research findings. They may be incurred by either an academic center or a research network, by the practices and physicians themselves, or by an extramural funding source. The needed investment for initiating primary care research can be itemized and, with further research, quantified. This will enhance the arguments for capital investments in the primary care research enterprise.

  17. Diabetes and eating disorders in primary care.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Renee D; Hoven, Christina W; Spitzer, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    To determine the relationship between diabetes and eating disorders among primary care patients. Data on 3,000 patients were obtained from eight primary care and family practice settings, including the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), self-reported physical illness, and social functioning information. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between diabetes and eating disorders. Diabetes was associated with an increased likelihood of eating disorders [OR = 2.3 (1.4, 3.9)], after adjusting for differences in demographic characteristics and comorbid mental disorders. This effect was specific to diabetes. Eating disorder was the only mental disorder associated with a significantly increased risk of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) = 2.4 (1.4, 4.0), after adjusting for demographic characteristics and comorbid mental and physical disorders. Patients with both diabetes and eating disorders had significantly higher levels of comorbid anxiety, panic attacks, and alcohol use disorders, compared with those with one but not both. Consistent with reports from community-based samples, these data suggest that diabetes may be associated with an increased likelihood of eating disorders among patients in primary care. Clinicians who treat patients with diabetes, a common condition in primary care, should screen for eating disorders. In addition, patients with eating disorders may be at risk for the development of diabetes. Further work is needed to determine the generalizability of these findings and to understand the mechanism of this association. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Community care in practice: social work in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Lymbery, M; Millward, A

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the establishment of social work within primary health care settings in Great Britain, following the passage of the National Health Service and Community Care Act in 1990. Although the improvement of relationships between social workers and primary health care teams has been promoted for a number of years, the advent of formal policies for community care has made this a priority for both social services and health. This paper presents interim findings from the evaluation of three pilot projects in Nottinghamshire, Great Britain. These findings are analysed from three linked perspectives. The first is the extent to which structures and organisations have worked effectively together to promote the location of social workers within health care settings. The second is the impact of professional and cultural factors on the work of the social worker in these settings. The third is the effect of interpersonal relationships on the success of the project. The paper will conclude that there is significant learning from each of these perspectives which can be applied to the future location of social workers to primary health care.

  19. Redesigning primary care: a strategic vision to improve value by organizing around patients' needs.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael E; Pabo, Erika A; Lee, Thomas H

    2013-03-01

    Primary care in the United States currently struggles to attract new physicians and to garner investments in infrastructure required to meet patients' needs. We believe that the absence of a robust overall strategy for the entire spectrum of primary care is a fundamental cause of these struggles. To address the absence of an overall strategy and vision for primary care, we offer a framework based on value for patients to sustain and improve primary care practice. First, primary care should be organized around subgroups of patients with similar needs. Second, team-based services should be provided to each patient subgroup over its full care cycle. Third, each patient's outcomes and true costs should be measured by subgroup as a routine part of care. Fourth, payment should be modified to bundle reimbursement for each subgroup and reward value improvement. Finally, primary care patient subgroup teams should be integrated with relevant specialty providers. We believe that redesigning primary care using this framework can improve the ability of primary care to play its essential role in the health care system.

  20. Organization of primary care practice for providing energy balance care.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Clauser, Steven B; Liu, Benmei; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Huang, Terry T-K; Smith, Ashley Wilder

    2014-01-01

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) may not adequately counsel or monitor patients regarding diet, physical activity, and weight control (i.e., provide energy balance care). We assessed the organization of PCPs' practices for providing this care. The study design was a nationally representative survey conducted in 2008. The study setting was U.S. primary care practices. A total of 1740 PCPs completed two sequential questionnaires (response rate, 55.5%). The study measured PCPs' reports of practice resources, and the frequency of body mass index assessment, counseling, referral for further evaluation/management, and monitoring of patients for energy balance care. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression modeling were used. More than 80% of PCPs reported having information resources on diet, physical activity, or weight control available in waiting/exam rooms, but fewer billed (45%), used reminder systems (<30%), or received incentive payments (3%) for energy balance care. A total of 26% reported regularly assessing body mass index and always/often providing counseling as well as tracking patients for progress related to energy balance. In multivariate analyses, PCPs in practices with full electronic health records or those that bill for energy balance care provided this care more often and more comprehensively. There were strong specialty differences, with pediatricians more likely (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.51) and obstetrician/gynecologists less likely (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.44) than others to provide energy balance care. PCPs' practices are not well organized for providing energy balance care. Further research is needed to understand PCP care-related specialty differences.

  1. Beyond the end of exceptionalism: integrating HIV testing into routine medical care and HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel; Zetola, Nicola M; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2007-08-01

    In September 2006, the US CDC issued new guidelines for HIV testing. These guidelines were designed not only to simplify and expand HIV testing but also to integrate testing into routine medical care in the USA. The nationwide implementation of these guidelines is currently facing several political and legal barriers. In this article, we examine the origins of current patient-driven and risk-based HIV testing in the USA and highlight shortcomings of this strategy. We then demonstrate how the changing HIV epidemic in the USA requires routine HIV screening at all points of contact in the medical system in order to control the HIV epidemic and how novel testing strategies could increase the yield of testing in these settings.

  2. Primary Care in Dentistry - An Untapped Potential

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Dentistry is neither an allied health profession nor a paramedical profession. It is the only anatomically focused health care profession that is university-based and for which primary care responsibility is maintained by the profession. Dentists must have a reliable knowledge of basic clinical medicine for safely and effectively treating individuals with chronic and other diseases, which make them biologically and pharmacologically compromised. With changes in the life expectancy of people and lifestyles, as well as rapid advancement in biomedical sciences, dentists should have similar knowledge like a physician in any other fields of medicine. There are number of primary care activities that can be conducted in the dental office like screening of diabetics, managing hypertension etc., The present review was conducted after doing extensive literature search of peer-reviewed journals. The review throws a spotlight on these activities and also suggests some the measures that can be adopted to modify dental education to turn dentists to oral physicians. PMID:25810982

  3. Counselling for depression in primary care.

    PubMed

    Rowland, N; Bower, P; Mellor, C; Heywood, P; Godfrey, C

    2001-01-01

    There is wide clinician and patient support for counselling in primary care, particularly in the UK. This review examines the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of counselling for psychological and psychosocial problems in the primary care setting. To assess the effects of counselling in primary care by reviewing cost and outcome data for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. The search strategy included electronic searching of databases (including the CCDAN Register of RCTs and CCTs) along with handsearching of a specialist journal. Published and unpublished sources (clinical trials, books, dissertations, agency reports etc.) were searched, and their reference lists scanned. Contact was made with subject experts and CCDAN members. Randomised and controlled patient preference trials comparing counselling in primary care with usual general practitioner care for patients with psychological and psychosocial problems considered suitable for counselling. Trials completed before the end of April 1998 were included in the review. Trials were independently assessed by at least two reviewers for appropriateness of inclusion and methdological quality. Four trials, involving 678 participants, of whom 487 were followed up, were included. Data for psychological symptom levels (four trials) were pooled statistically. Patients receiving counselling had significantly better psychological symptom levels post intervention than patients receiving usual general practitioner care (standardised mean difference -0.30, 95% CI, (-0.49 to - 0.11). The effect remained statistically significant when the results from studies with less rigorous methodology were excluded in a sensitivity analysis. Patients who received counselling tended to be more satisfied with their treatment (three trials). Health service utilisation data were reported in all trials reviewed, but only one trial undertook a cost analysis. No clear cost advantage was

  4. Patient Difficulty Using Tablet Computers to Screen in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Santucci, Aimee; McTigue, Kathleen; Fischer, Gary; Kapoor, Wishwa

    2008-01-01

    Background Patient-administered computerized questionnaires represent a novel tool to assist primary care physicians in the delivery of preventive health care. Objective The aim of this study was to assess patient-reported ease of use with a self-administered tablet computer-based questionnaire in routine clinical care. Design All patients seen in a university-based primary care practice were asked to provide routine screening information using a touch-screen tablet computer-based questionnaire. Patients reported difficulty using the tablet computer after completion of their first questionnaire. Patients Ten thousand nine hundred ninety-nine patients completed the questionnaire between January 2004 and January 2006. Measurements We calculated rates of reporting difficulty (no difficulty, some difficulty, or a lot of difficulty) using the tablet computers based on patient age, sex, race, educational attainment, marital status, and number of comorbid medical conditions. We constructed multivariable ordered logistic models to identify predictors of increased self-reported difficulty using the computer. Results The majority of patients (84%) reported no difficulty using the tablet computers to complete the questionnaire, with only 3% reporting a lot of difficulty. Significant predictors of reporting more difficulty included increasing age [odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.05)]; Asian race (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8–2.9); African American race (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6); less than a high school education (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.6–3.4); and the presence of comorbid medical conditions (1–2: OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.5; ≥3: OR 1.7 95% CI 1.5–2.1). Conclusions The majority of primary care patients reported no difficulty using a self-administered tablet computer-based questionnaire. While computerized questionnaires present opportunities to collect routine screening information from patients, attention must be paid to vulnerable groups. PMID:18373148

  5. [Renewing primary health care in the Americas].

    PubMed

    Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa

    2007-01-01

    At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44. R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the Americas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

  6. Slack resources and quality of primary care.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J

    2012-03-01

    Research generally shows that greater resource utilization fails to translate into higher-quality healthcare. Organizational slack is defined as extra organizational resources needed to meet demand. Divergent views exist on organizational slack in healthcare. Some investigators view slack negatively because it is wasteful, inefficient, and costly, whereas others view slack positively because it allows flexibility in work practices, expanding available services, and protecting against environmental changes. We tested a curvilinear relationship between organizational slack and care quality. The study setting was primary care clinics (n=568) in the Veterans Health Administration. We examined organizational slack using the patient panel size per clinic capacity ratio and support staff per provider ratio staffing guidelines developed by the Veterans Health Administration. Patient-level measures were influenza vaccinations, continuity of care, and overall quality of care ratings. We obtained 2 independent patient samples with approximately 28,000 and 62,000 observations for the analysis. We used multilevel modeling and examined the linear and quadratic terms for both organizational slack measures. We found a significant curvilinear effect for panel size per clinic capacity for influenza vaccinations and overall quality of care. We also found support staff per provider exhibited a curvilinear effect for continuity of care and influenza vaccinations. Greater available resources led to better care, but at a certain point, additional resources provided minimal quality gains. Our findings highlight the importance of primary care clinic managers monitoring staffing levels. Healthcare systems managing a balanced provider workload and staff-mix may realize better patient care delivery and cost management.

  7. Primary Care Asthma Management: Inhaled Corticosteroids and Other Clinical Pearls.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Zachary; Park, Nanah Suk

    2017-02-01

    Most children in the United States with intermittent, mild, and moderate persistent asthma are cared for by primary care practitioners (PCPs). Despite inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) being highly effective at controlling asthma symptoms, many PCPs are uncomfortable prescribing these medications. Cumbersome guidelines, increasing numbers of medication choices, and concerns regarding side effects are some of the barriers to prescribing ICS for children with asthma. This article serves as a quick-start guide for PCPs that (1) condenses the routine diagnosis and management of asthma into concise clinical tools for children who would benefit from ICS therapy and (2) provides clinical pearls to aid in the treatment of mild- to moderate-persistent asthma. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e34-e39.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Advanced nurse roles in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, Bonnie; Laurant, Miranda G; Reeves, David

    2006-07-03

    Nurses increasingly work as substitutes for, or to complement, general practitioners in the care of minor illness and the management of chronic diseases. Available research suggests that nurses can provide as high quality care as GPs in the provision of first contact and ongoing care for unselected patients. Reductions in cost are context dependent and rarely achieved. This is because savings on nurses' salaries are often offset by their lower productivity (due to longer consultations, higher patient recall rates, and increased use of tests and investigations). Gains in efficiency are not achieved when GPs continue to provide the services that have been delegated to nurses, instead of focusing on the services that only doctors can provide. Unintended consequences of extending nursing roles include loss of personal continuity of care for patients and increased difficulties with coordination of care as the multidisciplinary team size increases. Rapid access to care is, however, improved. There is a high capital cost involved in moving to multidisciplinary teams because of the need to train staff in new ways of working; revise legislation governing scope of practice; address concerns about legal liability; and manage professional resistance to change. Despite the unintended consequences and the high costs, extending nursing roles in primary care is a plausible strategy for improving service capacity without compromising quality of care or health outcomes for patients.

  9. Understanding effective care management implementation in primary care: a macrocognition perspective analysis.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Potworowski, Georges; Fitzpatrick, Laurie; Kowalk, Amy; Green, Lee A

    2015-08-21

    Care management in primary care can be effective in helping patients with chronic disease improve their health status. Primary care practices, however, are often challenged with its implementation. Incorporating care management involves more than a simple physical process redesign to existing clinical care routines. It involves changes to who is working with patients, and consequently such things as who is making decisions, who is sharing patient information, and how. Studying the range of such changes in "knowledge work" during implementation requires a perspective and tools designed to do so. We used the macrocognition perspective, which is designed to understand how individuals think in dynamic, messy real-world environments such as care management implementation. To do so, we used cognitive task analysis to understand implementation in terms of such thinking as decision making, knowledge, and communication. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and observations at baseline and at approximately 9 months into implementation at five practices in one physician-owned administratively connected group of practices in the state of Michigan, USA. Practices were intervention participants in a larger trial of chronic care model implementation. Data were transcribed, qualitatively coded and analyzed, initially using an editing approach and then a template approach with macrocognition as a guiding framework. Seventy-four interviews and five observations were completed. There were differences in implementation success across the practices, and these differences in implementation success were well explained by macrocognition. Practices that used more macrocognition functions and used them more often were also more successful in care management implementation. Although care management can introduce many new changes into the delivery of primary care clinical practice, implementing it successfully as a new complex intervention is possible. Macrocognition is a

  10. The Impact of Primary Care: A Focused Review

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Leiyu

    2012-01-01

    Primary care serves as the cornerstone in a strong healthcare system. However, it has long been overlooked in the United States (USA), and an imbalance between specialty and primary care exists. The objective of this focused review paper is to identify research evidence on the value of primary care both in the USA and internationally, focusing on the importance of effective primary care services in delivering quality healthcare, improving health outcomes, and reducing disparities. Literature searches were performed in PubMed as well as “snowballing” based on the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. The areas reviewed included primary care definitions, primary care measurement, primary care practice, primary care and health, primary care and quality, primary care and cost, primary care and equity, primary care and health centers, and primary care and healthcare reform. In both developed and developing countries, primary care has been demonstrated to be associated with enhanced access to healthcare services, better health outcomes, and a decrease in hospitalization and use of emergency department visits. Primary care can also help counteract the negative impact of poor economic conditions on health. PMID:24278694

  11. Setting the stage for universal financial distress screening in routine cancer care.

    PubMed

    Khera, Nandita; Holland, Jimmie C; Griffin, Joan M

    2017-08-17

    Financial burden from cancer treatment is increasingly being recognized as a threat to optimal access, quality, and outcomes of cancer care for patients. Although research in the area is moving at a fast pace, multiple questions remain unanswered, such as how to practically integrate the assessment and management of financial burden into routine health care delivery for patients with cancer. Although psychological distress screening for patients undergoing cancer treatment now is commonplace, the authors raise the provocative idea of universal screening for financial distress to identify and assist vulnerable groups of patients. Herein, the authors outline the arguments to support screening for financial burden in addition to psychological distress, examining it as an independent patient-reported outcome for all patients with cancer at various time points during their treatment. The authors describe the proximal and downstream impact of such a strategy and reflect on some challenges and potential solutions to help integrate this concept into routine cancer care delivery. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  12. Patient care complexity as perceived by primary care physicians.

    PubMed

    Mount, Jill K; Massanari, R Michael; Teachman, Jay

    2015-06-01

    Currently there are various definitions of patient care complexity with little consensus. The numbers of patients with complex care needs are increasing. To improve interventions for "complex patients" and appropriately reimburse healthcare providers it is important to determine the characteristics or contextual factors contributing to complexity. Action research methods were used to enhance an explicit understanding of complexity. Several conferences were organized and primary care physicians, nurses, social science faculty, and patients shared their perspectives on patient care complexity. A subset of attendees created a complex patient screening tool, which was piloted by 12 primary care physicians with 267 patients to identify which factors contribute to complexity. Complex patients were found to differ significantly from noncomplex patients based on factors associated with complexity. Based on latent class analysis, 58% of complex patients were characterized by multiple diagnoses, mental health issues, and a lack of effective participation in their care plans, while 42% of patients were considered complex because of multiple diagnoses only. In contrast, 90% of the noncomplex patients had no discernable pattern of health issues, while 10% of noncomplex patients had mental health and insurance issues that were easily managed. These results identify several factors that distinguish patients with complex care needs from those without complex care needs. The results also illustrate the heterogeneity within classes of patients identified as having complex care needs or non-complex needs. By identifying factors contributing to complexity, this research has important implications for enhancing the management of patients with complex care needs. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Multiple-file vs. single-file endodontics in dental practice: a study in routine care.

    PubMed

    Bartols, Andreas; Laux, Gunter; Walther, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the differences of rotary multiple file endodontic therapy and single-file reciprocating endodontic treatment under routine care conditions in dental practice. This multicenter study was performed to compare the outcome of multiple-file (MF) and single-file (SF) systems for primary root canal treatment under conditions of general dental practice regarding reduction of pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS 100), improvement of oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the german short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-G-14) and the speed of root canal preparation. Ten general dental practitioners (GDPs) participated in the study as practitioner-investigators (PI). In the first five-month period of the study, the GDPs treated patients with MF systems. After that, the GDPs treated the patients in the second five-month period with a SF system (WaveOne). The GDPs documented the clinical findings at the beginning and on completion of treatment. The patients documented their pain and OHRQoL before the beginning and before completion of treatment. A total of 599 patients were included in the evaluation. 280 patients were in the MF group, 319 were in the SF WaveOne group. In terms of pain reduction and improvement in OHIP-G-14, the improvement in both study groups (MF and SF) was very similar based on univariate analysis methods. Pain reduction was 34.4 (SD 33.7) VAS (MF) vs. 35.0 (SD 35.4) VAS (SF) (p = 0.840) and the improvement in OHIP-G-14 score was 9.4 (SD 10.3) (MF) vs. 8.5 (SD 10.2) (SF) (p = 0.365). The treatment time per root canal was 238.9 s (SD 206.2 s) (MF) vs. 146.8 sec. (SD 452.8 sec) (SF) (p = 0.003). Regarding improvement of endodontic pain and OHRQoL measure with OHIP-G-14, there were no statistical significant differences between the SF und the MF systems. WaveOne-prepared root canals significantly faster than MF systems.

  14. Multiple-file vs. single-file endodontics in dental practice: a study in routine care

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Gunter; Walther, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the differences of rotary multiple file endodontic therapy and single-file reciprocating endodontic treatment under routine care conditions in dental practice. This multicenter study was performed to compare the outcome of multiple-file (MF) and single-file (SF) systems for primary root canal treatment under conditions of general dental practice regarding reduction of pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS 100), improvement of oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the german short version of the oral health impact profile (OHIP-G-14) and the speed of root canal preparation. Materials and Methods Ten general dental practitioners (GDPs) participated in the study as practitioner-investigators (PI). In the first five-month period of the study, the GDPs treated patients with MF systems. After that, the GDPs treated the patients in the second five-month period with a SF system (WaveOne). The GDPs documented the clinical findings at the beginning and on completion of treatment. The patients documented their pain and OHRQoL before the beginning and before completion of treatment. Results A total of 599 patients were included in the evaluation. 280 patients were in the MF group, 319 were in the SF WaveOne group. In terms of pain reduction and improvement in OHIP-G-14, the improvement in both study groups (MF and SF) was very similar based on univariate analysis methods. Pain reduction was 34.4 (SD 33.7) VAS (MF) vs. 35.0 (SD 35.4) VAS (SF) (p = 0.840) and the improvement in OHIP-G-14 score was 9.4 (SD 10.3) (MF) vs. 8.5 (SD 10.2) (SF) (p = 0.365). The treatment time per root canal was 238.9 s (SD 206.2 s) (MF) vs. 146.8 sec. (SD 452.8 sec) (SF) (p = 0.003). Discussion Regarding improvement of endodontic pain and OHRQoL measure with OHIP-G-14, there were no statistical significant differences between the SF und the MF systems. WaveOne-prepared root canals significantly faster than MF systems. PMID:27957398

  15. The Quality of Clinical Maternal and Neonatal Healthcare – A Strategy for Identifying ‘Routine Care Signal Functions’

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Stephan; De Allegri, Manuela; Gabrysch, Sabine; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Sarker, Malabika; Muula, Adamson S.

    2015-01-01

    Background A variety of clinical process indicators exists to measure the quality of care provided by maternal and neonatal health (MNH) programs. To allow comparison across MNH programs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a core set of essential process indicators is needed. Although such a core set is available for emergency obstetric care (EmOC), the ‘EmOC signal functions’, a similar approach is currently missing for MNH routine care evaluation. We describe a strategy for identifying core process indicators for routine care and illustrate their usefulness in a field example. Methods We first developed an indicator selection strategy by combining epidemiological and programmatic aspects relevant to MNH in LMICs. We then identified routine care process indicators meeting our selection criteria by reviewing existing quality of care assessment protocols. We grouped these indicators into three categories based on their main function in addressing risk factors of maternal or neonatal complications. We then tested this indicator set in a study assessing MNH quality of clinical care in 33 health facilities in Malawi. Results Our strategy identified 51 routine care processes: 23 related to initial patient risk assessment, 17 to risk monitoring, 11 to risk prevention. During the clinical performance assessment a total of 82 cases were observed. Birth attendants’ adherence to clinical standards was lowest in relation to risk monitoring processes. In relation to major complications, routine care processes addressing fetal and newborn distress were performed relatively consistently, but there were major gaps in the performance of routine care processes addressing bleeding, infection, and pre-eclampsia risks. Conclusion The identified set of process indicators could identify major gaps in the quality of obstetric and neonatal care provided during the intra- and immediate postpartum period. We hope our suggested indicators for essential routine care processes

  16. Integrating Primary Medical Care With Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Weisner, Constance; Mertens, Jennifer; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Moore, Charles; Lu, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Context The prevalence of medical disorders is high among substance abuse patients, yet medical services are seldom provided in coordination with substance abuse treatment. Objective To examine differences in treatment outcomes and costs between integrated and independent models of medical and substance abuse care as well as the effect of integrated care in a subgroup of patients with substance abuse–related medical conditions (SAMCs). Design Randomized controlled trial conducted between April 1997 and December 1998. Setting and Patients Adult men and women (n=592) who were admitted to a large health maintenance organization chemical dependency program in Sacramento, Calif. Interventions Patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment through an integrated model, in which primary health care was included within the addiction treatment program (n=285), or an independent treatment-as-usual model, in which primary care and substance abuse treatment were provided separately (n=307). Both programs were group based and lasted 8 weeks, with 10 months of aftercare available. Main Outcome Measures Abstinence outcomes, treatment utilization, and costs 6 months after randomization. Results Both groups showed improvement on all drug and alcohol measures. Overall, there were no differences in total abstinence rates between the integrated care and independent care groups (68% vs 63%, P=.18). For patients without SAMCs, there were also no differences in abstinence rates (integrated care, 66% vs independent care, 73%; P=.23) and there was a slight but nonsignificant trend of higher costs for the integrated care group ($367.96 vs $324.09, P=.19). However, patients with SAMCs (n=341) were more likely to be abstinent in the integrated care group than the independent care group (69% vs 55%, P=.006; odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.97). This was true for both those with medical (OR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.68-6.80) and psychiatric (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1

  17. Self-reports of anxiety in burn-injured hospitalized adults during routine wound care.

    PubMed

    Carrougher, Gretchen J; Ptacek, J T; Honari, Shari; Schmidt, Anne E; Tininenko, Jennifer R; Gibran, Nicole S; Patterson, David R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the amount of anxiety patients believed tolerable and the amount of anxiety experienced during routine burn wound care. Participants included 47 hospitalized adults who provided data for four consecutive assessment periods. Patients (mean TBSA, 16%; range, 2-70%) were primarily Caucasian (87%) and had an average hospital stays of 23 days (range, 11-130). Reports of what level of anxiety they would be able to tolerate and what level of anxiety had been experienced were assessed using 10-point Graphic Rating Scales. The use of anxiolytic was recorded, and patient suggestions for reducing anxiety were obtained. The single most commonly endorsed anxiety treatment goal was 0, although 53% consistently chose a treatment goal other than 0 (range, 1-6). Two repeated-measure analyses of variance indicated that the amount of anxiety patients could tolerate and the amount they reported experiencing did not change over the course of time. Paired t-tests revealed that patients routinely reported more anxiety than they considered tolerable. Analyses of anxiety reports of patients treated with anxiolytics (n = 6) vs patients receiving no anxiolytics (n = 41) revealed inconsistent differences in actual anxiety and treatment goals across time. In general, patient suggestions for lessening anxiety included requests for education, communication, additional medications, and manipulation of the hospital environment. Anxiety for burn-injured, hospitalized adults remains a concern. Our findings are consistent with the literature indicating that adult patients hospitalized for burn wound care report appreciable anxiety, over and above what they consider "tolerable." Continued research is needed and should include investigations into the relationship between pain and anxiety during routine wound care.

  18. [Survey on the needs expressed by primary care doctors for continuing education in drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, D; Llop, R; Barceló, M E; Cucurull, E; Vallés, J A; Diogène, E; García, N; Fernández, E; Sabaté, N; Simó, E; Casadevall, J

    2002-12-01

    To describe the aspects of continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics considered as most relevant by the primary health care physicians. Observational study.Setting. Physicians filled-up the questionnaires during 45 minutes at their primary health care centres. Primary health care physicians involved in the Fundation Institut Català de Farmacologia continuing education activities since 1997 were selected. A specific questionnaire was designed to collect the physicians' opinion on different topics regarding continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics. 180 physicians from 21 primary health care centres answered the questionnaire. 68% of the responding physicians considered that continuing education has to be useful to improve routine clinical practice. Regular seminars and methods stimulating active participation administered by primary health care professionels are preferred. Continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics should be focused to health problems rather than being drug-oriented. They referred being more interested in drug selection issues and in the role of new drug in comparison with the existing alternatives rather than in regulation and drug consumption issues. 66,3% of the responding physicians considered that continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics should be compulsory. Public health authorities and primary health care physicians should share the responsibility in setting-up continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics programs, according to the opinion of almost 70% of the physicians. Primary health care physicians are interested in continuing education in pharmacological therapeutics as far as it is practical and useful to solve problems of their routine clinical practice.

  19. Family history in primary care pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Tarini, Beth A; McInerney, Joseph D

    2013-12-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician's time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child's life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers.

  20. Family History in Primary Care Pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The family history has been called the first genetic test; it was a core element of primary care long before the current wave of genetics technologies and services became clinically relevant. Risk assessment based on family history allows providers to personalize and prioritize health messages, shifts the focus of health care from treatment to prevention, and can empower individuals and families to be stewards of their own health. In a world of rising health care costs, the family history is an important tool, with its primary cost being the clinician’s time. However, a recent National Institutes of Health conference highlighted the lack of substantive evidence to support the clinical utility of family histories. Annual collection of a comprehensive 3-generation family history has been held up as the gold standard for practice. However, interval family histories targeted to symptoms and family histories tailored to a child’s life stage (ie, age-based health) may be important and underappreciated methods of collecting family history that yield clinically actionable data and supplement existing family history information. In this article, we review the various applications, as well as capabilities and limitations, of the family history for primary care providers. PMID:24298128

  1. Increasing the Capacity of Primary Care Through Enabling Technology.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2017-02-27

    Primary care is the foundation of effective and high-quality health care. The role of primary care clinicians has expanded to encompass coordination of care across multiple providers and management of more patients with complex conditions. Enabling technology has the potential to expand the capacity for primary care clinicians to provide integrated, accessible care that channels expertise to the patient and brings specialty consultations into the primary care clinic. Furthermore, technology offers opportunities to engage patients in advancing their health through improved communication and enhanced self-management of chronic conditions. This paper describes enabling technologies in four domains (the body, the home, the community, and the primary care clinic) that can support the critical role primary care clinicians play in the health care system. It also identifies challenges to incorporating these technologies into primary care clinics, care processes, and workflow.

  2. Understanding performance management in primary care.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Lisa; Boaden, Ruth

    2017-02-13

    Purpose Principal-agent theory (PAT) has been used to understand relationships among different professional groups and explain performance management between organisations, but is rarely used for research within primary care. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether PAT can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care. Design/methodology/approach Purposive sampling was used to identify a range of general practices in the North-west of England. Interviews were carried out with directors, managers and clinicians in commissioning and regional performance management organisations and within general practices, and the data analysed using matrix analysis techniques to produce a case study of performance management. Findings There are various elements of the principal-agent framework that can be applied in primary care. Goal alignment is relevant, but can only be achieved through clear, strategic direction and consistent interpretation of objectives at all levels. There is confusion between performance measurement and performance management and a tendency to focus on things that are easy to measure whilst omitting aspects of care that are more difficult to capture. Appropriate use of incentives, good communication, clinical engagement, ownership and trust affect the degree to which information asymmetry is overcome and goal alignment achieved. Achieving the right balance between accountability and clinical autonomy is important to ensure governance and financial balance without stifling innovation. Originality/value The principal-agent theoretical framework can be used to attain a better understanding of performance management in primary care; although it is likely that only partial goal alignment will be achieved, dependent on the extent and level of alignment of a range of factors.

  3. Integrating palliative care into routine care of patients with heart failure: models for clinical collaboration.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Warren H; Schaefer, Kristen G

    2017-02-13

    Heart failure (HF) affects nearly 5.7 million Americans and is described as a chronic incurable illness carrying a poor prognosis. Patients living with HF experience significant symptoms including dyspnea, pain, anxiety, fatigue, and depression. As the illness advances into later stages, symptoms become more intense and refractory to standard treatments, leading to recurrent acute-care utilization and contributing to poor quality of life. Advanced HF symptoms have been described to be as burdensome, if not more than, those in cancer populations. Yet access to and provision of palliative care (PC) for this population has been described as suboptimal. The Institute of Medicine recently called for better access to PC for seriously ill patients. Despite guidelines recommending the inclusion of PC into the multidisciplinary HF care team, there is little data offering guidance on how to best operationalize PC skills in caring for this population. This paper describes the emerging literature describing models of PC integration for HF patients and aims to identify key attributes of these care models that may help guide future multi-site clinical trials to define best practices for the successful delivery of PC for patients living with advanced HF.

  4. Prediction of dementia in primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Bickel, Horst; Eiffländer-Gorfer, Sandra; Fuchs, Angela; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Köhler, Mirjam; Luck, Tobias; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Wagner, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2011-02-18

    Current approaches for AD prediction are based on biomarkers, which are however of restricted availability in primary care. AD prediction tools for primary care are therefore needed. We present a prediction score based on information that can be obtained in the primary care setting. We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 3.055 non-demented individuals above 75 years recruited via primary care chart registries (Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia, AgeCoDe). After the baseline investigation we performed three follow-up investigations at 18 months intervals with incident dementia as the primary outcome. The best set of predictors was extracted from the baseline variables in one randomly selected half of the sample. This set included age, subjective memory impairment, performance on delayed verbal recall and verbal fluency, on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination, and on an instrumental activities of daily living scale. These variables were aggregated to a prediction score, which achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.84 for AD. The score was applied to the second half of the sample (test cohort). Here, the prediction accuracy was 0.79. With a cut-off of at least 80% sensitivity in the first cohort, 79.6% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 14.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 97.8% negative predictive value of (NPV) for AD were achieved in the test cohort. At a cut-off for a high risk population (5% of individuals with the highest risk score in the first cohort) the PPV for AD was 39.1% (52% for any dementia) in the test cohort. The prediction score has useful prediction accuracy. It can define individuals (1) sensitively for low cost-low risk interventions, or (2) more specific and with increased PPV for measures of prevention with greater costs or risks. As it is independent of technical aids, it may be used within large scale prevention programs.

  5. Prediction of Dementia in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jessen, Frank; Wiese, Birgitt; Bickel, Horst; Eiffländer-Gorfer, Sandra; Fuchs, Angela; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Köhler, Mirjam; Luck, Tobias; Mösch, Edelgard; Pentzek, Michael; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.; Wagner, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    Background Current approaches for AD prediction are based on biomarkers, which are however of restricted availability in primary care. AD prediction tools for primary care are therefore needed. We present a prediction score based on information that can be obtained in the primary care setting. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a longitudinal cohort study in 3.055 non-demented individuals above 75 years recruited via primary care chart registries (Study on Aging, Cognition and Dementia, AgeCoDe). After the baseline investigation we performed three follow-up investigations at 18 months intervals with incident dementia as the primary outcome. The best set of predictors was extracted from the baseline variables in one randomly selected half of the sample. This set included age, subjective memory impairment, performance on delayed verbal recall and verbal fluency, on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination, and on an instrumental activities of daily living scale. These variables were aggregated to a prediction score, which achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.84 for AD. The score was applied to the second half of the sample (test cohort). Here, the prediction accuracy was 0.79. With a cut-off of at least 80% sensitivity in the first cohort, 79.6% sensitivity, 66.4% specificity, 14.7% positive predictive value (PPV) and 97.8% negative predictive value of (NPV) for AD were achieved in the test cohort. At a cut-off for a high risk population (5% of individuals with the highest risk score in the first cohort) the PPV for AD was 39.1% (52% for any dementia) in the test cohort. Conclusions The prediction score has useful prediction accuracy. It can define individuals (1) sensitively for low cost-low risk interventions, or (2) more specific and with increased PPV for measures of prevention with greater costs or risks. As it is independent of technical aids, it may be used within large scale prevention programs. PMID:21364746

  6. Genetic education for primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, June C.; Rideout, Andrea L.; Wilson, Brenda J.; Allanson, Judith MD; Blaine, Sean M.; Esplen, Mary Jane; Farrell, Sandra A.; Graham, Gail E.; MacKenzie, Jennifer; Meschino, Wendy; Miller, Fiona; Prakash, Preeti; Shuman, Cheryl; Summers, Anne; Taylor, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To increase primary care providers’ awareness and use of genetic services; increase their knowledge of genetic issues; increase their confidence in core genetic competencies; change their attitudes toward genetic testing for hereditary diseases; and increase their confidence as primary care genetic resources. DESIGN Participants completed a workshop and 3 questionnaires: a baseline questionnaire, a survey that provided immediate feedback on the workshop itself, and a follow-up questionnaire 6 months later. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Primary care providers suggested by deans of nursing, midwifery, family medicine, and obstetric programs, as well as coordinators of nurse practitioner programs, in Ontario and by the Ontario College of Family Physicians. INTERVENTION A complex educational intervention was developed, including an interactive workshop and PowerPoint educational modules on genetic topics for participants’ use (available at www.mtsinai.on.ca/FamMedGen/). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Awareness and use of genetic services, knowledge of genetics, confidence in core clinical genetic skills, attitudes toward genetic testing, and teaching activities related to genetics. RESULTS The workshop was attended by 29 participants; of those, 21 completed the baseline questionnaire and the 6-month follow-up questionnaire. There was no significant change found in awareness or reported use of genetic services. There was significant improvement in self-assessed knowledge of (P = .001) and confidence in (P = .005) skills related to adult-onset genetic disorders. There were significant increases in confidence in many core genetic competencies, including assessing risk of hereditary disorders (P = .033), deciding who should be offered referral for genetic counseling (P = .003), discussing prenatal testing options (P = .034), discussing benefits, risks, and limitations of genetic testing (P = .033), and describing what to expect at a genetic counseling session

  7. Cancer Survivorship for Primary Care Annotated Bibliography.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Matthew Y; Overholser, Linda; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M

    2015-06-01

    Long-term cancer survivorship care is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of research. Increasing cancer survivorship rates have created a huge population of long-term cancer survivors whose cancer-specific needs challenge healthcare infrastructure and highlight a significant deficit of knowledge and guidelines in transitional care from treatment to normalcy/prolonged survivorship. As the paradigm of cancer care has changed from a fixation on the curative to the maintenance on long-term overall quality of life, so to, has the delineation of responsibility between oncologists and primary care physicians (PCPs). As more patients enjoy long-term survival, PCPs play a more comprehensive role in cancer care following acute treatment. To this end, this annotated bibliography was written to provide PCPs and other readers with an up-to-date and robust base of knowledge on long-term cancer survivorship, including definitions and epidemiological information as well as specific considerations and recommendations on physical, psychosocial, sexual, and comorbidity needs of survivors. Additionally, significant information is included on survivorship care, specifically Survivorship Care Plans (SPCs) and their evolution, utilization by oncologists and PCPs, and current gaps, as well as an introduction to patient navigation programs. Given rapid advancements in cancer research, this bibliography is meant to serve as current baseline reference outlining the state of the science.

  8. Primary medical care in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Roland, Martin; Guthrie, Bruce; Thomé, David Colin

    2012-03-01

    Since 1948 health care in the United Kingdom (UK) has been centrally funded through the National Health Service (NHS). The NHS provides both primary and specialist health care which is largely free at the point of delivery. Family practitioners are responsible for registered populations of patients and typically work in groups of 4-6 self-employed physicians. They hire nurses and a range of other ancillary staff, and act as gatekeepers to specialist care. Recent reforms include a wide range of national quality improvement initiatives and a pay for performance scheme that accounts for around 25% of family practitioners' income. These reforms have been associated with some major improvements in quality, including improved chronic disease management and reduced waiting times for specialist care. The four countries of the UK differ in some important aspects of health care organization: proposed reforms in England would move towards a more market-driven system, with family practitioners acting as payers for specialist care and controlling 70% of the NHS budget. The other countries (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) focus more on trying to create area-based integrated systems of care.

  9. Primary Care Providers and a System Problem

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Renda Soylemez; Sullivan, Donald; Ganzini, Linda; Slatore, Christopher G.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As lung cancer screening with low-dose CT scanning is implemented, an increasing number of people will be diagnosed with pulmonary nodules. Primary care clinicians care for the vast majority of these patients, but their experiences with communication and managing distress in this population are not well understood. METHODS: We conducted qualitative interviews of 15 primary care providers (PCPs) at two academic medical centers who care for patients with pulmonary nodules. We used qualitative description analysis, focusing on clinicians’ information exchange and other communication behaviors. RESULTS: Most PCPs believed they had inadequate information to counsel patients regarding lung nodules, although this information is desired. PCPs were concerned patients could “fall through the cracks” but did not have access to a reliable system to ensure follow-up adherence. They were limited by time, knowledge, and resources in providing the preferred level of care. Most PCPs did not discuss the specific risk a nodule was lung cancer, in part because they did not have ready access to this information. PCPs believed most patients did not have substantial distress as a result of nodule detection. Most PCPs did not include patients when making decisions about the follow-up plan. CONCLUSIONS: PCPs often lack systemic resources to optimize patient-centered approaches when discussing incidental pulmonary nodules with patients. With the advent of lung cancer screening, pulmonologists can assist primary care colleagues by providing accurate information to counsel patients and assisting in managing conversations about the risk of cancer. Pulmonologists should support efforts to implement reliable systems to ensure adherence to follow-up. PMID:25790082

  10. Designing Payment for Collaborative Care for Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yuhua; Casalino, Lawrence P; Ettner, Susan L; Bruce, Martha L; Solberg, Leif I; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To design a bundled case rate for Collaborative Care for Depression (CCD) that aligns incentives with evidence-based depression care in primary care. Data Sources A clinical information system used by all care managers in a randomized controlled trial of CCD for older primary care patients. Study Design We conducted an empirical investigation of factors accounting for variation in CCD resource use over time and across patients. CCD resource use at the patient-episode and patient-month levels was measured by number of care manager contacts and direct patient contact time and analyzed with count data (Poisson or negative binomial) models. Principal Findings Episode-level resource use varies substantially with patient's time in the program. Monthly use declines sharply in the first 6 months regardless of treatment response or remission status, but it remains stable afterwards. An adjusted episode or monthly case rate design better matches payment with variation in resource use compared with a fixed design. Conclusions Our findings lend support to an episode payment adjusted by number of months receiving CCD and a monthly payment adjusted by the ordinal month. Nonpayment tools including program certification and performance evaluation and reward systems are needed to fully align incentives. PMID:21609327

  11. Health system challenges to integration of mental health delivery in primary care in Kenya- perspectives of primary care health workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    the detriment of other health issues. Conclusion Generic health system weaknesses in Kenya impact on efforts for horizontal integration of mental health into routine primary care practice, and greatly frustrate health worker efforts. Improvement of medicine supplies, information systems, explicit inclusion of mental health in district level targets, management and supervision to primary care are likely to greatly improve primary care health worker effectiveness, and enable training programmes to be followed by better use in the field of newly acquired skills. A major lever for horizontal integration of mental health into the health system would be the inclusion of mental health in the national health sector reform strategy at community, primary care and district levels rather than just at the higher provincial and national levels, so that supportive supervision from the district level to primary care would become routine practice rather than very scarce activity. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN 53515024 PMID:24079756

  12. New demands for primary health care in Brazil: palliative care.

    PubMed

    de Paula Paz, Cássia Regina; Reis Pessalacia, Juliana Dias; Campos Pavone Zoboli, Elma Lourdes; Ludugério de Souza, Hieda; Ferreira Granja, Gabriela; Cabral Schveitzer, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Assess the need for incorporation of palliative care in primary health care (PHC) through the characterization of users eligible for this type of care, enrolled in a program for devices dispensing. Descriptive study of case series conducted in 14 health units in São Paulo (Brazil) in 2012. It was included medical records of those enrolled in a program for users with urinary and fecal incontinence, and it was applied Karnofsky Performance Scale Index (KPS) to identify the indication of palliative care. 141 of the 160 selected medical records had KPS information. Most cases (98.3%, 138/141) had performance below 70% and, therefore, patients were eligible for palliative care. The most frequent pathologies was related to chronic degenerative diseases (46.3%), followed by disorders related to quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth (24.38%). It is necessary to include palliative care in PHC in order to provide comprehensive, shared and humanized care to patients who need this.

  13. Bereavement: a protocol for primary care.

    PubMed

    Charlton, R; Dolman, E

    1995-08-01

    Bereavement is experiencing a loss, particularly of a loved one, which leads to a natural cycle of grief that has recognized psychological stages. Even though bereavement does not fit the criteria for the biomedical model of disease, it is a medical problem as there is a resultant morbidity and increased mortality associated with the surviving intimates. A bereavement protocol, which could minimize the effects of bereavement, is proposed for organized care by the primary health care team in this neglected area for health promotion.

  14. The entrepreneurial role in primary care dentistry.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, S

    2012-03-09

    This paper explores the entrepreneurial role of dentists in primary care dentistry. It reviews the changing context of dentistry, not least the reforms being introduced by the health and social care bill. It suggests that this new context will reinforce the need to consider the business side of dental practice, in particular, the importance of quality, creativity and innovation, alongside the importance of meeting the needs of patients. An entrepreneurial approach will be required in order to sustain dental practice in an increasingly competitive environment.

  15. Primary Care Issues in Rural Populations.

    PubMed

    Deligiannidis, Konstantinos E

    2017-03-01

    Rural populations have different demographics and health issues compared to their metropolitan counterparts, including higher mortalities from ischemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, unintentional injuries, motor vehicle accidents, and suicide. Rural primary care physicians (PCPs) have a unique position in counseling, preventing, and treating common issues that are specific to rural populations, such as motor vehicle accidents, unintentional injuries, pesticide poisoning, occupational respiratory illnesses, and mental illness. They are also in a unique position to address prevention and social determinants of health. Rural PCPs can use multiple strategies to improve access to medical care.

  16. Preventing primary cesarean births: midwifery care.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kim J; King, Tekoa L

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of cesarean birth in the United States is alarmingly high and cesareans are associated with added morbidities for women and newborns. Thus strategies to prevent cesarean particularly for low-risk, nulliparous women at term with a singleton fetus are needed. This article addresses evidence-based practices that may be used during intrapartum to avoid primary cesarean, including patience with progress in labor, intermittent auscultation, continuous labor support, upright positions, and free mobility. Second-stage labor practices, such delayed pushing and manual rotation of the fetus, are also reviewed. This package of midwifery-style care practices can potentially lower primary cesarean rates.

  17. Primary care access for new patients on the eve of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Karin V; Kenney, Genevieve M; Friedman, Ari B; Saloner, Brendan; Lawson, Charlotte C; Chearo, David; Wissoker, Douglas; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Current measures of access to care have intrinsic limitations and may not accurately reflect the capacity of the primary care system to absorb new patients. To assess primary care appointment availability by state and insurance status. We conducted a simulated patient study. Trained field staff, randomly assigned to private insurance, Medicaid, or uninsured, called primary care offices requesting the first available appointment for either routine care or an urgent health concern. The study included a stratified random sample of primary care practices treating nonelderly adults within each of 10 states (Arkansas, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas), selected for diversity along numerous dimensions. Collectively, these states comprise almost one-third of the US nonelderly, Medicaid, and currently uninsured populations. Sampling was based on enrollment by insurance type by county. Analyses were weighted to obtain population-based estimates for each state. The ability to schedule an appointment and number of days to the appointment. We also examined cost and payment required at the visit for the uninsured. Between November 13, 2012, and April 4, 2013, we made 12,907 calls to 7788 primary care practices requesting new patient appointments. Across the 10 states, 84.7% (95% CI, 82.6%-86.8%) of privately insured and 57.9% (95% CI, 54.8%-61.0%) of Medicaid callers received an appointment. Appointment rates were 78.8% (95% CI, 75.6%-82.0%) for uninsured patients with full cash payment but only 15.4% (95% CI, 13.2%-17.6%) if payment required at the time of the visit was restricted to $75 or less. Conditional on getting an appointment, median wait times were typically less than 1 week (2 weeks in Massachusetts), with no differences by insurance status or urgency of health concern. Although most primary care physicians are accepting new patients, access varies widely across states and insurance status. Navigator programs

  18. Screening for suicide ideation among older primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Heisel, Marnin J; Duberstein, Paul R; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Feldman, Mitchell D

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have high rates of suicide and typically seek care in primary medical practices. Older adults often do not directly or spontaneously report thoughts of suicide, which can impede suicide prevention efforts. Therefore, the use of additional approaches to suicide risk detection is needed, including the use of screening tools. The objective of this study was to assess whether brief screens for depression have acceptable operating characteristics in identifying suicide ideation among older primary care patients and to examine potential sex differences in the screen's accuracy. We administered the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), which includes a 5-item GDS subscale (GDS-SI) designed to screen for suicide ideation, to a cross-sectional cohort of 626 primary care patients (235 men, 391 women) 65 years of age or older in the Northeastern United States. We assessed presence of suicide ideation with items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Patients expressing suicide ideation (n = 69) scored higher on the GDS and GDS-SI than those who did not (n = 557). A GDS cut score of 4 maximized sensitivity (0.754) and specificity (0.815), producing an area under the curve of 0.844 (P < .001) and positive and negative predictive values of 0.335 and 0.964, respectively. Optimal cut scores were 5 for men and 3 for women. A GDS-SI cut score of 1 was optimal for the total sample and for both men and women. The GDS and GDS-SI accurately identify older patients with suicide ideation. Research is needed to examine their acceptability and barriers to routine use in primary care.

  19. Screening for Suicide Ideation among Older Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heisel, Marnin J.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.; Feldman, Mitchell D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Older adults have high rates of suicide and typically seek care in primary medical practices. Older adults often do not directly or spontaneously report thoughts of suicide, which can impede suicide prevention efforts. Therefore, the use of additional approaches to suicide risk detection is needed, including the use of screening tools. The objective of this study was to assess whether brief screens for depression have acceptable operating characteristics in identifying suicide ideation among older primary care patients and to examine potential sex differences in the screen’s accuracy. Methods We administered the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), which includes a 5-item GDS subscale (GDS-SI) designed to screen for suicide ideation, to a cross-sectional cohort of 626 primary care patients (235 men, 391 women) 65 years of age or older in the Northeastern United States. We assessed presence of suicide ideation with items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Results Patients expressing suicide ideation (n = 69) scored higher on the GDS and GDS-SI than those who did not (n = 557). A GDS cut score of 4 maximized sensitivity (0.754) and specificity (0.815), producing an area under the curve of 0.844 (P < .001) and positive and negative predictive values of 0.335 and 0.964, respectively. Optimal cut scores were 5 for men and 3 for women. A GDS-SI cut score of 1 was optimal for the total sample and for both men and women. Conclusions The GDS and GDS-SI accurately identify older patients with suicide ideation. Research is needed to examine their acceptability and barriers to routine use in primary care. PMID:20207936

  20. Intention to Discontinue Care Among Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Federman, Alex D; Cook, E Francis; Phillips, Russell S; Puopolo, Ann Louise; Haas, Jennifer S; Brennan, Troyen A; Burstin, Helen R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND Specific elements of health care process and physician behavior have been shown to influence disenrollment decisions in HMOs, but not in outpatient settings caring for patients with diverse types of insurance coverage. OBJECTIVE To examine whether physician behavior and process of care affect patients' intention to return to their usual health care practice. DESIGN Cross-sectional patient survey and medical record review. SETTING Eleven academically affiliated primary care medicine practices in the Boston area. PATIENTS 2,782 patients with at least one visit in the preceding year. MEASUREMENT Unwillingness to return to the usual health care practice. RESULTS Of the 2,782 patients interviewed, 160 (5.8%) indicated they would not be willing to return. Two variables correlated significantly with unwillingness to return after adjustment for demographics, health status, health care utilization, satisfaction with physician's technical skill, site of care, and clustering of patients by provider: dissatisfaction with visit duration (odds ratio [OR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.4) and patient reports that the physician did not listen to what the patient had to say (OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.5 to 30.7). In subgroup analysis, patients who were prescribed medications at their last visit but who did not receive an explanation of the purpose of the medication were more likely to be unwilling to return (OR, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 13.3). CONCLUSION Failure of physicians to acknowledge patient concerns, provide explanations of care, and spend sufficient time with patients may contribute to patients' decisions to discontinue care at their usual site of care. PMID:11679034

  1. Acquisition and maintenance of health-care routines as a function of feedback density.

    PubMed Central

    Alavosius, M P; Sulzer-Azaroff, B

    1990-01-01

    Two schedules of feedback were examined to determine their relative effects on the acquisition and maintenance of three health-care routines: feeding, positioning, and transferring physically disabled patients. Four direct service providers' performances in the natural environment were measured weekly. Concurrent schedules and multiple baselines across subjects and response classes were used to evaluate the effects of written instructions combined with either continuous, intermittent, or nofeedback schedules. Results showed that instructions alone led to slight and usually brief changes. Marked improvements were noted after feedback was introduced, with the continuous schedule producing more rapid acquisition. Follow-up measures indicated performance maintenance for both schedules. Subjects rated the feedback programs favorably and recommended provision of this service to co-workers. Cost estimates indicated that, although considerable time was spent developing the observational system, the feedback procedure was relatively inexpensive, easy to use, and did not interfere with patient care. PMID:2373652

  2. [Palliative care in Primary Care: presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Cordovés, M M; Mirpuri-Mirpuri, P G; Gonzalez-Losada, J; Chávez-Díaz, B

    2013-10-01

    We present a case of a patient diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme refractory to treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common primary brain tumour and unfortunately the most aggressive, with an estimated mortality of about 90% in the first year after diagnosis. In our case the patient had reached a stage of life where quality of life was importsnt, with palliative care being the only recourse. The family is the mainstay in the provision of care of terminally ill patients, and without their active participation it would be difficult to achieve the objectives in patient care. We must also consider the family of the terminally ill in our care aim, as its members will experience a series of changes that will affect multiple areas where we should take action. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  4. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  5. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  6. 42 CFR 440.168 - Primary care case management services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Primary care case management services. 440.168... care case management services. (a) Primary care case management services means case management related... services. (b) Primary care case management services may be offered by the State— (1) As a voluntary...

  7. Barriers and facilitators of adolescent behavioral health in primary care: Perceptions of primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Bitar, George W; Springer, Paul; Gee, Robert; Graff, Chad; Schydlower, Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Several major policy reports describe the central role of primary care in improving the delivery of behavioral health care services to children and adolescents. Although primary care providers are uniquely positioned to provide these services, numerous obstacles hinder the integration of these services, including time, clinic management and organization issues, training, and resources. Although many of these obstacles have been described in the literature, few studies have investigated these issues from the first-person perspective of front-line providers. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to provide an in-depth description of primary care providers' attitudes and perceptions of adolescent behavioral health care across a diversity of primary care settings (i.e., Federally Qualified Health Center [FQHC], FQHC-Look Alike, school-based, military). Sixteen focus groups were conducted at 5 primary care clinics. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the focus group data. Obstacles to integration are presented as well as strategies to overcome these challenges, using training and education, working groups, and community collaboratives.

  8. Breast cancer risk assessment in primary care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shannon Lynn; Kartoz, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer (when excluding skin cancers) in women and the second most common cause of cancer death in women, with a lifetime prevalence of 12.5% (, ; ). Breast cancer screening reduces risk of cancer death, thereby increasing rate of survival to up to 89% for women with stage 1 and 2 breast cancer (; ). Despite these data, undue harm may occur with unnecessary screening because overidentification of risk, and excessive, costly biopsies may result. Costs and benefits of screening must be weighed. Nurses at all levels can play a pivotal role in promotion of appropriate breast cancer screening and subsequently breast cancer prevention by using accurate screening tools, such as the Tyrer-Cuzick model. Although there are some limitations with this tool, screening at the primary care level has demonstrated improved clinical outcomes (). Its use can help nurses accurately assess a woman's breast cancer risk, by promoting appropriate screening at the primary care level ().

  9. Detecting mental disorders in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Managing mental health problems of people around the world is a major challenge for health workers as well as for policy makers. It is a particular problem for low- and middle-income countries for many reasons, especially due to lack of recourses. A computer-assisted interview, the GMHAT/PC (Global Mental Health Assessment Tool – Primary Care) has been developed to assist general practitioners and other health professionals to make a quick, convenient, and comprehensive, standardised mental health assessment. It has proved to be a reliable and valid tool in various studies. Its use by other health professionals may help in detecting and managing mental disorders in primary care and general health settings more effectively. The article outlines the development and potential use of the GMHAT/PC PMID:22477882

  10. [The scientific entertainer in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Santos, José Manuel; Lapetra, José

    2012-09-01

    The scientific method is capable of being applied in primary care. In this article we defend the role of the "scientific entertainer "as strategic and necessary in achieving this goal. The task has to include playful and light-hearted content. We explore some words in English that may help us to understand the concept of "scientific entertainer" from a semantic point of view (showman, master of ceremonies, entrepreneur, go-between) also in Spanish language (counsellor, mediator, methodologist) and finally in Latin and Greek (tripalium, negotium, chronos, kairos). We define the clinical, manager or research health-worker who is skilled in primary care as a "primarylogist". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate change and primary health care.

    PubMed

    Blashki, Grant; McMichael, Tony; Karoly, David J

    2007-12-01

    Climate change and rising average global temperatures threaten to disrupt the physical, biological and ecological life support systems on which human health depends. This article overviews the evidence for human induced climate change, the predicted health impacts, and the role of primary health care professionals in managing these impacts. Climate change has substantial potential health effects. These include heat stress related to heatwaves; injuries related to extreme weather events such as storms, fires and floods; infectious disease outbreaks due to changing patterns of mosquito borne and water borne diseases; poor nutrition from reduced food availability and affordability; the psychosocial impact of drought; and the displacement of communities. Primary health care has an important role in preparing for and responding to these climate change related threats to human health.

  12. Naturopathy and the Primary Care Practice

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Sara A.; Gutknecht, Nancy C.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Naturopathy is a distinct type of primary care medicine that blends age-old healing traditions with scientific advances and current research. It is guided by a unique set of principles that recognize the body's innate healing capacity, emphasize disease prevention, and encourage individual responsibility to obtain optimal health. Naturopathic treatment modalities include diet and clinical nutrition, behavioral change, hydrotherapy, homeopathy, botanical medicine, physical medicine, pharmaceuticals, and minor surgery. Naturopathic physicians (NDs) are trained as primary care physicians in four-year, accredited doctoral-level naturopathic medical schools. Currently, there are 15 U.S. states, 2 U.S. territories, and a number of provinces in Canada, Australia, and New Zealand that recognize licensure for NDs. PMID:20189002

  13. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  14. The productivity of primary care research networks.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, F; Wild, A; Harvey, J; Fenton, E

    2000-01-01

    Primary care research networks are being publicly funded in the United Kingdom to promote a culture of research and development in primary care. This paper discusses the organisational form of these networks and how their productivity can be evaluated, drawing on evidence from management science. An evaluation of a research network has to take account of the complexity of the organisation, the influence of its local context, and its stage of development. Output measures, such as number of research papers, and process measures, such as number of research meetings, may contribute to an evaluation. However, as networking relies on the development of informal, trust-based relationships, the quality of interactions within a network is of paramount importance for its success. Networks can audit and reflect on their success in promoting such relationships and a more formal qualitative evaluation by an independent observer can document their success to those responsible for funding. PMID:11141879

  15. A sustainable primary care system: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Faber, Marjan J; Burgers, Jako S; Westert, Gert P

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch primary care system has drawn international attention, because of its high performance at low cost. Primary care practices are easily accessible during office hours and collaborate in a unique out-of-hours system. After the reforms in 2006, there are no copayments for patients receiving care in the primary care practice in which they are registered. Financial incentives support the transfer of care from hospital specialists to primary care physicians, and task delegation from primary care physicians to practice nurses. Regional collaborative care groups of primary care practices offer disease management programs. The quality assessment system and the electronic medical record system are predominantly driven by health care professionals. Bottom-up and top-down activities contributed to a successful Dutch primary care system.

  16. Safety climate reduces medication and dislodgement errors in routine intensive care practice.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Andreas; Schiffinger, Michael; Steyrer, Johannes; Huber, Clemens; Strunk, Guido

    2013-03-01

    To assess the frequency and contributing factors of medication and dislodgement errors attributable to common routine processes in a cohort of intensive care units, with a special focus on the potential impact of safety climate. A prospective, observational, 48 h cross sectional study in 57 intensive care units (ICUs) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, with self-reporting of medical errors by ICU staff and concurrent assessment of safety climate, workload and level of care. For 795 observed patients, a total of 641 errors affecting 269 patients were reported. This corresponds to a rate of 49.8 errors per 100 patient days related to the administration of medication, loss of artificial airways, and unplanned dislodgement of lines, catheters and drains. In a multilevel model predicting error occurrence at the patient level, odds ratios (OR) per unit increase for the occurrence of at least one medical error were raised for a higher Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score (NEMS) (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.02-1.05, p < 0.01) and a higher number of tubes/lines/catheters/drains (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 1.01-1.03, p < 0.01) at the patient level and lowered by a better safety climate at the ICU level (OR per standard deviation 0.67, 95 % CI 0.51-0.89, p < 0.01). Safety climate apparently contributes to a reduction of medical errors that represent a particularly error-prone aspect of frontline staff performance during typical routine processes in intensive care.

  17. African primary care research: participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob

    2014-03-05

    This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  18. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal. PMID:26245439

  19. Pharmacotherapy for Insomnia in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Emily; Narang, Puneet; Enja, Manasa; Lippmann, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy for insomnia in primary care settings can be challenging. Frequently, there are multiple coexisting medical and psychiatric conditions, drug interactions, concern regarding use of habit-forming sleep aids, and paucity of time in office visits to discuss management of sleep difficulties. This article reports the results of a literature search related to pharmacotherapy for insomnia and presents 4 clinical vignettes with corresponding treatment options. PMID:27486547

  20. Parasitic Skin Infections for Primary Care Physicians.

    PubMed

    Dadabhoy, Irfan; Butts, Jessica F

    2015-12-01

    The 2 epidermal parasitic skin infections most commonly encountered by primary care physicians in developed countries are scabies and pediculosis. Pediculosis can be further subdivided into pediculosis capitis, corporis, and pubis. This article presents a summary of information and a review of the literature on clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of these commonly encountered parasitic skin infestations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic kidney disease in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Prabir Kumar; Bradley, John R

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects about one in 200 of the population in the UK. There is an increased awareness of the need to identify patients in primary care with CKD at an earlier stage, so that treatments can be initiated to delay progression and prevent complications and appropriate nephrological referral can be made. In this article we will review how measures to identify patients with CKD can improve its management. PMID:17197687

  2. Breathlessness in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Noel

    2017-09-01

    Breathlessness is a high-volume problem with 10% of adults experiencing the symptom daily placing a heavy burden on the health and wider economy. As it worsens, they enter the specialist and hospital-based symptom services where costs quickly escalate and people may find themselves in a place not of their choosing. For many, their care will be delivered by a disease or organ specialist and can find themselves passing between physicians without coordination for symptom support. General practitioners (GPs) will be familiar with this scenario and can often feel out of their depth. Recent advances in our thinking about breathlessness symptom management can offer opportunities and a sense of hope when the GP is faced with this situation. Original research, reviews and other findings over the last 12-18 months that pertain to the value that general practice and the wider primary care system can add, include opportunities to help people recognize they have a problem that can be treated. We present systems that support decisions made by primary healthcare professionals and an increasingly strong case that a solution is required in primary care for an ageing and frail population where breathlessness will be common. Primary care practitioners and leaders must start to realize the importance of recognizing and acting early in the life course of the person with breathlessness because its impact is enormous. They will need to work closely with public health colleagues and learn from specialists who have been doing this work usually with people near to the end of life translating the skills and knowledge further upstream to allow people to live well and remain near home and in their communities.

  3. Screening for frailty in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Patel, Tejal; Costa, Andrew; Bryce, Erin; Hillier, Loretta M.; Slonim, Karen; Hunter, Susan W.; Heckman, George; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the accuracy of individual Fried frailty phenotype measures in identifying the Fried frailty phenotype in primary care. Design Retrospective chart review. Setting A community-based primary care practice in Kitchener, Ont. Participants A total of 516 patients 75 years of age and older who underwent frailty screening. Main outcome measures Using modified Fried frailty phenotype measures, frailty criteria included gait speed, hand-grip strength as measured by a dynamometer, and self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight loss. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and precision were calculated for single-trait and dual-trait markers. Results Complete frailty screening data were available for 383 patients. The overall prevalence of frailty based on the presence of 3 or more frailty criteria was 6.5%. The overall prevalence of individual Fried frailty phenotype markers ranged from 2.1% to 19.6%. The individual criteria all showed sensitivity and specificity of more than 80%, with the exception of weight loss (8.3% and 97.4%, respectively). The positive predictive value of the single-item criteria in predicting the Fried frailty phenotype ranged from 12.5% to 52.5%. When gait speed and hand-grip strength were combined as a dual measure, the positive predictive value increased to 87.5%. Conclusion There is a need for frailty measures that are psychometrically sound and feasible to administer in primary care. While use of gait speed or grip strength alone was found to be sensitive and specific as a proxy for the Fried frailty phenotype, use of both measures together was found to be accurate, precise, specific, and more sensitive than other possible combinations. Assessing both measures is feasible within primary care. PMID:28115460

  4. Is Routine Screening for Intimate Partner Violence Feasible in Public Health Care Settings in Kenya?

    PubMed

    Undie, Chi-Chi; Maternowska, M Catherine; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Askew, Ian

    2016-01-01

    More than a third of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) or non-partner sexual violence. The short- and long-term health effects of violence can be disabling if left undetected. A recent World Health Organization (WHO) report indicates that Africa is one of the regions with the highest prevalence of physical and/or sexual IPV among ever-partnered women. Routine screening for IPV can potentially improve the care and treatment of women suffering from violence. Although routine screening is commonplace in European and American countries, health systems barriers in developing countries have deterred introduction of this practice. Results from this feasibility study indicate that providers are willing and able to incorporate IPV screening into their practice and that IPV screening in a variety of health care settings in a public hospital is feasible and welcomed by clients. Referral uptake by women suffering from IPV was low compared with provider referral rates, but ways in which referral and management services could be improved were identified. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Physiological and Behavioral Stress and Anxiety in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Routine Oral Care

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Christianne J.; Williams, Marian E.; Dawson, Michael E.; Polido, José C.; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly exhibit uncooperative behaviors which impede oral care. Previous studies have utilized dentist-report measures of uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD but none have utilized an objective measure of children's behavior or a physiological measure of distress. This study investigated behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress. Methods. Participants were 44 children (n = 22 typical, n = 22 ASD) aged 6–12 receiving routine dental cleanings. Behavioral and physiological measures of stress and anxiety were collected during dental cleanings. Results. Children with ASD exhibited greater distress, compared to the typical group, on dentist-report and researcher-coded measures of overt distress behaviors and on physiological measures. Correlations between physiological and behavioral measures of distress were found in the ASD but not in the typical group. Behavioral distress was correlated with age in the typical group and with expressive communication ability and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group; physiological distress was correlated with parent-report of anxiety in the typical group and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group. Conclusions. Novel strategies may be required to decrease behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD in the dental clinic. PMID:25114916

  6. Physiological and behavioral stress and anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders during routine oral care.

    PubMed

    Stein, Leah I; Lane, Christianne J; Williams, Marian E; Dawson, Michael E; Polido, José C; Cermak, Sharon A

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) commonly exhibit uncooperative behaviors which impede oral care. Previous studies have utilized dentist-report measures of uncooperative behaviors in children with ASD but none have utilized an objective measure of children's behavior or a physiological measure of distress. This study investigated behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD during routine oral care and examined factors associated with this distress. Participants were 44 children (n=22 typical, n=22 ASD) aged 6-12 receiving routine dental cleanings. Behavioral and physiological measures of stress and anxiety were collected during dental cleanings. Children with ASD exhibited greater distress, compared to the typical group, on dentist-report and researcher-coded measures of overt distress behaviors and on physiological measures. Correlations between physiological and behavioral measures of distress were found in the ASD but not in the typical group. Behavioral distress was correlated with age in the typical group and with expressive communication ability and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group; physiological distress was correlated with parent-report of anxiety in the typical group and sensory processing difficulties in the ASD group. Novel strategies may be required to decrease behavioral and physiological distress in children with ASD in the dental clinic.

  7. Improved quality of patient care through routine second review of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Chantal C H J; Burger, Gerard; Al-Janabi, Shaimaa; Willems, Stefan M; van Diest, Paul J; Jiwa, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Double reading may be a valuable tool for improving quality of patient care by identifying diagnostic errors before final sign-out, but standard double reading would significantly increase costs of pathology. We assessed the added value of intradepartmental routine double reading of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings. Diagnoses, treatment plans and prognoses of patients are often discussed at multidisciplinary meetings. As part of the daily routine, all pathology specimens to be discussed at upcoming multidisciplinary meetings undergo prior intradepartmental double reading. We identified all histopathology specimens from 2013 that underwent such double reading and determined major and minor discordance rates based on clinical relevance between the initial and consensus sign-out diagnoses. We included 6796 histopathology specimens that underwent double reading, representing approximately 8% of all histopathology cases at our institution in 2013. Double reading diagnoses were concordant in 6566 specimens (96.6%). Major and minor discordances were observed in 60 (0.9%) and 170 (2.5%) specimens, respectively. Urology specimens had significantly more discordances than other tissues of origin, Gleason grading of prostate cancer biopsies being the most frequent diagnostic problem. Furthermore, premalignant and malignant cases showed significantly higher discordance rates than the rest. The vast majority (90%) of discordances represented changes within the same diagnostic category (eg, malignant to malignant). Routine double reading of histopathology specimens prior to multidisciplinary meetings prevents diagnostic errors. It resulted in about 1% discordant diagnoses of potential clinical significance, indicating that second review is worthwhile in terms of patient safety and quality of patient care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. [Short course for primary physicians care].

    PubMed

    Eshet, I; Van Relta, R; Margalit, A; Baharir, Z

    1995-11-15

    This department of family medicine has been challenged with helping a group of Russian immigrant physicians find places in primary care clinics, quickly and at minimal expense. A 3-month course was set up based on the Family Practice Residency Syllabus and the SFATAM approach, led by teachers and tutors from our department. 30 newly immigrated Russian physicians participated. The course included: lectures and exercises in treatment and communication with patients with a variety of common medical problems in the primary care setting; improvement of fluency in Hebrew relevant to the work setting; and information on the function of primary care and professional clinics. Before-and-after questionnaires evaluating optimal use of a 10- minute meeting with a client presenting with headache were administered. The data showed that the physicians had learned to use more psychosocial diagnostic question and more psychosocial interventions. There was a cleared trend toward greater awareness of the patient's environment, his family, social connections and work. There was no change in biomedical inquiry and interventions but a clear trend to a decrease in recommendations for tests and in referrals. The authors recommend the following didactic tools: adopting a biopsychosocial attitude, active participation of students in the learning situation, working in small groups, use of simulations and video clips, and acquiring basic communication experience.

  9. The Hillbrow Primary Health Care Project.

    PubMed

    Rawat, H

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the Hillbrow Primary Health Care Project for Health Personnel Education and Primary Health Care in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. The project aims to influence health by forming a partnership between the community, the services and training institutions, and appropriate health personnel education. The partnership also aims to develop and implement comprehensive primary health care services in Hillbrow, targeted to the needs of the underserved. The goal is to empower the community to promote health and participate in the management of health services in order to improve community-based training of health personnel. The partners included the University of Witwatersrand and the B.G. Alexandra Nursing College, its faculty, and its medical and nursing students. Other service partners include the Greater Johannesburg Transitional Metropolitan Council's Directorate of Health, Housing, and Urbanization and Departments of Community Health and Environmental Health. 45% of the governing group are community members from various community organizations. The needs assessment identified priority areas as women's health, environmental health, youth, and the elderly and disabled. The community needs pre and postnatal and delivery services. Citizens needs to be mobilized around environmental health issues in the inner city and the education of environmental health officers. Youth need a center with sports facilities. The project's future efforts will include establishment of an effective governance structure, program boundaries and strategies, and the means for long-term sustainability.

  10. Riding the wave of primary care research

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, William; Donskov, Melissa; Russell, Grant; Pottie, Kevin; Liddy, Clare; Johnston, Sharon; Chambers, Larry

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Family medicine departments and primary health care research centres across the country are growing in size and complexity and therefore require increasingly sophisticated management strategies. Conducting effective and relevant research relies on a stable and efficient organization. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM To focus on the needs of individuals, teams, and the organization in order to ensure the success of research projects. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION In order to ensure the success of research projects, the C.T. Lamont Primary Health Care Research Centre (CTLC) in Ottawa, Ont, used the following strategies: ensuring organizational support (ie, protected time for research and sustained funding for some investigators); arranging financial and infrastructure support; building skills and confidence (eg, education sessions); organizing linkages and collaborations (eg, forums among staff members); creating appropriate dissemination (eg, newsletter, website); and providing continuity and sustainability. CONCLUSION In order to ensure progress in primary health care research, the CTLC created solutions that focused on the individual, team, and organizational levels. With its management strategies, the CTLC was successful in maintaining a high-functioning team and a well-organized research organization. PMID:19826140

  11. Telementoring Primary Care Clinicians to Improve Geriatric Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Elisa; Hasselberg, Michael; Conwell, Yeates; Weiss, Linda; Padrón, Norma A; Tiernan, Erin; Karuza, Jurgis; Donath, Jeremy; Pagán, José A

    2017-01-20

    Health care delivery and payment systems are moving rapidly toward value-based care. To be successful in this new environment, providers must consistently deliver high-quality, evidence-based, and coordinated care to patients. This study assesses whether Project ECHO(®) (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) GEMH (geriatric mental health)-a remote learning and mentoring program-is an effective strategy to address geriatric mental health challenges in rural and underserved communities. Thirty-three teleECHO clinic sessions connecting a team of specialists to 54 primary care and case management spoke sites (approximately 154 participants) were conducted in 10 New York counties from late 2014 to early 2016. The curriculum consisted of case presentations and didactic lessons on best practices related to geriatric mental health care. Twenty-six interviews with program participants were conducted to explore changes in geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Health insurance claims data were analyzed to assess changes in health care utilization and costs before and after program implementation. Findings from interviews suggest that the program led to improvements in clinician geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Claims data analysis suggests that emergency room costs decreased for patients with mental health diagnoses. Patients without a mental health diagnosis had more outpatient visits and higher prescription and outpatient costs. Telementoring programs such as Project ECHO GEMH may effectively build the capacity of frontline clinicians to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care to older adults with mental health conditions and may contribute to the transformation of health care delivery systems from volume to value.

  12. Unsuspected Malignancies in Routine Femoral Head Histopathologic Examination During Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Agrawal, Kshitijkumar; Anderson, David W; Freiberg, Andrew A; Rubash, Harry E; Kwon, Young-Min

    2017-03-01

    Routine femoral head histopathology during primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been recently reported as a potentially useful screening tool for bone- and bone marrow-associated malignancies. However, cost-effectiveness of routine histopathology during THA remains unclear due to low prevalence of significant medical findings which alter patient management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of routine histopathology in diagnosing unsuspected malignancy in patients undergoing primary THA. From 1993 to 2011, we retrospectively analyzed routine histopathologic findings of 3200 femoral head specimens from 2725 patients that underwent primary THA. Preoperative and postoperative diagnoses were classified into concordant (clinical diagnosis concurred with pathologic diagnosis), discrepant (differing diagnosis with no resultant impact on patient management), and discordant (differing diagnosis with subsequent change in patient management). Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using the incremental cost-utility ratio. A total of 3055 of 3200 pathologic samples were concordant with the preoperative diagnosis (95.4%), 140 of 3200 were discrepant (4.4%), and 5 of 3200 were discordant (0.2%). Routine histopathology revealed 1 unsuspected malignancy out of 640 (5 of 3200) femoral heads. The total cost of histopathologic screening was $614,664.80. The average cost to identify a discrepant case was $4390.46, and the cost to identify a discordant case was $122,932.96. The incremental cost-utility ratio was $49,569.74 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Our study indicates routine femoral head histopathology may be cost-effective in diagnosing unsuspected malignancy at $49,569.74/QALY gained (less than World Health Organization recommended threshold $159,000/QALY gained), providing useful clinical information for surgeons considering the value of routine femoral head histopathology in patients undergoing THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  13. Primary Care Physicians Practicing Preventive Medicine in the Outpatient Setting.

    PubMed

    Snipelisky, David; Carter, Kimberly; Sundsted, Karna; Burton, M Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Preventive care is an important part of primary care medicine, yet much variation in its practice exists. The aim of this study is to assess physicians' perspectives of practicing preventive medicine and evaluate which topics are deemed most important. All primary care medicine providers at two separate academic medical centers (Mayo Clinic, MN and Mayo Clinic, FL) were surveyed via an E-mail questionnaire assessing physicians' perception of the role of preventive medicine during both acute/routine and yearly visits, physicians' perception of patients' response to preventive medicine topics, and which preventive medicine topics are commonly practiced. Of 445 providers meeting inclusion criteria, a total of 183 (41.1%) responded. Providers were more likely to engage patients in preventive medicine during yearly visits more so than acute visits (3.82 vs. 4.72, range 1-5 Likert Scale), yet providers were very likely to partake in such practices during both visits. Providers perceived that patients received the practice of preventive medicine very well (4.13 on 1-5 Likert Scale). No significant difference between provider practice and patient perception was noted between the two sites, although there was some variation based on clinical experience of the provider. Providers were found to most commonly practice topics recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Our study found a high predisposition to practicing preventive medicine. Providers seem to practice according to published evidence-based medicine recommendations.

  14. Primary Care Physicians Practicing Preventive Medicine in the Outpatient Setting

    PubMed Central

    Snipelisky, David; Carter, Kimberly; Sundsted, Karna; Burton, M. Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventive care is an important part of primary care medicine, yet much variation in its practice exists. The aim of this study is to assess physicians’ perspectives of practicing preventive medicine and evaluate which topics are deemed most important. Methods: All primary care medicine providers at two separate academic medical centers (Mayo Clinic, MN and Mayo Clinic, FL) were surveyed via an E-mail questionnaire assessing physicians’ perception of the role of preventive medicine during both acute/routine and yearly visits, physicians’ perception of patients’ response to preventive medicine topics, and which preventive medicine topics are commonly practiced. Results: Of 445 providers meeting inclusion criteria, a total of 183 (41.1%) responded. Providers were more likely to engage patients in preventive medicine during yearly visits more so than acute visits (3.82 vs. 4.72, range 1–5 Likert Scale), yet providers were very likely to partake in such practices during both visits. Providers perceived that patients received the practice of preventive medicine very well (4.13 on 1–5 Likert Scale). No significant difference between provider practice and patient perception was noted between the two sites, although there was some variation based on clinical experience of the provider. Providers were found to most commonly practice topics recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Conclusions: Our study found a high predisposition to practicing preventive medicine. Providers seem to practice according to published evidence-based medicine recommendations. PMID:26941906

  15. Staffing Patterns of Primary Care Practices in the Comprehensive Primary Care Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Peikes, Deborah N.; Reid, Robert J.; Day, Timothy J.; Cornwell, Derekh D. F.; Dale, Stacy B.; Baron, Richard J.; Brown, Randall S.; Shapiro, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Despite growing calls for team-based care, the current staff composition of primary care practices is unknown. We describe staffing patterns for primary care practices in the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Comprehensive Primary Care (CPC) initiative. METHODS We undertook a descriptive analysis of CPC initiative practices’ baseline staffing using data from initial applications and a practice survey. CMS selected 502 primary care practices (from 987 applicants) in 7 regions based on their health information technology, number of patients covered by participating payers, and other factors; 496 practices were included in this analysis. RESULTS Consistent with the national distribution, most of the CPC initiative practices included in this study were small: 44% reported 2 or fewer full-time equivalent (FTE) physicians; 27% reported more than 4. Nearly all reported administrative staff (98%) and medical assistants (89%). Fifty-three percent reported having nurse practitioners or physician assistants; 47%, licensed practical or vocational nurses; 36%, registered nurses; and 24%, care managers/coordinators—all of these positions are more common in larger practices. Other clinical staff were reported infrequently regardless of practice size. Compared with other CPC initiative practices, designated patient-centered medical homes were more likely to have care managers/coordinators but otherwise had similar staff types. Larger practices had fewer FTE staff per physician. CONCLUSIONS At baseline, most CPC initiative practices used traditional staffing models and did not report having dedicated staff who may be integral to new primary care models, such as care coordinators, health educators, behavioral health specialists, and pharmacists. Without such staff and payment for their services, practices are unlikely to deliver comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible care to patients at a sustainable cost. PMID:24615310

  16. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  17. Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among Adolescents: A Training Priority for Primary Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Hetler, Joel; Edwall, Glenace; Wright, Catherine; Edwards, Anne; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2013-01-01

    Primary care providers were surveyed to determine how prepared they feel to address nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents, their interest in training on NSSI, and factors associated with routinely asking about NSSI when providing health supervision. Participants included family medicine physicians ("n" = 260), pediatricians…

  18. Teaching Collaborative Care in Primary Care Settings for Psychiatry Residents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiang; Barkil-Oteo, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Job descriptions for psychiatrists will change significantly over the next decade, as psychiatrists will be called on to work as caseload consultants to the primary care team. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of an American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training-approved collaborative care curriculum on caseload consulting skills among psychiatry residents. In 2014, 46 psychiatry residents (5 postgraduate year 1s, 10 postgraduate year 2s, 22 postgraduate year 3s, and 9 postgraduate year 4s) from 5 academic psychiatry residency programs in the New England area were given the 2-hour pilot collaborative care curriculum. Participants were asked to complete an anonymous survey at both the beginning and the end of the workshop to rate their comfort level in aspects of collaborative care psychiatry (7 items from SBP4 psychiatry milestones) based on a Likert scale (1-not at all, 2-slightly, 3-moderately, and 4-extremely). Paired t-test was used to examine the difference between pretest and posttest results of residents participating in the workshop. The pretest mean score for the group was 2.9 (standard deviation = 0.44), whereas the posttest mean was 3.51 (standard deviation = 0.42), p < 0.0001. Only 15% (n = 7) of residents reported having some form of primary care or ambulatory specialty care consultation experience while in training. This brief collaborative care curriculum significantly improved resident confidence in milestone criteria related to population health and case-based consultations. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying primary care quality indicators for people with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Christoph; Doran, Tim; Goddard, Maria; Kendrick, Tony; Gilbody, Simon; Dare, Ceri R; Aylott, Lauren; Jacobs, Rowena

    2017-08-01

    Serious mental illness (SMI) - which comprises long-term conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychoses - has enormous costs for patients and society. In many countries, people with SMI are treated solely in primary care, and have particular needs for physical care. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to create a list of quality indicators relevant to patients with SMI that could be captured using routine data, and which could be used to monitor or incentivise better-quality primary care. A systematic literature review, combined with a search of quality indicator databases and guidelines. The authors assessed whether indicators could be measured from routine data and the quality of the evidence. Out of 1847 papers and quality indicator databases identified, 27 were included, from which 59 quality indicators were identified, covering six domains. Of the 59 indicators, 52 could be assessed using routine data. The evidence base underpinning these indicators was relatively weak, and was primarily based on expert opinion rather than trial evidence. With appropriate adaptation for different contexts, and in line with the relative responsibilities of primary and secondary care, use of the quality indicators has the potential to improve care and to improve the physical and mental health of people with SMI. However, before the indicators can be used to monitor or incentivise primary care quality, more robust links need to be established, with improved patient outcomes. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  20. Identifying primary care quality indicators for people with serious mental illness: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Christoph; Doran, Tim; Goddard, Maria; Kendrick, Tony; Gilbody, Simon; Dare, Ceri R; Aylott, Lauren; Jacobs, Rowena

    2017-01-01

    Background Serious mental illness (SMI) — which comprises long-term conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other psychoses — has enormous costs for patients and society. In many countries, people with SMI are treated solely in primary care, and have particular needs for physical care. Aim The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to create a list of quality indicators relevant to patients with SMI that could be captured using routine data, and which could be used to monitor or incentivise better-quality primary care. Design and setting A systematic literature review, combined with a search of quality indicator databases and guidelines. Method The authors assessed whether indicators could be measured from routine data and the quality of the evidence. Results Out of 1847 papers and quality indicator databases identified, 27 were included, from which 59 quality indicators were identified, covering six domains. Of the 59 indicators, 52 could be assessed using routine data. The evidence base underpinning these indicators was relatively weak, and was primarily based on expert opinion rather than trial evidence. Conclusion With appropriate adaptation for different contexts, and in line with the relative responsibilities of primary and secondary care, use of the quality indicators has the potential to improve care and to improve the physical and mental health of people with SMI. However, before the indicators can be used to monitor or incentivise primary care quality, more robust links need to be established, with improved patient outcomes. PMID:28673958

  1. Providing high-quality care in primary care settings

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Geneau, Robert; Grande, Claudio Del; Denis, Jean-Louis; Hudon, Éveline; Haggerty, Jeannie L.; Bonin, Lucie; Duplain, Réjean; Goudreau, Johanne; Hogg, William

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To gain a deeper understanding of how primary care (PC) practices belonging to different models manage resources to provide high-quality care. Design Multiple-case study embedded in a cross-sectional study of a random sample of 37 practices. Setting Three regions of Quebec. Participants Health care professionals and staff of 5 PC practices. Methods Five cases showing above-average results on quality-of-care indicators were purposefully selected to contrast on region, practice size, and PC model. Data were collected using an organizational questionnaire; the Team Climate Inventory, which was completed by health care professionals and staff; and 33 individual interviews. Detailed case histories were written and thematic analysis was performed. Main findings The core common feature of these practices was their ongoing effort to make trade-offs to deliver services that met their vision of high-quality care. These compromises involved the same 3 areas, but to varying degrees depending on clinic characteristics: developing a shared vision of high-quality care; aligning resource use with that vision; and balancing professional aspirations and population needs. The leadership of the physician lead was crucial. The external environment was perceived as a source of pressure and dilemmas rather than as a source of support in these matters. Conclusion Irrespective of their models, PC practices’ pursuit of high-quality care is based on a vision in which accessibility is a key component, balanced by appropriate management of available resources and of external environment expectations. Current PC reforms often create tensions rather than support PC practices in their pursuit of high-quality care. PMID:24829023

  2. Is Training in a Primary Care Internal Medicine Residency Associated with a Career in Primary Care Medicine?

    PubMed

    Stanley, Marion; O'Brien, Bridget; Julian, Katherine; Jain, Sharad; Cornett, Patricia; Hollander, Harry; Baron, Robert B; Kohlwes, R Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Professional and governmental organizations recommend an ideal US physician workforce composed of at least 40 % primary care physicians. They also support primary care residencies to promote careers in primary care. Our study examines the relationship between graduation from a primary care or categorical internal medicine residency program and subsequent career choice. We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of a cohort of internal medicine residency alumni who graduated between 2001 and 2010 from a large academic center. Our primary predictor was graduation from a primary care versus a categorical internal medicine program and our primary outcome is current career role. We performed chi-square analysis comparing responses of primary care and categorical residents. We contacted 481 out of 513 alumni, of whom 322 responded (67 %). We compared 106 responses from primary care alumni to 169 responses from categorical alumni. Fifty-four percent of primary care alumni agreed that the majority of their current clinical work is in outpatient primary care vs. 20 % of categorical alumni (p < 0.001). While 92.5 % of primary-care alumni were interested in a primary care career prior to residency, only 63 % remained interested after residency. Thirty of the 34 primary care alumni (88 %) who lost interest in a primary care career during residency agreed that their ambulatory experience during residency influenced their subsequent career choice. A higher percentage of primary care alumni practice outpatient primary care as compared to categorical alumni. Some alumni lost interest in primary care during residency. The outpatient clinic experience may impact interest in primary care.

  3. Nutritional care routines in Italy: results from the PIMAI (Project: Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy) study.

    PubMed

    Cereda, E; Lucchin, L; Pedrolli, C; D'Amicis, A; Gentile, M G; Battistini, N C; Fusco, M A; Palmo, A; Muscaritoli, M

    2010-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a common comorbidity at hospital admission. The purpose of the present report was to describe the data on nutritional care routines collected during the Project: Iatrogenic MAlnutrition in Italy (PIMAI) study, as these may be helpful to avoid iatrogenic malnutrition and improve nutritional policies. Standards of nutritional care were assessed on the basis of (1) adherence to study protocol (completeness of data collected); (2) attitude in assessing the nutritional status; (3) prescription of nutritional therapy (within 3 days) at least in patients presenting with overt malnutrition (body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m(2) or significant weight loss (>or=10% in 3 months and/or >or=5% in the last month)), regardless of its adequacy, and adherence to current guidelines and (4) attitude in monitoring nutritional status during the stay (number of weight measurements performed compared with those expected). In total, 1583 subjects were assessed. A minimum data set for performing the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 tool was available in 1284 patients (81.1%), but nutritional screening was possible in every patient by alternative analytical criteria related to food intake, anthropometry and biochemistry. However, several missing values were recorded, particularly in biochemical parameters due to lack of prescription by admission wards. According to ward practices, only 38.2% of the patients had the BMI calculated. A nutritional support was prescribed only to 26/191 patients (13.6%) presenting with overt malnutrition. Finally, we recorded that only 21.6% of the patients (207/960 were randomly selected) had their weight monitored on a scheduled basis. This reality was worse in surgical rather than medical departments (17 vs 26%; P<0.001). Present results confirm that in Italy, nutritional care routines are still poor and need improvements.

  4. Effectiveness of shared care across the interface between primary and specialty care in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Allwright, S; O'Dowd, T

    2007-07-18

    Shared care has been used in the management of many chronic conditions with the assumption that it delivers better care than either primary or specialty care alone. It has been defined as the joint participation of primary care physicians and specialty care physicians in the planned delivery of care, informed by an enhanced information exchange over and above routine discharge and referral notices. It has the potential to offer improved quality and coordination of care delivery across the primary-specialty care interface and to improve outcomes for patients. To determine the effectiveness of shared-care health service interventions designed to improve the management of chronic disease across the primary-specialty care interface. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) Specialised Register (and the database of studies awaiting assessment); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); MEDLINE (from 1966); EMBASE (from 1980) and CINAHL (from 1982). We also searched the reference lists of included studies. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series analyses of shared-care interventions for chronic disease management. The participants were primary care providers, specialty care providers and patients. The outcomes included physical health outcomes, mental health outcomes, and psychosocial health outcomes, treatment satisfaction, measures of care delivery including participation in services, delivery of care and prescribing of appropriate medications, and costs of shared care. Three review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty studies of shared care interventions for chronic disease management were identified, 19 of which were randomised controlled trials. The majority of studies examined complex multifaceted interventions and were of relatively

  5. Representations of primary care professionals about the occupational risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2010-01-01

    This was a qualitative study, based on the Social Representations Theory, with professionals that work in primary care, about the risk of HIV infection to which they are exposed in their quotidian work routine. Twelve physicians and nurses who work in two Health Centers in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were interviewed. The final analysis, carried out using the saturation of information criterion, was based on the method proposed by Structural Analysis of Narrative. The results show that the health professionals interviewed knew the infection risk in their work routine, representing it as very low in primary care, because they relate it to technological complexity which they consider does not exist in the level of assistance in which they work. They believed that the use of personal protection equipment may minimize the risks and that, nowadays, no primary care professional refuses to attend a patient due to fear of infection, even if not using all the recommended precautions.

  6. Fall Prevention in a Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Monika; Freiberger, Ellen; Geilhof, Barbara; Salb, Johannes; Hentschke, Christian; Landendoerfer, Peter; Linde, Klause; Halle, Martin; Blank, Wolfgang A

    2016-05-27

    Falls and fall-related injuries are common in community-dwelling elderly people. Effective multifactorial fall prevention programs in the primary care setting may be a promising approach to reduce the incidence rate of falls. In a cluster randomized trial in 33 general practices 378 people living independently and at high risk of falling (65 to 94 years old; 285 women) were allocated to either a 16 week exercise-based fall prevention program including muscle strengthening and challenging balance training exercises, combined with a 12 week home-based exercise program (222 participants), or to usual care (156 participants). The main outcome was number of falls over a period of 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of fall-related injuries, physical function (Timed-Up-and-Go-Test, TUG, Chair-Stand-Test, CST, modified Romberg Test), and fear of falling. In the intervention group (n=222 patients in 17 general practices) 291 falls occurred, compared to 367 falls in the usual care group (n=156 patients in 16 general practices). We observed a lower incidence rate for falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio/IRR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.35; 0.84], p=0.007) and for fall-related injuries (IRR: 0.66; [0.42; 0.94], p=0.033). Additionally, patients in the intervention group showed significant improvements in secondary endpoints (TUG: -2.39 s, [-3.91; -0.87], p=0.014; mRomberg: 1.70 s, [0.35; 3.04], p=0.037; fear of falling: -2.28 points, [-3.87; -0.69], p=0.022) compared to usual care. A complex falls prevention program in a primary care setting was effective in reducing falls and fall-related injuries in community dwelling older adults at risk.

  7. Primary care role in expanded newborn screening

    PubMed Central

    Hayeems, Robin Z.; Miller, Fiona A.; Carroll, June C.; Little, Julian; Allanson, Judith; Bytautas, Jessica P.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Brenda J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the role of primary care providers in informing and supporting families who receive positive screening results. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Ontario. Participants Family physicians, pediatricians, and midwives involved in newborn care. Main outcome measures Beliefs, practices, and barriers related to providing information to families who receive positive screening results for their newborns. Results A total of 819 providers participated (adjusted response rate of 60.9%). Of the respondents, 67.4% to 81.0% agreed that it was their responsibility to provide care to families of newborns who received positive screening results, and 64.2% to 84.8% agreed they should provide brochures or engage in general discussions about the identified conditions. Of the pediatricians, 67.3% endorsed having detailed discussions with families, but only 24.1% of family physicians and 27.6% of midwives endorsed this practice. All provider groups reported less involvement in information provision than they believed they should have. This discrepancy was most evident for family physicians: most stated that they should provide brochures (64.2%) or engage in general discussions (73.5%), but only a minority did so (15.3% and 27.7%, respectively). Family physicians reported insufficient time (42.2%), compensation (52.2%), and training (72.3%) to play this role, and only a minority agreed they were up to date (18.5%) or confident (16.5%) regarding newborn screening. Conclusion Providers of primary newborn care see an information-provision role for themselves in caring for families who receive positive newborn screening results. Efforts to further define the scope of this role combined with efforts to mitigate existing barriers are warranted. PMID:23946032

  8. Building COPD care on shaky ground: a mixed methods study from Swedish primary care professional perspective.

    PubMed

    Lundell, Sara; Tistad, Malin; Rehn, Börje; Wiklund, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Wadell, Karin

    2017-07-10

    inadequate routines and lack of resources. There is a gap between COPD treatment guidelines and the healthcare that is provided in primary care. To facilitate implementation of the guidelines several actions are needed, such as further training for professionals, additional resources, and improved organisational structure for interprofessional collaboration and patient education.

  9. Primary Care Physician Perceptions of Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Jody L.; Perkins, Susan M.; Haggstrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing cure rates for childhood cancers have resulted in a population of adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) that are at risk for late effects of cancer-directed therapy. Our objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to primary care physicians (PCPs) providing late effects screening and evaluate information tools PCPs perceive as useful. We analyzed surveys from 351 practicing internal medicine and family practice physicians nationwide. A minority of PCPs perceived that their medical training was adequate to recognize late effects of chemotherapy (27.6%), cancer surgery (36.6%), and radiation therapy (38.1%). Most PCPs (93%) had never used Children’s Oncology Group guidelines, but 86% would follow their recommendations. Most (84–86%) PCPs stated that they had never received a cancer treatment summary or survivorship care plan but (>90%) thought these documents would be useful. PCPs have a low level of awareness and receive inadequate training to recognize late effects. Overall, PCPs infrequently utilize guidelines, cancer treatment summaries, and survivorship care plans, although they perceive such tools as useful. We have identified gaps to address when providing care for CCS in routine general medical practice. PMID:24309612

  10. Examining organizational change in primary care practices: experiences from using ethnographic methods.

    PubMed

    Russell, Grant; Advocat, Jenny; Geneau, Robert; Farrell, Barbara; Thille, Patricia; Ward, Natalie; Evans, Samantha

    2012-08-01

    Qualitative methods are an important part of the primary care researcher's toolkit providing a nuanced view of the complexity in primary care reform and delivery. Ethnographic research is a comprehensive approach to qualitative data collection, including observation, in-depth interviews and document analysis. Few studies have been published outlining methodological issues related to ethnography in this setting. This paper examines some of the challenges of conducting an ethnographic study in primary care setting in Canada, where there recently have been major reforms to traditional methods of organizing primary care services. This paper is based on an ethnographic study set in primary care practices in Ontario, Canada, designed to investigate changes to organizational and clinical routines in practices undergoing transition to new, interdisciplinary Family Health Teams (FHTs). The study was set in six new FHTs in Ontario. This paper is a reflexive examination of some of the challenges encountered while conducting an ethnographic study in a primary care setting. Our experiences in this study highlight some potential benefits of and difficulties in conducting an ethnographic study in family practice. Our study design gave us an opportunity to highlight the changes in routines within an organization in transition. A study with a clinical perspective requires training, support, a mixture of backgrounds and perspectives and ongoing communication. Despite some of the difficulties, the richness of this method has allowed the exploration of a number of additional research questions that emerged during data analysis.

  11. Primary Care for Refugees: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mishori, Ranit; Aleinikoff, Shoshana; Davis, Dawn

    2017-07-15

    Since 1975, more than 3 million refugees have settled in the United States, fleeing unrest, conflict, and persecution. Refugees represent diverse ethnic, cultural, religious, socioeconomic, and educational backgrounds. Despite this heterogeneity, there are commonalities in the refugee experience. Before resettlement, all refugees must undergo an overseas medical screening to detect conditions that pose a potential health threat in the United States. On arrival, they should undergo an examination to detect diseases with high prevalence in their country of origin or departure. Refugees have higher rates of chronic pain compared with the general population, and their mental health and wellbeing are strongly influenced by their migration history. Refugees have higher rates of mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety than the general population. Some refugees have been tortured, which contributes to poorer health. Chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, are also prevalent among refugees. Many refugees may be missing routine immunizations and screenings for cancer and chronic diseases. Attention to reproductive health, oral health, and vision care will help identify and address previously unmet needs. Refugees face barriers to care as a result of cultural, language, and socioeconomic factors.

  12. Human factors in primary care telemedicine encounters.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional delivery of primary care takes place in a face-to-face transaction between provider and patient. In telemedicine, however, the transaction is 'filtered' by the distance and technology. The potential problem of filtered communication in a telemedicine encounter was examined from a human factors perspective. Patients with and without experience of telemedicine, and providers who had experience of telemedicine, were asked about patient-provider relationships in interviews and focus groups. Seven themes emerged: initial impressions, style of questions, field of view, physical interaction, social talk, control of encounter and ancillary services. This suggests that communication can be improved and better patient-provider relationships can be developed in a primary care telemedicine encounter if attention is paid to four areas of the interaction: verbal, non-verbal, relational and actions/transactional. The human factors dimension of telemedicine is an important element in delivery of health care at a distance - and is one of few factors over which the provider has direct control.

  13. Negotiating and managing partnership in primary care.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, J

    2001-09-01

    In the UK public service organisations are increasingly working together in new partnerships, networks and alliances, largely stimulated by government legislation, which aims to encourage 'joined-up' policy-making. This is particularly prevalent in health-care where local government, health authorities and trusts, voluntary and community groups are extending existing, and developing new, forms of partnership, particularly around Health Improvement Programmes and new primary care organisations. This paper explores two main aspects of how these new interorganizational relationships are being developed and managed and is based on research conducted in one case study locality. First, the new structures of partnership in primary care are mapped out, together with discussion on why these particular patterns of relationship between statutory and voluntary sector organisations have emerged, exploring both centrally and locally determined influences. Secondly, the paper explores the tensions associated with working within new policy-making and management structures, and how the additional demands of audit, performance measurement and the sheer pace of change, pose a potential threat to the partnership process.

  14. Brief interventions for depression in primary care

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess existing, brief nonpharmacologic interventions that are available for primary care physicians with minimal training in psychotherapy to use in managing depression in adult patients. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE was searched from 1996 to 2007, EMBASE was searched from 1980 to 2007, and EBM Reviews was searched from 1999 to 2007. STUDY SELECTION Several randomized controlled trials were selected using specified criteria. Selected articles were subsequently appraised and qualitatively analyzed. SYNTHESIS Significant improvements on depression scales were found in 6 out of 8 studies (P < .05) using various brief interventions and formal control groups. Successful interventions included bibliotherapy, websites based on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), and CBT-based computer programs. Completion rates were highest when interventions were shorter, more structured, and included frequent contact or reminders from study staff. Validity limitations included small sample sizes, non-blinding of studies, and an uncertain degree of generalizability. CONCLUSION Bibliotherapy, CBT-based websites, and CBT-based computer programs might be effective in assisting primary care physicians who have minimal training in psychotherapy in treating adult patients with depression. Health care personnel contact with patients undergoing these interventions might result in increased effectiveness. Future research is warranted in this area, and despite several limitations, findings from this study could help guide efforts in the development and evaluation of such research. PMID:19675262

  15. Family history in pediatric primary care.