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Sample records for rowing ergometer tests

  1. Analysis of anaerobic capacity in rowers using Wingate test on cycle and rowing ergometer.

    PubMed

    Klasnja, Aleksandar; Barak, Otto; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Drapsin, Miodrag; Knezević, Aleksandar; Grujić, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    The 30-s all-out Wingate test has been used in athletes of all sport specialties to measure the capacity for short duration, high power output while cycling. The aim of this study was to establish differences in measuring anaerobic capacity between the classic Wingate test on a cycling ergometer and the modified Wingate test on a rowing ergometer in rowers. A group of20 rowers was tested by both the cycle and rowing ergometers during 30s of maximum power to test anaerobic capacity and to make correlation between these tests. The parameters measured were the peak power and mean power. The peak power on the cycling ergometer was 475 +/- 75.1W and 522.4 +/- 81W (p < 0.05) on the rowing ergometer. The mean power on the cycling ergometer and the rowing ergometer was 344.4 +/- 51.1W and 473.7W +/- 67.2, (p < 0.05) respectively. The maximum values were achieved at the same time on both ergometers, but remained on the higher level till the end of the test on the rowing ergometer. By correlating the anaerobic parameters of the classic Wingate test and a modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer a significant positive correlation was detected in the peak power (r = 0.63, p < 0.05) as well as in the mean power (r = 0.65, p < 0.05). The results show that the rowers achieved better results of the anaerobic parameters on the rowing ergometer compared to the cycling ergometer due to a better mechanical efficiency. It is concluded that the modified Wingate test on the rowing ergometer can be used in rowers for testing their anaerobic capacity as a sport specific test ergometer since it provides more precise results.

  2. A New Submaximal Rowing Test to Predict 2,000-m Rowing Ergometer Performance.

    PubMed

    Otter, Ruby T A; Brink, Michel S; Lamberts, Robert P; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess predictive value of a new submaximal rowing test (SmRT) on 2,000-m ergometer rowing time-trial performance in competitive rowers. In addition, the reliability of the SmRT was investigated. Twenty-four competitive male rowers participated in this study. After determining individual HRmax, all rowers performed an SmRT followed by a 2,000-m rowing ergometer time trial. In addition, the SmRT was performed 4 times (2 days in between) to determine the reliability. The SmRT consists of two 6-minute stages of rowing at 70 and 80% HRmax, followed by a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax. Power was captured during the 3 stages, and 60 seconds of heart rate recovery (HRR60s) was measured directly after the third stage. Results showed that predictive value of power during the SmRT on 2,000-m rowing time also increased with stages. CVTEE% is 2.4, 1.9, and 1.3%. Pearson correlations (95% confidence interval [95% CI]) were -0.73 (-0.88 to -0.45), -0.80 (-0.94 to -0.67), and -0.93 (-0.97 to -0.84). 2,000-m rowing time and HRR60s showed no relationship. Reliability of power during the SmRT improved with the increasing intensity of the stages. The coefficient of variation (CVTEM%) was 9.2, 5.6, and 0.4%. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% CI were 0.91 (0.78-0.97), 0.92 (0.81-0.97), and 0.99 (0.97-1.00). The CVTEM% and ICC of HRR60s were 8.1% and 0.93 (0.82-0.98). In conclusion, the data of this study shows that the SmRT is a reliable test that it is able to accurately predict 2,000-m rowing time on an ergometer. The SmRT is a practical and valuable submaximal test for rowers, which can potentially assist with monitoring, fine-tuning and optimizing training prescription in rowers. PMID:25774627

  3. Comparison of Exercise Performance on Rowing and Cycle Ergometers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Donald A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare exercise performance and cardiorespiratory responses on the rowing ergometer with those on the cycle ergometer. Findings are presented and explained. (Author/MT)

  4. Influence of Ergometer Design on Physiological Responses during Rowing.

    PubMed

    Rossi, J; Piponnier, E; Vincent, L; Samozino, P; Messonnier, L

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses and rowing efficiency on 2 different rowing ergometers: stationary vs. dynamic ergometers manufactured by Concept2. 11 oarswomen and oarsmen rowed 4 min at 60% and 70% of peak power output on both ergometers (randomized order). Power output, stroke rate, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, lactate accumulation and rating of perceived exertion were recorded at each stage on the 2 ergometers. Gross and net efficiencies were computed. Exercise intensity was associated with increases in all parameters. Rowing on dynamic ergometer was associated with higher heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production and stroke rate, concomitantly to lower blood lactate accumulation but also to lower gross and net efficiencies. The present study showed that rowing efficiency and blood lactate accumulation were lower on the Concept2 dynamic ergometer than on its stationary counterpart. If the use of the Concept2 dynamic ergometer may provide some advantages (reduced risk of injuries), its utilization requires a specific evaluation of physiological responses during an incremental exercise for an adapted management of training. PMID:26212249

  5. Effect of BMI on knee joint torques in ergometer rowing.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity biomechanics during rowing in 10 normal weight (BMI 18-25), 10 overweight (BMI 25-30 kg·m⁻²), and 10 obese (BMI > 30 kg·m⁻²) participants. The results showed that BMI affects joint kinematics and primarily knee joint kinetics. The data revealed that high BMI leads to unfavorable knee joint torques, implying increased loads of the medial compartment in the knee joint that could be avoided by allowing more variable foot positioning on future designs of rowing ergometers.

  6. Sports biomechanics in the research of the Department of Biomechanics of University School of Physical Education in Poznań. Part 1. Biomechanics of rowing: tests on rowing ergometers, reconstruction and synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Lechosław B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reconstruct the early phase of scientific research conducted at the Department of Biomechanics of the University School of Physical Education in Poznan, particularly the work on biomechanics of rowing, conducted as part of the Ministerial Project PR 105, entitled "The effectiveness of training and competition as well as regeneration in sports". Three kinds of research have been described, carried out with the use of the rowing ergometers. The first was the research on neuromuscular coordination in the rowing cycle, the second was the research on kinematic and dynamic characteristics of rowing on the Universal Rowing Ergometer UEW - 1, while the last one concerned determination of maximum forces generated by functional muscle groups in two characteristic rowing positions within the closed biochain of the torso and the limbs.

  7. Anthropometric determinants of rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females.

    PubMed

    Podstawski, R; Choszcz, Dj; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR - 0.1130 LR (2) - 0.0589 LN (2) + 29.2157 CPI(2) + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI - 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  8. ANTHROPOMETRIC DETERMINANTS OF ROWING ERGOMETER PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICALLY INACTIVE COLLEGIATE FEMALES

    PubMed Central

    Choszcz, DJ; Konopka, S; Klimczak, J; Starczewski, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate anthropometric characteristics as determinants of 500 m rowing ergometer performance in physically inactive collegiate females. In this cross-sectional study, which included 196 collegiate females aged 19-23 years not participating in regular physical activities, body mass (BM), body height (BH), length of upper limbs (LA), length of lower limbs (LL), body mass index (BMI), slenderness index (SI), and the Choszcz-Podstawski index (CPI) were measured and a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed. Participants performed 500 m maximal effort on a Concept II rowing ergometer. BM, BH, LA, LL, and the BMI, SI and CPI indices were found to be statistically significant determinants of 500 m performance. The best results (T) were achieved by females whose BH ranged from 170 to 180 cm, with LA and LL ranging from 75 to 80 cm and 85 to 90 cm, respectively. The best fitting statistical model was identified as: T = 11.6793 LR – 0.1130 LR2 – 0.0589 LN2 + 29.2157 CPI2 + 0.1370 LR·LN - 2.6926 LR·CPI – 211.7796. This study supports a need for additional studies focusing on understanding the importance of anthropometric differences in rowing ergometer performance, which could lead to establishing a better quality reference for evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness tested using a rowing ergometer in collegiate females. PMID:25609890

  9. Anthropometric and metabolic determinants of 6,000-m rowing ergometer performance in internationally competitive rowers.

    PubMed

    Mikulic, Pavle

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anthropometric and metabolic determinants of performance during 6,000-m of rowing on an ergometer. The sample comprised 25 internationally successful male heavyweight rowers (mean +/- SD: age 22.2 +/- 4.8 years, rowing experience 8.8 +/- 4.6 years, stature 1.91 +/- 0.05 m, body mass 91.7 +/- 5.9 kg, maximal oxygen uptake 5.53 +/- 0.30 L x min(-1)). The rowers completed an incremental maximal exercise test on a rowing ergometer and, within 2 weeks of this test, also completed a 6,000-m rowing ergometer time trial (mean +/- SD: 1195.4 +/- 36.1 seconds). The strongest correlates (r > 0.5, p < 0.05) with performance were lean body mass (r = -0.767), power output at ventilatory threshold (r = -0.743), power output at maximal oxygen uptake (r = -0.732), body mass (r = -0.693), chest girth (r = -0.598), relaxed arm girth (r = -0.574), forced vital capacity (r = -0.519), and arm span (r = -0.505). Stepwise multiple linear regression procedures indicated that the model comprising a combination of anthropometric and metabolic variables is the best predictor of performance (adjusted R2 = 0.722), followed by models comprising anthropometric (adjusted R2 = 0.575) and metabolic (adjusted R2 = 0.530) variables alone. The results suggest that 6,000-m ergometer performance is determined mainly by power output at ventilatory threshold (58.7% of explained variance). Based on the obtained correlations and regression models, it can be concluded that rowers competing over a 6,000 m distance on a rowing ergometer should devote their training time to the improvement of lean body mass and to the improvement of power output corresponding to ventilatory threshold.

  10. Comparison of rowing on a concept 2 stationary and dynamic ergometer.

    PubMed

    Benson, Aaron; Abendroth, Julianne; King, Deborah; Swensen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical and physiological responses to rowing 1000 m at a power output equivalent to a 2000 m race were compared in 34 collegiate rowers (17 women, 17 men) rowing on a stationary and dynamic Concept 2 ergometer. Stroke ratio, peak handle force, rate of force development, impulse, and respiratory exchange ratio decreased by 15.7, 14.8, 10.9, 10.2 and 1.9%, respectively, on the dynamic ergometer. In contrast, percent time to peak force and stroke rate increased by 10.5 and 12.6%, respectively, during dynamic ergometry; the changes in stroke rate and impulse were greater for men than women. Last, VO2 was 5.1% higher and efficiency 5. 3% lower on the dynamic ergometer for men. Collegiate rowers used higher stoke rates and lower peak stroke forces to achieve a similar power output while rowing at race pace on the dynamic ergometer, which may have increased the cardiopulmonary demand and possibly reduced force production in the primary movers. Differences were more pronounced in males than females; this dichotomy may be more due to dynamic ergometer familiarity than sex. Key pointsWhen rowing at a constant power output, all rowers used higher stroke rates and lower stroke forces on the Concept 2 Dynamic ergometer as compared to the Concept 2 Stationary ergometer.When rowing at a constant power output, cardiopulmonary demand was higher for all rowers, as measured by heart rate, on the Concept 2 Dynamic ergometer as compared to the Concept 2 Stationary ergometer.When rowing at a constant power output, efficiency was lower for male rowers on the Concept 2 Dynamic ergometer as compared to the Concept 2 Stationary ergometer.

  11. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer.

    PubMed

    Shaharudin, Shazlin; Zanotto, Damiano; Agrawal, Sunil

    2014-12-01

    The slides ergometer (SE) was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE) to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE) and fixed ergometers (FE). The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 %) and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %). Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase. Key pointsThree muscle synergies were extracted during maximal rowing on both fixed and slides ergometerUntrained subjects emphasized leg muscles while rowing on SEUntrained subjects focused on back muscles during FE rowing. PMID:25435771

  12. Higher rate of fat oxidation during rowing compared with cycling ergometer exercise across a range of exercise intensities.

    PubMed

    Egan, B; Ashley, D T; Kennedy, E; O'Connor, P L; O'Gorman, D J

    2016-06-01

    The relative contribution of carbohydrate and fat oxidation to energy expenditure during exercise is dependent on variables including exercise intensity, mode, and recruited muscle mass. This study investigated patterns of substrate utilization during two non-weightbearing exercise modalities, namely cycling and rowing. Thirteen young, moderately trained males performed a continuous incremental (3-min stages) exercise test to exhaustion on separate occasions on an electronically braked cycle (CYC) ergometer and an air-braked rowing (ROW) ergometer, respectively. On two further occasions, participants performed a 20-min steady-state exercise bout at ∼50%VO2peak on the respective modalities. Despite similar oxygen consumption, rates of fat oxidation (FATox ) were ∼45% higher during ROW compared with CYC (P < 0.05) across a range of power output increments. The crossover point for substrate utilization occurred at a higher relative exercise intensity for ROW than CYC (57.8 ± 2.1 vs 42.1 ± 3.6%VO2peak , P < 0.05). During steady-state submaximal exercise, the higher FATox during ROW compared with CYC was maintained (P < 0.05), but absolute FATox were 42% (CYC) and 28% (ROW) lower than during incremental exercise. FATox is higher during ROW compared with CYC exercise across a range of exercise intensities matched for energy expenditure, and is likely as a consequence of larger muscle mass recruited during ROW.

  13. A comparison of electromyography and stroke kinematics during ergometer and on-water rowing.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Mahony, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed muscle recruitment patterns and stroke kinematics during ergometer and on-water rowing to validate the accuracy of rowing ergometry. Male rowers (n = 10; age 21 ± 2 years, height 1.90 ± 0.05 m and body mass 83.3 ± 4.8 kg) performed 3 × 3 min exercise bouts, at heart and stroke rates equivalent to 75, 85 and 95% VO2peak, on both dynamic and stationary rowing ergometers, and on water. During exercise, synchronised data for surface electromyography (EMG) and 2D kinematics were recorded. Overall muscle activity was quantified by the integration of rmsEMG and averaged for each 10% interval of the stroke cycle. Muscle activity significantly increased in rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM) (P <0.01), as exercise intensity increased. Comparing EMG data across conditions revealed significantly (P <0.05) greater RF and VM activity during on-water rowing at discrete 10% intervals of stroke cycle. In addition, the drive/recovery ratio was significantly lower during dynamic ergometry compared to on-water (40 ± 1 vs. 44 ± 1% at 95%, P <0.01). Results suggest that significant differences exist while comparing recruitment and kinematic patterns between on-water and ergometer rowing. These differences may be due to altered acceleration and deceleration of moving masses on-ergometer not perfectly simulating the on-water scenario.

  14. Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L.; Bynum, B. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ergometer is described that has a pedal driven direct current motor as a load and includes a frame for supporting the body of a person in either a sitting or a prone position. The pedals may be operated by either the feet or the hands. The electrical circuitry of the ergometer includes means for limiting the load applied to the pedals as a function of work being performed, heart rate, and increases in heart rate.

  15. Determinants of 2,000 m rowing ergometer performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Ingham, S A; Whyte, G P; Jones, K; Nevill, A M

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the physiological determinants of performance during rowing over 2,000 m on an ergometer in finalists from World Championship rowing or sculling competitions from all categories of competion rowing (19 male and 13 female heavyweight, 4 male and 5 female lightweight). Discontinuous incremental rowing to exhaustion established the blood lactate threshold, maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and power at VO(2max); five maximal strokes assessed maximal force, maximal power and stroke length. These results were compared to maximal speed during a 2,000 m ergometer time trial. The strongest correlations were for power at VO(2max), maximal power and maximal force (r=0.95; P<0.001). Correlations were also observed for VO(2max) (r=0.88, P<0.001) and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) at the blood lactate threshold (r=0.87, P=0.001). The physiological variables were included in a stepwise regression analysis to predict performance speed (metres per second). The resultant model included power at VO(2max), VO(2) at the blood lactate threshold, power at the 4 mmol x l(-1) concentration of blood lactate and maximal power which together explained 98% of the variance in the rowing performance over 2,000 m on an ergometer. The model was validated in 18 elite rowers, producing limits of agreement from -0.006 to 0.098 m x s(-1) for speed of rowing over 2,000 m on the ergometer, equivalent to times of -1.5 to 6.9 s (-0.41% to 1.85%). Together, power at VO(2max), VO(2) at the blood lactate threshold, power at 4 mmol x l(-1) blood lactate concentration and maximal power could be used to predict rowing performance.

  16. Ergometer error and biological variation in power output in a performance test with three cycle ergometers.

    PubMed

    Paton, C D; Hopkins, W G

    2006-06-01

    When physical performance is monitored with an ergometer, random error arising from the ergometer combines with biological variation from the subject to limit the precision of estimation of performance changes. We report here the contributions of ergometer error and biological variation to the error of measurement in a performance test with two popular cycle ergometers (air-braked Kingcycle, mobile SRM crankset) and a relatively new inexpensive mobile ergometer (PowerTap hub). Eleven well-trained male cyclists performed a familiarization trial followed by three 5-min time trials within 2 wk on a racing cycle fitted with the SRM and PowerTap and mounted on the Kingcycle. Mean power output in each trial was recorded with all ergometers simultaneously. A novel analysis using mixed modelling of log-transformed mean power provided estimates of the standard error of measurement as a coefficient of variation and its components arising from the ergometer and the cyclists. The usual errors of measurement were: Kingcycle 2.2 %, PowerTap 1.5 %, and SRM 1.6 % (90 % confidence limits +/- 1.3). The components of these errors arising purely from the ergometers and the cyclists were: Kingcycle 1.8 %, PowerTap 0.9 %, SRM 1.1 %, and cyclists 1.2 % (+/- 1.5). Thus, ergometer errors and biological variation made substantial contributions to the usual error of measurement. Use of the best ergometers and of test protocols that reduce biological variation would improve monitoring of the small changes that matter to elite athletes.

  17. Performance and blood lactate on Gjessing and Concept II rowing ergometers.

    PubMed

    Lormes, W; Buckwitz, R; Rehbein, H; Steinacker, J M

    1993-09-01

    The Gjessing (GE) and the wind resistance (Concept II, CII) rowing ergometers were compared in 11 trained subjects during incremental exercise. Maximum power was 255 (200-370) W on GE, but 294 (204-393) W in CII (median and range, p < 0.05). If power was directly measured by a strain gauge and a displacement transducer in the CII, a 5.1% (3.2%-7.8%) higher maximum performance was obtained (314 [223-413] W, p < 0.05). Maximum stroke rates were higher in GE (33 [27-37]/min) than in CII (29 [24-35]/min, NS). Blood lactate increased faster with work rate and lactic anaerobic threshold was therefore lower in GE. Blood lactate was higher for every heart rate for GE compared to CII. This suggests higher anaerobic effort in GE rowing.

  18. The bicycle ergometer for muscle power testing.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, M; Brassard, A; Cuerrier, J P

    1983-03-01

    The force-velocity relationship implies that the faster a contracting muscle is permitted to shorten, the weaker it becomes or the slower a contracting muscle is permitted to shorten, the stronger it becomes until it reaches maximal isometric tension. The relationship is hyperbolic for a denervated muscle but is inverse and linear for functionally innervated muscle groups. When the force of contraction is multiplied by the velocity of contraction, a power production curve is obtained. The purposes of the study were to examine the force-velocity relationship on a standard bicycle ergometer, to deduce a power-velocity curve, to compare the results of young men and women and to see if the measures were reproducible. Fifty-eight young men and women volunteered for the study. Testing consisted of pedalling as quickly as possible for five seconds at resistance settings from 2 to 7-kg. In order to evaluate the reproducibility of the scores, retesting was done one hour later. It was shown that the relationship between the resistance settings and the number of revolutions completed by the male and female subjects was inverse and linear. The higher the resistance setting was, the larger was the difference in the scores of the young men and women. When a power curve was derived for each group, a peak power was only identified in the female subjects and this was encountered at a 5-kg resistance setting. The scores obtained at a resistance setting of 5 and 7 kg for female and male subjects respectively showed the best reproducibility. The bicycle ergometer may not be used as an alternative but as a complementary tool to an isokinetic dynamometer.

  19. Relative shank to thigh length is associated with different mechanisms of power production during elite male ergometer rowing.

    PubMed

    Greene, Andrew J; Sinclair, Peter J; Dickson, Michael H; Colloud, Floren; Smith, Richard M

    2009-11-01

    The effect of anthropometric differences in shank to thigh length ratio upon timing and magnitude of joint power production during the drive phase of the rowing stroke was investigated in 14 elite male rowers. Rowers were tested on the RowPerfect ergometer which was instrumented at the handle and foot stretcher to measure force generation, and a nine segment inverse dynamics model used to calculate the rower's joint and overall power production. Rowers were divided into two groups according to relative shank thigh ratio. Time to half lumbar power generation was significantly earlier in shorter shank rowers (p = 0.028) compared to longer shank rowers, who showed no lumbar power generation during the same period of the drive phase. Rowers with a relatively shorter shank demonstrated earlier lumbar power generation during the drive phase resulting from restricted rotation of the pelvic segment requiring increased lumbar extension in these rowers. Earlier lumbar power generation and extension did not appear to directly affect performance measures of the short shank group, and so can be attributed to a technical adaptation developed to maximise rowing performance.

  20. Relative shank to thigh length is associated with different mechanisms of power production during elite male ergometer rowing.

    PubMed

    Greene, Andrew J; Sinclair, Peter J; Dickson, Michael H; Colloud, Floren; Smith, Richard M

    2009-11-01

    The effect of anthropometric differences in shank to thigh length ratio upon timing and magnitude of joint power production during the drive phase of the rowing stroke was investigated in 14 elite male rowers. Rowers were tested on the RowPerfect ergometer which was instrumented at the handle and foot stretcher to measure force generation, and a nine segment inverse dynamics model used to calculate the rower's joint and overall power production. Rowers were divided into two groups according to relative shank thigh ratio. Time to half lumbar power generation was significantly earlier in shorter shank rowers (p = 0.028) compared to longer shank rowers, who showed no lumbar power generation during the same period of the drive phase. Rowers with a relatively shorter shank demonstrated earlier lumbar power generation during the drive phase resulting from restricted rotation of the pelvic segment requiring increased lumbar extension in these rowers. Earlier lumbar power generation and extension did not appear to directly affect performance measures of the short shank group, and so can be attributed to a technical adaptation developed to maximise rowing performance. PMID:20169760

  1. Ergometer training volume and previous injury predict back pain in rowing; strategies for injury prevention and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Fiona; Gissane, Conor; McGregor, Alison

    2014-11-01

    The most commonly reported injury site in rowers is the lower back. Research in recent years has focused on epidemiology and biomechanical analyses to try and understand mechanisms that contribute to this injury's onset. Injury surveillance mainly comprises retrospective questionnaires and reviews of medical records with a lack of prospective data. Of studies that reported 12-month data, the incidence of low back pain ranged from 31.8 to 51% of the cohort. Of the limited studies that specifically examined low back pain in rowers, (1) history of lumbar spine injury and (2) volume of ergometer training were the most significant risk factors for injury onset. Studies of technique on the rowing ergometer have indicated the importance of lumbopelvic rotation during rowing. Greater pelvic rotation at either end of the stroke is ideal-as opposed to lumbar flexion and extension; this tends to be poorly demonstrated in novice rowers on ergometers. Furthermore, technique can deteriorate with the demands of rowing intensity and duration, which puts the rower returning from injury at additional risk. PMID:25257230

  2. Critical velocity: a predictor of 2000-m rowing ergometer performance in NCAA D1 female collegiate rowers.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Smith, Abbie E; Fukuda, David H; Dwyer, Teddi R; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the use of the critical velocity test as a means of predicting 2000-m rowing ergometer performance in female collegiate rowers, and to study the relationship of selected physiological variables on performance times. Thirty-five female collegiate rowers (mean ± s: age 19.3 ± 1.3 years; height 1.70 ± 0.06 m; weight 69.5 ± 7.2 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Rowers were divided into two categories based on rowing experience: varsity (more than 1 year collegiate experience) and novice (less than 1 year collegiate experience). All rowers performed two continuous graded maximal oxygen consumption tests (familiarization and baseline) to establish maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), peak power output, and power output at ventilatory threshold. Rowers then completed a critical velocity test, consisting of four time-trials at various distances (400 m, 600 m, 800 m, and 1000 m) on two separate days, with 15 min rest between trials. Following the critical velocity test, rowers completed a 2000-m time-trial. Absolute VO(2max) was the strongest predictor of 2000-m performance (r = 0.923) in varsity rowers, with significant correlations also observed for peak power output and critical velocity (r = 0.866 and r = 0.856, respectively). In contrast, critical velocity was the strongest predictor of 2000-m performance in novice rowers (r = 0.733), explaining 54% of the variability in performance. These findings suggest the critical velocity test may be more appropriate for evaluating performance in novice rowers.

  3. Metabolic parameters for ramp versus step incremental cycle ergometer tests.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Jorge M; Housh, Terry J; Camic, Clayton L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Traylor, Daniel A; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine mean differences and the patterns of responses for oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O(2)), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ramp (15 W·min(-1)) versus step (30 W increments every 2 min) incremental cycle ergometer tests. Fourteen subjects (age and body mass of 23.2 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD ) years and 71.1 ± 10.1 kg, respectively) visited the laboratory on separate occasions. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with appropriate follow-up procedures, as well as paired t tests, were used to analyze the data. In addition, polynomial regression analyses were used to determine the patterns of responses for each dependent variable for the ramp and step tests. The ramp protocol resulted in lower mean [Formula: see text]O(2) and HR values at the common power outputs than the step protocol with no differences in RPE. The increased amount of work performed during the step (total work = 75.83 kJ) versus ramp (total work = 65.60 kJ) tests at the common power outputs may have contributed to the greater [Formula: see text]O(2) and HR values. The polynomial regression analyses showed that most subjects had the same patterns of responses for the ramp and step incremental tests for HR (86%) and RPE (93%) but different patterns for [Formula: see text]O(2) (71%). The findings from the present study suggested that the protocol selection for an incremental cycle ergometer test can affect the mean values for [Formula: see text]O(2) and HR, as well as the [Formula: see text]O(2) - power output relationship.

  4. beta-Endorphin immunoreactive material and authentic beta-endorphin in the plasma of males undergoing anaerobic exercise on a rowing ergometer.

    PubMed

    Schulz, A; Harbach, H; Katz, N; Geiger, L; Teschemacher, H

    2000-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-endorphin immunoreactive material (beta-endorphin IRM), and authentic beta-endorphin (1 -31) have been determined in the plasma of 23 volunteers undergoing anaerobic exercise on a rowing ergometer. The volunteers had different histories of training from occasional physical activities up to intensive preparation for international rowing competitions. ACTH and beta-endorphin-IRM were determined using commercially available immunometric assays; for determination of beta-endorphin (1-31) a highly specific two-site fluid phase immunoprecipitation radioimmunoassay was developed, which did not cross-react with any beta-endorphin derivative or any other opioid peptide tested. In agreement with reports from the literature ACTH and beta-endorphin-IRM concentrations in the plasma rose upon anaerobic exercise in all 23 subjects; this increase in the ACTH and beta-endorphin IRM levels was significantly correlated with the increase of lactate levels observed upon anaerobic exercise. Authentic beta-endorphin (1-31) was only found in two plasma samples containing minor concentrations of the peptide. We conclude that the beta-endorphin immunoreactive material released into blood under anaerobic exercise is identical with authentic beta-endorphin (1-31) only to a minor extent and thus should not be called "beta-endorphin". The major part of the material in fact released into the blood upon anaerobic exercise is probably identical with beta-lipotropin and further components so far unknown. PMID:11071055

  5. Optimal Test Characteristics for Maximal Anaerobic Work on the Bicycle Ergometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Data from two separate experiments conducted to ascertain the optimum protocol for a maximum anaerobic work output test on the bicycle ergometer indicated that the test duration needs to be approximately forty seconds and the optimal frictional resistance five to six kilograms. (MB)

  6. An MR-compatible bicycle ergometer for in-magnet whole-body human exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Jeneson, Jeroen A L; Schmitz, Joep P J; Hilbers, Peter A J; Nicolay, Klaas

    2010-01-01

    An MR-compatible ergometer was developed for in-magnet whole-body human exercise testing. Designed on the basis of conventional mechanically braked bicycle ergometers and constructed from nonferrous materials, the ergometer was implemented on a 1.5-T whole-body MR scanner. A spectrometer interface was constructed using standard scanner hardware, complemented with custom-built parts and software to enable gated data acquisition during exercise. High-quality 31P NMR spectra were reproducibly obtained from the medial head of the quadriceps muscle of the right leg of eight healthy subjects during two-legged high-frequency pedaling (80 revolutions per minute) at three incremental workloads, including maximal. Muscle phosphocreatine content dropped 82%, from 32.2+/-1.0 mM at rest to 5.7+/-1.1 mM at maximal workload (mean+/-standard error; n=8), indicating that the majority of quadriceps motor units were recruited. The cardiovascular load of the exercise was likewise significant, as evidenced by heart rates of 150 (+/-10%) beats per minute, measured immediately afterward. As such, the newly developed MR bicycling exercise equipment offers a powerful new tool for clinical musculoskeletal and cardiovascular MR investigation. The basic design of the ergometer is highly generic and adaptable for application on a wide selection of whole-body MR scanners.

  7. Mechanical load on the ventilatory muscles during an incremental cycle ergometer test.

    PubMed

    Wanke, T; Formanek, D; Schenz, G; Popp, W; Gatol, H; Zwick, H

    1991-04-01

    An incremental cycle ergometer test performed with a total of 40 healthy subjects (25 male, 15 female) was used to study the mechanical load on the ventilatory muscles. The parameters for the mechanical load on the ventilatory muscles are the time integral of the oesophageal pressure and the mean oesophageal pressure change per time unit (dPoe/dTI) of each breathing manoeuvre. The pressure-time integral is the area delimited by the oesophageal pressure trace and the inspiratory time axis. It is expressed as a fraction of the product of the subject's maximum oesophageal pressure (Poe(max)) and total breath cycle duration (TTOT). This parameter is called oesophageal tension time index (TTIoe). The relationship between minute ventilation and these two parameters during ergometer test showed gender-specific variations because of the differences between men and women as to anthropometric data, lung function parameters and maximum ventilatory muscle strength. Moreover, the dPoe/dTI values significantly depend on the breathing frequency. The present study has provided evidence that, in general, the TTIoe and dPoe/dTI values in terms of a specific minute ventilation (VE) are higher in women than in men. Parameters for the mechanical load on the ventilatory muscles regarding the level of pressure to be generated as well as the duration and velocity of muscle contraction should therefore also allow for the gender of the patients.

  8. Exponential protocols for cardiopulmonary exercise testing on treadmill and cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Jamison, J P; Megarry, J; Riley, M

    2010-01-01

    An extended exponential exercise protocol was validated by comparing submaximal and maximal parameters with those obtained by linear protocol. Normal subjects (n = 16, 20-69 years) undertook maximal exercise tests on treadmill and cycle ergometer. The subjects had a wide range of exercise capacity, and all were accommodated by the protocol. Mean oxygen uptake (V(O2)) agreed between protocols at gas exchange anaerobic threshold (theta) (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.06 l min(-1)) and at peak (95% CI of difference -0.1 to +0.1 l min(-1)). Mean pre-thetaDeltaV(O2)/Deltawork rate (W) slope on the cycle ergometer agreed between protocols (95% CI of the difference -0.9 to +0.25 ml min(-1) W(-1)). Post-thetaDeltaV(O2)/DeltaW slope was steeper than pre-theta, and steeper by linear than by exponential protocol (P = 0.0001). It is concluded that the exponential protocol is valid for the measurement of submaximal and maximal exercise parameters in subjects with a wide range of exercise capacity.

  9. Cycle ergometer tests in children with cystic fibrosis: reliability and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Kent, Lisa; O'Neill, Brenda; Davison, Gareth; Nevill, Alan; Murray, Joyce; Reid, Alastair; Elborn, J Stuart; Bradley, Judy M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and feasibility of cycle ergometer tests in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Children with CF aged 6-11 years and with stable lung disease performed two cycle ergometry tests (intermittent sprint and continuous incremental) on two occasions 1 week apart. Reliability was assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Bias was considered to be significant at P < 0.05 level and a coefficient of variation (CV) below 10% was considered acceptable. Feasibility and acceptability data were also collected. Sixteen children with CF completed the study: (9M:7F), 8.7(1.8) years, FEV(1) %predicted: 88.1(17.4). Power measurements recorded during the intermittent sprint test demonstrated significant bias over days (P < 0.05) and CVs were between 10% and 15%. Peak work capacity recorded during the continuous incremental test was reliable (bias P < 0.05, CV < 10%), as was heart rate and SpO(2) recorded during both tests (bias P < 0.05, CV < 10%). No problems were experienced in administering the tests and all children completed both tests on two separate occasions. There was a mixed response to questions on acceptability of tests. This is the first study to provide information on the reliability of performance measures recorded during an intermittent sprint protocol (peak power) and a continuous incremental cycle ergometry (peak work capacity) in children with CF.

  10. Comparison between treadmill and bicycle ergometer exercise tests in mild-to-moderate hypertensive Nigerians

    PubMed Central

    Abiodun, Olugbenga O; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Ajayi, Olufemi E; Ogunyemi, Suraj A; Amadi, Valentine N; Adeyeye, Victor O

    2015-01-01

    Background Comparative cardiovascular responses to treadmill and bicycle ergometer (bike) exercise tests in hypertensive Nigerians are not known. This study compared cardiovascular responses to the two modes of exercise testing in hypertensives using maximal exercise protocols. Methods One hundred and ten male subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension underwent maximal treadmill and bike test one after the other at a single visit in a simple random manner. Paired-sampled t-test was used to compare responses to both exercise tests while chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables. Results The maximal heart rate (P<0.001), peak systolic blood pressure (P=0.02), rate pressure product (P<0.001), peak oxygen uptake (P<0.001), and exercise capacity (P<0.001) in metabolic equivalents were signifcantly higher on the treadmill than on the bike. Conclusion Higher cardiovascular responses on treadmill in Nigerian male hypertensives in this study, similar to findings in non-hypertensives and non-Nigerians in earlier studies, suggest that treadmill may be of better diagnostic utility in our population. PMID:26316811

  11. Asymmetry in elite rowers: effect of ergometer design and stroke rate.

    PubMed

    Fohanno, Vincent; Nordez, Antoine; Smith, Richard; Colloud, Floren

    2015-09-01

    Between limb movement asymmetries and foot force production asymmetries are thought to be detrimental for both rower's performance and risk of injury, particularly when rowing frequently on ergometers. Several ergometers with different designs can be used by rowers as part of their indoor training. Hence, this study aimed to compare asymmetries in lower limb joint kinematics and foot force production with respect to ergometer design and rowing intensity. A new symmetry index was proposed to assess these asymmetries in elite rowers during a test on three ergometers. Additionally, the asymmetry in lower limb length was assessed to investigate its relationship with kinematic and kinetic asymmetries. Parameters describing medium (5-10%) or high (>10%) asymmetries were compared between rowing ergometers and intensities. Results indicated medium asymmetries for the ankle joint angle and hip-knee joint accelerations and high asymmetries for the resultant force and the ankle joint acceleration associated with a low inter-stroke variability. Kinetic asymmetry was neither correlated to kinematic asymmetry nor with lower limb length asymmetry. The use of a mobile ergometer led to higher joint acceleration asymmetries. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relation between these findings and muscular adaptations that may increase the risk of lower-back injury. PMID:26266336

  12. Effects of maximal oxygen uptake test and prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on the quiet standing control.

    PubMed

    Mello, Roger Gomes Tavares; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Nadal, Jurandir

    2010-06-01

    This work aims at testing the influence of peripheral and central fatigue, after maximal oxygen uptake test (Test1) and prolonged (Test2) cycle ergometer exercises, respectively, on sway density curve (SDC) parameters of postural control. Sixteen healthy male subjects were submitted to stabilometric tests, before and after the exercises. The Test1 was started at 12.5W, with 12.5W/min increments and 50rpm cadence until exhaustion. From the respiratory gas exchange signals, the first ventilatory threshold was obtained by the v-slope method. After a minimum of 72h, the subjects performed the Test2 for 60min, at a power output corresponding to 70% of such threshold. Before and just after these exercises, a set of 10 stabilometric trials of 50s was performed, alternating the eyes open and closed conditions, intercalated by a 10s resting period. The resulting signals were used to obtain the SDC. The Test1 caused decrease of the mean of peaks duration in SDC (p<0.05), decreasing the stability level, with small changes in the rates of central nervous system (CNS) and muscular torque controls. Conversely, Test2 increased the mean of time intervals between peaks in SDC (p<0.05), thus decreasing the CNS commands rate with minor changes in the stability level. Visual privation had a greater effect on body sway than these exercises, which were applied to muscles that are not the main actuators in body sway control. Concluding, this study allowed discriminating the effects of exercise intensities on body sway control.

  13. Reproducibility of incremental maximal cycle ergometer testing in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Marciniuk, D. D.; Watts, R. E.; Gallagher, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Exercise testing has become an important tool in the diagnosis and treatment of restrictive lung disease. The reproducibility of variables measured during exercise testing was examined in subjects with stable restrictive lung disease. METHODS--Six subjects, who had never previously undergone exercise testing, each underwent three maximal incremental exercise studies on a bicycle ergometer conducted during a 28 day period. RESULTS--Data collected at rest, before exercise, were not significantly different during the three study days. Comparison of results at the end of the exercise tests from the three studies also revealed no evidence of a significant learning effect. Reproducibility of exercise performance by subjects was assessed by the coefficient of variation. The mean within subject coefficient of variation at the end of the exercise tests was 5.6% for work rate, 7.9% for exercise duration, and 9.5% for dyspnoea. The mean within subject coefficient of variation obtained at the end of the exercise tests was 5.3% for oxygen uptake (VO2), 2.5% for oxygen saturation (SaO2), 4.0% for heart rate (HR), 5.5% for minute ventilation (VE), 5.8% for respiratory frequency (f), and 4.6% for tidal volume (VT). The mean within subject coefficient of variation at 40% and 70% of maximal work rates for VO2 was 5.7% and 5.6% respectively, for SaO2 1.3% and 1.5%, for HR 4.8% and 4.0%, for VE 6.3% and 6.6%, for f 10.1% and 7.8%, and for VT 6.0% and 4.5%. CONCLUSIONS--Variables measured during clinical exercise testing in subjects with restrictive lung disease are highly reproducible. No significant learning effect was found on repeated testing in subjects who had never previously undergone exercise testing. PMID:8236071

  14. Influence of cycle ergometer characteristics on the adolescents' anaerobic abilities testing.

    PubMed

    Delgado, A; Peres, G; Allemandou, A; Monod, H

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether the reported lower values of anaerobic abilities in children and adolescents, both in absolute and related to bodyweight values, as compared to adults can be explained, partially at least, by a non-optimal testing apparatus. So, they cannot express their anaerobic abilities. Specifically, we examined the force-velocity (F-V) relationship on a mechanical cycle ergometer, in 23 adolescents and 11 adults, with two wheels of very different weights: 6.3 kg (Wh6) and 18 kg (Wh18). A higher wheel inertia might explain a late reach or no reach of the true peak velocity and the maximal anaerobic power (PmaxAn). The adolescent group showed higher Vo (V for zero braking force) values with Wh6 (238 +/- 14 vs 223 +/- 16 rpm) (P < 0.001) than with Wh18. The absolute or relative PmaxAn values for this group were slightly higher, but not significantly, with Wh6 (10.6 +/- 2.2 vs 10.2 +/- 1.9 W/kg). The delay to reach peak velocity was higher with Wh18 than with Wh6 (P < 0.001) in the two groups. In addition, the delay was always higher (P < 0.001) in the adolescent group compared to the adult group for both wheels. This suggests that the fatigue related to the observed late reach and the rapid decrease of power over time could lead to an underestimation of the PmaxAn peak in children.

  15. Influence of inspiratory resistance on performance during graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Heus, Ronald; den Hartog, Emiel A; Kistemaker, Lyda J A; van Dijk, Walter J; Swenker, Gerard

    2004-11-01

    Due to more stringent requirements to protect personnel against hazardous gasses, the inspiratory resistance of the present generation of respiratory protective devices tends to increase. Therefore an important question is to what extent inspiratory resistance may increase without giving problems during physical work. In this study the effects of three levels (0.24; 1.4 and 8.3 kPa s l(-1)) of inspiratory resistance were tested on maximal voluntary performance. Nine male subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer with and without these three levels of inspiratory resistance. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, time to exhaustion and external work were measured. The results of these experiments showed that increasing inspiratory resistance led to a reduction of time to exhaustion (TTE) on a graded exercise test(GXT). Without inspiratory resistance the mean TTE was 11.9 min, the three levels of resistance gave the following mean TTE's: 10.7, 7.8 and 2.7 min. This study showed that TTE on a GXT can be predicted when physical fitness (VO2-max) of the subject and inspiratory resistance are known. The metabolic rate of the subjects was higher with inspiratory resistance, but no differences were found between the three selected inspiratory loads. Other breathing parameters as minute ventilation, tidal volume, expiration time and breathing frequency showed no or minor differences between the inspiratory resistances. The most important conclusion of these experiments is that the overall workload increases due to an increase in inspiratory resistance by wearing respiratory protective devices.

  16. Effects of an Aerobic Rowing Training Regimen in Young Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Ana Maria; Sardinha, Luis Bettencount; Pitetti, Kenneth H.

    2001-01-01

    Eight young adult males with Down syndrome received a 16-week rowing ergometry training regimen. Following training, no changes in cardiovascular fitness were found but participants did achieve significantly higher levels of work performance on both treadmill and rowing ergometer tests than did a control group. (Contains references.) (Author/DB)

  17. Reliability of a Cycle Ergometer Peak Power Test in Running-based Team Sport Athletes: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P

    2015-07-01

    Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.

  18. Effects of maximal oxygen uptake test and prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on sway density plot of postural control.

    PubMed

    Mello, Roger G T; Oliveira, Liliam F; Nadal, Jurandir

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at testing the influence of the maximal oxygen uptake test and prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on sway density plot (SDP) parameters of postural control. Sixteen healthy male subjects were submitted to stabilometric tests with eye open and closed, before and after two different exercises. The maximal oxygen uptake test caused decrease of the mean duration of peaks in SDP, decreasing the stability level, without modify the rates of central and muscular torque controls. Conversely, 60 min exercise increased the mean time interval between two consecutive peaks in SDP, thus decreasing the control rate but not changing the stability level. Visual privation had a greater effect on body sway than these exercises, which were applied to muscles that are not the main actuators in body sway control. Concluding, the changes in postural control are dependent on the intensity and duration of exercise.

  19. [Comparison and the repeatability of Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol and Kline's walking test for maximal oxygen uptake prediction].

    PubMed

    Milczarczyk, Sylwia; Czarkowska-Paczek, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare and investigate the repeatability of two tests for predicting the maximal oxygen uptake: the Kline's walking test and the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol. Both tests were performed twice on separate days by 15 female students aged 20-25. Medium value of VO2max (ml/min/kg) in the walking test was in first trial 59.46 +/- 3.16, and in second 59.99 +/- 3.36, and in Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol in first trial 41.75 +/- 6.91, and in second 42.18 +/- 6.09. The coefficient of variation was 5.31 and 5.6 in first and second trials of walking test, and 16.54 and 14.43 in first and second trial of Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol. Blind-Altman diagram showed that both tests are acceptable for maximal oxygen uptake prediction. There was no correlation between both tests, and in Astrand-Ryhming nomogram cycle ergometer protocol there was correlation between VO2max and BMI. The results showed that both tests could be used for prediction of VO2max; however the repeatability and precision was better in the walking test, which could be recommended for VO2max prediction, especially in the situation when submaximal tests are preferable. It is not recommended to apply various tests in the same person to detect the changes in VO2max.

  20. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test.

    PubMed

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg(-1) friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05) when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key pointsThe Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring.This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase.This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition.Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences. PMID:27274658

  1. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test

    PubMed Central

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg-1 friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05) when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key points The Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring. This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase. This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences. PMID:27274658

  2. Effects of a Non-Circular Chainring on Sprint Performance During a Cycle Ergometer Test.

    PubMed

    Hintzy, Frédérique; Grappe, Frédéric; Belli, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Non-circular chainrings have been reported to alter the crank angular velocity profile over a pedal revolution so that more time is spent in the effective power phase. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sprint cycling performance could be improved using a non-circular chainring (Osymetric: ellipticity 1.25 and crank lever mounted nearly perpendicular to the major axis), in comparison with a circular chainring. Twenty sprint cyclists performed an 8 s sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.5 N/kg(-1) friction force in four crossing conditions (non-circular or circular chainring with or without clipless pedal). Instantaneous force, velocity and power were continuously measured during each sprint. Three main characteristic pedal downstrokes were selected: maximal force (in the beginning of the sprint), maximal power (towards the middle), and maximal velocity (at the end of the sprint). Both average and instantaneous force, velocity and power were calculated during the three selected pedal downstrokes. The important finding of this study was that the maximal power output was significantly higher (+ 4.3%, p < 0.05) when using the non-circular chainring independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition. This improvement is mainly explained by a significantly higher instantaneous external force that occurs during the downstroke. Non-circular chainring can have potential benefits on sprint cycling performance. Key pointsThe Osymetric non-circular chainring significantly maximized crank power by 4.3% during sprint cycling, in comparison with a circular chainring.This maximal power output improvement was due to significant higher force developed when the crank was in the effective power phase.This maximal power output improvement was independent from the shoe-pedal linkage condition.Present benefits provided by the non-circular chainring on pedalling kinetics occurred only at high cadences.

  3. Design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etter, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The design and testing of a tandem row pump inducer having a supercavitating first stage with a 0.60 hub ratio is presented. The second stage tested was a helical impeller with a 0.70 hub ratio. A cubic arc transition was utilized to accomplish the hub change. The first stage had two blades and the free-vortex design approach was empirically modified based on previous experience. The recommended second stage design having four blades and using cambered blade section is presented but the model was not built or tested. The more simple helix was built instead to reduce cost. Data taken included head generation, cavitation observations and unsteady head fluctuations over the 0-100Hz range.

  4. STS-56 MS2 Cockrell pedals reclining cycle ergometer on OV-103 middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Kenneth D. Cockrell, holding checklist, pedals reclining cycle ergometer during an exercise session on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Behind Cockrell is the port side wall with the middeck accomodations rack (MAR) and stowed Development Test Objective (DTO) 653, Evaluation of the MK1 rowing machine, equipment. At Cockrell's right is the open airlock hatch with stowed equipment.

  5. Cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children 6-8 years of age.

    PubMed

    Lintu, Niina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Viitasalo, Anna; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Savonen, Kai; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to maximal cycle ergometer exercise test in children. The participants were a population sample of 425 children (204 girls, 221 boys) aged 6-8 years. Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured from the beginning of pre-exercise rest to the end of recovery period. We provided reference values for peak workload and changes in HR and SBP during and after maximal exercise test in girls and boys. Girls had a lower cardiovascular fitness, indicated by peak workload per body weight [mean (2 s) 2.7 (0.9) vs. 3.1 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] and lean mass [mean (2 s) 3.5 (0.9) vs. 3.8 (1.0) W · kg(-1), P < 0.001] than boys. Plateau or decline in SBP close to the end of the test was found in about third of children and was considered a normal SBP response. Girls had a slower HR decrease within 2 min after the test than boys [mean (2 s) 53 (18) vs. 59 (22) beats · min(-1), P < 0.001]. The results are useful for physicians and exercise physiologists to evaluate cardiovascular fitness and haemodynamic responses to exercise in children and to detect children with low exercise tolerance or abnormal haemodynamic responses to exercise.

  6. Comparison between parameters from maximal cycle ergometer test first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with respiratory gas analysis among healthy prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lintu, Niina; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo Antero

    2016-06-01

    It is important to distinguish true and clinically relevant changes and methodological noise from measure to measure. In the clinical practice, maximal cycle ergometer tests are typically performed first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter, if needed, with respiratory gas analysis. Therefore, we report a comparison of parameters from maximal cycle ergometer exercise tests that were done first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with it in 38 prepubertal and healthy children (20 girls, 18 boys). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement in maximal workload (WMAX), heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) between rest and maximum. Girls achieved higher WMAX in the exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis compared with exercise tests without respiratory gas analysis (p = 0.016), whereas WMAX was similar in the tests among boys. Maximal HR (proportional offset, -1%; coefficients of variation, 3.3%) and highest SBP (proportional offset, 3%; coefficients of variation, 10.6%) were similar in the tests among children. Precision and agreement for HR improved and precision for SBP worsened with increasing exercise intensity. Heteroscedasticity was not observed for WMAX, HR, or SBP. We conclude that maximal cycle ergometer tests without and with respiratory gas analysis can be used consecutively because measurement of respiratory gases did not impair performance or have a significant effect on the maximality of the exercise tests. Our results suggest that similar references can be used for children who accept or refuse using a mask during a maximal exercise test. PMID:27163556

  7. Comparison between parameters from maximal cycle ergometer test first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with respiratory gas analysis among healthy prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lintu, Niina; Soininen, Sonja; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo Antero

    2016-06-01

    It is important to distinguish true and clinically relevant changes and methodological noise from measure to measure. In the clinical practice, maximal cycle ergometer tests are typically performed first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter, if needed, with respiratory gas analysis. Therefore, we report a comparison of parameters from maximal cycle ergometer exercise tests that were done first without respiratory gas analysis and thereafter with it in 38 prepubertal and healthy children (20 girls, 18 boys). The Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement in maximal workload (WMAX), heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) between rest and maximum. Girls achieved higher WMAX in the exercise tests with respiratory gas analysis compared with exercise tests without respiratory gas analysis (p = 0.016), whereas WMAX was similar in the tests among boys. Maximal HR (proportional offset, -1%; coefficients of variation, 3.3%) and highest SBP (proportional offset, 3%; coefficients of variation, 10.6%) were similar in the tests among children. Precision and agreement for HR improved and precision for SBP worsened with increasing exercise intensity. Heteroscedasticity was not observed for WMAX, HR, or SBP. We conclude that maximal cycle ergometer tests without and with respiratory gas analysis can be used consecutively because measurement of respiratory gases did not impair performance or have a significant effect on the maximality of the exercise tests. Our results suggest that similar references can be used for children who accept or refuse using a mask during a maximal exercise test.

  8. A new submaximal cycle ergometer test for prediction of VO2max.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, E; Björkman, F; Hellenius, M-L; Ekblom, B

    2014-04-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is an important, independent predictor of cardiovascular health and mortality. Despite this, it is rarely measured in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to create and evaluate a submaximal cycle ergometry test based on change in heart rate (HR) between a lower standard work rate and an individually chosen higher work rate. In a mixed population (n = 143) with regard to sex (55% women), age (21-65 years), and activity status (inactive to highly active), a model included change in HR per unit change in power, sex, and age for the best estimate of VO2max. The association between estimated and observed VO2max for the mixed sample was r = 0.91, standard error of estimate = 0.302 L/min, and mean measured VO2max = 3.23 L/min. The corresponding coefficient of variation was 9.3%, a significantly improved precision compared with one of the most commonly used submaximal exercise tests, the Åstrand test, which in the present study was estimated to be 18.1%. Test-retest reliability analysis over 1 week revealed no mean difference in the estimated VO2max (-0.02 L/min, 95% confidence interval: -0.07-0.03). The new test is low-risk, easily administered, and valid for a wide capacity range, and is therefore suitable in situations as health evaluations in the general population.

  9. Open-ended time durations for stationary start intense cycle ergometer exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Klopp, Dawn Marie; Vargas, Nicole Theresa; Robergs, Robert Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The study involved application of different applied loads to measure altered test durations, time to peak power, peak power, and peak cadence during intense cycle ergometry exercise. Healthy, physically active male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects (18-45 years) performed the following 3 bouts of intense cycle ergometry at peak cadence to volitional exhaustion on 3 separate days, 48 h to 1 week apart: (i) 85 g·kg(-1) body mass load; (ii) 75 g·kg(-1) body mass load; and (iii) 100 g·kg(-1) body mass load. Trials (ii) and (iii) were performed in random order after trial (i). Exercise consisted of a stationary start, where test termination occurred when cadence decreased to <35 r·min(-1). Mean (±SD) for gender main effects for time to peak power were 7.64 ± 2.76 vs. 9.49 ± 2.76 s (p < 0.001) for males and females, respectively. Relative peak power data for males vs. females for 75, 85, and 100 g·kg(-1) were 10.01 ± 1.371 vs. 7.81 ± 1.25, 10.16 ± 1.61 vs. 7.67 ± 1.35, and 10.91 ± 2.03 vs. 7.31 ± 1.37 W·kg(-1), respectively. The means for test duration for the GENDER × LOAD interaction (p = 0.09) were 68.25 ± 17.80 vs. 56.5 ± 11.56, 63.70 ± 17.21 vs.57.95 ± 10.45, and 51.99 ± 14.59 vs. 49.54 ± 12.45 s for males vs. females for each of 75, 85, and 100 g·kg(-1), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression involving load and gender resulted in an explanation of variance (R(2)) of only 31.2%. Open-ended testing should be performed at a load of 100 g·kg(-1) body mass for males and 85 g·kg(-1) body mass females, causing volitional exhaustion in approximately 60 s and should allow test duration to be another measured variable.

  10. Maximal Oxygen Uptake cannot be Determined in the Incremental Phase of The Lactate Minimum Test on a Cycle Ergometer.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Willian Eiji; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2MAX) determined using the incremental phase of the lactate minimum test (LM) on a cycle ergometer. Fifteen trained men were submitted to a graded exercise test (GXT) to evaluate the VO2MAX and LM. The total durations of the GXT and LM were 11.2±1.8 minutes (CI95%:10.2-12.3 minutes) and 25.3±3.2 minutes (CI95%:23.5-27.0), respectively. For the variables measured at exhaustion in both the GXT and LM, the oxygen uptake (54.6 ± 8.1 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs 50.0 ± 7.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), carbon dioxide production (66.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) vs 50.4 ± 8.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), ventilation (153.9 ± 19.0 L·min(-1) vs 129.9 ± 22.9 L·min(-1)), respiratory exchange ratio (1.22 ± 0.10 vs1.01 ± 0.05), maximal power output achieved (331.6 ± 45.8 W vs 242.4 ± 41.0 W), heart rate (183.1 ± 6.9 bpm vs175.9 ± 10.6 bpm) and lactate (10.5 ± 2.3 mmol·L(-1) vs 6.6 ± 2.2 mmol·L(-1)) were statistically lower in the LM (p < 0.05). However, the values of rating of perceived exertion (17.6 ± 2.5 for GXT and 17.2 ± 2.3 for LM) did not differ (ES = 0.12 and CV = 7.8%). There was no good agreement between the values of the VO2MAX from the GXT and VO2PEAK from the LM, as evidenced in the Bland-Altman plot (4.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 0.34 L·min(-1) of mean differences, respectively), as well as the high values of the upper and lower limits of agreement. We conclude that the VO2PEAK values obtained in the incremental phase of the LM underestimate the VO2MAX. Key pointsThe VO2MAX is not attained during the incremental phase of the lactate minimum test;The physiological responses at exhaustion during LM are not similar to physiological responses measured during GXT;There is a weak agreement between the peak VO2 measured at exhaustion during LM and the VO2MAX measured during GXT.

  11. The impact of ergometer design on hip and trunk muscle activity patterns in elite rowers: an electromyographic assessment.

    PubMed

    Nowicky, Alex V; Horne, Sara; Burdett, Richard

    2005-03-01

    THIS STUDY USED SURFACE ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (SEMG) TO EXAMINE WHETHER THERE WERE DIFFERENCES IN HIP AND TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVATION DURING THE ROWING CYCLE ON TWO OF THE MOST WIDELY USED AIR BRAKED ERGOMETERS: the Concept 2C and the Rowperfect. sEMG methods were used to record the muscle activity patterns from the right: m. Erector spinae (ES), m. Rectus Abdominus (RA), m. Rectus Femoris (RF) and m. Biceps Femoris (BF) for their contributions as agonist-antagonist pairs underlying hip and trunk extension/flexion. The sEMG activity patterns of these muscles were examined in six young male elite rowers completing a 2 minute set at a moderate training intensity (23 stroke·min(-1) and 1:47.500 m(-1) split time, 300W). The rowers closely maintained the required target pace through visual inspection of the standard LCD display of each ergometer. The measurements of duration of each rowing cycle and onset of each stroke during the test were recorded simultaneously with the sEMG activity through the additional instrumentation of a foot-pressure switch and handle accelerometry. There were no significant differences between the two ergometer designs in group means for: work rate (i.e., rowing speed and stroke rate), metabolic load as measured by mean heart rate, rowing cycle duration, or timing of the stroke in the cycle. 2-D motion analysis of hip and knee motion for the rowing cycle from the video footage taken during the test also revealed no significant differences in the joint range of motion between the ergometers. Ensemble average sEMG activity profiles based on 30+ strokes were obtained for each participant and normalised per 10% intervals of the cycle duration as well as for peak mean sEMG amplitude for each muscle. A repeated measures ANOVA on the sEMG activity per 10% interval for the four muscles contributing to hip and trunk motion during the rowing cycle revealed no significant differences between the Concept 2C and Rowperfect (F = 0.070, df = 1,5, p = 0.802). The

  12. [Cycle ergometers in rehabilitation medicine: technical characteristics and selection criteria].

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, P; Sartorio, F; Colombo, R; Franchignoni, F

    2007-01-01

    The cycle ergometer is a commonly used means of testing and training patients with energetic disabilities (particularly in the area of cardiopulmonary diseases). Recent evidence suggests that cycle ergometers can also be useful in patients with subacute and chronic stroke, brain injury, chronic degenerative neurological conditions, and in spinal cord injury. Commercially available cycle ergometers show wide differences in terms of structure and function that have a direct impact on the specific rehabilitation protocols. The aims of this review paper are: a) to briefly review the physiology and biomechanics of exercise on a cycle ergometer; b) to review and discuss the technical specifications of the cycle ergometers suited to rehabilitation settings; c) to provide guidelines for selecting appropriate cycle ergometers for the different categories of rehabilitation patients. First, the physiology of exercise on the cycle ergometer and its biomechanical features are discussed, including the patterns of muscular activity during down- and up-stroke. Upright and recumbent ergometers and their specific clinical indications are compared. Finally, the technical characteristics of the cycle ergometers (load, motor, resistance, flywheel, belt, resilience, pedals, frame, display) are described and the specific requisites for the different patient categories undergoing rehabilitation are discussed in detail. Finally, guidelines are offered for identifying the main technical requisites for appropriate cycle ergometer selection in the different disabilities. PMID:18409268

  13. Ergometer calibrator. [for any ergometer utilizing rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for accurately calibrating ergometers so that the work rate produced by the particular ergometer being calibrated is accurate. The apparatus includes a dc motor which is coupled directly to the ergometer for rotating it at various speeds. Positioned on the shaft between the dc motor and the ergometer is a torque sensor and tachometer, which feed signals to a power computer for subsequent recording. A speed controller is utilized with the dc motor.

  14. Tilting table for ergometer and for other biomedical devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L.; Spier, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The apparatus is for testing the human body in a variety of positions, ranging from the vertical to the supine, while exercising on an ergometer; and can also be used for angular positioning of other biomedical devices. It includes a floor plate and a hinged plate upon which to fix the ergometer, a back rest and a head rest attached at right angles to said hinged plate and behind the seat of the ergometer, dual hydraulic cylinders for raising and lowering the hinged plate through 90 deg by means of a self contained hydraulic system, with valve means for control and positive stops on the apparatus to prevent over travel. Tests can be made with the subject positioned on the seat of the ergometer, through the various angles, with a substantially normal body attitude relative to the seat and ergometer.

  15. Repeatability and Validity of the Combined Arm-Leg (Cruiser) Ergometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K.; Wempe, Johan B.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2009-01-01

    The measurement of physical fitness of lower limb amputees is difficult, as the commonly used ergometer tests have limitations. A combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer might be valuable. The aim of this study was to establish the repeatability and validity of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer. Thirty healthy volunteers carried out three…

  16. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes.

  17. The validity of power output recorded during exercise performance tests using a Kingcycle air-braked cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter.

    PubMed

    Balmer, J; Davison, R C; Coleman, D A; Bird, S R

    2000-04-01

    This study assessed the validity of power output recorded using an air-braked cycle ergometer (Kingcycle) when compared with a power measuring crankset (SRM). For part one of the study thirteen physically active subjects completed a continuous incremental exercise test (OBLA), for part two of the study twelve trained cyclists completed two tests; a maximal aerobic power test (MAP) and a 16.1 km time-trial (16.1 km TT). The following were compared; the peak power output (PPO) recorded for 1 min during MAP, the average power output for the duration of the time-trial and power output recorded during each stage of OBLA. For all tests, power output recorded using Kingcycle was significantly higher than SRM (P < 0.001). Ratio limits of agreement between SRM and Kingcycle for OBLA showed a bias (P < 0.00) of 0.90 (95%CI = 0.90-0.91) with a random error of X or / 1.07, and for PPO and 16.1 km TT ratio limits of agreement were 0.90 (95%CI = 0.88-0.92) X or / 1.07 and 0.92 (95% CI = 0.90-0.94) X or / 1.07, respectively. These data revealed that the Kingcycle ergometry system did not provide a valid measure of power output when compared with SRM.

  18. Effects of the rotor pedalling system on the performance of trained cyclists during incremental and constant-load cycle-ergometer tests.

    PubMed

    Lucía, A; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R; Pérez, M; Santalla, A; Smith, P M

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Rotor, a new cycle crank configuration that effectively allows the pedals to move independently throughout the duty cycle, on indices of endurance cycling performance in trained cyclists. Ten cyclists (5 Rotor users and 5 non-users; age (mean +/- SD): 22 +/- 5 y; VO(2)max: 69.5 +/- 5.1 mL. kg(-1).min(-1)) volunteered to participate in the study. On four separate days, the subjects performed four cycle-ergometer tests, i.e. two incremental tests and two 20-min tests. An imposed crank rate of 75 rev.min(-1) was used during all tests. The incremental protocol started at 112.5 W, and the power output was increased by 37.5 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. The 20-min tests were performed at a fixed power output equivalent to 80 % of the highest power output that the cyclists maintained for a complete 3-min period during incremental tests. Both types of tests were performed with the conventional crank system and the Rotor following a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Gas exchange parameters were measured in all the tests and blood lactate was determined at the end of each 3-min period (incremental tests) and at the end of the 20-min tests. A three factor (pedalling system used during the tests x habitual pedalling system x power output [incremental tests] or time [20-min tests]) ANOVA with repeated measures on power output (incremental tests) or time (20-min tests) was used to analyse several indices of performance, e.g. peak power output, VO(2)max, lactate threshold, onset of blood lactate accumulation, economy, delta, and gross efficiency. No differences (p > 0.05) were found between the Rotor and conventional systems for any of the aforementioned variables. It seems that the theoretical advantage brought about by the Rotor system, i.e. improved contra-lateral cooperation of both legs, would be minimized in trained cyclists. Although field studies are needed to assess the possible implications, in terms

  19. Validation of a new cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Glaner, M F; Silva, R A S

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the concurrent validity of the ICBE compared to the Monark(®) cycle ergometer by indirect dynamic calibration. 42 men were randomly submitted to 2 maximal stress tests with increments of 50 W at 2-min intervals. One test was performed on the Monark(®) bicycle (834/E) and the other on the ICBE. Cardiovascular, perceived exertion and hemodynamic responses were compared between the 2 bicycles. No differences (p>0.05) were observed in resting heart rate (HR), maximum HR, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2P) L·min(-1) and VO(2P) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and number of stages completed. High correlations (r>0.85) were found between HR and VO (2P). Residual analysis indicated strong agreement between the 2 cycle ergometers in terms of VO(2P) L·min(-1) [-0.36-0.30] and VO(2P) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [-4.98-4.46]. Residual dispersion (r=0.25 for both) showed that the mathematical differences in VO(2P) L·min(-1) and VO(2P) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) between cycle ergometers were independent. The correlation coefficient (r) and coefficient of determination (R(2)) between VO(2P) L·min(-1) (r=0.90; R (2)=0.80) and VO(2P) mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) (r=0.90; R(2)=0.81) obtained for the 2 cycle ergometers were high, whereas the standard error of the estimate was low (0.186 L·min(-1) and 2.56 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively). The ICBE presents concurrent validity for use in submaximal and maximal cardiopulmonary tests.

  20. Cross-Validation of the YMCA Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Test to Predict V[o.sub.2] Max

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekley, Matthew D.; Brechue, William F.; deHoyos, Diego V.; Garzarella, Linda; Werber-Zion, Galila; Pollock, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (V[O.sub.2]max) is an important indicator of health-risk status, specifically for coronary heart disease (Blair et al., 1989). Direct measurement of V[O.sub.2]max is considered to be the most accurate means of determining cardiovascular fitness level. Typically, this measurement is taken using a progressive exercise test on a…

  1. ELECTROMYOGRAPHY DURING PEDALING ON UPRIGHT AND RECUMBENT ERGOMETER

    PubMed Central

    Alouche, Sandra Regina; Hakansson, Nils; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ergometers are used during rehabilitation and fitness to restore range of motion, muscular strength, and cardiovascular fitness. The primary difference between upright and recumbent ergometers is that the seat and crank spindle are aligned nearly vertically on upright bicycles and nearly horizontally on recumbent ergometers. In addition, recumbent ergometers are characterized by large seats with backrests to provide support for the upper body and are low to the ground, permitting easier access for wheelchair users and individuals with mobility impairments. Despite the great utility of the recumbent bike, it has not been studied with regard to energy costs or muscular output. This is the first study to investigate the differences between two commercial ergometers by analyzing of lower limb EMG in participants who are not habitual cyclers. Methods: Ten non‐cyclist males with no history of musculoskeletal lower limb injury pedaled on standard recumbent and upright ergometers. EMG data were recorded from the volunteers’ lower limb muscles (rectus femoris, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles). EMG signals were normalized to the highest EMG signals recorded for the maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). The peak normalized EMG value of the studied muscles over the average of the 10 pedal cycles was analyzed. Results: The differences in average peak muscle activity were not statistically significant for any of the four muscles tested. Pedaling a recumbent ergometer resulted in greater activity in two (semitendinosus and tibialis anterior) of the four muscles studied. Only the rectus femoris muscle demonstrated greater activity during upright pedaling. Conclusion: There were no differences in the EMG activity of the muscles studied during pedaling on a standard recumbent and an upright stationary exercise ergometer at moderate workload. This increased understanding of muscle activity during pedaling may be useful in

  2. Asymmetry in bicycle ergometer pedalling.

    PubMed

    Daly, D J; Cavanagh, P R

    1976-01-01

    The effects of changes in speed and resistance setting on the bilateral symmetry of work output on the bicycle ergometer were studied. The cranks of a Monarch bicycle ergometer were instrumented with foil strain gauges and the bridge outputs were integrated on-line and analyzed by a program running in a Hewlett Packard 2115A computer. Twenty male subjects performed three thirty-second trials at each of nine speed and resistance combinations. Indices of asymmetry from 66-178 were found using kicking dominance (n = 20) and 56-135 using a strength dominance classification (n = 13). Day to day reliability of the index of asymmetry was found to be only 0.47; within day reliability was 0.87 for day one and 0.79 for day two. No significant effects for speed or resistance changes were shown on either day for the strength dominant subjects. When kicking dominance was considered main effects were encountered on both days for speed although there was no clear directional trend. The findings of these experiments have important implications for studies where measurements are made on the lower extremity during cycle ergometer exercise, and for competitive cyclists engaged in endurance competition.

  3. Use of the force-velocity test to determine the optimal braking force for a sprint exercise on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Linossier, M T; Dormois, D; Fouquet, R; Geyssant, A; Denis, C

    1996-01-01

    A group of 15 untrained male subjects pedalled on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer as fast as possible for 5-7 s to reach the maximal velocity (vmax) against different braking forces (FB). Power was averaged during a complete crank rotation by adding the power dissipated against FB to the power necessary to accelerate the flywheel. For each sprint, determinations were made of peak power output (Wpeak), power output attained at vmax (Wvmax) calculated as the product of vmax and FB and the work performed to reach vmax expressed in mean power output (Wvmax). The relationships between these parameters and FB were examined. A biopsy taken from the vastus lateralis muscle and tomodensitometric radiographs of both thighs were taken at rest to identify muscle metabolic and morphometric properties. The Wpeak value was similar for all FB. Therefore, the average of values was defined as corrected maximal power (Wmax). This value was 11% higher than the maximal power output uncorrected for the acceleration. Whereas the Wmax determination did not require high loads, the highest Wvmax value (Wmax) was produced when loading was heavy, as evidenced by the Wvmax-FB parabolic relationship. For each subject, the braking force (FB,Wmax) giving Wmax was defined as optimal. The FB,Wmax, equal to 0.844 (SD 0.108) N.kg-1 bodymass, was related to thigh muscle area (r = 0.78, P < 0.05). The maximal velocity (vm,Wmax) reached against this force seemed to be related more to intrinsic fibre properties (% fast twitch b fibre area and adenylate kinase activity). Thus, from the Wmax determination, it is suggested that it should be possible to predict the conditions for optimal exercise on a cycle ergometer.

  4. Rowing Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Hosea, Timothy M.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Rowing is one of the original modern Olympic sports and was one of the most popular spectator sports in the United States. Its popularity has been increasing since the enactment of Title IX. The injury patterns in this sport are unique because of the stress applied during the rowing stroke. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes the existing literature describing the biomechanics of the rowing stroke and rowing-related injury patterns. Data were obtained from previously published peer-reviewed literature through a search of the entire PubMed database (up to December, 2011) as well as from textbook chapters and rowing coaching manuals. Results: Rowing injuries are primarily overuse related. The knee, lumbar spine, and ribs are most commonly affected. The injury incidence is directly related to the volume of training and technique. Conclusion: Familiarity of the injury patterns and the biomechanical forces affecting the rowing athlete will aid in prompt diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:23016093

  5. Soil heat flux calculation for sunlit and shaded surfaces under row crops: 2. Model Test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to calculate surface soil heat flux (G0) as a function of net radiation to the soil (RN,S) was developed that accounts for positional variability across a row crop interrow. The method divides the interrow into separate sections, which may be shaded, partially sunlit, or fully sunlit, and c...

  6. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  7. Gross mechanical efficiency of the combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer: a comparison with the bicycle ergometer and handbike.

    PubMed

    Simmelink, Elisabeth K; Borgesius, Emilie C; Hettinga, Florentina J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2015-03-01

    The combined arm-leg (Cruiser) ergometer is assumed to be a relevant testing and training instrument in the rehabilitation of patients with a lower limb amputation. The efficiency and submaximal strain have not been established and thus cannot be compared with alternative common modes of exercise. A total of 22 healthy able-bodied men (n=10) and women (n=12) were enrolled in four discontinuous submaximal graded exercise tests. Each test consisted of seven bouts of 3 min exercise ranging from 20 to 45 W and was performed on, respectively, the Cruiser ergometer, a bicycle ergometer, a handbike, and again the Cruiser ergometer. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured and rate of perceived exertion was determined. Gross mechanical efficiency (GE) was determined from power output and submaximal steady-state energy cost. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (P<0.05) was used to evaluate the effects of exercise mode, exercise intensity, and sex. No differences in GE and cardiorespiratory strain were found between both Cruiser tests (GE 45 W: men 13.0%, women 15%) and the bicycle test (GE 45 W: men 13.2%, women 14.6%). GEs of handbiking (45 W: men 11.2%, women 12.2%) were lower compared with the Cruiser and bicycle test results, whereas cardiorespiratory strain in handbiking was consistently higher. Apart from a lower rate of perceived exertion at the second Cruiser test, no differences were found between the repeated Cruiser tests. It can be concluded that GE and cardiorespiratory strain in submaximal Cruiser exercise are comparable with leg cycling, the repeatability was good, and no obvious learning effects were observed. The results of this study form a base for further research in patients with a lower limb amputation.

  8. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  9. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, coupled oscillator dynamics predict the stability of the coordination to decrease with increasing stroke rate, which in case of antiphase may eventually yield breakdowns to in-phase. Therefore, this study examined the effects of increasing stroke rate on in- and antiphase crew coordination in rowing dyads. Eleven experienced dyads rowed on two mechanically coupled ergometers on slides, which allowed the ergometer system to move back and forth as one ‘boat’. The dyads performed a ramp trial in both in- and antiphase pattern, in which stroke rates gradually increased from 30 strokes per minute (spm) to as fast as possible in steps of 2 spm. Kinematics of rowers, handles and ergometers were captured. Two dyads showed a breakdown of antiphase into in-phase coordination at the first stroke rate of the ramp trial. The other nine dyads reached between 34–42 spm in antiphase but achieved higher rates in in-phase. As expected, the coordinative accuracy in antiphase was worse than in in-phase crew coordination, while, somewhat surprisingly, the coordinative variability did not differ between the patterns. Whereas crew coordination did not substantially deteriorate with increasing stroke rate, stroke rate did affect the velocity fluctuations of the ergometers: fluctuations were clearly larger in the in-phase pattern than in the antiphase pattern, and this difference significantly increased with stroke rate. Together, these results suggest that although antiphase rowing is less stable (i.e., less resistant to perturbation), potential on-water benefits of antiphase over in-phase rowing may actually increase with stroke rate. PMID:26185987

  10. Comparison of the US and Russian Cycle Ergometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Bentley, Jason R.; Moore, Alan D.; Hagan, R. Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the U.S. and Russian cycle ergometers focusing on the mechanical differences of the devices and the physiological differences observed while using the devices. Methods: First, the mechanical loads provided by the U.S. Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) and the Russian Veloergometer were measured using a calibration dynamometer. Results were compared and conversion equations were modeled to determine the actual load provided by each device. Second, ten male subjects (32.9 +/- 6.5 yrs, 180.6 +/- 4.4 cm; 81.9 +/- 6.9 kg) experienced with both cycling and exercise testing completed a standardized submaximal exercise test protocol on CEVIS and Veloergometer. The exercise protocol involved 8 sub-maximal workloads each lasting 3 minutes for a total of 24 minutes per session, or until the end of the stage when the subject reached 85% of peak oxygen consumption or age-predicted maximum heart rate (220 - age). The workload started at 50 Watts (W), increased to 100 W, and then increased 25 W every 3 minutes until reaching a peak workload of 250 W. Physiological variables were then compared at each workload by repeated measures ANOVA or paired t-tests (p<0.05). Results: While both CEVIS and Veloergometer produced significantly lower workloads than the displayed workload, CEVIS produced even lower loads than Veloergometer (p<0.05) at each indicated workload. Despite this fact, the only physiological variables that showed a significant difference between the ergometers were VE (125 - 250W), VO2 (175 and 250 W), and VCO2 (175 W). All other physiological data were not statistically different between CEVIS and Veloergometer. Conclusion: Although workloads were different between ergometers, relatively few physiological differences were observed. Therefore, CEVIS workloads of 87.5 - 262.5 W can be rounded to the nearest 25 W increment and performed on the Veloergometer.

  11. Reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer for cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nilsson, Johnny

    2008-01-15

    Thirty-eight competitive cross-country skiers were divided into three groups to assess the reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer. Group A (n = 22) performed two maximal 60-s tests, Group B (n = 8) repeated peak oxygen uptake tests on the double poling ergometer, and Group C (n = 8) performed a maximal 6-min test on the double poling ergometer and a double poling time-trial on snow. The correlation between the power calculated at the flywheel and the power applied at the base of the poles was r = 0.99 (P < 0.05). The power at the poles was 50-70% higher than that at the flywheel. There was a high test-retest reliability in the two 60-s power output tests (coefficient of variation = 3.0%) and no significant difference in peak oxygen uptake in the two 6-min all-out tests (coefficient of variation = 2.4%). There was a strong correlation between the absolute (W) and relative power (W x kg(-1)) output in the 6-min double poling ergometer test and the double poling performance on snow (r = 0.86 and 0.89 respectively; both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that the double poling ergometer has both high reliability and validity. However, the power calculated at the flywheel underestimated the total power produced and needs to be corrected for in ergonomic estimations. PMID:17899473

  12. Influence of foot-stretcher height on rowing technique and performance.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, Erica M; Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-11-01

    Strength, technique, and coordination are crucial to rowing performance, but external interventions such as foot-stretcher set-up can fine-tune technique and optimise power output. For the same resultant force, raising the height of foot-stretchers on a rowing ergometer theoretically alters the orientation of the resultant force vector in favour of the horizontal component. This study modified foot-stretcher heights and examined their instantaneous effect on foot forces and rowing technique. Ten male participants rowed at four foot-stretcher heights on an ergometer that measured handle force, stroke length, and vertical and horizontal foot forces. Rowers were instrumented with motion sensors to measure ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic kinematics. Key resultant effects of increased foot-stretcher heights included progressive reductions in horizontal foot force, stroke length, and pelvis range of motion. Raising foot-stretcher height did not increase the horizontal component of foot force as previously speculated. The reduced ability to anteriorly rotate the pelvis at the front of the stroke may be a key obstacle in gaining benefits from raised foot-stretcher heights. This study shows that small changes in athlete set-up can influence ergometer rowing technique, and rowers must individually fine-tune their foot-stretcher height to optimise power transfer through the rowing stroke on an ergometer. PMID:27256844

  13. Influence of foot-stretcher height on rowing technique and performance.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, Erica M; Weinert-Aplin, Robert A; Bull, Anthony M J; McGregor, Alison H

    2016-11-01

    Strength, technique, and coordination are crucial to rowing performance, but external interventions such as foot-stretcher set-up can fine-tune technique and optimise power output. For the same resultant force, raising the height of foot-stretchers on a rowing ergometer theoretically alters the orientation of the resultant force vector in favour of the horizontal component. This study modified foot-stretcher heights and examined their instantaneous effect on foot forces and rowing technique. Ten male participants rowed at four foot-stretcher heights on an ergometer that measured handle force, stroke length, and vertical and horizontal foot forces. Rowers were instrumented with motion sensors to measure ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic kinematics. Key resultant effects of increased foot-stretcher heights included progressive reductions in horizontal foot force, stroke length, and pelvis range of motion. Raising foot-stretcher height did not increase the horizontal component of foot force as previously speculated. The reduced ability to anteriorly rotate the pelvis at the front of the stroke may be a key obstacle in gaining benefits from raised foot-stretcher heights. This study shows that small changes in athlete set-up can influence ergometer rowing technique, and rowers must individually fine-tune their foot-stretcher height to optimise power transfer through the rowing stroke on an ergometer.

  14. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for low speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  15. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for high speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  16. Don't rock the boat: how antiphase crew coordination affects rowing.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Anouk J; de Poel, Harjo J; Hofmijster, Mathijs J

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that crew rowing requires perfect synchronization between the movements of the rowers. However, a long-standing and somewhat counterintuitive idea is that out-of-phase crew rowing might have benefits over in-phase (i.e., synchronous) rowing. In synchronous rowing, 5 to 6% of the power produced by the rower(s) is lost to velocity fluctuations of the shell within each rowing cycle. Theoretically, a possible way for crews to increase average boat velocity is to reduce these fluctuations by rowing in antiphase coordination, a strategy in which rowers perfectly alternate their movements. On the other hand, the framework of coordination dynamics explicates that antiphase coordination is less stable than in-phase coordination, which may impede performance gains. Therefore, we compared antiphase to in-phase crew rowing performance in an ergometer experiment. Nine pairs of rowers performed a two-minute maximum effort in-phase and antiphase trial at 36 strokes min(-1) on two coupled free-floating ergometers that allowed for power losses to velocity fluctuations. Rower and ergometer kinetics and kinematics were measured during the trials. All nine pairs easily acquired antiphase rowing during the warm-up, while one pair's coordination briefly switched to in-phase during the maximum effort trial. Although antiphase interpersonal coordination was indeed less accurate and more variable, power production was not negatively affected. Importantly, in antiphase rowing the decreased power loss to velocity fluctuations resulted in more useful power being transferred to the ergometer flywheels. These results imply that antiphase rowing may indeed improve performance, even without any experience with antiphase technique. Furthermore, it demonstrates that although perfectly synchronous coordination may be the most stable, it is not necessarily equated with the most efficient or optimal performance.

  17. Comparison of treadmill and cycle ergometer measurements of force-velocity relationships and power output.

    PubMed

    Jaskólska, A; Goossens, P; Veenstra, B; Jaskólski, A; Skinner, J S

    1999-04-01

    Since body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on the treadmill might cause additional muscle recruitment and thus could influence the force-velocity relationship and power, the present study was undertaken to find out whether the F-V and F-P relationships measured while running on the treadmill are different from the respective indices measured during cycling. On two separate occasions, 32 male subjects were tested using a series of 5 sec, all-out sprints against different braking forces on the Gymrol Sprint treadmill and on the Monark ergometer. The maximal peak power (PPmax) and maximal mean power (MPmax) were measured. The equation: EP = 0.5 maximal force (Fo) x0.5 maximal velocity (Vo) was used to calculate the estimated values of peak power (EPP) and mean power (EMP). The F-V relationship was linear in both cycle ergometer and treadmill measurements. PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP values on the treadmill were lower than the respective values on the ergometer. EPP on the ergometer and on the treadmill, as well as EMP values on the ergometer, were slightly higher than the corresponding measured values of PPmax and MPmax. The levels of braking force at which PP, MP, PPmax, and MPmax were obtained were lower on the ergometer than on the treadmill. High correlation coefficients were found between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP measured on the ergometer and on the treadmill (r = 0.86, r = 0.84, r = 0.71, r = 0.78, respectively, P<0.01). In both tests, significant relationships between PPmax, MPmax, EPP, and EMP were observed. It is concluded that independent of the type of ergometry the force-velocity relationship is similar in the measured range of velocities which suggests that the number of muscle groups and joints engaged in movement are more important than body balance and weight-bearing factors present while running on a treadmill.

  18. Development and validation of an automated step ergometer.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C; Aniceto, Rodrigo R; Neto, Gabriel R; de Araújo, Ravi C T; de Sousa, Juliana B C; Costa, José A D; Pellegrinotti, Idico L

    2014-09-29

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject's height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60-180 s; 116-160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student's t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson's r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that the ASE

  19. Development and Validation of an Automated Step Ergometer

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria do Socorro C.; Aniceto, Rodrigo R.; Neto, Gabriel R.; de Araújo, Ravi C. T.; de Sousa, Juliana B. C.; Costa, José A. D.; Pellegrinotti, Idico L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory ergometers have high costs, becoming inaccessible for most of the population, hence, it is imperative to develop affordable devices making evaluations like cardiorespiratory fitness feasible and easier. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an Automated Step Ergometer (ASE), adjusted according to the height of the subject, for predicting VO2max through a progressive test. The development process was comprised by three steps, the theoretical part, the prototype assembly and further validation. The ASE consists in an elevating platform that makes the step at a higher or lower level as required for testing. The ASE validation was obtained by comparing the values of predicted VO2max (equation) and direct gas analysis on the prototype and on a, treadmill. For the validation process 167 subjects with average age of 31.24 ± 14.38 years, of both genders and different degrees of cardiorespiratory fitness, were randomized and divided by gender and training condition, into untrained (n=106), active (n=24) and trained (n=37) subjects. Each participant performed a progressive test on which the ASE started at the same height (20 cm) for all. Then, according to the subject’s height, it varied to a maximum of 45 cm. Time in each stage and rhythm was chosen in accordance with training condition from lowest to highest (60–180 s; 116–160 bpm, respectively). Data was compared with the student’s t test and ANOVA; correlations were tested with Pearson’s r. The value of α was set at 0.05. No differences were found between the predicted VO2max and the direct gas analysis VO2max, nor between the ASE and treadmill VO2max (p= 0.365) with high correlation between ergometers (r= 0.974). The values for repeatability, reproducibility, and reliability of male and female groups measures were, respectively, 4.08 and 5.02; 0.50 and 1.11; 4.11 and 5.15. The values of internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) among measures were all >0.90. It was verified that

  20. REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

    PubMed Central

    Llosa, Jordi; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Vilajosana, Xavier; Navarro, Nacho; Suriñach, Emma; Marquès, Joan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports. PMID:22423204

  1. Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....

  2. Development and assessment of the Monark cycle ergometer for anaerobic muscular exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, F. A.; Langevin, R. C.; Miletti, J.; Sacco, M.; Murphy, M. M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the system developed by this Institute to measure anaerobic power production using the protocol developed at the Wingate Institute in Israel. This test consists of 30 seconds of maximal cycling (or cranking) exercise against a resistance determined according to the body weight of the subject. The system consists of a modified Monark cycle ergometer, a universal counter to monitor flywheel revolutions, and a desktop computer for timing, control, and data processing. The modification of the ergometer for the instantaneous application of resistance is presented. In addition, the methods used to measure pedal revolutions and to calibrate the ergometer, and the analysis of the forces acting on the flywheel are described. Finally, a description of the procedure used in the performance of the Wingate test and a summary of the actual data output are presented.

  3. Effects of combined inspiratory muscle and cycle ergometer training on exercise performance in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Wanke, T; Formanek, D; Lahrmann, H; Brath, H; Wild, M; Wagner, C; Zwick, H

    1994-12-01

    Cycle ergometer training plays an important role in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the usefulness of specific inspiratory muscle training as part of pulmonary rehabilitation remains uncertain. To determine whether inspiratory muscle training could intensify the known beneficial effects of cycle ergometer training on exercise performance in these patients, we compared the effect of an 8 week inspiratory muscle training combined with cycle ergometer training with that of an 8 week cycle ergometer training alone on inspiratory muscle performance and general exercise capacity. Patients were randomly assigned to the two training groups; 21 patients received additional inspiratory muscle training (Group 1) and 21 did not (Group 2). Maximal sniff assessed oesophageal and transdiaphragmatic pressures served as parameters for global inspiratory muscle strength and diaphragmatic strength, respectively. The duration for which the patient could breathe against a constant inspiratory pressure load was used as an index of inspiratory muscle endurance. Exercise capacity was determined by an incremental symptom-limited cycle ergometer test. After the training period, inspiratory muscle performance improved significantly in the patients with inspiratory muscle training, but not in those without. Both training regimens increased maximal power output and oxygen uptake, but this improvement was significantly greater in the patients with inspiratory muscle training than in those without.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. A biomechanical assessment of ergometer task specificity in elite flatwater kayakers.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David; Mahony, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The current study compared EMG, stroke force and 2D kinematics during on-ergometer and on-water kayaking. Male elite flatwater kayakers (n = 10) performed matched exercise protocols consisting of 3 min bouts at heart and stroke rates equivalent to 85% of VO2peak (assessed by prior graded incremental test). EMG data were recorded from Anterior Deltoid (AD), Triceps Brachii (TB), Latissimus Dorsi (LD) and Vastus Lateralis (VL) via wireless telemetry. Video data recorded at 50 Hz with audio triggers pre- and post-exercise facilitated synchronisation of EMG and kinematic variables. Force data were recorded via strain gauge arrays on paddle and ergometer shafts. EMG data were root mean squared (20ms window), temporally and amplitude normalised, and averaged over 10 consecutive cycles. In addition, overall muscle activity was quantified via iEMG and discrete stroke force and kinematic variables computed. Significantly greater TB and LD mean iEMG activity were recorded on-water (239 ± 15 vs. 179 ± 10 μV. s, p < 0.01 and 158 ± 12 vs. 137 ± 14 μV.s, p < 0.05, respectively), while significantly greater AD activity was recorded on-ergometer (494 ± 66 vs. 340 ± 35 μV.s, p < 0.01). Time to vertical shaft position occurred significantly earlier on-ergometer (p < 0.05). Analysis of stroke force data and EMG revealed that increased AD activity was concurrent with increased external forces applied to the paddle shaft at discrete phases of the on-ergometer stroke cycle. These external forces were associated with the ergometer loading mechanism and were not observed on- water. The current results contradict a previous published hypothesis on shoulder muscle recruitment during on-water kayaking. Key pointsWhen exercising at fixed heart and stroke rates, biomechanical differences exist between onergometer and on-water kayaking.Ergometer kayaking results in significantly greater Anterior Deltoid activity but significantly lower Triceps Brachii and Latissimus Dorsi activity

  5. Accuracy of the Velotron ergometer and SRM power meter.

    PubMed

    Abbiss, C R; Quod, M J; Levin, G; Martin, D T; Laursen, P B

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Velotron cycle ergometer and the SRM power meter using a dynamic calibration rig over a range of exercise protocols commonly applied in laboratory settings. These trials included two sustained constant power trials (250 W and 414 W), two incremental power trials and three high-intensity interval power trials. To further compare the two systems, 15 subjects performed three dynamic 30 km performance time trials. The Velotron and SRM displayed accurate measurements of power during both constant power trials (<1% error). However, during high-intensity interval trials the Velotron and SRM were found to be less accurate (3.0%, CI=1.6-4.5% and -2.6%, CI=-3.2--2.0% error, respectively). During the dynamic 30 km time trials, power measured by the Velotron was 3.7+/-1.9% (CI=2.9-4.8%) greater than that measured by the SRM. In conclusion, the accuracy of the Velotron cycle ergometer and the SRM power meter appears to be dependent on the type of test being performed. Furthermore, as each power monitoring system measures power at various positions (i.e. bottom bracket vs. rear wheel), caution should be taken when comparing power across the two systems, particularly when power is variable.

  6. Important role of muscle carnosine in rowing performance.

    PubMed

    Baguet, Audrey; Bourgois, Jan; Vanhee, Lander; Achten, Eric; Derave, Wim

    2010-10-01

    The role of the presence of carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) in millimolar concentrations in human skeletal muscle is poorly understood. Chronic oral β-alanine supplementation is shown to elevate muscle carnosine content and improve anaerobic exercise performance during some laboratory tests, mainly in the untrained. It remains to be determined whether carnosine loading can improve single competition-like events in elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate if performance is related to the muscle carnosine content and if β-alanine supplementation improves performance in highly trained rowers. Eighteen Belgian elite rowers were supplemented for 7 wk with either placebo or β-alanine (5 g/day). Before and following supplementation, muscle carnosine content in soleus and gastrocnemius medialis was measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) and the performance was evaluated in a 2,000-m ergometer test. At baseline, there was a strong positive correlation between 100-, 500-, 2,000-, and 6,000-m speed and muscle carnosine content. After β-alanine supplementation, the carnosine content increased by 45.3% in soleus and 28.2% in gastrocnemius. Following supplementation, the β-alanine group was 4.3 s faster than the placebo group, whereas before supplementation they were 0.3 s slower (P = 0.07). Muscle carnosine elevation was positively correlated to 2,000-m performance enhancement (P = 0.042 and r = 0.498). It can be concluded that the positive correlation between baseline muscle carnosine levels and rowing performance and the positive correlation between changes in muscle carnosine and performance improvement suggest that muscle carnosine is a new determinant of rowing performance. PMID:20671038

  7. Spinal loads during cycling on an ergometer.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, Antonius; Zander, Thomas; Graichen, Friedmar; Schmidt, Hendrik; Bergmann, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Cycling on an ergometer is an effective exercise for improving fitness. However, people with back problems or previous spinal surgery are often not aware of whether cycling could be harmful for them. To date, little information exists about spinal loads during cycling. A telemeterized vertebral body replacement allows in vivo measurement of implant loads during the activities of daily living. Five patients with a severe compression fracture of a lumbar vertebral body received these implants. During one measurement session, four of the participants exercised on a bicycle ergometer at various power levels. As the power level increased, the maximum resultant force and the difference between the maximum and minimum force (force range) during each pedal revolution increased. The average maximum-force increases between the two power levels 25 and 85 W were 73, 84, 225 and 75 N for the four patients. The corresponding increases in the force range during a pedal revolution were 84, 98, 166 and 101 N. There were large variations in the measured forces between the patients and also within the same patient, especially for high power levels. In two patients, the maximum forces during high-power cycling were higher than the forces during walking measured on the same day. Therefore, the authors conclude that patients with back problems should not cycle at high power levels shortly after surgery as a precaution.

  8. [Rehabilitation of aged patients with bicycle ergometer after coronary surgery].

    PubMed

    Lomama, E; Helft, G; Dufour, J C; Laudy, C; Monnet de Lorbeau, B; Vacheron, A

    1996-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the contraindications to rehabilitation by exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer and the tolerance of this procedure in elderly patients recovering from coronary surgery. One hundred and eighty-four patients aged over 65 years were included (Group I). The rehabilitation program consisted of exercise testing on admission period. The results were compared with those of 146 patients aged 65 or less (Group II). Twenty-six per cent of the elderly patients had a contraindications to this type of rehabilitation compared with only 4.8% in Group II. The main contraindications were extracardiac (21.7%), including infectious causes (4.3%), neuropsychiatric (3.3%), respiratory (2.7%) and rheumatological conditions (2.2%). Cardiac causes represented only 4.3% of the contraindications. In the patients undergoing the training program, the maximum power and the duration of exercise testing increased respectively from 81 +/- 17 to 97 +/- 21 watts (+21% ; p < 10(-3)) and 7 +/- 1.7 to 9 +/- 2 minutes (+28.6%, p < 10(-3)). The change in these parameters was comparable in the other group: 94.5+/- to 118 +/- 26 watts (+24.8% ; p < 10(-3)) and 8.5 +/- 1.9 to 10.9 +/- 2.4 minutes (+28.2% ; p < 10(-3)). On the other hand, the rate-pressure product decreased slightly in the elderly patients (-5.5% ; p = 0.07, compared with -13% in Group II, p = 0.001). Complications were rare: 1.6% of temporary interruption of a session (versus 0.6%). No serious complications were observed. The authors conclude that, after coronary surgery, the majority of elderly coronary patients can participate in physical training programs on bicycle ergometers without major complications. In the absence of contraindications, patients, and even elderly patients, should be encouraged to enroll for these programs after coronary bypass surgery.

  9. Comparison of Rowing Performance Improvements Following Various High-Intensity Interval Trainings.

    PubMed

    Akca, Firat; Aras, Dicle

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and supramaximal interval training (SMIT) on indoor rowing performance; 20 male lightweight collegiate rowers (age = 21.77 ± 2.35 years, height = 178.4 ± 6 cm, body mass = 69.6 ± 3.1 kg) participated in this study. Baseline testing involved a 2,000-m time trial and incremental exercise test to determine VO2peak, peak power output (PPO), and power at 4 mmol·L blood lactate threshold. After the baseline tests, participants were allocated to SMIT or HIT intervention groups, which they performed 8 times over a 4-week period (2 times per week, 2 days apart). The SMIT involved 10 × 30-second intervals at 150% of the PPO with 4-minute rest. The HIT involved 8 × 2.5-minute intervals at 90% of the PPO with 3-minute rest. Of note, 5.7 and 5 seconds of improvements were observed in 2,000-m performance after SMIT and HIT interventions, respectively. Of note, 2,000-m time trial performance, 2,000-m power, PPO, relative, and absolute VO2peak were significantly improved after both training interventions. However, the differences between the groups were not significant. As a result, 4 weeks of SMIT improves 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance and related physiological variables in a similar fashion with HIT in collegiate rowers.

  10. Comparison of Rowing Performance Improvements Following Various High-Intensity Interval Trainings.

    PubMed

    Akca, Firat; Aras, Dicle

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and supramaximal interval training (SMIT) on indoor rowing performance; 20 male lightweight collegiate rowers (age = 21.77 ± 2.35 years, height = 178.4 ± 6 cm, body mass = 69.6 ± 3.1 kg) participated in this study. Baseline testing involved a 2,000-m time trial and incremental exercise test to determine VO2peak, peak power output (PPO), and power at 4 mmol·L blood lactate threshold. After the baseline tests, participants were allocated to SMIT or HIT intervention groups, which they performed 8 times over a 4-week period (2 times per week, 2 days apart). The SMIT involved 10 × 30-second intervals at 150% of the PPO with 4-minute rest. The HIT involved 8 × 2.5-minute intervals at 90% of the PPO with 3-minute rest. Of note, 5.7 and 5 seconds of improvements were observed in 2,000-m performance after SMIT and HIT interventions, respectively. Of note, 2,000-m time trial performance, 2,000-m power, PPO, relative, and absolute VO2peak were significantly improved after both training interventions. However, the differences between the groups were not significant. As a result, 4 weeks of SMIT improves 2,000-m rowing ergometer performance and related physiological variables in a similar fashion with HIT in collegiate rowers. PMID:25647654

  11. Suicide on death row.

    PubMed

    Lester, David; Tartaro, Christine

    2002-09-01

    The suicide rate on death row for the period 1976 through 1999 was found to be high (113 per 100,000 per year), some five times higher than the suicide rate for the male population of the United States. The death row suicide rate was predicted by features of the death row population (negatively with the population on death row) and by social indicators of the society as a whole (negatively with birth and divorce rates and positively with marriage rates).

  12. Designing ROW Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    1996-01-01

    There are many aspects to consider when designing a Rosenbrock-Wanner-Wolfbrandt (ROW) method for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODE's) solving initial value problems (IVP's). The process can be simplified by constructing ROW methods around good Runge-Kutta (RK) methods. The formulation of a new, simple, embedded, third-order, ROW method demonstrates this design approach.

  13. Row fault detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  14. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2010-02-23

    An apparatus and program product check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  15. Row fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian Edward

    2012-02-07

    An apparatus, program product and method check for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  16. Forelimb muscle function in pig-nosed turtles, Carettochelys insculpta: testing neuromotor conservation between rowing and flapping in swimming turtles.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Angela R V; Blob, Richard W

    2013-10-23

    Changes in muscle activation patterns can lead to new locomotor modes; however, neuromotor conservation-the evolution of new forms of locomotion through changes in structure without concurrent changes to underlying motor patterns-has been documented across diverse styles of locomotion. Animals that swim using appendages do so via rowing (anteroposterior oscilations) or flapping (dorsoventral oscilations). Yet few studies have compared motor patterns between these swimming modes. In swimming turtles, propulsion is generated exclusively by limbs. Kinematically, turtles swim using multiple styles of rowing (freshwater species), flapping (sea turtles) and a unique hybrid style with superficial similarity to flapping by sea turtles and characterized by increased dorsoventral motions of synchronously oscillated forelimbs that have been modified into flippers (Carettochelys insculpta). We compared forelimb motor patterns in four species of turtle (two rowers, Apalone ferox and Trachemys scripta; one flapper, Caretta caretta; and Carettochelys) and found that, despite kinematic differences, motor patterns were generally similar among species with a few notable exceptions: specifically, presence of variable bursts for pectoralis and triceps in Trachemys (though timing of the non-variable pectoralis burst was similar), and the timing of deltoideus activity in Carettochelys and Caretta compared with other taxa. The similarities in motor patterns we find for several muscles provide partial support for neuromotor conservation among turtles using diverse locomotor styles, but the differences implicate deltoideus as a prime contributor to flapping limb motions.

  17. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic) Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Driss, Tarak; Vandewalle, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic) power (Pmax) assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of Pmax during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips), methodological (protocols) and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue) limiting Pmax in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions…) are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices. PMID:24073413

  18. The measurement of maximal (anaerobic) power output on a cycle ergometer: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Driss, Tarak; Vandewalle, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic) power (Pmax) assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of Pmax during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips), methodological (protocols) and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue) limiting Pmax in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions…) are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  19. [Acute effects of eccentric work on a bicycle ergometer].

    PubMed

    Netreba, A I; Popov, D V; Tsvirkun, D V; Vinogradova, O L

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of delayed onset of muscle soreness after exercise on an electrically driven cycle ergometer with floating seat under preferentially concentric and eccentric conditions (forward and backward rotation of the pedals) has been evaluated using three different tests. The delayed onset of muscle soreness was determined using three different procedures: two with active contraction of the tested muscle group in multi-joint (going downstairs) and single-joint (knee extension) movements and one with passive pressure applied to the central part of m. vastus lateralis. With the use of two active tests, the maximum delayed onset of muscle soreness was recorded on the 1st-3rd days after intensive bicycle exercise without significant differences between the groups. Under conditions of passive testing, a tendency to a slower development (both an increase and a decrease) of delayed onset of muscle soreness was recorded. A positive correlation between the relative tension and the delayed onset of muscle soreness was found. Relative tension was determined as a decrease of strength during recovery related to the initial level. No relationship between volume/duration of exercise and the delayed onset of muscle soreness was found.

  20. Influence of cycle ergometer type and sex on assessment of 30-second anaerobic capacity and power.

    PubMed

    Leicht, A S; Sealey, R M; Sinclair, W H

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the influence of cycle ergometer type and sex on assessment of 30-s anaerobic capacity and power. 41 healthy adults performed a 30-s anaerobic cycle test using a mechanically- (ME) and air-braked (AE) ergometer in a randomised order, approximately 7 days apart. Peak heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion were similar between tests with peak HR greater for females compared to males (187.0 ± 9.1 vs. 180.8 ± 9.9 bpm, p<0.05). Peak power (1 100 ± 330 vs. 802 ± 225 W), mean power (793 ± 223 vs. 587 ± 156 W) and total work (23.8 ± 6.7 vs. 17.6 ± 4.7 kJ) were greater for AE compared to ME (p<0.001) and greater for males compared to females (p<0.001). The mean difference for anaerobic capacity and power between AE and ME were similar for males and females (37-41% vs. 33-35%, p>0.05). Peak lactate was greater for AE compared to ME (16.1 ± 3.4 vs. 14.8 ± 2.9 mmol·L (-1); p<0.05) and greater for males compared to females (16.2 ± 3.5 vs. 14.6 ± 2.7 mmol·L (-1); p<0.05). The current study demonstrated that anaerobic power and capacity were substantially greater when assessed using AE compared to the traditional ME with the difference between ergometer types unaffected by sex. Ergometer type should be considered when comparing anaerobic results across populations and/or studies.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Axiom PowerTrain cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, W; Duc, S; Villerius, V; Grappe, F

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of a stationary electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer (Axiom PowerTrain) against the SRM power measuring crankset. Nineteen male competitive cyclists completed four tests on their bicycle equipped with a 20-strain gauges SRM crankset: a maximal aerobic power (MAP) test and three 10-min time trials (TTs) with three different simulated slopes (0, 3, and 6 %). The Axiom ergometer overestimated (p <0.05) the SRM power output during the last stage of the MAP test and during TTs, by 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Power output (PO) of the Axiom ergometer drifted significantly (p <0.05) with the time during TT. These findings indicate that the Axiom ergometer does not provide a valid measure of PO compared with SRM. However, the small coefficient of variation (2.2 %) during the MAP test indicates that the Axiom provides a reliable PO and that it can be used e.g. for relative PO comparisons with competitive cyclists during a race season. PMID:15643536

  2. Validity and reliability of the Axiom PowerTrain cycle ergometer when compared with an SRM powermeter.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, W; Duc, S; Villerius, V; Grappe, F

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and the reliability of a stationary electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer (Axiom PowerTrain) against the SRM power measuring crankset. Nineteen male competitive cyclists completed four tests on their bicycle equipped with a 20-strain gauges SRM crankset: a maximal aerobic power (MAP) test and three 10-min time trials (TTs) with three different simulated slopes (0, 3, and 6 %). The Axiom ergometer overestimated (p <0.05) the SRM power output during the last stage of the MAP test and during TTs, by 5 % and 12 %, respectively. Power output (PO) of the Axiom ergometer drifted significantly (p <0.05) with the time during TT. These findings indicate that the Axiom ergometer does not provide a valid measure of PO compared with SRM. However, the small coefficient of variation (2.2 %) during the MAP test indicates that the Axiom provides a reliable PO and that it can be used e.g. for relative PO comparisons with competitive cyclists during a race season.

  3. SUICIDE ON DEATH ROW.

    PubMed

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2015-12-01

    For the period 1976-2011, the suicide rate on death rows in the United States was only weakly (and non-significantly) associated with the marriage, birth, divorce, and unemployment rates in the general population. Possible explanations for why social indicators in the larger society might be associated with the behavior of prisoners on death row were discussed. PMID:26595302

  4. A simple calibration method for mechanically braked cycle ergometers.

    PubMed

    Van Praagh, E; Bedu, M; Roddier, P; Coudert, J

    1992-01-01

    The calibration of cycle ergometers should be checked regularly. Some studies have shown calibration errors of more than 40%. A simple, inexpensive calibrating method for mechanically braked cycle ergometers was developed and tried out on a new type of ergocycle. The cycle ergometer was elevated and the crank replaced by a pulley fitted to the shaft. The crank speed (rpm) increased linearly as a function of time when different masses were applied on the pulley. For a given braking force on the cycle ergometer, different accelerations corresponding to the increased pulley forces could be measured. When extrapolating for zero acceleration, it was possible to determine a "limit-force" which allowed the system to be in equilibrium. Additional force creates motion. The same experiments were repeated with increasing braking forces. Using the differently sized gear sprockets of the transmission system, it was possible to calculate the actual force, including all the resistances. The actual force found by the calibrating method was then compared with the indicated force proposed by the manufacturer. With increasing forces, the relative errors decreased from 9.6 to 2.9%. The cycle ergometer calibrated by this technique meets the standards recommended in exercise physiology. PMID:1544728

  5. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  6. Biomechanics of Rowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Kazunori; Kaya, Motoshi; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Andrews, Brian J.; Zavatsky, Amy B.; Halliday, Suzanne E.

    Compared with the other exercise, such as walking and cycling, rowing was expected to have some fitness advantage, while there were some misgivings about the risk of injury. The objectives of this study were to quantify biomechanical characteristics of rowing for fitness and rehabilitation and to offer normative data for the prevention of injury and for determining effective exercise. An experiment was performed to collect the kinematic and kinetic data during rowing by experienced and non-experienced subjects. A three-dimensional whole-body musculo-skeletal model was used to calculate the biomechanical loads, such as the joint moments, the muscular tensions, the joint contact forces and the energy consumption. The results of this study indicate that rowing is an effective exercise for rehabilitation and fitness. However, the non-experienced rower should acquire considerable skill to obtain sufficient exercise. The rowing cadence should be decided according to the purpose of the exercise.

  7. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean on Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 onboard photograph shows Astronaut Allen Bean on the ergometer, breathing into the metabolic analyzer. Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility, was designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer.

  8. Validity of arm-leg elliptical ergometer for VO2max analysis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Andrew B; Kueffner, Tannin E; OʼMahony, Erin C; Lockard, Michael M

    2015-06-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) can be determined through multiple exercise modalities intended to elicit an individual's maximal aerobic exertion. Uphill treadmill running is considered the best modality for measuring (Equation is included in full-text article.). Previous studies have examined correlations between treadmill and elliptical ergometer tests as well as the cycle ergometer, but none of the studies use an arm-leg elliptical ergometer (ALE). The purpose of this study was to develop an ALE (Equation is included in full-text article.)testing protocol and determine whether ALE produces valid (Equation is included in full-text article.)values as compared with the treadmill. Twelve undergraduate students (mean age: 20.8 years) completed 2 (Equation is included in full-text article.)tests, 1 on a treadmill and 1 on ALE. (Equation is included in full-text article.)correlation between ALE and treadmill was examined, and paired t-tests were run for (Equation is included in full-text article.)and maximum heart rate (HRmax). A strong positive correlation was found between ALE and treadmill (Equation is included in full-text article.)values (r = 0.84; p < 0.001). There were no differences between (Equation is included in full-text article.)values; however, HRmax values were higher on the treadmill than ALE (p = 0.003). Although future research is needed to examine the observed differences in HRmax between the 2 testing modalities and gender differences in muscle recruitment patterns, the results of this study suggest that ALE is a valid modality for (Equation is included in full-text article.)testing. This will be particularly valuable as a clinical tool to assess (Equation is included in full-text article.)in populations requiring low-impact exercise.

  9. Validity and reliability of the Wattbike cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Hopker, J; Myers, S; Jobson, S A; Bruce, W; Passfield, L

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Wattbike cycle ergometer against the SRM Powermeter using a dynamic calibration rig (CALRIG) and trained and untrained human participants. Using the CALRIG power outputs of 50-1 250  W were assessed at cadences of 70 and 90  rev x min(-1). Validity and reliability data were also obtained from 3 repeated trials in both trained and untrained populations. 4 work rates were used during each trial ranging from 50-300  W. CALRIG data demonstrated significant differences (P<0.05) between SRM and Wattbike across the work rates at both cadences. Significant differences existed in recorded power outputs from the SRM and Wattbike during steady state trials (power outputs 50-300  W) in both human populations (156±72  W vs. 153±64  W for SRM and Wattbike respectively; P<0.05). The reliability (CV) of the Wattbike in the untrained population was 6.7% (95%CI 4.8-13.2%) compared to 2.2% with the SRM (95%CI 1.5-4.1%). In the trained population the Wattbike CV was 2.6% (95%CI 1.8-5.1%) compared to 1.1% with the SRM (95%CI 0.7-2.0%). These results suggest that when compared to the SRM, the Wattbike has acceptable accuracy. Reliability data suggest coaches and cyclists may need to use some caution when using the Wattbike at low power outputs in a test-retest setting.

  10. Generic Verification Protocol for Testing Pesticide Application Spray Drift Reduction Technologies for Row and Field Crops (Version 1.4)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This generic verification protocol provides a detailed method for conducting and reporting results from verification testing of pesticide application technologies. It can be used to evaluate technologies for their potential to reduce spray drift, hence the term “drift reduction t...

  11. LBNP/ergometer effects on female cardiovascular and muscle deconditioning in 15d head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie

    2012-07-01

    Female has already been an important part of astronaut corps but gender characteristics in weightlessness and countermeasure effects still not clearly elucidated. In this study the LBNP/Ergometer effects on female cardiovascular deconditioning and muscle atrophy in 15d head-down bed rest were explored. 22 female university students were recruited as volunteers that participated in the 15d head-down bed rest. They were divided into control group (Con,n=8), LBNP exercise group (LBNP,n=7) and LBNP combined with ergometer exercise group (LBNP+Ergo, n=7). Grade negative pressures of -10,-20,-30,-40mmHg 20 or 55min were used in LBNP exercise. In ergometer exercises the subjects must maintain 60-80% VO2peak of pre-bed rest at pedal speed of about 70cycle/min for 15min and the entire exercise duration was 30min. LBNP were performed at 6th,8th,10th,12th,and 13th day and Ergometer were operated at 4th,5th,7th,9th,11th day during bed rest. Before and after bed rest, cardiovascular tilt test were performed to evaluate orthostatic intolerance, supine cycle ergometer were used to test the cardiopulmonary function, MRI tests were operated to examine the volume variations of leg muscle groups and isokinetic test were given to test the muscle strength and endurance of knee. 40% of female subjects did not pass the tilt table test after bed rest and exercises made no difference. Compared with pre-BR, VO2max and VO2max /body weight, VO2/HRmax, maximal power and duration significantly decreased in CON group and LBNP group. For the ERGO+LBNP group, there were no visible different in the parameters of cardiopulmonary function except that maximal power and duration decreased. Muscle maximal voluntary contraction and muscle (quadriceps, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius and soleus) volume decreasing in non-predominant leg was larger in Con group than in LBNP+Ergo group. It is suggested that LBNP combined with ergometer in some degrees can counteract the cardiovascular and muscle deconditioning

  12. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  13. Fuel metabolism during severe rowing exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyt, R.W.; Lubowitz, J.; Asakura, T.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-03-01

    Eight elite oarsmen were studied during and after six min of severe ergometer exercise. Power output averaged 380 +/- 28 watts. Serial venous blood samples and gas exchange measurements were obtained during exercise. In 4 of the 8 subjects, a primed periodic oral dose of the tracer (6,6-/sup 2/H/sub 2/)glucose was used to determine the effects of severe exercise on glucose metabolism. During exercise, the levels of lactate progressively increased to 12.2 +/- 1.3 mM (SE). There was little change in isotopic glucose enrichment during exercise (from 2.95 +/- 0.30 to 2.55 +/- 0.23 atom percent excess, APE). During recovery, isotopic glucose enrichment decreased significantly to 1.40 +/- 0.14 APE, indicating a substantial post-exercise plasma glucose flux. There were significant post-exercise increases in plasma glucose accumulation (from 84 +/- 5 to 131 +/- 3 mg/dl) and insulin concentration (0.57 +/- 0.08 to 1.34 +/- 0.15 ng/ml). These results suggest that muscle glycogen is the primary source of fuel during six minutes of maximal rowing exercise.

  14. Reliability and validity of the velotron racermate cycle ergometer to measure anaerobic power.

    PubMed

    Astorino, T A; Cottrell, T

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the reliability and validity of the Velotron Racermate™ cycle ergometer to assess anaerobic power. Men (9 cyclists and 13 recreationally-active) and women (17 recreationally-active and 1 cyclist) (age=24.7±4.2 yr) performed 2 Wingate tests on the Velotron or 3 Wingate tests (2 on the Velotron and 1 on the Monark Peak Bike) over a 7-14 day period. Peak power, mean power, minimum power, fatigue index, heart rate, and peak and minimum cadence were assessed. Results revealed significant test-retest reliability for mean power (r=0.90, p<0.01), minimum power (r=0.79, p<0.05) and peak power (r=0.70, p<0.05) with repeated bouts on the Velotron. Peak power was significantly higher (p<0.05) on the Velotron (9.95±1.39 W/kg) vs. the Monark (9.13±1.26 W/kg); however, mean power was higher (p<0.05) on the Monark (6.95±0.89 W/kg) vs. the Velotron (6.11±0.52 W/kg and 6.25±0.59 W/kg). Data reveal significant reliability for mean and peak power from the Velotron Racermate, yet multiple variables differ between the Velotron and the Monark mechanically-braked cycle ergometer.

  15. Physical exercises on a bicycle-ergometer and running track to prevent hypodynamia in workers of intellectual labor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilyeva, V. V.; Korableva, Y. N.; Trunin, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    A program of exercises was developed and tested, consisting of a 12 minute session on a variable load bicycle ergometer and a 10-11 min. run with brief stretching and resting sessions between. Physical performance capacity was measured before, during, and after the period of the experiment and physical exams conducted. After a 4 month test period involving 30 men, aged 25-35, the program was found to be successful in increasing physical performance capacity. The PWC170 increased an average of 22 percent and maximum oxygen consumption 14 percent. Arterial pressure dropped (120/75 to 114/68), vital capacity of lungs increased by 6 percent, strength of respiratory muscles by 8.8 percent, duration of respiratory delay by 18 percent. Duration of cardiac cycles increased, stress index decreased. Cardiac contraction rate 2 minutes after work on the ergometer decreased from 118 to 102 bt/min.

  16. Physiological effects of two different postactivation potentiation training loads on power profiles generated during high intensity cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Parry, Sian; Hancock, Stuart; Shiells, Matthew; Passfield, Louis; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether postactivation potentiation (PAP) would have any effect on high intensity cycle ergometer performance. Two different squatting exercises of different loads were presented in a random fashion prior to ergometric exercise. Seven male rugby players volunteered to participate in the study. There were no significant differences observed between peak power output (PPO) measurements for all three testing conditions (P > 0.05). There were also no differences recorded between mean power outputs (MPOs) and end power outputs (EPOs) (P > 0.05). The decrease in power output (FI %) also was found to be nonsignificant for all conditions (P > 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that performance of repeated heavy squats prior to a 30-second maximal cycle ergometer exercise did not improve the power profiles recorded and did not induce PAP at the time of testing.

  17. Psychiatry on death row.

    PubMed

    Hussain, A H; Tozman, S

    1978-03-01

    The authors present the personal experiences of an attending physician in a Death Row in Ceylon (Sri-Lanka). Aspects of the execution scenario are presented and discussed with its implications for the protagonists: the condemned, witnesses, standers-by, authorities and society-at large.

  18. Experimental heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercises.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Michele; Pietrosanti, Stefano; Scalzi, Stefano; Tomei, Patrizio; Verrelli, Cristiano Maria

    2013-01-01

    The heart rate can be effectively used as a measure of the exercise intensity during long duration cycle-ergometer exercises: precisely controlling the heart rate (HR) becomes crucial especially for athletes or patients with cardiovascular/obesity problems. The aim of this letter is to experimentally show how the nonlocal and nonswitching nonlinear control that has been recently proposed in the literature for the HR regulation in treadmill exercises can be effectively applied to cycle-ergometer exercises at constant cycling speed. The structure of the involved nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in cycle-ergometer exercises is mathematically inspired by the structure of a recently identified and experimentally validated nonlinear model for the HR dynamics in treadmill exercises: the role played by the treadmill speed is played here by the work load while the zero speed case for the treadmill exercise is here translated into the cycling operation under zero work load. Experimental results not only validate the aforementioned nonlinear model but also demonstrate the effectiveness--in terms of precise HR regulation--of an approach which simply generalizes to the nonlinear framework the classical proportional-integral control design. The possibility of online modifying the HR reference on the basis of the heart rate variability (HRV) is also suggested and experimentally motivated.

  19. Deception by manipulating the clock calibration influences cycle ergometer endurance time in males.

    PubMed

    Morton, R Hugh

    2009-03-01

    It is common for athletes striving to achieve maximal effort to exercise in the presence of a visible clock. It is implicitly assumed that calibration of the clock is normal (i.e. accurate). This study was designed to test the effect of secretly manipulating the clock calibration on maximal effort as measured by endurance times in cycle ergometry. Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) each undertook three identical rides to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. In one the clock was normally calibrated, in another it was calibrated 10% faster, and in the third 10% slower. Tests were conducted double blind and in fully counterbalanced orders within gender. Clocked endurance times were recorded, and later converted to real times. Analysis of clocked times revealed no significant effects. Over all subjects, real endurance times showed a significant calibration effect, being on average 18.3% (73.4s) longer when the clock ran slow, compared to normal, and 20.5% (80.8s) longer when compared to fast. Because males exercised significantly longer than females, separate analyses reveal that the calibration effect was only significant in males, 27.7% (143.2s) and 29.7% (151.2s), respectively, and present but not significant in females, 1.3% (3.6s) and 3.8% (10.5s), respectively. These results suggest that, when deceived by a visible clock running slower than normal, times to exhaustion on the cycle ergometer were significantly longer in male subjects.

  20. Validation of a dual-cycle ergometer for exercise during 100 percent oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, Janet F.; Ohlhausen, John H.; Webb, James T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    A study has been designed to determine if exercise, while prebreathing 100 percent oxygen prior to decompression, can reduce the current resting-prebreathe time requirements for extravehicular activity and high altitude reconnaissance flight. For that study, a suitable exercise mode was required. Design considerations included space limitations, cost, pressure suit compatibility, ease and maintenance of calibration, accuracy of work output, and assurance that no significant mechanical advantage or disadvantage would be introduced into the system. In addition, the exercise device must enhance denitrogenation by incorporation of both upper and lower body musculature at high levels of oxygen consumption. The purpose of this paper is to describe the specially constructed, dual-cycle ergometer developed for simultaneous arm and leg exercise during prebreathing, and to compare maximal oxygen uptake obtained on the device to that obtained during leg-only cycle ergometry and treadmill testing. Results demonstrate the suitability of the dual-cycle ergometer as an appropriate tool for exercise research during 100 percent oxygen prebreathing.

  1. Alternative Physical Therapy Protocol Using a Cycle Ergometer During Hospital Rehabilitation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: a Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Margarete Diprat; Lopes, Diene Gomes Colvara; de Mello, Renato Gorga Bandeira; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Kessler, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of a cycle ergometer-based exercise program to a standard protocol on the increment of the maximum distance walked during the six-minute walk test in the postoperative rehabilitation of patients submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS A controlled clinical trial pilot, blinded to the outcome, enrolled subjects who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in a hospital from Southern Brazil. Subjects were designated for the standard physical rehabilitation protocol or to an alternative cycle ergometer-based protocol through simple random sampling. The primary outcome was the difference in the maximum distance walked in the six-minute walk test before and after the allocated intervention. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were included in the analysis, 10 in the standard protocol and 14 in the alternative protocol group. There was an increment in the maximum distance walked in both groups, and borderline superiority in the intervention group comparing to the control group (312.2 vs. 249.7; P=0.06). CONCLUSION There was an increase in the maximum distance walked in the alternative protocol compared to the standard protocol. Thus, it is postulated that the use of a cycle ergometer can be included in physical rehabilitation in the hospital phase of postoperative coronary artery bypass grafting. However, randomized studies with larger sample size should be conducted to assess the significance of these findings. PMID:26934400

  2. Comparison of VO[subscript 2] Maximum Obtained from 20 m Shuttle Run and Cycle Ergometer in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO[subscript 2] maximum) is the most widely used indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to compare two protocols for its estimation, cycle ergometer testing and the 20 m shuttle run, among children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). The…

  3. A comparison of practical assessment methods to determine treadmill, cycle and elliptical ergometer VO2peak

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Boér, Nicholas F.; Mealey, Lisa M.; Kim, Kevin H.; Goss, Fredric L.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation compared estimated and predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and maximal heart rate (HRmax) among the treadmill, cycle ergometer and elliptical ergometer. Seventeen women (mean ± SE: 21.9 ± .3 yrs) exercised to exhaustion on all modalities. ACSM metabolic equations were used to estimate VO2peak. Digital displays on the elliptical ergometer were used to estimate VO2peak. Two individual linear regression methods were used to predict VO2peak: 1) two steady state heart rate (HR) responses up to 85% of age-predicted HRmax, and 2) multiple steady state/non-steady state HR responses up to 85% of age-predicted HRmax. Estimated VO2peak for the treadmill (46.3 ± 1.3 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and the elliptical ergometer (44.4 ± 1.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1) did not differ. The cycle ergometer estimated VO2peak (36.5 ± 1.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1) was lower (p < .001) than the estimated VO2peak values for the treadmill and elliptical ergometer. Elliptical ergometer VO2peak predicted from steady state (51.4 ± .8 ml · kg−1 · min−1) and steady state/non-steady state (50.3 ± 2.0 ml · kg−1 · min−1) models were higher than estimated elliptical ergometer VO2peak, p < .01. HRmax and estimates of VO2peak were similar between the treadmill and elliptical ergometer, thus cross-modal exercise prescriptions may be generated. The use of digital display estimates of submaximal oxygen uptake for the elliptical ergometer may not be an accurate method for predicting VO2peak. Health-fitness professionals should use caution when utilizing submaximal elliptical ergometer digital display estimates to predict VO2peak. PMID:20393357

  4. A comparison of practical assessment methods to determine treadmill, cycle, and elliptical ergometer VO2 peak.

    PubMed

    Mays, Ryan J; Boér, Nicholas F; Mealey, Lisa M; Kim, Kevin H; Goss, Fredric L

    2010-05-01

    This investigation compared estimated and predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) and maximal heart rate (HRmax) among the treadmill, cycle ergometer, and elliptical ergometer. Seventeen women (mean +/- SE: 21.9 +/- 0.3 y) exercised to exhaustion on all modalities. American College of Sports Medicine metabolic equations were used to estimate VO2 peak. Digital displays on the elliptical ergometer were used to estimate VO2 peak. Two individual linear regression methods were used to predict VO2 peak: (a) 2 steady state heart rate (HR) responses up to 85% of age-predicted HRmax and (b) multiple steady state/nonsteady state HR responses up to 85% of age-predicted HRmax. Estimated VO2 peak for the treadmill (46.3 +/- 1.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and the elliptical ergometer (44.4 +/- 1.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) did not differ. The cycle ergometer estimated VO2 peak (36.5 +/- 1.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was lower (p < 0.001) than the estimated VO2 peak values for the treadmill and elliptical ergometer. Elliptical ergometer VO2 peak predicted from steady-state (51.4 +/- .8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and steady-state/nonsteady-state (50.3 +/- 2.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) models were higher than estimated elliptical ergometer VO2 peak, p < 0.01. HRmax, and estimates of VO2 peak were similar between the treadmill and elliptical ergometer; thus, crossmodal exercise prescriptions may be generated. The use of digital display estimates of submaximal oxygen uptake for the elliptical ergometer may not be an accurate method for predicting VO2 peak. Health-fitness professionals should use caution when utilizing submaximal elliptical ergometer digital display estimates to predict VO2 peak.

  5. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  6. Reliability of the Lode Excalibur Sport Ergometer and applicability to Computrainer electromagnetically braked cycling training device.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Conrad P; Wharton, Richard P; Church, Timothy S; Lucia, Alejandro

    2005-05-01

    New technology allows cyclists to train via power output (PO) in addition to heart rate (HR). For those athletes undertaking seasonal laboratory testing (e.g., Vo(2), lactate threshold), it is imperative that athletes be able to directly apply this information to their training device. We examined the reliability of a standardized laboratory ergometer (Lode Excalibur Sport) and its applicability to an electromagnetically braked ergometer (Computrainer) in 2 phases. Phase I (n = 12) examined the reliability of the Lode. Phase II (n = 14) compared the Lode to the Computrainer using a randomized, counterbalance assignment. Following warm-up, each trial started at 100 W, progressing 50 W every 3 minutes to exhaustion. Outcomes were time-to-exhaustion (TTE), peak PO (W) (PO(peak)), peak HR (HR(peak)), and ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCP) thresholds. We used a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey post hoc analysis, regression analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and coefficient of variation (CV) analysis for each variable. During phase I, we found no significant difference for any variable, minimal dispersion of Vo(2) during Bland-Altman analysis, and a low CV at each test stage (testing to the Computrainer training device. PMID:15903373

  7. Leg muscle activation and distance setting of the leg cycle ergometer for use by the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Chill; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Young-Ik

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] This study verified the leg muscle activities of elderly subjects performing leg cycle ergometer exercise. [Subjects] Forty-one elderly persons were the subjects of this study. [Methods] For the three distances corresponding to knee flexion angles of 15, 45, and 70, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius were measured while the subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer. [Results] The rectus femoris and biceps femoris showed statistically significant increases as the distance between the cycle ergometer and the body increased, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activation showed a statistically significant increase as the distance from the body to the cycle ergometer decreased. [Conclusion] When the elderly have limb muscle weakness, leg cycle ergometer distances should be adjusted.

  8. Wide row spacing in Louisiana sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is growing interest in the Louisiana sugarcane industry for a wider 8 foot row spacing than the conventional 6 foot row spacing. The wide row provides room for two drills of cane about 30 inches apart on each row. This type of wide row spacing lowers acre-feet from 7260 to 5445, thus reducing ...

  9. The Demise of Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Inciardi, James A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the history and evolution of the American skid row; analyzes the changes it has undergone, particularly in the face of urban renewal; and speculates on its future. Includes opinions of the inhabitants of skid row which were obtained from interviews. (MJL)

  10. Row effect for R-11 condensation on enhanced tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.L.; Murawski, C.G. )

    1990-08-01

    Experimental results of a condensation row effect study on enhanced tubes are presented. A test cell was constructed to condense Refrigerant-11 on the shell side of a vertical bank of five horizontal tubes. Four distinctly different commercially available tubes were tested. The tubes are a 1024-fpm integral fin, the Wolverine Tube-C, Wieland GEWA-SC, and the Tred-D. A modified Turbo-C tube was also tested. Experimental and visual observations are used to understand the row effect due to condensate loading. By plotting the data in the form of the local condensation coefficient versus condensate Reynolds number, the results may be interpreted for any number of tube rows, up to the maximum Reynolds numbers tested. Bundle average condensation coefficients may be established by integrating the h versus Re values over the number of tube rows.

  11. A physiological and biomechanical comparison of over-ground, treadmill and ergometer wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barry; Lenton, John; Leicht, Christof; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine which laboratory-based modality provides the most valid physiological and biomechanical representation of over-ground sports wheelchair propulsion. Fifteen able-bodied participants with previous experience of wheelchair propulsion performed a 3-minute exercise trial at three speeds (4, 6 and 8 km ∙ h(-1)) in three testing modalities over separate sessions: (i) over-ground propulsion on a wooden sprung surface; (ii) wheelchair ergometer propulsion; (iii) treadmill propulsion at four different gradients (0%, 0.7%, 1.0% and 1,3%). A 0.7% treadmill gradient was shown to best reflect the oxygen uptake (7.3 to 9.1% coefficient of variation (CV)) and heart rate responses (4.9 to 6.4% CV) of over-ground propulsion at 4 and 6 km ∙ h(-1). A 1.0% treadmill gradient provided a more valid representation of oxygen uptake during over-ground propulsion at 8 km ∙ h(-1) (8.6% CV). Physiological demand was significantly underestimated in the 0% gradient and overestimated in the 1.3% gradient and wheelchair ergometer trials compared to over-ground trials (P<0.05). No laboratory-based modality provided a valid representation of the forces applied during OG (≥ 18.4% CV). To conclude, a 0.7% treadmill gradient is recommended to replicate over-ground wheelchair propulsion at lower speeds (4 and 6 km ∙ h(-1)) whereas a 1.0% gradient may be more suitable at 8 km ∙ h(-1).

  12. Construction of an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer for research and training.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2013-08-01

    Eccentric cycling serves a useful exercise modality in clinical, research, and sport training settings. However, several constraints can make it difficult to use commercially available eccentric cycle ergometers. In this technical note, we describe the process by which we built an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer using exercise equipment modified with commonly available industrial parts. Specifically, we started with a used recumbent cycle ergometer and removed all the original parts leaving only the frame and seat. A 2.2 kW electric motor was attached to a transmission system that was then joined with the ergometer. The motor was controlled using a variable frequency drive, which allowed for control of a wide range of pedaling rates. The ergometer was also equipped with a power measurement device that quantified work, power, and pedaling rate and provided feedback to the individual performing the exercise. With these parts along with some custom fabrication, we were able to construct an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer suitable for research and training. This paper offers a guide for those individuals who plan to use eccentric cycle ergometry as an exercise modality and wish to construct their own ergometer. PMID:22923268

  13. Construction of an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer for research and training.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C

    2013-08-01

    Eccentric cycling serves a useful exercise modality in clinical, research, and sport training settings. However, several constraints can make it difficult to use commercially available eccentric cycle ergometers. In this technical note, we describe the process by which we built an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer using exercise equipment modified with commonly available industrial parts. Specifically, we started with a used recumbent cycle ergometer and removed all the original parts leaving only the frame and seat. A 2.2 kW electric motor was attached to a transmission system that was then joined with the ergometer. The motor was controlled using a variable frequency drive, which allowed for control of a wide range of pedaling rates. The ergometer was also equipped with a power measurement device that quantified work, power, and pedaling rate and provided feedback to the individual performing the exercise. With these parts along with some custom fabrication, we were able to construct an isokinetic eccentric cycle ergometer suitable for research and training. This paper offers a guide for those individuals who plan to use eccentric cycle ergometry as an exercise modality and wish to construct their own ergometer.

  14. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations. PMID:23834392

  15. Combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists improves swim ergometer sprint performance but not high-intensity swim performance.

    PubMed

    Kalsen, A; Hostrup, M; Bangsbo, J; Backer, V

    2014-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in elite athletes, which leads to a major use of beta2 -agonists. In a randomized double-blinded crossover study, we investigated the effects of combined inhalation of beta2 -agonists (salbutamol, formoterol, and salmeterol), in permitted doses within the World Anti-Doping Agency 2013 prohibited list, in elite swimmers with (AHR, n = 13) or without (non-AHR, n = 17) AHR. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of m. quadriceps (MVC), sprint performance on a swim ergometer and performance in an exhaustive swim test at 110% of VO2max were determined. Venous plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured post-exercise. No improvement was observed in the exhaustive swim test, but swim ergometer sprint time was improved (P < 0.05) in both groups from 57 ± 1.7 to 56 ± 1.8 s in AHR and 58.3 ± 1 to 57.4 ± 1 s in non-AHR. MVC and post-exercise plasma IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) with beta2 -agonists in both groups, whereas IL-8 only increased in AHR. In summary, inhalation of beta2 -agonists, in permitted doses, did not improve swim performance in elite swimmers. However, swim ergometer sprint performance and MVC were increased, which should be considered when making future anti-doping regulations.

  16. Effect of rehabilitational sliding machine and ergometer bicycle training on patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of exercise using rehabilitational sliding machine training and ergometer bicycle training on the balance and gait of patients with stroke. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a sliding training group (STG, n=20) and ergometer bicycle training group (ETG, n=20). [Methods] STG and ETG respectively performed rehabilitational sliding training and cycle ergometer training in 30 minute sessions, five times a week, for a total of eight weeks. [Results] The balance and gait ability of both groups significantly improved. Both groups showed improvements in balance and gait ability, and the ETG showed anterior and posterior ranges of the limit of stability following standing. [Conclusion] Training on a rehabilitational sliding machine and an ergometer is effective at increasing a patient's balance and gait ability during nontreatment time in their daily time without therapist. PMID:25931724

  17. Effect of rehabilitational sliding machine and ergometer bicycle training on patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of exercise using rehabilitational sliding machine training and ergometer bicycle training on the balance and gait of patients with stroke. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a sliding training group (STG, n=20) and ergometer bicycle training group (ETG, n=20). [Methods] STG and ETG respectively performed rehabilitational sliding training and cycle ergometer training in 30 minute sessions, five times a week, for a total of eight weeks. [Results] The balance and gait ability of both groups significantly improved. Both groups showed improvements in balance and gait ability, and the ETG showed anterior and posterior ranges of the limit of stability following standing. [Conclusion] Training on a rehabilitational sliding machine and an ergometer is effective at increasing a patient’s balance and gait ability during nontreatment time in their daily time without therapist. PMID:25931724

  18. Effect of rehabilitational sliding machine and ergometer bicycle training on patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of exercise using rehabilitational sliding machine training and ergometer bicycle training on the balance and gait of patients with stroke. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a sliding training group (STG, n=20) and ergometer bicycle training group (ETG, n=20). [Methods] STG and ETG respectively performed rehabilitational sliding training and cycle ergometer training in 30 minute sessions, five times a week, for a total of eight weeks. [Results] The balance and gait ability of both groups significantly improved. Both groups showed improvements in balance and gait ability, and the ETG showed anterior and posterior ranges of the limit of stability following standing. [Conclusion] Training on a rehabilitational sliding machine and an ergometer is effective at increasing a patient's balance and gait ability during nontreatment time in their daily time without therapist.

  19. On heart rate regulation in cycle-ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Argha, Ahmadreza; Su, Steven W; Lee, Sangwon; Nguyen, Hung; Celler, Branko G

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we have focused on the issue of regulating the human heart rate (HR) to a predefined reference trajectory, especially for cycle-ergometer exercise used for training or rehabilitation. As measuring HR is relatively easy compared to exercise intensity, it has been used in the wide range of training programs. The aim of this paper is to develop a non-model-based control strategy using proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller/relay controller to regulate the HR to track a desired trajectory. In the case of using PID controller, the controller output signal is interpreted as a voice or auditory command, referred to as biofeedback, which can be heard by the exercising subject as a part of the control-loop. Alternatively, the relay controller output signals can be converted to some special words which can be recognised by the exerciser. However, in both cases, to effectively communicate to the user a change in exercise intensity, the timing of this feedback signal relative to the positions of the pedals becomes quite critical. A feedback signal delivered when the pedals are not in a suitable position to efficiently exert force may be ineffective and may lead to a cognitive disengagement of the user form the feedback controller. In this paper we examine the need and the consequence of synchronising the delivery of the feedback signal with an optimal and user specific placement of the pedal.

  20. The potential influence of perception of achievement on performance in volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Ross; Babraj, John

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this short communication was to report the findings of an investigation of the potential influence of spontaneous goal setting on subjects undertaking maximal fitness testing. Subjects were asked to complete a single incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trial. The final minute of the trial, after the last increase in increment in resistance, was broken down into six 10-second intervals and a frequency count made of how many subjects stopped within each interval. A chi-square test was used to determine that there was a significant difference between the expected and the observed frequencies (p < 0.05), with 45% of subjects stopping in the first interval (0-10 seconds) and 0% within the last interval (51-60 seconds). Reflections of the subjects revealed that those who were close to exhaustion but near to reaching the next increment of resistance were more likely to "push on." However, despite having been told to keep going as long as they could, subjects upon reaching that increment stopped almost immediately as they believed they could not manage to reach the next increment. This suggests a potential psychological element related to goal achievement that influences performance in incremental volitional time-to-exhaustion cycle ergometer trials. Practically, this means that the information participants have available on which to base goals (level of increment, time, etc.) needs to be minimized to prevent spontaneous goal setting.

  1. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fns (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows.

  2. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fins (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14431

  3. Relationship between gear ratio and 10-s sprint cycling on an air-braked ergometer.

    PubMed

    Barnett, C; Jenkins, D G; Mackinnon, L T

    1996-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between gear ratio and peak and mean power outputs (PPO and MPO) and peak cadence (PC) during a 10-s all-out sprint on a multi-geared air-braked cycle ergometer. Ten physically active men [mean age 21.0 years (SEM 0.7)] performed in random order six 10-s sprints (15-min rest between each sprint) on two occasions (48 h apart) in six different gear ratios; flywheel revolutions per pedal crank revolution (FR/PCR) ranged between 5.22 and 11.61. The PPO, MPO, and PC were recorded from each sprint. Of the six gear ratios tested, a gear ratio eliciting 8.87 FR/PCR elicited the highest PPO for the initial test session; the PPO output of 1274 W was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than that produced in the other five gears. Analysis of data from the second test session revealed no statistically significant difference in PPO between gear ratios eliciting 8.00, 8.87, and 10.06 FR/PCR. The PPO from these three ratios were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those produced using the ratios resulting in 6.32, 7.06, and 10.78 FR/PCR. The PC in the gear ratio maximising PPO was 120 rpm. Analysis of PC data revealed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) as the number of FR/PCR increased. PMID:8925824

  4. Blood lactate and hormonal responses to prototype flywheel ergometer workouts.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Coday, Michael A; Monda, Julie K; Ramey, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Lori P; Vingren, Jakob L; Potter, William T; Kraemer, William J; Wickel, Eric E

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare blood lactate and hormonal responses with flywheel ergometer (FERG) leg presses for preliminary assessment of workouts best suited for future in-flight resistance exercise. Comprised of 10 repetition sets, the workouts entailed 3 sets of concentric and eccentric (CE3) actions, or concentric-only actions done for 3 (CO3) or 6 (CO6) sets. Methods employed included assessment of blood lactate concentrations ([BLa-]) before and 5 minutes postexercise. Venous blood was also collected before and at 1 and 30 minutes postexercise to assess growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol concentrations ([GH], [T], [C]) and [T/C] ratios. [BLa-] were compared with 2 (time) x 3 (workout) analysis of variance. Hormones were assessed with 2 (gender) x 3 (time) x 3 (workout) analysis of covariances. Results showed [BLa-] had a time effect. Growth hormone concentration showed gender x workout, gender x time, and workout x time interactions, whereas [T] had a 3-way interaction. [C] had gender, time, and workout effects. [T/C] yielded a gender x time interaction. It was concluded that, because CO6 and CE3 yielded similar anabolic hormonal data but the latter had a lower [C] 30 minutes postexercise, CE3 served as the best workout. Although the FERG was originally designed for microgravity, the effort put forth by current subjects was like that for workouts aimed at greater athletic performance and conditioning. Practical applications suggest that eccentric actions should be used for FERG workouts geared toward muscle mass and strength improvement. PMID:20145569

  5. Metrological characterization of a cycle-ergometer to optimize the cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation on patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Comolli, Lorenzo; Ferrante, Simona; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Bocciolone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco

    2010-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a well established method in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Indeed, a bilateral movement such as cycling induced by FES would be crucial for these patients who had an unilateral motor impairment and had to recover an equivalent use of limbs. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost meteorologically qualified cycle-ergometer, optimized for patients with stroke. A commercial ergometer was instrumented with resistive strain gauges and was able to provide the torque produced at the right and left crank, independently. The developed system was integrated with a stimulator, obtaining a novel FES cycling device able to control in real-time the movement unbalance. A dynamic calibration of the sensors was performed and a total torque uncertainty was computed. The system was tested on a healthy subject and on a stroke patient. Results demonstrated that the proposed sensors could be successfully used during FES cycling sessions where the maximum torque produced is about 9Nm, an order of magnitude less than the torque produced during voluntary cycling. This FES cycling system will assist in future investigations on stroke rehabilitation by means of FES and in new exercise regimes designed specifically for patients with unilateral impairments.

  6. Metrological characterization of a cycle-ergometer to optimize the cycling induced by functional electrical stimulation on patients with stroke.

    PubMed

    Comolli, Lorenzo; Ferrante, Simona; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Bocciolone, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Molteni, Franco

    2010-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a well established method in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. Indeed, a bilateral movement such as cycling induced by FES would be crucial for these patients who had an unilateral motor impairment and had to recover an equivalent use of limbs. The aim of this study was to develop a low-cost meteorologically qualified cycle-ergometer, optimized for patients with stroke. A commercial ergometer was instrumented with resistive strain gauges and was able to provide the torque produced at the right and left crank, independently. The developed system was integrated with a stimulator, obtaining a novel FES cycling device able to control in real-time the movement unbalance. A dynamic calibration of the sensors was performed and a total torque uncertainty was computed. The system was tested on a healthy subject and on a stroke patient. Results demonstrated that the proposed sensors could be successfully used during FES cycling sessions where the maximum torque produced is about 9Nm, an order of magnitude less than the torque produced during voluntary cycling. This FES cycling system will assist in future investigations on stroke rehabilitation by means of FES and in new exercise regimes designed specifically for patients with unilateral impairments. PMID:20171923

  7. Comparison of memory and combined exercise and memory-anchoring procedures on ratings of perceived exertion during short duration, near-peak-intensity cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, Randall F; Becque, M Daniel; Hutchins, Matthew D; Palm, Chad M

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following memory-anchoring and two different types of combined exercise and memory-anchoring during short duration, near-peak-intensity cycle exercise. Thirty recreationally trained males volunteered to participate. The M group, n = 10, received only verbal instructions prior to the experimental trial. The EM1 group, n = 10, and the EM2 group, n = 10, received the same verbal instructions, but these were administered while participants performed maximal, graded cycle ergometer exercise. The low perceptual anchor was established during light pedaling for both EM1 and EM2. The high perceptual anchor was established during the final stage of the maximal cycle test for EM1 and during a 30-sec. sprint immediately following the final stage of the maximal cycle ergometer testing for EM2. On the experimental trial pedaling at maximal intensity for 30-sec. was against a resistance equal to .10 x body mass (kg) on a cycle ergometer. The Borg 15-category RPE scale was used to record exertional perceptions. RPE was reported at 8, 13, 18, 23, and 28 sec. each trial. Ratings were similar among the three groups. Their linear regression slopes and intercepts were also similar. Memory-anchoring produced similar RPE for two different combined exercise and memory-anchoring procedures. In conclusion, memory-anchoring and combined exercise and memory-anchoring produce similar RPE during high intensity, short duration cycle exercise in young recreationally trained athletes.

  8. Variability of prediction of maximal oxygen concumption on the cycle ergometer using standard equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1993-01-01

    Several investigations within the Exercise Countermeasures Project at the NASA Johnson Space Center focused on the assessment of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2(sub max)) within the Astronaut Corps pre- and postspace flight. Investigations during the Apollo era suggested that there was a significant decrease in postflight VO2(sub max) when compared to preflight values, and current studies have documented that this trend continues in the Space Shuttle era. It is generally accepted and was confirmed in our laboratory that VO2(sub max) can be predicted from submaximal measures taken during graded exercise tests on the cycle ergometer with respect to populations. However, previous work had not examined the effect of day-to-day variations in the physiologic responses that might alter these predictions for individuals. Stability of individual submaximal data over serial tests is important so that predicted changes in VO2(sub max) are reflective of actual VO2(sub max) changes. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine which of the accepted equations to predict VO2(sub max) would be less affected by normal daily physiologic changes.

  9. Alcoholic Women on Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sandra C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined women (N=20) who were receiving alcoholism treatment in the skid-row area of Portland, Oregon. Women had histories of problem drinking and extensive treatment for alcoholism. Most had been married and had children. Despite transiency, the majority maintained contact with friends and relatives. Compared these women to New York City's…

  10. An analysis of the pacing strategy adopted by elite competitors in 2000 m rowing

    PubMed Central

    Garland, S

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the pacing strategies adopted by elite rowers in championship 2000 m races. Methods: Split times were obtained for each boat in every heavyweight race of the Olympic Games in 2000 and World Championships in 2001 and 2002, and the top 170 competitors in the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2001 and 2002. Data were only included in subsequent analysis if there was good evidence that the athlete or crew completed the race in the fastest possible time. The remaining data were grouped to determine if there were different strategies adopted for on-water versus ergometer trials, "winners" versus "losers", and men versus women. Results: Of the 1612 on-water race profiles considered, 948 fitted the inclusion criteria. There were no differences in pacing profile between winners and losers, and men and women, although on-water and ergometry trials showed a competitively meaningful significant difference over the first 500 m sector. The average profile showed that rowers performed the first 500 m of the race faster than subsequent sectors—that is, at a speed of 103.3% of the average speed for the whole race, with subsequent sectors rowed at 99.0%, 98.3%, and 99.7% of average speed for on-water rowing, and 101.5%, 99.8%, 99.0%, and 99.7% for ergometry. Conclusions: These data indicate that all athletes or crews adopted a similar fast start strategy regardless of finishing position or sex, although the exact pace profile was dependent on rowing mode. This strategy should be considered by participants in 2000 m rowing competitions. PMID:15618339

  11. No effect of cycling experience on leg cycle ergometer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nickleberry, B L; Brooks, G A

    1996-11-01

    Estimates of muscular efficiency in competitive and recreational cyclists at similar work intensities and cycling frequencies were examined. Twelve healthy college-age male nonsmoker volunteers were grouped as either competitive (CC; N = 6) or recreational (RC; N = 6) cyclists based upon previous cycling experience. Subjects were studied at pedaling frequencies of 50 and 80 rpm during bouts of graded and submaximal endurance (75% VO2peak) exercise. Between rest and 250 W, we observed no intergroup differences in VO2 (energy input) at either 50 or 80 rpm. Estimates of whole body (gross) muscular efficiency ranged from 15% to 24% in competitive and 13% to 22% in recreational cyclists at 50 rpm but were not different. Delta (delta) efficiencies ranged from 20% to 34% in competitive and from 21% to 28% in recreational cyclists. Delta efficiency decrease from 27% to 21% in competitive cyclists, from 25% to 21% in recreational cyclists as a function of pedaling frequency, and was not different between groups. Competitive cyclists rode longer at both 50 rmp (27 +/- 5 min vs 14 +/- 2 min; P < 0.05) and 80 rpm (35 +/- 4 min vs 20 +/- 4 min; P < 0.05). At 50 rpm (3.08 +/- 0.02 l.min-1 vs 2.78 +/- 0.05 l.min-1; P < 0.01) and 80 rpm (3.14 +/- 0.01 l.min-1 vs 2.7 +/- 0.04 l.min-1; P < 0.001), the mean VO2 was also greater in competitive cyclists. Although both groups showed superior endurance at 80 compared with 50 rpm and total work was approximately double competitive cyclists at each pedaling frequency, we observed no differences in whole body muscular efficiency during sustained exercise at 75% VO2peak. Our results suggested that previous cycling experience was of minor importance when comparing cycle ergometer efficiency between these two groups. The increased endurance at higher pedaling frequencies during submaximal exercise is not explained by altered muscular efficiency.

  12. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J A; Westneat, M W

    2000-01-01

    Aquatic flight, performed by rowing or flapping fins, wings or limbs, is a primary locomotor mechanism for many animals. We used a computer simulation to compare the mechanical performance of rowing and flapping appendages across a range of speeds. Flapping appendages proved to be more mechanically efficient than rowing appendages at all swimming speeds, suggesting that animals that frequently engage in locomotor behaviours that require energy conservation should employ a flapping stroke. The lower efficiency of rowing appendages across all speeds begs the question of why rowing occurs at all. One answer lies in the ability of rowing fins to generate more thrust than flapping fins during the power stroke. Large forces are necessary for manoeuvring behaviours such as accelerations, turning and braking, which suggests that rowing should be found in slow-swimming animals that frequently manoeuvre. The predictions of the model are supported by observed patterns of behavioural variation among rowing and flapping vertebrates. PMID:11052539

  13. Chlamydomonas flagellar outer row dynein assembly protein ODA7 interacts with both outer row and I1 inner row dyneins.

    PubMed

    Freshour, Judy; Yokoyama, Ruth; Mitchell, David R

    2007-02-23

    We previously found that a mutation at the ODA7 locus in Chlamydomonas prevents axonemal outer row dynein assembly by blocking association of heavy chains and intermediate chains in the cytoplasm. We have now cloned the ODA7 locus by walking in the Chlamydomonas genome from nearby molecular markers, confirmed the identity of the gene by rescuing the mutant phenotype with genomic clones, and identified the ODA7 gene product as a 58-kDa leucine-rich repeat protein unrelated to outer row dynein LC1. Oda7p is missing from oda7 mutant flagella but is present in flagella of other outer row or inner row dynein assembly mutants. However, Oda7 levels are greatly reduced in flagella that lack both outer row dynein and inner row I1 dynein. Biochemical fractionation and rebinding studies support a model in which Oda7 participates in a previously uncharacterized structural link between inner and outer row dyneins.

  14. A split-crank bicycle ergometer uses servomotors to provide programmable pedal forces for studies in human biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Worthen-Chaudhari, Lise; Schwandt, Douglas; Bevly, David M; Kautz, Steven A

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents a novel computer-controlled bicycle ergometer, the TiltCycle, for use in human biomechanics studies of locomotion. The TiltCycle has a tilting (reclining) seat and backboard, a split pedal crankshaft to isolate the left and right loads to the feet of the pedaler, and two belt-driven, computer-controlled motors to provide assistance or resistance loads independently to each crank. Sensors measure the kinematics and force production of the legs to calculate work performed, and the system allows for goniometric and electromyography signals to be recorded. The technical description presented includes the mechanical design, low-level software and control algorithms, system identification and validation test results. PMID:20378483

  15. Changes in EEG during graded exercise on a recumbent cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Stephen P; Hall, Eric E; Folger, Stephen E; Miller, Paul C

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have shown changes in brain activity as a result of exercise; however, few studies have examined changes during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine brain activity during a graded exercise test. Twenty male participants performed a graded exercise test on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Exercise intensity was set initially at 50W and was increased by 50W every 2 minutes until volitional fatigue was reached. Electroencephalography (EEG) was measured prior to the onset of exercise, during the last minute of each stage of exercise, immediately post-exercise, and 10 minutes into recovery. EEG was recorded from 8 scalp sites leading to analysis of alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, beta 2, and theta activities. Expired air was collected and analyzed for ventilation rate (VE), VO2, % of peak VO2, and Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER). No differences were seen in EEG between the hemispheres of the brain. There was, however, a significant increase in brain activity across the spectrum occurring at 200 W through immediately post-exercise. Brain activity returned to pre- exercise levels by 10 minutes post. VO2, % of peak VO2 and RER increased linearly with exercise intensity. VE increased linearly through 200 W; however, a disproportionate increase was seen in VE from 200 W to peak exercise. The results of this investigation demonstrate that brain activity may be related to exercise intensity. Future research will want to examine how these changes in brain activity influence affective, perceptual and cognitive changes often associated with exercise. Efforts will also need to be made to determine if changes in brain activity during exercise are mediated by central (within the brain) or peripheral mechanisms. Key pointsEEG can be recorded during exercise.Brain EEG activity increases during exercise and may be related to exercise intensity.Brain EEG activity returns to resting levels quickly after the cessation of exercise.

  16. Health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70: a review.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Walid; Schmitt, Elise; Kaltenbach, Georges; Geny, Bernard; Vogel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to increase worldwide, more attention is being paid to geriatric health care needs, and successful ageing is becoming an important topic in the medical literature. A preventive approach to the care of older adults is thus a priority in our aging societies. The purpose of this study was to update evidence for the health benefits of cycle ergometer training for older adults over 70. We searched online electronic databases up to September 2014 for original observational and intervention studies on the relationship between cycle ergometer training and health among older patients over 70. Twenty-five studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling for older adults over 70. These studies reported a positive effect on the prevention of cardiovascular disease, and a significant improvement in metabolic responses. Improving functional status, muscle strength and cognitive performance are also well established. Overall, this review demonstrates a positive effect of cycle ergometer training with functional benefits and positive health outcomes for older adults over 70. Based on this evidence, clinicians can now encourage older adults to profit from the health benefits of cycle ergometer training to be able to pursue their daily activities independently.

  17. Modeling of breath methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer*

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Anna; Unterkofler, Karl; Mochalski, Pawel; Jandacka, Martin; Ruzsanyi, Vera; Szabó, Gábor; Mohácsi, Árpád; Teschl, Susanne; Teschl, Gerald; King, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We develop a simple three compartment model based on mass balance equations which quantitatively describes the dynamics of breath methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer. With the help of this model it is possible to estimate the endogenous production rate of methane in the large intestine by measuring breath gas concentrations of methane. PMID:26828421

  18. Comparison of VO2 maximum obtained from 20 m shuttle run and cycle ergometer in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO(2) maximum) is the most widely used indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to compare two protocols for its estimation, cycle ergometer testing and the 20 m shuttle run, among children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD). The shuttle run test was conducted during regular school hours, usually in the gymnasium. Children were then invited to a lab to complete the cycle ergometer protocol. Children were categorized as possible cases of DCD using the Movement-ABC-2. The analysis was performed using cut-points at both the 5th (n=38) and 15th (n=51) percentiles. The average age of children in the study was 12 years (SD=0.5). Children with pDCD had poorer VO(2) maximum when compared to typically developing children based on both the shuttle run and the cycle ergometer. The correlation between tests is in the moderate to high range (r=0.71, p<0.001); 0.78 for girls, and 0.73 for boys. The overall difference in correlations between typically developing children and children with pDCD based on the 15th percentile was 0.12 (p=0.27). For children with pDCD based on the 5th percentile however, the difference between groups was larger (difference in r=0.25), and was statistically significant (p=0.02). In multivariate analyses, there was no difference in the effect of the shuttle run results in predicting VO(2) maximum obtained through the cycle ergometer test for children with pDCD compared to those without the condition. Regardless of the test, the patterns of association between children with pDCD and typically developing children were the same reinforcing the findings of previous field-based reports. Moderate to good correlations, at the 15th percentile cut-point, between tests suggests that the shuttle run test is a reliable substitute in this population when lab based assessments of VO(2) maximum are not feasible.

  19. Effect of Kayak Ergometer Elastic Tension on Upper Limb EMG Activity and 3D Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Neil; Donne, Bernard; Fletcher, David

    2012-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of shoulder injury in kayakers, limited published research examining associated upper limb kinematics and recruitment patterns exists. Altered muscle recruitment patterns on-ergometer vs. on-water kayaking were recently reported, however, mechanisms underlying changes remain to be elucidated. The current study assessed the effect of ergometer recoil tension on upper limb recruitment and kinematics during the kayak stroke. Male kayakers (n = 10) performed 4 by 1 min on-ergometer exercise bouts at 85%VO2max at varying elastic recoil tension; EMG, stroke force and three-dimensional 3D kinematic data were recorded. While stationary recoil forces significantly increased across investigated tensions (125% increase, p < 0.001), no significant differences were detected in assessed force variables during the stroke cycle. In contrast, increasing tension induced significantly higher Anterior Deltoid (AD) activity in the latter stages (70 to 90%) of the cycle (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed across tension levels for Triceps Brachii or Latissimus Dorsi. Kinematic analysis revealed that overhead arm movements accounted for 39 ± 16% of the cycle. Elbow angle at stroke cycle onset was 144 ± 10°; maximal elbow angle (151 ± 7°) occurred at 78 ± 10% into the cycle. All kinematic markers moved to a more anterior position as tension increased. No significant change in wrist marker elevation was observed, while elbow and shoulder marker elevations significantly increased across tension levels (p < 0.05). In conclusion, data suggested that kayakers maintained normal upper limb kinematics via additional AD recruitment despite ergometer induced recoil forces. Key pointsKayak ergometer elastic tension significantly alters Anterior Deltoid recruitment patterns.Kayakers maintain optimal arm kinematics despite changing external forces via altered shoulder muscle recruitment.Overhead arm movements account for a high proportion of the kayak

  20. Force-velocity relationship on a cycle ergometer and knee-extensor strength indices.

    PubMed

    Driss, Tarak; Vandewalle, Henry; Le Chevalier, Jean-Michel; Monod, Hugues

    2002-06-01

    Maximal anaerobic power (Pmax) is often measured on a friction loaded cycle ergometer by means of an all-out exercise against a single braking force or from the force-velocity relationship. The relationship between braking force (F) and peak velocity (V) in cycling is linear: V = V0(1-F/F0) where V0 and F0 correspond to the intercepts with the velocity axis and force axis, respectively. The aim of the present paper was to test the hypothesis that parameter F0 expresses strength ability. The first study (12 male volleyball players) showed significant correlations between F0 and maximal isometric voluntary force (MVF) or maximal isometric rate of force development (MRFD) during isometric knee extension with data expressed either in absolute units (0.66 < r < 0.81, P < 0.01) or related to quadriceps muscle mass kgQ or kgQ2/3 (0.58 < r < 0.82, 0.05 < P < 0.001). In the second study (24 male athletes), F0 was significantly correlated with the peak torques in isokinetic Biodex knee extension at four angular velocities (0, 1.57, 3.14 and 4.19 rad.s-1) with the values expressed in absolute units (0.49 < r < 0.83, 0.05 < P < 0.001). When the results were related to kgQ or kgQ2/3 the correlation coefficients increased with velocity (0.22 < r < 0.69) and were significant (0.05 < P < 0.001) except at 0 rad.s-1. Nevertheless, the interest of the determination of F0 in addition to Pmax is questionable because similar coefficients of correlation were obtained between Pmax and strength performances.

  1. Determinants of oxygen consumption during exercise on cycle ergometer: the effects of gravity acceleration.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Julien; Capelli, Carlo; Antonutto, Guglielmo; Calza, Stefano; Tam, Enrico; Linnarsson, Dag; Ferretti, Guido

    2010-04-30

    The hypothesis that changes in gravity acceleration (a(g)) affect the linear relationships between oxygen consumption VO2 and mechanical power (w ) so that at any w, VO2 increases linearly with a(g) was tested under conditions where the weight of constant-mass legs was let to vary by inducing changes in a(g) in a human centrifuge. The effects of a(g) on the VO2/w relationship were studied on 14 subjects at two pedalling frequencies (f(p), 1.0 and 1.5 Hz), during four work loads on a cycle ergometer (25, 50, 75 and 100 W) and at four a(g) levels (1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 times normal gravity). VO2 increased linearly with w. The slope did not differ significantly at various a(g) and f(p), suggesting invariant mechanical efficiency during cycling, independent of f(p) and a(g). Conversely, the y-intercept of the VO2/w relationship, defined as constant b, increased linearly with a(g). Constant b is the sum of resting VO2 plus internal metabolic power (E (i)). Since the former was the same at all investigated a(g), the increase in constant b was entirely due to an increase in E (i). Since the VO2 versus w lines had similar slopes, the changes in E (i) entirely explained the higher VO2 at each w, as a(g) was increased. In conclusion, the effects of a(g) on VO2 are mediated through changes in E (i), and not in w or in resting VO2.

  2. Comparison of the effect of different intensity exercise on a bicycle ergometer on postprandial lipidemia in type II diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Argani, Narges; Sharifi, Gholamreza; Golshahi, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Postprandial lipid clearance failure and lipoprotein disorders, which are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are well-recognized in type II diabetes. Reduction of fats through exercise has been proved, though the mechanism is not well-defined, and the effects of different intensity exercise on postprandial lipidemia in diabetes type II is unknown. This study aims to find these effects using a cycle ergometer. METHODS On three different days, 15 type II diabetics (10 women and 5 men, with a mean age 42.07 ± 6.05 years, weight 94.64 ± 4.37 kg, height 159.78 ± 9.09 cm, and body mass index29.83 ± 3.93 kg/m2), consumed a full fat breakfast (750-800 kcal, 85% fat), and 150 min later, blood samples were taken from them to measure their lipid profile. The 1st day was the control day, without any exercises. Seven days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise on the cycle ergometer with intensity of 55-70% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), and 14 days later, 90 min after enriched breakfast, they did 30 min of exercise with intensity of 70-85% of HRmax. RESULTS According to Friedman non-parametric test, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol serum level significantly increased after 30 min of moderate intensity exercise (P > 0.05, from 39.4 ± 5.2 to 48.6 ± 9.3), while this increase was insignificant after a higher intensity exercise. Neither intensity levels had any significant effects on triglyceride or on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSION Results showed that moderate intensity exercise was more effective in increasing HDL cholesterol level in type II diabetics. PMID:25161685

  3. Performance and fibre characteristics of human skeletal muscle during short sprint training and detraining on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Linossier, M T; Dormois, D; Geyssant, A; Denis, C

    1997-01-01

    The ergometric effect of sprint training and detraining was studied in relation to muscle fibre changes in seven students trained during 9 weeks on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training and after 7-week detraining, they performed a force-velocity test on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer. On these three occasions, muscle samples were taken from vastus lateralis muscle at rest for histochemical analysis. The training-induced shift of the force-velocity relationship was such that the increase in maximal velocity (vmax) was greatest against high braking forces (FB) with unchanged vmax with no load. This was associated with higher maximal power output (28%) and peak force (16%). The increased maximal mean power output to reach a maximal velocity during a short sprint was obtained against a 23% higher optimal FB (FB,Wmax). At the same time, a considerable hypertrophy in fast twitch b (FTb) fibres was observed. All these changes were maintained after detraining. The training-induced changes in vmax reached against FB1Wmax(vm2Wmax) allowed us to produce evidence for two particular sub-groups in which inverse fibre conversions were observed. In subgroup A, the lowered post-training vm,Wmax was associated with a decrease in both FTa and FTb fibres. Conversely, the vm,Wmax, increase in subgroup B was associated with a higher percentage of FT fibres as the result of increased FTa fibres and decreased FTb fibres. Thus, the fibre hypertrophy associated with a unidirectional fibre translation [FTb-->FTa-->slow twitch (ST)] toward fibres with a high thermodynamic efficiency would result mainly in increased force qualities, whereas the bidirectional fibre translation (ST-->FTa<--FTb) would allow enhancement of both force and velocity properties.

  4. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work.

  5. Setting up a Death Row Psychiatry Program.

    PubMed

    Yanofski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    Death row psychiatry contains a complex set of clinical, ethical, and legal questions. This Forensic Files column makes a case for correctional institutions starting death row programs to address these issues through uniform policies. A list of the relevant issues is provided. Specific issues discussed include death row psychiatric assessment, considering "justifiable" depression, treating for competency to be executed, and balancing boundaries between clinical and forensic work. PMID:21468293

  6. Estimation of VO2 Max: A Comparative Analysis of Five Exercise Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwiren, Linda D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-eight healthy females measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on the cycle ergometer and treadmill to compare five exercise tests (run, walk, step, and two tests using heart-rate response on the bicycle ergometer) in predicting VO2max. Results indicate that walk and run tests are satisfactory predictors of VO2max in 30- to 39-year-old…

  7. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  8. Effect of High Resistance and Low Resistance Bicycle Ergometer Training in College Women on Cardiorespiratory Function and Body Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shire, Tanya L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Results of this research suggest that cardiorespiratory and body adaptations were independent from the two modes of training (high resistance-slow rate/low resistance-fast rate exercise on the bicycle ergometer) used in the study. (MB)

  9. On Row Rank Equal Column Rank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalili, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

  10. Rows=Wildlife Corridors: An Urban Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1983-01-01

    Linear strips of land associated with highways, electrical transmission lines, gas/oil pipelines (called right-of-way or ROWs) are inhibited by a variety of wildlife and offer a unique opportunity to study the wildlife in the urban setting. Types of wildlife found in and importance of ROWs are discussed. (JN)

  11. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  12. STS-46 Pilot Allen uses cycle ergometer on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Pilot Andrew M. Allen exercises using the cycle ergometer on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Allen, shirtless, is equipped with sensors for monitoring his biological systems during the exercise session. A communications kit assembly cable freefloats from his headset at his right and in front of the forward lockers. The open airlock hatch appears at his left and the sleep station behind him.

  13. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m.

  14. Air-braked cycle ergometers: validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure.

    PubMed

    Finn, J P; Maxwell, B F; Withers, R T

    2000-10-01

    Barometric pressure exerts by far the greatest influence of the three environmental factors (barometric pressure, temperature and humidity) on power outputs from air-braked ergometers. The barometric pressure correction factor for power outputs from air-braked ergometers is in widespread use but apparently has never been empirically validated. Our experiment validated this correction factor by calibrating two air-braked cycle ergometers in a hypobaric chamber using a dynamic calibration rig. The results showed that if the power output correction for changes in air resistance at barometric pressures corresponding to altitudes of 38, 600, 1,200 and 1,800 m above mean sea level were applied, then the coefficients of variation were 0.8-1.9% over the range of 160-1,597 W. The overall mean error was 3.0 % but this included up to 0.73 % for the propagated error that was associated with errors in the measurement of: a) temperature b) relative humidity c) barometric pressure d) force, distance and angular velocity by the dynamic calibration rig. The overall mean error therefore approximated the +/- 2.0% of true load that was specified by the Laboratory Standards Assistance Scheme of the Australian Sports Commission. The validity of the correction factor for barometric pressure on power output was therefore demonstrated over the altitude range of 38-1,800 m. PMID:11071051

  15. Strength testing and training of rowers: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82-0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.57-0.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r = -0.54 to -0.68; p < 0.05). Repetition tests that assess muscular or strength endurance by quantifying the number of repetitions accrued at a fixed percentage of the strength maximum (e.g. 50-70% 1RM leg press) or set absolute load (e.g. 40 kg prone bench pulls) were less reliable and more time consuming when compared with briefer maximal strength tests. Only leg press repetition tests were correlated with 2000-m ergometer times (e.g. r = -0.67; p < 0.05). However, these tests differentiate training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio <45% or knee extensor-elbow flexor ratio around 4.2 ± 0.22 to

  16. Strength testing and training of rowers: a review.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Trent W; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    In the quest to maximize average propulsive stroke impulses over 2000-m racing, testing and training of various strength parameters have been incorporated into the physical conditioning plans of rowers. Thus, the purpose of this review was 2-fold: to identify strength tests that were reliable and valid correlates (predictors) of rowing performance; and, to establish the benefits gained when strength training was integrated into the physical preparation plans of rowers. The reliability of maximal strength and power tests involving leg extension (e.g. leg pressing) and arm pulling (e.g. prone bench pull) was high (intra-class correlations 0.82-0.99), revealing that elite rowers were significantly stronger than their less competitive peers. The greater strength of elite rowers was in part attributed to the correlation between strength and greater lean body mass (r = 0.57-0.63). Dynamic lower body strength tests that determined the maximal external load for a one-repetition maximum (1RM) leg press (kg), isokinetic leg extension peak force (N) or leg press peak power (W) proved to be moderately to strongly associated with 2000-m ergometer times (r = -0.54 to -0.68; p < 0.05). Repetition tests that assess muscular or strength endurance by quantifying the number of repetitions accrued at a fixed percentage of the strength maximum (e.g. 50-70% 1RM leg press) or set absolute load (e.g. 40 kg prone bench pulls) were less reliable and more time consuming when compared with briefer maximal strength tests. Only leg press repetition tests were correlated with 2000-m ergometer times (e.g. r = -0.67; p < 0.05). However, these tests differentiate training experience and muscle morphology, in that those individuals with greater training experience and/or proportions of slow twitch fibres performed more repetitions. Muscle balance ratios derived from strength data (e.g. hamstring-quadriceps ratio <45% or knee extensor-elbow flexor ratio around 4.2 ± 0.22 to

  17. Cerebrovascular responses during rowing: Do circadian rhythms explain morning and afternoon performance differences?

    PubMed

    Faull, O K; Cotter, J D; Lucas, S J E

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize cerebrovascular responses to rowing exercise, investigating whether their diurnal variation might explain performance differences across a day. Twelve male rowers completed incremental rowing exercise and a 2000-m ergometer time trial at 07:00 h and 16:00 h, 1 week apart, while middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), cerebral (prefrontal), and muscular (vastus lateralis) tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin volume (via near-infrared spectroscopy), heart rate, and pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET CO2) were recorded. MCAv was 20-25% above resting levels (68 ± 12 cm/s) during submaximal and maximal exercise intensities, despite PET CO2 being reduced during maximal efforts (down ∼ 0.5-0.8 kPa); thus revealing a different perfusion profile to the inverted-U observed in other exercise modes. The afternoon time trial was 3.4 s faster (95% confidence interval 0.9-5.8 s) and mean power output 3.2% higher (337 vs 347 W; P = 0.04), in conjunction with similar exercise-induced elevations in MCAv (P = 0.60) and reductions in cerebral oxygenation (TOI) (P = 0.12). At the muscle, afternoon trials involved similar oxygen extraction (HHb volume and TOI) albeit from a relatively lower total Hb volume (P < 0.01). In conclusion, rowing performance was better in the afternoon, but not in conjunction with differences in MCAv or exercise-induced differences in cerebral oxygenation. PMID:24942089

  18. Memory hierarchy using row-based compression

    DOEpatents

    Loh, Gabriel H.; O'Connor, James M.

    2016-10-25

    A system includes a first memory and a device coupleable to the first memory. The device includes a second memory to cache data from the first memory. The second memory includes a plurality of rows, each row including a corresponding set of compressed data blocks of non-uniform sizes and a corresponding set of tag blocks. Each tag block represents a corresponding compressed data block of the row. The device further includes decompression logic to decompress data blocks accessed from the second memory. The device further includes compression logic to compress data blocks to be stored in the second memory.

  19. New algorithm to control a cycle ergometer using electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Petrofsky, J S

    2003-01-01

    Data were collected from four male subjects to determine the relationships between load, speed and muscle use during cycle ergometry. These data were then used to construct equations to govern the stimulation of muscle in paralysed individuals, during cycle ergometry induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the quadriceps, gluteus maximus and hamstring muscles. The algorithm was tested on four subjects who were paralysed owing to a complete spinal cord injury between T4 and T11. Using the multivariate equation, the control of movement was improved, and work was accomplished that was double (2940 Nm min(-1) compared with 5880 Nm min(-1)) that of traditional FES cycle ergometry, when muscle stimulation was also controlled by electrical stimulation. Stress on the body, assessed by cardiac output, was increased almost two-fold during maximum work with the new algorithm (81 min(-1) compared with 15 l min(-1) with the new algorithm). These data support the concept that the limitation to workload that a person can achieve on FES cycle ergometry is in the control equations and not in the paralysed muscle.

  20. Combining ergometer exercise and artificial gravity in a compact-radius centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Ana; Trigg, Chris; Young, Laurence R.

    2015-08-01

    Humans experience physiological deconditioning during space missions, primarily attributable to weightlessness. Some of these adverse consequences include bone loss, muscle atrophy, sensory-motor deconditioning, and cardiovascular alteration, which may lead to orthostatic intolerance when astronauts return to Earth. Artificial gravity could provide a comprehensive countermeasure capable of challenging all the physiological systems at once, particularly if combined with exercise, thereby maintaining overall health during extended exposure to weightlessness. A new Compact Radius Centrifuge (CRC) platform was designed and built on the existing Short Radius Centrifuge (SRC) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The centrifuge has been constrained to a radius of 1.4 m, the upper radial limit for a centrifuge to fit within an International Space Station (ISS) module without extensive structural alterations. In addition, a cycle ergometer has been added for exercise during centrifugation. The CRC now includes sensors of foot forces, cardiovascular parameters, and leg muscle electromyography. An initial human experiment was conducted on 12 subjects to analyze the effects of different artificial gravity levels (0 g, 1 g, and 1.4 g, measured at the feet) and ergometer exercise intensities (25 W warm-up, 50 W moderate and 100 W vigorous) on the musculoskeletal function as well as motion sickness and comfort. Foot forces were measured during the centrifuge runs, and subjective comfort and motion sickness data were gathered after each session. Preliminary results indicate that ergometer exercise on a centrifuge may be effective in improving musculoskeletal function. The combination is well tolerated and motion sickness is minimal. The MIT CRC is a novel platform for future studies of exercise combined with artificial gravity. This combination may be effective as a countermeasure to space physiological deconditioning.

  1. Exercise-induced lymphocyte apoptosis attributable to cycle ergometer exercise in endurance-trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Navalta, James Wilfred; McFarlin, Brian Keith; Lyons, Thomas Scott; Faircloth, John Clifton; Bacon, Nicholas T; Callahan, Zachary J

    2009-08-01

    Exercise as a stimulus to induce lymphocyte apoptosis remains controversial. Differences may be due to participant fitness level or the methodology of assessing cell death. Another important issue is the mode of exercise used to induce physiological changes. Treadmill exercise typically induces significant apoptosis in human lymphocytes; however, the effect of cycle exercise is less clear. The 2 main purposes of this study were to assess if cycle ergometer exercise induces similar changes in apoptosis, and to further characterize the morphological method of assessing cell death. Endurance athletes (n = 10; peak oxygen consumption = 55.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed a 60-min ride on a cycle ergometer at approximately 80% peak oxygen consumption. Blood samples taken before (PRE) and after (POST) exercise were used to make blood films for apoptotic analysis via the morphological technique. A significant increase was observed in the apoptotic index following cycle exercise (PRE = 7.3 +/- 2%, POST = 12.9 +/- 2%; p < 0.01). On average, it took 42 +/- 9 min to read PRE sample slides, which was significantly longer than the 27 +/- 4 min needed for POST slides (p < 0.01). To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that exercise on the cycle ergometer produces changes in lymphocyte apoptosis. The values measured during this study were about 20% lower than those we have observed following treadmill running, which may be explained by differences in active muscle mass and the resultant physiological stress between the 2 exercise modes. It is likely that cycling may result in reduced immunosuppression, compared with running at the same intensity.

  2. Cardiorespiratory endurance in children with and without cerebral palsy as measured by an ergometer: a case series study.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jee Woon; Woo, Ji-Hea; Ko, Jooyeon; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This preliminary study aimed to determine the cardiorespiratory endurance of children with cerebral palsy (CP) using a case series study in order to provide the reference data required for interventions appropriate for South Korean CP sufferers, since aerobic ability evaluation and interventions for children with CP are not well recognized in South Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Four children and adolescents with CP GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System) level I and II and two normally developing children (ND) (age: 7-15 years) were studied. Cycle ergometer testing was performed to determine their VO2 peak and RER peak concentrations as well as VE peak and 6MWT distance. [Results] The VO2 peak was lower in subject E (CP) at 44.5 than in subject B (ND), and it was lower in subject A (ND) at 22.9 than in subject C (CP). The 6MWT distance was longer in subjects A and B (ND) than in age-matched CP subjects. [Conclusion] This case report demonstrates that the cardiorespiratory parameters values of CP children were similar to those reported previously. Further research is required to evaluate the normative values of CP and the optimal cardiorespiratory parameters.

  3. Effect of Locomotor Respiratory Coupling Induced by Cortical Oxygenated Hemoglobin Levels During Cycle Ergometer Exercise of Light Intensity.

    PubMed

    Oyanagi, Keiichi; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Yasufuku, Yuichi; Takai, Haruna; Kera, Takeshi; Tamaki, Akira; Iwata, Kentaro; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of locomotor-respiratory coupling (LRC) induced by light load cycle ergometer exercise on oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), supplementary motor area (SMA), and sensorimotor cortex (SMC). The participants were 15 young healthy adults (9 men and 6 women, mean age: 23.1 ± 1.8 (SEM) years). We conducted a task in both LRC-inducing and LRC-non-inducing conditions for all participants. O2Hb was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. The LRC frequency ratio during induction was 2:1; pedaling rate, 50 rpm; and intensity of load, 30 % peak volume of oxygen uptake. The test protocol included a 3-min rest prior to exercise, steady loading motion for 10 min, and 10-min rest post exercise (a total of 23 min). In the measurement of O2Hb, we focused on the DLPFC, SMA, and SMC. The LRC frequency was significantly higher in the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). O2Hb during exercise was significantly lower in the DLPFC and SMA, under the LRC-inducing condition (p < 0.05). The study revealed that even light load could induce LRC and that O2Hb in the DLPFC and SMA decreases during exercise via LRC induction.

  4. Developing Formulas by Skipping Rows in Pascal's Triangle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buonpastore, Robert J.; Osler, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    A table showing the first thirteen rows of Pascal's triangle, where the rows are, as usual numbered from 0 to 12 is presented. The entries in the table are called binomial coefficients. In this note, the authors systematically delete rows from Pascal's triangle and, by trial and error, try to find a formula that allows them to add new rows to the…

  5. Comparisons of single-row and twin-row soybean production in the Mid South

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Maturity Group (MG) IV and MG V soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] cultivar were planted in single-rows and twin-rows on 102 cm beds at 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m-2 in a Beulah fine sandy loam (coarse-loamy, mixed thermic Typic Dystrochrepts) in 2008, 2009, 2010 and Sharkey clay (Vertic Haplaquept) i...

  6. Step aerobic vs. cycle ergometer training: effects on aerobic capacity, coordinative tasks, and pleasure in untrained adults--a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kerschan-Schindl, Katharina; Wiesinger, Günther; Zauner-Dungl, Andrea; Kollmitzer, Josef; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Quittan, Michael

    2002-12-30

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of step aerobic (StA) and cycle ergometer training (CET) on physical performance, coordination, and pleasure, during workout. Forty untrained persons (40-70 years) were randomly assigned to either of the two regimens. Prior to and after three months of training, we investigated the participants' physical performance with a cycle ergometer test and by testing coordinative tasks (upper extremities: tapping test; lower extremities: one-leg stance). After the training period, visual analog scales were used to evaluate personal assessment (pleasure, wellbeing, team spirit, interest in prolongation of training). StA increased the relative oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (RVO2AT) while CET increased the relative maximal oxygen uptake (RVO2max) to a statistically significant extent. However, intergroup comparison failed to show group-specific differences. Concerning coordinative tasks, the members of the StA group achieved a significant time reduction for both hands' tapping test. However, only the improvement in left-handed tapping was significantly higher than that achieved by members of the CET group. Despite the absence of group-specific differences, CET members showed a statistically significant change when comparing the duration of pre- with post-training time for one-leg stance under proprioceptive conditions. Team spirit was significantly higher in the StA group than in the CET group. Except for the time reduction in left-handed tapping, the present study found no group-specific differences in physical performance and coordination. Participating in a StA class has a more cohesive effect on the individual members than attending a CET group.

  7. Determination of aerobic work and power on a rope-braked cycle ergometer by direct measurement.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Rae S; Franklin, Kathryn L; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power and work outputs of a cycle ergometer using the manufacturer's guidelines, with calculations using direct flywheel velocity and brake torque. A further aim was to compare the values obtained with those supplied by the manufacturer. A group of 10 male participants were asked to pedal a Monark 824E ergometer at a constant cadence of 60 r/min for a period of 3 min against a resistive mass of 3 kg. The flywheel velocity was measured using a tachometer. The brake force was determined by measuring the tension in the rope on either side of the flywheel. The calculated mean power was 147.45 +/- 6.5 W compared with the Monark value of 183 +/- 3.7 W. The difference between the methods for power estimation was 18% and was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The mean work done by the participants during the 3 min period was found to be 26 460 +/- 1145 J compared with the Monark value of 33,067 +/- 648 J (p < 0.01). The Monark formulae currently used to determine the power and work done by a participant overestimates the actual values required to overcome the resistance. There findings have far-reaching implications in the physiological assessment of athletic, sedentary, and diseased populations. PMID:16900228

  8. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake () during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants’ (age 19–48 years) were recruited and their steady-state was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of . Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg−1 min−1) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. PMID:26371230

  9. Optical RAM row access using WDM-enabled all-passive row/column decoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Alexoudi, Theoni; Kanellos, George T.; Miliou, Amalia; Pleros, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Towards achieving a functional RAM organization that reaps the advantages offered by optical technology, a complete set of optical peripheral modules, namely the Row (RD) and Column Decoder (CD) units, is required. In this perspective, we demonstrate an all-passive 2×4 optical RAM RD with row access operation and subsequent all-passive column decoding to control the access of WDM-formatted words in optical RAM rows. The 2×4 RD exploits a WDM-formatted 2-bit-long memory WordLine address along with its complementary value, all of them encoded on four different wavelengths and broadcasted to all RAM rows. The RD relies on an all-passive wavelength-selective filtering matrix (λ-matrix) that ensures a logical `0' output only at the selected RAM row. Subsequently, the RD output of each row drives the respective SOA-MZI-based Row Access Gate (AG) to grant/block the entry of the incoming data words to the whole memory row. In case of a selected row, the data word exits the row AG and enters the respective CD that relies on an allpassive wavelength-selective Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) for decoding the word bits into their individual columns. Both RD and CD procedures are carried out without requiring any active devices, assuming that the memory address and data word bits as well as their inverted values will be available in their optical form by the CPU interface. Proof-of-concept experimental verification exploiting cascaded pairs of AWGs as the λ-matrix is demonstrated at 10Gb/s, providing error-free operation with a peak power penalty lower than 0.2dB for all optical word channels.

  10. Limitations of Spectral Electromyogramic Analysis to Determine the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold during Incremental Ergometer Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Latasa, Iban; Cordova, Alfredo; Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new method has been proposed to detect the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during an incremental cycling test by assessing the changes in spectral electromyographic (sEMG) frequencies within individual exercise periods of the test. The method consists on determining the highest power output that can be sustained without a significant decrease in spectral frequencies. This study evaluated the validity of the new approach by assessing the changes in spectral indicators both throughout the whole test and within individual exercise periods of the test. Fourteen cyclists performed incremental cycle ergometer rides to exhaustion with bipolar surface EMG signals recorded from the vastus lateralis. The mean and median frequencies (Fmean and Fmedian, respectively) of the sEMG power spectrum were calculated. The main findings were: (1) Examination of spectral indicators within individual exercise periods of the test showed that neither Fmean nor Fmedian decreased significantly during the last (most fatiguing) exercise periods. (2) Examination of the whole incremental test showed that the behaviour of Fmean and Fmedian with increasing power output was highly inconsistent and varied greatly among subjects. (3) Over the whole incremental test, half of the participants exhibited a positive relation between spectral indicators and workload, whereas the other half demonstrated the opposite behavior. Collectively, these findings indicate that spectral sEMG indexes do not provide a reliable measure of the fatigue state of the muscle during an incremental cycling test. Moreover, it is concluded that it is not possible to determine the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during an incremental cycling test by examining spectral indicators within individual exercise periods of the test. Key points The behaviour of spectral EMG indicators during the incremental test exhibited a high heterogeneity among individuals, with approximately half of the participants showing a positive

  11. Limitations of Spectral Electromyogramic Analysis to Determine the Onset of Neuromuscular Fatigue Threshold during Incremental Ergometer Cycling.

    PubMed

    Latasa, Iban; Cordova, Alfredo; Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Lavilla-Oiz, Ana; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2016-03-01

    Recently, a new method has been proposed to detect the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during an incremental cycling test by assessing the changes in spectral electromyographic (sEMG) frequencies within individual exercise periods of the test. The method consists on determining the highest power output that can be sustained without a significant decrease in spectral frequencies. This study evaluated the validity of the new approach by assessing the changes in spectral indicators both throughout the whole test and within individual exercise periods of the test. Fourteen cyclists performed incremental cycle ergometer rides to exhaustion with bipolar surface EMG signals recorded from the vastus lateralis. The mean and median frequencies (Fmean and Fmedian, respectively) of the sEMG power spectrum were calculated. The main findings were: (1) Examination of spectral indicators within individual exercise periods of the test showed that neither Fmean nor Fmedian decreased significantly during the last (most fatiguing) exercise periods. (2) Examination of the whole incremental test showed that the behaviour of Fmean and Fmedian with increasing power output was highly inconsistent and varied greatly among subjects. (3) Over the whole incremental test, half of the participants exhibited a positive relation between spectral indicators and workload, whereas the other half demonstrated the opposite behavior. Collectively, these findings indicate that spectral sEMG indexes do not provide a reliable measure of the fatigue state of the muscle during an incremental cycling test. Moreover, it is concluded that it is not possible to determine the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during an incremental cycling test by examining spectral indicators within individual exercise periods of the test. Key pointsThe behaviour of spectral EMG indicators during the incremental test exhibited a high heterogeneity among individuals, with approximately half of the participants showing a positive

  12. Neutron camera employing row and column summations

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G.; Diawara, Yacouba; Donahue, Jr, Cornelius; Montcalm, Christopher A.; Riedel, Richard A.; Visscher, Theodore

    2016-06-14

    For each photomultiplier tube in an Anger camera, an R.times.S array of preamplifiers is provided to detect electrons generated within the photomultiplier tube. The outputs of the preamplifiers are digitized to measure the magnitude of the signals from each preamplifier. For each photomultiplier tube, a corresponding summation circuitry including R row summation circuits and S column summation circuits numerically add the magnitudes of the signals from preamplifiers for each row and for each column to generate histograms. For a P.times.Q array of photomultiplier tubes, P.times.Q summation circuitries generate P.times.Q row histograms including R entries and P.times.Q column histograms including S entries. The total set of histograms include P.times.Q.times.(R+S) entries, which can be analyzed by a position calculation circuit to determine the locations of events (detection of a neutron).

  13. Trauma therapy for death row families.

    PubMed

    Long, Walter C

    2011-01-01

    The family members of death row inmates undergo unique suffering that includes disenfranchised grief and intense psychological trauma. In Texas, where executions occur at a rate of 1 every 2 weeks, this class of trauma victims presumably is large, a fact that should generate public mental health concern. Yet the class remains virtually unknown to the therapeutic community. Very little has been done to address the trauma healing needs of death row families. This theoretical paper proposes that structural therapy designed to reengage attachment relationships and reempower family members' innate resources to emotionally regulate one another may provide one of the most effective means of helping this population survive trauma.

  14. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Charles W.

    1982-02-01

    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  15. Effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer performance and fatigue recovery after exercise.

    PubMed

    Demura, Shinichi; Morishita, Koji; Yamada, Takayoshi; Yamaji, Shunsuke; Komatsu, Miho

    2011-11-01

    L-Ornithine plays an important role in ammonia metabolism via the urea cycle. This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on ammonia metabolism and performance after intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer exercise. Ten healthy young adults (age, 23.8 ± 3.9 year; height, 172.3 ± 5.5 cm; body mass, 67.7 ± 6.1 kg) with regular training experience ingested L-ornithine hydrochloride (0.1 g/kg, body mass) or placebo after 30 s of maximal cycling exercise. Five sets of the same maximal cycling exercise were conducted 60 min after ingestion, and maximal cycling exercise was conducted after a 15 min rest. The intensity of cycling exercise was based on each subject's body mass (0.74 N kg(-1)). Work volume (watt), peak rpm (rpm) before and after intermittent maximal ergometer exercise and the following serum parameters were measured before ingestion, immediately after exercise and 15 min after exercise: ornithine, ammonia, urea, lactic acid and glutamate. Peak rpm was significantly greater with L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion than with placebo ingestion. Serum ornithine level was significantly greater with L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion than with placebo ingestion immediately and 15 min after intermittent maximal cycle ergometer exercise. In conclusion, although maximal anaerobic performance may be improved by L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion before intermittent maximal anaerobic cycle ergometer exercise, the above may not depend on increase of ammonia metabolism with L-ornithine hydrochloride.

  16. Ergometer within a whole-body plethysmograph to evaluate performance of guinea pigs under toxic atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, D.E.; Alarie, Y. )

    1989-11-01

    A guinea pig ergometer was constructed within an enclosure, with inlet and outlet ports for continuous ventilation, designed so that the enclosure would work as a whole-body plethysmograph as well as an inhalation exposure chamber. This system provided continuous measurement of tidal volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen uptake, and carbon dioxide output which enabled an evaluation of performance in terms of distance traveled over time with the animals running at a known speed and constant oxygen uptake. The effects of CO or HCl in running versus sedentary animals were investigated using this apparatus. For CO, exercise increased the rapidity of the onset of incapacitation as would be predicted by the increase in metabolic rate. HCl produced a more severe incapacitating effect in exercising animals that was out of proportion with the increase in minute volume induced by exercise.

  17. Automated data collection and processing for a concentric/eccentric cycle ergometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, E.; Knuttgen, H. G.; Frykman, P.

    1986-02-01

    A system for collection and processing of data from a concentric/eccentric high intensity cycle ergometer is described. Each cycle pedal is fitted with transducers to measure pedal angle relative to the crank and foot forces both perpendicular and parallel to the pedal surface. An additional transducer monitors crank position. Output signals are conditioned, amplified, digitized by a 12 bit A/D converter, fed into a computer at 100 Hz per channel, and mathematically smoothed to attenuate noise. For each sample interval, foot force components perpendicular and parallel to the crank arm are calculated. Power generated by subjects on each crank revolution is determined from transducer information. Computer graphics display pedalling parameters vs. crank angle in both rectangular and circular format. Data files containing variables descriptive of pedalling parameter curves are produced to enable computerized statistical analysis of cycling performance.

  18. Radiometric surface temperature components for row crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature is a boundary condition often used in assessing soil moisture status and energy exchange from the soil-vegetation-atmosphere interface. For row crops having incomplete canopy cover, the radiometric surface temperature is a composite of sunlit and shaded vegetation and substr...

  19. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption.

  20. Friendship and Disaffiliation Among the Skid Row Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, James F.

    1976-01-01

    Personal relationships of skid row men have been described in terms of disaffiliation and replacement of friends. Analysis of social relationships of Philadelphia skid row residents upheld the theory of replacement. The loss of relationships, however, was more closely associated with length of residence in skid row than with age. (Author)

  1. Biomass production of sugarcane on narrow-rows in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Cayton, J.E.; Eiland, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sugarcane production for biomass was examined on three narrow-row patterns in Florida. Equipment and production methods were modified for planting, spraying and harvesting the narrow-row patterns. No large increases in yields of vigorous varieties were found when compared to those from conventional rows. Some increases were observed in varieties which have low stalk populations. 4 refs.

  2. A row-column addressed micromachined ultrasonic transducer array for surface scanning applications.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lawrence L P; Chen, Albert I H; Li, Zhenhao; Logan, Andrew S; Yeow, John T W

    2014-12-01

    Row-column addressed arrays for ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) applications are analyzed and demonstrated in this paper. Simulation and experimental results of a row-column addressed 32 by 32 capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array are presented. The CMUT array, which was designed for medical imaging applications, has a center frequency of 5.3MHz. The CMUT array was used to perform C-scans on test objects with holes that have diameters of 1.0mm and 0.5mm. The array transducer has an aperture size of 4.8mm by 4.8mm, and it was used to scan an area of 4.0mm by 4.0mm. Compared to an N by N fully addressed 2-D array, a row-column addressed array of the same number of elements requires fewer (N instead of N(2)) pairs of interconnection and supporting electronic components such as pulsers and amplifiers. Even though the resulting field of view is limit by the aperture size, row-column addressed arrays and the row-column addressing scheme can be an alternative option of 2-D arrays for NDT applications.

  3. Bicycle ergometer instrumentation to determine muscle and bone forces during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    1995-01-01

    It is hypothesized that bone loss experienced by astronauts in zero gravity conditions may be curtailed by appropriate exercise. According to Wolf's law, bone regenerates when muscles produce stresses by pulling on the bone during daily activity and/or exercise on Earth. to use this theory to prevent or decrease bone loss, one needs to quantify musculoskeletal loads and relate them to bone density changes. In the context of the space program, it is desirable to determine musculoskeletal loads during exercise (using the bicycle ergometer in this case) so that one may make similar measurements on Earth and in space. In this manner, load measurements on Earth may be used as reference to generate similar loads during exercise in space. The work reported in this document entails a musculoskeletal load measurement system that, when complete, will provide forces at muscle insertion points and other contact points, on bone. This data will be used by Dr. Beth A. Todd, who is also a SSF working with Dr. Shackelford, as input to a finite element model of bone sections to determine stress distributions. A bicycle ergometer has been instrumented to measure parameters needed to determine musculoskeletal forces during exercise. A primary feature of the system is its compactness. It uses small/light sensors without line-of-sight requirements. The system developed includes sensors, signal processing, a data acquisition system, and software to collect the data. The sensors used include optical encoders to measure position and orientation of the pedal (foot), accelerometers to determine kinematic parameters of the shank and thigh, load cells to measure pedal forces on the sagittal plane, and EMG probes to measure muscle activity. The signals are processed using anti-aliasing filters and amplifiers. The sensors' output is digitized using 30 channels of a board mounted inside a 486 class PC. A program sets the data acquisition parameters and collects data during a time period specified

  4. Extended abstract: Partial row projection methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bramley, R.; Lee, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Accelerated row projection (RP) algorithms for solving linear systems Ax = b are a class of iterative methods which in theory converge for any nonsingular matrix. RP methods are by definition ones that require finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix. The Kaczmarz form, considered here because it has a better spectrum for iterative methods, has an iteration matrix that is the product of such projectors. Because straightforward Kaczmarz method converges slowly for practical problems, typically an outer CG acceleration is applied. Definiteness, symmetry, or localization of the eigenvalues, of the coefficient matrix is not required. In spite of this robustness, work has generally been limited to structured systems such as block tridiagonal matrices because unlike many iterative solvers, RP methods cannot be implemented by simply supplying a matrix-vector multiplication routine. Finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix in practice requires accessing the actual entries in the matrix. This report introduces a new partial RP algorithm which retains advantages of the RP methods.

  5. Functional Outcomes After Double-Row Versus Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Stephen J.; Lee, Steven J.; Mullaney, Michael J.; Tyler, Timothy F.; Fukunaga, Takumi; Johnson, Christopher D.; McHugh, Malachy P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The functional benefits of double-row (DR) versus single-row (SR) rotator cuff repair are not clearly established. Purpose: To examine the effect of DR versus SR rotator cuff repair on functional outcomes and strength recovery in patients with full-thickness tears. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Forty-nine patients were randomized to DR or SR repairs; 36 patients (13 women, 23 men; mean age, 62 ± 7 years; 20 SR, 16 DR) were assessed at a mean 2.2 ± 1.6 years after surgery (range, 1-7 years; tear size: 17 medium, 13 large, 9 massive). The following data were recorded prior to surgery and at follow-up: Penn shoulder score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), and Simple Shoulder Test (SST) results; range of motion (ROM) for shoulder flexion, external rotation (ER) at 0° and 90° of abduction, and internal rotation (IR) at 90° of abduction; and shoulder strength (Lafayette manual muscle tester) in empty- and full-can tests, abduction, and ER at 0° of abduction. Treatment (SR vs DR) × time (pre- vs postoperative) mixed-model analysis of variance was used to assess the effect of rotator cuff repair. Results: Rotator cuff repair markedly improved Penn, ASES, and SST scores (P < .001), with similar improvement between SR and DR repairs (treatment × time, P = .38-.10) and excellent scores at follow-up (DR vs SR: Penn, 91 ± 11 vs 92 ± 11 [P = .73]; ASES, 87 ± 12 vs 92 ± 12 [P = .21]; SST, 11.4 ± 1.0 vs 11.3 ± 1.0 [P = .76]). Patients with DR repairs lost ER ROM at 0° of abduction (preoperative to final follow-up, 7° ± 10° loss [P = .013]). ER ROM did not significantly change with SR repair (5° ± 14° gain, P = .16; treatment by time, P = .008). This effect was not apparent for ER ROM at 90° of abduction (treatment × time, P = .26). IR ROM improved from preoperative to final follow-up (P < .01; SR, 17° ± 27°; DR, 7° ± 21°; treatment × time, P = .23). Rotator cuff repair markedly

  6. A Straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with a Directed Guide Vane Row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, Manabu; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Oki, Michiaki; Kuma, Hideki

    A straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a directed guide vane row has been proposed in order to enhance its torque. The experimental study of the proposed wind turbine was carried out by a wind tunnel with an outlet diameter of 1.8m. The tested rotor has some straight rotor blades with a profile of NACA0015, a diameter of 0.6 m and a height of 0.7 m. The guide vane row having 3 arc plates rotates around the rotor and is directed to the wind by aerodynamic force generated by tail vanes, so as to put the guide vane row in upstream of the rotor. As a result, the performance of the straight-bladed vertical axis turbine was improved by means of the directed guide vane row. Further, by the use of the guide vane row adopted in the study, the power coefficient of the proposed wind turbine was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the original wind turbine which has no guide vane.

  7. Built for rowing: frog muscle is tuned to limb morphology to power swimming

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Christopher T.; Clemente, Christofer J.

    2013-01-01

    Rowing is demanding, in part, because drag on the oars increases as the square of their speed. Hence, as muscles shorten faster, their force capacity falls, whereas drag rises. How do frogs resolve this dilemma to swim rapidly? We predicted that shortening velocity cannot exceed a terminal velocity where muscle and fluid torques balance. This terminal velocity, which is below Vmax, depends on gear ratio (GR = outlever/inlever) and webbed foot area. Perhaps such properties of swimmers are ‘tuned’, enabling shortening speeds of approximately 0.3Vmax for maximal power. Predictions were tested using a ‘musculo-robotic’ Xenopus laevis foot driven either by a living in vitro or computational in silico plantaris longus muscle. Experiments verified predictions. Our principle finding is that GR ranges from 11.5 to 20 near the predicted optimum for rowing (GR ≈ 11). However, gearing influences muscle power more strongly than foot area. No single morphology is optimal for producing muscle power. Rather, the ‘optimal’ GR decreases with foot size, implying that rowing ability need not compromise jumping (and vice versa). Thus, despite our neglect of additional forces (e.g. added mass), our model predicts pairings of physiological and morphological properties to confer effective rowing. Beyond frogs, the model may apply across a range of size and complexity from aquatic insects to human-powered rowing. PMID:23676897

  8. A row-by-row off-design performance calculation method for turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schobeiri, T.; Abouelkheir, M.

    1991-01-01

    The turbine component of a gas turbine engine is frequently subjected to extreme operation conditions associated with significant changes in mass flow, turbine inlet temperature, pressure and rotational speed. These off-design operation conditions significantly affect the flow deflection within the turbine stage, which consists of individual stator and rotor rows. As a result, the stage parameters representing the velocity diagram will change and affect the efficiency and performance of the stage and, thus, the turbine. A row-by-row calculation method is presented for predicting the performance behavior of turbines under extreme off-design conditions. The method is applied to a multistage turbine for which the off-design performance is calculated and compared with the measurement.

  9. The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Agosti, Fiorenza; Galli, Raffaela; Busti, Carlo; Lazzer, Stefano; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management, but exercise capacity is compromised in obese individuals due to the excessive body mass, impacting on body movement's energetics, and to the dysfunctions of regulatory mechanisms, affecting cardiovascular responses. This study aims to compare the energetics and cardiovascular responses of walking and cycling in obese women, and to formulate recommendations regarding the most suitable type of exercise for obesity. Fifteen obese (OB) and six normal weight (NW) women exercised on treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). During both exercise modalities, metabolic rate was higher in OB than in NW and correlated with measures of body mass. Leg movement metabolic rate during cycling depended upon individual adiposity, and when accounted for, mechanical efficiency was similar in the two groups. When accounting for extra mass, differences in metabolic rate among groups are abolished for CE, indicating no obesity impairment of muscle efficiency, but not for TM, suggesting that differences in biomechanics may explain the higher net cost of transport of OB. In both groups, HR was higher during CE than TM at the same oxygen uptake (VO(2)), but in OB the HR increment over VO(2) was greater for CE than for TM. Therefore, due to different cardiovascular responses to TM and CE in OB, walking is more convenient, enabling OB to attain target energy expenditure at lower HR or in a shorter time.

  10. Metabolic responses to submaximal treadmill walking and cycle ergometer pedalling in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Lazzer, S; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Mazzilli, G; Sartorio, A

    2010-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management because of the impact of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (Fox) rate on a daily balance, but the specific physiological effects of different exercise modalities are scarcely known in obese individuals. The objective of the study was to compare the metabolic responses to treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE) exercise in obese adolescents. Gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate (LA) concentration, EE and Fox were determined at different intensity levels (up to about 85% of maximal oxygen uptake) during TM and CE in 14 pubertal (Tanner stage: >3) obese (BMI SDS: 2.15-3.86) male adolescents (age: 13-18 years). At comparable HR, oxygen uptake, EE and Fox were higher, and LA lower, during TM than CE (P<0.05-0.001), suggesting that cycling imposes a metabolic involvement at the level of the single active muscles greater than walking. Therefore, due to different physiological responses to TM and CE, walking was more convenient than cycling in obese adolescents, permitting to attain the same EE at lower HR, with lower blood LA concentration and with greater Fox. These conclusions seem clinically relevant when using exercise as a part of multidisciplinary treatment for juvenile obesity and amelioration of related metabolic disturbances.

  11. Registration of ‘Lyon’, a two-row, spring feed barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lyon’ (Reg. No. CV-356, PI 673045), a spring, two-row, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and tested as 05WA-316.K, was released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Lyon was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Spaulding’ and selected through single-seed descent fro...

  12. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  13. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  14. Recovery of power output and heart rate kinetics during repeated bouts of rowing exercise with different rest intervals.

    PubMed

    Mavrommataki, Evangelia; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Kaloupsis, Socrates; Maridaki, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of recovery time on the maintenance of power output and the heart rate response during repeated maximal rowing exercise. Nine male, junior rowers (age: 16 ± 1 years; body mass: 74.0 ± 9.1 kg; height: 1.78 ± 0.03 m) performed two consecutive all-out 1000 m bouts on a rowing ergometer on three separate occasions. The rest interval between the two bouts was 1.5 (INT1.5), 3 (INT3) and 6 min (INT6), allocated in random order. Power output was averaged for each 1000 m bout and for the first and last 500 m of each bout. Heart rate kinetics were determined using a two-component exponential model. Performance time and mean power output for the first bout was 209 ± 3 s and 313 ± 10 W respectively. Recovery of mean power output was incomplete even after 6 min (78 ± 2, 81 ± 2 and 84 ± 2 % for INT1.5, INT3 and INT6 respectively). Mean power output after INT6 was higher (p < 0.01) only compared with INT1.5. Power output during the first 500 m of bout 2 after INT6 was 10% higher compared with the second 500 m. During INT1.5 and INT3 power output during the first and the second 500 m of bout 2 was similar. Peak heart rate (~197 b·min(-1)) and the HR time constant (~13 s) were unaffected by prior exercise and recovery time. However, when the recovery was short (INT1.5), HR during the first 50 s of bout 2 was significantly higher compared with corresponding values during bout 1. The present study has shown that in order to maintain similar power outputs during repeated maximal rowing exercise, the recovery interval must be greater than 6 min. The influence of a longer recovery time (INT6) on maintenance of power output was only evident during the first half of the second 1000 m bout. Key PointsThe recovery of mean power output during two repeated maximal 1000 m bouts of rowing exercise was incomplete even after a 6 min rest interval.The benefit of the longer rest interval was apparent only during the first 500 m of bout 2.The HR time constant

  15. 97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ON SOUTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. THREE ADDITIONAL GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS ARE IN THIS ROW (NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTOGRAPH) LOCATED IMMEDIATELY EAST (LEFT) OF THESE CABINETS. Another row of cabinets south of (behind) this one is not accessible for photography. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Dynamics of anaerobic and aerobic energy supplies during sustained high intensity exercise on cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Kanehisa, H

    1995-01-01

    Eight male subjects were examined for the transition from anaerobic to aerobic energy supplies during supramaximal pedalling for 120 s on a cycle ergometer. The O2 debt and O2 deficit were measured for anaerobic supply, while O2 intake during exercise was measured for aerobic supply. The lactic acid system was also observed through postexercise peak blood lactate concentration [la-]b,peak. Since a continuous observation of O2 debt and [la-]b,peak during a single period of pedalling is not possible, pedalling of seven varying durations (5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 s) were repeated. Mechanical power output reached its peak immediately after the beginning of exercise, then rapidly declined, becoming gradual after 60 s. The O2 debt and O2 deficit were highest immediately after the beginning of exercise, then rapidly decreased to nil in 60 s. The O2 intake was small at the beginning, then rapidly increased to attain a steady state in 30 s at 80%-90% of the maximal O2 intake of the subject. Energy supply from the lactic acid system indicated by the increment in [la-]b,peak reached its highest value during the period between 5 and 15 s, then rapidly decreased to nil in 60 s. The results would suggest that anaerobic supply was the principal contributor during the initial stage of exercise, but that aerobic supply gradually took over. In 60 s anaerobic supply ceased, and aerobic supply became the principal contributor. The cessation of anaerobic energy supply took place much sooner than the 2 min that is conventionally suggested.

  17. Drink composition and cycle-ergometer endurance in men: Carbohydrate, Na(+), osmolality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Wisherd, J. L.; Marchman, N.; Wells, T.; Barnes, P. R.; Wong, L. G.

    1994-01-01

    Cycle-ergometer endurance performance was determined in 5 untrained men (22-39 yr, 62.4-100.5 kg, 29-55 mL x min(exp -1) x kg(exp -1) peak oxygen uptake) after consuming Nothing (N) or two fluid formulations (10 mL x kg(exp -1), 555-998 mL). Performance 1 (P1), a multi-ionic-glucose rehydration drink, contains 55 mEq/L Na(exp +), 416 mg/dL citrate, 2,049 mg/dL glucose, and 365 mOsm/kgH2O. HyperAde (HA), a sodium chloride-citrate hyperhydration drink, contains 164 mEq/L Na(exp +), 854 mg/dL citrate, less than 0.5 mg/dL glucose, and 253 mOsm/kgH2O. Endurance at a load of 87-91 percent of peak VO2 was 30.50 +/- SE 3.44 min with HA; 24.55 +/- 1.09 min with P1 (p greater than 0.10 from HA); and 24.68 +/- 1.50 min with N (p less than 0.05 from HA). The attenuated endurance performance with P1 and N could not be attributed to differences in exercise metabolism, change or absolute level of rectal and mean skin temperature, or change in perceived exertion. The greater increase in resting plasma volume with HA, compared with P1 or N, probably contributed to the greater endurance with HA.

  18. Effects of prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on maximal muscle power and oxygen uptake in humans.

    PubMed

    Capelli, C; Antonutto, G; Zamparo, P; Girardis, M; di Prampero, P E

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical power (Wtot, W.kg-1) developed during ten revolutions of all-out periods of cycle ergometer exercise (4-9 s) was measured every 5-6 min in six subjects from rest or from a baseline of constant aerobic exercise [50%-80% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)] of 20-40 min duration. The oxygen uptake [VO2 (W.kg-1, 1 ml O2 = 20.9 J)] and venous blood lactate concentration ([la]b, mM) were also measured every 15 s and 2 min, respectively. During the first all-out period, Wtot decreased linearly with the intensity of the priming exercise (Wtot = 11.9-0.25.VO2). After the first all-out period (t greater than 5-6 min), and if the exercise intensity was less than 60% VO2max, Wtot, VO2 and [la]b remained constant until the end of the exercise. For exercise intensities greater than 60% VO2max, VO2 and [la]b showed continuous upward drifts and Wtot continued decreasing. Under these conditions, the rate of decrease of Wtot was linearly related to the rate of increase of VO2 [(dWtot/dt) (W.kg-1 x s-1) = 5.0 x 10(-5) -0.20.(VO2/dt) (W.kg-1 x s-1)] and this was linearly related to the rate of increase of [la]b [(dVO2/dt) (W.kg-1 x s-1) = 2.3 x 10(-4) + 5.9 x 10(-5).(d[la]b/dt) (mM.s-1)].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Torque-velocity relationship during cycle ergometer sprints with and without toe clips.

    PubMed

    Capmal, S; Vandewalle, H

    1997-01-01

    The torque-velocity relationship in cycling has been studied during all-out sprints (n = 6 subjects) with and without toe clips on an electronic Lode ergometer with strain gauges, to estimate the importance of the expected decrease in torque, velocity and power output. As previously found with different cycling protocols, the torque-velocity relationship was linear for all-out sprints with toe clips. A similar relationship was observed when cycling without toe clips but the torque-velocity relationship was inflected downwards at low or high velocities in several subjects who were not regular cyclists. The pulling action during the rise of the pedal at low velocities cannot explain why the torque-velocity relationship is not hyperbolic for cycling exercises with toe clips because similar relationships were observed without toe clips. The maximal power output was significantly higher during cycling with toe clips (782 W vs 668 W, P < 0.05), probably because of the pulling action at low and medium velocities as indicated by the higher value of the extrapolated maximal torque T0 (138 N x m vs 122 N x m, P < 0.05). In contrast, the maximal extrapolated velocity, V0 and peak velocity were not significantly improved by the use of toe clips. The comparison of the angle-torque patterns at low and high velocities suggested that the kinetic energy of the legs can be transformed into power output when cycling without toe clips as well as it can when cycling with toe clips.

  20. Muscle function during brief maximal exercise: accurate measurements on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Arsac, L M; Belli, A; Lacour, J R

    1996-01-01

    A friction loaded cycle ergometer was instrumented with a strain gauge and an incremental encoder to obtain accurate measurement of human mechanical work output during the acceleration phase of a cycling sprint. This device was used to characterise muscle function in a group of 15 well-trained male subjects, asked to perform six short maximal sprints on the cycle against a constant friction load. Friction loads were successively set at 0.25, 0.35, 0.45, 0.55, 0.65 and 0.75 N.kg-1 body mass. Since the sprints were performed from a standing start, and since the acceleration was not restricted, the greatest attention was paid to the measurement of the acceleration balancing load due to flywheel inertia. Instantaneous pedalling velocity (v) and power output (P) were calculated each 5 ms and then averaged over each downstroke period so that each pedal downstroke provided a combination of v, force and P. Since an 8-s acceleration phase was composed of about 21 to 34 pedal downstrokes, this many v-P combinations were obtained amounting to 137-180 v-P combinations for all six friction loads in one individual, over the widest functional range of pedalling velocities (17-214 rpm). Thus, the individual's muscle function was characterised by the v-P relationships obtained during the six acceleration phases of the six sprints. An important finding of the present study was a strong linear relationship between individual optimal velocity (vopt) and individual maximal power output (Pmax) (n = 15, r = 0.95, P < 0.001) which has never been observed before. Since vopt has been demonstrated to be related to human fibre type composition both vopt, Pmax and their inter-relationship could represent a major feature in characterising muscle function in maximal unrestricted exercise. It is suggested that the present method is well suited to such analyses.

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Combined Cultivator and Band Sprayer with a Row-Centering RTK-GPS Guidance System

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Ruiz, Manuel; Carballido, Jacob; Agüera, Juan; Rodríguez-Lizana, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Typically, low-pressure sprayers are used to uniformly apply pre- and post-emergent herbicides to control weeds in crop rows. An innovative machine for weed control in inter-row and intra-row areas, with a unique combination of inter-row cultivation tooling and intra-row band spraying for six rows and an electro-hydraulic side-shift frame controlled by a GPS system, was developed and evaluated. Two weed management strategies were tested in the field trials: broadcast spraying (the conventional method) and band spraying with mechanical weed control using RTK-GPS (the experimental method). This approach enabled the comparison between treatments from the perspective of cost savings and efficacy in weed control for a sugar beet crop. During the 2010–2011 season, the herbicide application rate (112 L ha−1) of the experimental method was approximately 50% of the conventional method, and thus a significant reduction in the operating costs of weed management was achieved. A comparison of the 0.2-trimmed means of weed population post-treatment showed that the treatments achieved similar weed control rates at each weed survey date. Sugar beet yields were similar with both methods (p = 0.92). The use of the experimental equipment is cost-effective on ≥20 ha of crops. These initial results show good potential for reducing herbicide application in the Spanish beet industry. PMID:23478600

  2. Design of a vibration isolation system for a cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Lillian; Tait, Steven; Trevino, Maurice

    1991-01-01

    Low frequency vibrations generated during exercise using the cycle ergometer onboard the Space Shuttle are disrupting sensitive microgravity experiments. The design team is asked by NASA/USRA to generate alternatives for the design of a vibration isolation system for the cycle ergometer. It is the design team's objective to present alternative designs and a problem solution for a vibration isolation system for an exercise cycle ergometer to be used onboard the Space Shuttle. In the development of alternative designs, the design team emphasizes passive systems as opposed to active control systems. This decision is made because the team feels that passive systems are less complex than active control systems, external energy sources are not required, and mass is reduced due to the lack of machinery such as servomotors or compressors typical of active control systems. Eleven alternative designs are developed by the design team. From these alternatives, three active control systems are included to compare the benefits of active and passive systems. Also included in the alternatives is an isolation system designed by an independent engineer that was acquired late in the project. The eight alternatives using passive isolation systems are narrowed down by selection criteria to four considered to be the most promising by the design team. A feasibility analysis is performed on these four passive isolation systems. Based on the feasibility analysis, a final design solution is chosen and further developed. From the development of the design, the design team has concluded that passive systems are not effective at isolating vibrations for the low frequencies considered for this project. Recommendations are made for guidelines of passive isolation design and application of such systems.

  3. The relation of oxygen intake and speed in competition cycling and comparative observations on the bicycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    Pugh, L G

    1974-09-01

    1. The relation of V(O2) and speed was determined on six competition cyclists riding at speeds ranging from 12 km/hr to 41 km/hr on the runway of an airfield. Comparative measurements were made on the bicycle ergometer to determine the corresponding work rates, and from this information rolling resistance and air resistance were derived.2. V(O2) was a curvilinear function of cycling speed, and increased from 0.88 l./min at 12.5 km/hr to 5.12 l./min at 41 km/hr, mean body weight being 72.9 kg.3. On the ergometer, V(O2) was a linear function of work rate; maximum values up to 5.1 l./min (74.4 ml./kg min) and work rates up to 425 W (2600 kg m/min) were observed.4. Data are presented on the relation of pedal frequency and speed in cycling, and on the relation of mechanical efficiency and pedal frequency, as determined on the ergometer.5. The estimated rolling resistance for four subjects was 0.71 kg f. The drag coefficient was 0.79 and the drag area 0.33 m(2). The values agreed well with results obtained by other methods.6. The energy expenditure (power developed) in cycling increased approximately as the square of the speed, and not as the cube of the speed as expected. This was explained by the varying contribution of rolling resistance and air resistance to over-all resistance to motion at different speeds.

  4. Characterization of the use of a cycle ergometer to assist in the physical therapy treatment of critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Pires-Neto, Ruy Camargo; Pereira, Aná Luiza; Parente, Camila; de Sant'Anna, Guadalupe Nery; Esposito, Daniela Daguer; Kimura, Aline; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to use a cycle ergometer to assess cardiorespiratory changes during active exercise and to verify patients' satisfaction with this type of activity. Methods A single intervention involving active lower limb exercise was performed with a cycle ergometer (without load) for 5 minutes. The following variables were measured before, during and immediately after exercise: heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, peripheral oxygen saturation and the Borg dyspnea scale score. Following the exercise, the patients answered a questionnaire to evaluate their satisfaction with this type of activity. Results A total of 38 patients (65% male) with a mean age of 48 ± 16 years old participated in the study. Enrolled patients presented a sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score of 2 (0 - 5 scale). During the exercise, 16% of the patients used ventilation support and 55% of them were breathing at room air. A comparison of the initial and final values of the variables indicated increases in the heart rate (92±17 beats/min vs. 95±18 beats/min; p<0.05), the respiratory rate (19 ± 8 breaths/min vs. 23±8 breaths/min; p<0.05) and the Borg dyspnea scale score (1.3±1.8 vs. 2.8±2.2; p<0.05). In addition, 85% of the patients reported enjoying the activity. Only 25% of the patients reported some discomfort, and 100% of the patients wanted to repeat this type of activity in future treatments. Conclusion During the cycle ergometer exercises, minor cardiorespiratory changes were observed in the patients. The evaluated patients reported high satisfaction with this type of activity. PMID:23887758

  5. The relation of oxygen intake and speed in competition cycling and comparative observations on the bicycle ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, L. G. C. E.

    1974-01-01

    1. The relation of V̇O2 and speed was determined on six competition cyclists riding at speeds ranging from 12 km/hr to 41 km/hr on the runway of an airfield. Comparative measurements were made on the bicycle ergometer to determine the corresponding work rates, and from this information rolling resistance and air resistance were derived. 2. V̇O2 was a curvilinear function of cycling speed, and increased from 0·88 l./min at 12·5 km/hr to 5·12 l./min at 41 km/hr, mean body weight being 72·9 kg. 3. On the ergometer, V̇O2 was a linear function of work rate; maximum values up to 5·1 l./min (74·4 ml./kg min) and work rates up to 425 W (2600 kg m/min) were observed. 4. Data are presented on the relation of pedal frequency and speed in cycling, and on the relation of mechanical efficiency and pedal frequency, as determined on the ergometer. 5. The estimated rolling resistance for four subjects was 0·71 kg f. The drag coefficient was 0·79 and the drag area 0·33 m2. The values agreed well with results obtained by other methods. 6. The energy expenditure (power developed) in cycling increased approximately as the square of the speed, and not as the cube of the speed as expected. This was explained by the varying contribution of rolling resistance and air resistance to over-all resistance to motion at different speeds. PMID:4436817

  6. 19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF THE TWO ROWS OF COKE OVENS, LOOKING EAST. THE OVENS LIE TO THE EAST OF THE MINE BUILDINGS. BEEHIVE OVENS FORM THE ROW ON THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE RECTANGULAR OVENS ARE ON THE RIGHT. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  7. [Biomechanical and physiological substantiation for application of functional muscle electrostimulation in performing rhythmic movements on bicycle ergometer].

    PubMed

    Petrushanskaia, K A; Vitenzon, A S; Gritsenko, G P; Sutchenkov, I A

    2004-01-01

    Kinematic and electromyographic parameters in conduction of rhythmic movements on the bicycle ergometer were studied in a group of healthy subjects. It is shown that these movements are characterized by a stable biomechanical and innervation stereotype consisting of two interacting synergies: flexor and extensor. Force extensor synergy plays the key role which provides both triggering and maintenance of certain rhythm of rotation. Flexor synergy is primarily corrective. Basing on the data obtained, stimulated muscles are selected in basic phases of the cycle, algorithms of time and amplitude programs of muscle electrostimulation in conduction of bicycle ergometry are proposed.

  8. Comparison of conventional resistance training and the fly-wheel ergometer for training the quadriceps muscle group in patients with unilateral knee injury.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Jim; Morrissey, Matthew C; Rutherford, Olga M; Narici, Marco V

    2007-12-01

    A fly-wheel ergometer (FWE) offering resistance training of the knee extensors has been designed for space travel and found to be effective during bed rest. The possibility exists that this device is also effective in training the knee extensors after knee injury. The purpose of this study was to compare the FWE to standard knee extensor training equipment for their effects on individuals with a history of knee injury, a group who commonly suffer from weakness of the knee extensors that effects their function. Twenty-nine subjects completed the study, which included tests of knee self-assessment, knee extensor static and dynamic muscle strength, size and neural activation as well as single leg power output, standing balance and vertical jump performance. Both groups showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) improvements in these variables over the 3-month training period but no differences were noted between the groups. The FWE appears to be as effective as standard resistance training equipment for improving knee extensor muscle group size and performance after knee injury.

  9. System manual for the University of Pennsylvania retrofitted solar heated Philadelphia row home (SolaRow)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinnes, I.; Lior, N.

    1980-05-01

    The University of Pennsylvania SolaRow house, an urban row home retrofitted for comfort and domestic hot water heating, was extensively instrumented for performance monitoring and acquisition of weather and solar radiation data. This report describes the heating and instrumentation systems, provides the details for instrumentation, piping and valve identification, and specifies the operation and maintenance of the heating and data acquisition systems. The following are included: (1) system flow diagrams; (2) valve and cable identification tables; (3) wiring diagrams; and (4) start-up, normal operation, shut-down, maintenance and trouble-shooting procedures. It thus provides the necessary technical information to permit system operation and monitoring, overall system performance analysis and optimization, and acquisition of climatological data.

  10. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (~5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/l normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

  11. Concentrated animal feeding operations, row crops, and their relationship to nitrate in eastern Iowa Rivers.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Mark B; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2006-05-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996 and 2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows streamflow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (approximately 5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/L normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

  12. CFD Simulations of Supersonic Highly Swirling Flow Exiting a Turbine Vane Row Compared with Experimental Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Jeff S.; Richardson, Brian R.; Schmauch, Preston; Kenny, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been heavily involved in developing the J2-X engine. The Center has been testing a Work Horse Gas Generator (WHGG) to supply gas products to J2-X turbine components at realistic flight-like operating conditions. Three-dimensional time accurate CFD simulations and analytical fluid analysis have been performed to support WHGG tests at MSFC. The general purpose CFD program LOCI/Chem was utilized to simulate flow of products from the WHGG through a turbine manifold, a stationary row of turbine vanes, into a Can and orifice assembly used to control the back pressure at the turbine vane row and finally through an aspirator plate and flame bucket. Simulations showed that supersonic swirling flow downstream of the turbine imparted a much higher pressure on the Can wall than expected for a non-swirling flow. This result was verified by developing an analytical model that predicts wall pressure due to swirling flow. The CFD simulations predicted that the higher downstream pressure would cause the pressure drop across the nozzle row to be approximately half the value of the test objective. With CFD support, a redesign of the Can orifice and aspirator plate was performed. WHGG experimental results and observations compared well with pre-test and post-test CFD simulations. CFD simulations for both quasi-static and transient test conditions correctly predicted the pressure environment downstream of the turbine row and the behavior of the gas generator product plume as it exited the WHGG test article, impacted the flame bucket and interacted with the external environment.

  13. Maximal strength on different resistance training rowing exercises predicts start phase performance in elite kayakers.

    PubMed

    Ualí, Ismael; Herrero, Azael J; Garatachea, Nuria; Marín, Pedro J; Alvear-Ordenes, Ildefonso; García-López, David

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship existing between maximum strength values in 2 common resistance training row exercises (bilateral bench pull [BBP] and one-arm cable row [OACR]) and short sprint performance in elite kayakers. Ten junior kayakers (5 women and 5 men) were tested on different days for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction in both exercises. Moreover, a 12-m sprint kayak was performed in a dew pond to record split times (2, 5, and 10 m), peak velocity, distance completed considering the first 8 strokes, and mean acceleration induced by right blade and left blade strokes. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed when right and left arms were compared in sprint testing or strength testing variables. Maximal strength values in BBP and OACR were significantly correlated with short sprint performance variables, showing the bilateral exercise with slightly stronger correlation coefficients than the unilateral seated row. Moreover, the relationship between strength testing and sprint testing variables is stronger when maximal force is measured through a dynamic approach (1RM) in comparison with an isometric approach. In conclusion, maximal strength in BBP and OACR is a good predictor of the start phase performance in elite sprint kayakers, mainly the 1RM value in BBP.

  14. 1. View looking southeast down senior officer row. Building 6 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View looking southeast down senior officer row. Building 6 on left and senior officer housing on right. Galaxy Street in foreground. - Chanute Air Force Base, East of Route 45 & south of Rantoul, Rantoul, Champaign County, IL

  15. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. General view of building in context showing row of residences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of building in context showing row of residences adjacent to golf course, facing northeast. - Marine Barracks, Panama Canal, Officers' Quarters, 800' West of Bruja Road, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  18. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR- EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW OF MUSHROOM COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, South Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  19. INTERIOR, SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. DOUBLE ROW OF CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. DOUBLE ROW OF CENTER COLUMNS REFLECTS SOUTH PART'S RE-USE OF ANOTHER BUILDING'S STRUCTURAL FRAME. - New Haven Rail Yard, Work Equipment Shop, Vicinity of Cedar & Lamberton Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  20. Detail, starpattern balustrade of north span, from northwest, showing row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, star-pattern balustrade of north span, from northwest, showing row of four star-pattern railing slabs bracketed by simple molded concrete balusters - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  1. Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of stylized panel on end of seating row - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Wadsworth Theater, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. THERMALWATER FLOW METER. Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    THERMAL-WATER FLOW METER. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 4. VIEW NORTHWEST, INTERIOR OF GATEHOUSE, SHOWING ROW OF GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHWEST, INTERIOR OF GATEHOUSE, SHOWING ROW OF GATE OPERATING MECHANISMS; HEIGHT OF STEMS INDICATES FOREGROUND GATE IS OPEN - Norwich Water Power Company, Headgates, West bank of Shetucket River opposite Fourteenth Street, Greenville section, Norwich, New London County, CT

  4. Proximal row carpectomy with or without postoperative immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R; Degreef, I; De Smet, L

    2008-12-01

    Previously published reports have shown good results after proximal row carpectomy in all cases that had a postoperative immobilisation period from 1 to 4 weeks. Immobilisation is thought to be necessary because of the risk of postoperative subluxation of the carpus and for pain relief. There is, however, no evidence of its value. The results in 13 patients who underwent proximal row carpectomy without postoperative immobilisation were compared with those in 25 patients who underwent proximal row carpectomy with postoperative immobilisation for 4 weeks. After a mean follow-up period of 27 months, no significant differences were found for pain, range of motion or return to work between the two groups. We conclude that postoperative immobilisation is not necessary after proximal row carpectomy.

  5. The Effect of Bicycle Ergometer Exercise at Varying Intensities on the Heart Rate, EMG and Mood State Responses to a Mental Arithmetic Stressor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Colleen R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the effect of bicycle ergometer exercise at varying metabolic intensities upon the heart rate, electromyographic (EMG), and mood state responses to a timed mental arithmetric stressor of 12 adult males. Exercise influenced heart rate and EMG but not physiological and psychological responses to the arithmetic stressor.…

  6. 77 FR 74237 - T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 7, 2012. AGENCY: Securities... for an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (``TRP''), T. Rowe Price Institutional Income Funds, Inc. (the ``Corporation'') and T. Rowe...

  7. 30 CFR 285.301 - What do ROW grants and RUE grants include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? 285... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.301 What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? (a) An ROW grant: (1... pumping station or other accessory facility. (b) An RUE grant includes the site on which a facility...

  8. 30 CFR 285.301 - What do ROW grants and RUE grants include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? 285... and Rights-of-Use and Easement Grants for Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.301 What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? (a) An ROW grant: (1) Includes the full length of...

  9. Waiving death row appeals: whose right is it anyway?

    PubMed

    Weiss, K J

    1999-01-01

    Death row prisoners may elect to forgo appeals, thus hastening execution. There are many reasons for such a decision, including depression, psychosis, incompetence, conditions in prison, and others. Due to the gravity of the sentence, and the states' duty to ensure fairness, some jurisdictions impose restrictions on the waiver. An inmate who lacks trial competence may be subject to a habeas corpus hearing and the appointment of a "next friend," often a family member. Moreover, the Constitution forbids execution of the "insane." The decision, then, may be taken out of the inmate's hands. The author outlines the various tests for competence to waive appeals. The Pennsylvania case of Gary Heidnik (In re Heidnik, 112 F.3d 105 (3rd Cir. 1997); and In re Heidnik, 720 A.2d 1016 (Pa. 1998)) illustrates the issues surrounding waiver of appeals that concern psychiatrists, attorneys, and judges. Following a discussion of Heidnik and related cases, the author offers a proposal for a classification of types of inmates requesting waiver. PMID:10509946

  10. Waiving death row appeals: whose right is it anyway?

    PubMed

    Weiss, K J

    1999-01-01

    Death row prisoners may elect to forgo appeals, thus hastening execution. There are many reasons for such a decision, including depression, psychosis, incompetence, conditions in prison, and others. Due to the gravity of the sentence, and the states' duty to ensure fairness, some jurisdictions impose restrictions on the waiver. An inmate who lacks trial competence may be subject to a habeas corpus hearing and the appointment of a "next friend," often a family member. Moreover, the Constitution forbids execution of the "insane." The decision, then, may be taken out of the inmate's hands. The author outlines the various tests for competence to waive appeals. The Pennsylvania case of Gary Heidnik (In re Heidnik, 112 F.3d 105 (3rd Cir. 1997); and In re Heidnik, 720 A.2d 1016 (Pa. 1998)) illustrates the issues surrounding waiver of appeals that concern psychiatrists, attorneys, and judges. Following a discussion of Heidnik and related cases, the author offers a proposal for a classification of types of inmates requesting waiver.

  11. Summary of Meta-Analyses Dealing with Single-Row versus Double-Row Repair Techniques for Rotator Cuff Tears

    PubMed Central

    Spiegl, U.J.; Euler, S.A.; Millett, P.J.; Hepp, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials have been performed to analyze whether double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) provides superior clinical outcomes and structural healing compared to single-row (SR) repair. The purpose of this study was to sum up the results of meta-analysis comparing SR and DR repair with respect on clinical outcomes and re-tear rates. Methods: A literature search was undertaken to identify all meta-analyses dealing with randomized controlled trials comparing clinical und structural outcomes after SR versus DR RCR. Results: Eight meta-analyses met the eligibility criteria: two including Level I studies only, five including both Level I and Level II studies, and one including additional Level III studies. Four meta-analyses found no differences between SR and DR RCR for patient outcomes, whereas four favored DR RCR for tears greater than 3 cm. Two meta-analyses found no structural healing differences between SR and DR RCR, whereas six found DR repair to be superior for tears greater than 3 cm tears. Conclusion: No clinical differences are seen between single-row and double-row repair for small and medium rotator cuff tears after a short-term follow-up period with a higher re-tear rate following single-row repairs. There seems to be a trend to superior results with double-row repair in large to massive tear sizes. PMID:27708735

  12. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05). The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05) and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05). In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of musculus psoas major (9%±11%) and musculus anterolateral abdominal (7%±4%) only in the LC–AC group. These results suggest that a combined LC- and AC-HIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles. PMID:25395872

  13. Crop Row Detection in Maize Fields Inspired on the Human Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, J.; Pajares, G.; Montalvo, M.; Guerrero, J. M.; Guijarro, M.; Ribeiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method, oriented to image real-time processing, for identifying crop rows in maize fields in the images. The vision system is designed to be installed onboard a mobile agricultural vehicle, that is, submitted to gyros, vibrations, and undesired movements. The images are captured under image perspective, being affected by the above undesired effects. The image processing consists of two main processes: image segmentation and crop row detection. The first one applies a threshold to separate green plants or pixels (crops and weeds) from the rest (soil, stones, and others). It is based on a fuzzy clustering process, which allows obtaining the threshold to be applied during the normal operation process. The crop row detection applies a method based on image perspective projection that searches for maximum accumulation of segmented green pixels along straight alignments. They determine the expected crop lines in the images. The method is robust enough to work under the above-mentioned undesired effects. It is favorably compared against the well-tested Hough transformation for line detection. PMID:22623899

  14. Crop row detection in maize fields inspired on the human visual perception.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Pajares, G; Montalvo, M; Guerrero, J M; Guijarro, M; Ribeiro, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method, oriented to image real-time processing, for identifying crop rows in maize fields in the images. The vision system is designed to be installed onboard a mobile agricultural vehicle, that is, submitted to gyros, vibrations, and undesired movements. The images are captured under image perspective, being affected by the above undesired effects. The image processing consists of two main processes: image segmentation and crop row detection. The first one applies a threshold to separate green plants or pixels (crops and weeds) from the rest (soil, stones, and others). It is based on a fuzzy clustering process, which allows obtaining the threshold to be applied during the normal operation process. The crop row detection applies a method based on image perspective projection that searches for maximum accumulation of segmented green pixels along straight alignments. They determine the expected crop lines in the images. The method is robust enough to work under the above-mentioned undesired effects. It is favorably compared against the well-tested Hough transformation for line detection.

  15. Validated biomechanical model for efficiency and speed of rowing.

    PubMed

    Pelz, Peter F; Vergé, Angela

    2014-10-17

    The speed of a competitive rowing crew depends on the number of crew members, their body mass, sex and the type of rowing-sweep rowing or sculling. The time-averaged speed is proportional to the rower's body mass to the 1/36th power, to the number of crew members to the 1/9th power and to the physiological efficiency (accounted for by the rower's sex) to the 1/3rd power. The quality of the rowing shell and propulsion system is captured by one dimensionless parameter that takes the mechanical efficiency, the shape and drag coefficient of the shell and the Froude propulsion efficiency into account. We derive the biomechanical equation for the speed of rowing by two independent methods and further validate it by successfully predicting race times. We derive the theoretical upper limit of the Froude propulsion efficiency for low viscous flows. This upper limit is shown to be a function solely of the velocity ratio of blade to boat speed (i.e., it is completely independent of the blade shape), a result that may also be of interest for other repetitive propulsion systems.

  16. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (p<0.001). Only two of the ‘elite’ younger players could match the adult mean cervical isometric strength value. In contrast to school age players in general, grip strength was poorly associated with neck strength (r=0.2) in front-row players; instead, player weight (r=0.4) and the number of years’ experience of playing in the front row (r=0.5) were the only relevant factors in multivariate modelling of cervical strength (R2=0.3). Conclusions Extreme forces are generated between opposing front rows in the scrum and avoidance of mismatch is important if the risk of injury is to be minimised. Although elite youth front-row rugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  17. A parallelization of the row-searching algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaici, Malika; Khaled, Hayet; Khaled, Zakia; Bentahar, Athmane

    2012-11-01

    The problem dealt in this paper concerns the parallelization of the row-searching algorithm which allows the search for linearly dependant rows on a given matrix and its implementation on MPI (Message Passing Interface) environment. This algorithm is largely used in control theory and more specifically in solving the famous diophantine equation. An introduction to the diophantine equation is presented, then two parallelization approaches of the algorithm are detailed. The first distributes a set of rows on processes (processors) and the second makes a distribution per blocks. The sequential algorithm and its two parallel forms are implemented using MPI routines, then modelled using UML (Unified Modelling Language) and finally evaluated using algorithmic complexity.

  18. Nutrition and Supplements for Elite Open-Weight Rowing.

    PubMed

    Boegman, Susan; Dziedzic, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower. This review will provide an overview of key nutritional strategies to optimize training and enhance adaptation, and briefly discuss supplement strategies that may support health and enhance performance in elite rowing. PMID:27399822

  19. Reliability of Upright and Supine Power Measurements Using an Inertial Load Cycle Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickwire, P. J.; Leach, M.; Ryder, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Practical, reliable, and time efficient methods of measuring muscular power are desirable for both research and applied testing situations. The inertial-load cycling method (ILC; Power/Cycle, Austin, TX) requires subjects to pedal as fast as possible against the inertial load of a flywheel for only 3-5 seconds, which could help reduce the time and effort required for maximal power testing. PURPOSE: 1) To test the intramachine reliability of ILC over 3 separate sessions, 2) to compare postural stance (upright vs. supine) during testing, and 3) to compare the maximal power (Pmax) output measured using ILC to that obtained from traditional isokinetic and leg press testing. METHODS: Subjects (n = 12) were tested on 4 non-consecutive days. The following tests were done on the first day of testing: isometric knee extension, isokinetic knee extension at several speeds, isokinetic power/endurance at 180/sec (Biodex System 4), leg press maximal isometric force, and leg press power/endurance. The other 3 days consisted exclusively of ILC testing. Subjects performed 6 ILC tests in an upright position and 6 ILC tests in a supine position on each day. The starting position was counterbalanced. Mixed-effects linear modeling was used to determine if any differences existed between testing days and between upright and supine for Pmax and revolutions per minute at Pmax (RPMpk). Mixed-modeling was also used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) to determine the reliability of the ILC on each testing day for Pmax and RPMpk (ICCs were calculated separately for upright and supine). gKendall fs Tau a h was used to determine the association between ILC Pmax and isokinetic and leg press data. RESULTS: For Pmax, significant differences were found between days 1 and 2 (upright: p = 0.018; supine: p = 0.014) and between days 1 and 3 (upright: p = 0.001; supine: p = 0.002), but not between days 2 and 3 (upright: p = 0.422; supine: p = 0.501). Pmax ICC values were greater than

  20. Reeling in the textiles at Row Clothing Enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgley, H.

    1997-12-01

    While a handful of textile processing centers in operation today can date their roots back to the turn of this century or before, Row Clothing Enterprises (Baltimore) first opened its doors in 1985. Soon after, it climbed its way to becoming one of the premier textile processing businesses in the country. And what they want most of all is usable clothing--the discards of American secondhand clothing stores. The company exports 100% of the usable clothing it recovers paying institutions as much as $150 a ton for the material. Graders also sort the material into piles headed for the mutilating, or fiber-shredding, machine. While not all the material is shredded, it does provide more opportunities for resale. Whatever Row cannot resell as clothing--because it is soiled or torn--gets processed into industrial wiping cloths, if it is cotton. Clothing made from wool and polyester is sent to woolen and polyester fiber mills to be made into new clothing. While 80% of Row`s wiper market is domestic, 80% of its fiber market is overseas.

  1. Relation of baseflow to row crop intensity in Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, K.E.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing baseflow and baseflow percentage over the second half of the 20th century in Iowa has contributed to increasing nitrate-nitrogen concentrations measured in Iowa rivers because nitrate is primarily delivered to streams as baseflow and tile drainage. The relation of baseflow and baseflow percentage to row crop land use was evaluated for 11 Iowa rivers and their watersheds for their period of streamflow record (58-73 years period). Results indicated increasing baseflow in Iowa's rivers is significantly related to increasing row crop intensity. A 13-52% increase in row crop percentage in many Iowa watersheds has contributed to an increase of 33-135 mm increase in baseflow and 7-31% increase in baseflow percentage. Limited historical water quality data from two larger Iowa rivers (Cedar and Raccoon rivers) suggest that increasing row crop land use over the 20th century has produced more baseflow and contributed to increasing nitrate concentrations in Iowa's rivers. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A mathematical model concerning reflectance from a row crop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaggi, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    The recent work of Allen, Gayle, and Richardson (1970) and Suits (1972) has been extended to compute directional reflectance from a crop row. A model is constructed which takes into account edge effects and aids in discriminating crops with leaf orientation in preferred directions. This report only contains the development of the mathematical equations. Numerical results will be published in a forthcoming report.

  3. 1. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of row Creole T ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of c. 1906 photograph of row Creole T houses across from mill pond that were available to skilled workers including engineers. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Engineer's House, 2 Miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  4. Strip tillage for single and twin-row peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil degradation and rising production costs have prompted grower interest in conservation tillage with high residue cover crops for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective was to evaluate single and twin-row peanut production across three different strip tillage implements with and without a c...

  5. Interior view to the east, note the row of transmitters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view to the east, note the row of transmitters and the cables in the foreground - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Christmas Valley Radar Site Transmit Sector Six Transmitter Building, On unnamed road west of Lost Forest Road, Christmas Valley, Lake County, OR

  6. Poverty and Sex Relationships in a "Skid Row" Slum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuttner, Robert E.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the difference between skid row and middle class women is not in standards, essentially, but in success in adhering to standards. Though this difference may be due to inherited qualities that make these women more vulnerable, a portion of the blame rests with society. (Author)

  7. Human Service Strategy in an Urban Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobfoll, S.E.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studies changes in the physical and social composition of Skid Row. Results indicate multiple agency users were found to have a greater alcohol problem and to be more socially isolated than nonagency users. Multiple agency users were very much in need of subsistence level support and health maintenance. (Author)

  8. Power, Consent and Resistance: An Autoethnography of Competitive Rowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Laura; Potrac, Paul; Jones, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This study builds upon existing socio-cultural work into sports coaching by probing the meanings and varieties of the shared coach-athlete experience. Specifically, the paper utilises an autoethnographic approach in an attempt to chart the complex and dynamic relationship that existed between me, the principal author, as a rowing coxswain and my…

  9. Peavey Duluth Annex, thirty silos. Back three R rows originally ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Peavey Duluth Annex, thirty silos. Back three R rows originally built in 1900, front three built in 1901 - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, 1901 Annex, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  10. 1. Elevator row at Duluth. Rice's Point showing context of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Elevator row at Duluth. Rice's Point showing context of Peavey Duluth Terminal and Occident Terminal. - Peavey Duluth Terminal Elevator, South side of first slip, north from outer end of Rice's Point, east of Garfield Avenue, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  11. An experimental study on refrigerant distribution in a two row/four pass parallel flow minichannel heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ho-Won; Kim, Nae-Hyun

    2016-10-01

    R-410A distribution was experimentally studied for a parallel flow evaporator having two row/four pass configuration. The evaporator has inlet, intermediate and row-crossing headers. Tests were conducted for the mass flux from 70 to 130 kg/m2s with the quality at the inlet of 0.2 and exit superheat 5 °C. Significant heat transfer degradation (13-40 %) was realized for the two row/four pass configuration due to flow mal-distribution. Of the three insert hole sizes, 4.0 mm hole yielded the least heat transfer degradation followed by 6.0 and 2.0 mm holes. At the inlet header, more liquid flowed into upstream channels. At the intermediate headers, more liquid was supplied into downstream channels. Similar flow distribution was obtained before and after the row crossing header. Header pressure drops were obtained by subtracting the flat tube pressure drops and other minor pressure drops from measured pressure drops.

  12. Effects of Indoor Rowing Exercise on the Body Composition and the Scoliosis of Visually Impaired People: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ka-Young; Lim, Jong-Youb; Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of rowing exercise on body composition, laboratory data, fitness and scoliosis in visually impaired people. The majority of visually impaired people do not participate in active sports due to efficiency and safety issues. Rowing is a safe whole-body exercise with aerobic and anaerobic components. Methods Twenty subjects were recruited from among those admitted to a facility for visually impaired people (16 men and 4 women). Laboratory data, body composition, physical fitness, Cobb's angle, and fall index were checked before and after 6 weeks (5 days a week) of indoor rowing using Concept2 Model E. Results After the training, fat mass and total body fat percent decreased significantly. In the fitness test, back strength and trunk flexion score increased significantly. Laboratory data showed significant increases in serum protein and albumin and decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There were 9 subjects with scoliosis and after the training Cobb's angle decreased by 1.11°±1.55°, though this was not statistically significant. Conclusion Visually impaired people frequently have abnormal body composition, low physical fitness, and scoliosis. A rowing exercise program can be helpful, with a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness; however, with respect to scoliosis, we need an earlier intervention program in visually impaired people. PMID:26361596

  13. An experimental study on refrigerant distribution in a two row/four pass parallel flow minichannel heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ho-Won; Kim, Nae-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    R-410A distribution was experimentally studied for a parallel flow evaporator having two row/four pass configuration. The evaporator has inlet, intermediate and row-crossing headers. Tests were conducted for the mass flux from 70 to 130 kg/m2s with the quality at the inlet of 0.2 and exit superheat 5 °C. Significant heat transfer degradation (13-40 %) was realized for the two row/four pass configuration due to flow mal-distribution. Of the three insert hole sizes, 4.0 mm hole yielded the least heat transfer degradation followed by 6.0 and 2.0 mm holes. At the inlet header, more liquid flowed into upstream channels. At the intermediate headers, more liquid was supplied into downstream channels. Similar flow distribution was obtained before and after the row crossing header. Header pressure drops were obtained by subtracting the flat tube pressure drops and other minor pressure drops from measured pressure drops.

  14. Study of Low Reynolds Number Effects on the Losses in Low-Pressure Turbine Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Ashpis, David E.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data from jet-engine tests have indicated that unsteady blade row interactions and separation can have a significant impact on the efficiency of low-pressure turbine stages. Measured turbine efficiencies at takeoff can be as much as two points higher than those at cruise conditions. Several recent studies have revealed that Reynolds number effects may contribute to the lower efficiencies at cruise conditions. In the current study numerical experiments have been performed to study the models available for low Reynolds number flows, and to quantify the Reynolds number dependence of low-pressure turbine cascades and stages. The predicted aerodynamic results exhibit good agreement with design data.

  15. Psychiatric, neurological, and psychoeducational characteristics of 15 death row inmates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D O; Pincus, J H; Feldman, M; Jackson, L; Bard, B

    1986-07-01

    The authors present the results of clinical evaluations of 15 death row inmates, chosen for examination because of the imminence of their executions and not for evidence of neuropsychopathology. All had histories of severe head injury, five had major neurological impairment, and seven others had other, less serious neurological problems (e.g., blackouts, soft signs). Psychoeducational testing provided further evidence of CNS dysfunction. Six subjects had schizophreniform psychoses antedating incarceration and two others were manic-depressive. The authors conclude that many condemned individuals probably suffer unrecognized severe psychiatric, neurological, and cognitive disorders relevant to considerations of mitigation.

  16. Death row inmate characteristics, adjustment, and confinement: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Mark D; Vigen, Mark P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews and summarizes research on death row inmates. The contributions and weaknesses of death row demographic data, clinical studies, and research based on institutional records are critiqued. Our analysis shows that death row inmates are overwhelmingly male and disproportionately Southern. Racial representation remains controversial. Frequently death row inmates are intellectually limited and academically deficient. Histories of significant neurological insult are common, as are developmental histories of trauma, family disruption, and substance abuse. Rates of psychological disorder among death row inmates are high, with conditions of confinement appearing to precipitate or aggravate these disorders. Contrary to expectation, the extant research indicates that the majority of death row inmates do not exhibit violence in prison even in more open institutional settings. These findings have implications for forensic mental health sentencing evaluations, competent attorney representation, provision of mental health services, racial disparity in death sentences, death row security and confinement policies, and moral culpability considerations. Future research directions on death row populations are suggested.

  17. 30 CFR 285.305 - How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? 285... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.305 How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? You must submit to MMS one paper copy and one electronic copy of a request for a new or modified ROW grant or RUE...

  18. Canopy Apparent Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Response to Row Spacing under High Plant Density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiening; Wang, Zhenlin; Cai, Tie

    2016-01-01

    R2 and R3 treatments. At the same time, a longer duration of CAP and green leaf area was maintained in R1 during grain filling. Compared with conventional row spacing, Wennong6 in R1 treatment obtained 21.0% and 19.1% higher grain yield in 2011 and 2012, respectively, while for Jimai22 it increased by 11.3% and 11.4%, respectively. A close association of yield with CAP and LAI at mid-grain filling was observed. In conclusion, for the tested growing conditions, decreasing the row spacing to an optimal distance (15 cm) maintained a longer duration of LAI and CAP during grain filling, made a better coordination of group and individual leaf photosynthesis, and accumulated higher aboveground biomass, leading to a greater grain yield. In addition, Wennong6 had a more rational canopy architecture than Jimai22 (improved LT and higher LAI) and CAP under 15-cm row spacing, leading to a higher grain yield, which indicated that the large-spike type cultivar has the potential to obtain higher yields by increasing plant density through optimum row spacing allocation (15 cm). PMID:26845330

  19. Canopy Apparent Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Response to Row Spacing under High Plant Density

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tie

    2016-01-01

    R2 and R3 treatments. At the same time, a longer duration of CAP and green leaf area was maintained in R1 during grain filling. Compared with conventional row spacing, Wennong6 in R1 treatment obtained 21.0% and 19.1% higher grain yield in 2011 and 2012, respectively, while for Jimai22 it increased by 11.3% and 11.4%, respectively. A close association of yield with CAP and LAI at mid-grain filling was observed. In conclusion, for the tested growing conditions, decreasing the row spacing to an optimal distance (15 cm) maintained a longer duration of LAI and CAP during grain filling, made a better coordination of group and individual leaf photosynthesis, and accumulated higher aboveground biomass, leading to a greater grain yield. In addition, Wennong6 had a more rational canopy architecture than Jimai22 (improved LT and higher LAI) and CAP under 15-cm row spacing, leading to a higher grain yield, which indicated that the large-spike type cultivar has the potential to obtain higher yields by increasing plant density through optimum row spacing allocation (15 cm). PMID:26845330

  20. Canopy Apparent Photosynthetic Characteristics and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Response to Row Spacing under High Plant Density.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tiening; Wang, Zhenlin; Cai, Tie

    2016-01-01

    R2 and R3 treatments. At the same time, a longer duration of CAP and green leaf area was maintained in R1 during grain filling. Compared with conventional row spacing, Wennong6 in R1 treatment obtained 21.0% and 19.1% higher grain yield in 2011 and 2012, respectively, while for Jimai22 it increased by 11.3% and 11.4%, respectively. A close association of yield with CAP and LAI at mid-grain filling was observed. In conclusion, for the tested growing conditions, decreasing the row spacing to an optimal distance (15 cm) maintained a longer duration of LAI and CAP during grain filling, made a better coordination of group and individual leaf photosynthesis, and accumulated higher aboveground biomass, leading to a greater grain yield. In addition, Wennong6 had a more rational canopy architecture than Jimai22 (improved LT and higher LAI) and CAP under 15-cm row spacing, leading to a higher grain yield, which indicated that the large-spike type cultivar has the potential to obtain higher yields by increasing plant density through optimum row spacing allocation (15 cm).

  1. 32. TYPICAL BRYANT ITEMS FROM THE 1930S; TOP ROW LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TYPICAL BRYANT ITEMS FROM THE 1930S; TOP ROW LEFT TO RIGHT: PORCELAIN CASED SWITCH, ROTARY SWITCH, SHORTING PLUG TO BYPASS FUSE; SECOND ROW: BRASS INCANDESCENT LAMP SURFACE RECEPTACLE, INCANDESCENT LAMPHOLDER WITH ADAPTER FOR GLASS GLOBE; THIRD ROW: PORCELAIN BASE ROTARY SWITCH, APPLIANCE BREAKER WITH COVER REMOVED, APPLIANCE BREAKER - Bryant Electric Company, 1421 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Growth and yield of valencia, spanish, virginia and runner market type peanuts in various row spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the majority of peanuts grown in New Mexico and West Texas are planted in single rows on beds 36 to 40 inches apart. In 2006-2008, several field studies were conducted with Valencia peanuts comparing single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns in various populations. The basic c...

  3. 30 CFR 285.316 - What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RUE grants? 285.316 Section 285.316 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Renewable Energy Activities Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.316 What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants? Before we issue the ROW grant or RUE grant, you must pay: (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 285.305 - How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? 285... and Rights-of-Use and Easement Grants for Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.305 How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? You must submit to MMS one paper copy...

  5. 30 CFR 285.309 - When will MMS issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will MMS issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant? 285.309 Section 285.309 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.309 When will MMS issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE...

  6. 30 CFR 285.316 - What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUE grants? 285.316 Section 285.316 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.316 What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants? Before we issue the ROW grant or RUE grant, you must pay: (a) Any balance on accepted high bids to...

  7. 30 CFR 585.316 - What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RUE grants? 585.316 Section 585.316 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.316 What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants? Before we issue the ROW grant or RUE grant, you must pay: (a) Any balance on accepted...

  8. 30 CFR 585.316 - What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RUE grants? 585.316 Section 585.316 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.316 What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants? Before we issue the ROW grant or RUE grant, you must pay: (a) Any balance on accepted...

  9. 30 CFR 585.309 - When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.309 Section 585.309 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.309 When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE...

  10. 30 CFR 585.301 - What do ROW grants and RUE grants include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? 585... Rue Grants § 585.301 What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? (a) An ROW grant: (1) Includes the... station or other accessory facility. (b) An RUE grant includes the site on which a facility or...

  11. 30 CFR 585.301 - What do ROW grants and RUE grants include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? 585... Rue Grants § 585.301 What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? (a) An ROW grant: (1) Includes the... station or other accessory facility. (b) An RUE grant includes the site on which a facility or...

  12. 30 CFR 585.309 - When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.309 Section 585.309 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.309 When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE...

  13. 30 CFR 585.301 - What do ROW grants and RUE grants include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? 585... Rue Grants § 585.301 What do ROW grants and RUE grants include? (a) An ROW grant: (1) Includes the... station or other accessory facility. (b) An RUE grant includes the site on which a facility or...

  14. 30 CFR 585.309 - When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.309 Section 585.309 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.309 When will BOEM issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE...

  15. 30 CFR 585.316 - What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RUE grants? 585.316 Section 585.316 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.316 What payments are required for ROW grants or RUE grants? Before we issue the ROW grant or RUE grant, you must pay: (a) Any balance on accepted...

  16. Does 20-min arm crank ergometer exercise increase plasma interleukin-6 in individuals with cervical spinal cord injury?

    PubMed

    Kouda, Ken; Furusawa, Kazunari; Sugiyama, Hiroyuki; Sumiya, Tadashi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Tajima, Fumihiro; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2012-02-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by contracting skeletal muscles and then released into the circulation and considered to mediate the health benefits of exercise against chronic diseases. Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are reported to be at higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. We investigated the IL-6 responses to 20-min arm crank ergometer exercise at 60% of maximum oxygen consumption in eight trained individuals with cervical SCI (CSCI) between C6 and C7, and eight able-bodied trained healthy subjects. The plasma concentrations of IL-6, adrenaline, prostaglandin E(2) and cortisol were measured before, immediately after the exercise, 1 and 2 h after exercise. At rest, the plasma adrenaline concentration was significantly lower in individuals with CSCI than in able-bodied subjects (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher at rest in individuals with CSCI (2.18 ± 0.44 pg/ml, mean ± SEM) than the control (1.02 ± 0.22 pg/ml, P < 0.05). In able-bodied subjects, the plasma adrenaline concentration increased significantly immediately after the exercise (P < 0.01) and returned to the baseline level at 1 h after exercise, and the plasma IL-6 level increased significantly at 1 h after exercise (1.91 ± 0.28 pg/ml, P < 0.05) and returned to the baseline level at 2 h after exercise. In contrast, adrenaline and IL-6 levels were steady throughout the study in individuals with CSCI. The lack of exercise-related IL-6 response in individuals with CSCI could be due to muscle atrophy and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction.

  17. Effect of 7-10 days of cycle ergometer exercise on skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein content.

    PubMed

    Gulve, E A; Spina, R J

    1995-11-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have shown that endurance exercise-training protocols of several weeks to many months in duration induce adaptive increases in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein concentration. It is generally assumed that the increase in GLUT-4 concentration is a long-term adaptation to training. The present study examined whether 7-10 days of cycle ergometer exercise could induce increases in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 levels. Eight healthy subjects (4 men, 4 women) aged 31 +/- 2 (SE) yr exercised 2 h daily at 65-70% of peak O2 uptake (VO2peak) for either 7 (n = 3) or 10 (n = 5) consecutive days. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were obtained before initiation of the exercise program and 36-48 h after the final bout of exercise. Glucose transporter protein was quantitated by Western blotting using antiserum specific for GLUT-4. VO2peak was increased by 10% (from 3.0 +/- 0.2 to 3.3 +/- 0.2 l/min; P < 0.01) in response to the training. Body weight did not change (74.3 +/- 4.6 before vs. 75.0 +/- 4.2 kg after) as a result of training. Muscle GLUT-4 immunoreactivity was increased 98% (from 584 +/- 50 to 1,154 +/- 40 counts per minute 125I/25 micrograms protein; P < 0.001) in response to training. Increase in VO2peak and GLUT-4 protein were similar for 7 and 10 days of training. These results suggest that, given an adequate training stimulus, adaptations in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein occur very rapidly. Furthermore, the increase in GLUT-4 after 7-10 days of exercise is as large as that reported in studies employing long-term training protocols.

  18. Changes in Cortical Oxyhaemoglobin Signal During Low-Intensity Cycle Ergometer Activity: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Takai, Haruna; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Onishi, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a widely used non-invasive method for measuring human brain activation based on the cerebral hemodynamic response during gross motor tasks. However, systemic changes can influence measured NIRS signals. We aimed to determine and compare time-dependent changes in NIRS signal, skin blood flow (SBF), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise. Nine healthy volunteers (22.1±1.7 years, 3 women) participated in this study. After a 4-min pre-exercise rest and a 4-min warm-up, they exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads corresponding to 30% VO2 peak for 20 min. An 8-min rest period followed the exercise. Cortical oxyhaemoglobin signals (O2Hb) were recorded while subjects performed the exercise, using an NIRS system. Changes in SBF and MAP were also measured during exercise. O2Hb increased to 0.019 mM cm over 6 min of exercise, decreased slightly from 13 min towards the end of the exercise. SBF continued to increase over 16 min of the exercise period and thereafter decreased till the end of measurement. MAP fluctuated from -1.0 to 7.1 mmHg during the exercise. Pearson's correlation coefficients between SBF and O2Hb, and MAP and O2Hb differed in each time phase, from -0.365 to 0.713. During low-intensity, constant, dynamic exercise, the profile of changes in measurements of O2Hb, SBF, and MAP differed. These results suggested that it is necessary to confirm the relationship between O2Hb and systemic factors during motor tasks in order to detect cortical activation during gross motor tasks.

  19. Acute effect of high-intensity aerobic exercise performed on treadmill and cycle ergometer on strength performance.

    PubMed

    Panissa, Valéria L G; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Julio, Ursula F; Ribeiro, Natalia; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo M A; Carmo, Everton C; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent training (i.e., combination of endurance with strength training) may result in negative interference on strength performance. Moreover, there are indications that the magnitude of this interference is dependent on endurance exercise mode. Thus, this study aimed to verify the acute effects of previous running and cycling on strength endurance performance. After the determination of the maximum intensity reached (Imax) during treadmill running and cycle ergometer pedaling and half-squat maximum strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 10 physically active men were submitted to 3 experimental conditions: control condition (S) comprised of 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% 1RM, intermittent running (RS), and cycling (CS) conditions (15 × 1 minute:1 minute in the Imax) followed by the strength exercise (S). Maximum number of repetitions (MNR), total session volume (TV), and vastus lateralis electromyographic signal (VLRMS) were analyzed. It was observed that MNR and TV performed in set 1 in the S condition was superior to that performed in set 1 in the RS (p < 0.001) and CS (p < 0.001) conditions; and set 2 in the S condition was superior to set 2 only in the CS for the MNR (p = 0.032) and TV (p = 0.012). For the VLRMS, there was a main effect for repetition, with higher values in the last repetition compared with the second one (p < 0.01). In conclusion, an aerobic exercise bout before strength exercise impairs the subsequent strength endurance performance. In addition, the magnitude of the interference effect was higher after the aerobic cycling exercise.

  20. Acute effect of high-intensity aerobic exercise performed on treadmill and cycle ergometer on strength performance.

    PubMed

    Panissa, Valéria L G; Tricoli, Valmor A A; Julio, Ursula F; Ribeiro, Natalia; de Azevedo Neto, Raymundo M A; Carmo, Everton C; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-04-01

    Concurrent training (i.e., combination of endurance with strength training) may result in negative interference on strength performance. Moreover, there are indications that the magnitude of this interference is dependent on endurance exercise mode. Thus, this study aimed to verify the acute effects of previous running and cycling on strength endurance performance. After the determination of the maximum intensity reached (Imax) during treadmill running and cycle ergometer pedaling and half-squat maximum strength (1 repetition maximum [1RM]), 10 physically active men were submitted to 3 experimental conditions: control condition (S) comprised of 4 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% 1RM, intermittent running (RS), and cycling (CS) conditions (15 × 1 minute:1 minute in the Imax) followed by the strength exercise (S). Maximum number of repetitions (MNR), total session volume (TV), and vastus lateralis electromyographic signal (VLRMS) were analyzed. It was observed that MNR and TV performed in set 1 in the S condition was superior to that performed in set 1 in the RS (p < 0.001) and CS (p < 0.001) conditions; and set 2 in the S condition was superior to set 2 only in the CS for the MNR (p = 0.032) and TV (p = 0.012). For the VLRMS, there was a main effect for repetition, with higher values in the last repetition compared with the second one (p < 0.01). In conclusion, an aerobic exercise bout before strength exercise impairs the subsequent strength endurance performance. In addition, the magnitude of the interference effect was higher after the aerobic cycling exercise. PMID:25259468

  1. Improving the efficiency of isolated microspore culture in six-row spring barley: II-exploring novel growth regulators to maximize embryogenesis and reduce albinism.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Patricio; Clermont, Isabelle; Marchand, Suzanne; Belzile, François

    2014-06-01

    Two alternative cytokinins, thidiazuron and meta-topoline, were tested in isolated microspore culture on recalcitrant barley genotypes (six-row, spring), and green plant regeneration was improved substantially. Doubled-haploid (DH) plants are coveted in plant breeding and in genetic studies, since they are rapidly obtained and perfectly homozygous. In barley, DHs are produced mainly via androgenesis, and isolated microspore culture (IMC) constitutes the method offering the greatest potential efficiency. However, IMC can often be challenging in some genotypes because of low yield of microspores, low regeneration and high incidence of albinism. Six-row spring-type barleys, the predominant type grown in Eastern Canada, are considered recalcitrant in this regard. Our general objective was to optimize an IMC protocol for DH production in six-row spring barley. In particular, we explored the use of alternative hormones in the induction medium (thidiazuron and dicamba), and in the regeneration medium (meta-topoline). This optimization was performed on two typical six-row spring (ACCA and Léger), a two-row spring (Gobernadora) and a two-row winter (Igri) barley cultivar. When 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) was replaced by a combination of thidiazuron and dicamba in the induction medium, a 5.1-fold increase (P < 0.01) in the production of green plants resulted. This increase was mainly achieved by a reduction of albinism. Moreover, a 2.9-fold increase (P < 0.01) in embryo differentiation into green plants was obtained using meta-topoline instead of BAP in the regeneration medium. Together, these innovations allowed us to achieve a substantial improvement in the efficiency of IMC in this recalcitrant type of barley. These results were later successfully validated using sets of F1s from a six-row spring barley breeding program. PMID:24519013

  2. High Energy-Efficiency Retrofits to Baltimore's Row Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, J.; Johnson, A.L.; Lipscomb, L.; Wendt, R.

    1999-04-19

    The purpose of the research project is to develop high-perfommnce, energy-eflicient retrofits of existing row homes in Baltimore, Maryland. These efficiency enhancements are to optimize building envelope improvements, mechanical equipment improvements and operational improvements to the highest cost-effective level. Furthermore, this project is to investigate and demonstrate the impact of high-performance energy-efficiency retrofit improvements on row homes in the Historic East area of Baltimore. Three homes awaiting renovation are planned to receive building envelope, mechanical system, and electrical system improvements that will improve their energy petiormance. An incremental additional cost ceiling of $4000 for the energy eftlciency improvements, beyond those normally installed, has been set by the project.

  3. Monitoring and evaluation of rowing performance using mobile mapping data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mpimis, A.; Gikas, V.

    2011-12-01

    Traditionally, the term mobile mapping refers to a means of collecting geospatial data using mapping sensors that are mounted on a mobile platform. Historically, this process was mainly driven by the need for highway infrastructure mapping and transportation corridor inventories. However, the recent advances in mapping sensor and telecommunication technologies create the opportunity that, completely new, emergent application areas of mobile mapping to evolve rapidly. This article examines the potential of mobile mapping technology (MMT) in sports science and in particular in competitive rowing. Notably, in this study the concept definition of mobile mapping somehow differs from the traditional one in a way that, the end result is not relevant to the geospatial information acquired as the moving platform travels in space. In contrast, the interest is placed on the moving platform (rowing boat) itself and on the various subsystems which are also in continuous motion.

  4. Missing-Row Contractive Reconstruction on Au(311)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolessi, Furio; Tosatti, Erio

    All the low-index surfaces of gold are known to reconstruct, and their vicinals often exhibit magic orientations. The (311) orientation lies in between (100) and (111), and can be regarded as either a (111) or (100) vicinal with a very high step density, or as a flat open surface. In view of rather puzzling reconstructions observed experimentally [(1 × 4), (1 × 5), (1 × 6)], we have undertaken a structural study of Au(311) using the glue model and molecular-dynamics-based simulated annealing. The optical geometry is a (1 × 5) missing-row structure with (111) and reconstructed (100) microfacets, and an alternation of (1 × 2) and (1 × 3) hills. An extra atomic row is present on (1 × 3) hills to optimize packing. The experimentally observed disappearance of the reconstruction between 700 and 750 K is probably associated with an order-disorder transition similar to that of Au(110).

  5. A parallel householder tridiagonalization stratagem using scattered row decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. Y.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.; Rapp, D.

    1988-01-01

    Householder's method for tridiagonalizing a real symmetric matrix, a major step in evaluating eigenvalues of the matrix, is modified into a parallel algorithm for a concurrent machine of message passing type. Each processor of the concurrent machine has its own CPU, communications control and local memory. Messages are passed through connections between processors. Although the basic algorithm is inherently serial, the computations can be spread over all processors by scattering different rows of the matrix into processors, hence the term 'Scattered Row Decomposition'. The steps in the serial and the parallel algorithms are identified. Expressions for efficiency and speedup are given in terms of problem and machine parameters. For a concurrent machine of ring type interconnection, a selected representative problem of large order exhibits efficiency approaching 66 per cent.

  6. Bilateral Second Carpal Row Duplication Associated with Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cladiere-Nassif, Victoire; Delaroche, Caroline; Pottier, Edwige; Feron, Jean-Marc

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presenting a hitherto undescribed condition of bilateral second carpal row duplication. She was diagnosed in childhood with both Marfan and Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, with no clear evidence and no further medical follow-up. She presented throughout her life with various articular symptoms, which appeared to be compatible with a diagnosis of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, and underwent several surgical procedures on her knees and hips. Most recently, she was reporting pain at the base of the fifth metacarpal bone of the left hand. X-ray images and computed tomography (CT) were obtained for exploration and showed a total second row duplication in both carpi, with a total number of 18 carpal bones in each wrist. PMID:26649258

  7. Predicting maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) from the critical velocity test in female collegiate rowers.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Fukuda, David H; Smith, Abbie E; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the critical velocity (CV) test and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and develop a regression equation to predict VO2max based on the CV test in female collegiate rowers. Thirty-five female (mean ± SD; age, 19.38 ± 1.3 years; height, 170.27 ± 6.07 cm; body mass, 69.58 ± 0.3 1 kg) collegiate rowers performed 2 incremental VO2max tests to volitional exhaustion on a Concept II Model D rowing ergometer to determine VO2max. After a 72-hour rest period, each rower completed 4 time trials at varying distances for the determination of CV and anaerobic rowing capacity (ARC). A positive correlation was observed between CV and absolute VO2max (r = 0.775, p < 0.001) and ARC and absolute VO2max (r = 0.414, p = 0.040). Based on the significant correlation analysis, a linear regression equation was developed to predict the absolute VO2max from CV and ARC (absolute VO2max = 1.579[CV] + 0.008[ARC] - 3.838; standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 0.192 L·min(-1)). Cross validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 10 rowers. There was no significant difference between the mean predicted VO2max (3.02 L·min(-1)) and the observed VO2max (3.10 L·min(-1)). The constant error, SEE and validity coefficient (r) were 0.076 L·min(-1), 0.144 L·min(-1), and 0.72, respectively. The total error value was 0.155 L·min(-1). The positive relationship between CV, ARC, and VO2max suggests that the CV test may be a practical alternative to measuring the maximal oxygen uptake in the absence of a metabolic cart. Additional studies are needed to validate the regression equation using a larger sample size and different populations (junior- and senior-level female rowers) and to determine the accuracy of the equation in tracking changes after a training intervention.

  8. Physiological responses to linear treadmill and cycle ergometer exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hsia, D; Casaburi, R; Pradhan, A; Torres, E; Porszasz, J

    2009-09-01

    Incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing work rate ideally increases linearly to the subject's tolerance within approximately 10 min. Widely used treadmill protocols often yield shorter exercise times in debilitated patients. We compared a recently described treadmill protocol featuring linear work rate increase, weight adjustments and a priori exercise tolerance estimates with standard cycle and treadmill protocols. We also compared treadmill and cycle responses to examine mechanisms of oxyhaemoglobin desaturation differences. In total, 16 subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; mean+/-sd forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 36.5+/-10.9% predicted) performed incremental exercise using cycle, linear treadmill and modified Bruce protocols. Initial linear treadmill speed and grade yielded oxygen uptake (V'(O(2))) similar to cycle unloaded pedalling; Bruce protocol first stage elicited much higher V'(O(2)). Exercise duration was much shorter in Bruce than in cycle or linear treadmill protocols. At peak exercise, greater desaturation was noted in linear treadmill and Bruce protocols compared with cycle (-8.9+/-4.9 versus -8.5+/-4.7 versus -3.7+/-3.3%; p<0.001); at iso-V'(O(2)) values this difference widened as exercise proceeded. Iso-V'(O(2)) desaturation differences were largely related to higher ventilatory response to cycle than to treadmill exercise. The linear incremental treadmill protocol generates responses similar to cycle ergometry in severe COPD. However, cycle ergometry elicits less desaturation than does ambulation, making the linear treadmill protocol advantageous when evaluating COPD patients.

  9. A review of turbomachinery blade-row interaction research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Todd E.

    1988-01-01

    Analytical and experimental research in the area of unsteady aerodynamics of turbomachinery has conventionally been applied to blading which oscillates when placed in a uniformly flowing fluid. Comparatively less effort has been offered for the study of blading which is subjected to nonuniformities within the flow field. The fluid dynamic environment of a blade-row embedded within multi-stage turbomachines is dominated by such highly unsteady fluid flow conditions. The production of wakes and circumferential pressure variations from adjacent blade-rows causes large unsteady energy transfers between the fluid and the blades. Determination of the forced response of a blade requires the ability to predict the unsteady loads which are induced by these aerodynamic sources. A review of research publications was done to determine recent investigations of the response of turbomachinery blading subjected to aerodynamic excitations. Such excitations are a direct result of the blade-row aerodynamic interaction which occurs between adjacent cascades of blades. The reports and papers reviewed have been organized into areas emphasizing experimental or analytical efforts.

  10. Single-row, double-row, and transosseous equivalent techniques for isolated supraspinatus tendon tears with minimal atrophy: A retrospective comparative outcome and radiographic analysis at minimum 2-year followup

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Frank; Gupta, Anil; Bruce, Ben; Harris, Josh; Abrams, Geoff; Wilson, Hillary; Hussey, Kristen; Cole, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the subjective, objective, and radiographic healing outcomes of single-row (SR), double-row (DR), and transosseous equivalent (TOE) suture techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative analysis of arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs by one surgeon from 2004 to 2010 at minimum 2-year followup was performed. Cohorts were matched for age, sex, and tear size. Subjective outcome variables included ASES, Constant, SST, UCLA, and SF-12 scores. Objective outcome variables included strength, active range of motion (ROM). Radiographic healing was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA), Mann — Whitney and Kruskal — Wallis tests with significance, and the Fisher exact probability test <0.05. Results: Sixty-three patients completed the study requirements (20 SR, 21 DR, 22 TOE). There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in outcomes with all repair techniques (ASES mean improvement P = <0.0001). The mean final ASES scores were: SR 83; (SD 21.4); DR 87 (SD 18.2); TOE 87 (SD 13.2); (P = 0.73). There was a statistically significant improvement in strength for each repair technique (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between techniques across all secondary outcome assessments: ASES improvement, Constant, SST, UCLA, SF-12, ROM, Strength, and MRI re-tear rates. There was a decrease in re-tear rates from single row (22%) to double-row (18%) to transosseous equivalent (11%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.6). Conclusions: Compared to preoperatively, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, using SR, DR, or TOE techniques, yielded a clinically and statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective outcomes at a minimum 2-year follow-up. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level 3. PMID:24926159

  11. 30 CFR 585.310 - What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RUE grant? 585.310 Section 585.310 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.310 What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant? Your ROW grant or RUE grant becomes effective on the date established by BOEM on the ROW grant or RUE...

  12. 30 CFR 285.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the...

  13. 30 CFR 585.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the associated activities are...

  14. 30 CFR 585.310 - What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RUE grant? 585.310 Section 585.310 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.310 What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant? Your ROW grant or RUE grant becomes effective on the date established by BOEM on the ROW grant or RUE...

  15. 30 CFR 585.310 - What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RUE grant? 585.310 Section 585.310 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.310 What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant? Your ROW grant or RUE grant becomes effective on the date established by BOEM on the ROW grant or RUE...

  16. 30 CFR 585.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or RUE grant will remain in effect for as long as the associated activities are...

  17. Core temperature response to immersed bicycle ergometer exercise at water temperatures of 21 degrees, 25 degrees, and 29 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Israel, D J; Heydon, K M; Edlich, R F; Pozos, R S; Wittmers, L E

    1989-01-01

    A bicycle ergometer modified for aquatic exercise was used to determine the effects of immersion on core temperature during submaximal exercise at different water temperatures. An exercise intensity (60% of maximal oxygen consumption) and duration (30 minutes) considered appropriate for cardiovascular conditioning were used. These data will be useful in cardiovascular and leg-strengthening hydrotherapy programs. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, and a rating of thermal comfort were studied in five normal men (14.8% +/- 5.6% fat) during headout immersion at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees, 25.3 degrees, and 29.4 degrees C and exercise in air of 21.1 degrees C. Subjects were immersed for 30 minutes during static and exercise (63% +/- 0.6% maximal oxygen consumption) conditions. Data were collected every 5 minutes and analyzed by repeated measured analysis of variance. At water temperatures, rectal temperature fell from control during static immersion (p less than or equal to 0.05) and was lower than control at the end of the 30-minute recovery period (p less than or equal to 0.05). During exercise there was no change in rectal temperature at water temperatures of 21.1 degrees and 25.3 degrees C; however, rectal temperature rose at water temperatures of 29.4 degrees (p less than or equal to 0.05) and air 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). At the end of recovery rectal temperature was lower than control at water temperatures 21.1 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05) and greater than control at water temperatures 29.4 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.05). There was no change from control in rectal temperatures at water temperatures 25.3 degrees C and air at 21.1 degrees C. These results indicate that immersion in 25.3 degrees and 21.1 degrees C water effectively attenuates the rise in rectal temperature during exercise at 63% of maximal oxygen consumption, whereas immersion in 29.4 degrees C water does not. In addition, both skin and rectal

  18. 180 degrees rotation of ciliary rows and its morphogenetic implications in Tetrahymena pyriformis.

    PubMed

    Ng, S F; Frankel, J

    1977-03-01

    With quasi-surgical techniques, longitudinal somatic ciliary rows in Tetrahymena pyriformis have been rotated 180 degrees. New structures formed in the rotated ciliary rows during growth and reproduction are disposed 180 degrees opposite to their normal positions or orientations, confirming the earlier findings of Beisson and Sonneborn on Paramecium. However, during cell fission the rotated ciliary rows exhibit abnormality in orientation along the fission zone; the configuration of these rows near the anterior end of the posterior product of fission is consequently affected. Rotated ciliary rows have been employed as a tool in the analysis of morphogenetic problems: (a) The contractile vacuole pore is normally located on the left side of a ciliary row; but it is on the right of inverted rows. Hence, the morphogenetic properties of the two sides of the ciliary row associated with the contractile vacuole pore are different and this difference is the sole determinative factor as to the side of the ciliary row on which the contractile vacuole pore is located. (b) The process that generates the rotated ciliary rows frequently also brings about the implantation of an extra band of longitudinal microtubules at a specific site on the cell surface. This extra structure is inheritable, which opens up opportunities for the study of microtubular assembly in vivo. PMID:403524

  19. Two-source energy balance model to calculate row crop E.T. and ET:Advances at ARS, Bushland, TX 2010-2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two-source energy balance (TSEB) model has undergone several advances recently that improved its accuracy in calculating evaporation (E), transpiration (T), and evapotranspiration (ET) for row crops. These advances were tested using microlysimeter, sap flow, and large weighing lysimeter measurem...

  20. 30 CFR 585.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? (a) Each ROW or RUE grant will have a preliminary term of 12 months from the date of issuance of the ROW or...

  1. The Energetic Assessment of Frictional Instability Based on Rowe's Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.

    2015-12-01

    Frictional instability that controls the occurrence of unstable slips has been related to (1) rate and state dependent friction law (Dieterich, 1979; Ruina, 1983) and (2) shear localization in a gouge layer (e.g., Byerlee et al., 1978; Logan et al., 1979). Ikari et al. (2011) indicated that the transitions of frictional parameters obtained from the rate and state dependent friction law involve shear localization. However, the underlining theoretical background for their link has been unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigate their relation theoretically and experimentally based on Rowe's theory on constant minimum energy ratio (Rowe, 1962) describing particle deformations quantitatively by energetic analysis. In theoretical analysis using analytical dynamics and irreversible thermodynamics, the energetic criterion about frictional instability is obtained; unstable slip occurs at energy ratios below 1. In friction experiments using a gas medium apparatus, simulated fault gouge deforms obeying the Rowe's theory. Additionally, the energy ratios change gradually with shear and show below 1 before the occurrence of unstable slip. Moreover, energy ratios are derived from volume changes. Transition of energy ratios from increase to decrease, which has been confirmed at the end of compaction, indicates the onset of volume increase toward the occurrence of unstable slip. The volume increases likely correspond to the formation of R1-shears with open mode character, which occurs prior to the unstable slip. Shear localization leads to a change in internal friction angle which is a statistical parameter to constitute a energy ratio. In short, changes in internal friction angle play an important role in evolving from being frictionally stable to unstable. From these results, the physical and energetic background for their link between the frictional parameter and shear localization becomes clear.

  2. Plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of row crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cuellar, J. A.; Gerbermann, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Data from the first Earth Resource Technology Satellite (LANDSAT-1) multispectral scanner (MSS) were used to develop three plant canopy models (Kubelka-Munk (K-M), regression, and combined K-M and regression models) for extracting plant, soil, and shadow reflectance components of cropped fields. The combined model gave the best correlation between MSS data and ground truth, by accounting for essentially all of the reflectance of plants, soil, and shadow between crop rows. The principles presented can be used to better forecast crop yield and to estimate acreage.

  3. Film cooling: case of double rows of staggered jets.

    PubMed

    Dorignac, E; Vullierme, J J; Noirault, P; Foucault, E; Bousgarbiès, J L

    2001-05-01

    An experimental investigation of film cooling of a wall in a case of double rows of staggered hot jets (65 degrees C) in an ambient air flow. The wall is heated at a temperature value between the one of the jets and the one of the main flow. Experiments have been carried out for different injection rates, the main flow velocity is maintained at 32 m/s. Association of the measures of temperature profiles by cold wire and the measures of wall temperature by infrared thermography allows us to describe the behaviour of the flows and to propose the best injection which assures a good cooling of the plate. PMID:11460645

  4. 9. Detail view of columns on first floor. This row ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view of columns on first floor. This row of columns indicates the former location of the exterior mill wall before World War II era expansion. The unusual column and beam connection was a key part of the mill structural system patented by Providence, Rhode Island engineers Charles Praray and Charles Makepeace in 1894. Each column was originally located in the apex of triangular window bay, but not connected to the exterior wall. Modifications on the right side of each column support the beams of the addition. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  5. Can Row Spacing Influence Arthropod Communities in Soybean? Implications for Early and Late Planting.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Amanda L; Zobel, Emily; Hinds, Jermaine; Rosario-Lebron, Armando; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2015-06-01

    Row spacing in agricultural systems can influence crop yield as well as pest and predator abundances. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) growers in Maryland typically plant in narrow (∼19 cm), medium (∼38 cm), or wide (∼76 cm)-spaced rows, and there is a general lack of information on how these row-spacing schemes influence arthropod abundance and soybean yields. A study was conducted during two growing seasons to determine the effect of soybean row spacing and planting date (early and late) on soybean arthropods and yield. Despite a great deal of variation in arthropod responses to row spacing, and interactions between row spacing and study year, leaf-feeding herbivores were generally more abundant in narrow-spaced soybeans. All arthropod functional groups were more abundant, and yield was greater in early-planted soybeans relative to late-planted soybeans. Potential causes and implications of these finding are discussed.

  6. Arthroscopic Double-Row Transosseous Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair with a Knotless Self-Reinforcing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mook, William R.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder morbidity. Surgical techniques for repair have evolved to optimize the biologic and mechanical variables critical to tendon healing. Double-row repairs have demonstrated superior biomechanical advantages to a single-row. Methods: The preferred technique for rotator cuff repair of the senior author was reviewed and described in a step by step fashion. The final construct is a knotless double row transosseous equivalent construct. Results: The described technique includes the advantages of a double-row construct while also offering self reinforcement, decreased risk of suture cut through, decreased risk of medial row overtensioning and tissue strangulation, improved vascularity, the efficiency of a knotless system, and no increased risk for subacromial impingement from the burden of suture knots. Conclusion: Arthroscopic knotless double row rotator cuff repair is a safe and effective method to repair rotator cuff tears. PMID:27733881

  7. A DNA marker closely linked to the vrs1 locus (row-type gene) indicates multiple origins of six-rowed cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Tanno, K; Taketa, S; Takeda, K; Komatsuda, T

    2002-01-01

    The origin of six-rowed cultivated barley was studied using a DNA marker cMWG699 closely linked to the vrs1 locus. Restriction patterns of the PCR-amplified product of the cMWG699 locus were examined in 280 cultivated ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and 183 wild ( H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) barleys. Nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were also examined in selected accessions. Six-rowed cultivated barleys were divided into two distinct groups, types I and II. Type I six-rowed cultivated barley was distributed widely while type II six-rowed cultivated barley was found only in the Mediterranean region. The type I sequence was also found in a wild barley accession from Turkmenistan whereas the type II sequence was also found in a two-rowed cultivated barley from North Africa and a wild barley from Morocco. These results suggested that the six-rowed type I and II barleys were derived from two-rowed type I and II barleys, respectively, by independent mutations at the vrs1 locus.

  8. 30 CFR 585.305 - How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? 585... Grants and Rue Grants § 585.305 How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? You must submit to BOEM one paper copy and one electronic copy of a request for a new or modified ROW grant or RUE grant. You...

  9. 30 CFR 585.305 - How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? 585... Grants and Rue Grants § 585.305 How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? You must submit to BOEM one paper copy and one electronic copy of a request for a new or modified ROW grant or RUE grant. You...

  10. 30 CFR 585.305 - How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? 585... Grants and Rue Grants § 585.305 How do I request an ROW grant or RUE grant? You must submit to BOEM one paper copy and one electronic copy of a request for a new or modified ROW grant or RUE grant. You...

  11. Directional reflectance factor distributions of a cotton row crop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Schutt, J. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The directional reflectance factor distribution spanning the entire exitance hemisphere was measured for a cotton row crop (Gossypium barbadense L.) with 39 percent ground cover. Spectral directional radiances were taken in NOAA satellite 7 AVHRR bands 1 and 2 using a three-band radiometer with restricted 12 deg full angle field of view at half peak power points. Polar co-ordinate system plots of directional reflectance factor distributions and three-dimensional computer graphic plots of scattered flux were used to study the dynamics of the directional reflectance factor distribution as a function of spectral band, geometric structure of the scene, solar zenith and azimuth angles, and optical properties of the leaves and soil. The factor distribution of the incomplete row crops was highly polymodal relative to that for complete vegetation canopies. Besides the enhanced reflectance for the antisolar point, a reflectance minimum was observed towards the forwardscatter direction in the principle plane of the sun. Knowledge of the mechanics of the observed dynamics of the data may be used to provide rigorous validation for two- or three-dimensional radiative transfer models, and is important in interpreting aircraft and satellite data where the solar angle varies widely.

  12. Yankee Rowe isotopics benchmark using MCNP-XT

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Whitmer, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Yankee Rowe spent fuel isotopic data provides a valuable source to benchmark the burnup calculations as part of verification and validation (V and V) efforts for the TerraPower's Monte Carlo depletion code, MCNP-XT. A total of 71 fuel rods were selected in the Yankee Rowe isotopic measurements covering a burnup range up to 44 MWd/kg ({approx}4.4%) under both the asymptotic spectrum and the non-asymptotic spectrum. The MCNP-XT pin cell depletion provides a comparison against the asymptotic spectrum measurement; and full assembly depletion with 322 depletion materials provides comparisons against various non-asymptotic depletion conditions. All calculations are performed based on the recent ENDF/B-VII.O data. Furthermore, the Monte Carlo depletion uncertainties and biases were examined showing their effect as insignificant. The set of burnup calculations cover the scattered experimental measurements demonstrating excellent agreement with the measured values. This benchmark exercise demonstrates the depletion analysis capability of the MCNP-XT code and validates the low burnup range. (authors)

  13. Women's religious conversions on death row: theorizing religion and state.

    PubMed

    Cooey, P M

    2002-01-01

    Most scholars of religion who approach the phenomena associated with religious conversion in order to theorize religion tend to ignore the legal and political implications of the actual context in which conversion occurs for theorizing religion itself. Meanwhile, political and legal theorists who attend to the implications of executing convicted murderers who undergo religious conversion on death row err in a different direction. They virtually ignore the significance of the claims made by the converts and their associates about the conversion themselves for theorizing the state. Scholars across disciplines increasingly address issues of race, class, gender, and sexual orientation in respect to theorizing religion and theorizing the state independently of one another. At the same time, they do not seize the opportunity to incorporate their analyses into a wider study of the sociocultural production of religion and state in relation to each other. I examine the religious conversion of Karla Faye Tucker and Wanda Jean Allen on death row, as well as the scholarship that their convictions, conversions, and executions have generated across academic disciplines and fields. Close examination illustrates well the necessity for theorizing religion and the state in relation to one another in order to understand either adequately.

  14. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    PubMed Central

    Žiliukas, Pranas

    2016-01-01

    Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke. PMID:27293479

  15. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine.

    PubMed

    Grigas, Vytautas; Šulginas, Anatolijus; Žiliukas, Pranas

    2015-01-01

    Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke. PMID:27293479

  16. Exercise testing of leg amputees and the result of prosthetic training.

    PubMed

    van Alsté, J A; Cruts, H E; Huisman, K; de Vries, J

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients undergoing rehabilitation following leg amputation were examined to determine cardiac status, which included clinical examination and a graded exercise ECG test, using an arm ergometer. Results were compared to final walking ability. It was found that the cardiac status of these patients was generally poor and that the exercise ECG results did co-relate to walking ability. PMID:4066177

  17. Quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical comparison of transosseous equivalent double-row suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel repair.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.

  18. The friction experiments using simulated fault gouge: Rowe's constant energy ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, M.; Muto, J.; Nagahama, H.; Otsuki, K.

    2013-12-01

    Rowe (1962) introduced a concept called minimum energy ratio principle to get a stress-dilatancy relation of granular materials under axisymmetric stress condition, and postulated that the ratio of rate of dissipation of energy in internal friction to rate of supply of energy in the direction of the major principal stress shall be a minimum and a constant value. However, the physical basis of this principle or physical meanings of the minimum incremental energy ratio have been questioned by many investigators. So we conducted friction experiments using simulated fault gouge in a gas-medium apparatus to test Rowe's hypothesis of constant energy ratio. The friction experiments using simulated fault gouge in a gas-medium apparatus was conducted under the confining pressure 140-180 MPa, and strain rate 10-3 /s. Dry quartz powders for gouge were sandwiched into two gabbro cylinders, which were 20 mm in diameter, 40 mm in length, and cut by a 50o to their cylindrical axis. To clarify mechanical behaviors of fault gouge, we repeated holding loads at several desired values, and used strain gauges glued onto a gauge layer directly with the high-speed data acquisition systems. During holding stage, we obtained the ratio of energy rate of the major principal compressional stress to minor compression stresses, or the energy rate ratio of input energy to output one. The ratio of energy rates showed a constant value in lower energy rates, on the other hand, it deviated from the constant value in higher energy rates. According to Rowe's theory of the constant energy ratio, the change in the ratio of energy rate indicates the change in angle of internal friction. Riedel shear angle related to internal friction angle decreases with shear strain (Gu and Wong, 1994), so it can be said that the change in internal friction angle is related to microstructure development. Therefore, the energy ratio in the lower energy rates is constant and the ratio in the higher energy rates varies

  19. Multidetector-row computed tomography in cerebral hydatid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Nisar A; Kosar, Tasleem L; Khan, Abdul Qayum; Ahmad, Sheikh Shahnawaz

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial localization is a rare manifestation of hydatid cyst disease (Echinococcosis). It comprises only 2% of cases of Echinococcosis infection even in endemic areas and is predominantly seen in children. Clinical manifestations resulting from raised intracranial tension are nonspecific. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) may suggest the diagnosis preoperatively with reasonable accuracy. Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) with its high resolution multiplanar reformations can demonstrate the relationship of the cyst with adjacent brain structures and thus help in planning surgery. This has a practical utility in places where magnetic resonance imaging is not available. We describe a case of cerebral hydatid cyst in a 13-year-old boy who was diagnosed with MDCT, which helped in planning its surgical removal. PMID:21808517

  20. Configuring bonds between first-row transition metals.

    PubMed

    Eisenhart, Reed J; Clouston, Laura J; Lu, Connie C

    2015-11-17

    Alfred Werner, who pioneered the field of coordination chemistry, envisioned coordination complexes as a single, transition metal atom at the epicenter of a vast ligand space. The idea that the locus of a coordination complex could be shared by multiple metals held together with covalent bonds would eventually lead to the discovery of the quadruple and quintuple bond, which have no analogues outside of the transition metal block. Metal-metal bonding can be classified into homometallic and heterometallic groups. Although the former is dominant, the latter is arguably more intriguing because of the inherently larger chemical space in which metal-metal bonding can be explored. In 2013, Lu and Thomas independently reported the isolation of heterometallic multiple bonds with exclusively first-row transition metals. Structural and theoretical data supported triply bonded Fe-Cr and Fe-V cores. This Account describes our continued efforts to configure bonds between first-row transition metals from titanium to copper. Double-decker ligands, or binucleating platforms that brace two transition metals in proximity, have enabled the modular synthesis of diverse metal-metal complexes. The resulting complexes are also ideal for investigating the effects of an "ancillary" metal on the properties and reactivities of an "active" metal center. A total of 38 bimetallic complexes have been compiled comprising 18 unique metal-metal pairings. Twenty-one of these bimetallics are strictly isostructural, allowing for a systematic comparison of metal-metal bonding. The nature of the chemical bond between first-row metals is remarkably variable and depends on two primary factors: the total d-electron count, and the metals' relative d-orbital energies. Showcasing the range of covalent bonding are a quintuply bonded (d-d)(10) Mn-Cr heterobimetallic and the singly bonded late-late pairings, e.g., Fe-Co, which adopt unusually high spin states. A long-term goal is to rationally tailor the

  1. Configuring bonds between first-row transition metals.

    PubMed

    Eisenhart, Reed J; Clouston, Laura J; Lu, Connie C

    2015-11-17

    Alfred Werner, who pioneered the field of coordination chemistry, envisioned coordination complexes as a single, transition metal atom at the epicenter of a vast ligand space. The idea that the locus of a coordination complex could be shared by multiple metals held together with covalent bonds would eventually lead to the discovery of the quadruple and quintuple bond, which have no analogues outside of the transition metal block. Metal-metal bonding can be classified into homometallic and heterometallic groups. Although the former is dominant, the latter is arguably more intriguing because of the inherently larger chemical space in which metal-metal bonding can be explored. In 2013, Lu and Thomas independently reported the isolation of heterometallic multiple bonds with exclusively first-row transition metals. Structural and theoretical data supported triply bonded Fe-Cr and Fe-V cores. This Account describes our continued efforts to configure bonds between first-row transition metals from titanium to copper. Double-decker ligands, or binucleating platforms that brace two transition metals in proximity, have enabled the modular synthesis of diverse metal-metal complexes. The resulting complexes are also ideal for investigating the effects of an "ancillary" metal on the properties and reactivities of an "active" metal center. A total of 38 bimetallic complexes have been compiled comprising 18 unique metal-metal pairings. Twenty-one of these bimetallics are strictly isostructural, allowing for a systematic comparison of metal-metal bonding. The nature of the chemical bond between first-row metals is remarkably variable and depends on two primary factors: the total d-electron count, and the metals' relative d-orbital energies. Showcasing the range of covalent bonding are a quintuply bonded (d-d)(10) Mn-Cr heterobimetallic and the singly bonded late-late pairings, e.g., Fe-Co, which adopt unusually high spin states. A long-term goal is to rationally tailor the

  2. 76 FR 41532 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee-Rowe); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... accordance with the NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee-Rowe); Notice of...-Rowe), currently held by Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC), as owner and licensed operator...

  3. Building Generalized Inverses of Matrices Using Only Row and Column Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix "A" has an inverse if and only if "rref"("A"), the reduced row echelon form of "A", is the identity matrix I[subscript n]. That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix…

  4. Inter-row evapotranspiration in arid and humid wine-grape vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The architecture of wine-grape vineyards is characterized by tall plants (approx. 1.5 m) and widely spaced rows (approx. 3 m). This wide row spacing, developed to allow sunlight interception, air flow, and field operations, creates a complex system for water and energy budgets. Because of the wide r...

  5. 30 CFR 285.309 - When will MMS issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or RUE grant? 285.309 Section 285.309 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.309 When will MMS issue a noncompetitive ROW grant or RUE grant? If we approve or approve with conditions your GAP, we may offer you...

  6. The effects of color plastic mulches and row covers on the growth and yield of okra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (l.) Moench'Clemson Spineless'] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in shorter, AL. Okra was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (3...

  7. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  8. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  9. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  10. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  11. 33 CFR 100.724 - Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. 100.724 Section 100.724 Navigation and Navigable Waters... WATERS § 100.724 Annual Augusta Invitational Rowing Regatta; Savannah River, Augusta, GA. (a) Definitions. (1) Regulated area. The regulated area is formed by a line drawn directly across the Savannah...

  12. Rowing increases stroke volume and cardiac output to a greater extent than cycling.

    PubMed

    Horn, P; Ostadal, P; Ostadal, B

    2015-01-01

    Exercise stimulates increases in heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). These adaptive mechanisms are strongly dependent on the type of exercise. Both rowing and cycling are widely used for physical training worldwide; however, evidence regarding the differences in major hemodynamic parameters during rowing and cycling remains insufficient. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned to perform either a rowing or cycling exercise. After 20 min rest, the group who had rowed first performed the cycling exercise and vice versa. Exercise was performed at a power-to-weight ratio of 2 W/kg for 2 min. HR, SV, CO and blood pressure (BP) were measured noninvasively using pulse-wave analysis at baseline and immediately after each exercise. HR, SV and CO were significantly higher after exercise than at rest. Whereas HR was comparable between rowing and cycling, SV and CO were significantly higher after rowing than after cycling. BP was comparable among all three measurements. Rowing increased SV and CO to a greater extent than cycling, whereas HR and BP were not influenced by the type of exercise. Our data suggest that rowing leads to more extensive stimulation of cardiac contractility and/or decreases in peripheral vascular resistance compared with cycling. PMID:25317691

  13. Plastic Mulches and Row Covers on the grow and production of Summer Squash.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer squash [Cucurbita pepo (L) ‘Prelude II’] was grown on an Orangeburg sandy loam soil in Shorter, AL. The summer squash was direct seeded in single rows. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental treatments as follows: (1) Black plastic mulch (BPM) + spunbonded row cover (RC), (2) BPM, (...

  14. Transfer of Complex Skill Learning from Virtual to Real Rowing

    PubMed Central

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  15. Transfer of complex skill learning from virtual to real rowing.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Koch, Claudio; Crivelli, Francesco; van Raai, Mark; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Simulators are commonly used to train complex tasks. In particular, simulators are applied to train dangerous tasks, to save costs, and to investigate the impact of different factors on task performance. However, in most cases, the transfer of simulator training to the real task has not been investigated. Without a proof for successful skill transfer, simulators might not be helpful at all or even counter-productive for learning the real task. In this paper, the skill transfer of complex technical aspects trained on a scull rowing simulator to sculling on water was investigated. We assume if a simulator provides high fidelity rendering of the interactions with the environment even without augmented feedback, training on such a realistic simulator would allow similar skill gains as training in the real environment. These learned skills were expected to transfer to the real environment. Two groups of four recreational rowers participated. One group trained on water, the other group trained on a simulator. Within two weeks, both groups performed four training sessions with the same licensed rowing trainer. The development in performance was assessed by quantitative biomechanical performance measures and by a qualitative video evaluation of an independent, blinded trainer. In general, both groups could improve their performance on water. The used biomechanical measures seem to allow only a limited insight into the rowers' development, while the independent trainer could also rate the rowers' overall impression. The simulator quality and naturalism was confirmed by the participants in a questionnaire. In conclusion, realistic simulator training fostered skill gains to a similar extent as training in the real environment and enabled skill transfer to the real environment. In combination with augmented feedback, simulator training can be further exploited to foster motor learning even to a higher extent, which is subject to future work. PMID:24376518

  16. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    SciTech Connect

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-05-15

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution.

  17. Significance of agricultural row structure on the microwave emissivity of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Promes, P. M.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to extend the data base available for verifying agricultural row effect models of emissivity. The row effects model was used to simulate a data base from which an algorithm could be developed to account for row effects when the scene dielectric constant and small-scale roughness are unknown. One objective of the study was to quantify the significance of row structure and to develop a practical procedure for removing the effects of periodic row structure on the microwave emissivity of a soil in order to use the emissivity values to estimate the soil moisture. A second objective was to expand the data set available for model verification through field observations using a truck-mounted 1.4-GHz microwave radiometer.

  18. Symbolic Givens reduction and row-ordering in large sparse least squares problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G.

    1987-05-01

    In the solution of large sparse least squares problems by Givens factorization, a preliminary symbolic step that determines a good processing order and a data structure for the matrix factor is used. In this paper, it is shown that a processing order equivalent to sequential processing by rows can be as good as any processing order using a single pivot row in each column. A notion of local acceptability in row-ordering is introduced and shown to reduce fill globally. Row-orderings satisfying this notion are essentially equivalent to sequential processing by rows and the nature of intermediate fill produced makes implicit representation of fill possible. This forms the basis for a symbolic Givens reduction algorithm that operates in a fixed data structure.

  19. Positive ions of the first- and second-row transition metal hydrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical dissociation energies for the first- and second-row transition metal hydride positive ions are critically compared against recent experimental values obtained from ion beam reactive scattering methods. Theoretical spectroscopic parameters and dipole moments are presented for the ground and several low-lying excited states. The calculations employ large Gaussian basis sets and account for electron correlation using the single-reference single- and double-excitation configuration interaction and coupled-pair-functional methods. The Darwin and mass-velocity contributions to the relativistic energy are included in the all-electron calculations on the first-row systems using first-order perturbation theory, and in the second-row systems using the Hay and Wadt relativistic effective core potentials. The theoretical D(0) values for the second-row transition metal hydride positive ions should provide a critical measure of the experimental values, which are not as refined as many of those in the first transition row.

  20. Coordinated movement of the three rows of outer hair cells is essential for cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakoshi, Michio; Suzuki, Sho; Wada, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The process known as cochlear amplification is realized by coordinated movement of the outer hair cells (OHCs) in response to changes in their membrane potential. In this process, the displacement amplitude of the basilar membrane (BM) is thought to be increased, thereby leading to the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and sharp frequency selectivity of our hearing. Unfortunately, however, OHCs are vulnerable to noise exposure, ototoxic acid, aging and so on. Previous studies have shown that exposure to intense noise causes functional loss of OHCs from the innermost row (i.e., close to the modiolus) to the outermost row (i.e., close to the cochlear wall). On the contrary, by other traumatic stimuli such as ototoxic acid, aging and ischemia, such loss of OHCs has been reported to occur from the outermost row toward the innermost row. However, how the cochlear amplification changes when coordinated movement of OHCs is impaired, that is when the OHCs in one, two or all three rows have become dysfunctional, remains unclear. In the present study, therefore, a finite element (FE) model of the gerbil cochlea, which takes the motility of OHCs into account, was developed based on our previous FE model. Using this model, changes in the displacement amplitude of the BM due to the functional loss of OHCs in one, two or all three rows were investigated and the effects of incoordination of the three rows of OHCs on cochlear amplification were estimated. Results showed that the displacement amplitude of the BM significantly decreased when either the innermost row or the outermost row of OHCs lost its function, suggesting that all three rows of OHCs are required for cochlear amplification.

  1. Planter unit test stand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  2. Effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, E.; Farkas, Cs.; Gelybó, Gy.; Lagzi, I.

    2012-04-01

    We examined the effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation planted in 1991. The soil is Ramann type brown forest soil /Mollic Cambisol/ developed on sandy loam. Every second row in the orchard is covered with undisturbed grass, and every other row is disked (depth: 12-15cm) with a two-three-week frequency. The humus content varies from 1,69% to 2,28% in the upper 20 cm layer, where the sand, loam and clay contents are 58%, 21% and 19 %, respectively. The average annual precipitation total is 570 mm (330 mm for the growing season) at the site. During the vegetation period of 2009 soil CO2 emission measurements were carried out with static chamber method in the differently managed rows. Parallel with CO2 measurements soil volumetric water content and soil temperature were also determined. Soil microbiological properties water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and water-extractable nitrogen (WEN) as well as substrate-induced respiration (SIR) were determined from disturbed soil samples collected on the first measurement day. The measured soil physical properties showed that different soil management practices influence soil water content, bulk density and soil temperature as well. Soil water content was higher in the grass covered row on 10 of the 13 measurement days, the difference - which reached 10 v% - was the highest on the warmest days. Soil temperature is also different in case of disked and grass covered rows, found to be lower in the grass covered rows on every measurement days. SIR, WEOC and WEN were all higher in the grass covered row (19.45 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 36.91 μg g-1 soil, 139.36 μg g-1 soil, respectively) than in the disked row (4.88 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 25.43 μg C g-1 soil, 61.25 μg N g-1 soil, respectively) in 2009. Soil CO2 emission also differed between the two rows, grass covered rows produced higher emission in all measurements days without exemption. The difference between CO2 fluxes from the two cultivation

  3. 77 FR 25077 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton... navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta. This special....35T09-0342 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Wyandotte, MI. (a) Regulated Area....

  4. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  5. 30 CFR 585.302 - What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and RUE grant holders? 585.302 Section 585.302 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.302 What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders? (a) To acquire an ROW grant or RUE grant you must provide evidence that you meet...

  6. 30 CFR 585.315 - What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.315 Section 585.315 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.315 What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant? (a) You must make a deposit, as required in § 585.501(a), regardless...

  7. 30 CFR 585.302 - What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and RUE grant holders? 585.302 Section 585.302 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.302 What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders? (a) To acquire an ROW grant or RUE grant you must provide evidence that you meet...

  8. 30 CFR 585.307 - How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? 585.307 Section 585.307 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.307 How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? To determine whether or not there is...

  9. 30 CFR 285.307 - How will MMS determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? 285.307 Section 285.307 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.307 How will MMS determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? To determine whether or not there is...

  10. 30 CFR 585.302 - What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and RUE grant holders? 585.302 Section 585.302 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.302 What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders? (a) To acquire an ROW grant or RUE grant you must provide evidence that you meet...

  11. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  12. 30 CFR 585.315 - What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.315 Section 585.315 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.315 What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant? (a) You must make a deposit, as required in § 585.501(a), regardless...

  13. 30 CFR 585.307 - How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? 585.307 Section 585.307 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.307 How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? To determine whether or not there is...

  14. 30 CFR 585.307 - How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? 585.307 Section 585.307 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.307 How will BOEM determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? To determine whether or not there is...

  15. 30 CFR 285.315 - What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ROW grant or RUE grant? 285.315 Section 285.315 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Renewable Energy Activities Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.315 What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant? (a) You must make a deposit, as required in §...

  16. 30 CFR 585.308 - How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 585.308 Section 585.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.308 How will BOEM conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... to comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The...

  17. 30 CFR 285.315 - What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ROW grant or RUE grant? 285.315 Section 285.315 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.315 What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant? (a) You must make a deposit, as required in § 285.501(a), regardless...

  18. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.308 How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants... comment; and (2) Conduct a competitive auction for issuing the ROW grant or RUE grant. The auction...

  19. 30 CFR 285.302 - What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and RUE grant holders? 285.302 Section 285.302 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.302 What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders? (a) To acquire an ROW grant or RUE grant you must provide evidence that...

  20. 30 CFR 285.303 - How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? 285.303 Section 285.303 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Rue Grants § 285.303 How long will my ROW grant or RUE grant remain in effect? Your ROW grant or...

  1. 30 CFR 285.302 - What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and RUE grant holders? 285.302 Section 285.302 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.302 What are the general requirements for ROW grant and RUE grant holders? (a) To acquire an ROW grant or RUE grant you must provide evidence that you meet...

  2. 30 CFR 285.310 - What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RUE grant? 285.310 Section 285.310 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.310 What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant? Your ROW grant or RUE grant becomes effective on the date established by...

  3. 30 CFR 585.315 - What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ROW grant or RUE grant? 585.315 Section 585.315 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Financial Requirements for Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.315 What deposits are required for a competitive ROW grant or RUE grant? (a) You must make a deposit, as required in § 585.501(a), regardless...

  4. 30 CFR 285.310 - What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RUE grant? 285.310 Section 285.310 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Grants and Rue Grants § 285.310 What is the effective date of an ROW grant or RUE grant? Your ROW grant or RUE grant becomes effective on the date established by MMS on the ROW grant or RUE...

  5. 30 CFR 285.307 - How will MMS determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? 285.307 Section 285.307 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... and Easement Grants for Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.307 How will MMS determine whether competitive interest exists for ROW grants and RUE grants? To...

  6. Experimental investigation of chair type, row spacing, occupants, and carpet on theatre chair absorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Ji; Bradley, John S; Jeong, Dae-Up

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how the individual variations of chair type, row spacing, as well as the presence of occupants and carpet, combine to influence the absorption characteristics of theater chairs as a function of sample perimeter-to-area (P/A) ratios. Scale models were used to measure the interactive effects of the four test variables on the chair absorption characteristics, avoiding the practical difficulties of full scale measurements. All of the test variables led to effects that could lead to important changes to auditorium acoustics conditions. At mid and higher frequencies, the various effects can usually be explained as due to, more or less, porous absorbing material. In the 125 and 250 Hz octave bands, the major changes were attributed to resonant absorbing mechanisms. The results indicate that for accurate predictions of the effective absorption of the chairs in an auditorium, one should use the P/A method and reverberation chamber tests of the chair absorption coefficients to predict the absorption coefficients of each block of chairs and use these results as input in a room acoustics computer model of the auditorium. The application of these results to auditorium acoustics design is described, more approximate approaches are considered, and relations to existing methods are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management. PMID:25199100

  8. The effect of row structure on soil moisture retrieval accuracy from passive microwave data.

    PubMed

    Xingming, Zheng; Kai, Zhao; Yangyang, Li; Jianhua, Ren; Yanling, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Row structure causes the anisotropy of microwave brightness temperature (TB) of soil surface, and it also can affect soil moisture retrieval accuracy when its influence is ignored in the inversion model. To study the effect of typical row structure on the retrieved soil moisture and evaluate if there is a need to introduce this effect into the inversion model, two ground-based experiments were carried out in 2011. Based on the observed C-band TB, field soil and vegetation parameters, row structure rough surface assumption (Q p model and discrete model), including the effect of row structure, and flat rough surface assumption (Q p model), ignoring the effect of row structure, are used to model microwave TB of soil surface. Then, soil moisture can be retrieved, respectively, by minimizing the difference of the measured and modeled TB. The results show that soil moisture retrieval accuracy based on the row structure rough surface assumption is approximately 0.02 cm(3)/cm(3) better than the flat rough surface assumption for vegetated soil, as well as 0.015 cm(3)/cm(3) better for bare and wet soil. This result indicates that the effect of row structure cannot be ignored for accurately retrieving soil moisture of farmland surface when C-band is used.

  9. Stiffness matrix formulation for double row angular contact ball bearings: Analytical development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, Aydin; Singh, Rajendra

    2013-10-01

    Though double row angular contact ball bearings are widely used in industrial, automotive, and aircraft applications, the scientific literature on double row bearings is sparse. It is also shown that the stiffness matrices of two single row bearings may not be simply superposed to obtain the stiffness matrix of a double row bearing. To overcome the deficiency in the literature, a new, comprehensive, analytical approach is proposed based on the Hertzian theory for back-to-back, face-to-face, and tandem arrangements. The elements of the five-dimensional stiffness matrix for double row angular contact ball bearings are computed given either the mean bearing displacement or the mean load vector. The diagonal elements of the proposed stiffness matrix are verified with a commercial code for all arrangements under three loading scenarios. Some changes in stiffness coefficients are investigated by varying critical kinematic and geometric parameters to provide more insight. Finally, the calculated natural frequencies of a shaft-bearing experiment are successfully compared with measurements, thus validating the proposed stiffness formulation. For double row angular contact ball bearings, the moment stiffness and cross-coupling stiffness terms are significant, and the contact angle changes under loads. The proposed formulation is also valid for paired (duplex) bearings which behave as an integrated double row unit when the surrounding structural elements are sufficiently rigid.

  10. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    PubMed

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  11. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  12. Characterization of Genome-Wide Variation in Four-Row Wax, a Waxy Maize Landrace with a Reduced Kernel Row Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanmei; Wang, Xuewen; Wei, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Li, Jian; Xu, Zhanbin; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    In southwest China, some maize landraces have long been isolated geographically, and have phenotypes that differ from those of widely grown cultivars. These landraces may harbor rich genetic variation responsible for those phenotypes. Four-row Wax is one such landrace, with four rows of kernels on the cob. We resequenced the genome of Four-row Wax, obtaining 50.46 Gb sequence at 21.87× coverage, then identified and characterized 3,252,194 SNPs, 213,181 short InDels (1-5 bp) and 39,631 structural variations (greater than 5 bp). Of those, 312,511 (9.6%) SNPs were novel compared to the most detailed haplotype map (HapMap) SNP database of maize. Characterization of variations in reported kernel row number (KRN) related genes and KRN QTL regions revealed potential causal mutations in fea2, td1, kn1, and te1. Genome-wide comparisons revealed abundant genetic variations in Four-row Wax, which may be associated with environmental adaptation. The sequence and SNP variations described here enrich genetic resources of maize, and provide guidance into study of seed numbers for crop yield improvement.

  13. Characterization of Genome-Wide Variation in Four-Row Wax, a Waxy Maize Landrace with a Reduced Kernel Row Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanmei; Wang, Xuewen; Wei, Bin; Wang, Yongbin; Liu, Yinghong; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Li, Jian; Xu, Zhanbin; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    In southwest China, some maize landraces have long been isolated geographically, and have phenotypes that differ from those of widely grown cultivars. These landraces may harbor rich genetic variation responsible for those phenotypes. Four-row Wax is one such landrace, with four rows of kernels on the cob. We resequenced the genome of Four-row Wax, obtaining 50.46 Gb sequence at 21.87× coverage, then identified and characterized 3,252,194 SNPs, 213,181 short InDels (1–5 bp) and 39,631 structural variations (greater than 5 bp). Of those, 312,511 (9.6%) SNPs were novel compared to the most detailed haplotype map (HapMap) SNP database of maize. Characterization of variations in reported kernel row number (KRN) related genes and KRN QTL regions revealed potential causal mutations in fea2, td1, kn1, and te1. Genome-wide comparisons revealed abundant genetic variations in Four-row Wax, which may be associated with environmental adaptation. The sequence and SNP variations described here enrich genetic resources of maize, and provide guidance into study of seed numbers for crop yield improvement. PMID:27242868

  14. Diurnal changes in reflectance factor due to Sun-row direction interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Vanderbilt, V. C.; Kollenkark, J. C.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.; Ranson, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    Over a two year period, data were collected regarding the canopies of soybeans grown in rows in planter boxes placed on a turntable in an effort to investigate changes in the spectral reflectance factor related to row direction, Sun direction, soil background, and crop development stage. Results demonstrate that the direction of rows in a soybean canopy can affect the reflectance factor of the canopy by as much as 230%. The results for the red spectral region tend to support the validity of canopy reflectance models; results for the infrared region do not.

  15. Can 64-row computed tomography replace angiography after coronary bypass?

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirosato; Koshima, Ryuji; Suzuki, Masato; Takahashi, Ken; Yokoyama, Hiroichi; Yoshida, Naoya

    2008-12-01

    Multi-detector (64-row) computed tomography has become an alternative to coronary angiography to diagnose graft occlusion and stenosis after coronary artery bypass. We compared the power of evaluation of multi-detector computed tomography with that of conventional coronary angiography in 60 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass with 135 grafts and 210 graft anastomoses. The diagnostic power of multi-detector computed tomography for graft occlusion was: 100% (2/2) sensitivity, 98.5% (131/133) specificity, 50% (2/4) positive predictive value, and 100% (133/133) negative predictive value; there were no significant differences in rates of occlusion among the different types of graft. The diagnostic power of multi-detector computed tomography for stenosis of the graft anastomosis was: 100% (2/2) sensitivity, 95.1% (194/204) specificity, 16.6% (2/12) positive predictive value, and 100% (194/194) negative predictive value, with no significant differences among grafts. Multi-detector computed tomography permits evaluation of bypass grafts and is much less invasive for the patients. PMID:18984751

  16. Application of Badger's rule to third row metal diatomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisshaar, James C.

    1989-02-01

    We extend the range of applicability of Badger's rule, an empirical correlation between ωe and re, to diatomic molecules that include one or two metal atoms from the third row of the periodic table. For such M2 and MO species, the accuracy of the correlation competes with that of ab initio calculations in certain cases. We use the correlation along with experimental values of ωe to estimate re for two electronic states each of Cu+2 and of TiO+. For Cu+2, we obtain 2.35±0.10 Å for X 2Σ+g and 2.22±0.15 Å for the excited 2Π state at T0=1.143 eV. For TiO+, we obtain 1.54±0.05 Å for X 2Δ and 1.57±0.05 Å for the B 2Σ+ state at T0=1.39 eV.

  17. Realistic evaluation of hull performance for rowing shells, canoes, and kayaks in unsteady flow.

    PubMed

    Day, Alexander; Campbell, Ian; Clelland, David; Doctors, Lawrence J; Cichowicz, Jakub

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of hull dynamics in shallow water on the hydrodynamic performance of rowing shells as well as canoes and kayaks. An approach was developed to generate data in a towing tank using a test rig capable of reproducing realistic speed profiles. The impact of unsteady shallow-water effects on wave-making resistance was examined via experimental measurements on a benchmark hull. The data generated were used to explore the validity of a computational approach developed to predict unsteady shallow-water wave resistance. Comparison of measured and predicted results showed that the computational approach correctly predicted complex unsteady wave-resistance phenomena at low oscillation frequency and speed, but that total resistance was substantially under-predicted at moderate oscillation frequency and speed. It was postulated that this discrepancy arose from unsteady viscous effects. This was investigated via hot-film measurements for a full-scale single scull in unsteady flow in both towing-tank and field-trial conditions. Results suggested a strong link between acceleration and turbulence and demonstrated that the measured real-world viscous-flow behaviour could be successfully reproduced in the tank. Thus a suitable tank-test approach could provide a reliable guide to hull performance characterization in unsteady flow. PMID:21756127

  18. Spreadsheet Calculations for Jets in Crossflow: Opposed Rows of Inline and Staggered Holes and Single and Opposed Rows with Alternating Hole Sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.; Clisset, James R.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this jet-in-crossflow study was to calculate expected results for two configurations for which limited or no experimental results have been published: (1) cases of opposed rows of closely-spaced jets from inline and staggered round holes and (2) rows of jets from alternating large and small round holes. Simulations of these configurations were performed using an Excel (Microsoft Corporation) spreadsheet implementation of a NASA-developed empirical model which had been shown in previous publications to give excellent representations of mean experimental scalar results suggesting that the NASA empirical model for the scalar field could confidently be used to investigate these configurations. The supplemental Excel spreadsheet is posted with the current report on the NASA Glenn Technical Reports Server (http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov) and can be accessed from the Supplementary Notes section as TM-2010-216100-SUPPL1.xls. Calculations for cases of opposed rows of jets with the orifices on one side shifted show that staggering can improve the mixing, particularly for cases where jets would overpenetrate slightly if the orifices were in an aligned configuration. The jets from the larger holes dominate the mixture fraction for configurations with a row of large holes opposite a row of smaller ones although the jet penetration was about the same. For single and opposed rows with mixed hole sizes, jets from the larger holes penetrated farther. For all cases investigated, the dimensionless variance of the mixture fraction decreased significantly with increasing downstream distance. However, at a given downstream distance, the variation between cases was small.

  19. Row Spacing, Tillage System, and Herbicide Technology Affects Cotton Plant Growth and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers are faced with numerous production choices including cotton varieties, herbicide technology, tillage systems, and row spacing. A study was conducted to compare cotton production across conventional, glyphosate tolerant, and glufosinate tolerant varieties in ...

  20. ROWS wave spectral data collected in SAXON-FPN, November 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F.; Vandemark, D.; Bailey, S.; Vaughn, C.; Hines, D.; Ward, J.; Stewart, K.; Chapron, B.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution directional wave spectra obtained with the NASA Ku-band radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) on the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft during SAXON-FPN (SAR and X-Band Ocean Nonlinearities Experiment-Forschungsplattform Nordsee) experiments in the North Sea in November 1990 are presented. This experiment was the first in which the ROWS was operated with its new pc-based high-speed digital data acquisition system.

  1. Management controls on nitrous oxide emissions from row crop agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, I.; Shcherbak, I.; Millar, N.; Robertson, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture is a significant source of the potent greenhouse gas (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O), accounting for ~70% of total anthropic N2O emissions in the US primarily as a result of N fertilizer application. Emissions of N2O are the largest contributor to the global warming potential of row-crop agriculture. Management, including choice of crop type and rotation strongly impacts N2O emissions, but continuous emissions data from row-crops over multiple rotations are lacking. Empirical quantification of these long-term emissions and the development of crop- and rotation-specific N2O emission factors are vital for improving estimates of agricultural GHG emissions, important for informing management practices to reduce agriculture's GHG footprint, and developing mitigation protocols for environmental markets. Over 20 years we measured soil N2O emissions and calculated crop and management specific emission factors in four continuous rotations of corn (Zea mays) - soybean (Glycine max) - wheat (Triticum aestivum) under conventional tillage (CT), zero tillage (NT), low chemical input (LI), and biologically (Org) based management. Two of these systems (LI and Org) included winter cover crops, red clover (Trifolium pratense) or ray (Secale cereale). While average soil N2O fluxes in all systems where similar (2.9±0.2 to 3.8±0.5 g N2O-N ha-1 d-1), there was a significant interaction of total emissions with crop and phase. Surprisingly, the lowest total emissions from the corn period of the rotation were from CT, and the highest from LI, with 608±4 and 983±8 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively. Total emissions during the wheat period of the rotation showed the opposite trend, with total emissions of 942±7 and 524±38 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, for CT ant LI, respectively. Total emissions from the soybean period of the rotation were highest under NT and lowest under CT management (526±5 and 296±2 g N2O-N ha-1 crop year-1, respectively). Emission efficiency, N2O emitted

  2. TRANSLATION TO PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF THE MODIFIED ROWE SCORE FOR OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Freddy Beretta; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Marchetto, Adriano; de Andrade, André Luis Lugnani; Filho, Américo Zoppi; Etchebehere, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Objetctive: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of translation, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the questionnaire, being the areas “function” and “pain” applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the areas “active compression test and anterior apprehension test” and “motion” were applied to 15 health professionals. Results: During the translation process there were made little modifications in the questionnaire in order to adapt it to Brazilian culture, without changing the semantics and the idiomatic concept originally described. Conclusion: The questionnaire was easily understood by the subjects of the study, being possible to obtain the Brazilian version of the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes that underwent surgical treatment of the SLAP lesion. PMID:27047903

  3. Measurements of the unsteady flow field within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan. II - Results and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Suder, K. L.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.; Okiishi, T. H.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady velocity field measurements made within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan are presented. Measurements were obtained at midspan for two different stator blade rows using a laser anemometer. The first stator row consists of double circular-arc airfoils with a solidity of 1.68. The second features controlled-diffusion airfoils with a solidity of 0.85. Both were tested at design-speed peak efficiency conditions. In addition, the controlled-diffusion stator was also tested at near stall conditions. The procedures developed here are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness from the velocity measurements (rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining unsteadiness which contributes to the spread in the distribution of velocities such as vortex shedding, turbulence, etc.). Auto and cross correlations of these unsteady velocity fluctuations are presented to show their relative magnitude and spatial distributions. Amplification and attenuation of both rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.

  4. Measurements of the unsteady flow field within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan. Part 2: Results and discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Suder, K. L.; Okiishi, T. H.; Strazisar, A. J.; Adamczyk, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady velocity field measurements made within the stator row of a transonic axial-flow fan are presented. Measurements were obtained at midspan for two different stator blade rows using a laser anemometer. The first stator row consists of double circular-arc airfoils with a solidity of 1.68. The second features controlled-diffusion airfoils with a solidity of 0.85. Both were tested at design-speed peak efficiency conditions. In addition, the controlled-diffusion stator was also tested at near stall conditions. The procedures developed here are used to identify the rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness from the velocity measurements (rotor wake generated unsteadiness refers to the unsteadiness generated by the rotor wake velocity deficit and unresolved unsteadiness refers to all remaining unsteadiness which contributes to the spread in the distribution of velocities such as vortex shedding, turbulence, etc.). Auto and cross correlations of these unsteady velocity fluctuations are presented to show their relative magnitude and spatial distributions. Amplification and attenuation of both rotor wake generated and unresolved unsteadiness are shown to occur within the stator blade passage.

  5. Time-frequency and principal-component methods for the analysis of EMGs recorded during a mildly fatiguing exercise on a cycle ergometer.

    PubMed

    von Tscharner, Vinzenz

    2002-12-01

    Electromyographic signals contain the information on muscle activity and have to be frequently averaged, compared, classified or details need to be extracted. A time-frequency analysis, based on wavelets, was previously presented. The analysis transformed an EMG signal into an EMG-intensity-pattern showing the intensities at any point in time for the frequencies filtered out by the wavelets. The purpose of the present study was:to define and apply a new EMG-pattern-space for the analysis of EMG-intensity-patterns; and to determine the variation of EMG-intensity-patterns while getting mildly fatigued by cycling on a cycle-ergometer. The coordinates spanning the pattern space were principal components of the measured EMG-intensity-patterns. A point in pattern-space thus represented an EMG-intensity-pattern. Fatigue resulted in points moving along a line in pattern space. The line was characterized by an intercept at time 0 and a slope. Thus mild fatigue caused a shift from an initial intensity-pattern representing the intercept to a final intensity-pattern adding gradually larger amounts of the pattern representing the slope. The intensity-pattern of the slope revealed the physiologically important individual strategies for coping with mild fatigue. Changes were observed at different times and at different frequencies during the cycling movement.

  6. UniBic: Sequential row-based biclustering algorithm for analysis of gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Guojun; Robinson, Robert W.; Huang, Xiuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Biclustering algorithms, which aim to provide an effective and efficient way to analyze gene expression data by finding a group of genes with trend-preserving expression patterns under certain conditions, have been widely developed since Morgan et al. pioneered a work about partitioning a data matrix into submatrices with approximately constant values. However, the identification of general trend-preserving biclusters which are the most meaningful substructures hidden in gene expression data remains a highly challenging problem. We found an elementary method by which biologically meaningful trend-preserving biclusters can be readily identified from noisy and complex large data. The basic idea is to apply the longest common subsequence (LCS) framework to selected pairs of rows in an index matrix derived from an input data matrix to locate a seed for each bicluster to be identified. We tested it on synthetic and real datasets and compared its performance with currently competitive biclustering tools. We found that the new algorithm, named UniBic, outperformed all previous biclustering algorithms in terms of commonly used evaluation scenarios except for BicSPAM on narrow biclusters. The latter was somewhat better at finding narrow biclusters, the task for which it was specifically designed. PMID:27001340

  7. Fatigue analysis of multiple site damage at a row of holes in a wide panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhler, Kimberley; Grandt, Alten F., Jr.; Moukawsher, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with predicting the fatigue life of unstiffened panels which contain multiple site damage (MSD). The initial damage consists of through-the-thickness cracks emanating from a row of holes in the center of a finite width panel. A fracture mechanics analysis has been developed to predict the growth, interaction, and coalescence of the various cracks which propagate in the panel. A strain-life analysis incorporating Neuber's rule for notches, and Miner's rule for cumulative damage, is also employed to predict crack initiation for holes without initial cracking. This analysis is compared with the results of a series of fatigue tests on 2024-T3 aluminum panels, and is shown to do an excellent job of predicting the influence of MSD on the fatigue life of nine inch wide specimens. Having established confidence in the ability to analyze the influence of MSD on fatigue life, a parametric study is conducted to examine the influence of various MSD scenarios in an unstiffened panel. The numerical study considered 135 cases in all, with the parametric variables being the applied cyclic stress level, the lead crack geometry, and the number and location of MSD cracks. The numerical analysis provides details for the manner in which lead cracks and MSD cracks grow and coalesce leading to final failure. The results indicate that MSD located adjacent to lead cracks is the most damaging configuration, while for cases without lead cracks, MSD clusters which are not separated by uncracked holes are most damaging.

  8. Effects of Row-Type, Row-Spacing, Seeding Rate, Soil-Type, and Cultivar Differences on Soybean Seed Nutrition under US Mississippi Delta Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, Herbert A; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N

    2015-01-01

    The new Early Soybean Production System (ESPS), developed in the Midsouth USA, including the Mississippi delta, resulted in higher yield under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. However, information on the effects of the agricultural practices such as row-type (RT: twin- vs. single-row), row-spacing, (RS), seeding rate (SR), soil-type (ST) on seed nutrition under the ESPS environment in the Mississippi delta is very limited. Our previous research in the Mississippi delta showed these agricultural practices altered seed nutrients in one cultivar only. However, whether these effects on seed nutrients will be exhibited by other soybean cultivars with earlier and later maturities across multiple years are not yet known. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of agricultural practices and cultivar (Cv) differences on seed nutrition in clay and sandy soils under ESPS environment of high heat and drought. Two field experiments were conducted; one experiment was conducted in 2009 and 2010, and the other in 2008, 2009, and 2010 under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown on 102 cm single-rows and on 25 cm twin-rows with 102 cm centers at seeding rates of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). Two soybean cultivars (94M80 with earlier maturity; and GP 533 with later maturity) were used. Results showed that increasing seeding rate resulted in increases of protein, sucrose, glucose, raffinose, B, and P concentrations on both single- and twin-rows. However, this increase became either constant or declined at the higher rates (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)). Protein and linolenic acid concentrations were higher in GP 533 than in 94M80 on both row-types, but oil and oleic acid concentrations were in 94M80 than GP 533. Generally, cultivar GP 533 accumulated more seed constituents in seeds than 94M80. In 2010, there were no clear responses of seed nutrients to SR increase in both cultivars, perhaps due to drier year and high heat in 2010. It is concluded

  9. Specificity of test duration when assessing the anaerobic lactacid capacity of high-performance track cyclists.

    PubMed

    Craig, N P; Pyke, F S; Norton, K I

    1989-08-01

    The specificity of three maximal cycling sprint tests as a measure of anaerobic lactacid capacity was determined in nine highly trained male cyclists when they performed 10-, 30-, 40-, and 60-s tests on a modified Repco wind-braked cycle ergometer. Peak power (PP), percent power loss (% PO), total work done (TW), and peak blood lactate (PHLa) were determined for each test. The cyclists also performed a 1000-m time trial under competition conditions during which 200-m split times, total time (TT), and peak post-competition blood lactate (TTPHLa) were recorded. While there was no statistically significant difference between the peak blood lactate of the 30-, 40-, and 60-s tests, peak blood lactate achieved after the 1000-m time trial was significantly greater than those after the cycle ergometer tests. Although there were high intercorrelations (0.88-0.99) between the anaerobic power and capacity indices of the laboratory tests, only the PP and TW achieved during the 60-s test correlated significantly (P less than 0.05) with TT. The data suggest that when assessing the anaerobic power and capacity of elite 1000-m time trial cyclists, a cycle ergometer test duration of at least 60 s should be employed.

  10. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ROWING INJURIES AND THE FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREEN™ IN FEMALE COLLEGIATE DIVISION I ROWERS

    PubMed Central

    Mansell, Jamie; Tierney, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background 48 percent of rowing injuries are due to overuse and occur more often in females. The Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) is a screening tool utilized to identify the risk of musculoskeletal injury in field sport athletes based on movement patterns. It has not been used to identify risk of injury in rowing. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if the scores on the FMS™ are predictors of incidence of all injuries, including low back pain (LBP) in female collegiate rowers during one season of rowing. Methods Prospective cohort conducted in a clinical setting. Thirty-seven Division I female collegiate rowers (33 rowers and 4 coxswains). Investigators performed pre-season FMS™ screening and collected demographic data, rowing data, and Oswestry Low Back Pain questionnaire scores. Based on FMS™ scores, individuals were grouped high or low risk for injury. Injury reports and patient complaints of LBP over the course of a season were compared to FMS™ group. Results Those in the high risk group were significantly more likely to experience LBP during the season (p=.036) and reported a 58 percent greater mean in years of rowing experience (p=.008) than individuals in the low risk group. Those with a history of LBP were six times more likely to experience LBP during season (p=.027). Discussion The FMS™ indicated that rowers at a high risk of injury and more years of rowing experience, have a higher probability of sustaining LBP. Results could be due to chronic overuse associated with the rowing motion. Low back pain was evident in 25 out of the 37 participants over the season. Conclusion While the FMS™ has been proven to predict injury in field athletes, there was no statistically significant evidence to support prediction of a reported time loss injury in female collegiate rowers. However, it did indicate a higher likelihood for subjective report of low back pain. Level of Evidence Cohort study, level 2b PMID:27274420

  11. Gaussian-2 (G2) theory for third-row elements: A systematic study of the effect of the 3d orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Brian J.; Radom, Leo

    1998-09-01

    The importance of the inclusion of the 3d orbitals on third-row atoms in the correlation space in G2 theory has been systematically examined through calculations on the third-row G2 test set. Compared with standard G2, this G2(d) approach gives better agreement with experiment for the evaluation of ionization energies, a slightly poorer agreement for atomization energies, and much the same agreement for the very small sub-set of electron affinities and proton affinities. Overall, there is only slightly better agreement with experiment. However, when mixing of the 3d orbitals of the third-row atom with valence orbitals on the adjacent atoms is strong, inclusion of the 3d orbitals in the correlation space becomes a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results. Standard G2 theory is unsuitable in these circumstances. Similar conclusions pertain for the more economical G2(MP2)(d) method and for the full G2(QCI)(d) method. Inclusion of the 3d orbitals in the correlation space greatly increases the computer time required for a G2 calculation so some simple additive corrections to the G2 energy to approximate the effect of this inclusion have been investigated. These additivity methods generally underestimate the effect of the 3d orbitals but give reasonable agreement with the full G2(d) calculations in most cases. They cannot be used, however, in situations where the 3d orbital mixing is strong.

  12. A straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a directed guide vane row — Effect of guide vane geometry on the performance —

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takao, Manabu; Kuma, Hideki; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Oki, Michiaki; Minoda, Atsushi

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to show the effect of guide vane geometry on the performance. In order to overcome the disadvantages of vertical axis wind turbine, a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (S-VAWT) with a directed guide vane row has been proposed and tested by the authors. According to previous studies, it was clarified that the performance of the turbine can be improved by means of the directed guide vane row. However, the guide vane geometry of S-VAWT has not been optimized so far. In order to clarify the effect of guide vane geometry, the effects of setting angle and gap between rotor blade and guide vane on power coefficient and starting characteristic were investigated in the experiments. The experimental study of the proposed wind turbine was carried out by a wind tunnel. The wind tunnel with a diameter of 1.8m is open jet type. The wind velocity is 8 m/s in the experiments. The rotor has three straight blades with a profile of NACA0018 and a chord length of 100 mm, a diameter of 0.6 m and a blade height of 0.7 m. The guide vane row consists of 3 arc plates.

  13. The Influence of Rotation, Tillage and Row Spacing on Near-Surface Soil Temperature for Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Larney, F. J.; Ren, Tennis L.; McGinn, Sean M.; Lindwall, C W.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-02-01

    The influence of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface soil temperature for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Rotation, tillage and row spacing and their effects on surface residue levels can modify soil temperature. Our study investigated the effect of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface (0.025 m) soil temperature under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1993-94 and 1994-95.

  14. Representation of egomotion in rat's trident and E-row whisker cortices.

    PubMed

    Chorev, Edith; Preston-Ferrer, Patricia; Brecht, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The whisker trident, a three-whisker array on the rat's chin, has been implicated in egomotion sensing and might function as a tactile speedometer. Here we study the cortical representation of trident whiskers and E-row whiskers in barrel cortex. Neurons identified in trident cortex of anesthetized animals showed sustained velocity-sensitive responses to ground motion. In freely moving animals, about two-thirds of the units in the trident and E-row whisker cortices were tuned to locomotion speed, a larger fraction of speed-tuned cells than in the somatosensory dysgranular zone. Similarly, more units were tuned to acceleration and showed sensitivity to turning in trident and E-row whisker cortices than in the dysgranular zone. Microstimulation in locomoting animals evoked small but significant speed changes, and such changes were larger in the trident and E-row whisker representations than in the dysgranular zone. Thus, activity in trident and E-row cortices represents egomotion information and influences locomotion behavior. PMID:27526205

  15. Experiments in dilution jet mixing effects of multiple rows and non-circular orifices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Srinivasan, R.; Coleman, E. B.; Meyers, G. D.; White, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and empirical model results are presented that extend previous studies of the mixing of single-sided and opposed rows of jets in a confined duct flow to include effects of non-circular orifices and double rows of jets. Analysis of the mean temperature data obtained in this investigation showed that the effects of orifice shape and double rows are significant only in the region close to the injection plane, provided that the orifices are symmetric with respect to the main flow direction. The penetration and mixing of jets from 45-degree slanted slots is slightly less than that from equivalent-area symmetric orifices. The penetration from 2-dimensional slots is similar to that from equivalent-area closely-spaced rows of holes, but the mixing is slower for the 2-D slots. Calculated mean temperature profiles downstream of jets from non-circular and double rows of orifices, made using an extension developed for a previous empirical model, are shown to be in good agreement with the measured distributions.

  16. Attenuation of the influence of cardiolocomotor coupling in heart rate variability interpretation during exercise test.

    PubMed

    Hernando, A; Hernando, D; Garatachea, N; Casajus, J A; Bailon, R

    2015-08-01

    During exercise test, cardiolocomotor coupling related components appear in heart rate variability (HRV), blurring its interpretation as autonomic nervous system (ANS) marker. These cardiolocomotor coupling related components are centered at the pedalling and running stride frequency, as well as at their aliases, and may overlap with the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) components of HRV. In this work cardiolocomotor-related HRV components are studied during maximal exercise test on treadmill and cycle ergometer. Power in the bands related to cardiolocomotor coupling increases with exercise intensity in cycle ergometer but not in treadmill exercise test, where it displays higher values for all exercise intensities. A method is proposed to reduce the effect of this coupling in the interpretation of HRV. Evolution of the power in the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands are studied after the proposed reduction of cardiolocomotor coupling, showing more significant changes with exercise intensity than before the method is applied. PMID:26736557

  17. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  18. High level of skeletal muscle carnosine contributes to the latter half of exercise performance during 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Ito, Osamu; Mukai, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Takamatsu, Kaoru

    2002-04-01

    The histidine-containing dipeptide carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) has been shown to significantly contribute to the physicochemical buffering in skeletal muscles, which maintains acid-base balance when a large quantity of H(+) is produced in association with lactic acid accumulation during high-intensity exercise. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relations among the skeletal muscle carnosine concentration, fiber-type distribution, and high-intensity exercise performance. The subjects were 11 healthy men. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis at rest. The carnosine concentration was determined by the use of an amino acid autoanalyzer. The fiber-type distribution was determined by the staining intensity of myosin adenosinetriphosphatase. The high-intensity exercise performance was assessed by the use of 30-s maximal cycle ergometer sprinting. A significant correlation was demonstrated between the carnosine concentration and the type IIX fiber composition (r=0.646, p<0.05). The carnosine concentration was significantly correlated with the mean power per body mass (r=0.785, p<0.01) during the 30-s sprinting. When dividing the sprinting into 6 phases (0-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30 s), significant correlations were observed between the carnosine concentration and the mean power per body mass of the final 2 phases (21-25 s: r=0.694, p<0.05; 26-30 s: r=0.660, p<0.05). These results indicated that the carnosine concentration could be an important factor in determining the high-intensity exercise performance.

  19. Mechanisms underlying enhancements in muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in men.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Onslev, Johan; Jessen, Søren; Haase, Christoffer; Habib, Sajad; Ørtenblad, Niels; Backer, Vibeke; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-09-01

    The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial investigating mechanisms by which chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation enhances muscle force and power output during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in young men. Eighteen trained men were assigned to an experimental group [oral terbutaline 5 mg/30 kg body weight (bw) twice daily (TER); n = 9] or a control group [placebo (PLA); n = 9] for a 4-wk intervention. No changes were observed with the intervention in PLA. Isometric muscle force of the quadriceps increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 97 ± 29 N (means ± SE) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Peak and mean power output during 30 s of maximal cycling increased (P ≤ 0.01) by 32 ± 8 and 25 ± 9 W, respectively, with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2max) and time to fatigue during incremental cycling did not change with the intervention. Lean body mass increased by 1.95 ± 0.8 kg (P ≤ 0.05) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA. Change in single fiber cross-sectional area of myosin heavy chain (MHC) I (1,205 ± 558 μm(2); P ≤ 0.01) and MHC II fibers (1,277 ± 595 μm(2); P ≤ 0.05) of the vastus lateralis muscle was higher for TER than PLA with the intervention, whereas no changes were observed in MHC isoform distribution. Expression of muscle proteins involved in growth, ion handling, lactate production, and clearance increased (P ≤ 0.05) with the intervention in TER compared with PLA, with no change in oxidative enzymes. Our observations suggest that muscle hypertrophy is the primary mechanism underlying enhancements in muscle force and peak power during maximal cycling induced by chronic β2-adrenergic stimulation in humans.

  20. The Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture: the Effect of Tilled Row Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The tilled rowstructure is known to be one of the important factors affecting the observations of the microwave emission from a natural surface. Measurements of this effect were carried out with both I and X band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field. The soil moisture content during the measurements ranged from approximately 10 percent to approximately 30 percent by dry weight. The results of these measurements showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle theta changed with the azimuthal angle a measured from the row direction. A numerical calculation based on a composite surface roughness was made and found to predict the observed features within the model's limit of accuracy. It was concluded that the difference between the horizontally and vertically polarized temperatures was due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large scale row structure.

  1. The influence of kayaking and rowing sports experience on postural response to optic flow.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Chae

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the postural response of kayakers and rowers to imposed optic flow. The athletes, with experience in unstable water environments, should have a specific postural response to optic flow. 12 male participants with kayaking and rowing experience and 12 with no specific sports experience were asked to stand still with and without room motion. This study varied the amplitude and frequency of room motion and evaluated the trajectory of the center of pressure. The kayaking and rowing group were less influenced by imposed optic flow, and body sway was more closely synchronized to the oscillating room compared to the Non-athlete group. These results suggest that postural adaptation occurs in association with experience in kayaking and rowing. PMID:25650510

  2. Investigation of Blade-row Flow Distributions in Axial-flow-compressor Stage Consisting of Guide Vanes and Rotor-blade Row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, John J; Dugan, Paul D; Budinger, Raymond E; Goelzer, H Fred

    1950-01-01

    A 30-inch tip-diameter axial-flow compressor stage was investigated with and without rotor to determine individual blade-row performance, interblade-row effects, and outer-wall boundary-layer conditions. Velocity gradients at guide-vane outlet without rotor approximated design assumptions, when the measured variation of leaving angle was considered. With rotor in operation, Mach number and rotor-blade effects changed flow distribution leaving guide vanes and invalidated design assumption of radial equilibrium. Rotor-blade performance correlated interpolated two-dimensional results within 2 degrees, although tip stall was indicated in experimental and not two-dimensional results. Boundary-displacement thickness was less than 1.0 and 1.5 percent of passage height after guide vanes and after rotor, respectively, but increased rapidly after rotor when tip stall occurred.

  3. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; VanLoocke, A.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate 'regulators' due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observational and model based approaches have investigated biogeochemical tradeoffs, such as increased carbon sequestration and increased water use, associated with growing cellulosic feedstocks. A less understood aspect is the biogeophysical changes associated with the difference in albedo (α), which could alter the local energy balance and cause local to regional cooling several times larger than that associated with offsetting carbon. Here, we established paired fields of Miscanthus × giganteus (miscanthus) and Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), two of the leading perennial cellulosic feedstock candidates, and traditional annual row crops in the highly productive "Corn-belt". Our results show that miscanthus did and switchgrass did not have an overall higher α than current row crops but a strong seasonal pattern existed. Both perennials had consistently higher growing season α than row crops and winter α did not differ. The lack of observed differences in winter α, however, masked an interaction between snow cover and species differences, with the perennial species, compared with the row crops, having a higher α when snow was absent and a much lower α when snow was present. Overall, these changes resulted in an average net reduction in annual absorbed energy of about 5 W/m2 for switchgrass and about 8 W/m2 for miscanthus relative to annual crops. Therefore, the conversion from annual row to perennial crops alters the radiative balance of the surface via changes in α and could lead to regional cooling.

  4. Effect of +Gz Acceleration on the Oxygen Uptake-Excercise Load Relationship during Lower Extremity Ergometer Excercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Long term spaceflight and habitation of a space station and/or the moon require that astronauts be provided with sufficient environmental and physiological support so that they can not only function in microgravity but be returned to earth safely. As the duration of habitation in microgravity increase the effects of the concomitant deconditioning of body systems becomes a concern for added exercise in space and for reentry to Earth gravity. Many countermeasures have been proposed to maintain proper functioning of the body, but none have proved sufficient, especially when the cost of crew time spent in these activities is considered. The issue of appropriate countermeasures remains unresolved. Spaceflight deconditioning decreases tolerance to +Gz acceleration, head to foot, the direction which is experienced during reentry; the result is that the crew member is more prone to becoming pre-syncopal or syncopal, thus exacerbating the orthostatic intolerance. All ground-based research using microgravity analogues has produced this same lowered G tolerance. When intermittent exposure to +1 to +4 Gz acceleration training was used, some alleviation of orthosatic intolerance and negative physiological effects of deconditioning occurred. Exercise alone was not as effective; but the added G force was. The physiological responses to acceleration added to exercise training have not been clearly shown. We will test the hypothesis that there will be no difference in the exercise oxygen uptake-exercise load relationship with added +Gz acceleration. We wi also compare oxygen uptake during graded exercise-acceleration loads in the human-powered short arm centrifuge with those from normal supine exercise loads. The human-powered short arm centrifuge was built by NASA engineers at Ames Research Center.

  5. The multi-stage fitness test as a predictor of endurance fitness in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Tolfrey, Keith

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to consider the criterion-related validity of the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT) by comparing the predicted maximal oxygen uptake (.VO(2max)) and distance travelled with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) measured using a wheelchair ergometer (n = 24); and (2) to assess the reliability of the MSFT in a sub-sample of wheelchair athletes (n = 10) measured on two occasions. Twenty-four trained male wheelchair basketball players (mean age 29 years, s = 6) took part in the study. All participants performed a continuous incremental wheelchair ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine .VO(2peak), and the MSFT on an indoor wooden basketball court. Mean ergometer .VO(2peak) was 2.66 litres . min(-1) (s = 0.49) and peak heart rate was 188 beats . min(-1) (s = 10). The group mean MSFT distance travelled was 2056 m (s = 272) and mean peak heart rate was 186 beats . min(-1) (s = 11). Low to moderate correlations (rho = 0.39 to 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.02 to 0.69 and 0.23 to 0.80) were found between distance travelled in the MSFT and different expressions of wheelchair ergometer .VO(2peak). There was a mean bias of -1.9 beats . min(-1) (95% CI: -5.9 to 2.0) and standard error of measurement of 6.6 beats . min(-1) (95% CI: 5.4 to 8.8) between the ergometer and MSFT peak heart rates. A similar comparison of ergometer and predicted MSFT .VO(2peak) values revealed a large mean systematic bias of 15.3 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (95% CI: 13.2 to 17.4) and standard error of measurement of 3.5 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (95% CI: 2.8 to 4.6). Small standard errors of measurement for MSFT distance travelled (86 m; 95% CI: 59 to 157) and MSFT peak heart rate (2.4 beats . min(-1); 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.5) suggest that these variables can be measured reliably. The results suggest that the multi-stage fitness test provides reliable data with this population, but does not fully reflect the aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes directly. PMID

  6. The multi-stage fitness test as a predictor of endurance fitness in wheelchair athletes.

    PubMed

    Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L; Tolfrey, Keith

    2008-03-01

    The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to consider the criterion-related validity of the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT) by comparing the predicted maximal oxygen uptake (.VO(2max)) and distance travelled with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) measured using a wheelchair ergometer (n = 24); and (2) to assess the reliability of the MSFT in a sub-sample of wheelchair athletes (n = 10) measured on two occasions. Twenty-four trained male wheelchair basketball players (mean age 29 years, s = 6) took part in the study. All participants performed a continuous incremental wheelchair ergometer test to volitional exhaustion to determine .VO(2peak), and the MSFT on an indoor wooden basketball court. Mean ergometer .VO(2peak) was 2.66 litres . min(-1) (s = 0.49) and peak heart rate was 188 beats . min(-1) (s = 10). The group mean MSFT distance travelled was 2056 m (s = 272) and mean peak heart rate was 186 beats . min(-1) (s = 11). Low to moderate correlations (rho = 0.39 to 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.02 to 0.69 and 0.23 to 0.80) were found between distance travelled in the MSFT and different expressions of wheelchair ergometer .VO(2peak). There was a mean bias of -1.9 beats . min(-1) (95% CI: -5.9 to 2.0) and standard error of measurement of 6.6 beats . min(-1) (95% CI: 5.4 to 8.8) between the ergometer and MSFT peak heart rates. A similar comparison of ergometer and predicted MSFT .VO(2peak) values revealed a large mean systematic bias of 15.3 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (95% CI: 13.2 to 17.4) and standard error of measurement of 3.5 ml . kg(-1) . min(-1) (95% CI: 2.8 to 4.6). Small standard errors of measurement for MSFT distance travelled (86 m; 95% CI: 59 to 157) and MSFT peak heart rate (2.4 beats . min(-1); 95% CI: 1.7 to 4.5) suggest that these variables can be measured reliably. The results suggest that the multi-stage fitness test provides reliable data with this population, but does not fully reflect the aerobic capacity of wheelchair athletes directly.

  7. Modeling of human Heart Rate response during walking, cycling and rowing.

    PubMed

    Baig, Dur-E-Zehra; Su, Hao; Cheng, Teddy M; Savkin, Andrey V; Su, Steven W; Celler, Branko G

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the human Heart Rate (HR) response during walking, cycling and rowing exercises using linear time varying (LTV) models. We used the frequency of exercise locomotion as the input to the model. This frequency characterizes the stride rate, cadence rate and strokes rate of the walking, cycling and rowing exercises respectively. The time varying parameters in the LTV models were estimated by the Kalman Filter (KF). The results in this study demonstrate that HR responses to these exercises exhibit some degree of time varying nature.

  8. Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) preprocessing program (PREROWS2.EXE). User's manual and program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum is a user's manual with additional program documentation for the computer program PREROWS2.EXE. PREROWS2 works with data collected by an ocean wave spectrometer that uses radar (ROWS) as an active remote sensor. The original ROWS data acquisition subsystem was replaced with a PC in 1990. PREROWS2.EXE is a compiled QuickBasic 4.5 program that unpacks the recorded data, displays various variables, and provides for copying blocks of data from the original 8mm tape to a PC file.

  9. All-Endoscopic Single-Row Repair of Full-Thickness Gluteus Medius Tears

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David M.; Bogunovic, Ljiljana; Grzybowski, Jeffrey S.; Kuhns, Benjamin D.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Nho, Shane J.

    2016-01-01

    Abductor tendon tears typically develop insidiously in middle-aged women and can lead to debilitating lateral hip pain and a Trendelenburg limp. The gluteus medius tendon is most commonly torn and may show fatty degeneration over time, similar to the rotator cuff muscles of the shoulder. Endoscopic repair offers a therapeutic alternative to traditional open techniques. This article describes the workup, examination, and endoscopic repair of a full-thickness gluteus medius tear presenting as lateral hip pain and weakness. The surgical repair for this case used a single-row suture anchor technique. In addition, the indications and technique for a double-row repair will be discussed. PMID:27073767

  10. Absorbed Radiation Dose in Radiosensitive Organs Using 64- and 320-Row Multidetector Computed Tomography: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Atif N.; Nikolic, Boris; Khan, Mohammad K.; Kang, Jian; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine absorbed radiation dose (ARD) in radiosensitive organs during prospective and full phase dose modulation using ECG-gated MDCTA scanner under 64- and 320-row detector modes. Methods. Female phantom was used to measure organ radiation dose. Five DP-3 radiation detectors were used to measure ARD to lungs, breast, and thyroid using the Aquilion ONE scanner in 64- and 320-row modes using both prospective and dose modulation in full phase acquisition. Five measurements were made using three tube voltages: 100, 120, and 135 kVp at 400 mA at heart rate (HR) of 60 and 75 bpm for each protocol. Mean acquisition was recorded in milligrays (mGy). Results. Mean ARD was less for 320-row versus 64-row mode for each imaging protocol. Prospective EKG-gated imaging protocol resulted in a statistically lower ARD using 320-row versus 64-row modes for midbreast (6.728 versus 19.687 mGy, P < 0.001), lung (6.102 versus 21.841 mGy, P < 0.001), and thyroid gland (0.208 versus 0.913 mGy; P < 0.001). Retrospective imaging using 320- versus 64-row modes showed lower ARD for midbreast (10.839 versus 43.169 mGy, P < 0.001), lung (8.848 versus 47.877 mGy, P < 0.001), and thyroid gland (0.057 versus 2.091 mGy; P < 0.001). ARD reduction was observed at lower kVp and heart rate. Conclusions. Dose reduction to radiosensitive organs is achieved using 320-row compared to 64-row modes for both prospective and retrospective gating, whereas 64-row mode is equivalent to the same model 64-row MDCT scanner. PMID:25170427

  11. Two dimensional cold air cascade study of a film cooled turbine stator blade. 2: Experimental results of full film cooling tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of full film cooling on the performance of a turbine stator blade was studied in a two-dimensional cascade. The blade contained 12 rows of coolant holes, 6 rows on the suction surface and 6 on the pressure surface. Separate tests were first made with coolant ejection from each of the 12 rows. Then successive tests were made with various combinations of coolant rows open, including full film cooling. The principal results are presented in terms of primary-air efficiency as a function of coolant fraction. In addition, the efficiency results of the multirow tests are compared with the multi-row efficiency predicted by adding the single-row results.

  12. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise. PMID:26307519

  13. Accurate assessment of work done and power during a Wingate anaerobic test.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kathryn L; Gordon, Rae S; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2007-04-01

    A Monark cycle ergometer is used in physiological studies to measure work done and power. In this paper, the accuracy of a Monark rope-braked cycle ergometer was examined for a Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). The traditional method of determining brake torque fails to take into account rope-brake theory and, as the brake torque is used to determine the moment of inertia of the flywheel, a second error is introduced into the calculation to determine the work done or power. In this study, the rope tensions were measured to determine the actual brake torque. A deceleration test was carried out to determine the moment of inertia of the system. The work done by subjects of different masses was calculated for various accelerations and it was found that the traditional calculations overestimate work done and power by between 12% and 14.7%. PMID:17486163

  14. Tilted cone-beam reconstruction with row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jiang; Tang, Xiangyang

    2006-10-21

    Reconstruction algorithms for cone-beam CT have been the focus of many studies. Several exact and approximate reconstruction algorithms were proposed for step-and-shoot and helical scanning trajectories to combat cone-beam related artefacts. In this paper, we present a new closed-form cone-beam reconstruction formula for tilted gantry data acquisition. Although several algorithms were proposed in the past to combat errors induced by the gantry tilt, none of the algorithms addresses the scenario in which the cone-beam geometry is first rebinned to a set of parallel beams prior to the filtered backprojection. We show that the image quality advantages of the rebinned parallel-beam reconstruction are significant, which makes the development of such an algorithm necessary. Because of the rebinning process, the reconstruction algorithm becomes more complex and the amount of iso-centre adjustment depends not only on the projection and tilt angles, but also on the reconstructed pixel location. In this paper, we first demonstrate the advantages of the row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning and derive a closed-form solution for the reconstruction algorithm for the step-and-shoot and constant-pitch helical scans. The proposed algorithm requires the 'warping' of the reconstruction matrix on a view-by-view basis prior to the backprojection step. We further extend the algorithm to the variable-pitch helical scans in which the patient table travels at non-constant speeds. The algorithm was tested extensively on both the 16- and 64-slice CT scanners. The efficacy of the algorithm is clearly demonstrated by multiple experiments.

  15. Comparison of standard 4-row versus 6-row 3-D linear cutter stapler in creation of gastrointestinal system anastomoses: a prospective randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Sozutek, Alper; Colak, Tahsin; Dag, Ahmet; Olmez, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective study was conducted to compare the clinical outcomes of a 6-row 3-D linear cutter with the standard 4-row linear cutter in patients who underwent elective gastrointestinal surgery anastomosis. METHOD: Patients who underwent elective open gastrointestinal surgery that included stapled anastomosis using a linear cutter (Proximate®, Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, OH) between January 2011 and May 2011 were included in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups according to the linear cutter that was used in the surgery: the standard 4-row cutter (the S group) or the new 6-row cutter (the N group). The groups were compared based on the patient demographic data, the laboratory parameters, the preoperative diagnosis, the surgery performed, the operation time, intra- or postoperative complications, the time to oral tolerance and the length of the hospital stay. RESULTS: The S group included 11 male and nine female patients with a mean age of 65±12 (35-84) years, while the N group included 13 male and eight female patients with a mean age of 62±11 (46-79) years (p = 0.448, p = 0.443, respectively). Anastomotic line bleeding was observed in eight (40%) patients in the S group and in one (4.7%) patient in the N group (p = 0.006). Dehiscence of the anastomosis line was observed in two (10%) patients in the S group and none in the N group (p = 0.131). Anastomotic leakage developed in three (15%) patients in the S group and in one (4.7%) patient in the N group (p = 0.269). The mean hospital stay was 12.65±6.1 days in the S group and 9.52±2.9 days in the N group (p = 0.043). CONCLUSION: The 6-row 3-D linear cutter is a safe and easily applied instrument that can be used to create anastomoses in gastrointestinal surgery. The new stapler provides some usage benefits and is also superior to the standard linear cutter with regard to anastomotic line bleeding. PMID:23018300

  16. A Descriptive Study of the Skid Row Alcoholic in Houston, Texas. Criminal Justice Monograph, Volume II, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Tommy W.

    The purpose of this study was to establish a population profile of the skid row alcoholic in Houston, Texas and also to compare his demographic and drinking patterns with those of similar groups described in earlier studies made in other cities. Primary data sources for the study were interviews with 100 skid row alcoholics and with police and…

  17. 78 FR 25572 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton... navigable waters immediately prior to, during, and immediately after the Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta. This...

  18. Considerations for site-specific implementation of active downforce and seeding depth technologies on row-crop planters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planter technology continues to rapidly advance including row-by-row control of parameters such as applied downforce and seeding depth that permit real-time adjustment to varying field conditions. The objective of this research was to investigate the relationship of seeding depth and applied downfo...

  19. 30 CFR 285.308 - How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and RUE grants? 285.308 Section 285.308 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Renewable Energy Activities Obtaining Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.308 How will MMS conduct an auction for ROW grants and RUE grants? (a) If MMS determines that there is competitive interest, we will:...

  20. 30 CFR 285.501 - What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 285.501 Section 285.501 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... Payments § 285.501 What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE...

  1. 30 CFR 585.501 - What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.501 Section 585.501 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) For a...

  2. 30 CFR 585.501 - What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.501 Section 585.501 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) For a...

  3. 30 CFR 585.501 - What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.501 Section 585.501 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY... deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) For a...

  4. 30 CFR 285.501 - What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What deposits must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 285.501 Section 285.501 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT... must I submit for a competitively issued lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) For a competitive lease...

  5. Patterns of comb row development in young and adult stages of the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia pileus.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Sidney L

    2012-09-01

    The development of comb rows in larval and adult Mnemiopsis leidyi and adult Pleurobrachia pileus is compared to regeneration of comb plates in these ctenophores. Late gastrula embryos and recently hatched cydippid larvae of Mnemiopsis have five comb plates in subsagittal rows and six comb plates in subtentacular rows. Subsagittal rows develop a new (sixth) comb plate and both types of rows add plates at similar rates until larvae reach the transition to the lobate form at ∼5 mm size. New plate formation then accelerates in subsagittal rows that later extend on the growing oral lobes to become twice the length of subtentacular rows. Interplate ciliated grooves (ICGs) develop in an aboral-oral direction along comb rows, but ICG formation itself proceeds from oral to aboral between plates. New comb plates in Mnemiopsis larvae are added at both aboral and oral ends of rows. At aboral ends, new plates arise as during regeneration: local widening of a ciliated groove followed by formation of a short split plate that grows longer and wider and joins into a common plate. At oral ends, new plates arise as a single tuft of cilia before an ICG appears. Adult Mnemiopsis continue to make new plates at both ends of rows. The frequency of new aboral plate formation varies in the eight rows of an animal and seems unrelated to body size. In Pleurobrachia that lack ICGs, new comb plates at aboral ends arise between the first and second plates as a single small nonsplit plate, located either on the row midline or off-axis toward the subtentacular plane. As the new (now second) plate grows larger, its distance from the first and third plates increases. Size of the new second plate varies within the eight rows of the same animal, indicating asynchronous formation of plates as in Mnemiopsis. New oral plates arise as in Mnemiopsis. The different modes of comb plate formation in Mnemiopsis versus Pleurobrachia are accounted for by differences in mesogleal firmness and mechanisms of

  6. Three-dimensional multi-detector row CT portal venography in the evaluation of portosystemic collateral vessels in liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Heoung Keun; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Choi, Jun Ho; Choi, Song; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2002-01-01

    Multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) offers distinct advantages over traditional spiral CT. Multi-detector row CT scanners are faster and allow thinner collimation than single-detector row spiral CT scanners. The use of multi-detector row CT combined with postprocessing of the imaging data with a variety of three-dimensional reformatting techniques (eg, maximum intensity projection, shaded surface display, volume rendering) allows creation of vascular maps whose quality equals or exceeds that of maps created at classic angiography for many applications. Three-dimensional multi-detector row CT portal venography can help determine the extent and location of portosystemic collateral vessels (eg, left gastric vein, short gastric vein, esophageal and paraesophageal varices, splenorenal and gastrorenal shunts, paraumbilical and abdominal wall veins) in patients with liver cirrhosis and is probably the optimal imaging technique in this setting.

  7. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  8. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics.

  9. Convergent validity of a novel method for quantifying rowing training loads.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Elite rowers complete rowing-specific and non-specific training, incorporating continuous and interval-like efforts spanning the intensity spectrum. However, established training load measures are unsuitable for use in some modes and intensities. Consequently, a new measure known as the T2minute method was created. The method quantifies load as the time spent in a range of training zones (time-in-zone), multiplied by intensity- and mode-specific weighting factors that scale the relative stress of different intensities and modes to the demands of on-water rowing. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the T2minute method with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP), Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE when quantifying elite rowing training. Fourteen elite rowers (12 males, 2 females) were monitored during four weeks of routine training. Unadjusted T2minute loads (using coaches' estimates of time-in-zone) demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with Banister's TRIMP, Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE (rho: 0.58, 0.55 and 0.42, respectively). Adjusting T2minute loads by using actual time-in-zone data resulted in stronger correlations between the T2minute method and Banister's TRIMP and Lucia's TRIMP (rho: 0.85 and 0.81, respectively). The T2minute method is an appropriate in-field measure of elite rowing training loads, particularly when actual time-in-zone values are used to quantify load.

  10. A Historical Analysis of Library Access for Death Row Inmates in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrolenk, Lisa

    A historical study was conducted to determine what type of access to the prison legal library is received by prisoners now housed on death row at the Mansfield Correctional Institution (MaCI) (Mansfield, Ohio) that were formerly housed at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF) (Lucasville, Ohio). A satellite law library had been created…

  11. Accuracy and feasibility of optoelectronic sensors for weed mapping in wide row crops.

    PubMed

    Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Ángela; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of a ground-based weed mapping system that included optoelectronic sensors for weed detection, and to determine the sampling resolution required for accurate weed maps in maize crops. The optoelectronic sensors were located in the inter-row area of maize to distinguish weeds against soil background. The system was evaluated in three maize fields in the early spring. System verification was performed with highly reliable data from digital images obtained in a regular 12 m × 12 m grid throughout the three fields. The comparison in all these sample points showed a good relationship (83% agreement on average) between the data of weed presence/absence obtained from the optoelectronic mapping system and the values derived from image processing software ("ground truth"). Regarding the optimization of sampling resolution, the comparison between the detailed maps (all crop rows with sensors separated 0.75 m) with maps obtained with various simulated distances between sensors (from 1.5 m to 6.0 m) indicated that a 4.5 m distance (equivalent to one in six crop rows) would be acceptable to construct accurate weed maps. This spatial resolution makes the system cheap and robust enough to generate maps of inter-row weeds.

  12. Methodology for Obtaining a Representative Sample of Homeless Persons: The Los Angeles Skid Row Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnam, M. Audrey; Koegel, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Drawing a probability sample of homeless adults in Los Angeles' Skid Row resulted in a sampling design meeting statistical criteria. The design uses data from meal centers, bed counts, and outdoor congregations; and allows unbiased estimates of prevalence of mental disorders and assessment of service needs of the homeless. (TJH)

  13. Some Half-Row Sums from Pascal's Triangle via Laplace Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dence, Thomas P.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents some identities on the sum of the entries in the first half of a row in Pascal's triangle. The results were discovered while the author was working on a problem involving Laplace transforms, which are used in proving of the identities.

  14. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Spanwise angled injection from multiple rows of holes. [gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, D. W.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The stagnation region of a cylinder in a cross flow was used in experiments conducted with both a single row and multiple rows of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio with a freestream to wall temperature ratio approximately equal to 1.7 and R(eD) = 90,000. Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, 58.7 deg from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d(o) = 5 and 10. Three multiple row configurations were also investigated. Data are presented for a uniform blowing distribution and for a nonuniform blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply. The data for local Stanton Number reduction demonstrated a lack of lateral spreading by the coolant jets. Heat flux levels larger than those without film cooling were observed directly behind the coolant holes as the blowing ratio exceeded a particular value. The data were spanwise averaged to illustrate the influence of injection location, blowing ratio and hole spacing. The large values of blowing ratio for the blowing distribution simulating a plenum supply resulted in heat flux levels behind the holes in excess of the values without film cooling. An increase in freestream turbulence intensity from 4.4 to 9.5 percent had a negligible effect on the film cooling performance.

  15. Injury severity data for front and second row passengers in frontal crashes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Theresa; Leszek Gawarecki; Tavakoli, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a subset of crash events and occupants. The crashes provided are exclusively frontal crashes. Within these crashes, only restrained occupants who were seated in the right front seat position or the second row outboard seat positions were included. The front row and second row data sets were utilized to construct occupant pairs crashes where both a right front seat occupant and a second row occupant were available. Both unpaired and paired data sets are provided in this brief. PMID:27077084

  16. Wide row spacing for deep-furrow planting of winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A winter wheat, summer fallow rotation is practiced on 1.56 million cropland hectares in the low-precipitation (<300 mm annual) region of the Inland Pacific Northwest of the United States (PNW). Farmers use deep-furrow drills with rows spaced 40- to 45-cm apart to plant as deep as 20 cm to reach moi...

  17. All Three Rows of Outer Hair Cells Are Required for Cochlear Amplification.

    PubMed

    Murakoshi, Michio; Suzuki, Sho; Wada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian auditory system, the three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs) located in the cochlea are thought to increase the displacement amplitude of the organ of Corti. This cochlear amplification is thought to contribute to the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and sharp frequency selectivity of the hearing system. Recent studies have shown that traumatic stimuli, such as noise exposure and ototoxic acid, cause functional loss of OHCs in one, two, or all three rows. However, the degree of decrease in cochlear amplification caused by such functional losses remains unclear. In the present study, a finite element model of a cross section of the gerbil cochlea was constructed. Then, to determine effects of the functional losses of OHCs on the cochlear amplification, changes in the displacement amplitude of the basilar membrane (BM) due to the functional losses of OHCs were calculated. Results showed that the displacement amplitude of the BM decreases significantly when a single row of OHCs lost its function, suggesting that all three rows of OHCs are required for cochlear amplification. PMID:26295049

  18. The Blue Glow from the Back Row: Live Theater and the Wireless Teen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Every year the author and his colleagues take their grade 12 English students to see four plays at one of Canada's major theaters. Chatting about the series on the last day of class, his students asked him if he had seen "the blue glow from the back row." Laughing at his bewilderment, they told him that during the performances so many students…

  19. Accuracy and Feasibility of Optoelectronic Sensors for Weed Mapping in Wide Row Crops

    PubMed Central

    Andújar, Dionisio; Ribeiro, Ángela; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Dorado, José

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of a ground-based weed mapping system that included optoelectronic sensors for weed detection, and to determine the sampling resolution required for accurate weed maps in maize crops. The optoelectronic sensors were located in the inter-row area of maize to distinguish weeds against soil background. The system was evaluated in three maize fields in the early spring. System verification was performed with highly reliable data from digital images obtained in a regular 12 m × 12 m grid throughout the three fields. The comparison in all these sample points showed a good relationship (83% agreement on average) between the data of weed presence/absence obtained from the optoelectronic mapping system and the values derived from image processing software (“ground truth”). Regarding the optimization of sampling resolution, the comparison between the detailed maps (all crop rows with sensors separated 0.75 m) with maps obtained with various simulated distances between sensors (from 1.5 m to 6.0 m) indicated that a 4.5 m distance (equivalent to one in six crop rows) would be acceptable to construct accurate weed maps. This spatial resolution makes the system cheap and robust enough to generate maps of inter-row weeds. PMID:22163740

  20. Candidate perennial bioenergy grasses have a higher albedo than annual row crops in the Midwestern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of perennial cellulosic feedstocks for bioenergy presents the potential to diversify regional economies and the national energy supply, while also serving as climate ‘regulators’ due to a number of biogeochemical and biogeophysical differences relative to row crops. Numerous observati...

  1. Pathways to Death Row for America's Disabled Youth: Three Case Studies Driving Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Julie; Guin, Cecile C.; Chaisson, Rebecca; Houchins, David

    2004-01-01

    This article uses the case study method to examine the lives of three youths with disabilities living in the southern part of the United States who have followed a pathway to death row. An empirically established developmental and theoretical framework is used to examine issues related to the influence of disabilities and race on children and…

  2. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    PubMed

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics. PMID:25105858

  3. Convergent validity of a novel method for quantifying rowing training loads.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2015-01-01

    Elite rowers complete rowing-specific and non-specific training, incorporating continuous and interval-like efforts spanning the intensity spectrum. However, established training load measures are unsuitable for use in some modes and intensities. Consequently, a new measure known as the T2minute method was created. The method quantifies load as the time spent in a range of training zones (time-in-zone), multiplied by intensity- and mode-specific weighting factors that scale the relative stress of different intensities and modes to the demands of on-water rowing. The purpose of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the T2minute method with Banister's training impulse (TRIMP), Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE when quantifying elite rowing training. Fourteen elite rowers (12 males, 2 females) were monitored during four weeks of routine training. Unadjusted T2minute loads (using coaches' estimates of time-in-zone) demonstrated moderate-to-strong correlations with Banister's TRIMP, Lucia's TRIMP and Session-RPE (rho: 0.58, 0.55 and 0.42, respectively). Adjusting T2minute loads by using actual time-in-zone data resulted in stronger correlations between the T2minute method and Banister's TRIMP and Lucia's TRIMP (rho: 0.85 and 0.81, respectively). The T2minute method is an appropriate in-field measure of elite rowing training loads, particularly when actual time-in-zone values are used to quantify load. PMID:25083912

  4. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  5. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  6. Row width influences wheat yield, but has little effect on wheat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers are interested in wide-row wheat production due to reductions in equipment inventory (lack of grain drill) and to allow intercropping of soybean into wheat. A trial was established during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 growing seasons in Wayne County and Wood County, Ohio to evaluate the effec...

  7. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  8. The Aging Men of Skid Row: A Target for Research and Service Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Carl I.

    Despite the recent increase in interest about the homeless population, the last large-scale systematic studies of the older skid row man were completed more than two decades ago. A more sophisticated and comprehensive instrument for measuring the physical health, mental health, social needs, and social interaction of this aging heterogeneous…

  9. Role of missing rows in the adsorption of Te on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Noboru

    1999-08-01

    We have studied the atomic structure of up to one monolayer of Te on Si(001) using first-principles total-energy calculations. A low amount of Te atoms deposited on Si(001) is adsorbed on top of symmetric Si dimers. This configuration is preferred to adsorption on cave sites between Si dimers. For the one-monolayer coverage the most favorable structure corresponds to adsorption of Te atoms on near bridge sites. The (1×1) symmetry is broken by a small shift of Te atoms from perfect bridge positions, giving rise to a slightly disordered surface. This is a way to relieve the strain due to the size difference between Te and Si atoms. Missing Te rows is another way, and it is the one observed experimentally. We have calculated the atomic structure of the surface when one out of every five Te rows is missing. Two possibilities were examined. The most favorable corresponds to missing Te rows orthogonal to original Si rows. In all cases, our results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. Some Effects of Row, Diagonal, and Column Screen Formats on Search Time and Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emurian, Henry H.; Seborg, Brian H.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of undergraduates that examined differences in computer screen formats and their effects on search time and strategy. Row, diagonal, and column information formats are compared, as well as tightly packed and loosely packed displays, and results of regression and residual analyses are discussed. (38 references) (LRW)

  11. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  12. Cooling Characteristics of a 2-Row Radial Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Rollin, Vern G

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of cooling tests conducted on a calibrated GR-1535 Pratt and Whitney Wasp, Jr. Engine installed in a Vought X04U-2 airplane. The tests were made in the NACA full-scale tunnel at air speeds from 70 to 120 miles per hour, at engine speeds from 1,500 to 2,600 r.p.m., and at manifold pressures from 19 to 33 inches of mercury absolute. A Smith controllable propeller was used to facilitate obtaining the different combinations of engine speed, power, and manifold pressure.

  13. A Front Row Seat: A Phenomenological Investigation of Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornett-Devito, Myrna M.; Worley, David W.

    2005-01-01

    Based on prior research and theory, we propose a conceptual definition of instructional communication that is holistic, transactional, expansive, and assessable. Second, we extend instructional communication research to test this definition by engaging students with learning disabilities (SWLDs) in interviews and focus groups, employing a…

  14. Multidetector-row computed tomography in the planning of abdominal perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Masia, J; Clavero, J A; Larrañaga, J R; Alomar, X; Pons, G; Serret, P

    2006-01-01

    An accurate preoperative evaluation of the vascular anatomy of the abdominal wall is extremely valuable in improving the surgical strategy in abdominal perforator flaps. The multidetector-row computer tomography offers thin slice coverage of extended volumes with an extremely high spatial resolution. From October 2003 to December 2004, 66 female patients had breast reconstruction surgery in our department using the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. Our multidetector-row computer tomography studies were performed using a 16-detector-row computer tomography scanner. The image assessment was carried out using the following protocol: we first identified the best three perforators from each side of the abdomen. Then we conducted a three-dimensional reconstruction of the abdomen by identifying exactly where the three best perforators emerged from the rectus abdominis fascia. We then transferred the data obtained from the image to the patient using a coordinate system. In addition, we also placed the dominant perforators in the patient by using a conventional hand-held Doppler. During the operation we compared intra-operative findings, Doppler results and computer tomography outcomes. Neither false positive nor false negative results were found in the computer tomography outcome. Multidetector-row computer tomography provides us with an easy method of interpreting the virtual anatomic dissection in three dimensions. It has high sensitivity and specificity and provides a good quality evaluation of the perforator vessels. This information allows reduction of operating time and safer performance of surgery. The multidetector-row computer tomography is a highly effective tool in the preoperative study of abdominal perforator flaps. PMID:16716952

  15. Flight Investigation of the Cooling Characteristics of a Two-row Radial Engine Installation III : Engine Temperature Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennak, Robert M; Messing, Wesley E; Morgan, James E

    1946-01-01

    The temperature distribution of a two-row radial engine in a twin-engine airplane has been investigated in a series of flight tests. The test engine was operated over a wide range of conditions at density altitudes of 5000 and 20,000 feet; quantitative results are presented showing the effects of flight and engine variables upon average engine temperature and over-all temperature spread. Discussions of the effect of the variables on the shape of the temperature patterns and on the temperature distribution of individual cylinders are also included. The results indicate that, for the tests conducted, the temperature distribution patterns were chiefly determined by the fuel-air ratio and cooling-air distributions. It was possible to calculate individual cylinder temperature, on the assumption of equal power distribution among cylinders, to within an average of plus or minus 14 degrees F. of the actual temperature. A considerable change occurred in either the spread or the thrust axis, the average engine fuel-air ratio, the engine speed, the power, or the blower ratio. Smaller effects on the temperature pattern were noticed with a change in cowl-flap opening and altitude. In most of the tests, a change in conditions affected the temperature of the barrels less than that of the heads. The variation of flight and engine variables had a negligible effect on the temperature distributions of the individual cylinders. (author)

  16. Effects of Supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on Blood Fatigue Factors and Cytokines in Juvenile Athletes Submitted to Maximal Intensity Rowing Performance.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ga Hee; Woo, Jinhee; Kang, Sungwhun; Shin, Ki Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction. PMID:25202189

  17. 30 CFR 585.300 - What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... grants and RUE grants issued under this part? 585.300 Section 585.300 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.300 What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part? (a) An ROW grant authorizes the holder to install...

  18. 30 CFR 285.502 - What initial payment requirements must I meet to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 285.502 Section 285.502 Mineral Resources... noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? When requesting a noncompetitive lease, you must meet the initial... instrument. No initial payment is required when requesting noncompetitive ROW grants and RUE grants. (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 585.502 - What initial payment requirements must I meet to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.502 Section 585.502 Mineral Resources..., ROW grant, or RUE grant? When requesting a noncompetitive lease, you must meet the initial payment... payment is required when requesting noncompetitive ROW grants and RUE grants. (a) If you request...

  20. 30 CFR 585.520 - What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.520 Section 585.520 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... Assurance for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 585.520 What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) Before BOEM will issue your limited...

  1. 30 CFR 585.502 - What initial payment requirements must I meet to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.502 Section 585.502 Mineral Resources..., ROW grant, or RUE grant? When requesting a noncompetitive lease, you must meet the initial payment... payment is required when requesting noncompetitive ROW grants and RUE grants. (a) If you request...

  2. 30 CFR 285.520 - What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 285.520 Section 285.520 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... Assurance Requirements Financial Assurance for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.520 What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) Before...

  3. 30 CFR 585.300 - What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... grants and RUE grants issued under this part? 585.300 Section 585.300 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.300 What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part? (a) An ROW grant authorizes the holder to install...

  4. 30 CFR 285.300 - What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... grants and RUE grants issued under this part? 285.300 Section 285.300 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.300 What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part? (a) An ROW grant authorizes the holder to install...

  5. 30 CFR 285.520 - What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 285.520 Section 285.520 Mineral Resources MINERALS... for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.520 What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) Before MMS will issue your limited...

  6. 30 CFR 585.520 - What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.520 Section 585.520 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... Assurance for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 585.520 What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) Before BOEM will issue your limited...

  7. 30 CFR 585.300 - What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... grants and RUE grants issued under this part? 585.300 Section 585.300 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 585.300 What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part? (a) An ROW grant authorizes the holder to install...

  8. 30 CFR 585.520 - What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.520 Section 585.520 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... Assurance for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 585.520 What financial assurance must I provide when I obtain my limited lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? (a) Before BOEM will issue your limited...

  9. 30 CFR 585.502 - What initial payment requirements must I meet to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to obtain a noncompetitive lease, ROW grant, or RUE grant? 585.502 Section 585.502 Mineral Resources..., ROW grant, or RUE grant? When requesting a noncompetitive lease, you must meet the initial payment... payment is required when requesting noncompetitive ROW grants and RUE grants. (a) If you request...

  10. 30 CFR 285.300 - What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... grants and RUE grants issued under this part? 285.300 Section 285.300 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN... and Easement Grants for Renewable Energy Activities Row Grants and Rue Grants § 285.300 What types of activities are authorized by ROW grants and RUE grants issued under this part? (a) An ROW grant...

  11. Short communication: Feed bunk utilization in dairy cows housed in pens with either two or three rows of free stalls.

    PubMed

    Mentink, R L; Cook, N B

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this observational study was to determine whether there were significant differences in feed bunk utilization patterns of dairy cows in free-stall pens with either 2 or 3 rows of stalls. Previously recorded 24-h videos of the high-yielding, mature cow group in 5 herds with 2-row pen designs and 5 herds with 3-row pen designs that were provided fresh TMR once a day after the morning milking were scan-sampled at 10-min intervals to record feed bunk utilization score (proportion of feed bunk spaces in the pen that were filled). Data were aligned according to peak feed bunk utilization score following fresh feed delivery (primary peaks), return from the afternoon milking (secondary peaks), and return from the night milking (tertiary peaks). Bunk utilization score was highest for primary peaks; scores were not significantly different between 2- and 3-row pens (0.65 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.1, respectively), and rates of decline in bunk utilization score were similar over the ensuing 90-min period between pen designs. Differences in bunk utilization between peak type and pen row type were observed; tertiary bunk utilization with 2-row pens was significantly lower than bunk utilization with 3-row pens and significantly lower than either primary or secondary bunk utilization in 2-row pens. The feed space allowance provided by a 2-row pen design potentially allows cows to demonstrate other important feeding behaviors, such as avoidance of conflicts and maintenance of greater inter-cow distances between neighbors while feeding.

  12. SU-E-T-458: Determining Threshold-Of-Failure for Dead Pixel Rows in EPID-Based Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gersh, J; Wiant, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A pixel correction map is applied to all EPID-based applications on the TrueBeam (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). When dead pixels are detected, an interpolative smoothing algorithm is applied using neighboring-pixel information to supplement missing-pixel information. The vendor suggests that when the number of dead pixels exceeds 70,000, the panel should be replaced. It is common for entire detector rows to be dead, as well as their neighboring rows. Approximately 70 rows can be dead before the panel reaches this threshold. This study determines the number of neighboring dead-pixel rows that would create a large enough deviation in measured fluence to cause failures in portal dosimetry (PD). Methods: Four clinical two-arc VMAT plans were generated using Eclipse's AXB algorithm and PD plans were created using the PDIP algorithm. These plans were chosen to represent those commonly encountered in the clinic: prostate, lung, abdomen, and neck treatments. During each iteration of this study, an increasing number of dead-pixel rows are artificially applied to the correction map and a fluence QA is performed using the EPID (corrected with this map). To provide a worst-case-scenario, the dead-pixel rows are chosen so that they present artifacts in the highfluence region of the field. Results: For all eight arc-fields deemed acceptable via a 3%/3mm gamma analysis (pass rate greater than 99%), VMAT QA yielded identical results with a 5 pixel-width dead zone. When 10 dead lines were present, half of the fields had pass rates below the 99% pass rate. With increasing dead rows, the pass rates were reduced substantially. Conclusion: While the vendor still suggests to request service at the point where 70,000 dead rows are measured (as recommended by the vendor), the authors suggest that service should be requested when there are greater than 5 consecutive dead rows.

  13. Airborne observed solar elevation and row direction effects on the near-IR/red ratio of cotton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Jackson, R. D.; Goettelman, R. C.; Leroy, M. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to obtain data over two adjacent cotton fields having rows perpendicular to one another, at three times of day (different solar elevations), and on two dates (different plant size). The near IR/red ratios were displayed in image form, so that within-field variations and differences between fields could be easily assessed. The ratio varied with changing Sun elevation for north-south oriented rows, but no variation was detected for east-west oriented rows.

  14. Nozzle Fuzzy Controller of Agricultural Spraying Robot Aiming Toward Crop Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jianqiang

    A novel nozzle controller of spraying robot aiming toward crop-rows based on fuzzy control theory was studied in this paper to solve the shortcomings of existing nozzle control system, such as the long regulation time, the higher overshoot and so on. The new fuzzy controller mainly consists of fuzzification interface, defuzzification interface, rule-base and inference mechanism. Considering the actual application, the fuzzy controller was designed as a 2-inputs&1-output closed-loop system. The inputs are the distance from nozzle to crop row and its change rate, the output is the control signal to the execution unit. Based on the design project, we selected the FMC chip NLX230, the EMCU chip AT89S52 and the EEPROM chip AT93C57 to make the fuzzy controller. Experimental results show that the project is workable and efficient, it can solve the shortcomings of existing controller perfectly and the control efficiency can be improved greatly.

  15. Spreadsheet Calculation of Jets in Crossflow: Opposed Rows of Slots Slanted at 45 Degrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holderman, James D.; Clisset, James R.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend a baseline empirical model to the case of jets entering the mainstream flow from opposed rows of 45 degrees slanted slots. The results in this report were obtained using a spreadsheet modified from the one posted with NASA/TM--2010-216100. The primary conclusion in this report is that the best mixing configuration for opposed rows of 45 degrees slanted slots at any down stream distance is a parallel staggered configuration where the slots are angled in the same direction on top and bottom walls and one side is shifted by half the orifice spacing. Although distributions from perpendicular slanted slots are similar to those from parallel staggered configurations at some downstream locations, results for perpendicular slots are highly dependent on downstream distance and are no better than parallel staggered slots at locations where they are similar and are worse than parallel ones at other distances.

  16. Airborne ROWS data report for the high resolution experiment, June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.; Bailey, S.; Stewart, K.

    1994-01-01

    Airborne radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS) data collected during the Office of Naval Research's High Resolution Remote Sensing Experiment of June 1993 are presented. This data summary covers six flights made using NASA's T-39 aircraft over a region of the North Atlantic off the coast of North Carolina and includes multiple crossings of the gulf stream. The Ku-band ROWS was operated in a configuration which continuously switched between an altimeter and a spectrometer channel. Data derived from the two channels include altimeter radar cross section, altimeter-derived sea surface mean square slope and wind speed, and directional and nondirectional longwave spectra. Discussion is provided for several events of particular interest.

  17. A spectroscopic case for SPSi detection: The third-row in a single molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finney, Brian; Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Francisco, Joseph S.; Peterson, Kirk A.

    2016-09-01

    In moving beyond the second row of the periodic table for molecules of astronomical and atmospheric significance, the exploration of sulfur and phosphorus chemistry is essential. Additionally, silicon is abundant in most astrophysical environments and is a major component of most rocky bodies. The triatomic molecule composed of each of these atoms is therefore a tantalizing candidate for spectroscopic characterization for astrophysical reasons as well as gaining further understanding into the chemical physics of molecules that are not carbon-based. The current work employs high-level quantum chemical techniques to provide new insights into this simplest of heterogeneous third-row atom systems. The fundamental vibrational frequencies are all within the 350-600 cm-1 range and do not demonstrate strong anharmonicities. These frequencies, rotational constants, vibrationally excited state spectroscopic data, and related isotopic substitution information produced will aid in laboratory experimentation and, even potentially, telescopic observation since modern instruments possess the power to resolve extremely fine details.

  18. A low complexity reweighted proportionate affine projection algorithm with memory and row action projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianming; Grant, Steven L.; Benesty, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    A new reweighted proportionate affine projection algorithm (RPAPA) with memory and row action projection (MRAP) is proposed in this paper. The reweighted PAPA is derived from a family of sparseness measures, which demonstrate performance similar to mu-law and the l 0 norm PAPA but with lower computational complexity. The sparseness of the channel is taken into account to improve the performance for dispersive system identification. Meanwhile, the memory of the filter's coefficients is combined with row action projections (RAP) to significantly reduce computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RPAPA MRAP algorithm outperforms both the affine projection algorithm (APA) and PAPA, and has performance similar to l 0 PAPA and mu-law PAPA, in terms of convergence speed and tracking ability. Meanwhile, the proposed RPAPA MRAP has much lower computational complexity than PAPA, mu-law PAPA, and l 0 PAPA, etc., which makes it very appealing for real-time implementation.

  19. An 8×8 Row-Column Summing Readout Electronics for Preclinical Positron Emission Tomography Scanners.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Sun, F W; Macdonald, L R; Otis, B P; Miyaoka, R S; McDougald, W; Lewellen, T K

    2009-10-24

    This work presents a row/column summing readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier array. The summation circuit greatly reduces the number of electronic channels, which is desirable for pursuing higher resolution positron emission tomography scanners. By using a degenerated common source topology in the summation circuit, more fan-in is possible and therefore a greater reduction in the number of electronic channels can be achieved. The timing signal is retrieved from a common anode, which allows the use of a single fast-sampling analog to digital converter (ADC) for the timing channel and slower, lower power ADCs for the 64 spatial channels. Preliminary results of one row summation of the 8×8 readout electronics exhibited FWHM energy resolution of 17.8% and 18.3% with and without multiplexing, respectively. The measured timing resolution is 2.9ns FWHM.

  20. Functional outcomes of proximal row carpectomy: 2-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mandarano-Filho, Luiz Garcia; Campioto, Débora Schalge; Bezuti, Márcio Takey; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate functional outcomes of patients submit-ted to proximal row carpectomy for the treatment of wrist arthri-tis METHODS : This is a retrospective study using wrist motion and grip strenght of patients diagnosed with Kienböck disease and scaphoid non-union surgically treated by this technique RESULTS : Eleven patients with 2-year follow-up were evaluated. Wrist motion (flexion, extension and ulnar deviation) and grip strength were significantly better from preoperative values. Ho-wever, no difference in radial deviation was observed in these patients CONCLUSION : Proximal row carpectomy provides an alternative option for treatment of wrist arthritis, resulting in better active range of motion and grip strength in the long run. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:27057144