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Sample records for rpe cell migration

  1. Characterizing motility dynamics in human RPE cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuolin; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Furu; Miller, Donald T.

    2017-02-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are vital to health of the outer retina, however, are often compromised in ageing and ocular diseases that lead to blindness. Early manifestation of RPE disruption occurs at the cellular level, but while in vivo biomarkers at this scale hold considerable promise, RPE cells have proven extremely challenging to image in the living human eye. Recently we addressed this problem by using organelle motility as a novel contrast agent to enhance the RPE cell in conjunction with 3D resolution of adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) to section the RPE layer. In this study, we expand on the central novelty of our method - organelle motility - by characterizing the dynamics of the motility in individual RPE cells, important because of its direct link to RPE physiology. To do this, AO-OCT videos of the same retinal patch were acquired at approximately 1 min intervals or less, time stamped, and registered in 3D with sub-cellular accuracy. Motility was quantified by an exponential decay time constant, the time for motility to decorrelate the speckle field across an RPE cell. In two normal subjects, we found the decay time constant to be just 3 seconds, thus indicating rapid motility in normal RPE cells.

  2. Defective phagosome motility and degradation in cell nonautonomous RPE pathogenesis of a dominant macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Hazim, Roni A; Diemer, Tanja; Paniagua, Antonio E; Volland, Stefanie; Umapathy, Ankita; Williams, David S

    2018-05-22

    Stargardt macular dystrophy 3 (STGD3) is caused by dominant mutations in the ELOVL4 gene. Like other macular degenerations, pathogenesis within the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to contribute to the loss of photoreceptors from the central retina. However, the RPE does not express ELOVL4 , suggesting photoreceptor cell loss in STGD3 occurs through two cell nonautonomous events: mutant photoreceptors first affect RPE cell pathogenesis, and then, second, RPE dysfunction leads to photoreceptor cell death. Here, we have investigated how the RPE pathology occurs, using a STGD3 mouse model in which mutant human ELOVL4 is expressed in the photoreceptors. We found that the mutant protein was aberrantly localized to the photoreceptor outer segment (POS), and that resulting POS phagosomes were degraded more slowly in the RPE. In cell culture, the mutant POSs are ingested by primary RPE cells normally, but the phagosomes are processed inefficiently, even by wild-type RPE. The mutant phagosomes excessively sequester RAB7A and dynein, and have impaired motility. We propose that the abnormal presence of ELOVL4 protein in POSs results in phagosomes that are defective in recruiting appropriate motor protein linkers, thus contributing to slower degradation because their altered motility results in slower basal migration and fewer productive encounters with endolysosomes. In the transgenic mouse retinas, the RPE accumulated abnormal-looking phagosomes and oxidative stress adducts; these pathological changes were followed by pathology in the neural retina. Our results indicate inefficient phagosome degradation as a key component of the first cell nonautonomous event underlying retinal degeneration due to mutant ELOVL4.

  3. Studying melanin and lipofuscin in RPE cell culture models

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium contains three major types of pigment granules; melanosomes, lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin. Melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are formed during embryogenesis and mature during early postnatal life while lipofuscin and melanolipofuscin granules accumulate as a function of age. The difficulty in studying the formation and consequences of melanosomes and lipofuscin granules in RPE cell culture is compounded by the fact that these pigment granules do not normally occur in established RPE cell lines and pigment granules are rapidly lost in adult human primary culture. This review will consider options available for overcoming these limitations and permitting the study of melanosomes and lipofuscin in cell culture and will briefly evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the different protocols. PMID:25152361

  4. Intracellular pathways following uptake of bevacizumab in RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Aboul Naga, Shereen Hassan; Dithmer, Michaela; Chitadze, Guranda; Kabelitz, Dieter; Lucius, Ralph; Roider, Johann; Klettner, Alexa

    2015-02-01

    The anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab is widely used off-label for the treatment of various ocular diseases, most commonly in age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. Bevacizumab is able to penetrate the retina and is found in the choroid after intravitreal injection in a time dependent manner. It has previously been shown to be taken up by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In this study, we have investigated the intracellular pathway following uptake of bevacizumab in RPE cells, tested both in primary porcine RPE cells and in the human cell line ARPE19. Bevacizumab displays a characteristic, time-dependent pattern of intracellular distribution, as detected by immunofluorescence and pulse chase experiments. In both primary cells and the cell line, intracellular bevacizumab can be found after seven days, as detected by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Immediately after application, bevacizumab partially colocalizes with Rab5, indicating some uptake in early endosomes. Intracellularly, bevacizumab is detected in the cytoskeletal fraction, aligning with actin filaments, as revealed by subcellular fractioning and immunofluorescence. Bevacizumab seems to travel along actin filaments by myosin7a, as determined by triple staining immunofluorescence. Interestingly, over a period of seven days, bevacizumab seems to accumulate in certain storage areas, as observed by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, results obtained with immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and flow cytometry indicate that bevacizumab may be released from the RPE cells via exosomes. In conclusion, bevacizumab is taken up by and transported in the retinal pigment epithelial cells in a characteristic, time-dependent manner, where it seems to move along actin filaments by myosin7a and seem to be partially released from the cells via exosomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel method for the rapid isolation of RPE cells specifically for RNA extraction and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cynthia Xin-Zhao; Zhang, Kaiyan; Aredo, Bogale; Lu, Hua; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael L.

    2012-01-01

    RPE cells are involved in the pathogenesis of many retinal diseases. Accurate analysis of RPE gene expression profiles in different scenarios will increase our understanding of disease mechanisms. Our objective in this study was to develop an improved method for the isolation of RPE cells, specifically for RNA analysis. Mouse RPE cells were isolated using different techniques, including mechanical dissociation techniques and a new technique we refer to here as “Simultaneous RPE cell Isolation and RNA Stabilization” (SRIRS method). RNA was extracted from the RPE cells. An RNA bioanalyzer was used to determine the quantity and quality of RNA. qPCR was used to determine contamination with non-RPE-derived RNA. Several parameters with a potential impact on the isolation protocol were studied and optimized. A marked improvement in the quantity and quality of RPE-derived RNA was obtained with the SRIRS technique. We could get the RPE in direct contact with the RNA protecting agent within 1 minute of enucleation, and the RPE isolated within 11 minutes of enucleation. There was no significant contamination with vascular, choroidal or scleral-derived RNA. We have developed a fast, easy and reliable method for the isolation of RPE cells that leads to a high yield of RPE-derived RNA while preserving its quality. We believe this technique will be useful for future studies looking at gene expression profiles of RPE cells and their role in the pathophysiology of retinal diseases. PMID:22721721

  6. Differentiation of RPE cells from integration-free iPS cells and their cell biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Hazim, Roni A; Karumbayaram, Saravanan; Jiang, Mei; Dimashkie, Anupama; Lopes, Vanda S; Li, Douran; Burgess, Barry L; Vijayaraj, Preethi; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Zack, Jerome A; Kohn, Donald B; Gomperts, Brigitte N; Pyle, April D; Lowry, William E; Williams, David S

    2017-10-02

    Dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is implicated in numerous forms of retinal degeneration. The readily accessible environment of the eye makes it particularly suitable for the transplantation of RPE cells, which can now be derived from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), to treat retinal degeneration. For RPE transplantation to become feasible in the clinic, patient-specific somatic cells should be reprogrammed to iPSCs without the introduction of reprogramming genes into the genome of the host cell, and then subsequently differentiated into RPE cells that are well characterized for safety and functionality prior to transplantation. We have reprogrammed human dermal fibroblasts to iPSCs using nonintegrating RNA, and differentiated the iPSCs toward an RPE fate (iPSC-RPE), under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compatible conditions. Using highly sensitive assays for cell polarity, structure, organelle trafficking, and function, we found that iPSC-RPE cells in culture exhibited key characteristics of native RPE. Importantly, we demonstrate for the first time with any stem cell-derived RPE cell that live cells are able to support dynamic organelle transport. This highly sensitive test is critical for RPE cells intended for transplantation, since defects in intracellular motility have been shown to promote RPE pathogenesis akin to that found in macular degeneration. To test their capabilities for in-vivo transplantation, we injected the iPSC-RPE cells into the subretinal space of a mouse model of retinal degeneration, and demonstrated that the transplanted cells are capable of rescuing lost RPE function. This report documents the successful generation, under GMP-compatible conditions, of human iPSC-RPE cells that possess specific characteristics of healthy RPE. The report adds to a growing literature on the utility of human iPSC-RPE cells for cell culture investigations on pathogenicity and for therapeutic transplantation, by

  7. Comparative study of cathepsins D and S in rat IPE and RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Eriko; Tomita, Hiroshi; Abe, Toshiaki; Yamashita, Asahi; Tamai, Makoto

    2003-08-01

    To investigate differences between activities related to phagocytosis in iris pigment epithelial (IPE) and retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, an aspartic protease, cathepsin D (cat D), and a cysteine protease, cathepsin S (cat S), of IPE and RPE were studied. IPE and RPE cells were isolated from Long Evans rat eyes. The origin of the isolated cells was determined by pigmentation and cytokeratin labelling. The mRNA expressions of cat D and cat S in cultured IPE or RPE cells were investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme activities of cat D and cat S in IPE or RPE cells were measured by using specific fluorogenic substrates, MOCAc-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ile-Leu-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys-(Dnp)D-Arg-NH2 and Z-Val-Val-Arg-MCA, respectively. Western blot analysis of both proteins was also performed. The cultured cells, both of IPE and RPE cells were pigmented and showed positive labelling with an anti-cytokeratin monoclonal antibody. The cat D activity in RPE cells was 37 times that in IPE cells. The cat S activity in RPE cells was four times that in IPE cells. On the other hand, mRNA expression levels of cat D in RPE cells were at the same level with IPE cells, cat S mRNA expression in RPE cells were 10 times that in IPE cells. These results were also correlated with the Western blot analysis. In this study, we measured the characteristic expressions of cat D and S in IPE and RPE cells for the first time to compare their lysosomal activities. IPE cells have the lysosomal activities like RPE cells, however, the function of lysosomal activity in IPE cells is beneath RPE's. These results indicated that the ability of ROS digestion in IPE cells was not same as RPE cells.

  8. UV-A induced oxidative stress is more prominent in naturally pigmented aged human RPE cells compared to non-pigmented human RPE cells independent of zinc treatment.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, Antje; Kokkinou, Despina; Julien, Sylvie; Heiduschka, Peter; Berneburg, Mark; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Schraermeyer, Ulrich

    2008-02-27

    To investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on human amelanotic (ARPE-19) and native pigmented retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPE) under normal light conditions and after ultraviolet A light exposure. hRPE cells, containing both melanin and lipofuscin granules, were prepared from human donor eyes of 60-70 year old patients. Cells of the amelanotic ARPE-19 cell line and pigmented hRPE cells were treated with zinc chloride and subjected to oxidative stress by UV-A irradiation. Intracellular H(2)O(2) formation was measured using a fluorescence oxidation assay. Additionally, apoptosis and viability assays were performed. Control cells were treated identically except for irradiation and zinc supplementation. Under normal light conditions, zinc treated hRPE cells produced less H(2)O(2) than unsupplemented hRPE cells. Viability and apoptosis events did not change. After UV-A irradiation, ARPE and hRPE cells were greatly impaired in all tests performed compared to the non-irradiated controls. No differences were found after zinc supplementation. hRPE cells showed a higher apoptosis and mortality rate than non-pigmented cells when stressed by UV-A light. ARPE cells never showed any zinc related effects. In contrast, without irradiation, zinc supplementation reduced H(2)O(2) production in pigmented hRPE cells slightly. We did not find any zinc effect in irradiated hRPE cells. After UV light exposure, pigmented cells showed a higher apoptosis and mortality than cells lacking any pigmentation. We conclude that cells with pigmentation consisting of melanin and lipofuscin granules have more prooxidative than antioxidative capacity when stressed by UV light exposure compared to cells lacking any pigmentation.

  9. Human RPE Stem Cells Grown into Polarized RPE Monolayers on a Polyester Matrix Are Maintained after Grafting into Rabbit Subretinal Space

    PubMed Central

    Stanzel, Boris V.; Liu, Zengping; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Wongsawad, Warapat; Brinken, Ralf; Eter, Nicole; Corneo, Barbara; Holz, Frank G.; Temple, Sally; Stern, Jeffrey H.; Blenkinsop, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Transplantation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is being developed as a cell-replacement therapy for age-related macular degeneration. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived RPE are currently translating toward clinic. We introduce the adult human RPE stem cell (hRPESC) as an alternative RPE source. Polarized monolayers of adult hRPESC-derived RPE grown on polyester (PET) membranes had near-native characteristics. Trephined pieces of RPE monolayers on PET were transplanted subretinally in the rabbit, a large-eyed animal model. After 4 days, retinal edema was observed above the implant, detected by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundoscopy. At 1 week, retinal atrophy overlying the fetal or adult transplant was observed, remaining stable thereafter. Histology obtained 4 weeks after implantation confirmed a continuous polarized human RPE monolayer on PET. Taken together, the xeno-RPE survived with retained characteristics in the subretinal space. These experiments support that adult hRPESC-derived RPE are a potential source for transplantation therapies. PMID:24511471

  10. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  11. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  12. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Davari, Maliheh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. Methods RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2–7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid–binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Results Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum–treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. Conclusions This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases. PMID:24265548

  13. Galectin-3 Induces Clustering of CD147 and Integrin-β1 Transmembrane Glycoprotein Receptors on the RPE Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Priglinger, Claudia S.; Szober, Christoph M.; Priglinger, Siegfried G.; Merl, Juliane; Euler, Kerstin N.; Kernt, Marcus; Gondi, Gabor; Behler, Jennifer; Geerlof, Arie; Kampik, Anselm; Ueffing, Marius; Hauck, Stefanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disease frequently occurring after retinal detachment surgery. Adhesion, migration and matrix remodeling of dedifferentiated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells characterize the onset of the disease. Treatment options are still restrained and identification of factors responsible for the abnormal behavior of the RPE cells will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics. Galectin-3, a carbohydrate-binding protein, was previously found to inhibit attachment and spreading of retinal pigment epithelial cells, and thus bares the potential to counteract PVR-associated cellular events. However, the identities of the corresponding cell surface glycoprotein receptor proteins on RPE cells are not known. Here we characterize RPE-specific Gal-3 containing glycoprotein complexes using a proteomic approach. Integrin-β1, integrin-α3 and CD147/EMMPRIN, a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in regulating matrix metalloproteinase induction, were identified as potential Gal-3 interactors on RPE cell surfaces. In reciprocal immunoprecipitation experiments we confirmed that Gal-3 associated with CD147 and integrin-β1, but not with integrin-α3. Additionally, association of Gal-3 with CD147 and integrin-β1 was observed in co-localization analyses, while integrin-α3 only partially co-localized with Gal-3. Blocking of CD147 and integrin-β1 on RPE cell surfaces inhibited binding of Gal-3, whereas blocking of integrin-α3 failed to do so, suggesting that integrin-α3 is rather an indirect interactor. Importantly, Gal-3 binding promoted pronounced clustering and co-localization of CD147 and integrin-β1, with only partial association of integrin-α3. Finally, we show that RPE derived CD147 and integrin-β1, but not integrin-α3, carry predominantly β-1,6-N-actyl-D-glucosamine-branched glycans, which are high-affinity ligands for Gal-3. We conclude from these data that extracellular Gal-3 triggers clustering of CD147 and

  14. TNF-α Decreases VEGF Secretion in Highly Polarized RPE Cells but Increases It in Non-Polarized RPE Cells Related to Crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Hiroto; Kase, Satoru; Shirasawa, Makoto; Otsuka, Hiroki; Hisatomi, Toshio; Sonoda, Shozo; Ishida, Susumu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sakamoto, Taiji

    2013-01-01

    Asymmetrical secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of the retina and choroid. VEGF is also involved in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We studied the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) on the secretion of VEGF in polarized and non-polarized RPE cells (P-RPE cells and N-RPE cells, respectively) in culture and in situ in rats. A subretinal injection of TNF-α caused a decrease in VEGF expression and choroidal atrophy. Porcine RPE cells were seeded on Transwell™ filters, and their maturation and polarization were confirmed by the asymmetrical VEGF secretion and trans electrical resistance. Exposure to TNF-α decreased the VEGF secretion in P-RPE cells but increased it in N-RPE cells in culture. TNF-α inactivated JNK in P-RPE cells but activated it in N-RPE cells, and TNF-α activated NF-κB in P-RPE cells but not in N-RPE cells. Inhibition of NF-κB activated JNK in both types of RPE cells indicating crosstalk between JNK and NF-κB. TNF-α induced the inhibitory effects of NF-κB on JNK in P-RPE cells because NF-κB is continuously inactivated. In N-RPE cells, however, it was not evident because NF-κB was already activated. The basic activation pattern of JNK and NF-κB and their crosstalk led to opposing responses of RPE cells to TNF-α. These results suggest that VEGF secretion under inflammatory conditions depends on cellular polarization, and the TNF-α-induced VEGF down-regulation may result in choroidal atrophy in polarized physiological RPE cells. TNF-α-induced VEGF up-regulation may cause neovascularization by non-polarized or non-physiological RPE cells. PMID:23922887

  15. Polyamine-dependent migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Dianna A; Fields, Carolyn; Fallon, Amy; Fitzgerald, Malinda E C; Viar, Mary Jane; Johnson, Leonard R

    2002-04-01

    Migration of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can be triggered by disruption of the RPE monolayer or injury to the neural retina. Migrating cells may re-establish a confluent monolayer, or they may invade the neural retina and disrupt visual function. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of endogenous polyamines in mechanisms of RPE migration. Endogenous polyamine levels were determined in an immortalized RPE cell line, D407, using HPLC. Activities of the two rate-limiting enzymes for polyamine synthesis, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMdc), were measured by liberation of ((14)CO(2))(.) Migration was assessed in confluent cultures by determining the number of cells migrating into a mechanically denuded area. All measurements were obtained both in control cultures and in cultures treated with synthesis inhibitors that deplete endogenous polyamines. Subcellular localization of endogenous polyamines was determined using a polyamine antibody. The polyamines, spermidine and spermine, as well as their precursor, putrescine, were normal constituents of RPE cells. The two rate-limiting synthetic enzymes were also present, and their activities were stimulated dramatically by addition of serum to the culture medium. Cell migration was similarly stimulated by serum exposure. When endogenous polyamines were depleted, migration was blocked. When polyamines were replenished through uptake, migration was restored. Polyamine immunoreactivity was limited to membrane patches in quiescent cells. In actively migrating and dividing cells, immunoreactivity was enhanced throughout the cytoplasm. Polyamines are essential for RPE migration. Pharmacologic manipulation of the polyamine pathway could provide a therapeutic strategy for regulating anomalous migration.

  16. Regulated efflux of photoreceptor outer segment-derived cholesterol by human RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Storti, Federica; Raphael, Gabriele; Griesser, Vera; Klee, Katrin; Drawnel, Faye; Willburger, Carolin; Scholz, Rebecca; Langmann, Thomas; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Fingerle, Jürgen; Grimm, Christian; Maugeais, Cyrille

    2017-12-01

    Genetic studies have linked age-related macular degeneration (AMD) to genes involved in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) handles large amounts of lipids, among others cholesterol, partially derived from internalized photoreceptor outer segments (OS) and lipids physiologically accumulate in the aging eye. To analyze the potential function of ABCA1 in the eye, we measured cholesterol efflux, the first step of HDL generation, in RPE cells. We show the expression of selected genes related to HDL metabolism in mouse and human eyecups as well as in ARPE-19 and human primary RPE cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed localization of ABCA1 on both sides of polarized RPE cells. This was functionally confirmed by directional efflux to apolipoprotein AI (ApoA-I) of 3 H-labeled cholesterol given to the cells via serum or via OS. ABCA1 expression and activity was modulated using a liver-X-receptor (LXR) agonist and an ABCA1 neutralizing antibody, demonstrating that the efflux was ABCA1-dependent. We concluded that the ABCA1-mediated lipid efflux pathway, and hence HDL biosynthesis, is functional in RPE cells towards both the basal (choroidal) and apical (subretinal) space. Impaired activity of the pathway might cause age-related perturbations of lipid homeostasis in the outer retina and thus may contribute to disease development and/or progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells cultured on amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Khalooghi, Keynoush; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Kanavi, Mojgan Rezaie; Samiei, Shahram; Pakravesh, Jalil

    2011-06-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays a key role in the maintenance of the normal functions of the retina. Tissue engineering using amniotic membrane as a substrate to culture RPE cells may provide a promising new strategy to replace damaged RPE. We established a method of culturing RPE cells over the amniotic membrane as a support for their growth and transplantation. The transcription of specific genes involved in cellular function of native RPE, including RPE65, CRALBP, VEGF, CD68, and tyrosinase, were then measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Data showed a considerable increase in transcription of RPE65, CD68, and VEGF in RPE cells cultured on amniotic membrane. The amounts of CRALBP and tyrosinase transcripts were not affected. This may simply indicate that amniotic membrane restricted dedifferentiation of RPE cells in culture. The results suggest that amniotic membrane may be considered as an elective biological substrate for RPE cell culture.

  18. Accumulation of cholesterol and increased demand for zinc in serum-deprived RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Sanghamitra; Peterson, Katherine; Yin, Lili; Berger, Alan; Fan, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Having observed that confluent ARPE-19 cells (derived from human RPE) survive well in high-glucose serum-free medium (SFM) without further feeding for several days, we investigated the expression profile of RPE cells under the same conditions. Methods Expression profiles were examined with microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses, followed by western blot analysis of key regulated proteins. The effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and zinc supplementation were examined with qPCR. Immunofluorescence was used to localize the LDL receptor and to examine LDL uptake. Cellular cholesterol levels were measured with filipin binding. Expression patterns in primary fetal RPE cells were compared using qPCR. Results Microarray analyses of gene expression in ARPE-19, confirmed with qPCR, showed upregulation of lipid and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways in SFM. At the protein level, the cholesterol synthesis control factor SRBEF2 was activated, and other key lipid synthesis proteins increased. Supplementation of SFM with LDL reversed the upregulation of lipid and cholesterol synthesis genes, but not of cholesterol transport genes. The LDL receptor relocated to the plasma membrane, and LDL uptake was activated by day 5–7 in SFM, suggesting increased demand for cholesterol. Confluent ARPE-19 cells in SFM accumulated intracellular cholesterol, compared with cells supplemented with serum, over 7 days. Over the same time course in SFM, the expression of metallothioneins decreased while the major zinc transporter was upregulated, consistent with a parallel increase in demand for zinc. Supplementation with zinc reversed expression changes for metallothionein genes, but not for other zinc-related genes. Similar patterns of regulation were also seen in primary fetal human RPE cells in SFM. Conclusions ARPE-19 cells respond to serum deprivation and starvation with upregulation of the lipid and cholesterol pathways, accumulation of intracellular cholesterol, and

  19. Long-Term Efficacy of GMP Grade Xeno-Free hESC-Derived RPE Cells Following Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    McGill, Trevor J.; Bohana-Kashtan, Osnat; Stoddard, Jonathan W.; Andrews, Michael D.; Pandit, Neelay; Rosenberg-Belmaker, Lior R.; Wiser, Ofer; Matzrafi, Limor; Banin, Eyal; Reubinoff, Benjamin; Netzer, Nir; Irving, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction underlies the retinal degenerative process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and thus RPE cell replacement provides an optimal treatment target. We characterized longitudinally the efficacy of RPE cells derived under xeno-free conditions from clinical and xeno-free grade human embryonic stem cells (OpRegen) following transplantation into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats. Methods Postnatal (P) day 20 to 25 RCS rats (n = 242) received a single subretinal injection of 25,000 (low)-, 100,000 (mid)-, or 200,000 (high)-dose xeno-free RPE cells. BSS+ (balanced salt solution) (vehicle) and unoperated eyes served as controls. Optomotor tracking (OKT) behavior was used to quantify functional efficacy. Histology and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate photoreceptor rescue and transplanted cell survival at 60, 100, 150, and 200 days of age. Results OKT was rescued in a dose-dependent manner. Outer nuclear layer (ONL) was significantly thicker in cell-treated eyes than controls up to P150. Transplanted RPE cells were identified in both the subretinal space and integrated into the host RPE monolayer in animals of all age groups, and often contained internalized photoreceptor outer segments. No pathology was observed. Conclusions OpRegen RPE cells survived, rescued visual function, preserved rod and cone photoreceptors long-term in the RCS rat. Thus, these data support the use of OpRegen RPE cells for the treatment of human RPE cell disorders including AMD. Translational Relevance Our novel xeno-free RPE cells minimize concerns of animal derived contaminants while providing a promising prospective therapy to the diseased retina. PMID:28626601

  20. Effect of SOCS1 overexpression on RPE cell activation by proinflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Bazewicz, Magdalena; Draganova, Dafina; Makhoul, Maya; Chtarto, Abdel; Elmaleh, Valerie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Caspers, Laure; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) overexpression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells on their activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17. Retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were stably transfected with the control plasmid pIRES2-AcGFP1 or the plasmid pSOCS1-IRES2-AcGFP1. They were stimulated by IFNγ (150ng/ml), TNFα (30ng/ml) or IL-17 (100ng/ml). The levels of SOCS1 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and IκBα expression were analysed by western Blot (WB). IL-8 secretion was analysed by ELISA and expression of MHCII molecules and ICAM-1/CD54 by flow cytometry. Our data show that SOCS1 mRNA overexpression in RPE cells prevents IFNγ-induced SOCS1 mRNA increase and IFNγ-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits IFNγ-induced decrease of IL-8 secretion and prevents IFNγ-induced MHC II and ICAM1/CD54 upregulation. However, SOCS1 overexpression does not affect TNFα-induced IκBα degradation nor block TNFα-induced or IL-17-induced IL-8 secretion. On the contrary, IL-17-induced secretion is increased by SOCS1 overexpression. In conclusion, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits some IFNγ-mediated responses that lead to uveitis development. This notion raises the possibility that SOCS1 overexpression could be a novel target for treating non-infectious uveitis. However, some proinflammatory effects of TNFα and IL-17 stimulation on RPE are not blocked by SOCS1 overexpression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Damage Thresholds for Exposure to NIR and Blue Lasers in an In Vitro RPE Cell System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    damage , and to identify antioxidants capable of protecting these cells from laser-in- duced cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS The human RPE cell...melanosomes in blue laser-induced damage in vitro, which confirms the view that melanin plays an important role in photochemical damage mechanisms in...community has only a validating role in the animal ED50 damage threshold data used by safety committees. Systems of in vitro analysis must be

  2. Competitive quenching: a possible novel approach in protecting RPE cells from damage during PDT.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Dov; Ron, Yonina; Lusky, Moshe; Gaaton, Dan; Orenstein, Arie; Blank, Michael; Mandel, Mathilda; Livnat, Tamar; Barliya, Tilda; Lavie, Gad

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of using our novel concept, termed competitive quenching, for protecting the choroidal extravascular compartment and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from verteporfin (VP)-induced phototoxicity using hypericin. Furthermore, we aim to achieve partitioning of the quencher, hypericin, in the extravascular space and VP within the microvascular compartment of the chorio-retinal complex in vivo. We protect RPE cells from damage inflicted by photoactivated VP by introducing hypericin into these cells prior to photosensitization to quench the photosensitizing activity of VP. Cell protection levels were measured by MTT and Hemacolor viability assays. Wavelength range used for VP photoexcitation (700 +/- 40 nm) excludes the absorption range of hypericin, preventing the latter from photoactivation. Pharmacokinetic conditions, in which hypericin spreads throughout the choroidal and retinal extravascular space while VP is confined to the vasculature, are delineated using double-fluorescence imaging. Cell viability increased 3- to 5-fold when 10-20 microM hypericin were present in RPE cells during photosensitization with 0.1-0.5 microM VP. VP fluorescence intensity was unchanged by the presence of hypericin in the cells. Hypericin administered intravenously to rats was confined to the choroidal vasculature after 15 min to 2 hr. Subsequently, hypericin partitioned to the choroidal and retinal extravascular space. VP administered at this time was confined to the microvasculature. RPE and choroid may potentially be protected by compartmentalizing hypericin to the extravascular compartment while VP administered shortly before photosensitization is confined to the microvasculature. Adverse photodynamic therapy (PDT) damage to choroidal tissues adjacent to neovasculature targeted for photoablation have the potential of being prevented by competitive quenching with hypericin.

  3. Generation of Transplantable Retinal Pigmented Epithelial (RPE) Cells for Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).

    PubMed

    Surendran, Harshini; Rathod, Reena J; Pal, Rajarshi

    2018-06-13

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the foremost cause of blindness in people over the age of 60 worldwide. Clinically, this disease starts with distortion in central vision eventually leading to legal blindness. Vision loss has a significant impact on quality of life and incurs a substantial cost to the economy. Furthermore, AMD is a complex and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that triggers visual impairment due to the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and the light-sensitive photoreceptors that they support, protect and provide nutrition. Currently, there is no curative treatment for the most common form of this disease, i.e., dry AMD. A novel approach to treat AMD involves the transplantation of RPE cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in the outer retina. These iPSC-derived RPE cells not only show characteristics similar to native RPE but also could replace as well as regenerate damaged pathologic RPE and produce supportive growth factors and cytokines. Several clinical trials are being conducted taking advantage of a variety of cell- and tissue engineering-based approaches. Here, we present a simple, cost effective, and scalable cell-culture model for generation of purified RPE thus providing the foundation for developing an allogeneic cell therapy for AMD.

  4. Biological Modulation of Mouse RPE Cells in Response to Subthreshold Diode Micropulse Laser Treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouyue; Song, Yanping; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Zhongshan; Ding, Qin

    2015-11-01

    Many clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of subthreshold phototherapy with no visible damage in retinal vascular diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. We aimed primarily to investigate the effect of subthreshold diode micropulse laser (SDM) treatment on mouse retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells. The expression of angiogenesis-modulating cytokines in response to SDM was also explored. The least toxic laser dose was selected by measuring cell viability with MTT assay and 5 % duty cycle (DC) was chosen for use in further experiments. RPE cells were treated with laser-induced radiation ranging from 0 to 400 mW for 24 h. The apoptotic rate of RPE cells was assessed by flow cytometry. Expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were determined by Western Blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. After 24 h of laser irradiation, cell viability was reduced dose dependently and the effect was significant compared to the controls (P < 0.05). In addition, laser treatment with intensities of 100 and 200 mW with DC of 5 % produced no significant effect on cell viability and apoptosis as compared with the control group (P > 0.05). The protein and mRNA expressions of angiogenic stimulators (VEGF-A, TGF-β, and bFGF) were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05), whereas those of the angiogenic inhibitor (PEDF) were up-regulated (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the cells treated with different intensities of laser radiation (P > 0.05). Our results showed that SDM treatment of the RPE cells suppressed the expression of choroid neovasculization-promoting cytokines and up-regulated the angiogenic inhibitor, PEDF without damaging the cells. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism and to optimize the use of SDM as a novel method of treatment for retinal vascular

  5. Live-Cell Imaging of Phagosome Motility in Primary Mouse RPE Cells.

    PubMed

    Hazim, Roni; Jiang, Mei; Esteve-Rudd, Julian; Diemer, Tanja; Lopes, Vanda S; Williams, David S

    2016-01-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a post-mitotic epithelial monolayer situated between the light-sensitive photoreceptors and the choriocapillaris. Given its vital functions for healthy vision, the RPE is a primary target for insults that result in blinding diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). One such function is the phagocytosis and digestion of shed photoreceptor outer segments. In the present study, we examined the process of trafficking of outer segment disk membranes in live cultures of primary mouse RPE, using high speed spinning disk confocal microscopy. This approach has enabled us to track phagosomes, and determine parameters of their motility, which are important for their efficient degradation.

  6. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C; Coffey, Erin E; Laties, Alan M; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Reenstra, William W; Mitchell, Claire H

    2012-07-15

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTR(inh)-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4(-/-) mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization.

  7. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator contributes to reacidification of alkalinized lysosomes in RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ji; Lu, Wennan; Guha, Sonia; Baltazar, Gabriel C.; Coffey, Erin E.; Laties, Alan M.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Reenstra, William W.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in lysosomal acidification has been difficult to determine. We demonstrate here that CFTR contributes more to the reacidification of lysosomes from an elevated pH than to baseline pH maintenance. Lysosomal alkalinization is increasingly recognized as a factor in diseases of accumulation, and we previously showed that cAMP reacidified alkalinized lysosomes in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. As the influx of anions to electrically balance proton accumulation may enhance lysosomal acidification, the contribution of the cAMP-activated anion channel CFTR to lysosomal reacidification was probed. The antagonist CFTRinh-172 had little effect on baseline levels of lysosomal pH in cultured human RPE cells but substantially reduced the reacidification of compromised lysosomes by cAMP. Likewise, CFTR activators had a bigger impact on cells whose lysosomes had been alkalinized. Knockdown of CFTR with small interfering RNA had a larger effect on alkalinized lysosomes than on baseline levels. Inhibition of CFTR in isolated lysosomes altered pH. While CFTR and Lamp1 were colocalized, treatment with cAMP did not increase targeting of CFTR to the lysosome. The inhibition of CFTR slowed lysosomal degradation of photoreceptor outer segments while activation of CFTR enhanced their clearance from compromised lysosomes. Activation of CFTR acidified RPE lysosomes from the ABCA4−/− mouse model of recessive Stargardt's disease, whose lysosomes are considerably alkalinized. In summary, CFTR contributes more to reducing lysosomal pH from alkalinized levels than to maintaining baseline pH. Treatment to activate CFTR may thus be of benefit in disorders of accumulation associated with lysosomal alkalinization. PMID:22572847

  8. AAV delivery of GRP78/BiP promotes adaptation of human RPE cell to ER stress.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Shima; Ahmadian, Shahin; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Kheitan, Samira; Pirmardan, Ehsan R

    2018-02-01

    Adeno associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery of GRP78 (78 kDa glucose-regulated protein) attenuates the condition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and prevents apoptotic loss of photoreceptors in Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) rats. In the current study we overexpressed Grp78 with the help of AAV-2 in primary human retinal pigmented epithelium (hRPE) cell cultures and examined its effect on cell response to ER stress. The purpose of this work was studying potential stimulating effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress, as an in vitro model for RPE degeneration. To investigate the effect of Grp78 overexpression on unfolded protein response (UPR) markers under ER stress, hRPE primary cultures were transduced by recombinant virus rAAV/Grp78, and treated with ER stressor drug, tunicamycin. Expression changes of four UPR markers including GRP78, PERK, ATF6α, and GADD153/CHOP, were assessed by real-time PCR and western blotting. We found that GRP78 has a great contribution in modulation of UPR markers to favor adaptive response in ER-stressed hRPE cells. In fact, GRP78 overexpression affected adaptation and apoptotic phases of early UPR, through enhancement of two master regulators/ER stress sensors (PERK and ATF6α) and down-regulation of a key pro-apoptotic cascade activator (GADD153/CHOP). Together these findings demonstrate the promoting effect of GRP78 on adaptation/pro-survival of hRPE cells under ER stress. This protein with anti-apoptotic actions in the early UPR and important role in cell fate regulation, can be recruited as a useful candidate for future investigations of RPE degenerative diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Simultaneous application of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF antibody effectively suppresses proangiogenic and profibrotic factors in human RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Abouzar; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Sheibani, Nader; Astaneh, Shamila Darvishalipour; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Mohammadian, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play key roles in the development of choroidal neovascularization and subsequent fibrosis. We investigated the impact of bevacizumab, antihuman vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, and anticonnective tissue growth factor (anti-CTGF) neutralizing antibody, individually or in combination, on proangiogenic and profibrotic properties of RPE cells. Primary cultures of human RPE cells were incubated with different concentrations of bevacizumab (0.25, 0.5, and 0.8 mg/ml) and/or anti-CTGF (10 μg/ml), and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Expression and activity of proangiogenic and profibrotic genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9, VEGFA, CTGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), cathepsin D, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) -1 and -2, and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed with slot blot, real-time RT-PCR, and zymography. Bevacizumab alone inhibited proliferation of RPE cells while anti-CTGF or bevacizumab and anti-CTGF combined had no inhibitory effect in this regard. Bevacizumab increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin D but decreased VEGFA and VEGFR-1 expression. The CTGF level was increased by using 0.25 mg/ml bevacizumab but decreased at the 0.8 mg/ml concentration of bevacizumab. Treatment with anti-CTGF antibody decreased MMP-2 expression whereas combined treatment with bevacizumab and anti-CTGF resulted in decreased expression of MMP-2, TIMP-1, cathepsin D, VEGFA, CTGF, and α-SMA in the treated cultures. Treatment of RPE cells with the combination of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF could effectively suppress the proangiogenic and profibrotic activity of RPE cells.

  10. Simultaneous application of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF antibody effectively suppresses proangiogenic and profibrotic factors in human RPE cells

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Abouzar; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Samiei, Shahram; Sheibani, Nader; Astaneh, Shamila Darvishalipour; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Mohammadian, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells play key roles in the development of choroidal neovascularization and subsequent fibrosis. We investigated the impact of bevacizumab, antihuman vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, and anticonnective tissue growth factor (anti-CTGF) neutralizing antibody, individually or in combination, on proangiogenic and profibrotic properties of RPE cells. Methods Primary cultures of human RPE cells were incubated with different concentrations of bevacizumab (0.25, 0.5, and 0.8 mg/ml) and/or anti-CTGF (10 μg/ml), and cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined. Expression and activity of proangiogenic and profibrotic genes including matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and 9, VEGFA, CTGF, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), cathepsin D, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) −1 and −2, and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed with slot blot, real-time RT–PCR, and zymography. Results Bevacizumab alone inhibited proliferation of RPE cells while anti-CTGF or bevacizumab and anti-CTGF combined had no inhibitory effect in this regard. Bevacizumab increased MMP-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin D but decreased VEGFA and VEGFR-1 expression. The CTGF level was increased by using 0.25 mg/ml bevacizumab but decreased at the 0.8 mg/ml concentration of bevacizumab. Treatment with anti-CTGF antibody decreased MMP-2 expression whereas combined treatment with bevacizumab and anti-CTGF resulted in decreased expression of MMP-2, TIMP-1, cathepsin D, VEGFA, CTGF, and α-SMA in the treated cultures. Conclusions Treatment of RPE cells with the combination of bevacizumab and anti-CTGF could effectively suppress the proangiogenic and profibrotic activity of RPE cells. PMID:25883524

  11. Exogenous NAD+ decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-li; Wang, Yi-xiao; Zhao, Pei-quan; Wang, Zhao-yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD+ administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD+ administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD+ against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD+ administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD+ administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  12. Exogenous NAD(+) decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-Li; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-05-31

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD(+) administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD(+) administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD(+) against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD(+) administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD(+) administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD.

  13. Pulsewidth-dependent nature of laser-induced DNA damage in RPE cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Rebecca M.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Kumar, Neeru; Noojin, Gary D.

    2001-07-01

    Ultrashort pulse laser radiation may produce cellular damage through unique mechanisms. Primary cultures of bovine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were exposed to the out put of a Ti:Sapphire laser producing 30 fs (mode-locked) pulses, 44 amplified fs pulses, or continuous wave exposures at 800 nm. Laser exposures at and below the damage threshold were studied. DNA damage was detected using single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Unexposed (control) cells produced short tails with low tail moments. In contrast, all laser-exposed cells showed some degree of DNA fragmentation, but the size and shape of the resulting comets differed among the various modalities. CW-exposed cells produced generally light and relatively compact tails, suggesting fewer and larger DNA fragments, while mode-locked laser exposures (30 fs pulses) resulted in large and diffuse comets, indicating the DNA was fragmented into many very small pieces. Work is continuing to define the relationship of laser pulsewidth and intensity with the degree of DNA fragmentation. These results suggest that DNA damage may result from multiple mechanisms of laser-cell interaction, including multiphoton absorption.

  14. The influence of rAAV2-mediated SOX2 delivery into neonatal and adult human RPE cells; a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ezati, Razie; Etemadzadeh, Azadeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan; Davari, Malihe; Najafabadi, Hoda Shams

    2018-02-01

    Cell replacement is a promising therapy for degenerative diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Since the human retina lacks regeneration capacity, much attention has been directed toward persuading for cells that can differentiate into retinal neurons. In this report, we have investigated reprogramming of the human RPE cells and concerned the effect of donor age on the cellular fate as a critical determinant in reprogramming competence. We evaluated the effect of SOX2 over-expression in human neonatal and adult RPE cells in cultures. The coding region of human SOX2 gene was cloned into adeno-associated virus (AAV2) and primary culture of human neonatal/adult RPE cells were infected by recombinant virus. De-differentiation of RPE to neural/retinal progenitor cells was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR and ICC for neural/retinal progenitor cells' markers. Gene expression analysis showed 80-fold and 12-fold over-expression for SOX2 gene in infected neonatal and adult hRPE cells, respectively. The fold of increase for Nestin in neonatal and adult hRPE cells was 3.8-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. PAX6 expression was increased threefold and 2.5-fold in neonatal/adult treated cultures. Howbeit, we could not detect rhodopsin, and CHX10 expression in neonatal hRPE cultures and expression of rhodopsin in adult hRPE cells. Results showed SOX2 induced human neonatal/adult RPE cells to de-differentiate toward retinal progenitor cells. However, the increased number of PAX6, CHX10, Thy1, and rhodopsin positive cells in adult hRPE treated cultures clearly indicated the considerable generation of neuro-retinal terminally differentiated cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Mouse Retinal Pigmented Epithelial Cell Lines retain their phenotypic characteristics after transfection with Human Papilloma Virus: A new tool to further the study of RPE biology

    PubMed Central

    Catanuto, Paola; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Sanchez, Patricia; Salas, Pedro; Hernandez, Eleut; Cousins, Scott W.; Elliot, Sharon J.

    2009-01-01

    Development of immortalized mouse retinal pigmented epithelial cell (RPE) lines that retain many of their in vivo phenotypic characteristics, would aid in studies of ocular diseases including age related macular degeneration (AMD). RPE cells were isolated from 16 month old (estrogen receptor knockout) ERKOα and ERKOβ mice and their C57Bl/6 wild type littermates. RPE65 and cellular retinaldehyde binding protein (CRALBP) expression, in vivo markers of RPE cells, were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western analysis. We confirmed the presence of epithelial cell markers, ZO1, cytokeratin 8 and 18 by immunofluorescence staining. In addition, we confirmed the distribution of actin filaments and the expression of ezrin. To develop cell lines, RPE cells were isolated, propagated and immortalized using human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 (E6/E7). RPE-specific markers and morphology were assessed before and after immortalization. In wildtype littermate controls, there was no evidence of any alterations in the parameters that we examined including MMP-2, TIMP-2, collagen type IV, and estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ protein expression and ER copy number ratio. Therefore, immortalized mouse RPE cell lines that retain their in vivo phenotype can be isolated from either pharmacologically or genetically manipulated mice, and may be used to study RPE cell biology. PMID:19013153

  16. Evidence for the activation of pyroptotic and apoptotic pathways in RPE cells associated with NLRP3 inflammasome in the rodent eye.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jiangyuan; Cui, Jing Z; To, Eleanor; Cao, Sijia; Matsubara, Joanne A

    2018-01-12

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a devastating eye disease causing irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the primary cell type that is afflicted in AMD, undergoes programmed cell death in the late stages of the disease. However, the exact mechanisms for RPE degeneration in AMD are still unresolved. The prevailing theories consider that each cell death pathway works independently and without regulation of each other. Building upon our previous work in which we induced a short burst of inflammasome activity in vivo, we now investigate the effects of prolonged inflammasome activity on RPE cell death mechanisms in rats. Long-Evans rats received three intravitreal injections of amyloid beta (Aβ), once every 4 days, and were sacrificed at day 14. The vitreous samples were collected to assess the levels of secreted cytokines. The inflammasome activity was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and western blot. The types of RPE cell death mechanisms were determined using specific cell death markers and morphological characterizations. We found robust inflammasome activation evident by enhanced caspase-1 immunoreactivity, augmented NF-κB nuclear translocalization, increased IL-1β vitreal secretion, and IL-18 protein levels. Moreover, we observed elevated proteolytic cleavage of caspase-3 and gasdermin D, markers for apoptosis and pyroptosis, respectively, in RPE-choroid tissues. There was also a significant reduction in the anti-apoptotic factor, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, consistent with the overall changes of RPE cells. Morphological analysis showed phenotypic characteristics of pyroptosis including RPE cell swelling. Our data suggest that two cell death pathways, pyroptosis and apoptosis, were activated in RPE cells after exposure to prolonged inflammasome activation, induced by a drusen component, Aβ. The involvement of two distinct cell death pathways in RPE sheds light on the potential interplay between

  17. Two dietary polyphenols, fisetin and luteolin, reduce inflammation but augment DNA damage-induced toxicity in human RPE cells.

    PubMed

    Hytti, Maria; Szabó, Dora; Piippo, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Honkakoski, Paavo; Kaarniranta, Kai; Petrovski, Goran; Kauppinen, Anu

    2017-04-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols are known to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In recent years, several studies have investigated their potential benefits for treating chronic diseases associated with prolonged inflammation and excessive oxidative stress, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Previously, two polyphenols, fisetin and luteolin, have been reported to increase the survival of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells suffering from oxidative stress as well as decreasing inflammation but the benefits of polyphenol therapy seem to depend on the model system used. Our aim was to analyze the effects of fisetin and luteolin on inflammation and cellular viability in a model of nonoxidative DNA damage-induced cell death in human RPE (hRPE) cells. Pretreatment of ARPE-19 or primary hRPE cells with the polyphenols augmented etoposide-induced cell death as measured by the lactate dehydrogenase and 3-(4,5-dimethyldiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. However, the treatment was able to reduce the release of two proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, which were determined by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay. Analyses of caspase 3 activity, p53 acetylation and SIRT1 protein levels revealed the apoptotic nature of etoposide-evoked cell death and that fisetin and luteolin augmented the etoposide-induced acetylation of p53 and decreased SIRT1 levels. Taken together, our findings suggest that the cytoprotective effects of fisetin and luteolin depend on the stressor they need to combat, whereas their anti-inflammatory potential is sustained over a variety of model systems. Careful consideration of disease pathways will be necessary before fisetin or luteolin can be recommended as therapeutic agents for inflammatory diseases in general and specifically AMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Wavelength dependence of intracellular nitric oxide levels in hTERT-RPE cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Nathaniel J.; Powell, Samantha M.; Wigle, Jeffrey C.

    2018-02-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) refers to the beneficial effects of low doses of light whether mediating therapeutic effects for pathophysiological processes, or stimulating resistance to physiological challenges. While much is known about beneficial outcomes, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these observed effects is still limited. It has been hypothesized that increases in ATP stimulate downstream signaling through transcription factors. However, it is also known that PBM can induce elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) in cells, which is thought to occur by release of NO bound to cytochrome-c oxidase (COX). NO is a powerful signaling molecule involved in a host of biological responses; however, the mechanisms of NO production and the role of NO in the PBM response have received little attention. Utilizing human retinal pigmented epithelium cells (RPE) in vitro, coupled with a multi-laser exposure set-up, we have begun to systematically investigate the mechanism of NO production and function in the PBM response. Our data indicates that while NO levels are elevated following single exposures to 447, 532, 635 or 808 nm, the strength of the response is wavelength-dependent, and the response can be modulated by sequential exposures to two different wavelengths. Additionally, this wavelength-dependent rise in NO is independent of the function of nitric oxide synthase, and highly dependent on the source of electrons feeding the electron transport chain of the light-exposed cells. In sum, these results provide a roadmap for interrogating the molecular mechanisms of PBM, and provide novel tools and methods for dissecting NO signaling networks.

  19. Overexpression of miR-183/-96/-182 triggers neuronal cell fate in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (hRPE) cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Sharifi, Zohreh; Pirmardan, Ehsan Ranaei

    2017-01-29

    miR-183 cluster, composed of miR-183/-96/-182 genes, is highly expressed in the adult retina, particularly in photoreceptors. It involves in development, maturation and normal function of neuroretina. Ectopic overexpression of miR-183/-96/-182 genes was performed to assess reprogramming of hRPE cells. They were amplified from genomic DNA and cloned independently or in tandem configuration into pAAV.MCS vector. hRPE cells were then transfected with the recombinant constructs. Real-Time PCR was performed to measure the expression levels of miR-183/-96/-182 and that of several retina-specific neuronal genes such as OTX2, NRL, PDC and DCT. The transfected cells also were immunocytochemically examined for retina-specific neuronal markers, including Rhodopsin, red opsin, CRX, Thy1, CD73, recoverin and PKCα, to determine the cellular fate of the transfected hRPE cells. Data showed that upon miR-183/-96/-182 overexpression in hRPE cultures, the expression of neuronal genes including OTX2, NRL, PDC and DCT was also upregulated. Moreover, miR-183 cluster-treated hRPE cells were immunoreactive for neuronal markers such as Rhodopsin, red opsin, CRX and Thy1. Both transcriptional and translational upregulation of neuronal genes in miR-183 cluster-treated hRPE cells suggests that in vitro overexpression of miR-183 cluster could trigger reprogramming of hRPE cells to retinal neuron fate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of the RPE sheet in the rd10 retinal degeneration model

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yi

    2011-01-04

    The normal RPE sheet in the C57Bl/6J mouse is subclassified into two major tiling patterns: A regular generally hexagonal array covering most of the surface and a 'soft network' near the ciliary body made of irregularly shaped cells. Physics models predict these two patterns based on contractility and elasticity of the RPE cell, and strength of cellular adhesion between cells. We hypothesized and identified major changes in RPE regular hexagonal tiling pattern in rdl0 compared to C57BL/6J mice. RPE sheet damage was extensive but occurred in rd10 later than expected, after most retinal degeneration. RPE sheet changes occur in zonesmore » with a bullseye pattern. In the posterior zone around the optic nerve RPE cells take on larger irregular and varied shapes to form an intact monolayer. In mid periphery, there is a higher than normal density of cells that progress into involuted layers of RPE under the retina. The periphery remains mostly normal until late stages of degeneration. The number of neighboring cells varies widely depending on zone and progression. RPE morphology continues to deteriorate long after the photoreceptors have degenerated. The RPE cells are bystanders to the rd10 degeneration within photo receptors, and the collateral damage to the RPE sheet resembles stimulation of migration or chemotaxis. Quantitative measures of the tiling patterns and histopathology detected here, scripted in a pipeline written in Perl and Cell Profiler (an open source Matlab plugin), are directly applicable to RPE sheet images from noninvasive fundus autofluorescence (FAF), adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-cSLO), and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of patients with early stage AMD or RP.« less

  1. Pirfenidone inhibits migration, differentiation, and proliferation of human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Yangfan; Xu, Jiangang; Lin, Xianchai; Wu, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of pirfenidone (PFD) on the migration, differentiation, and proliferation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and demonstrate whether the drug induces cytotoxicity. Methods Human RPE cells (line D407) were treated with various concentrations of PFD. Cell migration was measured with scratch assay. The protein levels of fibronectin (FN), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβS), and Smads were assessed with western blot analyses. Levels of mRNA of TGFβS, FN, and Snail1 were analyzed using reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Cell apoptosis was detected with flow cytometry using the Annexin V/PI apoptosis kit, and the percentages of cells labeled in different apoptotic stage were compared. A Trypan Blue assay was used to assess cell viability. Results PFD inhibited RPE cell migration. Western blot analyses showed that PFD inhibited the expression of FN, α-SMA, CTGF, TGFβ1, TGFβ2, Smad2/3, and Smad4. Similarly, PFD also downregulated mRNA levels of Snail1, FN, TGFβ1, and TGFβ2. No significant differences in cell apoptosis or viability were observed between the control and PFD-treated groups. Conclusions PFD inhibited RPE cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation in vitro and caused no significant cytotoxicity. PMID:24415895

  2. Yap is essential for retinal progenitor cell cycle progression and RPE cell fate acquisition in the developing mouse eye.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Park, Raehee; Lee, Jin Hwan J; Shin, Jinyeon; Nickas, Jenna; Kim, Seonhee; Cho, Seo-Hee

    2016-11-15

    Yap functions as a transcriptional regulator by acting together with sequence-specific DNA binding factors and transcription cofactors to mediate cell proliferation in developing epithelial tissues and tumors. An upstream kinase cascade controls nuclear localization and function in response to partially identified exogenous signals, including cell-to-cell contact. Nevertheless, its role in CNS development is poorly understood. In order to investigate Yap function in developing CNS, we characterized the cellular outcomes after selective Yap gene ablation in developing ocular tissues. When Yap was lost, presumptive retinal pigment epithelium acquired anatomical and molecular characteristics resembling those of the retinal epithelium rather than of RPE, including loss of pigmentation, pseudostratified epithelial morphology and ectopic induction of markers for retinal progenitor cells, like Chx10, and neurons, like β-Tubulin III. In addition, developing retina showed signs of progressive degeneration, including laminar folding, thinning and cell loss, which resulted from multiple defects in cell proliferation and survival, and in junction integrity. Furthermore, Yap-deficient retinal progenitors displayed decreased S-phase cells and altered cell cycle progression. Altogether, our studies not only illustrate the canonical function of Yap in promoting the proliferation of progenitors, but also shed new light on its evolutionarily conserved, instructive role in regional specification, maintenance of junctional integrity and precise regulation of cell proliferation during neuroepithelial development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperglycaemia Exacerbates Choroidal Neovascularisation in Mice via the Oxidative Stress-Induced Activation of STAT3 Signalling in RPE Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Sheng; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Wei; Xu, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ye, Zi; Yao, Li-Bo; Zhang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) that occurs as a result of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes severe vision loss among elderly patients. The relationship between diabetes and CNV remains controversial. However, oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of both AMD and diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the influence of diabetes on experimentally induced CNV and on the underlying molecular mechanisms of CNV. CNV was induced via photocoagulation in the ocular fundi of mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. The effect of diabetes on the severity of CNV was measured. An immunofluorescence technique was used to determine the levels of oxidative DNA damage by anti-8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) antibody, the protein expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in mice with CNV. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells that had been cultured under high glucose was quantitated using the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) method. p-STAT3 expression was examined using Western blot analysis. RT-PCR and ELISA processes were used to detect VEGF expression. Hyperglycaemia exacerbated the development of CNV in mice. Oxidative stress levels and the expression of p-STAT3 and VEGF were highly elevated both in mice and in cultured RPE cells. Treatment with the antioxidant compound N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) rescued the severity of CNV in diabetic mice. NAC also inhibited the overexpression of p-STAT3 and VEGF in CNV and in RPE cells. The JAK-2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor AG490 blocked VEGF expression but had no effect on the production of ROS in vitro. These results suggest that hyperglycaemia promotes the development of CNV by inducing oxidative stress, which in turn activates STAT3 signalling in RPE cells. Antioxidant supplementation helped attenuate the development of CNV. Thus, our

  4. High glucose promotes the migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells through increased oxidative stress and PEDF expression

    PubMed Central

    Farnoodian, Mitra; Halbach, Caroline; Slinger, Cassidy; Pattnaik, Bikash R.; Sorenson, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in the outer blood-retinal barrier have significant impact on the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. However, the detailed mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. This is, in part, attributed to the lack of suitable animal and cell culture models, including those of mouse origin. We recently reported a method for the culture of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from wild-type and transgenic mice. The RPE cells are responsible for maintaining the integrity of the outer blood-retinal barrier whose dysfunction during diabetes has a significant impact on vision. Here we determined the impact of high glucose on the function of RPE cells. We showed that high glucose conditions resulted in enhanced migration and increased the level of oxidative stress in RPE cells, but minimally impacted their rate of proliferation and apoptosis. High glucose also minimally affected the cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions of RPE cells. However, the expression of integrins and extracellular matrix proteins including pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) were altered under high glucose conditions. Incubation of RPE cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine under high glucose conditions restored normal migration and PEDF expression. These cells also exhibited increased nuclear localization of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 and ZO-1, reduced levels of β-catenin and phagocytic activity, and minimal effect on production of vascular endothelial growth factor, inflammatory cytokines, and Akt, MAPK, and Src signaling pathways. Thus high glucose conditions promote RPE cell migration through increased oxidative stress and expression of PEDF without a significant effect on the rate of proliferation and apoptosis. PMID:27440660

  5. Quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside protects against retinal cell death via blue light-induced damage in human RPE cells and Balb-c mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Jin, Hong Lan; Jang, Dae Sik; Jeong, Kwang Won; Choung, Se-Young

    2018-04-25

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is among the increasing number of diseases causing irreversible blindness in the elderly. Dry AMD is characterized by the accumulation of lipofuscin in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. N-Retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a component of lipofuscin, is oxidized to oxo-A2E under blue light illumination, leading to retinal cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of quercetin-3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (QA) against blue light (BL)-induced damage in both RPE cells and mice models. Treatment by QA inhibited A2E uptake in RPE cells, as determined by a decrease in fluorescence intensity. QA also protected A2E-laden RPE cells against BL-induced apoptosis. QA inhibited C3 complement activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, as determined by western blotting. QA showed an inhibitory effect on AP1 and NF-kB activity as estimated in a reporter gene assay. In addition, QA activated the gene expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes (CYP1A1, CYP1B1) in TCDD-treated RPE cells. In the mice model, oral administration of QA protected against retinal degeneration induced by BL exposure as determined by histological analyses (thickness of retinal layers and immunostaining for caspase-3). In addition, QA inhibited apoptosis and inflammation via inhibition of NF-kB p65 translocation, C3 activation, and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results revealed the protective mechanism of QA against BL-induced retinal damage both in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Collective cell migration in development

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, tissues undergo major rearrangements that lead to germ layer positioning, patterning, and organ morphogenesis. Often these morphogenetic movements are accomplished by the coordinated and cooperative migration of the constituent cells, referred to as collective cell migration. The molecular and biomechanical mechanisms underlying collective migration of developing tissues have been investigated in a variety of models, including border cell migration, tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, and the migration of the lateral line primordium, neural crest cells, or head mesendoderm. Here we review recent advances in understanding collective migration in these developmental models, focusing on the interaction between cells and guidance cues presented by the microenvironment and on the role of cell–cell adhesion in mechanical and behavioral coupling of cells within the collective. PMID:26783298

  7. Monomethylfumarate Induces γ-Globin Expression and Fetal Hemoglobin Production in Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) and Erythroid Cells, and in Intact Retina

    PubMed Central

    Promsote, Wanwisa; Makala, Levi; Li, Biaoru; Smith, Sylvia B.; Singh, Nagendra; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Pace, Betty S.; Martin, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Sickle retinopathy (SR) is a major cause of vision loss in sickle cell disease (SCD). There are no strategies to prevent SR and treatments are extremely limited. The present study evaluated (1) the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell as a hemoglobin producer and novel cellular target for fetal hemoglobin (HbF) induction, and (2) monomethylfumarate (MMF) as an HbF-inducing therapy and abrogator of oxidative stress and inflammation in SCD retina. Methods. Human globin gene expression was evaluated by RT–quantitative (q)PCR in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19 and in primary RPE cells isolated from Townes humanized SCD mice. γ-Globin promoter activity was monitored in KU812 stable dual luciferase reporter expressing cells treated with 0 to 1000 μM dimethylfumarate, MMF, or hydroxyurea (HU; positive control) by dual luciferase assay. Reverse transcriptase–qPCR, fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), immunofluorescence, and Western blot techniques were used to evaluate γ-globin expression and HbF production in primary human erythroid progenitors, ARPE-19, and normal hemoglobin producing (HbAA) and homozygous βs mutation (HbSS) RPE that were treated similarly, and in MMF-injected (1000 μM) HbAA and HbSS retinas. Dihydroethidium labeling and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), IL-1β, and VEGF expression were also analyzed. Results. Retinal pigment epithelial cells express globin genes and synthesize adult and fetal hemoglobin MMF stimulated γ-globin expression and HbF production in cultured RPE and erythroid cells, and in HbSS mouse retina where it also reduced oxidative stress and inflammation. Conclusions. The production of hemoglobin by RPE suggests the potential involvement of this cell type in the etiology of SR. Monomethylfumarate influences multiple parameters consistent with improved retinal health in SCD and may therefore be of therapeutic potential in SR treatment. PMID:24825111

  8. Silencing heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in retinal pigment epithelial cells inhibits proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiaomei, E-mail: zhangxm667@163.com; Lu, Hong

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •HO-1 is highly induced in RPE cells by hypoxia. •Inhibition of HO-1 activity and knockdown of HO-1 expression inhibit VEGF expression in RPE cells under hypoxia. •Knockdown of HO-1 in RPE cells inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells in vitro. -- Abstract: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an important role in the vasculature and in the angiogenesis of tumors, wounds and other environments. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) are the main cells involved in choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a process in which hypoxia plays an important role. Our aim was to evaluate the role of human RPE-cellmore » HO-1 in the angiogenic activities of cocultured endothelial cells under hypoxia. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) for HO-1 was transfected into human RPE cell line ARPE-19, and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) was used to inhibit HO-1 activity. Knockdown of HO-1 expression and inhibition of HO-1 activity resulted in potent reduction of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) under hypoxia. Furthermore, knockdown of HO-1 suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of cocultured endothelial cells. These findings indicated that HO-1 might have an angiogenic effect in CNV through modulation of VEGF expression and might be a potential target for treating CNV.« less

  9. Can mesenchymal cells undergo collective cell migration?

    PubMed Central

    Theveneau, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Cell migration is critical for proper development of the embryo and is also used by many cell types to perform their physiological function. For instance, cell migration is essential for immune cells to monitor the body and for epithelial cells to heal a wound whereas, in cancer cells, acquisition of migratory capabilities is a critical step toward malignancy. Migratory cells are often categorized into two groups: (1) mesenchymal cells, produced by an epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition, that undergo solitary migration and (2) epithelial-like cells which migrate collectively. However, on some occasions, mesenchymal cells may travel in large, dense groups and exhibit key features of collectively migrating cells such as coordination and cooperation. Here, using data published on neural crest cells, a highly invasive mesenchymal cell population that extensively migrate throughout the embryo, we explore the idea that mesenchymal cells, including cancer cells, might be able to undergo collective cell migration under certain conditions and discuss how they could do so. PMID:22274714

  10. Regulation of Cell Migration in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    the wound healing, assay by scarring and Oris plate migration assay, transwell migration assay and live - cell imaging studies. Cell migration capacity...evaluated by the use of techniques that include the wound healing assay by scarring and Oris plate migration assay, transwell migration assay and live - cell imaging studies

  11. Two Bioactive Molecular Weight Fractions of a Conditioned Medium Enhance RPE Cell Survival on Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Aged Bruch's Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sugino, Ilene K.; Sun, Qian; Springer, Carola; Cheewatrakoolpong, Noounanong; Liu, Tong; Li, Hong; Zarbin, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize molecular weight fractions of bovine corneal endothelial cell conditioned medium (CM) supporting retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell survival on aged and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) Bruch's membrane. Methods CM was subject to size separation using centrifugal filters. Retentate and filtrate fractions were tested for bioactivity by analyzing RPE survival on submacular Bruch's membrane of aged and AMD donor eyes and behavior on collagen I-coated tissue culture wells. Protein and peptide composition of active fractions was determined by mass spectrometry. Results Two bioactive fractions, 3-kDa filtrate and a 10-50–kDa fraction, were necessary for RPE survival on aged and AMD Bruch's membrane. The 3-kDa filtrate, but not the 10-50–kDa fraction, supported RPE growth on collagen 1‐coated tissue culture plates. Mass spectrometry of the 10-50–kDa fraction identified 175 extracellular proteins, including growth factors and extracellular matrix molecules. Transforming growth factor (TGF)β-2 was identified as unique to active CM. Peptides representing 29 unique proteins were identified in the 3-KDa filtrate. Conclusions These results indicate there is a minimum of two bioactive molecules in CM, one found in the 3-kDa filtrate and one in the 10-50–kDa fraction, and that bioactive molecules in both fractions must be present to ensure RPE survival on Bruch's membrane. Mass spectrometry analysis suggested proteins to test in future studies to identify proteins that may contribute to CM bioactivity. Translational Relevance Results of this study are the first steps in development of an adjunct to cell-based therapy to ensure cell transplant survival and functionality in AMD patients. PMID:26933521

  12. In vitro measurements of oxygen consumption rates in hTERT-RPE cells exposed to low levels of red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light induces an adaptive response against a lethal pulse of 2.0 μm laser radiation in hTERT-RPE cells in vitro, but not in a knockdown mutant for vascular endothelial growth factor c (VEGF-C). The generally accepted initiation sequence for photobiomodulation is that absorption of red light by cytochome c oxidase (CCOX) of the electron transport chain increases the binding affinity of CCOX for O2 vs. nitric oxide (NO). This results in displacement of NO by O2 in the active site of CCOX, thereby increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. We've previously reported that red-light exposure induces a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in NO levels in these cells. But the relative importance of NO and oxidative phosphorylation is unclear because little is known about the relative contributions of NO and ATP to the response. However, if NO dissociation from CCOX actually increases oxidative phosphorylation, one should see a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. A Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in normal and mutant cells as a proxy for oxidative phosphorylation. Both basal respiration and maximum respiration rates in normal cells are significantly higher than in the mutant. The normal cells have a significant amount of "excess capacity," whereas the VEGF-C(KD) have little or none. The OCR in exposed normal cells is lower than in unexposed cells when measured immediately after exposure. The exposures used for these experiments had no effect on the OCR in mutant cells.

  13. Morphological and functional rescue in RCS rats after RPE cell line transplantation at a later stage of degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaomei; Lu, Bin; Girman, Sergej; Holmes, Toby; Bischoff, Nicolas; Lund, Raymond D

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented that grafting of cells in the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats limits deterioration of vision and loss of photoreceptors if performed early in postnatal life. What is unclear is whether cells introduced later, when photoreceptor degeneration is already advanced, can still be effective. This possibility was examined in the present study, using the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, ARPE-19. Dystrophic RCS rats (postnatal day [P] 60) received subretinal injection of ARPE-19 cells (2 x 10(5)/3 microL/eye). Spatial frequency was measured by recording optomotor responses at P100 and P150, and luminance threshold responses were recorded from the superior colliculus at P150. Retinas were stained with cresyl violet, retinal cell-specific markers, and a human nuclear marker. Control animals were injected with medium alone. Animals comparably treated with grafts at P21 were available for comparison. All animals were treated with immunosuppression. Later grafts preserved both spatial frequency and threshold responses over the control and delayed photoreceptor degeneration. There were two to three layers of rescued photoreceptors even at P150, compared with a scattered single layer in sham and untreated control retinas. Retinal cell marker staining showed an orderly array of the inner retinal lamination. The morphology of the second-order neurons was better preserved around the grafted area than in regions distant from graft. Sham injection had little effect in rescuing the photoreceptors. RPE cell line transplants delivered later in the course of degeneration can preserve not only the photoreceptors and inner retinal lamination but also visual function in RCS rats. However, early intervention can achieve better rescue.

  14. Deconstructing (and reconstructing) cell migration.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, G; Lauffenburger, D A

    1998-12-01

    An overriding objective in cell biology is to be able to relate properties of particular molecular components to cell behavioral functions and even physiology. In the "traditional" mode of molecular cell biology, this objective has been tackled on a molecule-by-molecule basis, and in the "future" mode sometimes termed "functional genomics," it might be attacked in a high-throughput, parallel manner. Regardless of the manner of approach, the relationship between molecular-level properties and cell-level function is exceedingly difficult to elucidate because of the large number of relevant components involved, their high degree of interconnectedness, and the inescapable fact that they operate as physico-chemical entities-according to the laws of kinetics and mechanics-in space and time within the cell. Cell migration is a prominent representative example of such a cell behavioral function that requires increased understanding for both scientific and technological advance. This article presents a framework, derived from an engineering perspective regarding complex systems, intended to aid in developing improved understanding of how properties of molecular components influence the function of cell migration. That is, cell population migration behavior can be deconstructed as follows: first in terms of a mathematical model comprising cell population parameters (random motility, chemotaxis/haptotaxis, and chemokinesis/haptokinesis coefficients), which in turn depend on characteristics of individual cell paths that can be analyzed in terms of a mathematical model comprising individual cell parameters (translocation speed, directional persistence time, chemotactic/haptotactic index), which in turn depend on cell-level physical processes underlying motility (membrane extension and retraction, cell/substratum adhesion, cell contractile force, front-vs.-rear asymmetry), which in turn depend on molecular-level properties of the plethora of components involved in governance and

  15. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the effects of oxidative stress on human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji-Ae; Sotani, Yasuyuki; Ibrahim, Diah Gemala; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the major cause of treatment failure in individuals who undergo surgery for retinal detachment. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells contributes to the pathogenesis of PVR. Oxidative stress is thought to play a role in the progression of retinal diseases including PVR. We have now examined the effects of oxidative stress on the EMT and related processes in the human RPE cell line. We found that H 2 O 2 induced the contraction of RPE cells in a three-dimensional collagen gel. Analysis of a cytokine array revealed that H 2 O 2 specifically increased the release of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) from RPE cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses showed that H 2 O 2 increased the expression of MIF in RPE cells. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that H 2 O 2 upregulated the expression of α-SMA and vimentin and downregulated that of ZO-1 and N-cadherin. Consistent with these observations, the transepithelial electrical resistance of cell was reduced by exposure to H 2 O 2 . The effects of oxidative stress on EMT-related and junctional protein expression as well as on transepithelial electrical resistance were inhibited by antibodies to MIF, but they were not mimicked by treatment with recombinant MIF. Finally, analysis with a profiling array for mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling revealed that H 2 O 2 specifically induced the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Our results thus suggest that MIF may play a role in induction of the EMT and related processes by oxidative stress in RPE cells and that it might thereby contribute to the pathogenesis of PVR. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a major complication of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and both oxidative stress and induction of the EMT in RPE cells are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. We have now

  16. Force transmission in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Sauser, Roger; Ambrosi, Davide; Meister, Jean-Jacques; Verkhovsky, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    During cell migration, forces generated by the actin cytoskeleton are transmitted through adhesion complexes to the substrate. To investigate the mechanism of force generation and transmission, we analyzed the relationship between actin network velocity and traction forces at the substrate in a model system of persistently migrating fish epidermal keratocytes. Front and lateral sides of the cell exhibited much stronger coupling between actin motion and traction forces than the trailing cell body. Further analysis of the traction–velocity relationship suggested that the force transmission mechanisms were different in different cell regions: at the front, traction was generated by a gripping of the actin network to the substrate, whereas at the sides and back, it was produced by the network’s slipping over the substrate. Treatment with inhibitors of the actin–myosin system demonstrated that the cell body translocation could be powered by either of the two different processes, actomyosin contraction or actin assembly, with the former associated with significantly larger traction forces than the latter. PMID:20100912

  17. Probable Chemical Hypoxia Effects on Progress of CNV Through Induction of Promoter CpG Demethylation and Overexpression of IL17RC in Human RPE Cells.

    PubMed

    Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Sabouni, Farzaneh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila

    2016-09-01

    To survey the changes of promoter CpG methylation status and mRNA expression of IL17RC (interleukin 17 receptor C) gene in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells under chemical hypoxia condition for choroidal neovascularization (CNV) modeling in vitro. RPE cells were cultured in both untreated as a control group and treated by cobalt chloride media as a hypoxia group for various concentrations (100-150μM) and times (24-36 hrs.) To confirm chemical hypoxia condition, mRNA expression of HIF (Hypoxia Inducible Factor) -1α, -2α, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was compared between two groups by Real-time PCR. Also, in normoxia and hypoxia conditions, IL17RC expression changes and promoter CpG methylation status were evaluated by Real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) techniques, respectively. Overexpression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and VEGF was significant in hypoxia versus normoxia conditions. Our data showed overexpression of IL17RC (2.1- to 6.3-fold) and decreasing of its promoter methylation in comparison with hypoxia and normoxia conditions. It was found that there are significant association between promoter methylation status and expression of IL17RC in chemical hypoxia condition. Therefore, methylation of IL17RC could play as a marker in CNV and degeneration of RPE cells in vitro. Additionally, HIF-α and methylation phenomena may be considered as critical targets for blocking in angiogenesis of age-related degeneration in future studies.

  18. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  19. Modelling collective cell migration of neural crest

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, András; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Collective cell migration has emerged in the recent decade as an important phenomenon in cell and developmental biology and can be defined as the coordinated and cooperative movement of groups of cells. Most studies concentrate on tightly connected epithelial tissues, even though collective migration does not require a constant physical contact. Movement of mesenchymal cells is more independent, making their emergent collective behaviour less intuitive and therefore lending importance to computational modelling. Here we focus on such modelling efforts that aim to understand the collective migration of neural crest cells, a mesenchymal embryonic population that migrates large distances as a group during early vertebrate development. By comparing different models of neural crest migration, we emphasize the similarity and complementary nature of these approaches and suggest a future direction for the field. The principles derived from neural crest modelling could aid understanding the collective migration of other mesenchymal cell types. PMID:27085004

  20. Modelling collective cell migration of neural crest.

    PubMed

    Szabó, András; Mayor, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Collective cell migration has emerged in the recent decade as an important phenomenon in cell and developmental biology and can be defined as the coordinated and cooperative movement of groups of cells. Most studies concentrate on tightly connected epithelial tissues, even though collective migration does not require a constant physical contact. Movement of mesenchymal cells is more independent, making their emergent collective behaviour less intuitive and therefore lending importance to computational modelling. Here we focus on such modelling efforts that aim to understand the collective migration of neural crest cells, a mesenchymal embryonic population that migrates large distances as a group during early vertebrate development. By comparing different models of neural crest migration, we emphasize the similarity and complementary nature of these approaches and suggest a future direction for the field. The principles derived from neural crest modelling could aid understanding the collective migration of other mesenchymal cell types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glial cell migration in the eye disc.

    PubMed

    Silies, Marion; Yuva, Yeliz; Engelen, Daniel; Aho, Annukka; Stork, Tobias; Klämbt, Christian

    2007-11-28

    Any complex nervous system is made out of two major cell types, neurons and glial cells. A hallmark of glial cells is their pronounced ability to migrate. En route to their final destinations, glial cells are generally guided by neuronal signals. Here we show that in the developing visual system of Drosophila glial cell migration is largely controlled by glial-glial interactions and occurs independently of axonal contact. Differentiation into wrapping glia is initiated close to the morphogenetic furrow. Using single cell labeling experiments we identified six distinct glial cell types in the eye disc. The migratory glial population is separated from the wrapping glial cells by the so-called carpet cells, extraordinary large glial cells, each covering a surface area of approximately 10,000 epithelial cells. Subsequent cell ablation experiments demonstrate that the carpet glia regulates glial migration in the eye disc epithelium and suggest a new model underlying glial migration and differentiation in the developing visual system.

  2. Collective cell migration during inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Wound scratch healing assays of endothelial cell monolayers is a simple model to study collective cell migration as a function of biological signals. A signal of particular interest is the immune response, which after initial wounding in vivo causes the release of various inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α is an innate inflammatory cytokine that can induce cell growth, cell necrosis, and change cell morphology. We studied the effects of TNF-α on collective cell migration using the wound healing assays and measured several migration metrics, such as rate of scratch closure, velocities of leading edge and bulk cells, closure index, and velocity correlation functions between migrating cells. We observed that TNF-α alters all migratory metrics as a function of the size of the scratch and TNF-α content. The changes observed in migration correlate with actin reorganization upon TNF-α exposure.

  3. The RhoA Activator GEF-H1/Lfc Is a Transforming Growth Factor-β Target Gene and Effector That Regulates α-Smooth Muscle Actin Expression and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Tsapara, Anna; Luthert, Phillip; Greenwood, John; Hill, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Maintenance of the epithelial phenotype is crucial for tissue homeostasis. In the retina, dedifferentiation and loss of integrity of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) leads to retinal dysfunction and fibrosis. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β critically contributes to RPE dedifferentiation and induces various responses, including increased Rho signaling, up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and cell migration and dedifferentiation. Cellular TGF-β responses are stimulated by different signal transduction pathways: some are Smad dependent and others Smad independent. Alterations in Rho signaling are crucial to both types of TGF-β signaling, but how TGF-β-stimulates Rho signaling is poorly understood. Here, we show that primary RPE cells up-regulated GEF-H1 in response to TGF-β. GEF-H1 was the only detectable Rho exchange factor increased by TGF-β1 in a genome-wide expression analysis. GEF-H1 induction was Smad4-dependant and led to Rho activation. GEF-H1 inhibition counteracted α-SMA up-regulation and cell migration. In patients with retinal detachments and fibrosis, migratory RPE cells exhibited increased GEF-H1 expression, indicating that induction occurs in diseased RPE in vivo. Our data indicate that GEF-H1 is a target and functional effector of TGF-β by orchestrating Rho signaling to regulate gene expression and cell migration, suggesting that it represents a new marker and possible therapeutic target for degenerative and fibrotic diseases. PMID:20089843

  4. Novel Epigenetic Controlling of Hypoxia Pathway Related to Overexpression and Promoter Hypomethylation of TET1 and TET2 in RPE Cells.

    PubMed

    Alivand, Mohammad Reza; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Pornour, Majid; Solali, Saeed; Sabouni, Farzaneh

    2017-10-01

    CpG methylation of DNA takes part in a specific epigenetic memory that plays crucial roles in the differentiation and abnormality of the cells. The methylation pattern aberration of genomes is affected in three ways, namely DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), ten-eleven translocation (TET), and methyl-binding domain (MBD) proteins. Of these, TET enzymes have recently been demonstrated to be master modifier enzymes in the DNA methylation process. Additionally, recent studies emphasize that not only epigenetic phenomena play a role in controlling hypoxia pathway, but the hypoxia condition also triggers hypomethylation of genomes that may help with the expression of hypoxia pathway genes. In this study, we suggested that TET1 and TET2 could play a role in the demethylation of genomes under chemical hypoxia conditions. Herein, the evaluating methylation status and mRNA expression of mentioned genes were utilized through real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR (MSP), respectively. Our results showed that TET1 and TET2 genes were overexpressed (P < 0.05) under chemical hypoxia conditions in Retinal Pigment Epithelial (RPE) cells, whereas the promoter methylation status of them were hypomethylated in the same condition. Therefore, chemical hypoxia not only causes overexpression of TET1 and TET2 but also could gradually do promoter demethylation of same genes. This is the first study to show the relationship between epigenetics and the expression of mentioned genes related to hypoxia pathways. Furthermore, it seems that these associations in RPE cells are subjected to chemical hypoxia as a mechanism that could play a crucial role in methylation pattern changes of hypoxia-related diseases such as cancer and ischemia. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3193-3204, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  6. Effects of Secreted Mast Cell Mediators on Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Focus on Mast Cell Tryptase.

    PubMed

    Arai, Rei; Usui-Ouchi, Ayumi; Ito, Yosuke; Mashimo, Keitaro; Murakami, Akira; Ebihara, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Numerous mast cells are present in the choroid, but the effects of mast cell mediators on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are not well understood. We investigated the influence of mast cell mediators on RPE cells in vitro, focusing on tryptase. Expression of receptors was examined by the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also assessed production of interleukin 8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after RPE cells were stimulated with mast cell mediators by using an antibody array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of tryptase on RPE cell migration and integrity by the scratch assay and the transepithelial resistance. RPE cells expressed protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), histamine receptor 1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) receptor 1, and CCR 1, 3, 4, 8, and 11. Tryptase, PAR2 agonists, histamine, and TNF- α all enhanced interleukin 8 production by RPE cells, while only tryptase enhanced VEGF production. Tryptase also enhanced expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, resulting in increased migration of RPE cells. However, tryptase did not alter epithelial integrity or the expression of zonula occludens-1 and junctional adhesion molecule-A by RPE cells. Mast cell mediators, especially tryptase, may influence RPE cell inflammation.

  7. Cell migration in microengineered tumor environments.

    PubMed

    Um, Eujin; Oh, Jung Min; Granick, Steve; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-12-05

    Recent advances in microengineered cell migration platforms are discussed critically with a focus on how cell migration is influenced by engineered tumor microenvironments, the medical relevance being to understand how tumor microenvironments may promote or suppress the progression of cancer. We first introduce key findings in cancer cell migration under the influence of the physical environment, which is systematically controlled by microengineering technology, followed by multi-cues of physico-chemical factors, which represent the complexity of the tumor environment. Recognizing that cancer cells constantly communicate not only with each other but also with tumor-associated cells such as vascular, fibroblast, and immune cells, and also with non-cellular components, it follows that cell motility in tumor microenvironments, especially metastasis via the invasion of cancer cells into the extracellular matrix and other tissues, is closely related to the malignancy of cancer-related mortality. Medical relevance of forefront research realized in microfabricated devices, such as single cell sorting based on the analysis of cell migration behavior, may assist personalized theragnostics based on the cell migration phenotype. Furthermore, we urge development of theory and numerical understanding of single or collective cell migration in microengineered platforms to gain new insights in cancer metastasis and in therapeutic strategies.

  8. Repressed SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway and mitochondrial disintegration in iPSC-derived RPE disease model of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Golestaneh, Nady; Chu, Yi; Cheng, Shuk Kei; Cao, Hong; Poliakov, Eugenia; Berinstein, Daniel M

    2016-12-20

    Study of age related macular degeneration (AMD) has been hampered by lack of human models that represent the complexity of the disease. Here we have developed a human in vitro disease model of AMD to investigate the underlying AMD disease mechanisms. Generation of iPSCs from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of AMD donors, age-matched normal donors, skin fibroblasts of a dry AMD patient, and differentiation of iPSCs into RPE (AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE, normal RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE, respectively). Immunostaining, cell viability assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under oxidative stress conditions, electron microscopy (EM) imaging, ATP production and glycogen concentration assays, quantitative real time PCR, western blot, karyotyping. The AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE present functional impairment and exhibit distinct disease phenotypes compared to RPE-iPSC-RPE generated from normal donors (Normal RPE-iPSC-RPE). The AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE show increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under stress in accordance with recent reports. The susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced cell death in AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and Skin-iPSC-RPE was consistent with inability of the AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and Skin-iPSC-RPE to increase SOD2 expression under oxidative stress. Phenotypic analysis revealed disintegrated mitochondria, accumulation of autophagosomes and lipid droplets in AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE. Mitochondrial activity was significantly lower in AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE compared to normal cells and glycogen concentration was significantly increased in the diseased cells. Furthermore, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), a regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function was repressed, and lower expression levels of NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) were found in AMD RPE-iPSC-RPE and AMD Skin-iPSC-RPE

  9. Tumor cell migration in complex microenvironments

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, William J.; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cell migration is essential for invasion and dissemination from primary solid tumors and for the establishment of lethal secondary metastases at distant organs. In vivo and in vitro models enabled identification of different factors in the tumor microenvironment that regulate tumor progression and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which tumor cells integrate these chemical and mechanical signals from multiple sources to navigate the complex microenvironment remain poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the factors that influence tumor cell migration with a focus on the migration of transformed carcinoma cells. We provide an overview of the experimental and computational methods that allow the investigation of tumor cell migration, and we highlight the benefits and shortcomings of the various assays. We emphasize that the chemical and mechanical stimulus paradigms are not independent and that crosstalk between them motivates the development of new assays capable of applying multiple, simultaneous stimuli and imaging the cellular migratory response in real-time. These next-generation assays will more closely mimic the in vivo microenvironment to provide new insights into tumor progression, inform techniques to control tumor cell migration, and render cancer more treatable. PMID:22926411

  10. Nitric oxide measurements in hTERT-RPE cells and subcellular fractions exposed to low levels of red light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigle, Jeffrey C.; Castellanos, Cherry C.; Denton, Michael L.; Holwitt, Eric A.

    2014-02-01

    Cells in a tissue culture model for laser eye injury exhibit increased resistance to a lethal pulse of 2.0-μm laser radiation if the cells are first exposed to 2.88 J/cm2 of red light 24 hr prior to the lethal laser exposure. Changes in expression of various genes associated with apoptosis have been observed, but the biochemical link between light absorption and gene expression remains unknown. Cytochome c oxidase (CCOX), in the electron transport chain, is the currentlyhypothesized absorber. Absorption of the red light by CCOX is thought to facilitate displacement of nitric oxide (NO) by O2 in the active site, increasing cellular respiration and intracellular ATP. However, NO is also an important regulator and mediator of numerous physiological processes in a variety of cell and tissue types that is synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases. In an effort to determine the relative NO contributions from these competing pathways, we measured NO levels in whole cells and subcellular fractions, with and without exposure to red light, using DAF-FM, a fluorescent dye that stoichiometrically reacts with NO. Red light induced a small, but consistently reproducible, increase in fluorescence intensity in whole cells and some subcellular fractions. Whole cells exhibited the highest overall fluorescence intensity followed by (in order) cytosolic proteins, microsomes, then nuclei and mitochondria.

  11. Engineered Models of Confined Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Colin D.; Hung, Wei-Chien; Wirtz, Denis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Cells in the body are physically confined by neighboring cells, tissues, and the extracellular matrix. Although physical confinement modulates intracellular signaling and the underlying mechanisms of cell migration, it is difficult to study in vivo. Furthermore, traditional two-dimensional cell migration assays do not recapitulate the complex topographies found in the body. Therefore, a number of experimental in vitro models that confine and impose forces on cells in well-defined microenvironments have been engineered. We describe the design and use of microfluidic microchannel devices, grooved substrates, micropatterned lines, vertical confinement devices, patterned hydrogels, and micropipette aspiration assays for studying cell responses to confinement. Use of these devices has enabled the delineation of changes in cytoskeletal reorganization, cell–substrate adhesions, intracellular signaling, nuclear shape, and gene expression that result from physical confinement. These assays and the physiologically relevant signaling pathways that have been elucidated are beginning to have a translational and clinical impact. PMID:27420571

  12. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  13. Cancer Cell Migration in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirtz, Denis

    2014-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture systems have for a number of years provided a controlled and versatile environment for mechanistic studies of cell adhesion, polarization, and migration, three interrelated cell functions critical to cancer metastasis. However, the organization and functions of focal adhesion proteins, protrusion machinery, and microtubule-based polarization in cells embedded in physiologically more relevant 3D extracellular matrices is qualitatively different from their organization and functions on conventional 2D planar substrates. This talk will describe the implications of the dependence of focal adhesion protein-based cell migration on micro-environmental dimensionality (1D vs. 2D vs.. 3D), how cell micromechanics plays a critical role in promoting local cell invasion, and associated validation in mouse models. We will discuss the implications of this work in cancer metastasis.

  14. Bursts of activity in collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Chepizhko, Oleksandr; Giampietro, Costanza; Mastrapasqua, Eleonora; Nourazar, Mehdi; Ascagni, Miriam; Sugni, Michela; Fascio, Umberto; Leggio, Livio; Malinverno, Chiara; Scita, Giorgio; Santucci, Stéphane; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense monolayers of living cells display intriguing relaxation dynamics, reminiscent of soft and glassy materials close to the jamming transition, and migrate collectively when space is available, as in wound healing or in cancer invasion. Here we show that collective cell migration occurs in bursts that are similar to those recorded in the propagation of cracks, fluid fronts in porous media, and ferromagnetic domain walls. In analogy with these systems, the distribution of activity bursts displays scaling laws that are universal in different cell types and for cells moving on different substrates. The main features of the invasion dynamics are quantitatively captured by a model of interacting active particles moving in a disordered landscape. Our results illustrate that collective motion of living cells is analogous to the corresponding dynamics in driven, but inanimate, systems. PMID:27681632

  15. Impact of jamming on collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnetu, Kenechukwu David; Knorr, Melanie; Pawlizak, Steve; Fuhs, Thomas; Zink, Mareike; KäS, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    Multi-cellular migration plays an important role in physiological processes such as embryogenesis, cancer metastasis and tissue repair. During migration, single cells undergo cycles of extension, adhesion and retraction resulting in morphological changes. In a confluent monolayer, there are inter-cellular interactions and crowding, however, the impact of these interactions on the dynamics and elasticity of the monolayer at the multi-cellular and single cell level is not well understood. Here we study the dynamics of a confluent epithelial monolayer by simultaneously measuring cell motion at the multi-cellular and single cell level for various cell densities and tensile elasticity. At the multi-cellular level, the system exhibited spatial kinetic transitions from isotropic to anisotropic migration on long times and the velocity of the monolayer decreased with increasing cell density. Moreover, the dynamics was spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Interestingly, the dynamics was also heterogeneous in wound-healing assays and the correlation length was fitted by compressed exponential. On the single cell scale, we observed transient caging effects with increasing cage rearrangement times as the system age due to an increase in density. Also, the density dependent elastic modulus of the monolayer scaled as a weak power law. Together, these findings suggest that caging effects at the single cell level initiates a slow and heterogeneous dynamics at the multi-cellular level which is similar to the glassy dynamics of deformable colloidal systems.

  16. Modeling collective cell migration in geometric confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarle, Victoria; Gauquelin, Estelle; Vedula, S. R. K.; D'Alessandro, Joseph; Lim, C. T.; Ladoux, Benoit; Gov, Nir S.

    2017-06-01

    Monolayer expansion has generated great interest as a model system to study collective cell migration. During such an expansion the culture front often develops ‘fingers’, which we have recently modeled using a proposed feedback between the curvature of the monolayer’s leading edge and the outward motility of the edge cells. We show that this model is able to explain the puzzling observed increase of collective cellular migration speed of a monolayer expanding into thin stripes, as well as describe the behavior within different confining geometries that were recently observed in experiments. These comparisons give support to the model and emphasize the role played by the edge cells and the edge shape during collective cell motion.

  17. Modeling collective cell migration in geometric confinement.

    PubMed

    Tarle, Victoria; Gauquelin, Estelle; Vedula, S R K; D'Alessandro, Joseph; Lim, C T; Ladoux, Benoit; Gov, Nir S

    2017-05-03

    Monolayer expansion has generated great interest as a model system to study collective cell migration. During such an expansion the culture front often develops 'fingers', which we have recently modeled using a proposed feedback between the curvature of the monolayer's leading edge and the outward motility of the edge cells. We show that this model is able to explain the puzzling observed increase of collective cellular migration speed of a monolayer expanding into thin stripes, as well as describe the behavior within different confining geometries that were recently observed in experiments. These comparisons give support to the model and emphasize the role played by the edge cells and the edge shape during collective cell motion.

  18. Epithelial phenotype and the RPE: is the answer blowing in the Wnt?

    PubMed

    Burke, Janice M

    2008-11-01

    Cells of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have a regular epithelial cell shape within the tissue in situ, but for reasons that remain elusive the RPE shows an incomplete and variable ability to re-develop an epithelial phenotype after propagation in vitro. In other epithelial cell cultures, formation of an adherens junction (AJ) composed of E-cadherin plays an important early inductive role in epithelial morphogenesis, but E-cadherin is largely absent from the RPE. In this review, the contribution of cadherins, both minor (E-cadherin) and major (N-cadherin), to RPE phenotype development is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance for future studies of actin cytoskeletal remodeling during assembly of the AJ, which in epithelial cells results in an actin organization that is characteristically zonular. Other markers of RPE phenotype that are used to gauge the maturation state of RPE cultures including tissue-specific protein expression, protein polarity, and pigmentation are described. An argument is made that RPE epithelial phenotype, cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion and melanization are linked by a common signaling pathway: the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Analyzing this pathway and its intersecting signaling networks is suggested as a useful framework for dissecting the steps in RPE morphogenesis. Also discussed is the effect of aging on RPE phenotype. Preliminary evidence is provided to suggest that light-induced sub-lethal oxidative stress to cultured ARPE-19 cells impairs organelle motility. Organelle translocation, which is mediated by stress-susceptible cytoskeletal scaffolds, is an essential process in cell phenotype development and retention. The observation of impaired organelle motility therefore raises the possibility that low levels of stress, which are believed to accompany RPE aging, may produce subtle disruptions of cell phenotype. Over time these would be expected to diminish the support functions performed by the RPE on behalf of

  19. An Automated Method to Monitor Cell Migration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaever, Ivar; Keese, Charles R.

    2002-03-01

    Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) has been developed as a non-invasive means to follow cell behavior in culture. In this method cells are cultured on small (250 micrometer diameter) gold film electrodes. The impedance of the electrode is measured by an AC current about 1 microampere. When challenged by biochemical or physical stimuli the cells will respond by changing their morphology and motion. These changes are reflected in the measured impedance values. In this study, the basic ECIS system was used in both a non-invasive and invasive mode to carry out an automated wound-healing assay for quantifying cell migration activity. BSC-1, MDCK, and NRK cell lines were grown to confluence in ECIS wells before data was collected. An AC current of approximately 1 milliampere at 40,000 Hz was applied for several seconds, killing the cells in contact with the ECIS electrode and dropping the impedance to that of a cell-free electrode. For the next few hours following this incursion, the neighboring cells migrate into the wounded area replacing the dead cells, and the electrodes return to impedance values of unwounded controls. Data shows that the time required for the completion of this activity is strongly dependent upon cell type, medium composition, and the type of protein adsorbed to the substrate.

  20. Epithelial phenotype and the RPE: Is the answer blowing in the Wnt?

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Janice M.

    2008-01-01

    Cells of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) have a regular epithelial cell shape within the tissue in situ, but for reasons that remain elusive the RPE shows an incomplete and variable ability to re-develop an epithelial phenotype after propagation in vitro. In other epithelial cell cultures, formation of an adherens junction (AJ) composed of E-cadherin plays an important early inductive role in epithelial morphogenesis, but E-cadherin is largely absent from the RPE. In this review, the contribution of cadherins, both minor (E-cadherin) and major (N-cadherin), to RPE phenotype development is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance for future studies of actin cytoskeletal remodeling during assembly of the AJ, which in epithelial cells results in an actin organization that is characteristically zonular. Other markers of RPE phenotype that are used to gauge the maturation state of RPE cultures including tissue-specific protein expression, protein polarity, and pigmentation are described. An argument is made that RPE epithelial phenotype, cadherin-based cell–cell adhesion and melanization are linked by a common signaling pathway: the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Analyzing this pathway and its intersecting signaling networks is suggested as a useful framework for dissecting the steps in RPE morphogenesis. Also discussed is the effect of aging on RPE phenotype. Preliminary evidence is provided to suggest that light-induced sub-lethal oxidative stress to cultured ARPE-19 cells impairs organelle motility. Organelle translocation, which is mediated by stress-susceptible cytoskeletal scaffolds, is an essential process in cell phenotype development and retention. The observation of impaired organelle motility therefore raises the possibility that low levels of stress, which are believed to accompany RPE aging, may produce subtle disruptions of cell phenotype. Over time these would be expected to diminish the support functions performed by the RPE on behalf of

  1. Cadmium migration in aerospace nickel cadmium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of temperature, the nature of separator material, charge and discharge, carbonate contamination, and the mode of storage are studied with respect to the migration of active material from the negative toward the positive plate. A theoretical model is proposed which takes into account the solubility of cadmium in various concentrations of hydroxide and carbonate at different temperatures, the generation of the cadmiate ion, Cd(OH)3(-), during discharge, the migration of the cadmiate ion and particulate Cd(OH)2 due to electrophoretic effects and the movement of electrolyte in and out of the negative plate and, finally, the recrystallization of cadmiate ion in the separator as Cd(OH)2. Application of the theoretical model to observations of cadmium migration in cycled cells is also discussed.

  2. Cell Migration During Heart Regeneration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, preexisting cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. PMID:27085002

  3. Cell migration during heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Naoyuki; Brush, Michael; Kawakami, Yasuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Zebrafish possess the remarkable ability to regenerate injured hearts as adults, which contrasts the very limited ability in mammals. Although very limited, mammalian hearts do in fact have measurable levels of cardiomyocyte regeneration. Therefore, elucidating mechanisms of zebrafish heart regeneration would provide information of naturally occurring regeneration to potentially apply to mammalian studies, in addition to addressing this biologically interesting phenomenon in itself. Studies over the past 13 years have identified processes and mechanisms of heart regeneration in zebrafish. After heart injury, pre-existing cardiomyocytes dedifferentiate, enter the cell cycle, and repair the injured myocardium. This process requires interaction with epicardial cells, endocardial cells, and vascular endothelial cells. Epicardial cells envelope the heart, while endocardial cells make up the inner lining of the heart. They provide paracrine signals to cardiomyocytes to regenerate the injured myocardium, which is vascularized during heart regeneration. In addition, accumulating results suggest that local migration of these major cardiac cell types have roles in heart regeneration. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of various heart injury methods used in the research community and regeneration of the major cardiac cell types. Then, we discuss local migration of these cardiac cell types and immune cells during heart regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 245:774-787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extrinsic ion migration in perovskite solar cells

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Zhen; Xiao, Chuanxiao; Yang, Ye; ...

    2017-04-10

    In this study, the migration of intrinsic ions (e.g., MA +, Pb 2+, I –) in organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites has received significant attention with respect to the critical roles of these ions in the hysteresis and degradation in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Here, we demonstrate that extrinsic ions (e.g., Li +, H +, Na +), when used in the contact layers in PSCs, can migrate across the perovskite layer and strongly impact PSC operation. In a TiO 2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD-based PSC, Li +-ion migration from spiro-OMeTAD to the perovskite and TiO 2 layer is illustrated by time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The movementmore » of Li + ions in PSCs plays an important role in modulating the solar cell performance, tuning TiO 2 carrier-extraction properties, and affecting hysteresis in PSCs. The influence of Li +-ion migration was investigated using time-resolved photoluminescence, Kelvin probe force microscopy, and external quantum efficiency spectra. Other extrinsic ions such as H + and Na + also show a clear impact on the performance and hysteresis in PSCs. Understanding the impacts of extrinsic ions in perovskite-based devices could lead to new material and device designs to further advance perovskite technology for various applications.« less

  5. Platelets Inhibit Migration of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bulla, S C; Badial, P R; Silva, R C; Lunsford, K; Bulla, C

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between platelets and tumour cells is important for tumour growth and metastasis. Thrombocytopenia or antiplatelet treatment negatively impact on cancer metastasis, demonstrating potentially important roles for platelets in tumour progression. To our knowledge, there is no information regarding the role of platelets in cancer progression in dogs. This study was designed to test whether canine platelets affected the migratory behaviour of three canine osteosarcoma cell lines and to give insights of molecular mechanisms. Intact platelets, platelet lysate and platelet releasate inhibited the migration of canine osteosarcoma cell lines. Addition of blood leucocytes to the platelet samples did not alter the inhibitory effect on migration. Platelet treatment also significantly downregulated the transcriptional levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 genes. The interaction between canine platelets or molecules released during platelet activation and these tumour cell lines inhibits their migration, which suggests that canine platelets might antagonize metastasis of canine osteosarcoma. This effect is probably due to, at least in part, downregulation of genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Lung cells support osteosarcoma cell migration and survival.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shibing; Fourman, Mitchell Stephen; Mahjoub, Adel; Mandell, Jonathan Brendan; Crasto, Jared Anthony; Greco, Nicholas Giuseppe; Weiss, Kurt Richard

    2017-01-25

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor, with a propensity to metastasize to the lungs. Five-year survival for metastatic OS is below 30%, and has not improved for several decades despite the introduction of multi-agent chemotherapy. Understanding OS cell migration to the lungs requires an evaluation of the lung microenvironment. Here we utilized an in vitro lung cell and OS cell co-culture model to explore the interactions between OS and lung cells, hypothesizing that lung cells would promote OS cell migration and survival. The impact of a novel anti-OS chemotherapy on OS migration and survival in the lung microenvironment was also examined. Three human OS cell lines (SJSA-1, Saos-2, U-2) and two human lung cell lines (HULEC-5a, MRC-5) were cultured according to American Type Culture Collection recommendations. Human lung cell lines were cultured in growth medium for 72 h to create conditioned media. OS proliferation was evaluated in lung co-culture and conditioned media microenvironment, with a murine fibroblast cell line (NIH-3 T3) in fresh growth medium as controls. Migration and invasion were measured using a real-time cell analysis system. Real-time PCR was utilized to probe for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1) expression. Osteosarcoma cells were also transduced with a lentivirus encoding for GFP to permit morphologic analysis with fluorescence microscopy. The anti-OS efficacy of Disulfiram, an ALDH-inhibitor previously shown to inhibit OS cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro, was evaluated in each microenvironment. Lung-cell conditioned medium promoted osteosarcoma cell migration, with a significantly higher attractive effect on all three osteosarcoma cell lines compared to basic growth medium, 10% serum containing medium, and NIH-3 T3 conditioned medium (p <0.05). Lung cell conditioned medium induced cell morphologic changes, as demonstrated with GFP-labeled cells. OS cells cultured in lung cell conditioned medium had increased

  7. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    PubMed

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  8. Toddler signaling regulates mesodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Megan L; Pauli, Andrea; Gagnon, James A; Lord, Nathan D; Rogers, Katherine W; Mosimann, Christian; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-01-01

    Toddler/Apela/Elabela is a conserved secreted peptide that regulates mesendoderm development during zebrafish gastrulation. Two non-exclusive models have been proposed to explain Toddler function. The ‘specification model’ postulates that Toddler signaling enhances Nodal signaling to properly specify endoderm, whereas the ‘migration model’ posits that Toddler signaling regulates mesendodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling. Here, we test key predictions of both models. We find that in toddler mutants Nodal signaling is initially normal and increasing endoderm specification does not rescue mesendodermal cell migration. Mesodermal cell migration defects in toddler mutants result from a decrease in animal pole-directed migration and are independent of endoderm. Conversely, endodermal cell migration defects are dependent on a Cxcr4a-regulated tether of the endoderm to mesoderm. These results suggest that Toddler signaling regulates mesodermal cell migration downstream of Nodal signaling and indirectly affects endodermal cell migration via Cxcr4a-signaling. PMID:29117894

  9. Migration of cells in a social context

    PubMed Central

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savaş; Johnston, Darius M.; Bruus, Henrik; Quake, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory behavior characterized by short-time directional persistence with long-time random movement. We discovered a much richer dynamic in the social context, with significant variations in directionality, displacement, and speed, which are all modulated by local cell density. We developed a mathematical model based on the experimentally identified “cellular traffic rules” and basic physics that revealed that these emergent behaviors are caused by the interplay of single-cell properties and intercellular interactions, the latter being dominated by a pseudopod formation bias mediated by secreted chemicals and pseudopod collapse following collisions. The model demonstrates how aspects of complex biology can be explained by simple rules of physics and constitutes a rapid test bed for future studies of collective migration of individual cells. PMID:23251032

  10. Migration of cells in a social context.

    PubMed

    Vedel, Søren; Tay, Savaş; Johnston, Darius M; Bruus, Henrik; Quake, Stephen R

    2013-01-02

    In multicellular organisms and complex ecosystems, cells migrate in a social context. Whereas this is essential for the basic processes of life, the influence of neighboring cells on the individual remains poorly understood. Previous work on isolated cells has observed a stereotypical migratory behavior characterized by short-time directional persistence with long-time random movement. We discovered a much richer dynamic in the social context, with significant variations in directionality, displacement, and speed, which are all modulated by local cell density. We developed a mathematical model based on the experimentally identified "cellular traffic rules" and basic physics that revealed that these emergent behaviors are caused by the interplay of single-cell properties and intercellular interactions, the latter being dominated by a pseudopod formation bias mediated by secreted chemicals and pseudopod collapse following collisions. The model demonstrates how aspects of complex biology can be explained by simple rules of physics and constitutes a rapid test bed for future studies of collective migration of individual cells.

  11. Drosophila hemocyte migration: an in vivo assay for directional cell migration.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Carolina G A; Regan, Jennifer C; Zaidman-Rémy, Anna; Jacinto, Antonio; Prag, Soren

    2011-01-01

    This protocol describes an in vivo assay for random and directed hemocyte migration in Drosophila. Drosophila is becoming an increasingly powerful model system for in vivo cell migration analysis, combining unique genetic tools with translucency of the embryo and pupa, which allows direct imaging and traceability of different cell types. In the assay we present here, we make use of the hemocyte response to epithelium wounding to experimentally induce a transition from random to directed migration. Time-lapse confocal microscopy of hemocyte migration in untreated conditions provides a random cell migration assay that allows identification of molecular mechanisms involved in this complex process. Upon laser-induced wounding of the thorax epithelium, a rapid chemotactic response changes hemocyte migratory behavior into a directed migration toward the wound site. This protocol provides a direct comparison of cells during both types of migration in vivo, and combined with recently developed resources such as transgenic RNAi, is ideal for forward genetic screens.

  12. Dynamic contact guidance of migrating cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losert, Wolfgang; Sun, Xiaoyu; Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Fourkas, John

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the effects of nanotopographical surfaces on the cell migration and cell shape dynamics of the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Amoeboid motion exhibits significant contact guidance along surfaces with nanoscale ridges or grooves. We show quantitatively that nanoridges spaced 1.5 μm apart exhibit the greatest contact guidance efficiency. Using principal component analysis, we characterize the dynamics of the cell shape modulated by the coupling between the cell membrane and ridges. We show that motion parallel to the ridges is enhanced, while the turning, at the largest spatial scales, is suppressed. Since protrusion dynamics are principally governed by actin dynamics, we imaged the actin polymerization of cells on ridges. We found that actin polymerization occurs preferentially along nanoridges in a ``monorail'' like fashion. The ridges then provide us with a tool to study actin dynamics in an effectively reduced dimensional system.

  13. Alignment of cell division axes in directed epithelial cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Podewitz, Nils; Zorn, Matthias; Oskar Rädler, Joachim; Elgeti, Jens

    2014-11-01

    Cell division is an essential dynamic event in tissue remodeling during wound healing, cancer and embryogenesis. In collective migration, tensile stresses affect cell shape and polarity, hence, the orientation of the cell division axis is expected to depend on cellular flow patterns. Here, we study the degree of orientation of cell division axes in migrating and resting epithelial cell sheets. We use microstructured channels to create a defined scenario of directed cell invasion and compare this situation to resting but proliferating cell monolayers. In experiments, we find a strong alignment of the axis due to directed flow while resting sheets show very weak global order, but local flow gradients still correlate strongly with the cell division axis. We compare experimental results with a previously published mesoscopic particle based simulation model. Most of the observed effects are reproduced by the simulations.

  14. The Status of RPE65 Gene Therapy Trials: Safety and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Eric A.; Bennett, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Several groups have reported the results of clinical trials of gene augmentation therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) because of mutations in the RPE65 gene. These studies have used subretinal injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to deliver the human RPE65 cDNA to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the treated eyes. In all of the studies reported to date, this approach has been shown to be both safe and effective. The successful clinical trials of gene augmentation therapy for retinal degeneration caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene sets the stage for broad application of gene therapy to treat retinal degenerative disorders. PMID:25635059

  15. Light Activated Cell Migration in Synthetic Extracellular Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiongyu; Wang, Xiaobo; Tibbitt, Mark W.; Anseth, Kristi S.; Montell, Denise J.; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic extracellular matrices provide a framework in which cells can be exposed to defined physical and biological cues. However no method exists to manipulate single cells within these matrices. It is desirable to develop such methods in order to understand fundamental principles of cell migration and define conditions that support or inhibit cell movement within these matrices. Here, we present a strategy for manipulating individual mammalian stem cells in defined synthetic hydrogels through selective optical activation of Rac, which is an intracellular signaling protein that plays a key role in cell migration. Photoactivated cell migration in synthetic hydrogels depended on mechanical and biological cues in the biomaterial. Real-time hydrogel photodegradation was employed to create geometrically defined channels and spaces in which cells could be photoactivated to migrate. Cell migration speed was significantly higher in the photo-etched channels and cells could easily change direction of movement compared to the bulk hydrogels. PMID:22889487

  16. Fine Tuning Cell Migration by a Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, K.

    2017-01-01

    Cell migration is an instrumental process involved in organ development, tissue homeostasis, and various physiological processes and also in numerous pathologies. Both basic cell migration and migration towards chemotactic stimulus consist of changes in cell polarity and cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell detachment from, invasion through, and reattachment to their neighboring cells, and numerous interactions with the extracellular matrix. The different steps of immune cell, tissue cell, or cancer cell migration are tightly coordinated in time and place by growth factors, cytokines/chemokines, adhesion molecules, and receptors for these ligands. This review describes how a disintegrin and metalloproteinases interfere with several steps of cell migration, either by proteolytic cleavage of such molecules or by functions independent of proteolytic activity. PMID:28260841

  17. Texture sensing of cytoskeletal dynamics in cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Satarupa; Lee, Rachel; Hourwitz, Matthew J.; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John T.; Losert, Wolfgang

    Migrating cells can be directed towards a target by gradients in properties such as chemical concentration or mechanical properties of the surrounding microenvironment. In previous studies we have shown that micro/nanotopographical features on scales comparable to those of natural collagen fibers can guide fast migrating amoeboid cells by aligning actin polymerization waves to such nanostructures. We find that actin microfilaments and microtubules are aligned along the nanoridge topographies, modulating overall cell polarity and directional migration in epithelial cells. This work shows that topographic features on a biologically relevant length scale can modulate migration outcomes by affecting the texture sensing property of the cytoskeleton.

  18. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  19. Drusen in patient-derived hiPSC-RPE models of macular dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Chad A.; Dalvi, Sonal; Hung, Sandy S. C.; MacDonald, Leslie A.; Latchney, Lisa R.; Wong, Raymond C. B.; Guymer, Robyn H.; Williams, David S.; Chung, Mina M.; Gamm, David M.; Pébay, Alice; Hewitt, Alex W.; Singh, Ruchira

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and related macular dystrophies (MDs) are a major cause of vision loss. However, the mechanisms underlying their progression remain ill-defined. This is partly due to the lack of disease models recapitulating the human pathology. Furthermore, in vivo studies have yielded limited understanding of the role of specific cell types in the eye vs. systemic influences (e.g., serum) on the disease pathology. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cell-retinal pigment epithelium (hiPSC-RPE) derived from patients with three dominant MDs, Sorsby’s fundus dystrophy (SFD), Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy/malattia Leventinese (DHRD), and autosomal dominant radial drusen (ADRD), and demonstrate that dysfunction of RPE cells alone is sufficient for the initiation of sub-RPE lipoproteinaceous deposit (drusen) formation and extracellular matrix (ECM) alteration in these diseases. Consistent with clinical studies, sub-RPE basal deposits were present beneath both control (unaffected) and patient hiPSC-RPE cells. Importantly basal deposits in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures were more abundant and displayed a lipid- and protein-rich “drusen-like” composition. Furthermore, increased accumulation of COL4 was observed in ECM isolated from control vs. patient hiPSC-RPE cultures. Interestingly, RPE-specific up-regulation in the expression of several complement genes was also seen in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures of all three MDs (SFD, DHRD, and ADRD). Finally, although serum exposure was not necessary for drusen formation, COL4 accumulation in ECM, and complement pathway gene alteration, it impacted the composition of drusen-like deposits in patient hiPSC-RPE cultures. Together, the drusen model(s) of MDs described here provide fundamental insights into the unique biology of maculopathies affecting the RPE–ECM interface. PMID:28878022

  20. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Michelle L.; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A.; Schnell, Santiago; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2013-06-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns.

  1. Multi-Cellular Logistics of Collective Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Yamao, Masataka; Naoki, Honda; Ishii, Shin

    2011-01-01

    During development, the formation of biological networks (such as organs and neuronal networks) is controlled by multicellular transportation phenomena based on cell migration. In multi-cellular systems, cellular locomotion is restricted by physical interactions with other cells in a crowded space, similar to passengers pushing others out of their way on a packed train. The motion of individual cells is intrinsically stochastic and may be viewed as a type of random walk. However, this walk takes place in a noisy environment because the cell interacts with its randomly moving neighbors. Despite this randomness and complexity, development is highly orchestrated and precisely regulated, following genetic (and even epigenetic) blueprints. Although individual cell migration has long been studied, the manner in which stochasticity affects multi-cellular transportation within the precisely controlled process of development remains largely unknown. To explore the general principles underlying multicellular migration, we focus on the migration of neural crest cells, which migrate collectively and form streams. We introduce a mechanical model of multi-cellular migration. Simulations based on the model show that the migration mode depends on the relative strengths of the noise from migratory and non-migratory cells. Strong noise from migratory cells and weak noise from surrounding cells causes “collective migration,” whereas strong noise from non-migratory cells causes “dispersive migration.” Moreover, our theoretical analyses reveal that migratory cells attract each other over long distances, even without direct mechanical contacts. This effective interaction depends on the stochasticity of the migratory and non-migratory cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that stochastic behavior at the single-cell level works effectively and precisely to achieve collective migration in multi-cellular systems. PMID:22205934

  2. Robotic Patterning a Superhydrophobic Surface for Collective Cell Migration Screening.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yonggang; Yang, Jing; Hui, Zhixin; Grottkau, Brian E

    2018-04-01

    Collective cell migration, in which cells migrate as a group, is fundamental in many biological and pathological processes. There is increasing interest in studying the collective cell migration in high throughput. Cell scratching, insertion blocker, and gel-dissolving techniques are some methodologies used previously. However, these methods have the drawbacks of cell damage, substrate surface alteration, limitation in medium exchange, and solvent interference. The superhydrophobic surface, on which the water contact angle is greater than 150 degrees, has been recently utilized to generate patterned arrays. Independent cell culture areas can be generated on a substrate that functions the same as a conventional multiple well plate. However, so far there has been no report on superhydrophobic patterning for the study of cell migration. In this study, we report on the successful development of a robotically patterned superhydrophobic array for studying collective cell migration in high throughput. The array was developed on a rectangular single-well cell culture plate consisting of hydrophilic flat microwells separated by the superhydrophobic surface. The manufacturing process is robotic and includes patterning discrete protective masks to the substrate using 3D printing, robotic spray coating of silica nanoparticles, robotic mask removal, robotic mini silicone blocker patterning, automatic cell seeding, and liquid handling. Compared with a standard 96-well plate, our system increases the throughput by 2.25-fold and generates a cell-free area in each well non-destructively. Our system also demonstrates higher efficiency than conventional way of liquid handling using microwell plates, and shorter processing time than manual operating in migration assays. The superhydrophobic surface had no negative impact on cell viability. Using our system, we studied the collective migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and cancer cells using assays of endpoint

  3. 3D cancer cell migration in a confined matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alobaidi, Amani; Sun, Bo

    Cancer cell migration is widely studied in 2D motion, which does not mimic the invasion processes in vivo. More recently, 3D cell migration studies have been performed. The ability of cancer cells to migrate within the extracellular matrix depends on the physical and biochemical features of the extracellular matrix. We present a model of cell motility in confined matrix geometry. The aim of the study is to study cancer migration in collagen matrix, as a soft tissue, to investigate their motility within the confined and surrounding collagen environment. Different collagen concentrations have been used to show the ability of these cancer cells to move through such a complex structure by measuring Cancer cell migration velocity as well as the displacement. Graduate student physics department.

  4. Loss of Hfe Leads to Progression of Tumor Phenotype in Primary Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gnana-Prakasam, Jaya P.; Veeranan-Karmegam, Rajalakshmi; Coothankandaswamy, Veena; Reddy, Sushma K.; Martin, Pamela M.; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Smith, Sylvia B.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Hemochromatosis is a disorder of iron overload arising mostly from mutations in HFE. HFE is expressed in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and Hfe−/− mice develop age-related iron accumulation and retinal degeneration associated with RPE hyperproliferation. Here, the mechanism underlying the hyperproliferative phenotype in RPE was investigated. Methods. Cellular senescence was monitored by β-galactosidase activity. Gene expression was monitored by real-time PCR. Survivin was analyzed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Migration and invasion were monitored using appropriate kits. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) were monitored by 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) were studied by monitoring catalytic activity and acetylation status of histones H3/H4. Results. Hfe−/− RPE cells exhibited slower senescence rate and higher survivin expression than wild type cells. Hfe−/− cells migrated faster and showed greater glucose uptake and increased expression of GLUTs. The expression of HDACs and DNA methyltransferase (DNMTs) also was increased. Similarly, RPE cells from hemojuvelin (Hjv)-knockout mice, another model of hemochromatosis, also had increased expression of GLUTs, HDACs, and DNMTs. The expression of Slc5a8 was decreased in Hfe−/− RPE cells, but treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor restored the transporter expression, indicating involvement of DNA methylation in the silencing of Slc5a8 in Hfe−/− cells. Conclusions. RPE cells from iron-overloaded mice exhibit several features of tumor cells: decreased senescence, enhanced migration, increased glucose uptake, and elevated levels of HDACs and DNMTs. These features are seen in Hfe−/− RPE cells as well as in Hjv−/− RPE cells, providing a molecular basis for the hyperproliferative phenotype of Hfe−/− and Hjv−/− RPE cells. PMID:23169885

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Cell Migration Using Optical Flow

    PubMed Central

    Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations. PMID:23936049

  6. Gaussian Curvature Directs Stress Fiber Orientation and Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Bade, Nathan D; Xu, Tina; Kamien, Randall D; Assoian, Richard K; Stebe, Kathleen J

    2018-03-27

    We show that substrates with nonzero Gaussian curvature influence the organization of stress fibers and direct the migration of cells. To study the role of Gaussian curvature, we developed a sphere-with-skirt surface in which a positive Gaussian curvature spherical cap is seamlessly surrounded by a negative Gaussian curvature draping skirt, both with principal radii similar to cell-length scales. We find significant reconfiguration of two subpopulations of stress fibers when fibroblasts are exposed to these curvatures. Apical stress fibers in cells on skirts align in the radial direction and avoid bending by forming chords across the concave gap, whereas basal stress fibers bend along the convex direction. Cell migration is also strongly influenced by the Gaussian curvature. Real-time imaging shows that cells migrating on skirts repolarize to establish a leading edge in the azimuthal direction. Thereafter, they migrate in that direction. This behavior is notably different from migration on planar surfaces, in which cells typically migrate in the same direction as the apical stress fiber orientation. Thus, this platform reveals that nonzero Gaussian curvature not only affects the positioning of cells and alignment of stress fiber subpopulations but also directs migration in a manner fundamentally distinct from that of migration on planar surfaces. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell Migration in 1D and 2D Nanofiber Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Estabridis, Horacio M; Jana, Aniket; Nain, Amrinder; Odde, David J

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how cells migrate in fibrous environments is important in wound healing, immune function, and cancer progression. A key question is how fiber orientation and network geometry influence cell movement. Here we describe a quantitative, modeling-based approach toward identifying the mechanisms by which cells migrate in fibrous geometries having well controlled orientation. Specifically, U251 glioblastoma cells were seeded onto non-electrospinning Spinneret based tunable engineering parameters fiber substrates that consist of networks of suspended 400 nm diameter nanofibers. Cells were classified based on the local fiber geometry and cell migration dynamics observed by light microscopy. Cells were found in three distinct geometries: adhering two a single fiber, adhering to two parallel fibers, and adhering to a network of orthogonal fibers. Cells adhering to a single fiber or two parallel fibers can only move in one dimension along the fiber axis, whereas cells on a network of orthogonal fibers can move in two dimensions. We found that cells move faster and more persistently in 1D geometries than in 2D, with cell migration being faster on parallel fibers than on single fibers. To explain these behaviors mechanistically, we simulated cell migration in the three different geometries using a motor-clutch based model for cell traction forces. Using nearly identical parameter sets for each of the three cases, we found that the simulated cells naturally replicated the reduced migration in 2D relative to 1D geometries. In addition, the modestly faster 1D migration on parallel fibers relative to single fibers was captured using a correspondingly modest increase in the number of clutches to reflect increased surface area of adhesion on parallel fibers. Overall, the integrated modeling and experimental analysis shows that cell migration in response to varying fibrous geometries can be explained by a simple mechanical readout of geometry via a motor-clutch mechanism.

  8. Silk Film Topography Directs Collective Epithelial Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography’s edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization. PMID:23185573

  9. Function of MYO7A in the Human RPE and the Validity of Shaker1 Mice as a Model for Usher Syndrome 1B

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Daniel; Diemer, Tanja; Khanobdee, Kornnika; Hu, Jane; Bok, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the function of MYO7A in human RPE cells and to test the validity of using shaker1 RPE in preclinical studies on therapies for Usher syndrome 1B by comparing human and mouse cells. Methods. MYO7A was localized by immunofluorescence. Primary cultures of human and mouse RPE cells were used to measure melanosome motility and rod outer segment (ROS) phagocytosis and digestion. MYO7A was knocked down in the human RPE cells by RNAi to test for a mutant phenotype in melanosome motility. Results. The distribution of MYO7A in the RPE of human and mouse was found to be comparable, both in vivo and in primary cultures. Primary cultures of human RPE cells phagocytosed and digested ROSs with kinetics comparable to that of primary cultures of mouse RPE cells. Melanosome motility was also comparable, and, after RNAi knockdown, consisted of longer-range fast movements characteristic of melanosomes in shaker1 RPE. Conclusions. The localization and function of MYO7A in human RPE cells is comparable to that in mouse RPE cells. Although shaker1 retinas do not undergo degeneration, correction of mutant phenotypes in the shaker1 RPE represents a valid preclinical test for potential therapeutic treatments. PMID:19643958

  10. Cancer cell motility: lessons from migration in confined spaces

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Colin D.; Mistriotis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Time-lapse, deep-tissue imaging made possible by advances in intravital microscopy has demonstrated the importance of tumour cell migration through confining tracks in vivo. These tracks may either be endogenous features of tissues or be created by tumour or tumour-associated cells. Importantly, migration mechanisms through confining microenvironments are not predicted by 2D migration assays. Engineered in vitro models have been used to delineate the mechanisms of cell motility through confining spaces encountered in vivo. Understanding cancer cell locomotion through physiologically relevant confining tracks could be useful in developing therapeutic strategies to combat metastasis. PMID:27909339

  11. Using Single-Protein Tracking to Study Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Orré, Thomas; Mehidi, Amine; Massou, Sophie; Rossier, Olivier; Giannone, Grégory

    2018-01-01

    To get a complete understanding of cell migration, it is critical to study its orchestration at the molecular level. Since the recent developments in single-molecule imaging, it is now possible to study molecular phenomena at the single-molecule level inside living cells. In this chapter, we describe how such approaches have been and can be used to decipher molecular mechanisms involved in cell migration.

  12. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM

    SciTech Connect

    Monzo, Hector J.; Coppieters, Natacha; Department of Anatomy and Medical Imaging, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag, 92019, Auckland

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cellmore » migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. - Highlights: • Insulin modulates PSA-NCAM turnover through upregulation of p-FAK. • P-FAK modulates αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clustering. • αv-integrin acts as a carrier for PSA-NCAM endocytosis. • Cell migration is promoted by cell surface PSA. • Insulin promotes PSA-dependent migration in vitro.« less

  13. Low-level stretching accelerates cell migration into a gap.

    PubMed

    Toume, Samer; Gefen, Amit; Weihs, Daphne

    2017-08-01

    We observed that radially stretching cell monolayers at a low level (3%) increases the rate at which they migrate to close a gap formed by in vitro injury. Wound healing has been shown to accelerate in vivo when deformations are topically applied, for example, by negative pressure wound therapy. However, the direct effect of deformations on cell migration during gap closure is still unknown. Thus, we have evaluated the effect of radially applied, sustained (static) tensile strain on the kinematics of en mass cell migration. Monolayers of murine fibroblasts were cultured on stretchable, linear-elastic substrates that were subjected to different tensile strains, using a custom-designed three-dimensionally printed stretching apparatus. Immediately following stretching, the monolayer was 'wounded' at its centre, and cell migration during gap closure was monitored and quantitatively evaluated. We observed a significant increase in normalised migration rates and a reduction of gap closure time with 3% stretching, relative to unstretched controls or 6% stretch. Interestingly, the initial gap area was linearly correlated with the maximum migration rate, especially when stretching was applied. Therefore, small deformations applied to cell monolayers during gap closure enhance en mass cell migration associated with wound healing and can be used to fine-tune treatment protocols. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Collective dynamics of cell migration and cell rearrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre

    Understanding multicellular processes such as embryo development or cancer metastasis requires to decipher the contributions of local cell autonomous behaviours and long range interactions with the tissue environment. A key question in this context concerns the emergence of large scale coordination in cell behaviours, a requirement for collective cell migration or convergent extension. I will present a few examples where physical and mechanical aspects play a significant role in driving tissue scale dynamics.

  1. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-10-31

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Sry-like high mobility group box 15 ( SOX15 ) on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low expression SOX15 Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein, respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while down-regulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell-cycle arrest in G 1 stage. In addition, Transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also down-regulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and up- regulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Cultured Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial (hRPE) Sheets: A Search for Suitable Storage Conditions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ayyad Z; Utheim, Tor P; Reppe, Sjur; Sandvik, Leiv; Lyberg, Torstein; Roald, Borghild B-H; Ibrahim, Ibrahim B; Eidet, Jon R

    2018-04-01

    The advancement of human retinal pigment epithelial cell (hRPE) replacement therapy is partly dependent on optimization of cell culture, cell preservation, and storage medium. This study was undertaken to search for a suitable storage temperature and storage medium for hRPE. hRPE monolayer sheets were cultured under standard conditions at 37°C and then randomized for storage at six temperatures (4, 16, 20, 24, 28, and 37°C) for 7 days. After revealing a suitable storage temperature, hRPE sheets were subsequently stored with and without the silk protein sericin added to the storage medium. Live/dead assay, light microscopy, pH, and phenotypic expression of various proteins were used to assess cell cultures stored at different temperatures. After 7 days of storage, hRPE morphology was best preserved at 4°C. Addition of sericin to the storage medium maintained the characteristic morphology of the preserved cells, and improved pigmentation and levels of pigmentation-related proteins in the cultured hRPE sheets following a 7-day storage period at 4°C.

  3. 3D printing of biomimetic microstructures for cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tina Qing; Qu, Xin; Liu, Justin; Chen, Shaochen

    2014-02-01

    To understand the physical behavior and migration of cancer cells, a 3D in vitro micro-chip in hydrogel was created using 3D projection printing. The micro-chip has a honeycomb branched structure, aiming to mimic 3D vascular morphology to test, monitor, and analyze differences in the behavior of cancer cells (i.e. HeLa) vs. non-cancerous cell lines (i.e. 10 T1/2). The 3D Projection Printing system can fabricate complex structures in seconds from user-created designs. The fabricated microstructures have three different channel widths of 25, 45, and 120 microns wide to reflect a range of blood vessel diameters. HeLa and 10 T1/2 cells seeded within the micro-chip were then analyzed for morphology and cell migration speed. 10 T1/2 cells exhibited greater changes in morphology due to channel size width than HeLa cells; however, channel width had a limited effect on 10 T1/2 cell migration while HeLa cancer cell migration increased as channel width decreased. This physiologically relevant 3D cancer tissue model has the potential to be a powerful tool for future drug discoveries and cancer migration studies.

  4. Gradient biomaterials and their influences on cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jindan; Mao, Zhengwei; Tan, Huaping; Han, Lulu; Ren, Tanchen; Gao, Changyou

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration participates in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. The cells specifically migrate to destiny sites induced by the gradually varying concentration (gradient) of soluble signal factors and the ligands bound with the extracellular matrix in the body during a wound healing process. Therefore, regulation of the cell migration behaviours is of paramount importance in regenerative medicine. One important way is to create a microenvironment that mimics the in vivo cellular and tissue complexity by incorporating physical, chemical and biological signal gradients into engineered biomaterials. In this review, the gradients existing in vivo and their influences on cell migration are briefly described. Recent developments in the fabrication of gradient biomaterials for controlling cellular behaviours, especially the cell migration, are summarized, highlighting the importance of the intrinsic driving mechanism for tissue regeneration and the design principle of complicated and advanced tissue regenerative materials. The potential uses of the gradient biomaterials in regenerative medicine are introduced. The current and future trends in gradient biomaterials and programmed cell migration in terms of the long-term goals of tissue regeneration are prospected. PMID:23741610

  5. Emergent patterns of collective cell migration under tubular confinement.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wang; Sonam, Surabhi; Beng Saw, Thuan; Ladoux, Benoit; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-11-15

    Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature. In contrast to flat constraint, the cell sheets in a highly constricted smaller microtube demonstrate slow motion with periodic relaxation, but fast overall movement in large microtubes. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the emerging migratory modes for epithelial migration and growth under tubular confinement, which are reminiscent of the in vivo scenario.

  6. Deterministic Migration-Based Separation of White Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Young Joon; Seo, Hyekyung; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-10-01

    Functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells provide useful clinical information. However, separation of white blood cells from peripheral blood requires a time-consuming, inconvenient process and thus analyses of separated white blood cells are limited in clinical settings. To overcome this limitation, a microfluidic separation platform is developed to enable deterministic migration of white blood cells, directing the cells into designated positions according to a ridge pattern. The platform uses slant ridge structures on the channel top to induce the deterministic migration, which allows efficient and high-throughput separation of white blood cells from unprocessed whole blood. The extent of the deterministic migration under various rheological conditions is explored, enabling highly efficient migration of white blood cells in whole blood and achieving high-throughput separation of the cells (processing 1 mL of whole blood less than 7 min). In the separated cell population, the composition of lymphocyte subpopulations is well preserved, and T cells secrete cytokines without any functional impairment. On the basis of the results, this microfluidic platform is a promising tool for the rapid enrichment of white blood cells, and it is useful for functional and phenotypic analyses of peripheral white blood cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. S-Fms signalobody enhances myeloid cell growth and migration.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Masahiro; Hitomi, Azusa; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2014-07-01

    Since receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) control various cell fates in many types of cells, mimicry of RTK functions is promising for artificial control of cell fates. We have previously developed single-chain Fv (scFv)/receptor chimeras named signalobodies that can mimic receptor signaling in response to a specific antigen. While the RTK-based signalobodies enabled us to control cell growth and migration, further extension of applicability in another cell type would underlie the impact of the RTK-based signalobodies. In this study, we applied the scFv-c-Fms (S-Fms) signalobody in a murine myeloid progenitor cell line, FDC-P1. S-Fms transduced a fluorescein-conjugated BSA (BSA-FL)-dependent growth signal and activated downstream signaling molecules including MEK, ERK, Akt, and STAT3, which are major constituents of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. In addition, S-Fms transduced a migration signal as demonstrated by the transwell-based migration assay. Direct real-time observation of the cells further confirmed that FDC/S-Fms cells underwent directional cell migration toward a positive gradient of BSA-FL. These results demonstrated the utility of the S-Fms signalobody for controlling growth and migration of myeloid cells. Further extension of our approach includes economical large-scale production of practically relevant blood cells as well as artificial control of cell migration for tissue regeneration and immune response. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Dynamics and detection of laser induced microbubbles in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Andreas; Ptaszynski, Lars; Stoehr, Hardo; Brinkmann, Ralf

    2007-07-01

    Selective Retina Treatment (SRT) is a new method to treat eye diseases associated with disorders of the RPE. Selective RPE cell damage is achieved by applying a train of 1.7 μs laser pulses at 527 nm. The treatment of retinal diseases as e.g. diabetic maculopathy (DMP), is currently investigated within clinical studies, however 200 ns pulse durations are under investigation. Transient micro bubbles in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) are expected to be the origin of cell damage due to irradiation with laser pulses shorter than 50 μs. The bubbles emerge at the strongly absorbing RPE melanosomes. Cell membrane disruption caused by the transient associated volume increase is expected to be the origin of the angiographically observed RPE leakage. We investigate micro bubble formation and dynamics in porcine RPE using pulse durations of 150 ns. A laser interferometry system at 830 nm with the aim of an online dosimetry control for SRT was developed. Bubble formation was detected interferometrically and by fast flash photography. A correlation to cell damage observed with a vitality stain is found. A bubble detection algorithm is presented.

  9. Stem cell factor supports migration in canine mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Nathaly; Ostronoff, Luciana L K; Mejías, Guillermo; León, Leticia G; Fermín, María Luisa; Merino, Elena; Fragio, Cristina; Avedillo, Luis; Tejero, Concepción

    2018-03-01

    Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) are cells that can be defined as multipotent cells able to differentiate into diverse lineages, under appropriate conditions. These cells have been widely used in regenerative medicine, both in preclinical and clinical settings. Initially discovered in bone marrow, MSC can now be isolated from a wide spectrum of adult and foetal tissues. Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of these cells are based on their ability to arrive to damaged tissues. In this paper we have done a comparative study analyzing proliferation, surface markers and OCT4, SOX9, RUNX2, PPARG genes expression in MSC cells from Bone marrow (BMMSC) and Adipose tissue (ASC). We also analyzed the role of Stem Cell Factor (SCF) on MSC proliferation and on ASCs metalloproteinases MMP-2, MMP-9 secretion. Healthy dogs were used as BMMSC donors, and ASC were collected from omentum during elective ovariohysterectomy surgery. Both cell types were cultured in IMDM medium with or without SCF, 10% Dog Serum (DS), and incubated at 38 °C with 5% CO2. Growth of BMMSCs and ASCs was exponential until 25-30 days. Flow citometry of MSCs revealed positive results for CD90 and negative for CD34, CD45 and MCH-II. Genes were evaluated by RT-PCR and metalloproteinases by zymografy. Our findings indicate morphological and immunological similarities as well as expression of genes from both origins on analyzed cells. Furthermore, SCF did not affect proliferation of MSCs, however it up-regulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion in ASCs. These results suggest that metalloproteinases are possibly essential molecules pivoting migration.

  10. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Aimee; Maclaren, Oliver J.; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Muraro, Daniele; Kreuzaler, Peter A.; Byrne, Helen M.; Maini, Philip K.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Pin, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The functional integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier relies on tight coordination of cell proliferation and migration, with failure to regulate these processes resulting in disease. It is not known whether cell proliferation is sufficient to drive epithelial cell migration during homoeostatic turnover of the epithelium. Nor is it known precisely how villus cell migration is affected when proliferation is perturbed. Some reports suggest that proliferation and migration may not be related while other studies support a direct relationship. We used established cell-tracking methods based on thymine analog cell labeling and developed tailored mathematical models to quantify cell proliferation and migration under normal conditions and when proliferation is reduced and when it is temporarily halted. We found that epithelial cell migration velocities along the villi are coupled to cell proliferation rates within the crypts in all conditions. Furthermore, halting and resuming proliferation results in the synchronized response of cell migration on the villi. We conclude that cell proliferation within the crypt is the primary force that drives cell migration along the villus. This methodology can be applied to interrogate intestinal epithelial dynamics and characterize situations in which processes involved in cell turnover become uncoupled, including pharmacological treatments and disease models.—Parker, A., Maclaren, O. J., Fletcher, A. G., Muraro, D., Kreuzaler, P. A., Byrne, H. M., Maini, P. K., Watson, A. J. M., Pin, C. Cell proliferation within small intestinal crypts is the principal driving force for cell migration on villi. PMID:27811059

  11. Cell Migration in Tissues: Explant Culture and Live Imaging.

    PubMed

    Staneva, Ralitza; Barbazan, Jorge; Simon, Anthony; Vignjevic, Danijela Matic; Krndija, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Cell migration is a process that ensures correct cell localization and function in development and homeostasis. In disease such as cancer, cells acquire an upregulated migratory capacity that leads to their dissemination throughout the body. Live imaging of cell migration allows for better understanding of cell behaviors in development, adult tissue homeostasis and disease. We have optimized live imaging procedures to track cell migration in adult murine tissue explants derived from: (1) healthy gut; (2) primary intestinal carcinoma; and (3) the liver, a common metastatic site. To track epithelial cell migration in the gut, we generated an inducible fluorescent reporter mouse, enabling us to visualize and track individual cells in unperturbed gut epithelium. To image intratumoral cancer cells, we use a spontaneous intestinal cancer model based on the activation of Notch1 and deletion of p53 in the mouse intestinal epithelium, which gives rise to aggressive carcinoma. Interaction of cancer cells with a metastatic niche, the mouse liver, is addressed using a liver colonization model. In summary, we describe a method for long-term 3D imaging of tissue explants by two-photon excitation microscopy. Explant culturing and imaging can help understand dynamic behavior of cells in homeostasis and disease, and would be applicable to various tissues.

  12. Multiscale mechanisms of cell migration during development: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Rebecca; Dyson, Louise; Prather, Katherine W; Morrison, Jason A; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K; Kulesa, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    Long-distance cell migration is an important feature of embryonic development, adult morphogenesis and cancer, yet the mechanisms that drive subpopulations of cells to distinct targets are poorly understood. Here, we use the embryonic neural crest (NC) in tandem with theoretical studies to evaluate model mechanisms of long-distance cell migration. We find that a simple chemotaxis model is insufficient to explain our experimental data. Instead, model simulations predict that NC cell migration requires leading cells to respond to long-range guidance signals and trailing cells to short-range cues in order to maintain a directed, multicellular stream. Experiments confirm differences in leading versus trailing NC cell subpopulations, manifested in unique cell orientation and gene expression patterns that respond to non-linear tissue growth of the migratory domain. Ablation experiments that delete the trailing NC cell subpopulation reveal that leading NC cells distribute all along the migratory pathway and develop a leading/trailing cellular orientation and gene expression profile that is predicted by model simulations. Transplantation experiments and model predictions that move trailing NC cells to the migratory front, or vice versa, reveal that cells adopt a gene expression profile and cell behaviors corresponding to the new position within the migratory stream. These results offer a mechanistic model in which leading cells create and respond to a cell-induced chemotactic gradient and transmit guidance information to trailing cells that use short-range signals to move in a directional manner.

  13. Physical confinement alters tumor cell adhesion and migration phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Balzer, Eric M.; Tong, Ziqiu; Paul, Colin D.; Hung, Wei-Chien; Stroka, Kimberly M.; Boggs, Amanda E.; Martin, Stuart S.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration on planar surfaces is driven by cycles of actin protrusion, integrin-mediated adhesion, and myosin-mediated contraction; however, this mechanism may not accurately describe movement in 3-dimensional (3D) space. By subjecting cells to restrictive 3D environments, we demonstrate that physical confinement constitutes a biophysical stimulus that alters cell morphology and suppresses mesenchymal motility in human breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-231). Dorsoventral polarity, stress fibers, and focal adhesions are markedly attenuated by confinement. Inhibitors of myosin, Rho/ROCK, or β1-integrins do not impair migration through 3-μm-wide channels (confinement), even though these treatments repress motility in 50-μm-wide channels (unconfined migration) by ≥50%. Strikingly, confined migration persists even when F-actin is disrupted, but depends largely on microtubule (MT) dynamics. Interfering with MT polymerization/depolymerization causes confined cells to undergo frequent directional changes, thereby reducing the average net displacement by ≥80% relative to vehicle controls. Live-cell EB1-GFP imaging reveals that confinement redirects MT polymerization toward the leading edge, where MTs continuously impact during advancement of the cell front. These results demonstrate that physical confinement can induce cytoskeletal alterations that reduce the dependence of migrating cells on adhesion-contraction force coupling. This mechanism may explain why integrins can exhibit reduced or altered function during migration in 3D environments.—Balzer, E. M., Tong, Z., Paul, C. D., Hung, W.-C., Stroka, K. M., Boggs, A. E., Martin, S. S., Konstantopoulos, K. Physical confinement alters tumor cell adhesion and migration phenotypes. PMID:22707566

  14. Activation of a C. elegans Antennapedia homologue in migrating cells controls their direction of migration.

    PubMed

    Salser, S J; Kenyon, C

    1992-01-16

    Anterior-posterior patterning in insects, vertebrates and nematodes involves members of conserved Antennapedia-class homeobox gene clusters (HOM-C) that are thought to give specific body regions their identities. The effects of these genes on region-specific body structures have been described extensively, particularly in Drosophila, but little is known about how HOM-C genes affect the behaviours of cells that migrate into their domains of function. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Antennapedia-like HOM-C gene mab-5 not only specifies postembryonic fates of cells in a posterior body region, but also influences the migration of mesodermal and neural cells that move through this region. Here we show that as one neuroblast migrates into this posterior region, it switches on mab-5 gene expression; mab-5 then acts as a developmental switch to control the migratory behaviour of the neuroblast descendants. HOM-C genes can therefore not only direct region-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation, but can also act within migrating cells to programme region-specific migratory behaviour.

  15. Effects of TNF-alpha on Endothelial Cell Collective Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Desu; Wu, Di; Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Jose; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a small cell-signaling protein usually released by monocytes and macrophages during an inflammatory response. Previous work had shown the effects of TNF-alpha on single cell morphology, migration, and biomechanical properties. However, the effect on collective migrations remains unexplored. In this work, we have created scratches on monolayers of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with 25ng/mL TNF-alpha on glass substrates. The wound healing like processes were imaged with phase contrast microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the collective migration of cells treated with TNF-alpha indicates that these cells maintain their persistent motion and alignment better than untreated cells. In addition, the collective migration was characterized by measuring the amount of non-affine deformations of the wound healing monolayer. We found a lower mean non-affinity and narrower distribution of non-affinities upon TNF-alpha stimulation. These results suggest that TNF-alpha introduces a higher degree of organized cell collective migration.

  16. Fibronectin in cell adhesion and migration via N-glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Cheng, Hung-Wei; Huang, Chi-Ming; Li, Hao-Ru; Ou, Meng-Hsin; Huang, Jie-Rong; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Yu, Helen Wenshin; Chen, Yin-Quan; Wang, Yang-Kao; Chiou, Arthur; Kuo, Jean-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Directed cell migration is an important step in effective wound healing and requires the dynamic control of the formation of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Plasma fibronectin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein present in blood plasma that plays crucial roles in modulating cellular adhesion and migration and thereby helping to mediate all steps of wound healing. In order to seek safe sources of plasma fibronectin for its practical use in wound dressing, we isolated fibronectin from human (homo) and porcine plasma and demonstrated that both have a similar ability as a suitable substrate for the stimulation of cell adhesion and for directing cell migration. In addition, we also defined the N-glycosylation sites and N-glycans present on homo and porcine plasma fibronectin. These N-glycosylation modifications of the plasma fibronectin synergistically support the integrin-mediated signals to bring about mediating cellular adhesion and directed cell migration. This study not only determines the important function of N-glycans in both homo and porcine plasma fibronectin-mediated cell adhesion and directed cell migration, but also reveals the potential applications of porcine plasma fibronectin if it was applied as a material for clinical wound healing and tissue repair. PMID:29050309

  17. Insulin promotes cell migration by regulating PSA-NCAM.

    PubMed

    Monzo, Hector J; Coppieters, Natacha; Park, Thomas I H; Dieriks, Birger V; Faull, Richard L M; Dragunow, Mike; Curtis, Maurice A

    2017-06-01

    Cellular interactions with the extracellular environment are modulated by cell surface polysialic acid (PSA) carried by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). PSA-NCAM is involved in cellular processes such as differentiation, plasticity, and migration, and is elevated in Alzheimer's disease as well as in metastatic tumour cells. Our previous work demonstrated that insulin enhances the abundance of cell surface PSA by inhibiting PSA-NCAM endocytosis. In the present study we have identified a mechanism for insulin-dependent inhibition of PSA-NCAM turnover affecting cell migration. Insulin enhanced the phosphorylation of the focal adhesion kinase leading to dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters, and promoted cell migration. Our results show that αv-integrin plays a key role in the PSA-NCAM turnover process. αv-integrin knockdown stopped PSA-NCAM from being endocytosed, and αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters co-labelled intracellularly with Rab5, altogether indicating a role for αv-integrin as a carrier for PSA-NCAM during internalisation. Furthermore, inhibition of p-FAK caused dissociation of αv-integrin/PSA-NCAM clusters and counteracted the insulin-induced accumulation of PSA at the cell surface and cell migration was impaired. Our data reveal a functional association between the insulin/p-FAK-dependent regulation of PSA-NCAM turnover and cell migration through the extracellular matrix. Most importantly, they identify a novel mechanism for insulin-stimulated cell migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purines in the eye: recent evidence for the physiological and pathological role of purines in the RPE, retinal neurons, astrocytes, Müller cells, lens, trabecular meshwork, cornea and lacrimal gland

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, Julie; Dartt, Darlene A.; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery; Pintor, Jesus; Civan, Mortimer M.; Delamere, Nicholas A.; Fletcher, Erica L.; Salt, Thomas E.; Grosche, Antje; Mitchell, Claire H.

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights recent findings that describe how purines modulate the physiological and pathophysiological responses of ocular tissues. For example, in lacrimal glands the cross-talk between P2X7 receptors and both M3 muscarinic receptors and α1D-adrenergic receptors can influence tear secretion. In the cornea, purines lead to post-translational modification of EGFR and structural proteins that participate in wound repair in the epithelium and influence the expression of matrix proteins in the stroma. Purines act at receptors on both the trabecular meshwork and ciliary epithelium to modulate intraocular pressure (IOP); ATP-release pathways of inflow and outflow cells differ, possibly permitting differential modulation of adenosine delivery. Modulators of trabecular meshwork cell ATP release include cell volume, stretch, extracellular Ca2+ concentration, oxidation state, actin remodeling and possibly endogenous cardiotonic steroids. In the lens, osmotic stress leads to ATP release following TRPV4 activation upstream of hemichannel opening. In the anterior eye, diadenosine polyphosphates such as Ap4A act at P2 receptors to modulate the rate and composition of tear secretion, impact corneal wound healing and lower IOP. The Gq11-coupled P2Y1-receptor contributes to volume control in Müller cells and thus the retina. P2X receptors are expressed in neurons in the inner and outer retina and contribute to visual processing as well as the demise of retinal ganglion cells. In RPE cells, the balance between extracellular ATP and adenosine may modulate lysosomal pH and the rate of lipofuscin formation. In optic nerve head astrocytes, mechanosensitive ATP release via pannexin hemichannels, coupled with stretch-dependent upregulation of pannexins, provides a mechanism for ATP signaling in chronic glaucoma. With so many receptors linked to divergent functions throughout the eye, ensuring the transmitters remain local and stimulation is restricted to the intended target

  19. Mechanical guidance of collective cell migration and invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepat, Xavier

    A broad range of biological processes such as morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and cancer invasion depend on the collective migration of epithelial cells. Guidance of collective cell migration is commonly attributed to soluble or immobilized chemical gradients. I will present novel mechanisms of collective cellular guidance that are physical in origin rather than chemical. Firstly, I will focus on how the mechanical interaction between the tumor and its stroma guides cancer cell invasion. I will show that cancer associated fibroblasts exert a physical force on cancer cells that enables their collective invasion. In the second part of my talk I will focus on durotaxis, the ability of cells to follow gradients of extracellular matrix stiffness. Durotaxis is well established as a single cell phenomenon but whether it can direct the motion of cell collectives is unknown. I will show that durotaxis emerges in cell collectives even if isolated constituent cells are unable to durotax. Collective durotaxis applies to a broad variety of epithelial cell types and requires the action of myosin motors and the integrity of cell-cell junctions. Collective durotaxis is more efficient than any previous report of single cell durotaxis; it thus emerges as robust mechanism to direct collective cell migration in development and disease.eplace this text with your abstract.

  20. Multidisciplinary approaches to understanding collective cell migration in developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Linus J; Kulesa, Paul M; McLennan, Rebecca; Baker, Ruth E; Maini, Philip K

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical models are becoming increasingly integrated with experimental efforts in the study of biological systems. Collective cell migration in developmental biology is a particularly fruitful application area for the development of theoretical models to predict the behaviour of complex multicellular systems with many interacting parts. In this context, mathematical models provide a tool to assess the consistency of experimental observations with testable mechanistic hypotheses. In this review, we showcase examples from recent years of multidisciplinary investigations of neural crest cell migration. The neural crest model system has been used to study how collective migration of cell populations is shaped by cell-cell interactions, cell-environmental interactions and heterogeneity between cells. The wide range of emergent behaviours exhibited by neural crest cells in different embryonal locations and in different organisms helps us chart out the spectrum of collective cell migration. At the same time, this diversity in migratory characteristics highlights the need to reconcile or unify the array of currently hypothesized mechanisms through the next generation of experimental data and generalized theoretical descriptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Microtubule release from the centrosome in migrating cells

    PubMed Central

    Abal, Miguel; Piel, Matthieu; Bouckson-Castaing, Veronique; Mogensen, Mette; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Bornens, Michel

    2002-01-01

    In migrating cells, force production relies essentially on a polarized actomyosin system, whereas the spatial regulation of actomyosin contraction and substrate contact turnover involves a complex cooperation between the microtubule (MT) and the actin filament networks (Goode, B.L., D.G. Drubin, and G. Barnes. 2000. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., 12:63–71). Targeting and capture of MT plus ends at the cell periphery has been described, but whether or not the minus ends of these MTs are anchored at the centrosome is not known. Here, we show that release of short MTs from the centrosome is frequent in migrating cells and that their transport toward the cell periphery is blocked when dynein activity is impaired. We further show that MT release, but not MT nucleation or polymerization dynamics, is abolished by overexpression of the centrosomal MT-anchoring protein ninein. In addition, a dramatic inhibition of cell migration was observed; but, contrary to cells treated by drugs inhibiting MT dynamics, polarized membrane ruffling activity was not affected in ninein overexpressing cells. We thus propose that the balance between MT minus-end capture and release from the centrosome is critical for efficient cell migration. PMID:12473683

  2. The Golgi in Cell Migration: Regulation by Signal Transduction and Its Implications for Cancer Cell Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Millarte, Valentina; Farhan, Hesso

    2012-01-01

    Migration and invasion are fundamental features of metastatic cancer cells. The Golgi apparatus, an organelle involved in posttranslational modification and sorting of proteins, is widely accepted to regulate directional cell migration. In addition, mounting evidence suggests that the Golgi is a hub for different signaling pathways. In this paper we will give an overview on how polarized secretion and microtubule nucleation at the Golgi regulate directional cell migration. We will review different signaling pathways that signal to and from the Golgi. Finally, we will discuss how these signaling pathways regulate the role of the Golgi in cell migration and invasion. We propose that by identifying regulators of the Golgi, we might be able to uncover unappreciated modulators of cell migration. Uncovering the regulatory network that orchestrates cell migration is of fundamental importance for the development of new therapeutic strategies against cancer cell metastasis. PMID:22623902

  3. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  4. Cerium migration during PEM fuel cell accelerated stress testing

    DOE PAGES

    Baker, Andrew M.; Mukundan, Rangachary; Borup, Rodney L.; ...

    2016-01-01

    Cerium is a radical scavenger which improves polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell durability. During operation, however, cerium rapidly migrates in the PEM and into the catalyst layers (CLs). In this work, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were subjected to accelerated stress tests (ASTs) under different humidity conditions. Cerium migration was characterized in the MEAs after ASTs using X-ray fluorescence. During fully humidified operation, water flux from cell inlet to outlet generated in-plane cerium gradients. Conversely, cerium profiles were flat during low humidity operation, where in-plane water flux was negligible, however, migration from the PEM into the CLs was enhanced. Humiditymore » cycling resulted in both in-plane cerium gradients due to water flux during the hydration component of the cycle, and significant migration into the CLs. Fluoride and cerium emissions into effluent cell waters were measured during ASTs and correlated, which signifies that ionomer degradation products serve as possible counter-ions for cerium emissions. Fluoride emission rates were also correlated to final PEM cerium contents, which indicates that PEM degradation and cerium migration are coupled. Lastly, it is proposed that cerium migrates from the PEM due to humidification conditions and degradation, and is subsequently stabilized in the CLs by carbon catalyst supports.« less

  5. Low Doses of Curcuma longa Modulates Cell Migration and Cell-Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    de Campos, Paloma Santos; Matte, Bibiana Franzen; Diel, Leonardo Francisco; Jesus, Luciano Henrique; Bernardi, Lisiane; Alves, Alessandro Menna; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2017-09-01

    Cell invasion and metastasis are involved in clinical failures in cancer treatment, and both events require the acquisition of a migratory behavior by tumor cells. Curcumin is a promising natural product with anti-proliferative activity, but its effects on cell migration are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cell-cell adhesion of keratinocyte, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and fibroblast cell lines, as well as in a xenograft model of OSCC. Curcumin (2 μM) decreased cell proliferation in cell lines with mesenchymal characteristics, while cell death was detected only at 50 μM. We observed that highly migratory cells showed a decrease on migration speed and directionality when treated with 2 or 5 μM of curcumin (50% and 40%, respectively, p < 0.05). Using spheroids, we observed that curcumin dose dependently decreased cell-cell adhesion, especially on tumor-derived spheroids. Also, in a xenograft model with patient-derived OSCC cells, the administration of curcumin decreased tumor growth and aggressiveness when compared with untreated tumors, indicating the potential antitumor effect in oral cancer. These results suggest that lower doses of curcumin can influence several steps involved in tumorigenesis, including migration properties, suggesting a possible use in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nanotopography guides and directs cell migration in amoeboid and epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rachel; Das, Satarupa; Hourwitz, Matthew; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing, and cancer metastasis. In many cases, cells also move in the context of a matrix of collagen fibers, and the alignment of these fibers can both affect the migration phenotype and guide cells. Here we show that both fast and slow migrating cells - amoeboid HL-60 and epithelial MCF10A - are affected in similar ways by micro/nanostructures with dimensions similar to those of collagen fibers. Cell alignment enhances the efficiency of migration by increasing directional persistence.

  7. Automated Tracking of Cell Migration with Rapid Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    DuChez, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Cell migration is essential for many biological processes including development, wound healing, and metastasis. However, studying cell migration often requires the time-consuming and labor-intensive task of manually tracking cells. To accelerate the task of obtaining coordinate positions of migrating cells, we have developed a graphical user interface (GUI) capable of automating the tracking of fluorescently labeled nuclei. This GUI provides an intuitive user interface that makes automated tracking accessible to researchers with no image-processing experience or familiarity with particle-tracking approaches. Using this GUI, users can interactively determine a minimum of four parameters to identify fluorescently labeled cells and automate acquisition of cell trajectories. Additional features allow for batch processing of numerous time-lapse images, curation of unwanted tracks, and subsequent statistical analysis of tracked cells. Statistical outputs allow users to evaluate migratory phenotypes, including cell speed, distance, displacement, and persistence, as well as measures of directional movement, such as forward migration index (FMI) and angular displacement. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. The effects of acoustic vibration on fibroblast cell migration.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Taybia; Murphy, Mark F; Lilley, Francis; Burton, David R; Bezombes, Frederic

    2016-12-01

    Cells are known to interact and respond to external mechanical cues and recent work has shown that application of mechanical stimulation, delivered via acoustic vibration, can be used to control complex cell behaviours. Fibroblast cells are known to respond to physical cues generated in the extracellular matrix and it is thought that such cues are important regulators of the wound healing process. Many conditions are associated with poor wound healing, so there is need for treatments/interventions, which can help accelerate the wound healing process. The primary aim of this research was to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation upon the migratory and morphological properties of two different fibroblast cells namely; human lung fibroblast cells (LL24) and subcutaneous areolar/adipose mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Using a speaker-based system, the effects of mechanical stimulation (0-1600Hz for 5min) on the mean cell migration distance (μm) and actin organisation was investigated. The results show that 100Hz acoustic vibration enhanced cell migration for both cell lines whereas acoustic vibration above 100Hz was found to decrease cell migration in a frequency dependent manner. Mechanical stimulation was also found to promote changes to the morphology of both cell lines, particularly the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia. Overall lamellipodia was the most prominent actin structure displayed by the lung cell (LL24), whereas filopodia was the most prominent actin feature displayed by the fibroblast derived from subcutaneous areolar/adipose tissue. Mechanical stimulation at all the frequencies used here was found not to affect cell viability. These results suggest that low-frequency acoustic vibration may be used as a tool to manipulate the mechanosensitivity of cells to promote cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ALG2 regulates glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dunke; Wang, Feng; Pang, Yi

    Apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), also known as programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6), has recently been reported to be aberrantly expressed in various tumors and required for tumor cell viability. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ALG-2 plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation, migration and tumorigenicity. In this study, we examined the expression of PDCD6 in glioblastoma cell lines and found that ALG-2 was generally expressed in glioblastoma cell lines. We also performed an analysis of an online database and found that high expression of ALG-2 was associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.039). We found that over-expressionmore » of ALG2 in glioblastoma could inhibit cell proliferation and, conversely, that down-regulation of ALG2 could promote cell proliferation. Further studies showed that over-expression of ALG2 inhibited the migration of tumor cells, whereas down-regulation of ALG2 promoted tumor cell migration. Finally, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that over-expression of ALG2 inhibited the tumorigenic ability of tumor cells, while down-regulation of ALG2 promoted tumor cell tumorigenic ability. In conclusion, ALG2 has a tumor suppressive role in glioblastoma and might be a potential target for the treatment of glioblastoma. - Highlights: • Low ALG2 expression is indicative of poor prognosis in glioblastoma patients. • ALG2 is required for cell proliferation in GBM cells. • ALG2 is involved in GBM cell migration. • ALG2 is involved in GBM cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo.« less

  10. Flow and diffusion in channel-guided cell migration.

    PubMed

    Marel, Anna-Kristina; Zorn, Matthias; Klingner, Christoph; Wedlich-Söldner, Roland; Frey, Erwin; Rädler, Joachim O

    2014-09-02

    Collective migration of mechanically coupled cell layers is a notable feature of wound healing, embryonic development, and cancer progression. In confluent epithelial sheets, the dynamics have been found to be highly heterogeneous, exhibiting spontaneous formation of swirls, long-range correlations, and glass-like dynamic arrest as a function of cell density. In contrast, the flow-like properties of one-sided cell-sheet expansion in confining geometries are not well understood. Here, we studied the short- and long-term flow of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells as they moved through microchannels. Using single-cell tracking and particle image velocimetry (PIV), we found that a defined averaged stationary cell current emerged that exhibited a velocity gradient in the direction of migration and a plug-flow-like profile across the advancing sheet. The observed flow velocity can be decomposed into a constant term of directed cell migration and a diffusion-like contribution that increases with density gradient. The diffusive component is consistent with the cell-density profile and front propagation speed predicted by the Fisher-Kolmogorov equation. To connect diffusion-mediated transport to underlying cellular motility, we studied single-cell trajectories and occurrence of vorticity. We discovered that the directed large-scale cell flow altered fluctuations in cellular motion at short length scales: vorticity maps showed a reduced frequency of swirl formation in channel flow compared with resting sheets of equal cell density. Furthermore, under flow, single-cell trajectories showed persistent long-range, random-walk behavior superimposed on drift, whereas cells in resting tissue did not show significant displacements with respect to neighboring cells. Our work thus suggests that active cell migration manifests itself in an underlying, spatially uniform drift as well as in randomized bursts of short-range correlated motion that lead to a diffusion-mediated transport

  11. Modeling keratinocyte wound healing dynamics: Cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained collective migration.

    PubMed

    Nardini, John T; Chapnick, Douglas A; Liu, Xuedong; Bortz, David M

    2016-07-07

    The in vitro migration of keratinocyte cell sheets displays behavioral and biochemical similarities to the in vivo wound healing response of keratinocytes in animal model systems. In both cases, ligand-dependent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation is sufficient to elicit collective cell migration into the wound. Previous mathematical modeling studies of in vitro wound healing assays assume that physical connections between cells have a hindering effect on cell migration, but biological literature suggests a more complicated story. By combining mathematical modeling and experimental observations of collectively migrating sheets of keratinocytes, we investigate the role of cell-cell adhesion during in vitro keratinocyte wound healing assays. We develop and compare two nonlinear diffusion models of the wound healing process in which cell-cell adhesion either hinders or promotes migration. Both models can accurately fit the leading edge propagation of cell sheets during wound healing when using a time-dependent rate of cell-cell adhesion strength. The model that assumes a positive role of cell-cell adhesion on migration, however, is robust to changes in the leading edge definition and yields a qualitatively accurate density profile. Using RNAi for the critical adherens junction protein, α-catenin, we demonstrate that cell sheets with wild type cell-cell adhesion expression maintain migration into the wound longer than cell sheets with decreased cell-cell adhesion expression, which fails to exhibit collective migration. Our modeling and experimental data thus suggest that cell-cell adhesion promotes sustained migration as cells pull neighboring cells into the wound during wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibrin glue inhibits migration of ocular surface epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, A M; Faraj, L A; McIntosh, O D; Dhillon, V K; Dua, H S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fibrin glue has been used successfully in numerous ophthalmic surgical procedures. Recently, fibrin glue has been used in limbal stem cell transplantation to reduce both operative time and to negate the need for sutures. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of fibrin glue on epithelial cell migration in vitro. Methods Corneoscleral rims were split to retain the epithelial layer, Bowman's layer, and anterior stroma. Rims were cut into eight equal-sized pieces and were placed directly on culture plates or affixed with fibrin glue. Rims were maintained in culture for 25 days and epithelial cell growth was monitored. Cells were photographed to measure area or growth and immunofluorescence staining of explants for fibrin was performed. Results Explants that were glued demonstrated significantly delayed epithelial cell growth and migration as compared with explants without glue. By day 16, all fibrin glue had dissolved and coincided with onset of cell growth from glued explants. Cell growth commenced between days 3 and 4 for control explants without glue and around days 14–16 for explants with fibrin glue. Conclusions Fibrin glue delays epithelial cell migration by acting as a physical barrier and can potentially interfere with explant-derived limbal epithelial cell migration on to the corneal surface. We propose that glue should be used to attach the conjunctival frill of the limbal explant but care should be taken to ensure that the glue does not wrap around the explant if used to secure the explant as well. Strategic use of glue, to attach the recessed conjunctiva, can be advantageous in delaying conjunctival cell migration and reducing the need for sequential sector conjunctival epitheliectomy. PMID:27367746

  13. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-01

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility - acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.

  14. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor; Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko

    2015-03-01

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility - actomyosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignment of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility. J. L. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) within the GRK 1558. F. Z. acknowledges funding from the German Science Foundation (DFG) via Project ZI 1232/2-1. I. S. A. was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of.

  15. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    SciTech Connect

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignmentmore » of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.« less

  16. Collisions of deformable cells lead to collective migration

    DOE PAGES

    Löber, Jakob; Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2015-03-17

    Collective migration of eukaryotic cells plays a fundamental role in tissue growth, wound healing and immune response. The motion, arising spontaneously or in response to chemical and mechanical stimuli, is also important for understanding life-threatening pathologies, such as cancer and metastasis formation. We present a phase-field model to describe the movement of many self-organized, interacting cells. The model takes into account the main mechanisms of cell motility – acto-myosin dynamics, as well as substrate-mediated and cell-cell adhesion. It predicts that collective cell migration emerges spontaneously as a result of inelastic collisions between neighboring cells: collisions lead to a mutual alignmentmore » of the cell velocities and to the formation of coherently-moving multi-cellular clusters. Small cell-to-cell adhesion, in turn, reduces the propensity for large-scale collective migration, while higher adhesion leads to the formation of moving bands. Our study provides valuable insight into biological processes associated with collective cell motility.« less

  17. Role of calcium permeable channels in dendritic cell migration.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Pablo J; Sáez, Juan C; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-María; Vargas, Pablo

    2018-06-01

    Calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) is an essential second messenger involved in multiple cellular and subcellular processes. Ca 2+ can be released and sensed globally or locally within cells, providing complex signals of variable amplitudes and time-scales. The key function of Ca 2+ in the regulation of acto-myosin contractility has provided a simple explanation for its role in the regulation of immune cell migration. However, many questions remain, including the identity of the Ca 2+ stores, channels and upstream signals involved in this process. Here, we focus on dendritic cells (DCs), because their immune sentinel function heavily relies on their capacity to migrate within tissues and later on between tissues and lymphoid organs. Deciphering the mechanisms by which cytoplasmic Ca 2+ regulate DC migration should shed light on their role in initiating and tuning immune responses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Protective Effect of Combined Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Bevacizumab Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human RPE Cells.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Erdem; Ayaz, Lokman; Kurt, Akif Hakan

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and combined CAPE-bevacizumab against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in human retinal pigment epithelium. ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with 5, 10, and 30 μM CAPE alone and in combination with bevacizumab for 3 h, then exposed to H 2 O 2 for 16 h. Cell viability was evaluated with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels in the medium were measured using a human VEGF ELISA kit. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status (TOS) were measured in ARPE-19 cells using the test kit from Rel Assay. Expression levels of VEGF, Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (apaf-1), and caspase-3 were determined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment of ARPE-19 cells with 30 μM CAPE and combined CAPE-bevacizumab reduced H 2 O 2 mediated cell death. H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress increased TOS and VEGF production, which was significantly inhibited by CAPE and the CAPE-bevacizumab combination. VEGF, Bax, cytochrome c, apaf-1, and caspase-3 gene expressions were significantly decreased in cells pretreated with 5, 10, and 30 μM CAPE and combined CAPE-bevacizumab compared to the H 2 O 2 group. In addition, Bcl-2 expression was significantly increased in both the CAPE and CAPE-bevacizumab combination groups compared to the H 2 O 2 group. CAPE has a protective effect on ARPE-19 cells against oxidative stress, and VEGF protein level and expression can be decreased by incubation with different concentrations of CAPE. These results demonstrate that CAPE suppresses the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells under oxidative stress. In addition, the use of CAPE in combination with bevacizumab has an additive effect.

  19. Surface topography during neural stem cell differentiation regulates cell migration and cell morphology.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Catherine; Short, Aaron; Nelson, Tyler; Gygli, Patrick; Ortiz, Cristina; Catacutan, Fay Patsy; Stocker, Ben; Cronin, James; Lannutti, John; Winter, Jessica; Otero, José Javier

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the contribution of scaffold topography to the migration and morphology of neural stem cells by mimicking anatomical features of scaffolds found in vivo. We mimicked two types of central nervous system scaffolds encountered by neural stem cells during development in vitro by constructing different diameter electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fiber mats, a substrate that we have shown to be topographically similar to brain scaffolds. We compared the effects of large fibers (made to mimic blood vessel topography) with those of small-diameter fibers (made to mimic radial glial process topography) on the migration and differentiation of neural stem cells. Neural stem cells showed differential migratory and morphological reactions with laminin in different topographical contexts. We demonstrate, for the first time, that neural stem cell biological responses to laminin are dependent on topographical context. Large-fiber topography without laminin prevented cell migration, which was partially reversed by treatment with rock inhibitor. Cell morphology complexity assayed by fractal dimension was inhibited in nocodazole- and cytochalasin-D-treated neural precursor cells in large-fiber topography, but was not changed in small-fiber topography with these inhibitors. These data indicate that cell morphology has different requirements on cytoskeletal proteins dependent on the topographical environment encountered by the cell. We propose that the physical structure of distinct scaffolds induces unique signaling cascades that regulate migration and morphology in embryonic neural precursor cells. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:3485-3502, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H.R.; Guthrie, R.J.; Katz, M.

    1987-03-17

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate. 5 figs.

  1. Electrolytic cell stack with molten electrolyte migration control

    DOEpatents

    Kunz, H. Russell; Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray

    1988-08-02

    An electrolytic cell stack includes inactive electrolyte reservoirs at the upper and lower end portions thereof. The reservoirs are separated from the stack of the complete cells by impermeable, electrically conductive separators. Reservoirs at the negative end are initially low in electrolyte and the reservoirs at the positive end are high in electrolyte fill. During stack operation electrolyte migration from the positive to the negative end will be offset by the inactive reservoir capacity. In combination with the inactive reservoirs, a sealing member of high porosity and low electrolyte retention is employed to limit the electrolyte migration rate.

  2. Intravital characterization of tumor cell migration in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, Evelyne; Oosterom, Ilse; Voest, Emile; Lolkema, Martijn; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Curing pancreatic cancer is difficult as metastases often determine the poor clinical outcome. To gain more insight into the metastatic behavior of pancreatic cancer cells, we characterized migratory cells in primary pancreatic tumors using intravital microscopy. We visualized the migratory behavior of primary tumor cells of a genetically engineered pancreatic cancer mouse model and found that pancreatic tumor cells migrate with a mesenchymal morphology as single individual cells or collectively as a stream of non-cohesive single motile cells. These findings may improve our ability to conceive treatments that block metastatic behavior. PMID:28243522

  3. Intracellular pH gradients in migrating cells.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christine; Pedersen, Stine F; Schwab, Albrecht; Stock, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Cell polarization along the axis of movement is required for migration. The localization of proteins and regulators of the migratory machinery to either the cell front or its rear results in a spatial asymmetry enabling cells to simultaneously coordinate cell protrusion and retraction. Protons might function as such unevenly distributed regulators as they modulate the interaction of focal adhesion proteins and components of the cytoskeleton in vitro. However, an intracellular pH (pH(i)) gradient reflecting a spatial asymmetry of protons has not been shown so far. One major regulator of pH(i), the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1, is essential for cell migration and accumulates at the cell front. Here, we test the hypothesis that the uneven distribution of NHE1 activity creates a pH(i) gradient in migrating cells. Using the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, pH(i) was measured in five cell lines (MV3, B16V, NIH3T3, MDCK-F1, EA.hy926) along the axis of movement. Differences in pH(i) between the front and the rear end (ΔpH(i) front-rear) were present in all cell lines, and inhibition of NHE1 either with HOE642 or by absence of extracellular Na(+) caused the pH(i) gradient to flatten or disappear. In conclusion, pH(i) gradients established by NHE1 activity exist along the axis of movement.

  4. The Mechanics of Single Cell and Collective Migration of Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lintz, Marianne; Muñoz, Adam; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is a dynamic process in which cancer cells navigate the tumor microenvironment, largely guided by external chemical and mechanical cues. Our current understanding of metastatic cell migration has relied primarily on studies of single cell migration, most of which have been performed using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture techniques and, more recently, using three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds. However, the current paradigm focused on single cell movements is shifting toward the idea that collective migration is likely one of the primary modes of migration during metastasis of many solid tumors. Not surprisingly, the mechanics of collective migration differ significantly from single cell movements. As such, techniques must be developed that enable in-depth analysis of collective migration, and those for examining single cell migration should be adopted and modified to study collective migration to allow for accurate comparison of the two. In this review, we will describe engineering approaches for studying metastatic migration, both single cell and collective, and how these approaches have yielded significant insight into the mechanics governing each process. PMID:27814431

  5. A lateral signalling pathway coordinates shape volatility during cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Luga, Valbona; Armitage, Sarah K.; Musiol, Martin; Won, Amy; Yip, Christopher M.; Plotnikov, Sergey V.; Wrana, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental for both physiological and pathological processes. Migrating cells usually display high dynamics in morphology, which is orchestrated by an integrative array of signalling pathways. Here we identify a novel pathway, we term lateral signalling, comprised of the planar cell polarity (PCP) protein Pk1 and the RhoGAPs, Arhgap21/23. We show that the Pk1–Arhgap21/23 complex inhibits RhoA, is localized on the non-protrusive lateral membrane cortex and its disruption leads to the disorganization of the actomyosin network and altered focal adhesion dynamics. Pk1-mediated lateral signalling confines protrusive activity and is regulated by Smurf2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in the PCP pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that dynamic interplay between lateral and protrusive signalling generates cyclical fluctuations in cell shape that we quantify here as shape volatility, which strongly correlates with migration speed. These studies uncover a previously unrecognized lateral signalling pathway that coordinates shape volatility during productive cell migration. PMID:27226243

  6. Glucocorticoid receptor beta increases migration of human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McBeth, Lucien; Nwaneri, Assumpta C; Grabnar, Maria; Demeter, Jonathan; Nestor-Kalinoski, Andrea; Hinds, Terry D

    2016-05-10

    Bladder cancer is observed worldwide having been associated with a host of environmental and lifestyle risk factors. Recent investigations on anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid signaling point to a pathway that may impact bladder cancer. Here we show an inverse effect on the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform signaling that may lead to bladder cancer. We found similar GRα expression levels in the transitional uroepithelial cancer cell lines T24 and UMUC-3. However, the T24 cells showed a significant (p < 0.05) increased expression of GRβ compared to UMUC-3, which also correlated with higher migration rates. Knockdown of GRβ in the T24 cells resulted in a decreased migration rate. Mutational analysis of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of human GRβ revealed that miR144 might positively regulate expression. Indeed, overexpression of miR144 increased GRβ by 3.8 fold. In addition, miR144 and GRβ were upregulated during migration. We used a peptide nucleic acid conjugated to a cell penetrating-peptide (Sweet-P) to block the binding site for miR144 in the 3'UTR of GRβ. Sweet-P effectively prevented miR144 actions and decreased GRβ expression, as well as the migration of the T24 human bladder cancer cells. Therefore, GRβ may have a significant role in bladder cancer, and possibly serve as a therapeutic target for the disease.

  7. Plectin deficiency in liver cancer cells promotes cell migration and sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chiung-Chi; Chao, Wei-Ting; Liao, Chen-Chun; Tseng, Yu-Hui; Lai, Yen-Chang Clark; Lai, Yih-Shyong; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Liu, Yi-Hsiang

    2018-01-02

    Plectin involved in activation of kinases in cell signaling pathway and plays important role in cell morphology and migration. Plectin knockdown promotes cell migration by activating focal adhesion kinase and Rac1-GTPase activity in liver cells. Sorafenib is a multi-targeting tyrosine kinase inhibitor that improves patient survival on hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the expression of plectin and cell migration as well as the sensitivity of hepatoma cell lines exposing to sorafenib. Hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 were used to examine the level of plectin expression and cell migration in comparison with Chang liver cell line. In addition, sensitivity of the 3 cell lines to sorafenib treatment was also measured. Expression of plectin was lower in PLC/PRF/5 and HepG2 hepatoma cells than that of Chang liver cells whereas HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells exhibit higher rate of cell migration in trans-well migration assay. Immunohistofluorecent staining on E-cadherin revealed the highest rate of collective cell migration in HepG2 cells and the lowest was found in Chang liver cells. Likewise, HepG2 cell line was most sensitive to sorafenib treatment and Chang liver cells exhibited the least sensitivity. The drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment showed inverse correlation with the expression of plectin. We suggest that plectin deficiency and increased E-cadherin in hepatoma cells were associated with higher rates of cell motility, collective cell migration as well as higher drug sensitivity to sorafenib treatment.

  8. RPE65 gene therapy slows cone loss in Rpe65-deficient dogs.

    PubMed

    Mowat, F M; Breuwer, A R; Bartoe, J T; Annear, M J; Zhang, Z; Smith, A J; Bainbridge, J W B; Petersen-Jones, S M; Ali, R R

    2013-05-01

    Recent clinical trials of retinal pigment epithelium gene (RPE65) supplementation therapy in Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 patients have demonstrated improvements in rod and cone function, but it may be some years before the effects of therapy on photoreceptor survival become apparent. The Rpe65-deficient dog is a very useful pre-clinical model in which to test efficacy of therapies, because the dog has a retina with a high degree of similarity to that of humans. In this study, we evaluated the effect of RPE65 gene therapy on photoreceptor survival in order to predict the potential benefit and limitations of therapy in patients. We examined the retinas of Rpe65-deficient dogs after RPE65 gene therapy to evaluate the preservation of rods and cone photoreceptor subtypes. We found that gene therapy preserves both rods and cones. While the moderate loss of rods in the Rpe65-deficient dog retina is slowed by gene therapy, S-cones are lost extensively and gene therapy can prevent that loss, although only within the treated area. Although LM-cones are not lost extensively, cone opsin mislocalization indicates that they are stressed, and this can be partially reversed by gene therapy. Our results suggest that gene therapy may be able to slow cone degeneration in patients if intervention is sufficiently early and also that it is probably important to treat the macula in order to preserve central function.

  9. Optimal chemotaxis in intermittent migration of animal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Salbreux, G.

    2015-04-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing persistent migration during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  10. Effects of Radiation on Metastasis and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Vilalta, Marta; Rafat, Marjan; Graves, Edward E.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tumor cells migrate from the primary lesion to distant sites to form metastases and that these lesions limit patient outcome in a majority of cases. However the extent to which radiation influences this process and to which migration in turn alters radiation response remains controversial. There are preclinical and clinical reports showing that focal radiotherapy can both increase the development of distant metastasis, as well as that it can induce the regression of established metastases through the abscopal effect. More recently, preclinical studies have suggested that radiation can attract migrating tumor cells and may thereby facilitate tumor recurrence. In this review, we summarize these phenomena and their potential mechanisms of action, and evaluate their significance for modern radiation therapy strategies. PMID:27022944

  11. Describing Directional Cell Migration with a Characteristic Directionality Time

    PubMed Central

    Loosley, Alex J.; O’Brien, Xian M.; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Tang, Jay X.

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types can bias their direction of locomotion by coupling to external cues. Characteristics such as how fast a cell migrates and the directedness of its migration path can be quantified to provide metrics that determine which biochemical and biomechanical factors affect directional cell migration, and by how much. To be useful, these metrics must be reproducible from one experimental setting to another. However, most are not reproducible because their numerical values depend on technical parameters like sampling interval and measurement error. To address the need for a reproducible metric, we analytically derive a metric called directionality time, the minimum observation time required to identify motion as directionally biased. We show that the corresponding fit function is applicable to a variety of ergodic, directionally biased motions. A motion is ergodic when the underlying dynamical properties such as speed or directional bias do not change over time. Measuring the directionality of nonergodic motion is less straightforward but we also show how this class of motion can be analyzed. Simulations are used to show the robustness of directionality time measurements and its decoupling from measurement errors. As a practical example, we demonstrate the measurement of directionality time, step-by-step, on noisy, nonergodic trajectories of chemotactic neutrophils. Because of its inherent generality, directionality time ought to be useful for characterizing a broad range of motions including intracellular transport, cell motility, and animal migration. PMID:25992908

  12. Method to study cell migration under uniaxial compression

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nishit; Kay, Robert R.; Kabla, Alexandre J.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the extracellular environment have a strong effect on cell migration. Aspects such as pore size or stiffness of the matrix influence the selection of the mechanism used by cells to propel themselves, including by pseudopods or blebbing. How a cell perceives its environment and how such a cue triggers a change in behavior are largely unknown, but mechanics is likely to be involved. Because mechanical conditions are often controlled by modifying the composition of the environment, separating chemical and physical contributions is difficult and requires multiple controls. Here we propose a simple method to impose a mechanical compression on individual cells without altering the composition of the matrix. Live imaging during compression provides accurate information about the cell's morphology and migratory phenotype. Using Dictyostelium as a model, we observe that a compression of the order of 500 Pa flattens the cells under gel by up to 50%. This uniaxial compression directly triggers a transition in the mode of migration from primarily pseudopodial to bleb driven in <30 s. This novel device is therefore capable of influencing cell migration in real time and offers a convenient approach with which to systematically study mechanotransduction in confined environments. PMID:28122819

  13. Single and collective cell migration: the mechanics of adhesions

    PubMed Central

    De Pascalis, Chiara; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Chemical and physical properties of the environment control cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis in the long term. However, to be able to move and migrate through a complex three-dimensional environment, cells must quickly adapt in the short term to the physical properties of their surroundings. Interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM) occur through focal adhesions or hemidesmosomes via the engagement of integrins with fibrillar ECM proteins. Cells also interact with their neighbors, and this involves various types of intercellular adhesive structures such as tight junctions, cadherin-based adherens junctions, and desmosomes. Mechanobiology studies have shown that cell–ECM and cell–cell adhesions participate in mechanosensing to transduce mechanical cues into biochemical signals and conversely are responsible for the transmission of intracellular forces to the extracellular environment. As they migrate, cells use these adhesive structures to probe their surroundings, adapt their mechanical properties, and exert the appropriate forces required for their movements. The focus of this review is to give an overview of recent developments showing the bidirectional relationship between the physical properties of the environment and the cell mechanical responses during single and collective cell migration. PMID:28684609

  14. Endogenous electric fields as guiding cue for cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Richard H. W.

    2015-01-01

    This review covers two topics: (1) “membrane potential of low magnitude and related electric fields (bioelectricity)” and (2) “cell migration under the guiding cue of electric fields (EF).”Membrane potentials for this “bioelectricity” arise from the segregation of charges by special molecular machines (pumps, transporters, ion channels) situated within the plasma membrane of each cell type (including eukaryotic non-neural animal cells). The arising patterns of ion gradients direct many cell- and molecular biological processes such as embryogenesis, wound healing, regeneration. Furthermore, EF are important as guiding cues for cell migration and are often overriding chemical or topographic cues. In osteoblasts, for instance, the directional information of EF is captured by charged transporters on the cell membrane and transferred into signaling mechanisms that modulate the cytoskeleton and motor proteins. This results in a persistent directional migration along an EF guiding cue. As an outlook, we discuss questions concerning the fluctuation of EF and the frequencies and mapping of the “electric” interior of the cell. Another exciting topic for further research is the modeling of field concepts for such distant, non-chemical cellular interactions. PMID:26029113

  15. Collective cell migration: a physics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, Vincent; Silberzan, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Cells have traditionally been viewed either as independently moving entities or as somewhat static parts of tissues. However, it is now clear that in many cases, multiple cells coordinate their motions and move as collective entities. Well-studied examples comprise development events, as well as physiological and pathological situations. Different ex vivo model systems have also been investigated. Several recent advances have taken place at the interface between biology and physics, and have benefitted from progress in imaging and microscopy, from the use of microfabrication techniques, as well as from the introduction of quantitative tools and models. We review these interesting developments in quantitative cell biology that also provide rich examples of collective out-of-equilibrium motion.

  16. Targeted siRNA Screens Identify ER-to-Mitochondrial Calcium Exchange in Autophagy and Mitophagy Responses in RPE1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    MacVicar, Thomas D. B.; Mannack, Lilith V. J. C.; Lees, Robert M.; Lane, Jon D.

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important stress response pathway responsible for the removal and recycling of damaged or redundant cytosolic constituents. Mitochondrial damage triggers selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), mediated by a variety of response factors including the Pink1/Parkin system. Using human retinal pigment epithelial cells stably expressing autophagy and mitophagy reporters, we have conducted parallel screens of regulators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial morphology and function contributing to starvation-induced autophagy and damage-induced mitophagy. These screens identified the ER chaperone and Ca2+ flux modulator, sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 (SIGMAR1), as a regulator of autophagosome expansion during starvation. Screens also identified phosphatidyl ethanolamine methyl transferase (PEMT) and the IP3-receptors (IP3Rs) as mediators of Parkin-induced mitophagy. Further experiments suggested that IP3R-mediated transfer of Ca2+ from the ER lumen to the mitochondrial matrix via the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU) primes mitochondria for mitophagy. Importantly, recruitment of Parkin to damaged mitochondria did not require IP3R-mediated ER-to-mitochondrial Ca2+ transfer, but mitochondrial clustering downstream of Parkin recruitment was impaired, suggesting involvement of regulators of mitochondrial dynamics and/or transport. Our data suggest that Ca2+ flux between ER and mitochondria at presumed ER/mitochondrial contact sites is needed both for starvation-induced autophagy and for Parkin-mediated mitophagy, further highlighting the importance of inter-organellar communication for effective cellular homeostasis. PMID:26110381

  17. Lymphatic exosomes promote dendritic cell migration along guidance cues

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Markus; Johnson, Louise A.; Leone, Dario A.; Majek, Peter; Senfter, Daniel; Bukosza, Nora; Asfour, Gabriele; Langer, Brigitte; Parapatics, Katja; Hong, Young-Kwon; Bennett, Keiryn L.; Sixt, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature. In vitro and ex vivo EEV fractions augmented cellular protrusion formation in a CX3CL1/fractalkine-dependent fashion and enhanced the directional migratory response of human dendritic cells along guidance cues. We conclude that perilymphatic LEC exosomes enhance exploratory behavior and thus promote directional migration of CX3CR1-expressing cells in complex tissue environments. PMID:29650776

  18. Untangling cell tracks: Quantifying cell migration by time lapse image data analysis.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Carl-Magnus; Medyukhina, Anna; Belyaev, Ivan; Al-Zaben, Naim; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-03-01

    Automated microscopy has given researchers access to great amounts of live cell imaging data from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Much focus has been put on extracting cell tracks from such data using a plethora of segmentation and tracking algorithms, but further analysis is normally required to draw biologically relevant conclusions. Such relevant conclusions may be whether the migration is directed or not, whether the population has homogeneous or heterogeneous migration patterns. This review focuses on the analysis of cell migration data that are extracted from time lapse images. We discuss a range of measures and models used to analyze cell tracks independent of the biological system or the way the tracks were obtained. For single-cell migration, we focus on measures and models giving examples of biological systems where they have been applied, for example, migration of bacteria, fibroblasts, and immune cells. For collective migration, we describe the model systems wound healing, neural crest migration, and Drosophila gastrulation and discuss methods for cell migration within these systems. We also discuss the role of the extracellular matrix and subsequent differences between track analysis in vitro and in vivo. Besides methods and measures, we are putting special focus on the need for openly available data and code, as well as a lack of common vocabulary in cell track analysis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. A local complement response by RPE causes early-stage macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Godino, Rosario; Garland, Donita L.; Pierce, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Inherited and age-related macular degenerations (AMDs) are important causes of vision loss. An early hallmark of these disorders is the formation of sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) basal deposits. A role for the complement system in MDs was suggested by genetic association studies, but direct functional connections between alterations in the complement system and the pathogenesis of MD remain to be defined. We used primary RPE cells from a mouse model of inherited MD due to a p.R345W mutation in EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1) to investigate the role of the RPE in early MD pathogenesis. Efemp1R345W RPE cells recapitulate the basal deposit formation observed in vivo by producing sub-RPE deposits in vitro. The deposits share features with basal deposits, and their formation was mediated by EFEMP1R345W or complement component 3a (C3a), but not by complement component 5a (C5a). Increased activation of complement appears to occur in response to an abnormal extracellular matrix (ECM), generated by the mutant EFEMP1R345W protein and reduced ECM turnover due to inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 2 by EFEMP1R345W and C3a. Increased production of C3a also stimulated the release of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1B, which appear to have a role in deposit formation, albeit downstream of C3a. These studies provide the first direct indication that complement components produced locally by the RPE are involved in the formation of basal deposits. Furthermore, these results suggest that C3a generated by RPE is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of EFEMP1-associated MD as well as AMD. PMID:26199322

  20. Bleb Expansion in Migrating Cells Depends on Supply of Membrane from Cell Surface Invaginations.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Mohammad; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Mildner, Karina; Begemann, Isabell; Garcia, Jamie; Paksa, Azadeh; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Mahabaleshwar, Harsha; Blaser, Heiko; Hartwig, Johannes; Zeuschner, Dagmar; Galic, Milos; Bagnat, Michel; Betz, Timo; Raz, Erez

    2017-12-04

    Cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, organ formation, and homeostasis, with relevance for clinical conditions. The migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is a useful model for studying this process in the context of the developing embryo. Zebrafish PGC migration depends on the formation of cellular protrusions in form of blebs, a type of protrusion found in various cell types. Here we report on the mechanisms allowing the inflation of the membrane during bleb formation. We show that the rapid expansion of the protrusion depends on membrane invaginations that are localized preferentially at the cell front. The formation of these invaginations requires the function of Cdc42, and their unfolding allows bleb inflation and dynamic cell-shape changes performed by migrating cells. Inhibiting the formation and release of the invaginations strongly interfered with bleb formation, cell motility, and the ability of the cells to reach their target. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evidence for tension-based regulation of Drosophila MAL and SRF during invasive cell migration.

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Kálmán; Rørth, Pernille

    2004-07-01

    Cells migrating through a tissue exert force via their cytoskeleton and are themselves subject to tension, but the effects of physical forces on cell behavior in vivo are poorly understood. Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis is a useful model for invasive cell movement. We report that this migration requires the activity of the transcriptional factor serum response factor (SRF) and its cofactor MAL-D and present evidence that nuclear accumulation of MAL-D is induced by cell stretching. Border cells that cannot migrate lack nuclear MAL-D but can accumulate it if they are pulled by other migrating cells. Like mammalian MAL, MAL-D also responds to activated Diaphanous, which affects actin dynamics. MAL-D/SRF activity is required to build a robust actin cytoskeleton in the migrating cells; mutant cells break apart when initiating migration. Thus, tension-induced MAL-D activity may provide a feedback mechanism for enhancing cytoskeletal strength during invasive migration.

  2. Von Hippel-Lindau protein in the RPE is essential for normal ocular growth and vascular development.

    PubMed

    Lange, Clemens A K; Luhmann, Ulrich F O; Mowat, Freya M; Georgiadis, Anastasios; West, Emma L; Abrahams, Sabu; Sayed, Haroon; Powner, Michael B; Fruttiger, Marcus; Smith, Alexander J; Sowden, Jane C; Maxwell, Patrick H; Ali, Robin R; Bainbridge, James W B

    2012-07-01

    Molecular oxygen is essential for the development, growth and survival of multicellular organisms. Hypoxic microenvironments and oxygen gradients are generated physiologically during embryogenesis and organogenesis. In the eye, oxygen plays a crucial role in both physiological vascular development and common blinding diseases. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a monolayer of cells essential for normal ocular development and in the mature retina provides support for overlying photoreceptors and their vascular supply. Hypoxia at the level of the RPE is closely implicated in pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Adaptive tissue responses to hypoxia are orchestrated by sophisticated oxygen sensing mechanisms. In particular, the von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor protein (pVhl) controls hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-mediated adaptation. However, the role of Vhl/Hif1a in the RPE in the development of the eye and its vasculature is unknown. In this study we explored the function of Vhl and Hif1a in the developing RPE using a tissue-specific conditional-knockout approach. We found that deletion of Vhl in the RPE results in RPE apoptosis, aniridia and microphthalmia. Increased levels of Hif1a, Hif2a, Epo and Vegf are associated with a highly disorganised retinal vasculature, chorioretinal anastomoses and the persistence of embryonic vascular structures into adulthood. Additional inactivation of Hif1a in the RPE rescues the RPE morphology, aniridia, microphthalmia and anterior vasoproliferation, but does not rescue retinal vasoproliferation. These data demonstrate that Vhl-dependent regulation of Hif1a in the RPE is essential for normal RPE and iris development, ocular growth and vascular development in the anterior chamber, whereas Vhl-dependent regulation of other downstream pathways is crucial for normal development and maintenance of the retinal vasculature.

  3. IGFBP6 Regulates Cell Apoptosis and Migration in Glioma.

    PubMed

    Bei, Yuanqi; Huang, Qingfeng; Shen, Jianhong; Shi, Jinlong; Shen, Chaoyan; Xu, Peng; Chang, Hao; Xia, Xiaojie; Xu, Li; Ji, Bin; Chen, JianGuo

    2017-07-01

    The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), as an inhibitor of IGF-II actions, plays an important role in inhibiting survival and migration of tumor cells. In our study, we intended to demonstrate the biological function of IGFBP6 in the development of glioma and its clinical significance. Firstly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry revealed that the expression of IGFBP6 inversely correlated with glioma grade. Secondly, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that IGFBP6 could be an independent prognostic factor for the survival of glioma patients. In addition, overexpression of IGFBP6 induced glioma cell apoptosis, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Finally, overexpression of IGFBP6 inhibited migration of glioma cells, and depletion of IGFBP6 had the opposite action. Together our findings suggest that IGFBP6 might be an important regulator and prognostic factor for glioma.

  4. Migrating Myeloid Cells Sense Temporal Dynamics of Chemoattractant Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Petrie Aronin, Caren E; Zhao, Yun M; Yoon, Justine S; Morgan, Nicole Y; Prüstel, Thorsten; Germain, Ronald N; Meier-Schellersheim, Martin

    2017-11-21

    Chemoattractant-mediated recruitment of hematopoietic cells to sites of pathogen growth or tissue damage is critical to host defense and organ homeostasis. Chemotaxis is typically considered to rely on spatial sensing, with cells following concentration gradients as long as these are present. Utilizing a microfluidic approach, we found that stable gradients of intermediate chemokines (CCL19 and CXCL12) failed to promote persistent directional migration of dendritic cells or neutrophils. Instead, rising chemokine concentrations were needed, implying that temporal sensing mechanisms controlled prolonged responses to these ligands. This behavior was found to depend on G-coupled receptor kinase-mediated negative regulation of receptor signaling and contrasted with responses to an end agonist chemoattractant (C5a), for which a stable gradient led to persistent migration. These findings identify temporal sensing as a key requirement for long-range myeloid cell migration to intermediate chemokines and provide insights into the mechanisms controlling immune cell motility in complex tissue environments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. CXCR7 functions in colon cancer cell survival and migration

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HONGXIAN; TAO, LINYU; QI, KE; ZHANG, HAOYUN; FENG, DUO; WEI, WENJUN; KONG, HENG; CHEN, TIANWEN; LIN, QIUSHENG; CHEN, DAOJIN

    2015-01-01

    C-X-C chemokine receptor 7 (CXCR7) is a known promoter of tumor progression and metastasis; however, little is known about its role in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of CXCR7 in human colon cancer cells. CXCR7 mRNA levels were examined in HT-29 and SW-480 human colon cancer cell lines using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. CXCR7-knockdown was performed with small interfering RNA and lentiviral-mediated gene delivery. Immunofluorescence (IF) was conducted to examine CXCR7 expression and localization in colon cancer cells. Cell survival and migration were evaluated using MTT and migration assays, respectively. HT-29 cells expressed higher levels of CXCR7 mRNA and were therefore used in subsequent experiments. IF staining revealed that the CXCR7 protein was expressed on the cell membrane, and its expression decreased following CXCR7-short hairpin RNA lentiviral transfection. Lentiviral CXCR7-knockdown resulted in decreased cell survival and migration; however, MTT assays revealed that the lentiviral vector itself was cytotoxic. This cytotoxicity was indicated as the cell survival of the negative control group cells was significantly decreased compared with that of the blank control group cells (P<0.05). In conclusion, it is becoming increasingly evident that CXCR7 plays a role in colon cancer promotion, suggesting that CXCR7 is a promising biomarker for chemokine receptor-based drug development. Furthermore, the fact that CXCR7 is expressed on the membrane and not intracellularly makes it a prime target for drug-based intervention. PMID:26640542

  6. Role of the extracellular matrix during neural crest cell migration.

    PubMed

    Perris, R; Perissinotto, D

    2000-07-01

    Once specified to become neural crest (NC), cells occupying the dorsal portion of the neural tube disrupt their cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts, acquire motile properties, and embark upon an extensive migration through the embryo to reach their ultimate phenotype-specific sites. The understanding of how this movement is regulated is still rather fragmentary due to the complexity of the cellular and molecular interactions involved. An additional intricate aspect of the regulation of NC cell movement is that the timings, modes and patterns of NC cell migration are intimately associated with the concomitant phenotypic diversification that cells undergo during their migratory phase and the fact that these changes modulate the way that moving cells interact with their microenvironment. To date, two interplaying mechanisms appear central for the guidance of the migrating NC cells through the embryo: one involves secreted signalling molecules acting through their cognate protein kinase/phosphatase-type receptors and the other is contributed by the multivalent interactions of the cells with their surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). The latter ones seem fundamental in light of the central morphogenetic role played by the intracellular signals transduced through the cytoskeleton upon integrin ligation, and the convergence of these signalling cascades with those triggered by cadherins, survival/growth factor receptors, gap junctional communications, and stretch-activated calcium channels. The elucidation of the importance of the ECM during NC cell movement is presently favoured by the augmenting knowledge about the macromolecular structure of the specific ECM assembled during NC development and the functional assaying of its individual constituents via molecular and genetic manipulations. Collectively, these data propose that NC cell migration may be governed by time- and space-dependent alterations in the expression of inhibitory ECM components; the relative ratio

  7. Cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic processes coupled by myosin II in dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Chabaud, Mélanie; Heuzé, Mélina L.; Bretou, Marine; Vargas, Pablo; Maiuri, Paolo; Solanes, Paola; Maurin, Mathieu; Terriac, Emmanuel; Le Berre, Maël; Lankar, Danielle; Piolot, Tristan; Adelstein, Robert S.; Zhang, Yingfan; Sixt, Michael; Jacobelli, Jordan; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël; Piel, Matthieu; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The immune response relies on the migration of leukocytes and on their ability to stop in precise anatomical locations to fulfil their task. How leukocyte migration and function are coordinated is unknown. Here we show that in immature dendritic cells, which patrol their environment by engulfing extracellular material, cell migration and antigen capture are antagonistic. This antagonism results from transient enrichment of myosin IIA at the cell front, which disrupts the back-to-front gradient of the motor protein, slowing down locomotion but promoting antigen capture. We further highlight that myosin IIA enrichment at the cell front requires the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii). Thus, by controlling myosin IIA localization, Ii imposes on dendritic cells an intermittent antigen capture behaviour that might facilitate environment patrolling. We propose that the requirement for myosin II in both cell migration and specific cell functions may provide a general mechanism for their coordination in time and space. PMID:26109323

  8. The Origin And Migration Of Primordial Germ Cells In Sturgeons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Goto, Rie; Adachi, Shinji; Inoue, Kunio; Arai, Katsutoshi; Yamaha, Etsuro

    2014-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) arise elsewhere in the embryo and migrate into developing gonadal ridges during embryonic development. In several model animals, formation and migration patterns of PGCs have been studied, and it is known that these patterns vary. Sturgeons (genus Acipenser) have great potential for comparative and evolutionary studies of development. Sturgeons belong to the super class Actinoptergii, and their developmental pattern is similar to that of amphibians, although their phylogenetic position is an out-group to teleost fishes. Here, we reveal an injection technique for sturgeon eggs allowing visualization of germplasm and PGCs. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the PGCs are generated at the vegetal pole of the egg and they migrate on the yolky cell mass toward the gonadal ridge. We also provide evidence showing that PGCs are specified by inheritance of maternally supplied germplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the migratory mechanism is well-conserved between sturgeon and other remotely related teleosts, such as goldfish, by a single PGCs transplantation (SPT) assay. The mode of PGCs specification in sturgeon is similar to that of anurans, but the migration pattern resembles that of teleosts. PMID:24505272

  9. Action spectrum for photochemical retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) disruption in an in vivo monkey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sabarinathan, Ranjani; Bubel, Tracy; Williams, David R.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of RPE disruption and autofluorescence (AF) photobleaching at light levels below the ANSI photochemical maximum permissible exposure (MPE) (Morgan et al., 2008) indicates a demand to modify future light safety standards to protect the retina from harm. To establish safe light exposures, we measured the visible light action spectrum for RPE disruption in an in vivo monkey model with fluorescence adaptive optics retinal imaging. Using this high resolution imaging modality can provide insight into the consequences of light on a cellular level and allow for longitudinal monitoring of retinal changes. The threshold retinal radiant exposures (RRE) for RPE disruption were determined for 4 wavelengths (460, 488, 544, and 594 nm). The anaesthetized macaque retina was exposed to a uniform 0.5° × 0.5° field of view (FOV). Imaging within a 2° × 2° FOV was performed before, immediately after and at 2 week intervals for 10 weeks. At each wavelength, multiple RREs were tested with 4 repetitions each to determine the threshold for RPE disruption. For qualitative analysis, RPE disruption is defined as any detectable change from the pre exposure condition in the cell mosaic in the exposed region relative to the corresponding mosaic in the immediately surrounding area. We have tested several metrics to evaluate the RPE images obtained before and after exposure. The measured action spectrum for photochemical RPE disruption has a shallower slope than the current ANSI photochemical MPE for the same conditions and suggests that longer wavelength light is more hazardous than other measurements would suggest.

  10. Fascin Overexpression Promotes Cholangiocarcinoma RBE Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiying; Yang, Fuquan; Zhao, Wenyan; Zhang, Chunjv; Liu, Jingang

    2016-04-01

    Fascin is overexpressed in various tumor tissues and is closely related to tumor metastasis and invasion. However, the role of fascin in cholangiocarcinoma RBE cells has not been clearly reported. This study aimed to establish a cholangiocarcinoma cell line with stable and high expression of fascin to observe the effect of fascin on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. A fascin overexpression vector, pcDNA3.1-Fascin, was constructed and transfected into the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell line. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence indicated that fascin was steadily and highly expressed in RBE cells. The results of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay indicated that upregulated fascin expression could enhance cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation. The results of wound healing assay and transwell assay indicated that fascin could promote cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion, and a further study found that the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was activated after upregulation of fascin, whereas E-cadherin expression in these cells was significantly decreased. Additionally, E-cadherin expression was significantly increased after inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activity using inhibitor or small interfering RNA, and E-cadherin expression was decreased by fascin overexpression after nuclear factor-κB inhibition, suggesting that nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was not involved in the regulation of E-cadherin by fascin. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that fascin effectively promoted cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study provides evidence for fascin as a potential target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Migration of Drosophila intestinal stem cells across organ boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Paul, Manash; Aghajanian, Patrick; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    All components of the Drosophila intestinal tract, including the endodermal midgut and ectodermal hindgut/Malpighian tubules, maintain populations of dividing stem cells. In the midgut and hindgut, these stem cells originate from within larger populations of intestinal progenitors that proliferate during the larval stage and form the adult intestine during metamorphosis. The origin of stem cells found in the excretory Malpighian tubules (‘renal stem cells’) has not been established. In this paper, we investigate the migration patterns of intestinal progenitors that take place during metamorphosis. Our data demonstrate that a subset of adult midgut progenitors (AMPs) move posteriorly to form the adult ureters and, consecutively, the renal stem cells. Inhibiting cell migration by AMP-directed expression of a dominant-negative form of Rac1 protein results in the absence of stem cells in the Malpighian tubules. As the majority of the hindgut progenitor cells migrate posteriorly and differentiate into hindgut enterocytes, a group of the progenitor cells, unexpectedly, invades anteriorly into the midgut territory. Consequently, these progenitor cells differentiate into midgut enterocytes. The midgut determinant GATAe is required for the differentiation of midgut enterocytes derived from hindgut progenitors. Wingless signaling acts to balance the proportion of hindgut progenitors that differentiate as midgut versus hindgut enterocytes. Our findings indicate that a stable boundary between midgut and hindgut/Malpighian tubules is not established during early embryonic development; instead, pluripotent progenitor populations cross in between these organs in both directions, and are able to adopt the fate of the organ in which they come to reside. PMID:23571215

  12. Mib1 contributes to persistent directional cell migration by regulating the Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Ikeda, Shoko; Watanabe, Saori; Sugawara, Michiko; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2017-10-31

    Persistent directional cell migration is involved in animal development and diseases. The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in F-actin and focal adhesion dynamics. Local Rac1 activity is required for persistent directional migration, whereas global, hyperactivated Rac1 enhances random cell migration. Therefore, precise control of Rac1 activity is important for proper directional cell migration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of Rac1 activity in persistent directional cell migration is not fully understood. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is involved in persistent directional cell migration. We found that knockdown of MIB1 led to an increase in random cell migration in HeLa cells in a wound-closure assay. Furthermore, we explored novel Mib1 substrates for cell migration and found that Mib1 ubiquitinates Ctnnd1. Mib1-mediated ubiquitination of Ctnnd1 K547 attenuated Rac1 activation in cultured cells. In addition, we found that posterior lateral line primordium cells in the zebrafish mib1 ta52b mutant showed increased random migration and loss of directional F-actin-based protrusion formation. Knockdown of Ctnnd1 partially rescued posterior lateral line primordium cell migration defects in the mib1 ta52b mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that Mib1 plays an important role in cell migration and that persistent directional cell migration is regulated, at least in part, by the Mib1-Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway. Published under the PNAS license.

  13. Studying Neutrophil Migration In Vivo Using Adoptive Cell Transfer.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Yoshishige; Kim, Nancy D; Miyabe, Chie; Luster, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive cell transfer experiments can be used to study the roles of cell trafficking molecules on the migratory behavior of specific immune cell populations in vivo. Chemoattractants and their G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors regulate migration of cells in vivo, and dysregulated expression of chemoattractants and their receptors is implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammatory arthritides, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells into joints. The K/BxN serum transfer mouse model of inflammatory arthritis shares many similar features with RA. In this autoantibody-induced model of arthritis, neutrophils are the critical immune cells necessary for the development of joint inflammation and damage. We have used adoptive neutrophil transfer to define the contributions of chemoattractant receptors, cytokines, and activation receptors expressed on neutrophils that critically regulate their entry into the inflamed joint. In this review, we describe the procedure of neutrophil adoptive transfer to study the influence of neutrophil-specific receptors or mediators upon the their recruitment into the joint using the K/BxN model of inflammatory arthritis as a model of how adoptive cell transfer studies can be used to study immune cell migration in vivo.

  14. Rho GTPases and Regulation of Cell Migration and Polarization in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Aihua; Toh, Li Xian; Gan, Kah Hui; Lee, Khee Jin Ryan; Manser, Edward; Tong, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Epithelial cell migration is required for regeneration of tissues and can be defective in a number of ocular surface diseases. This study aimed to determine the expression pattern of Rho family small G-proteins in human corneal epithelial cells to test their requirement in directional cell migration. Methods Rho family small G-protein expression was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Dominant-inhibitory constructs encoding Rho proteins or Rho protein targeting small interfering RNA were transfected into human corneal epithelial large T antigen cells, and wound closure rate were evaluated by scratch wounding assay, and a complementary non-traumatic cell migration assay. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to study cell polarization and to assess Cdc42 downstream effector. Results Cdc42, Chp, Rac1, RhoA, TC10 and TCL were expressed in human corneal epithelial cells. Among them, Cdc42 and TCL were found to significantly affect cell migration in monolayer scratch assays. These results were confirmed through the use of validated siRNAs directed to Cdc42 and TCL. Scramble siRNA transfected cells had high percentage of polarized cells than Cdc42 or TCL siRNA transfected cells at the wound edge. We showed that the Cdc42-specific effector p21-activated kinase 4 localized predominantly to cell-cell junctions in cell monolayers, but failed to translocate to the leading edge in Cdc42 siRNA transfected cells after monolayer wounding. Conclusion Rho proteins expressed in cultured human corneal epithelial cells, and Cdc42, TCL facilitate two-dimensional cell migration in-vitro. Although silencing of Cdc42 and TCL did not noticeably affect the appearance of cell adhesions at the leading edge, the slower migration of these cells indicates both GTP-binding proteins play important roles in promoting cell movement of human corneal epithelial cells. PMID:24130842

  15. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Regulates Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Clarissa Coelho; Florentino, Rodrigo Machado; França, Andressa; Matias, Eveline; Guimarães, Paola Bianchi; Batista, Carolina; Freire, Valder; Carmona, Adriana Karaoglanovic; Pesquero, João Bosco; de Paula, Ana Maria; Foureaux, Giselle; Leite, Maria de Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Background The angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) plays a central role in the renin-angiotensin system, acting by converting the hormone angiotensin-I to the active peptide angiotensin-II (Ang-II). More recently, ACE was shown to act as a receptor for Ang-II, and its expression level was demonstrated to be higher in melanoma cells compared to their normal counterparts. However, the function that ACE plays as an Ang-II receptor in melanoma cells has not been defined yet. Aim Therefore, our aim was to examine the role of ACE in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Results We found that upon binding to ACE, Ang-II internalizes with a faster onset compared to the binding of Ang-II to its classical AT1 receptor. We also found that the complex Ang-II/ACE translocates to the nucleus, through a clathrin-mediated process, triggering a transient nuclear Ca2+ signal. In silico studies revealed a possible interaction site between ACE and phospholipase C (PLC), and experimental results in CHO cells, demonstrated that the β3 isoform of PLC is the one involved in the Ca2+ signals induced by Ang-II/ACE interaction. Further studies in melanoma cells (TM-5) showed that Ang-II induced cell proliferation through ACE activation, an event that could be inhibited either by ACE inhibitor (Lisinopril) or by the silencing of ACE. In addition, we found that stimulation of ACE by Ang-II caused the melanoma cells to migrate, at least in part due to decreased vinculin expression, a focal adhesion structural protein. Conclusion ACE activation regulates melanoma cell proliferation and migration. PMID:27992423

  16. Directional Collective Cell Migration Emerges as a Property of Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Mae L.; Carmona-Fontaine, Carlos; Barnes, Chris P.; Couzin, Iain D.; Mayor, Roberto; Page, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Collective cell migration is a fundamental process, occurring during embryogenesis and cancer metastasis. Neural crest cells exhibit such coordinated migration, where aberrant motion can lead to fatality or dysfunction of the embryo. Migration involves at least two complementary mechanisms: contact inhibition of locomotion (a repulsive interaction corresponding to a directional change of migration upon contact with a reciprocating cell), and co-attraction (a mutual chemoattraction mechanism). Here, we develop and employ a parameterized discrete element model of neural crest cells, to investigate how these mechanisms contribute to long-range directional migration during development. Motion is characterized using a coherence parameter and the time taken to reach, collectively, a target location. The simulated cell group is shown to switch from a diffusive to a persistent state as the response-rate to co-attraction is increased. Furthermore, the model predicts that when co-attraction is inhibited, neural crest cells can migrate into restrictive regions. Indeed, inhibition of co-attraction in vivo and in vitro leads to cell invasion into restrictive areas, confirming the prediction of the model. This suggests that the interplay between the complementary mechanisms may contribute to guidance of the neural crest. We conclude that directional migration is a system property and does not require action of external chemoattractants. PMID:25181349

  17. Migration and Tissue Tropism of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang H.; Hashimoto-Hill, Seika; Kim, Myunghoo

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cell (ILCs) subsets differentially populate various barrier and non-barrier tissues, where they play important roles in tissue homeostasis and tissue-specific responses to pathogen attack. Recent findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanisms that guide ILC migration into peripheral tissues, revealing common features among different ILC subsets as well as important distinctions. Recent studies have also highlighted the impact of tissue-specific cues on ILC migration, and the importance of the local immunological milieu. We review these findings here and discuss how the migratory patterns and tissue tropism of different ILC subsets relate to the development and differentiation of these cells, and to ILC-mediated tissue-specific regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context we outline open questions and important areas of future research. PMID:26708278

  18. Insights into the pathogenesis of dominant retinitis pigmentosa associated with a D477G mutation in RPE65.

    PubMed

    Choi, Elliot H; Suh, Susie; Sander, Christopher L; Hernandez, Christian J Ortiz; Bulman, Elizabeth R; Khadka, Nimesh; Dong, Zhiqian; Shi, Wuxian; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D

    2018-04-12

    RPE65 is the essential trans-cis isomerase of the classical retinoid (visual) cycle. Mutations in RPE65 give rise to severe retinal dystrophies, most of which are associated with loss of protein function and recessive inheritance. The only known exception is a c.1430G>A (D477G) mutation that gives rise to dominant retinitis pigmentosa with delayed onset and choroidal and macular involvement. Position 477 is distant from functionally critical regions of RPE65. Hence, the mechanism of D477G pathogenicity remains unclear, although protein misfolding and aggregation mechanisms have been suggested. We characterized a D477G knock-in mouse model which exhibited mild age-dependent changes in retinal structure and function. Immunoblot analysis of protein extracts from the eyes of the knock-in mice demonstrated the presence of ubiquitinated RPE65 and reduced RPE65 expression. We observed an accumulation of retinyl esters in the knock-in mice as well as a delay in rhodopsin regeneration kinetics and diminished electroretinography responses, indicative of RPE65 functional impairment induced by the D477G mutation in vivo. However, a cell line expressing D477G RPE65 revealed protein expression levels, cellular localization, and retinoid isomerase activity comparable to cells expressing wild-type protein. Structural analysis of an RPE65 chimera suggested that the D477G mutation does not perturb protein folding or tertiary structure. Instead, the mutation generates an aggregation-prone surface that could induce cellular toxicity through abnormal complex formation as suggested by crystal packing analysis. These results indicate that a toxic gain-of-function induced by the D477G RPE65 substitution may play a role in the pathogenesis of this form of dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

  19. Blood flow and blood cell interactions and migration in microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosov, Dmitry; Fornleitner, Julia; Gompper, Gerhard

    2011-11-01

    Blood flow in microcirculation plays a fundamental role in a wide range of physiological processes and pathologies in the organism. To understand and, if necessary, manipulate the course of these processes it is essential to investigate blood flow under realistic conditions including deformability of blood cells, their interactions, and behavior in the complex microvascular network which is characteristic for the microcirculation. We employ the Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to model blood as a suspension of deformable cells represented by a viscoelastic spring-network which incorporates appropriate mechanical and rheological cell-membrane properties. Blood flow is investigated in idealized geometries. In particular, migration of blood cells and their distribution in blood flow are studied with respect to various conditions such as hematocrit, flow rate, red blood cell aggregation. Physical mechanisms which govern cell migration in microcirculation and, in particular, margination of white blood cells towards the vessel wall, will be discussed. In addition, we characterize blood flow dynamics and quantify hemodynamic resistance. D.F. acknowledges the Humboldt Foundation for financial support.

  20. Novel interactions between erythroblast macrophage protein and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Javan, Gulnaz T; Can, Ismail; Yeboah, Fred; Lee, Youngil; Soni, Shivani

    2016-09-01

    Erythroblast macrophage protein is a novel protein known to mediate attachment of erythroid cells to macrophages to form erythroblastic islands in bone marrow during erythropoiesis. Emp-null macrophages are small with round morphologies, and lack cytoplasmic projections which imply immature structure. The role of Emp in macrophage development and function is not fully elucidated. Macrophages perform varied functions (e.g. homeostasis, erythropoiesis), and are implicated in numerous pathophysiological conditions such as cellular malignancy. The objective of the current study is to investigate the interaction of Emp with cytoskeletal- and cell migration-associated proteins involved in macrophage functions. A short hairpin RNA lentiviral system was use to down-regulate the expression of Emp in macrophage cells. A cell migration assay revealed that the relocation of macrophages was significantly inhibited when Emp expression was decreased. To further analyze changes in gene expression related to cell motility, PCR array was performed by down-regulating Emp expression. The results indicated that expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 were significantly higher when Emp was down-regulated. The results implicate Emp in abnormal cell motility, thus, warrants to assess its role in cancer where tumor cell motility is required for invasion and metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insights into the Cell Shape Dynamics of Migrating Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Meghan; Homan, Tess; McCann, Colin; Parent, Carole; Fourkas, John; Losert, Wolfgang

    2010-03-01

    Dynamic cell shape is a highly visible manifestation of the interaction between the internal biochemical state of a cell and its external environment. We analyzed the dynamic cell shape of migrating cells using the model system Dictyostelium discoideum. Applying a snake algorithm to experimental movies, we extracted cell boundaries in each frame and followed local boundary motion over long time intervals. Using a local motion measure that corresponds to protrusive/retractive activity, we found that protrusions are intermittent and zig-zag, whereas retractions are more sustained and straight. Correlations of this local motion measure reveal that protrusions appear more localized than retractions. Using a local shape measure, curvature, we also found that small peaks in boundary curvature tend to originate at the front of cells and propagate backwards. We will review the possible cytoskeletal origin of these mechanical waves.

  2. Neuronal cell migration in C. elegans: regulation of Hox gene expression and cell position.

    PubMed

    Harris, J; Honigberg, L; Robinson, N; Kenyon, C

    1996-10-01

    In C. elegans, the Hox gene mab-5, which specifies the fates of cells in the posterior body region, has been shown to direct the migrations of certain cells within its domain of function. mab-5 expression switches on in the neuroblast QL as it migrates into the posterior body region. mab-5 activity is then required for the descendants of QL to migrate to posterior rather than anterior positions. What information activates Hox gene expression during this cell migration? How are these cells subsequently guided to their final positions? We address these questions by describing four genes, egl-20, mig-14, mig-1 and lin-17, that are required to activate expression of mab-5 during migration of the QL neuroblast. We find that two of these genes, egl-20 and mig-14, also act in a mab-5-independent way to determine the final stopping points of the migrating Q descendants. The Q descendants do not migrate toward any obvious physical targets in wild-type or mutant animals. Therefore, these genes appear to be part of a system that positions the migrating Q descendants along the anteroposterior axis.

  3. Impaired Cargo Clearance in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) Underlies Irreversible Blinding Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Keeling, Eloise; Lotery, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic degeneration of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) is a precursor to pathological changes in the outer retina. The RPE monolayer, which lies beneath the neuroretina, daily internalises and digests large volumes of spent photoreceptor outer segments. Impaired cargo handling and processing in the endocytic/phagosome and autophagy pathways lead to the accumulation of lipofuscin and pyridinium bis-retinoid A2E aggregates and chemically modified compounds such as malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal within RPE. These contribute to increased proteolytic and oxidative stress, resulting in irreversible damage to post-mitotic RPE cells and development of blinding conditions such as age-related macular degeneration, Stargardt disease and choroideremia. Here, we review how impaired cargo handling in the RPE results in their dysfunction, discuss new findings from our laboratory and consider how newly discovered roles for lysosomes and the autophagy pathway could provide insights into retinopathies. Studies of these dynamic, molecular events have also been spurred on by recent advances in optics and imaging technology. Mechanisms underpinning lysosomal impairment in other degenerative conditions including storage disorders, α-synuclein pathologies and Alzheimer’s disease are also discussed. Collectively, these findings help transcend conventional understanding of these intracellular compartments as simple waste disposal bags to bring about a paradigm shift in the way lysosomes are perceived. PMID:29473871

  4. Plasma-mediated transfection of RPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, D.; Chalberg, T.; Vankov, A.; Huie, P.; Molnar, F. E.; Butterwick, A.; Calos, M.; Marmor, M.; Blumenkranz, M. S.

    2006-02-01

    A major obstacle in applying gene therapy to clinical practice is the lack of efficient and safe gene delivery techniques. Viral delivery has encountered a number of serious problems including immunological reactions and malignancy. Non-viral delivery methods (liposomes, sonoporation and electroporation) have either low efficiency in-vivo or produce severe collateral damage to ocular tissues. We discovered that tensile stress greatly increases the susceptibility of cellular membranes to electroporation. For synchronous application of electric field and mechanical stress, both are generated by the electric discharge itself. A pressure wave is produced by rapid vaporization of the medium. To prevent termination of electric current by the vapor cavity it is ionized thus restoring its electric conductivity. For in-vivo experiments with rabbits a plasmid DNA was injected into the subretinal space, and RPE was treated trans-sclerally with an array of microelectodes placed outside the eye. Application of 250-300V and 100-200 μs biphasic pulses via a microelectrode array resulted in efficient transfection of RPE without visible damage to the retina. Gene expression was quantified and monitored using bioluminescence (luciferase) and fluorescence (GFP) imaging. Transfection efficiency of RPE with this new technique exceeded that of standard electroporation by a factor 10,000. Safe and effective non-viral DNA delivery to the mammalian retina may help to materialize the enormous potential of the ocular gene therapy. Future experiments will focus on continued characterization of the safety and efficacy of this method and evaluation of long-term transgene expression in the presence of phiC31 integrase.

  5. Collective cell migration of thyroid carcinoma cells: a beneficial ability to override unfavourable substrates.

    PubMed

    Lobastova, Liudmila; Kraus, Dominik; Glassmann, Alexander; Khan, Dilaware; Steinhäuser, Christian; Wolff, Christina; Veit, Nadine; Winter, Jochen; Probstmeier, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    Tumor cell invasion and metastasis are life threatening events. Invasive tumor cells tend to migrate as collective sheets. In the present in vitro study we aimed to (i) assess whether collective tumor cells gain benefits in their migratory potential compared to single cells and (ii) to identify its putative underlying molecular mechanisms. The migratory potential of single and collective carcinoma cells was assessed using video time lapse microscopy and cell migration assays in the absence and presence of seven potential gap junction inhibitors or the Rac1 inhibitor Z62954982. The perturbation of gap junctions was assessed using a dye diffusion assay. In addition, LDH-based cytotoxicity and RT-PCR-based expression analyses were performed. Whereas single breast, cervix and thyroid carcinoma cells were virtually immobile on unfavourable plastic surfaces, we found that they gained pronounced migratory capacities as collectives under comparable conditions. Thyroid carcinoma cells, that were studied in more detail, were found to express specific subsets of connexins and to form active gap junctions as revealed by dye diffusion analysis. Although all potential gap junction blockers suppressed intercellular dye diffusion in at least one of the cell lines tested, only two of them were found to inhibit collective cell migration and none of them to inhibit single cell migration. In the presence of the Rac1 inhibitor Z62954982 collective migration, but not single cell migration, was found to be reduced up to 20 %. Our data indicate that collective migration enables tumor cells to cross otherwise unfavourable substrate areas. This capacity seems to be independent of intercellular communication via gap junctions, whereas Rac1-dependent intracellular signalling seems to be essential.

  6. Quantitative analysis of random migration of cells using time-lapse video microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jain, Prachi; Worthylake, Rebecca A; Alahari, Suresh K

    2012-05-13

    Cell migration is a dynamic process, which is important for embryonic development, tissue repair, immune system function, and tumor invasion (1, 2). During directional migration, cells move rapidly in response to an extracellular chemotactic signal, or in response to intrinsic cues (3) provided by the basic motility machinery. Random migration occurs when a cell possesses low intrinsic directionality, allowing the cells to explore their local environment. Cell migration is a complex process, in the initial response cell undergoes polarization and extends protrusions in the direction of migration (2). Traditional methods to measure migration such as the Boyden chamber migration assay is an easy method to measure chemotaxis in vitro, which allows measuring migration as an end point result. However, this approach neither allows measurement of individual migration parameters, nor does it allow to visualization of morphological changes that cell undergoes during migration. Here, we present a method that allows us to monitor migrating cells in real time using video - time lapse microscopy. Since cell migration and invasion are hallmarks of cancer, this method will be applicable in studying cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. Random migration of platelets has been considered as one of the parameters of platelet function (4), hence this method could also be helpful in studying platelet functions. This assay has the advantage of being rapid, reliable, reproducible, and does not require optimization of cell numbers. In order to maintain physiologically suitable conditions for cells, the microscope is equipped with CO(2) supply and temperature thermostat. Cell movement is monitored by taking pictures using a camera fitted to the microscope at regular intervals. Cell migration can be calculated by measuring average speed and average displacement, which is calculated by Slidebook software.

  7. [The PAI-1 swing: microenvironment and cancer cell migration].

    PubMed

    Malo, Michel; Charrière-Bertrand, Cécile; Chettaoui, Chafika; Fabre-Guillevin, Elizabeth; Maquerlot, François; Lackmy, Alexandra; Vallée, Benoît; Delaplace, Franck; Barlovatz-Meimon, Georgia

    2006-12-01

    Cancer is a complex and dynamic process caused by a cellular dysfunction leading to a whole organ or even organism vital perturbation. To better understand this process, we need to study each one of the levels involved, which allows the scale change, and to integrate this knowledge. A matricellular protein, PAI-1, is able to induce in vitro cell behaviour modifications, morphological changes, and to promote cell migration. PAI-1 influences the mesenchymo-amaeboid transition. This matricellular protein should be considered as a potential 'launcher' of the metastatic process acting at the molecular, cellular, tissular levels and, as a consequence, at the organism's level.

  8. Guidance signalling regulates leading edge behaviour during collective cell migration of cardiac cells in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Raza, Qanber; Jacobs, J Roger

    2016-11-15

    Collective cell migration is the coordinated movement of cells, which organize tissues during morphogenesis, repair and some cancers. The motile cell membrane of the advancing front in collective cell migration is termed the Leading Edge. The embryonic development of the vertebrate and Drosophila hearts are both characterized by the coordinated medial migration of a bilateral cluster of mesodermal cells. In Drosophila, the cardioblasts form cohesive bilateral rows that migrate collectively as a unit towards the dorsal midline to form the dorsal vessel. We have characterized the collective cell migration of cardioblasts as an in vivo quantitative model to study the behaviour of the Leading Edge. We investigated whether guidance signalling through Slit and Netrin pathways plays a role in cell migration during heart development. Through time-lapse imaging and quantitative assessment of migratory behaviour of the cardioblasts in loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that both Slit and Netrin mediated signals are autonomously and concomitantly required to maximize migration velocity, filopodial and lamellipodial activities. Additionally, we show that another Slit and Netrin receptor, Dscam1, the role of which during heart development was previously unknown, is required for both normal migration of cardioblasts and luminal expansion. Leading edge behaviour analysis revealed a dosage dependent genetic interaction between Slit and Netrin receptors suggesting that downstream signalling through these receptors converge on a common output that increases leading edge activity of the cardioblasts. Finally, we found that guidance signalling maintains the balance between epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics of the migrating cardioblasts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical Coordination of Single-Cell and Collective-Cell Amoeboid Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Alamo, Juan Carlos

    Amoeboid migration consists of the sequential repetition of pseudopod extensions and retractions driven by actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and requires cells to apply mechanical forces on their surroundings. We measure the three-dimensional forces exerted by chemotaxing Dictyostelium cells, and examine wild-type cells as well as mutants with defects in contractility, F-actin polymerization, internal F-actin crosslinking, and cortical integrity. We find that cells pull on their substrate adhesions using two distinct, yet interconnected mechanisms: axial actomyosin contractility and cortical tension. The 3D pulling forces generated by both mechanisms are internally balanced by an increase in cytoplasmic pressure that allows cells to push on their substrate, and we show that these pushing forces are relevant for cell invasion and migration in three-dimensional environments. We observe that cells migrate mainly by forming two stationary adhesion sites at the front and back of the cell, over which the cell body moves forward in a step-wise fashion. During this process, the traction forces at each adhesion site are switched off and subsequently their direction is reversed. The cell migration speed is found to be proportional to the rate at which cells are able regulate these forces to produce the cell shape changes needed for locomotion, which is increased when axial contractility overcomes the stabilizing effect of cortical tension. This spatiotemporal coordination is conserved in streams of multiple migratory cells connected head to tail, which also migrate by exerting traction forces on stationary sites. Furthermore, we observe that trailing cells reuse the adhesion sites of the leading cells. Finally, we provide evidence that the above modes of migration may be conserved in a range of other amoeboid-type moving cells such as neutrophils.

  10. The effects of laser immunotherapy on cancer cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Layton, Elivia; Lam, Anh; Chen, Wei R.; Vaughan, Melville B.

    2016-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to target all types of metastases and creates a long-term tumor resistance. Glycated chitosan (GC) is the immunological stimulant used in LIT. Interestingly, GC can act as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. One essential aspect of understanding this immune response is knowing how laser irradiation affects cancer cells' ability to metastasize. In this experiment, a cell migration assay was performed. A 2mm circular elastomer plugs were placed at the bottom of multi-well dishes. Pre-cancerous keratinocytes, different tumor cells, and fibroblasts were then plated separately in treated wells. Once the cells reached 100% confluence, they were irradiated by either a 980nm or 805nm wavelength laser. The goal was to determine the effects of laser irradiation and immunological stimulation on cancer cell migration in vitro, paying the way to understand the mechanism of LIT in treating metastatic tumors in cancer patients.

  11. Cell migration under ultrasound irradiations in micrometer scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Shinya; Otsuka, Yo; Oshima, Yusuke; Hikita, Atsuhiko; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-03-01

    Cell movements, migration play an important role in many physiological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. C2C12, a line of mouse myoblasts is known to differentiate into osteoblast under appropriate conditions. Therefore, C2C12 cells can be chosen for the differentiation studies. However, the movement of the C2C12's has not been fully investigated although the movements may provide a better understanding of the healing processes of bone repair, regeneration and differentiation. In addition, low intensity ultrasound has been thought and used to promote bone fracture healing although the microscopic mechanism of this healing is not well understood. As a first step, we have investigated single cell migration of C2C12 under optical microscopy with and without ultrasound irradiations. The ultrasound is irradiated from an apex of a sharp needle. The frequency is 1.5 MHz and the power intensity is near 24 mW/cm2. These values were similar to the ultrasound treatment values. In this conference, we will show the influence of the ultrasound irradiation on the cell movement by plotting the mean squared displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function as a function of time.

  12. Impact of Tumor Cell Cytoskeleton Organization on Invasiveness and Migration: A Microchannel-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rolli, Claudio G.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Kemkemer, Ralf; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2010-01-01

    Cell migration is a fundamental feature of the interaction of cells with their surrounding. The cell's stiffness and ability to deform itself are two major characteristics that rule migration behavior especially in three-dimensional tissue. We simulate this situation making use of a micro-fabricated migration chip to test the active invasive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells (Panc-1) into narrow channels. At a channel width of 7 µm cell migration through the channels was significantly impeded due to size exclusion. A striking increase in cell invasiveness was observed once the cells were treated with the bioactive lipid sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) that leads to a reorganization of the cell's keratin network, an enhancement of the cell's deformability, and also an increase in the cell's migration speed on flat surfaces. The migration speed of the highly deformed cells inside the channels was three times higher than of cells on flat substrates but was not affected upon SPC treatment. Cells inside the channels migrated predominantly by smooth sliding while maintaining constant cell length. In contrast, cells on adhesion mediating narrow lines moved in a stepwise way, characterized by fluctuations in cell length. Taken together, with our migration chip we demonstrate that the dimensionality of the environment strongly affects the migration phenotype and we suggest that the spatial cytoskeletal keratin organization correlates with the tumor cell's invasive potential. PMID:20090950

  13. Co-culture with Sertoli cells promotes proliferation and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fenxi, E-mail: fxzhang0824@gmail.com; Hong, Yan; Liang, Wenmei

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of Sertoli cells (SCs) with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs dramatically increased proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of SCs stimulated expression of Mdm2, Akt, CDC2, Cyclin D, CXCR4, MAPKs. -- Abstract: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been recently used in transplant therapy. The proliferation and migration of MSCs are the determinants of the efficiency of MSC transplant therapy. Sertoli cells are a kind of 'nurse' cells that support the development of sperm cells. Recent studies show that Sertoli cells promote proliferation of endothelial cells and neuralmore » stem cells in co-culture. We hypothesized that co-culture of UCMSCs with Sertoli cells may also promote proliferation and migration of UCMSCs. To examine this hypothesis, we isolated UCMSCs from human cords and Sertoli cells from mouse testes, and co-cultured them using a Transwell system. We found that UCMSCs exhibited strong proliferation ability and potential to differentiate to other cell lineages such as osteocytes and adipocytes. The presence of Sertoli cells in co-culture significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration potential of UCMSCs (P < 0.01). Moreover, these phenotypic changes were accompanied with upregulation of multiple genes involved in cell proliferation and migration including phospho-Akt, Mdm2, phospho-CDC2, Cyclin D1, Cyclin D3 as well as CXCR4, phospho-p44 MAPK and phospho-p38 MAPK. These findings indicate that Sertoli cells boost UCMSC proliferation and migration potential.« less

  14. Impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in RPE alters the expression of inflammation related genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating gene expression. Retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) are a major source of ocular inflammatory cytokines. In this work we determined the relationship between impairment of the UPP and expression of inflammation-related f...

  15. Motile membrane protrusions regulate cell-cell adhesion and migration of olfactory ensheathing glia.

    PubMed

    Windus, Louisa C E; Claxton, Christina; Allen, Chelsea L; Key, Brian; St John, James A

    2007-12-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are candidates for therapeutic approaches for neural regeneration due to their ability to assist axon regrowth in central nervous system lesion models. However, little is understood about the processes and mechanisms underlying migration of these cells. We report here that novel lamellipodial protrusions, termed lamellipodial waves, are integral to OEC migration. Time-lapse imaging of migrating OECs revealed that these highly dynamic waves progress along the shaft of the cells and are crucial for mediating cell-cell adhesion. Without these waves, cell-cell adhesion does not occur and migrational rates decline. The activity of waves is modulated by both glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and inhibitors of the JNK and SRC kinases. Furthermore, the activity of lamellipodial waves can be modulated by Mek1, independently of leading edge activity. The ability to selectively regulate cell migration via lamellipodial waves has implications for manipulating the migratory behavior of OECs during neural repair. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S.; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-01-01

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters. PMID:26936382

  17. Probing Leader Cells in Endothelial Collective Migration by Plasma Lithography Geometric Confinement.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongliang; Jamilpour, Nima; Yao, Baoyin; Dean, Zachary S; Riahi, Reza; Wong, Pak Kin

    2016-03-03

    When blood vessels are injured, leader cells emerge in the endothelium to heal the wound and restore the vasculature integrity. The characteristics of leader cells during endothelial collective migration under diverse physiological conditions, however, are poorly understood. Here we investigate the regulation and function of endothelial leader cells by plasma lithography geometric confinement generated. Endothelial leader cells display an aggressive phenotype, connect to follower cells via peripheral actin cables and discontinuous adherens junctions, and lead migrating clusters near the leading edge. Time-lapse microscopy, immunostaining, and particle image velocimetry reveal that the density of leader cells and the speed of migrating clusters are tightly regulated in a wide range of geometric patterns. By challenging the cells with converging, diverging and competing patterns, we show that the density of leader cells correlates with the size and coherence of the migrating clusters. Collectively, our data provide evidence that leader cells control endothelial collective migration by regualting the migrating clusters.

  18. Time-lapse microscopy and image processing for stem cell research: modeling cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Tomas; Althoff, Karin; Degerman, Johan; Olsson, Torsten; Thoreson, Ann-Catrin; Thorlin, Thorleif; Eriksson, Peter

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents hardware and software procedures for automated cell tracking and migration modeling. A time-lapse microscopy system equipped with a computer controllable motorized stage was developed. The performance of this stage was improved by incorporating software algorithms for stage motion displacement compensation and auto focus. The microscope is suitable for in-vitro stem cell studies and allows for multiple cell culture image sequence acquisition. This enables comparative studies concerning rate of cell splits, average cell motion velocity, cell motion as a function of cell sample density and many more. Several cell segmentation procedures are described as well as a cell tracking algorithm. Statistical methods for describing cell migration patterns are presented. In particular, the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was investigated. Results indicate that if the cell motion can be described as a non-stationary stochastic process, then the HMM can adequately model aspects of its dynamic behavior.

  19. Notch1-Dll4 signaling and mechanical force regulate leader cell formation during collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Sun, Jian; Wang, Shue; Long, Min; Zhang, Donna D.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-01-01

    At the onset of collective cell migration, a subset of cells within an initially homogenous population acquires a distinct “leader” phenotype with characteristic morphology and motility. However, the factors driving leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the migration process remain to be determined. Here, we use single cell gene expression analysis and computational modeling to show that leader cell identity is dynamically regulated by Dll4 signaling through both Notch1 and cellular stress in a migrating epithelium. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that Dll4 is induced in leader cells after the creation of the cell-free region and leader cells are regulated via Notch1-Dll4 lateral inhibition. Furthermore, mechanical stress inhibits Dll4 expression and leader cell formation in the monolayer. Collectively, our findings suggest that a reduction of mechanical force near the boundary promotes Notch1-Dll4 signaling to dynamically regulate the density of leader cells during collective cell migration. PMID:25766473

  20. RNase L Suppresses Androgen Receptor Signaling, Cell Migration and Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Shubham; Zhou, Jun; Manivannan, Praveen; Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmad, Omaima Farid; Clark, Matthew; Awadia, Sahezeel; Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Shemshedini, Lirim; Malathi, Krishnamurthy

    2017-01-01

    The interferon antiviral pathways and prostate cancer genetics converge on a regulated endoribonuclease, RNase L. Positional cloning and linkage studies mapped Hereditary Prostate Cancer 1 (HPC1) to RNASEL. To date, there is no correlation of viral infections with prostate cancer, suggesting that RNase L may play additional roles in tumor suppression. Here, we demonstrate a role of RNase L as a suppressor of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Using RNase L mutants, we show that its nucleolytic activity is dispensable for both AR signaling and migration. The most prevalent HPC1-associated mutations in RNase L, R462Q and E265X, enhance AR signaling and cell migration. RNase L negatively regulates cell migration and attachment on various extracellular matrices. We demonstrate that RNase L knockdown cells promote increased cell surface expression of integrin β1 which activates Focal Adhesion Kinase-Sarcoma (FAK-Src) pathway and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-guanosine triphosphatase (Rac1-GTPase) activity to increase cell migration. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 is significantly increased in cells where RNase L levels are ablated. We show that mutations in RNase L found in HPC patients may promote prostate cancer by increasing expression of AR-responsive genes and cell motility and identify novel roles of RNase L as a prostate cancer susceptibility gene. PMID:28257035

  1. Live Imaging of LysoTracker-Labelled Phagolysosomes Tracks Diurnal Phagocytosis of Photoreceptor Outer Segment Fragments in Rat RPE Tissue Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingyu; Finnemann, Silvia C

    2016-01-01

    Renewal of rod photoreceptor outer segments in the mammalian eye involves synchronized diurnal shedding after light onset of spent distal outer segment fragments (POS) linked to swift clearance of shed POS from the subretinal space by the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Engulfed POS phagosomes in RPE cells mature to acidified phagolysosomes, which accomplish enzymatic degradation of POS macromolecules. Here, we used an acidophilic fluorophore LysoTracker to label acidic organelles in freshly dissected, live rat RPE tissue flat mounts. We observed that all RPE cells imaged contained numerous acidified POS phagolysosomes whose abundance per cell was dramatically increased 2 h after light onset as compared to either 1 h before or 4 h after light onset. Lack of organelles of similar diameter (of 1-2 μm) in phagocytosis-defective mutant RCS rat RPE confirmed that LysoTracker live imaging detected POS phagolysosomes. Lack of increase in lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1 in RPE/choroid during the diurnal phagocytic burst suggests that formation of POS phagolysosomes in RPE in situ may not involve extra lysosome membrane biogenesis. Taken together, we report a new imaging approach that directly detects POS phagosome acidification and allows rapid tracking and quantification of POS phagocytosis by live RPE -tissue ex situ.

  2. Cell migration through connective tissue in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Ben

    2008-03-01

    A prerequisite for metastasis formation is the ability of tumor cells to invade and migrate through connective tissue. Four key components endow tumor cells with this ability: secretion of matrix-degrading enzymes, firm but temporary adhesion onto connective tissue fibers, contractile force generation, and rapid remodeling of cytoskeletal structures. Cell adhesion, contraction, and cytoskeletal remodeling are biomechanical parameter that can be measured on single cells using a panel of biophysical methods. We use 2-D and 3-D traction microscopy to measure contractile forces; magnetic tweezer microrheology to estimate adhesion strengths, cytoskeletal stiffness and molecular turn-over rates; and nanoscale particle tracking to measure cytoskeletal remodeling. On a wide range of tumor cell lines we could show that cell invasiveness correlates with increased expression of integrin adhesion receptors, increased contractile force generation, and increased speed of cytoskeletal reorganization. Each of those biomechanical parameters, however, varied considerably between cell lines of similar invasivity, suggesting that tumor cells employ multiple invasion strategies that cannot be unambiguously characterized using a single assay.

  3. Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Hadden, William J.; Young, Jennifer L.; Holle, Andrew W.; McFetridge, Meg L.; Kim, Du Yong; Wijesinghe, Philip; Taylor-Weiner, Hermes; Wen, Jessica H.; Lee, Andrew R.; Bieback, Karen; Vo, Ba-Ngu; Sampson, David D.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Spatz, Joachim P.; Choi, Yu Suk

    2017-01-01

    The spatial presentation of mechanical information is a key parameter for cell behavior. We have developed a method of polymerization control in which the differential diffusion distance of unreacted cross-linker and monomer into a prepolymerized hydrogel sink results in a tunable stiffness gradient at the cell–matrix interface. This simple, low-cost, robust method was used to produce polyacrylamide hydrogels with stiffness gradients of 0.5, 1.7, 2.9, 4.5, 6.8, and 8.2 kPa/mm, spanning the in vivo physiological and pathological mechanical landscape. Importantly, three of these gradients were found to be nondurotactic for human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs), allowing the presentation of a continuous range of stiffnesses in a single well without the confounding effect of differential cell migration. Using these nondurotactic gradient gels, stiffness-dependent hASC morphology, migration, and differentiation were studied. Finally, the mechanosensitive proteins YAP, Lamin A/C, Lamin B, MRTF-A, and MRTF-B were analyzed on these gradients, providing higher-resolution data on stiffness-dependent expression and localization. PMID:28507138

  4. Collective cell migration without proliferation: density determines cell velocity and wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlili, Sham; Gauquelin, Estelle; Li, Brigitte; Cardoso, Olivier; Ladoux, Benoît; Delanoë-Ayari, Hélène; Graner, François

    2018-05-01

    Collective cell migration contributes to embryogenesis, wound healing and tumour metastasis. Cell monolayer migration experiments help in understanding what determines the movement of cells far from the leading edge. Inhibiting cell proliferation limits cell density increase and prevents jamming; we observe long-duration migration and quantify space-time characteristics of the velocity profile over large length scales and time scales. Velocity waves propagate backwards and their frequency depends only on cell density at the moving front. Both cell average velocity and wave velocity increase linearly with the cell effective radius regardless of the distance to the front. Inhibiting lamellipodia decreases cell velocity while waves either disappear or have a lower frequency. Our model combines conservation laws, monolayer mechanical properties and a phenomenological coupling between strain and polarity: advancing cells pull on their followers, which then become polarized. With reasonable values of parameters, this model agrees with several of our experimental observations. Together, our experiments and model disantangle the respective contributions of active velocity and of proliferation in monolayer migration, explain how cells maintain their polarity far from the moving front, and highlight the importance of strain-polarity coupling and density in long-range information propagation.

  5. Histopathology and Functional Correlations in a Patient with a Mutation in RPE65, the Gene for Retinol Isomerase

    PubMed Central

    Rayborn, Mary E.; Li, Yong; Grossman, Gregory H.; Berson, Eliot L.; Hollyfield, Joe G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Here the authors describe the structural features of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in postmortem donor eyes of a 56-year-old patient with a homozygous missense RPE65 mutation (Ala132Thr) and correlate the pathology with the patient's visual function last measured at age 51. Methods. Eyes were enucleated within 13.5 hours after death. Representative areas from the macula and periphery were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to localize the distribution of RPE65, rhodopsin, and cone arrestin. The autofluorescence in the RPE was compared with that of two normal eyes from age-similar donors. Results. Histologic examination revealed the loss of rods and cones across most areas of the retina, attenuated retinal vessels, and RPE thinning in both eyes. A small number of highly disorganized cones were present in the macula that showed simultaneous labeling with cone arrestin and red/green or blue opsin. RPE65 immunoreactivity and RPE autofluorescence were reduced compared with control eyes in all areas studied. Rhodopsin labeling was observed in rods in the far periphery. The optic nerve showed a reduced number of axons. Conclusions. The clinical findings of reduced visual acuity, constricted fields, and reduced electroretinograms (ERGs) 5 years before death correlated with the small number of cones present in the macula and the extensive loss of photoreceptors in the periphery. The absence of autofluorescence in the RPE suggests that photoreceptor cells were probably missing across the retina for extended periods of time. Possible mechanisms that could lead to photoreceptor cell death are discussed. PMID:21931134

  6. Proton beam irradiation inhibits the migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jasińska-Konior, Katarzyna; Pochylczuk, Katarzyna; Czajka, Elżbieta; Michalik, Marta; Romanowska-Dixon, Bożena; Swakoń, Jan; Urbańska, Krystyna; Elas, Martyna

    2017-01-01

    In recent years experimental data have indicated that low-energy proton beam radiation might induce a difference in cellular migration in comparison to photons. We therefore set out to compare the effect of proton beam irradiation and X-rays on the survival and long-term migratory properties of two cell lines: uveal melanoma Mel270 and skin melanoma BLM. Cells treated with either proton beam or X-rays were analyzed for their survival using clonogenic assay and MTT test. Long-term migratory properties were assessed with time-lapse monitoring of individual cell movements, wound test and transpore migration, while the expression of the related proteins was measured with western blot. Exposure to proton beam and X-rays led to similar survival but the quality of the cell colonies was markedly different. More paraclones with a low proliferative activity and fewer highly-proliferative holoclones were found after proton beam irradiation in comparison to X-rays. At 20 or 40 days post-irradiation, migratory capacity was decreased more by proton beam than by X-rays. The beta-1-integrin level was decreased in Mel270 cells after both types of radiation, while vimentin, a marker of EMT, was increased in BLM cells only. We conclude that proton beam irradiation induced long-term inhibition of cellular motility, as well as changes in the level of beta-1 integrin and vimentin. If confirmed, the change in the quality, but not in the number of colonies after proton beam irradiation might favor tumor growth inhibition after fractionated proton therapy.

  7. Phosphorylation of WAVE2 by MAP kinases regulates persistent cell migration and polarity

    PubMed Central

    Danson, Christopher M.; Pocha, Shirin M.; Bloomberg, Graham B.; Cory, Giles O.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The WAVE family of proteins has long been implicated in the stimulus-dependent generation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of migrating cells, with WAVE2 in particular implicated in the formation of peripheral ruffles and chemotactic migration. However, the lack of direct visualisation of cell migration in WAVE2 mutants or knockdowns has made defining the mechanisms of WAVE2 regulation during cell migration difficult. We have characterised three MAP kinase phosphorylation sites within WAVE2 and analysed fibroblast behaviour in a scratch-wound model following introduction of transgenes encoding phospho-defective WAVE2. The cells exhibited an increase in migration speed, a decrease in the persistence of migration, and disruption of polarisation of the Golgi apparatus. All these effects could be mimicked by acute knockdown of endogenous WAVE2 expression with RNAi, indicating that phosphorylation of WAVE2 by MAP kinases regulates cell polarity during migration. PMID:18032787

  8. Phosphorylation of WAVE2 by MAP kinases regulates persistent cell migration and polarity.

    PubMed

    Danson, Christopher M; Pocha, Shirin M; Bloomberg, Graham B; Cory, Giles O

    2007-12-01

    The WAVE family of proteins has long been implicated in the stimulus-dependent generation of lamellipodia at the leading edge of migrating cells, with WAVE2 in particular implicated in the formation of peripheral ruffles and chemotactic migration. However, the lack of direct visualisation of cell migration in WAVE2 mutants or knockdowns has made defining the mechanisms of WAVE2 regulation during cell migration difficult. We have characterised three MAP kinase phosphorylation sites within WAVE2 and analysed fibroblast behaviour in a scratch-wound model following introduction of transgenes encoding phospho-defective WAVE2. The cells exhibited an increase in migration speed, a decrease in the persistence of migration, and disruption of polarisation of the Golgi apparatus. All these effects could be mimicked by acute knockdown of endogenous WAVE2 expression with RNAi, indicating that phosphorylation of WAVE2 by MAP kinases regulates cell polarity during migration.

  9. Role of medullary progenitor cells in epithelial cell migration and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Chen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yuning; Park, Chanyoung; Al-Omari, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at characterizing medullary interstitial progenitor cells and to examine their capacity to induce tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. We have isolated a progenitor cell side population from a primary medullary interstitial cell line. We show that the medullary progenitor cells (MPCs) express CD24, CD44, CXCR7, CXCR4, nestin, and PAX7. MPCs are CD34 negative, which indicates that they are not bone marrow-derived stem cells. MPCs survive >50 passages, and when grown in epithelial differentiation medium develop phenotypic characteristics of epithelial cells. Inner medulla collecting duct (IMCD3) cells treated with conditioned medium from MPCs show significantly accelerated cell proliferation and migration. Conditioned medium from PGE2-treated MPCs induce tubule formation in IMCD3 cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Moreover, most of the MPCs express the pericyte marker PDGFR-b. Our study shows that the medullary interstitium harbors a side population of progenitor cells that can differentiate to epithelial cells and can stimulate tubular epithelial cell migration and proliferation. The findings of this study suggest that medullary pericyte/progenitor cells may play a critical role in collecting duct cell injury repair. PMID:24808539

  10. Cell growth and migration under octenidine-antiseptic treatment.

    PubMed

    Jenull, S; Hojdar, K; Laggner, H; Velimirov, B; Zemann, N; Huettinger, M

    2015-06-01

    The toxicity of octenidine antiseptics in cultured cells contrasts their good tolerability in tissue. This phenomenon prompted us to examine which cell culture conditions allow survival and proliferation and to investigate a possible modulation of toxicity by the extracellular matrix proteoglycan chondroitin sulfate. We tested fibroblasts and MCF7 cells for growth using the MTT test, and assessed wound healing potency with a laceration assay. Expression levels of the genes involved in controlling wound healing were assessed with RT-PCR. A 24 hour exposure to the octenidine-based solution was found incompatible with cell growth. When octenidine solution (0.5-0.5mg/l) was coated on dishes, growth was profoundly reduced after 24 hours, however there was no cytotoxic effect at 0.012 mg/l. Interestingly, when dishes were first coated with chondroitin sulfate the cytotoxicity of octenidine-based solution was modulated. Cell migration was not inhibited by octenidine-based solution treatment (2 minutes; 15 mg/l). No significant changes in gene expression levels in response to the octenidine-based solution treatment were detected. In cell culture conditions application of the octenidine-based solution without toxicity can be observed, comparable to the minimal application required to give full bactericidal effect. Alteration of toxicity by interaction with chondroitin sulfate in cell culture suggests a similar function for extraceullar matrix in intact tissue.

  11. Abnormal expression of leiomyoma cytoskeletal proteins involved in cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ura, Blendi; Scrimin, Federica; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Athanasakis, Emmanouil; Aloisio, Michelangelo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ricci, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are monoclonal tumors. Several factors are involved in the neoplastic transformation of the myometrium. In our study we focused on dysregulated cytoskeletal proteins in the leiomyoma as compared to the myometrium. Paired tissue samples of ten leiomyomas and adjacent myometria were obtained and analyzed by two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Mass spectrometry was used for protein identification, and western blotting for 2-DE data validation. The values of ten cytoskeletal proteins were found to be significantly different: eight proteins were upregulated in the leiomyoma and two proteins were downregulated. Three of the upregulated proteins (myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9, four and a half LIM domains protein 1 and LIM and SH3 domain protein 1) are involved in cell migration, while downregulated protein transgelin is involved in replicative senescence. Myosin regulatory light polypeptide 9 (MYL9) was further validated by western blotting because it is considered to be a cell migration marker in several cancers and could play a key role in leiomyoma development. Our data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of cytoskeletal proteins involved in leiomyoma growth. A better understanding of the involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in leiomyoma pathogenesis may contribute to the identification of new therapeutic targets and the development of new pharmacological approaches.

  12. Cadherin-11 Mediates Contact Inhibition of Locomotion during Xenopus Neural Crest Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sarah F. S.; Mayor, Roberto; Kashef, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Collective cell migration is an essential feature both in embryonic development and cancer progression. The molecular mechanisms of these coordinated directional cell movements still need to be elucidated. The migration of cranial neural crest (CNC) cells during embryogenesis is an excellent model for collective cell migration in vivo. These highly motile and multipotent cells migrate directionally on defined routes throughout the embryo. Interestingly, local cell-cell interactions seem to be the key force for directionality. CNC cells can change their migration direction by a repulsive cell response called contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL). Cell protrusions collapse upon homotypic cell-cell contact and internal repolarization leads to formation of new protrusions toward cell-free regions. Wnt/PCP signaling was shown to mediate activation of small RhoGTPase RhoA and inhibition of cell protrusions at the contact side. However, the mechanism how a cell recognizes the contact is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that Xenopus cadherin-11 (Xcad-11) mediated cell-cell adhesion is necessary in CIL for directional and collective migration of CNC cells. Reduction of Xcad-11 adhesive function resulted in higher invasiveness of CNC due to loss of CIL. Additionally, transplantation analyses revealed that CNC migratory behaviour in vivo is non-directional and incomplete when Xcad-11 adhesive function is impaired. Blocking Wnt/PCP signaling led to similar results underlining the importance of Xcad-11 in the mechanism of CIL and directional migration of CNC. PMID:24392028

  13. Cytoglobin inhibits migration through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Selami; Doğan, Ayşegül; Apdik, Hüseyin; Tuysuz, Emre Can; Gulluoglu, Sukru; Bayrak, Omer Faruk; Şahin, Fikrettin

    2018-01-01

    Cell proliferation and migration are crucial in many physiological processes including development, cancer, tissue repair, and wound healing. Cell migration is regulated by several signaling molecules. Identification of genes related to cell migration is required to understand molecular mechanism of non-healing chronic wounds which is a major concern in clinics. In the current study, the role of cytoglobin (CYGB) gene in fıbroblast cell migration and proliferation was described. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were transduced with lentiviral particles for CYGB and GFP, and analyzed for cell proliferation and migration ability. Fibroblast cells overexpressing CYGB displayed decreased cell proliferation, colony formation capacity, and cell migration. Phosphorylation levels of mTOR and two downstream effectors S6 and 4E-BP1 which take part in PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling declined in CYGB-overexpressing cells. Microarray analysis indicated that CYGB overexpression leads to downregulation of cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth associated genes in L929 cell line. This study demonstrated the role of CYGB in fibroblast cell motility and proliferation. CYGB could be a promising candidate for further studies as a potential target for diseases related to cell migration such as cancer and chronic wound treatment.

  14. Minimal Effects of VEGF and Anti-VEGF Drugs on the Permeability or Selectivity of RPE Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shaomin; Adelman, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Bevacizumab and ranibizumab are currently used to treat age-related macular degeneration by neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, the potential side effects on the outer blood–retinal barrier were examined. Methods. Human fetal RPE (hfRPE) cells were used because they are highly differentiated in culture. The claudin composition of RPE tight junctions was determined by RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and immunofluorescence. ELISA assays monitored the secretion and trafficking of VEGF and a fluid-phase marker, methylpolyethylene glycol (mPEG). Tight junction functions were assessed by the conductance of K+ and Na+ (derived from the transepithelial electrical resistance, TER) and the flux of NaCl and mPEG. Results. Claudin-3, claudin-10, and claudin-19 were detected in RPE tight junctions. VEGF was secreted in equal amounts across the apical and basolateral membranes, but the apical membrane was more active in endocytosing and degrading VEGF. Exogenous VEGF and mPEG crossed the RPE monolayer by transcytosis, predominantly in the apical-to-basal direction. RPE tight junctions were selective for K+, but did not discriminate between Na+ and Cl−. VEGF, bevacizumab, and ranibizumab had minimal effects on TER, permeation of mPEG, and selectivity for K+, Na+, and Cl−. They had minimal effects on the expression and distribution of the claudins. Conclusions. RPE has mechanisms for maintaining low concentrations of VEGF in the subretinal space that include endocytosis and degradation and fluid-phase transcytosis in the apical-to-basal direction. RPE tight junctions are selective for K+ over Na+ and Cl−. Permeability and selectivity of the junctions are not affected by VEGF, bevacizumab, or ranibizumab. PMID:20042644

  15. Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, Andrew J.; Huebner, Robert J.; Palsdottir, Hildur; Lee, Jessie K.; Perez, Melissa J.; Jorgens, Danielle M.; Tauscher, Andrew N.; Cheung, Kevin J.; Werb, Zena; Auer, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Normal mammary morphogenesis involves transitions between simple and multilayered epithelial organizations. We used electron microscopy and molecular markers to determine whether intercellular junctions and apico-basal polarity were maintained in the multilayered epithelium. We found that multilayered elongating ducts had polarized apical and basal tissue surfaces both in three-dimensional culture and in vivo. However, individual cells were only polarized on surfaces in contact with the lumen or extracellular matrix. The basolateral marker scribble and the apical marker atypical protein kinase C zeta localized to all interior cell membranes, whereas PAR3 displayed a cytoplasmic localization, suggesting that the apico-basal polarity was incomplete. Despite membrane localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin, we did not observe a defined zonula adherens connecting interior cells. Instead, interior cells were connected through desmosomes and exhibited complex interdigitating membrane protrusions. Single-cell labeling revealed that individual cells were both protrusive and migratory within the epithelial multilayer. Inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK) further reduced intercellular adhesion on apical and lateral surfaces but did not disrupt basal tissue organization. Following morphogenesis, segregated membrane domains were re-established and junctional complexes re-formed. We observed similar epithelial organization during mammary morphogenesis in organotypic culture and in vivo. We conclude that mammary epithelial morphogenesis involves a reversible, spatially limited, reduction in polarity and intercellular junctions and active individualistic cell migration. Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program. PMID:22344263

  16. Overexpression of Selenoprotein SelK in BGC-823 Cells Inhibits Cell Adhesion and Migration.

    PubMed

    Ben, S B; Peng, B; Wang, G C; Li, C; Gu, H F; Jiang, H; Meng, X L; Lee, B J; Chen, C L

    2015-10-01

    Effects of human selenoprotein SelK on the adhesion and migration ability of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells using Matrigel adhesion and transwell migration assays, respectively, were investigated in this study. The Matrigel adhesion ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01) compared with that of the cells not expressing the protein. The migration ability of BGC-823 cells that overexpressed SelK also declined extremely significantly (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of the cells that overexpressed C-terminally truncated SelK did not decline significantly. The Matrigel adhesion ability and migration ability of human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells that overexpressed SelK did not show significant change (p > 0.05) with the cells that overexpressed the C-terminally truncated protein. In addition to the effect on Matrigel adhesion and migration, the overexpression of SelK also caused a loss in cell viability (as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay) and induced apoptosis as shown by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. The cytosolic free Ca2+ level of these cells was significantly increased as detected by flow cytometry. But the overexpression of SelK in HEK-293 cells caused neither significant loss in cell viability nor apoptosis induction. Only the elevation of cytosolic free Ca2+ level in these cells was significant. Taken together, the results suggest that the overexpression of SelK can inhibit human cancer cell Matrigel adhesion and migration and cause both the loss in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The release of intracellular Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum might be a mechanism whereby the protein exerted its impact. Furthermore, only the full-length protein, but not C-terminally truncated form, was capable of producing such impact. The embryonic cells were not influenced by the

  17. Incorporating pushing in exclusion-process models of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Yates, Christian A; Parker, Andrew; Baker, Ruth E

    2015-05-01

    The macroscale movement behavior of a wide range of isolated migrating cells has been well characterized experimentally. Recently, attention has turned to understanding the behavior of cells in crowded environments. In such scenarios it is possible for cells to interact, inducing neighboring cells to move in order to make room for their own movements or progeny. Although the behavior of interacting cells has been modeled extensively through volume-exclusion processes, few models, thus far, have explicitly accounted for the ability of cells to actively displace each other in order to create space for themselves. In this work we consider both on- and off-lattice volume-exclusion position-jump processes in which cells are explicitly allowed to induce movements in their near neighbors in order to create space for themselves to move or proliferate into. We refer to this behavior as pushing. From these simple individual-level representations we derive continuum partial differential equations for the average occupancy of the domain. We find that, for limited amounts of pushing, comparison between the averaged individual-level simulations and the population-level model is nearly as good as in the scenario without pushing. Interestingly, we find that, in the on-lattice case, the diffusion coefficient of the population-level model is increased by pushing, whereas, for the particular off-lattice model that we investigate, the diffusion coefficient is reduced. We conclude, therefore, that it is important to consider carefully the appropriate individual-level model to use when representing complex cell-cell interactions such as pushing.

  18. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1, snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum. Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo. PMID:28893948

  19. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians.

    PubMed

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-10-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1 , snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo . © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Polydatin induces bone marrow stromal cells migration by activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Chen, ZhenQiu; Wei, QiuShi; Hong, GuoJu; Chen, Da; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Chen, Mei Hui

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proven to be useful for the treatment of numerous human diseases. However, the reparative ability of BMSCs is limited by their poor migration. Polydatin, widely used in traditional Chinese remedies, has proven to exert protective effects to BMSCs. However, little is known about its role in BMSCs migration. In this study, we studied the effects of polydatin on rat BMSCs migration using the scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. Our results showed polydatin could promote BMSCs migration. Further experiments showed activation of ERK 1/2, but not JNK, was required for polydatin-induced BMSCs migration, suggesting that polydatin may promote BMSCs migration via the ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin might be beneficial for stem cell replacement therapy by improving BMSCs migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Y-27632 Increases Sensitivity of PANC-1 Cells to EGCG in Regulating Cell Proliferation and Migration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Bi, Yongyi

    2016-10-03

    BACKGROUND The study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of (1R,4r)-4-((R)-1-aminoethyl)-N-(pyridin-4-yl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. EGCG, found in green tea, has been previously shown to be one of the most abundant and powerful catechins in cancer prevention and treatment. Y-27632, a selective inhibitor of rho-associated protein kinase 1, is widely used in treating cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS PANC-1 cells, maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (control) as well as different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 80 μg/mL) of EGCG for 48 h. In addition, PANC-1 cells were treated separately with 60 μg/mL EGCG, 20 μM Y-27632, and EGCG combined with Y-27632 (60 μg/mL EGCG + 20 μM Y-27632) for 48 h. The effect of EGCG and Y-27632 on the proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells was evaluated using Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell migration assays. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and Caspase-3 mRNA was determined by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS EGCG (20-80 μg/mL) inhibited cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Y-27632 enhanced the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG (by increasing the expression of PPARa and Caspase-3 mRNA) and suppressed cell proliferation. PANC-1 cell migration was inhibited by treatment with a combination of EGCG and Y-27632. CONCLUSIONS Y-27632 increases the sensitivity of PANC-1 cells to EGCG in regulating cell proliferation and migration, which is likely to be related to the expression of PPARa mRNA and Caspase-3 mRNA.

  2. From cell differentiation to cell collectives: Bacillus subtilis uses division of labor to migrate.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell-cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called "van Gogh bundles") of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity.

  3. Novel materials to enhance corneal epithelial cell migration on keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Karkhaneh, Akbar; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Ghaffariyeh, Alireza; Ebrahimi, Abdolali; Honarpisheh, Nazafarin; Hosseinzadeh, Masud; Heidari, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-03-01

    To introduce a new modification for silicone optical core Keratoprosthesis. Using mixtures of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and acrylic acid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films were modified with two-step oxygen plasma treatment, and then type I collagen was immobilised onto this modified surfaces. Both the biocompatibility of the modified films and cell behaviour on the surface of these films were investigated by in vitro tests, and formation of epithelial cell layer was evaluated by implantation of the modified films in the corneas of 10 rabbits. In vitro studies indicated that the number of attached and proliferated cells onto modified PDMS in comparison with the unmodified PDMS significantly increased. Histological studies showed that corneal epithelial cells migrated on the anterior surface of the modified films after 1week. The corneal epithelial cell formed an incomplete monolayer cellular sheet after 10days. A complete epithelialisation on the modified surface was formed after 21days. The epithelial layer persisted on the anterior surface of implant after 1-month and 3-month follow-up. This method may have potential use in silicone optical core Keratoprosthesis.

  4. Bayesian parameter estimation for stochastic models of biological cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Peter; Preuss, Roland

    2013-08-01

    Cell migration plays an essential role under many physiological and patho-physiological conditions. It is of major importance during embryonic development and wound healing. In contrast, it also generates negative effects during inflammation processes, the transmigration of tumors or the formation of metastases. Thus, a reliable quantification and characterization of cell paths could give insight into the dynamics of these processes. Typically stochastic models are applied where parameters are extracted by fitting models to the so-called mean square displacement of the observed cell group. We show that this approach has several disadvantages and problems. Therefore, we propose a simple procedure directly relying on the positions of the cell's trajectory and the covariance matrix of the positions. It is shown that the covariance is identical with the spatial aging correlation function for the supposed linear Gaussian models of Brownian motion with drift and fractional Brownian motion. The technique is applied and illustrated with simulated data showing a reliable parameter estimation from single cell paths.

  5. The Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts: A powerful system to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rella, Lorenzo; Fernandes Póvoa, Euclides E; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    2016-04-01

    During development, cell migration plays a central role in the formation of tissues and organs. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive and control these migrations is a key challenge in developmental biology that will provide important insights into disease processes, including cancer cell metastasis. In this article, we discuss the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblasts and their descendants as a tool to study cell migration at single-cell resolution in vivo. The highly stereotypical migration of these cells provides a powerful system to study the dynamic cytoskeletal processes that drive migration as well as the evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways (including different Wnt signaling cascades) that guide the cells along their specific trajectories. Here, we provide an overview of what is currently known about Q neuroblast migration and highlight the live-cell imaging, genome editing, and quantitative gene expression techniques that have been developed to study this process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Optimization of interneuron function by direct coupling of cell migration and axonal targeting.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lynette; Pakan, Janelle M P; Selten, Martijn M; Marques-Smith, André; Llorca, Alfredo; Bae, Sung Eun; Rochefort, Nathalie L; Marín, Oscar

    2018-06-18

    Neural circuit assembly relies on the precise synchronization of developmental processes, such as cell migration and axon targeting, but the cell-autonomous mechanisms coordinating these events remain largely unknown. Here we found that different classes of interneurons use distinct routes of migration to reach the embryonic cerebral cortex. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons that migrate through the marginal zone develop into Martinotti cells, one of the most distinctive classes of cortical interneurons. For these cells, migration through the marginal zone is linked to the development of their characteristic layer 1 axonal arborization. Altering the normal migratory route of Martinotti cells by conditional deletion of Mafb-a gene that is preferentially expressed by these cells-cell-autonomously disrupts axonal development and impairs the function of these cells in vivo. Our results suggest that migration and axon targeting programs are coupled to optimize the assembly of inhibitory circuits in the cerebral cortex.

  7. Tropomyosin isoform Tpm2.1 regulates collective and amoeboid cell migration and cell aggregation in breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, HyeRim; Kim, Dayoung; Helfman, David M

    2017-11-10

    Metastasis dissemination is the result of various processes including cell migration and cell aggregation. These processes involve alterations in the expression and organization of cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins in tumor cells. Alterations in actin filaments and their binding partners are known to be key players in metastasis. Downregulation of specific tropomyosin (Tpm) isoforms is a common characteristic of transformed cells. In this study, we examined the role of Tpm2.1 in non-transformed MCF10A breast epithelial cells in cell migration and cell aggregation, because this isoform is downregulated in primary and metastatic breast cancer as well as various breast cancer cell lines. Downregulation of Tpm2.1 using siRNA or shRNA resulted in retardation of collective cell migration but increase in single cell migration and invasion. Loss of Tpm2.1 is associated with enhanced actomyosin contractility and increased expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin. Furthermore, inhibition of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) recovered collective cell migration in Tpm2.1-silenced cells. We also found that Tpm2.1-silenced cells formed more compacted spheroids and exhibited faster cell motility when spheroids were re-plated on 2D surfaces coated with fibronectin and collagen. When Tpm2.1 was downregulated, we observed a decrease in the level of AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, which may explain the increased levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin. These studies demonstrate that Tpm2.1 functions as an important regulator of cell migration and cell aggregation in breast epithelial cells. These findings suggest that downregulation of Tpm2.1 may play a critical role during tumor progression by facilitating the metastatic potential of tumor cells.

  8. Cell migration without a lamellipodium: translation of actin dynamics into cell movement mediated by tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gupton, Stephanie L; Anderson, Karen L; Kole, Thomas P; Fischer, Robert S; Ponti, Aaron; Hitchcock-DeGregori, Sarah E; Danuser, Gaudenz; Fowler, Velia M; Wirtz, Denis; Hanein, Dorit; Waterman-Storer, Clare M

    2005-02-14

    The actin cytoskeleton is locally regulated for functional specializations for cell motility. Using quantitative fluorescent speckle microscopy (qFSM) of migrating epithelial cells, we previously defined two distinct F-actin networks based on their F-actin-binding proteins and distinct patterns of F-actin turnover and movement. The lamellipodium consists of a treadmilling F-actin array with rapid polymerization-dependent retrograde flow and contains high concentrations of Arp2/3 and ADF/cofilin, whereas the lamella exhibits spatially random punctae of F-actin assembly and disassembly with slow myosin-mediated retrograde flow and contains myosin II and tropomyosin (TM). In this paper, we microinjected skeletal muscle alphaTM into epithelial cells, and using qFSM, electron microscopy, and immunolocalization show that this inhibits functional lamellipodium formation. Cells with inhibited lamellipodia exhibit persistent leading edge protrusion and rapid cell migration. Inhibition of endogenous long TM isoforms alters protrusion persistence. Thus, cells can migrate with inhibited lamellipodia, and we suggest that TM is a major regulator of F-actin functional specialization in migrating cells.

  9. From Cell Differentiation to Cell Collectives: Bacillus subtilis Uses Division of Labor to Migrate

    PubMed Central

    van Gestel, Jordi; Vlamakis, Hera; Kolter, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The organization of cells, emerging from cell–cell interactions, can give rise to collective properties. These properties are adaptive when together cells can face environmental challenges that they separately cannot. One particular challenge that is important for microorganisms is migration. In this study, we show how flagellum-independent migration is driven by the division of labor of two cell types that appear during Bacillus subtilis sliding motility. Cell collectives organize themselves into bundles (called “van Gogh bundles”) of tightly aligned cell chains that form filamentous loops at the colony edge. We show, by time-course microscopy, that these loops migrate by pushing themselves away from the colony. The formation of van Gogh bundles depends critically on the synergistic interaction of surfactin-producing and matrix-producing cells. We propose that surfactin-producing cells reduce the friction between cells and their substrate, thereby facilitating matrix-producing cells to form bundles. The folding properties of these bundles determine the rate of colony expansion. Our study illustrates how the simple organization of cells within a community can yield a strong ecological advantage. This is a key factor underlying the diverse origins of multicellularity. PMID:25894589

  10. Cell intrinsic modulation of Wnt signaling controls neuroblast migration in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Mentink, Remco A; Middelkoop, Teije C; Rella, Lorenzo; Ji, Ni; Tang, Chung Yin; Betist, Marco C; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Korswagen, Hendrik C

    2014-10-27

    Members of the Wnt family of secreted signaling proteins are key regulators of cell migration and axon guidance. In the nematode C. elegans, the migration of the QR neuroblast descendants requires multiple Wnt ligands and receptors. We found that the migration of the QR descendants is divided into three sequential phases that are each mediated by a distinct Wnt signaling mechanism. Importantly, the transition from the first to the second phase, which is the main determinant of the final position of the QR descendants along the anteroposterior body axis, is mediated through a cell-autonomous process in which the time-dependent expression of a Wnt receptor turns on the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling response that is required to terminate long-range anterior migration. Our results show that, in addition to direct guidance of cell migration by Wnt morphogenic gradients, cell migration can also be controlled indirectly through cell-intrinsic modulation of Wnt signaling responses.

  11. Endothelial Cell Morphology and Migration are Altered by Changes in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, Caroline; Sanford, Gary; Harris-Hooker, Sandra

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cell migration is important to vascular wall regeneration following injury or stress. However, the mechanism(s) governing this response is not well understood. The microgravity environment of space may complicate the response of these cells to injury. To date, there are no reports in this area. We examined how bovine aortic (BAEC) and pulmonary (BPEC) endothelial cells respond to denudation injury under hypergravity (HGrav) and simulated microgravity (MGrav), using image analysis. In 10% FBS, the migration of confluent BAEC and BPEC into the denuded area was not affected by HGrav or MGrav. However, in low FBS (0.5%), signficantly retarded migration under MGrav, and increased migration under HGrav was found. MGrav also decreased the migration of postconfluent BPEC while HGrav showed no difference. Both MGrav and HGrav strongly decreased the migration of postconfluent BAEC. Also, both cell lines showed significant morphological changes by scanning electron microscopy. These studies indicate that endothelial cell function is affected by changes in gravity.

  12. Memory, reconsolidation and extinction in Lymnaea require the soma of RPeD1.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Susan; Varshney, Nishi; Fras, Mary; Smyth, Kim; Rosenegger, David; Parvez, Kashif; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Lukowiak, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea consists of 3 neurons. One of these, RPeD1--the cell that initiates activity in the circuit, plays an absolutely necessary role as a site for memory formation, memory reconsolidation, and extinction. Using an operant conditioning training procedure that results in a long-term non-declarative memory (LTM), we decrease the occurrence of aerial respiratory behaviour. Since snails can still breathe cutaneously learning this procedure is not harmful. Concomitant with behavioural memory are changes in the spiking activity of RPeD1. Going beyond neural correlates of memory we directly show that RPeD1 is a necessary site for LTM formation. Expanding on this finding we show that this neuron is also a necessary site for memory reconsolidation and 'Pavlovian' extinction. As far as we can determine, this is the first time a single neuron has been shown to be a necessary site for these different aspects memory. RPeD1 is thus a key neuron mediating different hierarchical aspects of memory. We are now in a position to determine the necessary neuronal, molecular and proteomic events in this neuron that are causal to memory formation, reconsolidation and extinction.

  13. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Through TRPC Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Teng, Hong-Lin; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Zhi-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of glial cells with axonal growth-promoting properties in the olfactory system. Organized migration of OECs is essential for neural regeneration and olfactory development. However, the molecular mechanism of OEC migration remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on OEC migration. Initially, the "scratch" migration assay, the inverted coverslip and Boyden chamber migration assays showed that BDNF could promote the migration of primary cultured OECs. Furthermore, BDNF gradient attracted the migration of OECs in single-cell migration assays. Mechanistically, TrkB receptor expressed in OECs mediated BDNF-induced OEC migration, and BDNF triggered calcium signals in OECs. Finally, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPCs) highly expressed in OECs were responsible for BDNF-induced calcium signals, and required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. Taken together, these results demonstrate that BDNF promotes the migration of cultured OECs and an unexpected finding is that TRPCs are required for BDNF-induced OEC migration. GLIA 2016;64:2154-2165. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Features specific to retinal pigment epithelium cells derived from three-dimensional human embryonic stem cell cultures - a new donor for cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zeng, Yuxiao; Li, Zhengya; Li, Qiyou; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-04-19

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) transplantation is a particularly promising treatment of retinal degenerative diseases affecting RPE-photoreceptor complex. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide an abundant donor source for RPE transplantation. Herein, we studied the time-course characteristics of RPE cells derived from three-dimensional human ESCs cultures (3D-RPE). We showed that 3D-RPE cells possessed morphology, ultrastructure, gene expression profile, and functions of authentic RPE. As differentiation proceeded, 3D-RPE cells could mature gradually with decreasing proliferation but increasing functions. Besides, 3D-RPE cells could form polarized monolayer with functional tight junction and gap junction. When grafted into the subretinal space of Royal College of Surgeons rats, 3D-RPE cells were safe and efficient to rescue retinal degeneration. This study showed that 3D-RPE cells were a new donor for cell therapy of retinal degenerative diseases.

  15. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue; Jin, Meng; Chen, Ying-Xiao; Wang, Jun; Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-06-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway.

  16. ERP44 inhibits human lung cancer cell migration mainly via IP3R2

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Kui; Chang, Yan; Yuan, Qi; Yao, Kai-Tai; Ji, Guangju

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is involved in tumour metastasis. However, the relationship between calcium signalling and cancer migration is not well elucidated. In this study, we used the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line to examine the role of endoplasmic reticulum protein 44 (ERP44), which has been reported to regulate calcium release inside of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), in cell migration. We found that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs/ITPRs) inhibitor 2-APB significantly inhibited A549 cell migration by inhibiting cell polarization and pseudopodium protrusion, which suggests that Ca2+ is necessary for A549 cell migration. Similarly, the overexpression of ERP44 reduced intracellular Ca2+ release via IP3Rs, altered cell morphology and significantly inhibited the migration of A549 cells. These phenomena were primarily dependent on IP3R2 because wound healing in A549 cells with IP3R2 rather than IP3R1 or IP3R3 siRNA was markedly inhibited. Moreover, the overexpression of ERP44 did not affect the migration of the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, which mainly expresses IP3R1. Based on the above observations, we conclude that ERP44 regulates A549 cell migration mainly via an IP3R2-dependent pathway. PMID:27347718

  17. Cadherin-2 Is Required Cell Autonomously for Collective Migration of Facial Branchiomotor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Rebman, Jane K; Kirchoff, Kathryn E; Walsh, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    Collective migration depends on cell-cell interactions between neighbors that contribute to their overall directionality, yet the mechanisms that control the coordinated migration of neurons remains to be elucidated. During hindbrain development, facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) undergo a stereotypic tangential caudal migration from their place of birth in rhombomere (r)4 to their final location in r6/7. FBMNs engage in collective cell migration that depends on neuron-to-neuron interactions to facilitate caudal directionality. Here, we demonstrate that Cadherin-2-mediated neuron-to-neuron adhesion is necessary for directional and collective migration of FBMNs. We generated stable transgenic zebrafish expressing dominant-negative Cadherin-2 (Cdh2ΔEC) driven by the islet1 promoter. Cell-autonomous inactivation of Cadherin-2 function led to non-directional migration of FBMNs and a defect in caudal tangential migration. Additionally, mosaic analysis revealed that Cdh2ΔEC-expressing FBMNs are not influenced to migrate caudally by neighboring wild-type FBMNs due to a defect in collective cell migration. Taken together, our data suggest that Cadherin-2 plays an essential cell-autonomous role in mediating the collective migration of FBMNs.

  18. Fast-crawling cell types migrate to avoid the direction of periodic substratum stretching

    PubMed Central

    Okimura, Chika; Ueda, Kazuki; Sakumura, Yuichi; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate the relationship between mechanical stimuli from substrata and related cell functions, one of the most useful techniques is the application of mechanical stimuli via periodic stretching of elastic substrata. In response to this stimulus, Dictyostelium discoideum cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to the stretching direction. The origins of directional migration, higher migration velocity in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction or the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to perpendicular to the stretching direction, however, remain unknown. In this study, we applied periodic stretching stimuli to neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, which migrate perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Detailed analysis of the trajectories of HL-60 cells and Dictyostelium cells obtained in a previous study revealed that the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to that perpendicular to the direction of stretching was the main cause of such directional migration. This directional migration appears to be a strategy adopted by fast-crawling cells in which they do not migrate faster in the direction they want to go, but migrate to avoid a direction they do not want to go. PMID:26980079

  19. Impaired SIRT1 promotes the migration of vascular smooth muscle cell-derived foam cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Jie; Zhou, Yi; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xu; Pi, Yan; Long, Chun-Yan; Sun, Meng-Jiao; Chen, Xue; Gao, Chang-Yue; Li, Jing-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Li

    2016-07-01

    The formation of fat-laden foam cells, contributing to the fatty streaks of the plaques of atheroma, is the critical early process in atherosclerosis. The previous study demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contain a much larger burden of the excess cholesterol in comparison with monocyte-derived macrophages in human coronary atherosclerosis, as the main origin of foam cells. It is noteworthy that VSMC-derived foam cells are deposited in subintima but not media, where VSMCs normally deposit in. Therefore, migration from media to intima is an indispensable step for a VSMC to accrue neutral lipids and form foam cell. Whether this migration occurs paralleled with or prior to the formation of foam cell is still unclear. Herein, the present study was designed to test the VSMC migratory capability in the process of foam cell formation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). In conclusion, we provide evidence that oxLDL induces the VSMC-derived foam cells formation with increased migration ability and MMP-9 expression, which were partly attributed to the impaired SIRT1 and enhanced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity. As activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been reported to have anti-atherosclerotic effects, we investigated its role in oxLDL-treated VSMC migration. It is found that activating TRPV1 by capsaicin inhibits VSMC foam cell formation and the accompanied migration through rescuing the SIRT1 and suppressing NF-κB signaling. The present study provides evidence that SIRT1 may be a promising intervention target of atherosclerosis, and raises the prospect of TRPV1 in prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  20. HA-1077 inhibits cell migration/invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moreira Carboni, Simone de Sales Costa; Rodrigues Lima, Nathália Alves; Pinheiro, Nanci Mendes; Tavares-Murta, Beatriz Martins; Crema, Virgínia Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most malignant lesion occurring in the head and neck. The Rho-kinases (ROCKs), effectors of Rho proteins, are involved in actin cytoskeletal organization, cell migration, and maintenance cortex. The HA-1077 inhibits the ROCKs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of treatment with HA-1077 on cell motility in SCC-4 cells, a cell line originating from human OSCC. F-actin of SCC-4 cells treated or not with HA-1077 (1, 50 and 100 μmol/l), and also HA-1077 50 μmol/l and/or inhibitors Y-27632 30 μmol/l was stained with rhodamine-conjugated phalloidin and analyzed by confocal microscopy. Approximately 1×10 cells/well, control and treated with HA-1077 (25, 50, and 100 μmol/l) were added to the migration plate assay. In addition, 1×10 cells/well, control and treated with HA-1077 50 μmol/l, were tested by invasion assays (plate coated with Matrigel). The inhibition of ROCKs with HA-1077 and/or Y-27632 leads to morphological changes, affecting the organization of the actin. The inhibitory effect of HA-1077 (P<0.0001) was dose dependent as the number of cells migrated at 100 μmol/l was statistically different: 25 μmol/l (P<0.0001) and 50 μmol/l (P<0.01). The number of cells treated with HA-1077 50 μmol/l decreased compared with control cells that invaded through Matrigel (P<0.0001). This study shows an inhibitory effect of HA-1077 on cell migration and invasion, suggesting that the use of HA-1077 can be a potential therapy for OSCC.

  1. A simple non-perturbing cell migration assay insensitive to proliferation effects.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Honor L; Messner, Jacob; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2016-08-18

    Migration is a fundamental cellular behavior that plays an indispensable role in development and homeostasis, but can also contribute to pathology such as cancer metastasis. Due to its relevance to many aspects of human health, the ability to accurately measure cell migration is of broad interest, and numerous approaches have been developed. One of the most commonly employed approaches, because of its simplicity and throughput, is the exclusion zone assay in which cells are allowed to migrate into an initially cell-free region. A major drawback of this assay is that it relies on simply counting cells in the exclusion zone and therefore cannot distinguish the effects of proliferation from migration. We report here a simple modification to the exclusion zone migration assay that exclusively measures cell migration and is not affected by proliferation. This approach makes use of a lineage-tracing vital stain that is retained through cell generations and effectively reads out migration relative to the original, parental cell population. This modification is simple, robust, non-perturbing, and inexpensive. We validate the method in a panel of cell lines under conditions that inhibit or promote migration and demonstrate its use in normal and cancer cell lines as well as primary cells.

  2. A simple non-perturbing cell migration assay insensitive to proliferation effects

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Honor L.; Messner, Jacob; Meldrum, Deirdre R.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a fundamental cellular behavior that plays an indispensable role in development and homeostasis, but can also contribute to pathology such as cancer metastasis. Due to its relevance to many aspects of human health, the ability to accurately measure cell migration is of broad interest, and numerous approaches have been developed. One of the most commonly employed approaches, because of its simplicity and throughput, is the exclusion zone assay in which cells are allowed to migrate into an initially cell-free region. A major drawback of this assay is that it relies on simply counting cells in the exclusion zone and therefore cannot distinguish the effects of proliferation from migration. We report here a simple modification to the exclusion zone migration assay that exclusively measures cell migration and is not affected by proliferation. This approach makes use of a lineage-tracing vital stain that is retained through cell generations and effectively reads out migration relative to the original, parental cell population. This modification is simple, robust, non-perturbing, and inexpensive. We validate the method in a panel of cell lines under conditions that inhibit or promote migration and demonstrate its use in normal and cancer cell lines as well as primary cells. PMID:27535324

  3. Fibronectin Modulates Cell Adhesion and Signaling to Promote Single Cell Migration of Highly Invasive Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Grasieli de Oliveira; Bernardi, Lisiane; Lauxen, Isabel; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Lamers, Marcelo Lazzaron

    2016-01-01

    Cell migration is regulated by adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) through integrins and activation of small RhoGTPases, such as RhoA and Rac1, resulting in changes to actomyosin organization. During invasion, epithelial-derived tumor cells switch from laminin-enriched basal membrane to collagen and fibronectin-enriched connective tissue. How this switch affects the tumor migration is still unclear. We tested the hypothesis that ECM dictates the invasiveness of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the migratory properties of two OSCC lines, a low invasive cell line with high e-cadherin levels (Linv/HE-cad) or a highly invasive cell line with low e-cadherin levels (Hinv/LE-cad), plated on different ECM components. Compared to laminin, fibronectin induced non-directional collective migration and decreased RhoA activity in Linv/HE-cad OSCC. For Hinv/LE-cad OSCC, fibronectin increased Rac1 activity and induced smaller adhesions, resulting in a fast single cell migration in both 2D and 3D environments. Consistent with these observations, human OSCC biopsies exhibited similar changes in cell-ECM adhesion distribution at the invasive front of the tumor, where cells encounter fibronectin. Our results indicate that ECM composition might induce a switch from collective to single cell migration according to tumor invasiveness due to changes in cell-ECM adhesion and the resulting signaling pathways that alter actomyosin organization. PMID:26978651

  4. Collective Cell Migration in Embryogenesis Follows the Laws of Wetting.

    PubMed

    Wallmeyer, Bernhard; Trinschek, Sarah; Yigit, Sargon; Thiele, Uwe; Betz, Timo

    2018-01-09

    Collective cell migration is a fundamental process during embryogenesis and its initial occurrence, called epiboly, is an excellent in vivo model to study the physical processes involved in collective cell movements that are key to understanding organ formation, cancer invasion, and wound healing. In zebrafish, epiboly starts with a cluster of cells at one pole of the spherical embryo. These cells are actively spreading in a continuous movement toward its other pole until they fully cover the yolk. Inspired by the physics of wetting, we determine the contact angle between the cells and the yolk during epiboly. By choosing a wetting approach, the relevant scale for this investigation is the tissue level, which is in contrast to other recent work. Similar to the case of a liquid drop on a surface, one observes three interfaces that carry mechanical tension. Assuming that interfacial force balance holds during the quasi-static spreading process, we employ the physics of wetting to predict the temporal change of the contact angle. Although the experimental values vary dramatically, the model allows us to rescale all measured contact-angle dynamics onto a single master curve explaining the collective cell movement. Thus, we describe the fundamental and complex developmental mechanism at the onset of embryogenesis by only three main parameters: the offset tension strength, α, that gives the strength of interfacial tension compared to other force-generating mechanisms; the tension ratio, δ, between the different interfaces; and the rate of tension variation, λ, which determines the timescale of the whole process. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microfluidic gradient device for studying mesothelial cell migration and the effect of chronic carbon nanotube exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hanyuan; Lohcharoenkal, Warangkana; Sun, Jianbo; Li, Xiang; Wang, Liying; Wu, Nianqiang; Rojanasakul, Yon; Liu, Yuxin

    2015-07-01

    Cell migration is one of the crucial steps in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancer development. Our recent studies have shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs), similarly to asbestos, can induce accelerated cell growth and invasiveness that contribute to their mesothelioma pathogenicity. Malignant mesothelioma is a very aggressive tumor that develops from cells of the mesothelium, and is most commonly caused by exposure to asbestos. CNTs have a similar structure and mode of exposure to asbestos. This has raised a concern regarding the potential carcinogenicity of CNTs, especially in the pleural area which is a key target for asbestos-related diseases. In this paper, a static microfluidic gradient device was applied to study the migration of human pleural mesothelial cells which had been through a long-term exposure (4 months) to subcytotoxic concentration (0.02 µg cm-2) of single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs). Multiple migration signatures of these cells were investigated using the microfluidic gradient device for the first time. During the migration study, we observed that cell morphologies changed from flattened shapes to spindle shapes prior to their migration after their sensing of the chemical gradient. The migration of chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells was evaluated under different fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentration gradients, and the migration speeds and number of migrating cells were extracted and compared. The results showed that chronically SWCNT-exposed mesothelial cells are more sensitive to the gradient compared to non-SWCNT-exposed cells. The method described here allows simultaneous detection of cell morphology and migration under chemical gradient conditions, and also allows for real-time monitoring of cell motility that resembles in vivo cell migration. This platform would be much needed for supporting the development of more physiologically relevant cell models for better assessment and characterization of the

  6. Voltage-dependent ion channels in the mouse RPE: comparison with Norrie disease mice.

    PubMed

    Wollmann, Guido; Lenzner, Steffen; Berger, Wolfgang; Rosenthal, Rita; Karl, Mike O; Strauss, Olaf

    2006-03-01

    We studied electrophysiological properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from mouse and a mouse model for Norrie disease. Wild-type RPE cells revealed the expression of ion channels known from other species: delayed-rectifier K(+) channels composed of Kv1.3 subunits, inward rectifier K(+) channels, Ca(V)1.3 L-type Ca(2+) channels and outwardly rectifying Cl(-) channels. Expression pattern and the ion channel characteristics current density, blocker sensitivity, kinetics and voltage-dependence were compared in cells from wild-type and Norrie mice. Although no significant differences were observed, our study provides a base for future studies on ion channel function and dysfunction in transgenic mouse models.

  7. The roles of cell adhesion molecules in tumor suppression and cell migration: a new paradox.

    PubMed

    Moh, Mei Chung; Shen, Shali

    2009-01-01

    In addition to mediating cell adhesion, many cell adhesion molecules act as tumor suppressors. These proteins are capable of restricting cell growth mainly through contact inhibition. Alterations of these cell adhesion molecules are a common event in cancer. The resulting loss of cell-cell and/or cell-extracellular matrix adhesion promotes cell growth as well as tumor dissemination. Therefore, it is conventionally accepted that cell adhesion molecules that function as tumor suppressors are also involved in limiting tumor cell migration. Paradoxically, in 2005, we identified an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule hepaCAM that is able to suppress cancer cell growth and yet induce migration. Almost concurrently, CEACAM1 was verified to co-function as a tumor suppressor and invasion promoter. To date, the reason and mechanism responsible for this exceptional phenomenon remain unclear. Nevertheless, the emergence of these intriguing cell adhesion molecules with conflicting roles may open a new chapter to the biological significance of cell adhesion molecules.

  8. Computational modelling of cell chain migration reveals mechanisms that sustain follow-the-leader behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Michelle L.; Kulesa, Paul M.; Schnell, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Follow-the-leader chain migration is a striking cell migratory behaviour observed during vertebrate development, adult neurogenesis and cancer metastasis. Although cell–cell contact and extracellular matrix (ECM) cues have been proposed to promote this phenomenon, mechanisms that underlie chain migration persistence remain unclear. Here, we developed a quantitative agent-based modelling framework to test mechanistic hypotheses of chain migration persistence. We defined chain migration and its persistence based on evidence from the highly migratory neural crest model system, where cells within a chain extend and retract filopodia in short-lived cell contacts and move together as a collective. In our agent-based simulations, we began with a set of agents arranged as a chain and systematically probed the influence of model parameters to identify factors critical to the maintenance of the chain migration pattern. We discovered that chain migration persistence requires a high degree of directional bias in both lead and follower cells towards the target. Chain migration persistence was also promoted when lead cells maintained cell contact with followers, but not vice-versa. Finally, providing a path of least resistance in the ECM was not sufficient alone to drive chain persistence. Our results indicate that chain migration persistence depends on the interplay of directional cell movement and biased cell–cell contact. PMID:22219399

  9. ProBDNF inhibits collective migration and chemotaxis of rat Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, You-Quan; Li, Xuan-Yang; Xia, Guan-Nan; Ren, Hong-Yi; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Su, Bing-Yin; Qi, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Schwann cell migration, including collective migration and chemotaxis, is essential for the formation of coordinate interactions between Schwann cells and axons during peripheral nerve development and regeneration. Moreover, limited migration of Schwann cells imposed a serious obstacle on Schwann cell-astrocytes intermingling and spinal cord repair after Schwann cell transplantation into injured spinal cords. Recent studies have shown that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor, a member of the neurotrophin family, inhibits Schwann cell migration. The precursor form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, proBDNF, was expressed in the developing or degenerating peripheral nerves and the injured spinal cords. Since "the yin and yang of neurotrophin action" has been established as a common sense, proBDNF would be expected to promote Schwann cell migration. However, we found, in the present study, that exogenous proBDNF also inhibited in vitro collective migration and chemotaxis of RSC 96 cells, a spontaneously immortalized rat Schwann cell line. Moreover, proBDNF suppressed adhesion and spreading of those cells. At molecular level, proBDNF inhibits F-actin polymerization and focal adhesion dynamics in cultured RSC 96 cells. Therefore, our results suggested a special case against the classical opinion of "the yin and yang of neurotrophin action" and implied that proBDNF might modulate peripheral nerve development or regeneration and spinal cord repair through perturbing native or transplanted Schwann cell migration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Vinculin is required for cell polarization, migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling in 3D collagen.

    PubMed

    Thievessen, Ingo; Fakhri, Nikta; Steinwachs, Julian; Kraus, Viola; McIsaac, R Scott; Gao, Liang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Baird, Michelle A; Davidson, Michael W; Betzig, Eric; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Waterman, Clare M; Fabry, Ben

    2015-11-01

    Vinculin is filamentous (F)-actin-binding protein enriched in integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Whereas studies in 2-dimensional (2D) tissue culture models have suggested that vinculin negatively regulates cell migration by promoting cytoskeleton-ECM coupling to strengthen and stabilize adhesions, its role in regulating cell migration in more physiologic, 3-dimensional (3D) environments is unclear. To address the role of vinculin in 3D cell migration, we analyzed the morphodynamics, migration, and ECM remodeling of primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with cre/loxP-mediated vinculin gene disruption in 3D collagen I cultures. We found that vinculin promoted 3D cell migration by increasing directional persistence. Vinculin was necessary for persistent cell protrusion, cell elongation, and stable cell orientation in 3D collagen, but was dispensable for lamellipodia formation, suggesting that vinculin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM is needed to convert actin-based cell protrusion into persistent cell shape change and migration. Consistent with this finding, vinculin was necessary for efficient traction force generation in 3D collagen without affecting myosin II activity and promoted 3D collagen fiber alignment and macroscopical gel contraction. Our results suggest that vinculin promotes directionally persistent cell migration and tension-dependent ECM remodeling in complex 3D environments by increasing cell-ECM adhesion and traction force generation. © FASEB.

  11. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G.; Fai, Leonard Yenwong

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cellsmore » and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. - Highlights: • Apigenin inhibits migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. • Apigenin downregulates NEDD9. • Apigenin decreases phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt. • Apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt.« less

  12. Optimising parameters for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells to study cell adhesion and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Dwane, Susan; Durack, Edel; Kiely, Patrick A

    2013-09-11

    Cell migration is a fundamental biological process and has an important role in the developing brain by regulating a highly specific pattern of connections between nerve cells. Cell migration is required for axonal guidance and neurite outgrowth and involves a series of highly co-ordinated and overlapping signalling pathways. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) has an essential role in development and is the most highly expressed kinase in the developing CNS. FAK activity is essential for neuronal cell adhesion and migration. The objective of this study was to optimise a protocol for the differentiation of the neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. We determined the optimal extracellular matrix proteins and growth factor combinations required for the optimal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells into neuronal-like cells and determined those conditions that induce the expression of FAK. It was confirmed that the cells were morphologically and biochemically differentiated when compared to undifferentiated cells. This is in direct contrast to commonly used differentiation methods that induce morphological differentiation but not biochemical differentiation. We conclude that we have optimised a protocol for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells that results in a cell population that is both morphologically and biochemically distinct from undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells and has a distinct adhesion and spreading pattern and display extensive neurite outgrowth. This protocol will provide a neuronal model system for studying FAK activity during cell adhesion and migration events.

  13. Chemoattractant signaling between tumor cells and macrophages regulates cancer cell migration, metastasis and neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Green, Chad E; Liu, Tiffany; Montel, Valerie; Hsiao, Gene; Lester, Robin D; Subramaniam, Shankar; Gonias, Steven L; Klemke, Richard L

    2009-08-21

    Tumor-associated macrophages are known to influence cancer progression by modulation of immune function, angiogenesis, and cell metastasis, however, little is known about the chemokine signaling networks that regulate this process. Utilizing CT26 colon cancer cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages as a model cellular system, we demonstrate that treatment of CT26 cells with RAW 264.7 conditioned medium induces cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Inflammatory gene microarray analysis indicated CT26-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages upregulate SDF-1alpha and VEGF, and that these cytokines contribute to CT26 migration in vitro. RAW 264.7 macrophages also showed a robust chemotactic response towards CT26-derived chemokines. In particular, microarray analysis and functional testing revealed CSF-1 as the major chemoattractant for RAW 264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, in the chick CAM model of cancer progression, RAW 264.7 macrophages localized specifically to the tumor periphery where they were found to increase CT26 tumor growth, microvascular density, vascular disruption, and lung metastasis, suggesting these cells home to actively invading areas of the tumor, but not the hypoxic core of the tumor mass. In support of these findings, hypoxic conditions down regulated CSF-1 production in several tumor cell lines and decreased RAW 264.7 macrophage migration in vitro. Together our findings suggest a model where normoxic tumor cells release CSF-1 to recruit macrophages to the tumor periphery where they secrete motility and angiogenic factors that facilitate tumor cell invasion and metastasis.

  14. Balancing Cell Migration with Matrix Degradation Enhances Gene Delivery to Cells Cultured Three-Dimensionally Within Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Huang, Alyssa; Shikanova, Ariella; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2010-01-01

    In regenerative medicine, hydrogels are employed to fill defects and support the infiltration of cells that can ultimately regenerate tissue. Gene delivery within hydrogels targeting infiltrating cells has the potential to promote tissue formation, but the delivery efficiency of nonviral vectors within hydrogels is low hindering their applicability in tissue regeneration. To improve their functionality, we have conducted a mechanistic study to investigate the contribution of cell migration and matrix degradation on gene delivery. In this report, lipoplexes were entrapped within hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) crosslinked with peptides containing matrix metalloproteinase degradable sequences. The mesh size of these hydrogels is substantially less than the size of the entrapped lipoplexes, which can function to retain vectors. Cell migration and transfection were simultaneously measured within hydrogels with varying density of cell adhesion sites (Arg-Gly-Asp peptides) and solids content. Increasing RGD density increased expression levels up to 100-fold, while greater solids content sustained expression levels for 16 days. Increasing RGD density and decreasing solids content increased cell migration, which indicates expression levels increase with increased cell migration. Initially exposing cells to vector resulted in transient expression that declined after 2 days, verifying the requirement of migration to sustain expression. Transfected cells were predominantly located within the population of migrating cells for hydrogels that supported cell migration. Although the small mesh size retained at least 70% of the lipoplexes in the absence of cells after 32 days, the presence of cells decreased retention to 10% after 16 days. These results indicate that vectors retained within hydrogels contact migrating cells, and that persistent cell migration can maintain elevated expression levels. Thus matrix degradation and cell migration are fundamental design

  15. Miniature Dielectric Barrier Discharge Nonthermal Plasma Induces Apoptosis in Lung Cancer Cells and Inhibits Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surya B; Yildirim-Ayan, Eda; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Ayan, Halim

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cancer treatments like radiotherapy and chemotherapy have drawbacks and are not selective for killing only cancer cells. Nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasmas with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can be applied to living cells and tissues and have emerged as novel tools for localized cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the different effects caused by miniature DBD (mDBD) plasma to A549 lung cancer cells. In this study, A549 lung cancer cells cultured in 12 well plates were treated with mDBD plasma for specified treatment times to assess the changes in the size of the area of cell detachment, the viability of attached or detached cells, and cell migration. Furthermore, we investigated an innovative mDBD plasma-based therapy for localized treatment of lung cancer cells through apoptotic induction. Our results indicate that plasma treatment for 120 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 35.8% of cells, while mDBD plasma treatment for 60 sec, 30 sec, or 15 sec causes apoptotic cell death in 20.5%, 14.1%, and 6.3% of the cell population, respectively. Additionally, we observed reduced A549 cell migration in response to mDBD plasma treatment. Thus, mDBD plasma system can be a viable platform for localized lung cancer therapy.

  16. Patterning C. elegans: homeotic cluster genes, cell fates and cell migrations.

    PubMed

    Salser, S J; Kenyon, C

    1994-05-01

    Despite its simple body form, the nematode C. elegans expresses homeotic cluster genes similar to those of insects and vertebrates in the patterning of many cell types and tissues along the anteroposterior axis. In the ventral nerve cord, these genes program spatial patterns of cell death, fusion, division and neurotransmitter production; in migrating cells they regulate the direction and extent of movement. Nematode development permits an analysis at the cellular level of how homeotic cluster genes interact to specify cell fates, and how cell behavior can be regulated to assemble an organism.

  17. Selective Modulation of Integrin-mediated Cell Migration by Distinct ADAM Family MembersV⃞

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Bridges, Lance C.; White, Judith M.

    2005-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloprotease (ADAM) family members have been implicated in many biological processes. Although it is recognized that recombinant ADAM disintegrin domains can interact with integrins, little is known about ADAM-integrin interactions in cellular context. Here, we tested whether ADAMs can selectively regulate integrin-mediated cell migration. ADAMs were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells that express defined integrins (α4β1, α5β1, or both), and cell migration on full-length fibronectin or on its α4β1 or α5β1 binding fragments was studied. We found that ADAMs inhibit integrin-mediated cell migration in patterns dictated by the integrin binding profiles of their isolated disintegrin domains. ADAM12 inhibited cell migration mediated by the α4β1 but not the α5β1 integrin. ADAM17 had the reciprocal effect; it inhibited α5β1- but not α4β1-mediated cell migration. ADAM19 and ADAM33 inhibited migration mediated by both α4β1 and α5β1 integrins. A point mutation in the ADAM12 disintegrin loop partially reduced the inhibitory effect of ADAM12 on cell migration on the α4β1 binding fragment of fibronectin, whereas mutations that block metalloprotease activity had no effect. Our results indicate that distinct ADAMs can modulate cell migration mediated by specific integrins in a pattern dictated, at least in part, by their disintegrin domains. PMID:16079176

  18. TNF-α mediates choroidal neovascularization by upregulating VEGF expression in RPE through ROS-dependent β-catenin activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Han, Xiaokun; Wittchen, Erika S; Hartnett, M Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis have been proposed to interact in age-related macular degeneration. It has been postulated that external stimuli that cause oxidative stress can increase production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), contributed to choroidal neovascularization (CNV) by upregulating VEGF in RPE through intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent signaling and sought to understand the mechanisms involved. In a murine laser-induced CNV model, 7 days after laser treatment and intravitreal neutralizing mouse TNF-α antibody or isotype immunoglobulin G (IgG) control, the following measurements were made: 1) TNF-α protein and VEGF protein in RPE/choroids with western blot, 2) CNV volume in RPE/choroidal flatmounts, and 3) semiquantification of oxidized phospholipids stained with E06 antibody within CNV with immunohistochemistry (IHC). In cultured human RPE cells treated with TNF-α or PBS control, 1) ROS generation was measured using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence assay, and 2) NOX4 protein and VEGF protein or mRNA were measured with western blot or quantitative real-time PCR in cells pretreated with apocynin or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (NADPH) inhibitor, VAS 2870, or transfected with p22phox siRNA, and each was compared to its appropriate control. Western blots of phosphorylated p65 (p-p65), total p65 and β-actin, and quantitative real-time PCR of VEGF mRNA were measured in human RPE cells treated with TNF-α and pretreatment with the nuclear factor kappa B inhibitor, Bay 11-7082 or control. Western blots of β-catenin, VEGF, and p22phox and coimmunoprecipitation of β-catenin and T-cell transcriptional factor were performed in human RPE cells treated with TNF-α following pretreatment with

  19. Spontaneous Contractility-Mediated Cortical Flow Generates Cell Migration in Three-Dimensional Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Rhoda J.; Poincloux, Renaud; Bénichou, Olivier; Piel, Matthieu; Chavrier, Philippe; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2011-01-01

    We present a model of cell motility generated by actomyosin contraction of the cell cortex. We identify, analytically, dynamical instabilities of the cortex and show that they yield steady-state cortical flows, which, in turn, can induce cell migration in three-dimensional environments. This mechanism relies on the regulation of contractility by myosin, whose transport is explicitly taken into account in the model. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental data of tumor cells migrating in three-dimensional matrigel and suggest that this mechanism could be a general mode of cell migration in three-dimensional environments. PMID:21889440

  20. Genetic engineering of human NK cells to express CXCR2 improves migration to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Veronika; Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Zendehdel, Rosa; Seitz, Christina; Duivenvoorden, Annet; Wennerberg, Erik; Colón, Eugenia; Scherman-Plogell, Ann-Helén; Lundqvist, Andreas

    2017-09-19

    Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell transfer is being increasingly used as cancer treatment. However, clinical responses have so far been limited to patients with hematological malignancies. A potential limiting factor in patients with solid tumors is defective homing of the infused NK cells to the tumor site. Chemokines regulate the migration of leukocytes expressing corresponding chemokine receptors. Various solid tumors, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), readily secrete ligands for the chemokine receptor CXCR2. We hypothesize that infusion of NK cells expressing high levels of the CXCR2 chemokine receptor will result in increased influx of the transferred NK cells into tumors, and improved clinical outcome in patients with cancer. Blood and tumor biopsies from 14 primary RCC patients were assessed by flow cytometry and chemokine analysis. Primary NK cells were transduced with human CXCR2 using a retroviral system. CXCR2 receptor functionality was determined by Calcium flux and NK cell migration was evaluated in transwell assays. We detected higher concentrations of CXCR2 ligands in tumors compared with plasma of RCC patients. In addition, CXCL5 levels correlated with the intratumoral infiltration of CXCR2-positive NK cells. However, tumor-infiltrating NK cells from RCC patients expressed lower CXCR2 compared with peripheral blood NK cells. Moreover, healthy donor NK cells rapidly lost their CXCR2 expression upon in vitro culture and expansion. Genetic modification of human primary NK cells to re-express CXCR2 improved their ability to specifically migrate along a chemokine gradient of recombinant CXCR2 ligands or RCC tumor supernatants compared with controls. The enhanced trafficking resulted in increased killing of target cells. In addition, while their functionality remained unchanged compared with control NK cells, CXCR2-transduced NK cells obtained increased adhesion properties and formed more conjugates with target cells. To increase the success of NK

  1. GROα overexpression drives cell migration and invasion in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Kruttika; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2017-07-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of highly aggressive breast cancer with poor prognosis. The main characteristic feature of TNBC is its lack of expression of ER, PR and HER2 receptors that are targets for treatments. Hence, it is imperative to identify novel therapeutic strategies to target TNBC. Our aim was to examine whether GROα is a specific marker for TNBC metastasis. For this we performed qPCR, ELISA, migration/invasion assays, western blotting, and siRNA transfections. Evaluation of baseline GROα expression in different breast cancer (BC) subtypes showed that it is significantly upregulated in breast tumor cells, specifically in TNBC cell line. On further evaluation in additional 17 TNBC cell lines we found that baseline GROα expression was significantly elevated in >50% of the cell lines validating GROα overexpression specifically in TNBC cells. Moreover, GROα-stimulation in MCF7 and SKBR3 cells and GROα‑knockdown in MDA-MB‑231 and HCC1937 cells elicited dramatic changes in migration and invasion abilities in vitro. Corresponding changes in EMT markers were also observed in phenotypically modified BC cells. Furthermore, mechanistic studies identified GROα regulating EMT markers and migration/invasion via MAPK pathway and specific inhibition using PD98059 resulted in the reversal of effects induced by GROα on BC cells. In conclusion, our study provides strong evidence to suggest that GROα is a critical modulator of TNBC migration/invasion and proposes GROα as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of TNBC metastasis.

  2. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953

  3. Neutral endopeptidase inhibits prostate cancer cell migration by blocking focal adhesion kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, M; Shen, R; Walburg, M; Dai, J; Geng, Y; Navarro, D; Boileau, G; Papandreou, C N; Giancotti, F G; Knudsen, B; Nanus, D M

    2000-12-01

    Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP, CD10) is a cell-surface enzyme expressed by prostatic epithelial cells that cleaves and inactivates neuropeptides implicated in the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC). NEP substrates such as bombesin and endothelin-1 induce cell migration. We investigated the mechanisms of NEP regulation of cell migration in PC cells, including regulation of phosphorylation on tyrosine of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Western analyses and cell migration assays revealed an inverse correlation between NEP expression and the levels of FAK phosphorylation and cell migration in PC cell lines. Constitutively expressed NEP, recombinant NEP, and induced NEP expression using a tetracycline-repressive expression system inhibited bombesin- and endothelin-1-stimulated FAK phosphorylation and cell migration. This results from NEP-induced inhibition of neuropeptide-stimulated association of FAK with cSrc protein. Expression of a mutated catalytically inactive NEP protein also resulted in partial inhibition of FAK phosphorylation and cell migration. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that NEP associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated Lyn kinase, which then binds the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) resulting in an NEP-Lyn-PI3-K protein complex. This complex competitively blocks FAK-PI3-K interaction, suggesting that NEP protein inhibits cell migration via a protein-protein interaction independent of its catalytic function. These experiments demonstrate that NEP can inhibit FAK phosphorylation on tyrosine and PC cell migration through multiple pathways and suggest that cell migration which contributes to invasion and metastases in PC cells can be regulated by NEP.

  4. Neutral endopeptidase inhibits prostate cancer cell migration by blocking focal adhesion kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Makoto; Shen, Ruoqian; Walburg, Marc; Dai, Jie; Geng, Yiping; Navarro, Daniel; Boileau, Guy; Papandreou, Christos N.; Giancotti, Filippo G.; Knudsen, Beatrice; Nanus, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP, CD10) is a cell-surface enzyme expressed by prostatic epithelial cells that cleaves and inactivates neuropeptides implicated in the growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer (PC). NEP substrates such as bombesin and endothelin-1 induce cell migration. We investigated the mechanisms of NEP regulation of cell migration in PC cells, including regulation of phosphorylation on tyrosine of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Western analyses and cell migration assays revealed an inverse correlation between NEP expression and the levels of FAK phosphorylation and cell migration in PC cell lines. Constitutively expressed NEP, recombinant NEP, and induced NEP expression using a tetracycline-repressive expression system inhibited bombesin- and endothelin-1–stimulated FAK phosphorylation and cell migration. This results from NEP-induced inhibition of neuropeptide-stimulated association of FAK with cSrc protein. Expression of a mutated catalytically inactive NEP protein also resulted in partial inhibition of FAK phosphorylation and cell migration. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments show that NEP associates with tyrosine-phosphorylated Lyn kinase, which then binds the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) resulting in an NEP-Lyn-PI3-K protein complex. This complex competitively blocks FAK-PI3-K interaction, suggesting that NEP protein inhibits cell migration via a protein-protein interaction independent of its catalytic function. These experiments demonstrate that NEP can inhibit FAK phosphorylation on tyrosine and PC cell migration through multiple pathways and suggest that cell migration which contributes to invasion and metastases in PC cells can be regulated by NEP. PMID:11104793

  5. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealedmore » the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.« less

  6. The triterpenoids of Hibiscus syriacus induce apoptosis and inhibit cell migration in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ren-Jun; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Chen, Shu-Pin; Fu, Chia-Lynn; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chang, Fung-Wei; Chen, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Jui-Ming; Ho, Jar-Yi; Yu, Cheng-Ping

    2015-03-14

    Breast cancer-related mortality increases annually. The efficacy of current breast cancer treatments is limited, and they have numerous side effects and permit high recurrence. Patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative breast cancer are particularly difficult to treat. Treatment for this type of cancer is lacking, and its prognosis is poor, necessitating the search for alternative treatments. This study screened Chinese herb Hibiscus syriacus extracts and identified a novel anti-cancer drug for patients with ER-negative breast cancer. The inhibitory effects on cell viability and migration were evaluated for each compound, and the molecular regulatory effects were evaluated on both mRNA and protein levels. We found several triterpenoids including betulin (K02) and its derivatives (K03, K04, and K06) from H. syriacus inhibited human triple-negative breast cancer cell viability and migration but revealed smaller cytotoxic effects on normal mammalian epithelial cells. Betulin and its derivatives induced apoptosis by activating apoptosis-related genes. In addition, they activated p21 expression, which induced cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells. Betulin (K02) and betulinic acid (K06) had stronger inhibitory effects on cell viability and migration than K03 and K04. H. syriacus extracts might inhibit breast cancer cell viability and induce apoptosis by activating p53 family regulated pathways and inhibiting AKT activation. H. syriacus extracts may provide important insight into the development of novel alternative therapies for breast cancer.

  7. Epac1 increases migration of endothelial cells and melanoma cells via FGF2-mediated paracrine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; Chuang, Christine; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Whitelock, John M; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated cell–cell communication. Conditioned medium (CM) of melanoma cells with abundant expression of Epac1 increased migration of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and melanoma cells with poor expression of Epac1. CM-induced increase in migration was inhibited by antagonizing FGF2, by the removal of HS and by the knockdown of Epac1. In addition, knockdown of Epac1 suppressed the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor in HUVEC, and in vivo angiogenesis in melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of Epac1 reduced N-sulfation of HS chains attached to perlecan, a major secreted type of HS proteoglycan that mediates the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor. These data suggested that Epac1 in melanoma cells regulates melanoma progression via the HS–FGF2-mediated cell–cell communication. PMID:24725364

  8. Rectified directional sensing in long-range cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Akihiko; Ishihara, Shuji; Imoto, Daisuke; Sawai, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How spatial and temporal information are integrated to determine the direction of cell migration remains poorly understood. Here, by precise microfluidics emulation of dynamic chemoattractant waves, we demonstrate that, in Dictyostelium, directional movement as well as activation of small guanosine triphosphatase Ras at the leading edge is suppressed when the chemoattractant concentration is decreasing over time. This ‘rectification’ of directional sensing occurs only at an intermediate range of wave speed and does not require phosphoinositide-3-kinase or F-actin. From modelling analysis, we show that rectification arises naturally in a single-layered incoherent feedforward circuit with zero-order ultrasensitivity. The required stimulus time-window predicts ~5 s transient for directional sensing response close to Ras activation and inhibitor diffusion typical for protein in the cytosol. We suggest that the ability of Dictyostelium cells to move only in the wavefront is closely associated with rectification of adaptive response combined with local activation and global inhibition. PMID:25373620

  9. An intact centrosome is required for the maintenance of polarization during directional cell migration.

    PubMed

    Wakida, Nicole M; Botvinick, Elliot L; Lin, Justin; Berns, Michael W

    2010-12-23

    Establishing and maintaining polarization is critical during cell migration. It is known that the centrosome contains numerous proteins whose roles of organizing the microtubule network range include nucleation, stabilization and severing. It is not known whether the centrosome is necessary to maintain polarization. Due to its role as the microtubule organizing center, we hypothesize that the centrosome is necessary to maintain polarization in a migrating cell. Although there have been implications of its role in cell migration, there is no direct study of the centrosome's role in maintaining polarization. In this study we ablate the centrosome by intracellular laser irradiation to understand the role of the centrosome in two vastly different cell types, human osteosarcoma (U2OS) and rat kangaroo kidney epithelial cells (PtK). The PtK cell line has been extensively used as a model for cytoskeletal dynamics during cell migration. The U2OS cell line serves as a model for a complex, single migrating cell. In this study we use femtosecond near-infrared laser irradiation to remove the centrosome in migrating U2OS and PtK2 cells. Immunofluorescence staining for centrosomal markers verified successful irradiation with 94% success. A loss of cell polarization is observed between 30 and 90 minutes following removal of the centrosome. Changes in cell shape are correlated with modifications in microtubule and actin organization. Changes in cell morphology and microtubule organization were quantified revealing significant depolarization resulting from centrosome irradiation. This study demonstrates that the centrosome is necessary for the maintenance of polarization during directed cell migration in two widely different cell types. Removal of the centrosome from a polarized cell results in the reorganization of the microtubule network into a symmetric non-polarized phenotype. These results demonstrate that the centrosome plays a critical role in the maintenance of cytoskeletal

  10. Analysis of Histone Deacetylase-Dependent Effects on Cell Migration Using the Stripe Assay.

    PubMed

    Mertsch, Sonja; Thanos, Solon

    2017-01-01

    For normal embryonic development/morphogenesis, cell migration and homing are well-orchestrated and important events requiring specific cellular mechanisms. In diseases such as cancer deregulated cell migration represents a major problem. Therefore, numerous efforts are under way to understand the molecular mechanisms of tumor cell migration and to generate more efficient tumor therapies. Cell migration assays are one of the most commonly used functional assays. The wound-healing assay or the Boyden chamber assay are variations of these assays. Nearly all of them are two-dimensional assays and the cells can only migrate on one substrate at a time. This is in contrast to the in vivo situation where the cells are faced simultaneously with different surfaces and interact with different cell types. To approach this in vivo situation we used a modified version of the stripe assay designed by Bonhoeffer and colleagues to examine mechanisms of axonal guidance. The design of this assay allows cells to decide between two different substrates offered at the same time. Utilizing alternating neuronal substrates for migration analyses we can partially mimic the complex in vivo situation for brain tumor cells. Here we describe the detailed protocol to perform a modified version of the stripe assay in order to observe substrate-dependent migration effects in vitro, to analyze the effect of Rho-dependent kinases (ROCKS), of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and of other molecules on glioma cells.

  11. Vitreous-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements via the Rac1 GTPase-dependent signaling pathway in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xionggao; Department of Ophthalmology, Hainan Medical College, Haikou; Wei, Yantao

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vitreous induces morphological changes and cytoskeletal rearrangements in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac1 is activated in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition prevents morphological changes in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rac inhibition suppresses cytoskeletal rearrangements in vitreous-transformed RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The vitreous-induced effects are mediated by a Rac1 GTPase/LIMK1/cofilin pathway. -- Abstract: Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is mainly caused by retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration, invasion, proliferation and transformation into fibroblast-like cells that produce the extracellular matrix (ECM). The vitreous humor is known to play an important role in PVR. An epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) of human RPE cells inducedmore » by 25% vitreous treatment has been linked to stimulation of the mesenchymal phenotype, migration and invasion. Here, we characterized the effects of the vitreous on the cell morphology and cytoskeleton in human RPE cells. The signaling pathway that mediates these effects was investigated. Serum-starved RPE cells were incubated with 25% vitreous, and the morphological changes were examined by phase-contrast microscopy. Filamentous actin (F-actin) was examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Protein phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, Smad2/3, LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 and cofilin was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Vitreous treatment induced cytoskeletal rearrangements, activated Rac1 and enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3. When the cells were treated with a Rac activation-specific inhibitor, the cytoskeletal rearrangements were prevented, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 was blocked. Vitreous treatment also enhanced the phosphorylation of LIMK1 and cofilin and the Rac inhibitor blocked this effect. We propose that

  12. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Wagner, Alex H.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A.; Mullins, Robert F.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell-types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  13. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, S Scott; Wagner, Alex H; DeLuca, Adam P; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A; Mullins, Robert F; Scheetz, Todd E

    2014-12-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  14. Optical monitoring of thermal effects in RPE during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuele, G.; Huie, Ph.; Yellachich, D.; Molnar, F. E.; O'Conell-Rodwell, C.; Vitkin, E.; Perelman, L. T.; Palanker, D.

    2005-04-01

    Fast and non-invasive detection of cellular stress is useful for fundamental research and practical applications in medicine and biology. Using Light Scattering Spectroscopy we extract information about changes in refractive index and size of the cellular organelles. Particle sizes down to 50nm in diameter can be detected using light within the spectral range of 450-850 nm. We monitor the heat-induced sub-cellular structural changes in human RPE cells and, for comparison, in transfected NIH-3T3 cells which express luciferase linked to the heat shock protein (HSP). Using inverse light scattering fitting algorithm, we reconstruct the size distribution of the sub-micron organelles from the light scattering spectrum. The most significant (up to 70%) and rapid (20sec) temperature-related changes can be linked to an increase of refractive index of the 160nm sized mitochondria. The start of this effect coincides with the onset of HSP expression. This technique provides an insight into metabolic processes within organelles larger than 50nm without exogenous staining and opens doors for non-invasive real-time assessment of cellular stress, which can be used for monitoring of retinal laser treatments like transpupillary thermo therapy or PDT.

  15. [Study of migration and distribution of bone marrow cells transplanted animals with B16 melanoma ].

    PubMed

    Poveshchenko, A F; Solovieva, A O; Zubareva, K E; Strunkin, D N; Gricyk, O B; Poveshchenko, O V; Shurlygina, A V; Konenkov, V I

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Reveal features migration and distribution of syngeneic bone marrow cells (BMC) and subpopulations (MSC) after transplantation into the recipient carrier B16 melanoma bodies. Methods. We used mouse male and female C57BL/6 mice. Induction of Tumor Growth: B16 melanoma cells implanted subcutaneously into right hind paw of female C57BL/6 mice at a dose of 2.5 x 105 cells / mouse. migration study in vivo distribution and BMC and MSC was performed using genetic markers - Y-chromosome specific sequence line male C57Bl/6 syngeneic intravenous transplantation in females using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in real time on Authorized Termal Cycler - Light Cycler 480 II / 96 (Roche). Introduction suspension of unseparated bone marrow cells, mesenchymal stem cells from donor to recipient male mice (syngeneic recipient female C57BL/6), followed by isolation of recipients of organs was performed at regular intervals, then of organ recipients isolated DNA. Results. It was shown that bone marrow cells positive for Y-chromosome in migrate lymphoid (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow) or in non-lymphoid organs (liver, heart, brain, skin) syngeneic recipients. In addition to the migration of cells from the bone marrow to other organs, there is a way back migration of cells from the circulation to the bone marrow. B16 melanoma stimulates the migration of transplanted MSCs and BMC in bone marrow. It is found that tumor growth enhanced migration of transplanted bone marrow cells, including populations of MSCs in the bone marrow. In the early stages of tumor formation MSC migration activity higher than the BMC. In the later stages of tumor formation undivided population of bone marrow cells migrate to the intense swelling compared with a population of MSCs. Conclusion. The possibility of using bone marrow MSCs for targeted therapy of tumor diseases, because migration of MSCs in tumor tissue can be used to effectively deliver anticancer drugs.

  16. Downregulation of CD9 in Keratinocyte Contributes to Cell Migration via Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-pin; Zhang, Dong-xia; Teng, Miao; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Jia-ping; Huang, Yue-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Tetraspanin CD9 has been implicated in various cellular and physiological processes, including cell migration. In our previous study, we found that wound repair is delayed in CD9-null mice, suggesting that CD9 is critical for cutaneous wound healing. However, many cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts undergo marked changes in gene expression and phenotype, leading to cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during wound repair, whether CD9 regulates kerationcytes migration directly remains unclear. In this study, we showed that the expression of CD9 was downregulated in migrating keratinocytes during wound repair in vivo and in vitro. Recombinant adenovirus vector for CD9 silencing or overexpressing was constructed and used to infect HaCaT cells. Using cell scratch wound assay and cell migration assay, we have also demonstrated that downregulation of CD9 promoted keratinocyte migration in vitro, whereas CD9 overexpression inhibited cell migration. Moreover, CD9 inversely regulated the activity and expression of MMP-9 in keratinocytes, which was involved in CD9-regulated keratinocyte migration. Importantly, CD9 silencing-activated JNK signaling was accompanied by the upregulation of MMP-9 activity and expression. Coincidentally, we found that SP600125, a JNK pathway inhibitor, decreased the activity and expression of MMP-9 of CD9-silenced HaCaT cells. Thus, our results suggest that CD9 is downregulated in migrating keratinocytes in vivo and in vitro, and a low level of CD9 promotes keratinocyte migration in vitro, in which the regulation of MMP-9 through the JNK pathway plays an important role. PMID:24147081

  17. A PDMS Device Coupled with Culture Dish for In Vitro Cell Migration Assay.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaoqing; Geng, Zhaoxin; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shicai; Pei, WeiHua; Chen, Hongda

    2018-04-30

    Cell migration and invasion are important factors during tumor progression and metastasis. Wound-healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay are efficient tools to investigate tumor development because both of them could be applied to measure cell migration rate. Therefore, a simple and integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device was developed for cell migration assay, which could perform quantitative evaluation of cell migration behaviors, especially for the wound-healing assay. The integrated device was composed of three units, which included cell culture dish, PDMS chamber, and wound generation mold. The PDMS chamber was integrated with cell culture chamber and could perform six experiments under different conditions of stimuli simultaneously. To verify the function of this device, it was utilized to explore the tumor cell migration behaviors under different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) at different time points. This device has the unique capability to create the "wound" area in parallel during cell migration assay and provides a simple and efficient platform for investigating cell migration assay in biomedical application.

  18. Lamellipodin and the Scar/WAVE complex cooperate to promote cell migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ah-Lai; Vehlow, Anne; Kotini, Maria; Dodgson, Lauren; Soong, Daniel; Theveneau, Eric; Bodo, Cristian; Taylor, Eleanor; Navarro, Christel; Perera, Upamali; Michael, Magdalene; Dunn, Graham A.; Bennett, Daimark; Mayor, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is essential for development, but its deregulation causes metastasis. The Scar/WAVE complex is absolutely required for lamellipodia and is a key effector in cell migration, but its regulation in vivo is enigmatic. Lamellipodin (Lpd) controls lamellipodium formation through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that Lpd directly binds active Rac, which regulates a direct interaction between Lpd and the Scar/WAVE complex via Abi. Consequently, Lpd controls lamellipodium size, cell migration speed, and persistence via Scar/WAVE in vitro. Moreover, Lpd knockout mice display defective pigmentation because fewer migrating neural crest-derived melanoblasts reach their target during development. Consistently, Lpd regulates mesenchymal neural crest cell migration cell autonomously in Xenopus laevis via the Scar/WAVE complex. Further, Lpd’s Drosophila melanogaster orthologue Pico binds Scar, and both regulate collective epithelial border cell migration. Pico also controls directed cell protrusions of border cell clusters in a Scar-dependent manner. Taken together, Lpd is an essential, evolutionary conserved regulator of the Scar/WAVE complex during cell migration in vivo. PMID:24247431

  19. Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand induces the migration of human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Seishi; Muramatsu, Mayumi; Gokoh, Maiko; Oka, Saori; Waku, Keizo; Sugiura, Takayuki

    2005-02-01

    2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). Evidence is gradually accumulating which shows that 2-arachidonoylglycerol plays important physiological roles in several mammalian tissues and cells, yet the details remain ambiguous. In this study, we first examined the effects of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on the motility of human natural killer cells. We found that 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the migration of KHYG-1 cells (a natural killer leukemia cell line) and human peripheral blood natural killer cells. The migration of natural killer cells induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol was abolished by treating the cells with SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, suggesting that the CB2 receptor is involved in the 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. In contrast to 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, another endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, did not induce the migration. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, also failed to induce the migration; instead, the addition of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol together with 2-arachidonoylglycerol abolished the migration induced by 2-arachidonoylglycerol. It is conceivable that the endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptor, that is, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, affects natural killer cell functions such as migration, thereby contributing to the host-defense mechanism against infectious viruses and tumor cells.

  20. Decorin inhibits cell migration through a process requiring its glycosaminoglycan side chain.

    PubMed

    Merle, B; Durussel, L; Delmas, P D; Clézardin, P

    1999-12-01

    Several studies overwhelmingly support the notion that decorin (DCN) is involved in matrix assembly, and in the control of cell adhesion and proliferation. However, nothing is known about the role of DCN during cell migration. Cell migration is a tightly regulated process which requires both adhesion (at the leading edge of the cell) and de-adhesion (at the trailing edge of the cell) from the substratum. We have determined in this study the effect of DCN on MG-63 osteosarcoma cell migration and have analyzed whether its effect is mediated by the protein core and/or the glycosaminoglycan side chain. DCN impeded the migration-promoting effect of matrix molecules (fibronectin, collagen type I) known to interact with the proteoglycan. Conversely, DCN did not counteract the migration-promoting effect of fibrinogen lacking proteoglycan affinity. DCN bearing dermatan-sulfate chains (i.e., skin and cartilage DCN) was about 20-fold more effective in inhibiting cell migration than DCN bearing chondroitin-sulfate chains (i.e., bone DCN). In addition, chondroitinase AC-treatment of cartilage DCN (which specifically removes chondroitin-sulfate chains) did not attenuate the inhibitory effect of this proteoglycan, while cartilage DCN deprived of both chondroitin- and dermatan-sulfate chains failed to alter cell migration promoted by either fibronectin or its heparin- and cell-binding domains. These data assert that the dermatan-sulfate chains of DCN are responsible for a negative influence on cell migration. However, isolated glycosaminoglycans failed to alter cell migration promoted by fibronectin, indicating that strongly negatively charged glycosaminoglycans alone cannot account for the impaired cell motility seen with DCN. Overall, these results show that the inhibitory action of DCN is dependent of substratum binding, is differentially mediated by its glycosaminoglycan side chains (chondroitin-sulfate vs. dermatan-sulfate chains), and is independent of a steric hindrance

  1. Cell migration or cytokinesis and proliferation? – Revisiting the “go or grow” hypothesis in cancer cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Tamás; Juhász, Éva; Molnár, Eszter

    The mortality of patients with solid tumors is mostly due to metastasis that relies on the interplay between migration and proliferation. The “go or grow” hypothesis postulates that migration and proliferation spatiotemporally excludes each other. We evaluated this hypothesis on 35 cell lines (12 mesothelioma, 13 melanoma and 10 lung cancer) on both the individual cell and population levels. Following three-day-long videomicroscopy, migration, proliferation and cytokinesis-length were quantified. We found a significantly higher migration in mesothelioma cells compared to melanoma and lung cancer while tumor types did not differ in mean proliferation or duration of cytokinesis. Strikingly, we found inmore » melanoma and lung cancer a significant positive correlation between mean proliferation and migration. Furthermore, non-dividing melanoma and lung cancer cells displayed slower migration. In contrast, in mesothelioma there were no such correlations. Interestingly, negative correlation was found between cytokinesis-length and migration in melanoma. FAK activation was higher in melanoma cells with high motility. We demonstrate that the cancer cells studied do not defer proliferation for migration. Of note, tumor cells from various organ systems may differently regulate migration and proliferation. Furthermore, our data is in line with the observation of pathologists that highly proliferative tumors are often highly invasive. - Highlights: • We investigated the “go or grow” hypothesis in human cancer cells in vitro. • Proliferation and migration positively correlate in melanoma and lung cancer cells. • Duration of cytokinesis and migration shows inverse correlation. • Increased FAK activation is present in highly motile melanoma cells.« less

  2. Steering cell migration by alternating blebs and actin-rich protrusions.

    PubMed

    Diz-Muñoz, Alba; Romanczuk, Pawel; Yu, Weimiao; Bergert, Martin; Ivanovitch, Kenzo; Salbreux, Guillaume; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp; Paluch, Ewa K

    2016-09-02

    High directional persistence is often assumed to enhance the efficiency of chemotactic migration. Yet, cells in vivo usually display meandering trajectories with relatively low directional persistence, and the control and function of directional persistence during cell migration in three-dimensional environments are poorly understood. Here, we use mesendoderm progenitors migrating during zebrafish gastrulation as a model system to investigate the control of directional persistence during migration in vivo. We show that progenitor cells alternate persistent run phases with tumble phases that result in cell reorientation. Runs are characterized by the formation of directed actin-rich protrusions and tumbles by enhanced blebbing. Increasing the proportion of actin-rich protrusions or blebs leads to longer or shorter run phases, respectively. Importantly, both reducing and increasing run phases result in larger spatial dispersion of the cells, indicative of reduced migration precision. A physical model quantitatively recapitulating the migratory behavior of mesendoderm progenitors indicates that the ratio of tumbling to run times, and thus the specific degree of directional persistence of migration, are critical for optimizing migration precision. Together, our experiments and model provide mechanistic insight into the control of migration directionality for cells moving in three-dimensional environments that combine different protrusion types, whereby the proportion of blebs to actin-rich protrusions determines the directional persistence and precision of movement by regulating the ratio of tumbling to run times.

  3. Activation of cell-surface proteases promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Anling; Choksi, Swati; Li, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xue-Min; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Necroptosis is a programmed, caspase-independent cell death that is morphologically similar to necrosis. TNF-induced necroptosis is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). After being phosphorylated by RIP3, MLKL is translocated to the plasma membrane and mediates necroptosis. However, the execution of necroptosis and its role in inflammation and other cellular responses remain largely elusive. In this study, we report that MLKL-mediated activation of cell-surface proteases of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration. ADAMs are specifically activated at the early stage of necroptosis when MLKL is phosphorylated and translocated to the cell plasma membrane. Activation of ADAMs induces ectodomain shedding of diverse cell-surface proteins including adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors and cytokines. Importantly, the shedding of cell-surface proteins disrupts cell adhesion and accelerates necroptosis, while the soluble fragments of the cleaved proteins trigger the inflammatory responses. We also demonstrate that the shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from necroptotic cells promotes cell migration. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of necroptosis-induced inflammation and new insights into the physiological and pathological functions of this unique form of cell death.

  4. Activation of cell-surface proteases promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Anling; Choksi, Swati; Li, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xue-Min; Liu, Zheng-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Necroptosis is a programmed, caspase-independent cell death that is morphologically similar to necrosis. TNF-induced necroptosis is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). After being phosphorylated by RIP3, MLKL is translocated to the plasma membrane and mediates necroptosis. However, the execution of necroptosis and its role in inflammation and other cellular responses remain largely elusive. In this study, we report that MLKL-mediated activation of cell-surface proteases of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration. ADAMs are specifically activated at the early stage of necroptosis when MLKL is phosphorylated and translocated to the cell plasma membrane. Activation of ADAMs induces ectodomain shedding of diverse cell-surface proteins including adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors and cytokines. Importantly, the shedding of cell-surface proteins disrupts cell adhesion and accelerates necroptosis, while the soluble fragments of the cleaved proteins trigger the inflammatory responses. We also demonstrate that the shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from necroptotic cells promotes cell migration. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of necroptosis-induced inflammation and new insights into the physiological and pathological functions of this unique form of cell death. PMID:27444869

  5. Electric Signals Regulate the Directional Migration of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells (OPCs) via β1 Integrin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bangfu; Nicholls, Matthew; Gu, Yu; Zhang, Gaofeng; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J M; Song, Bing

    2016-11-22

    The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors. We also observed that F-actin, an important component of the cytoskeleton, was re-distributed towards the leading edge of the migrating cells, and that this asymmetric rearrangement was associated with β1 integrin function.

  6. Envisioning migration: Mathematics in both experimental analysis and modeling of cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Elizabeth R.; Wu, Lani F.; Altschuler, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The complex nature of cell migration highlights the power and challenges of applying mathematics to biological studies. Mathematics may be used to create model equations that recapitulate migration, which can predict phenomena not easily uncovered by experiments or intuition alone. Alternatively, mathematics may be applied to interpreting complex data sets with better resolution—potentially empowering scientists to discern subtle patterns amid the noise and heterogeneity typical of migrating cells. Iteration between these two methods is necessary in order to reveal connections within the cell migration signaling network, as well as to understand the behavior that arises from those connections. Here, we review recent quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling approaches to the cell migration problem. PMID:23660413

  7. Envisioning migration: mathematics in both experimental analysis and modeling of cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Elizabeth R; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    The complex nature of cell migration highlights the power and challenges of applying mathematics to biological studies. Mathematics may be used to create model equations that recapitulate migration, which can predict phenomena not easily uncovered by experiments or intuition alone. Alternatively, mathematics may be applied to interpreting complex data sets with better resolution--potentially empowering scientists to discern subtle patterns amid the noise and heterogeneity typical of migrating cells. Iteration between these two methods is necessary in order to reveal connections within the cell migration signaling network, as well as to understand the behavior that arises from those connections. Here, we review recent quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling approaches to the cell migration problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemokine-Dependent pH Elevation at the Cell Front Sustains Polarity in Directionally Migrating Zebrafish Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Grimaldi, Cecilia; Raz, Erez

    2015-04-20

    Directional cell migration requires cell polarization with respect to the distribution of the guidance cue. Cell polarization often includes asymmetric distribution of response components as well as elements of the motility machinery. Importantly, the function and regulation of most of these molecules are known to be pH dependent. Intracellular pH gradients were shown to occur in certain cells migrating in vitro, but the functional relevance of such gradients for cell migration and for the response to directional cues, particularly in the intact organism, is currently unknown. In this study, we find that primordial germ cells migrating in the context of the developing embryo respond to the graded distribution of the chemokine Cxcl12 by establishing elevated intracellular pH at the cell front. We provide insight into the mechanisms by which a polar pH distribution contributes to efficient cell migration. Specifically, we show that Carbonic Anhydrase 15b, an enzyme controlling the pH in many cell types, including metastatic cancer cells, is expressed in migrating germ cells and is crucial for establishing and maintaining an asymmetric pH distribution within them. Reducing the level of the protein and thereby erasing the pH elevation at the cell front resulted in abnormal cell migration and impaired arrival at the target. The basis for the disrupted migration is found in the stringent requirement for pH conditions in the cell for regulating contractility, for the polarization of Rac1 activity, and hence for the formation of actin-rich structures at the leading edge of the migrating cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of the p55-gamma subunit of PI3K in ALK-induced cell migration: RNAi-based selection of cell migration regulators.

    PubMed

    Seo, Minchul; Kim, Jong-Heon; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-05-04

    Recently, unbiased functional genetic selection identified novel cell migration-regulating genes. This RNAi-based functional selection was performed using 63,996 pooled lentiviral shRNAs targeting 21,332 mouse genes. After five rounds of selection using cells with accelerated or impaired migration, shRNAs were retrieved and identified by half-hairpin barcode sequencing using cells with the selected phenotypes. This selection process led to the identification of 29 novel cell migration regulators. One of these candidates, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), was further investigated. Subsequent studies revealed that ALK promoted cell migration through the PI3K-AKT pathway via the p55γ regulatory subunit of PI3K, rather than more commonly used p85 subunit. Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies using mouse brain tissues revealed similar temporal expression patterns of ALK, phospho-p55γ, and phospho-AKT during different stages of development. These data support an important role for the p55γ subunit of PI3K in ALK-induced cell migration during brain development.

  10. Tumor cell migration screen identifies SRPK1 as breast cancer metastasis determinant

    PubMed Central

    van Roosmalen, Wies; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E.; Golani, Ofra; Smid, Marcel; Pulyakhina, Irina; Timmermans, Annemieke M.; Look, Maxime P.; Zi, Di; Pont, Chantal; de Graauw, Marjo; Naffar-Abu-Amara, Suha; Kirsanova, Catherine; Rustici, Gabriella; Hoen, Peter A.C. ‘t; Martens, John W.M.; Foekens, John A.; Geiger, Benjamin; van de Water, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell migration is a key process for cancer cell dissemination and metastasis that is controlled by signal-mediated cytoskeletal and cell matrix adhesion remodeling. Using a phagokinetic track assay with migratory H1299 cells, we performed an siRNA screen of almost 1,500 genes encoding kinases/phosphatases and adhesome- and migration-related proteins to identify genes that affect tumor cell migration speed and persistence. Thirty candidate genes that altered cell migration were validated in live tumor cell migration assays. Eight were associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients, with integrin β3–binding protein (ITGB3BP), MAP3K8, NIMA-related kinase (NEK2), and SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1) being the most predictive. Examination of genes that modulate migration indicated that SRPK1, encoding the splicing factor kinase SRSF protein kinase 1, is relevant to breast cancer outcomes, as it was highly expressed in basal breast cancer. Furthermore, high SRPK1 expression correlated with poor breast cancer disease outcome and preferential metastasis to the lungs and brain. In 2 independent murine models of breast tumor metastasis, stable shRNA-based SRPK1 knockdown suppressed metastasis to distant organs, including lung, liver, and spleen, and inhibited focal adhesion reorganization. Our study provides comprehensive information on the molecular determinants of tumor cell migration and suggests that SRPK1 has potential as a drug target for limiting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:25774502

  11. Tumor cell migration screen identifies SRPK1 as breast cancer metastasis determinant.

    PubMed

    van Roosmalen, Wies; Le Dévédec, Sylvia E; Golani, Ofra; Smid, Marcel; Pulyakhina, Irina; Timmermans, Annemieke M; Look, Maxime P; Zi, Di; Pont, Chantal; de Graauw, Marjo; Naffar-Abu-Amara, Suha; Kirsanova, Catherine; Rustici, Gabriella; Hoen, Peter A C 't; Martens, John W M; Foekens, John A; Geiger, Benjamin; van de Water, Bob

    2015-04-01

    Tumor cell migration is a key process for cancer cell dissemination and metastasis that is controlled by signal-mediated cytoskeletal and cell matrix adhesion remodeling. Using a phagokinetic track assay with migratory H1299 cells, we performed an siRNA screen of almost 1,500 genes encoding kinases/phosphatases and adhesome- and migration-related proteins to identify genes that affect tumor cell migration speed and persistence. Thirty candidate genes that altered cell migration were validated in live tumor cell migration assays. Eight were associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients, with integrin β3-binding protein (ITGB3BP), MAP3K8, NIMA-related kinase (NEK2), and SHC-transforming protein 1 (SHC1) being the most predictive. Examination of genes that modulate migration indicated that SRPK1, encoding the splicing factor kinase SRSF protein kinase 1, is relevant to breast cancer outcomes, as it was highly expressed in basal breast cancer. Furthermore, high SRPK1 expression correlated with poor breast cancer disease outcome and preferential metastasis to the lungs and brain. In 2 independent murine models of breast tumor metastasis, stable shRNA-based SRPK1 knockdown suppressed metastasis to distant organs, including lung, liver, and spleen, and inhibited focal adhesion reorganization. Our study provides comprehensive information on the molecular determinants of tumor cell migration and suggests that SRPK1 has potential as a drug target for limiting breast cancer metastasis.

  12. Co-Regulation of Cell Polarization and Migration by Caveolar Proteins PTRF/Cavin-1 and Caveolin-1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Michelle M.; Daud, Noor Huda; Aung, Cho Sanda; Loo, Dorothy; Martin, Sally; Murphy, Samantha; Black, Debra M.; Barry, Rachael; Simpson, Fiona; Liu, Libin; Pilch, Paul F.; Hancock, John F.; Parat, Marie-Odile; Parton, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 and caveolae are differentially polarized in migrating cells in various models, and caveolin-1 expression has been shown to quantitatively modulate cell migration. PTRF/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein now established to be also necessary for caveola formation. Here we tested the effect of PTRF expression on cell migration. Using fluorescence imaging, quantitative proteomics, and cell migration assays we show that PTRF/cavin-1 modulates cellular polarization, and the subcellular localization of Rac1 and caveolin-1 in migrating cells as well as PKCα caveola recruitment. PTRF/cavin-1 quantitatively reduced cell migration, and induced mesenchymal epithelial reversion. Similar to caveolin-1, the polarization of PTRF/cavin-1 was dependent on the migration mode. By selectively manipulating PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1 expression (and therefore caveola formation) in multiple cell systems, we unveil caveola-independent functions for both proteins in cell migration. PMID:22912783

  13. Carbon Ion Radiation Inhibits Glioma and Endothelial Cell Migration Induced by Secreted VEGF

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Chao; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Luwei; Mao, Aihong; Du, Yuting; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of carbon ion and X-ray radiation and the tumor microenvironment on the migration of glioma and endothelial cells, a key process in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis during cancer progression. C6 glioma and human microvascular endothelial cells were treated with conditioned medium from cultures of glioma cells irradiated at a range of doses and the migration of both cell types, tube formation by endothelial cells, as well as the expression and secretion of migration-related proteins were evaluated. Exposure to X-ray radiation-conditioned medium induced dose-dependent increases in cell migration and tube formation, which were accompanied by an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expression. However, glioma cells treated with conditioned medium of cells irradiated at a carbon ion dose of 4.0 Gy showed a marked decrease in migratory potential and VEGF secretion relative to non-irradiated cells. The application of recombinant VEGF165 stimulated migration in glioma and endothelial cells, which was associated with increased FAK phosphorylation at Tyr861, suggesting that the suppression of cell migration by carbon ion radiation could be via VEGF-activated FAK signaling. Taken together, these findings indicate that carbon ion may be superior to X-ray radiation for inhibiting tumorigenesis and angiogenesis through modulation of VEGF level in the glioma microenvironment. PMID:24893038

  14. Trajectory Analysis Unveils Reelin's Role in the Directed Migration of Granule Cells in the Dentate Gyrus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobo; Brunne, Bianka; Zhao, Shanting; Chai, Xuejun; Li, Jiawei; Lau, Jeremie; Failla, Antonio Virgilio; Zobiak, Bernd; Sibbe, Mirjam; Westbrook, Gary L; Lutz, David; Frotscher, Michael

    2018-01-03

    Reelin controls neuronal migration and layer formation. Previous studies in reeler mice deficient in Reelin focused on the result of the developmental process in fixed tissue sections. It has remained unclear whether Reelin affects the migratory process, migration directionality, or migrating neurons guided by the radial glial scaffold. Moreover, Reelin has been regarded as an attractive signal because newly generated neurons migrate toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone. Conversely, Reelin might be a stop signal because migrating neurons in reeler , but not in wild-type mice, invade the marginal zone. Here, we monitored the migration of newly generated proopiomelanocortin-EGFP -expressing dentate granule cells in slice cultures from reeler , reeler -like mutants and wild-type mice of either sex using real-time microscopy. We discovered that not the actual migratory process and migratory speed, but migration directionality of the granule cells is controlled by Reelin. While wild-type granule cells migrated toward the marginal zone of the dentate gyrus, neurons in cultures from reeler and reeler -like mutants migrated randomly in all directions as revealed by vector analyses of migratory trajectories. Moreover, live imaging of granule cells in reeler slices cocultured to wild-type dentate gyrus showed that the reeler neurons changed their directions and migrated toward the Reelin-containing marginal zone of the wild-type culture, thus forming a compact granule cell layer. In contrast, directed migration was not observed when Reelin was ubiquitously present in the medium of reeler slices. These results indicate that topographically administered Reelin controls the formation of a granule cell layer. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuronal migration and the various factors controlling its onset, speed, directionality, and arrest are poorly understood. Slice cultures offer a unique model to study the migration of individual neurons in an almost natural environment. In the

  15. Stretching Fibroblasts Remodels Fibronectin and Alters Cancer Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Mingfang; Brewer, Bryson M.; Yang, Lijie; Franco Coronel, Omar E.; Hayward, Simon W.; Webb, Donna J.; Li, Deyu

    2015-02-01

    Most investigations of cancer-stroma interactions have focused on biochemical signaling effects, with much less attention being paid to biophysical factors. In this study, we investigated the role of mechanical stimuli on human prostatic fibroblasts using a microfluidic platform that was adapted for our experiments and further developed for both repeatable performance among multiple assays and for compatibility with high-resolution confocal microscopy. Results show that mechanical stretching of normal tissue-associated fibroblasts (NAFs) alters the structure of secreted fibronectin. Specifically, unstretched NAFs deposit and assemble fibronectin in a random, mesh-like arrangement, while stretched NAFs produce matrix with a more organized, linearly aligned structure. Moreover, the stretched NAFs exhibited an enhanced capability for directing co-cultured cancer cell migration in a persistent manner. Furthermore, we show that stretching NAFs triggers complex biochemical signaling events through the observation of increased expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). A comparison of these behaviors with those of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) indicates that the observed phenotypes of stretched NAFs are similar to those associated with CAFs, suggesting that mechanical stress is a critical factor in NAF activation and CAF genesis.

  16. Comparative study of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) as a treatment for retinal dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Marina; Fontrodona, Laura; Albert, Silvia; Ramirez, Diana Mora; Seriola, Anna; Salas, Anna; Muñoz, Yolanda; Ramos, David; Villegas-Perez, Maria Paz; Zapata, Miguel Angel; Raya, Angel; Ruberte, Jesus; Veiga, Anna; Garcia-Arumi, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Retinal dystrophies (RD) are major causes of familial blindness and are characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptor and/or retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of two pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based therapies. We differentiated RPE from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and transplanted them into the subretinal space of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat. Once differentiated, cells from either source of PSC resembled mature RPE in their morphology and gene expression profile. Following transplantation, both hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells maintained the expression of specific RPE markers, lost their proliferative capacity, established tight junctions, and were able to perform phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments. Remarkably, grafted areas showed increased numbers of photoreceptor nuclei and outer segment disk membranes. Regardless of the cell source, human transplants protected retina from cell apoptosis, glial stress and accumulation of autofluorescence, and responded better to light stimuli. Altogether, our results show that hESC- and hiPSC-derived cells survived, migrated, integrated, and functioned as RPE in the RCS rat retina, providing preclinical evidence that either PSC source could be of potential benefit for treating RD. PMID:27006969

  17. Stimulation of Cortical Myosin Phosphorylation by p114RhoGEF Drives Cell Migration and Tumor Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zihni, Ceniz; Harris, Andrew R.; Bailly, Maryse; Charras, Guillaume T.; Balda, Maria S.; Matter, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Actinomyosin activity is an important driver of cell locomotion and has been shown to promote collective cell migration of epithelial sheets as well as single cell migration and tumor cell invasion. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of cortical myosin to stimulate single cell movement, and the relationship between the mechanisms that drive single cell locomotion and those that mediate collective cell migration of epithelial sheets are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that p114RhoGEF, an activator of RhoA that associates with non-muscle myosin IIA, regulates collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and tumor cell invasion. Depletion of p114RhoGEF resulted in specific spatial inhibition of myosin activation at cell-cell contacts in migrating epithelial sheets and the cortex of migrating single cells, but only affected double and not single phosphorylation of myosin light chain. In agreement, overall elasticity and contractility of the cells, processes that rely on persistent and more constant forces, were not affected, suggesting that p114RhoGEF mediates process-specific myosin activation. Locomotion was p114RhoGEF-dependent on Matrigel, which favors more roundish cells and amoeboid-like actinomyosin-driven movement, but not on fibronectin, which stimulates flatter cells and lamellipodia-driven, mesenchymal-like migration. Accordingly, depletion of p114RhoGEF led to reduced RhoA, but increased Rac activity. Invasion of 3D matrices was p114RhoGEF-dependent under conditions that do not require metalloproteinase activity, supporting a role of p114RhoGEF in myosin-dependent, amoeboid-like locomotion. Our data demonstrate that p114RhoGEF drives cortical myosin activation by stimulating myosin light chain double phosphorylation and, thereby, collective cell migration of epithelial sheets and amoeboid-like motility of tumor cells. PMID:23185572

  18. Time-lapse cinematography of the capillary tube cell migration inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Bray, M A

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of human and guinea pig cell migration inhibition have been studied using time-lapse cinematography of cells migrating from capillary tubes. Guinea pig and human cells exhibit markedly different kinetics in the absence of inhibitors. Specific antigen causes a dose-related inhibition of migration for up to 60 h using guinea pig cells and a peak of inhibition after 18 h using the human leucocyte system. The timing of measurement of maximum activity more critical for the latter test. The kinetics of lymphokine generation have been examined and the migration inhibitory activity of the plant mitogen (PHA), a Kurloff cell product and a continuous cell line supernatant have been compared with the inhibitory profiles of lymphokine preparations and specific antigen.

  19. Systematic Analysis of the Transcriptional Switch Inducing Migration of Border Cells

    PubMed Central

    Borghese, Lodovica; Fletcher, Georgina; Mathieu, Juliette; Atzberger, Ann; Eades, William C.; Cagan, Ross L.; Rørth, Pernille

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cell migration within a natural context is tightly controlled, often by specific transcription factors. However, the switch from stationary to migratory behavior is poorly understood. Border cells perform a spatially and temporally controlled invasive migration during Drosophila oogenesis. Slbo, a C/EBP family transcriptional activator, is required for them to become migratory. We purified wild-type and slbo mutant border cells as well as nonmigratory follicle cells and performed comparative whole-genome expression profiling, followed by functional tests of the contributions of identified targets to migration. About 300 genes were significantly upregulated in border cells, many dependent on Slbo. Among these, the microtubule regulator Stathmin was strongly upregulated and was required for normal migration. Actin cytoskeleton regulators were also induced, including, surprisingly, a large cluster of “muscle-specific” genes. We conclude that Slbo induces multiple cytoskeletal effectors, and that each contributes to the behavioral changes in border cells. PMID:16580994

  20. Discrete and Continuum Approximations for Collective Cell Migration in a Scratch Assay with Cell Size Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Matsiaka, Oleksii M; Penington, Catherine J; Baker, Ruth E; Simpson, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Scratch assays are routinely used to study the collective spreading of cell populations. In general, the rate at which a population of cells spreads is driven by the combined effects of cell migration and proliferation. To examine the effects of cell migration separately from the effects of cell proliferation, scratch assays are often performed after treating the cells with a drug that inhibits proliferation. Mitomycin-C is a drug that is commonly used to suppress cell proliferation in this context. However, in addition to suppressing cell proliferation, mitomycin-C also causes cells to change size during the experiment, as each cell in the population approximately doubles in size as a result of treatment. Therefore, to describe a scratch assay that incorporates the effects of cell-to-cell crowding, cell-to-cell adhesion, and dynamic changes in cell size, we present a new stochastic model that incorporates these mechanisms. Our agent-based stochastic model takes the form of a system of Langevin equations that is the system of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the population of agents. We incorporate a time-dependent interaction force that is used to mimic the dynamic increase in size of the agents. To provide a mathematical description of the average behaviour of the stochastic model we present continuum limit descriptions using both a standard mean-field approximation and a more sophisticated moment dynamics approximation that accounts for the density of agents and density of pairs of agents in the stochastic model. Comparing the accuracy of the two continuum descriptions for a typical scratch assay geometry shows that the incorporation of agent growth in the system is associated with a decrease in accuracy of the standard mean-field description. In contrast, the moment dynamics description provides a more accurate prediction of the evolution of the scratch assay when the increase in size of individual agents is included in the model.

  1. A PML/Slit Axis Controls Physiological Cell Migration and Cancer Invasion in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Valeria; A, Deli; Betts, Joanne; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Zhang, Ying; Richard-Londt, Angela; Ellis, Matthew; Roshani, Rozita; Vouri, Mikaella; Galavotti, Sara; Oberndorfer, Sarah; Leite, Ana Paula; Mackay, Alan; Lampada, Aikaterini; Stratford, Eva Wessel; Li, Ningning; Dinsdale, David; Grimwade, David; Jones, Chris; Nicotera, Pierluigi; Michod, David; Brandner, Sebastian; Salomoni, Paolo

    2017-07-11

    Cell migration through the brain parenchyma underpins neurogenesis and glioblastoma (GBM) development. Since GBM cells and neuroblasts use the same migratory routes, mechanisms underlying migration during neurogenesis and brain cancer pathogenesis may be similar. Here, we identify a common pathway controlling cell migration in normal and neoplastic cells in the CNS. The nuclear scaffold protein promyelocytic leukemia (PML), a regulator of forebrain development, promotes neural progenitor/stem cell (NPC) and neuroblast migration in the adult mouse brain. The PML pro-migratory role is active also in transformed mouse NPCs and in human primary GBM cells. In both normal and neoplastic settings, PML controls cell migration via Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated repression of Slits, key regulators of axon guidance. Finally, a PML/SLIT1 axis regulates sensitivity to the PML-targeting drug arsenic trioxide in primary GBM cells. Taken together, these findings uncover a drug-targetable molecular axis controlling cell migration in both normal and neoplastic cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical control demonstrates switch-like PIP3 dynamics underlying the initiation of immune cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Karunarathne, W. K. Ajith; Giri, Lopamudra; Patel, Anilkumar K.; Venkatesh, Kareenhalli V.; Gautam, N.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of approaches to experimentally direct cell migration by continuously varying signal input to a single cell, evoking all possible migratory responses and quantitatively monitoring the cellular and molecular response dynamics. Here we used a visual blue opsin to recruit the endogenous G-protein network that mediates immune cell migration. Specific optical inputs to this optical trigger of signaling helped steer migration in all possible directions with precision. Spectrally selective imaging was used to monitor cell-wide phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3), cytoskeletal, and cellular dynamics. A switch-like PIP3 increase at the cell front and a decrease at the back were identified, underlying the decisive migratory response. Migration was initiated at the rapidly increasing switch stage of PIP3 dynamics. This result explains how a migratory cell filters background fluctuations in the intensity of an extracellular signal but responds by initiating directionally sensitive migration to a persistent signal gradient across the cell. A two-compartment computational model incorporating a localized activator that is antagonistic to a diffusible inhibitor was able to simulate the switch-like PIP3 response. It was also able simulate the slow dissipation of PIP3 on signal termination. The ability to independently apply similar signaling inputs to single cells detected two cell populations with distinct thresholds for migration initiation. Overall the optical approach here can be applied to understand G-protein–coupled receptor network control of other cell behaviors. PMID:23569254

  3. Optical control demonstrates switch-like PIP3 dynamics underlying the initiation of immune cell migration.

    PubMed

    Karunarathne, W K Ajith; Giri, Lopamudra; Patel, Anilkumar K; Venkatesh, Kareenhalli V; Gautam, N

    2013-04-23

    There is a dearth of approaches to experimentally direct cell migration by continuously varying signal input to a single cell, evoking all possible migratory responses and quantitatively monitoring the cellular and molecular response dynamics. Here we used a visual blue opsin to recruit the endogenous G-protein network that mediates immune cell migration. Specific optical inputs to this optical trigger of signaling helped steer migration in all possible directions with precision. Spectrally selective imaging was used to monitor cell-wide phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PIP3), cytoskeletal, and cellular dynamics. A switch-like PIP3 increase at the cell front and a decrease at the back were identified, underlying the decisive migratory response. Migration was initiated at the rapidly increasing switch stage of PIP3 dynamics. This result explains how a migratory cell filters background fluctuations in the intensity of an extracellular signal but responds by initiating directionally sensitive migration to a persistent signal gradient across the cell. A two-compartment computational model incorporating a localized activator that is antagonistic to a diffusible inhibitor was able to simulate the switch-like PIP3 response. It was also able simulate the slow dissipation of PIP3 on signal termination. The ability to independently apply similar signaling inputs to single cells detected two cell populations with distinct thresholds for migration initiation. Overall the optical approach here can be applied to understand G-protein-coupled receptor network control of other cell behaviors.

  4. Suppression of calpain expression by NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cell migration in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-05-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hedgehog Is a Positive Regulator of FGF Signalling during Embryonic Tracheal Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration. PMID:24651658

  6. Hedgehog is a positive regulator of FGF signalling during embryonic tracheal cell migration.

    PubMed

    Butí, Elisenda; Mesquita, Duarte; Araújo, Sofia J

    2014-01-01

    Cell migration is a widespread and complex process that is crucial for morphogenesis and for the underlying invasion and metastasis of human cancers. During migration, cells are steered toward target sites by guidance molecules that induce cell direction and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. The spatio-temporal regulation of the expression of these guidance molecules is of extreme importance for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. One way to achieve this precise regulation is by combinatorial inputs of different transcription factors. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster mutants with migration defects in the ganglionic branches of the tracheal system to further clarify guidance regulation during cell migration. By studying the cellular consequences of overactivated Hh signalling, using ptc mutants, we found that Hh positively regulates Bnl/FGF levels during embryonic stages. Our results show that Hh modulates cell migration non-autonomously in the tissues surrounding the action of its activity. We further demonstrate that the Hh signalling pathway regulates bnl expression via Stripe (Sr), a zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to the Early Growth Response (EGR) family of vertebrate transcription factors. We propose that Hh modulates embryonic cell migration by participating in the spatio-temporal regulation of bnl expression in a permissive mode. By doing so, we provide a molecular link between the activation of Hh signalling and increased chemotactic responses during cell migration.

  7. Suppression of Calpain Expression by NSAIDs is Associated with Inhibition of Cell Migration in Rat Duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A.; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity. PMID:28342779

  8. HDAC 1 and 6 modulate cell invasion and migration in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Ku, ShengYu; Ciamporcero, Eric; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Attwood, Kris; Chintala, Sreenivasulu; Shen, Li; Ellis, Leigh; Sotomayor, Paula; Swetzig, Wendy; Huang, Ray; Conroy, Dylan; Orillion, Ashley; Das, Gokul; Pili, Roberto

    2016-08-09

    Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been reported to be overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), whereas the expression of class II HDACs is unknown. Four isogenic cell lines C2/C2VHL and 786-O/786-OVHL with differential VHL expression are used in our studies. Cobalt chloride is used to mimic hypoxia in vitro. HIF-2α knockdowns in C2 and 786-O cells is used to evaluate the effect on HDAC 1 expression and activity. Invasion and migration assays are used to investigate the role of HDAC 1 and HDAC 6 expression in ccRCC cells. Comparisons are made between experimental groups using the paired T-test, the two-sample Student's T-test or one-way ANOVA, as appropriate. ccRCC and the TCGA dataset are used to observe the clinical correlation between HDAC 1 and HDAC 6 overexpression and overall and progression free survival. Our analysis of tumor and matched non-tumor tissues from radical nephrectomies showed overexpression of class I and II HDACs (HDAC6 only in a subset of patients). In vitro, both HDAC1 and HDAC6 over-expression increased cell invasion and motility, respectively, in ccRCC cells. HDAC1 regulated invasiveness by increasing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. Furthermore, hypoxia stimulation in VHL-reconstituted cell lines increased HIF isoforms and HDAC1 expression. Presence of hypoxia response elements in the HDAC1 promoter along with chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggests that HIF-2α is a transcriptional regulator of HDAC1 gene. Conversely, HDAC6 and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) were co-localized in cytoplasm of ccRCC cells and HDAC6 enhanced cell motility by decreasing acetylated α-tubulin expression, and this biological effect was attenuated by either biochemical or pharmacological inhibition. Finally, analysis of human ccRCC specimens revealed positive correlation between HIF isoforms and HDAC. HDAC1 mRNA upregulation was associated with worse overall survival in the TCGA dataset. Taking together, these results

  9. CD44 regulates cell migration in human colon cancer cells via Lyn kinase and AKT phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Venkateswaran; Vincent, Isabella R; Gardner, Helena; Chan, Emily; Dhamko, Helena; Jothy, Serge

    2007-10-01

    Colon cancer is among the leading causes of cancer death in North America. CD44, an adhesion and antiapoptotic molecule is overexpressed in colon cancer. Cofilin is involved in the directional motility of cells. In the present study, we looked at how CD44 might modulate cell migration in human colon cancer via cofilin. We used a human colon cancer cell line, HT29, which expresses CD44, HT29 where CD44 expression was knocked down by siRNA, SW620, a human colon cancer cell line which does not express CD44, stably transfected exons of CD44 in SW620 cells and the colon from CD44 knockout and wild-type mouse. Western blot analysis of siRNA CD44 lysates showed increased level of AKT phosphorylation and decreased level of cofilin expression. Similar results were also observed with SW620 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon lysates. Experiments using the AKT phosphorylation inhibitor LY294002 indicate that AKT phosphorylation downregulates cofilin. Immunoprecipitation studies showed CD44 complex formation with Lyn, providing an essential link between CD44 and AKT phosphorylation. LY294002 also stabilized Lyn from phosphorylated AKT, suggesting an interaction between Lyn and AKT phosphorylation. Immunocytochemistry showed that cofilin and Lyn expression were downregulated in siRNA CD44 cells and CD44 knockout mouse colon. siRNA CD44 cells had significantly less migration compared to HT29 vector. Given the well-defined roles of CD44, phosphorylated AKT in apoptosis and cancer, these results indicate that CD44-induced cell migration is dependent on its complex formation with Lyn and its consequent regulation of AKT phosphorylation and cofilin expression.

  10. Vinculin is required for cell polarization, migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling in 3D collagen

    PubMed Central

    Thievessen, Ingo; Fakhri, Nikta; Steinwachs, Julian; Kraus, Viola; McIsaac, R. Scott; Gao, Liang; Chen, Bi-Chang; Baird, Michelle A.; Davidson, Michael W.; Betzig, Eric; Oldenbourg, Rudolf; Waterman, Clare M.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Vinculin is filamentous (F)-actin-binding protein enriched in integrin-based adhesions to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Whereas studies in 2-dimensional (2D) tissue culture models have suggested that vinculin negatively regulates cell migration by promoting cytoskeleton–ECM coupling to strengthen and stabilize adhesions, its role in regulating cell migration in more physiologic, 3-dimensional (3D) environments is unclear. To address the role of vinculin in 3D cell migration, we analyzed the morphodynamics, migration, and ECM remodeling of primary murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with cre/loxP-mediated vinculin gene disruption in 3D collagen I cultures. We found that vinculin promoted 3D cell migration by increasing directional persistence. Vinculin was necessary for persistent cell protrusion, cell elongation, and stable cell orientation in 3D collagen, but was dispensable for lamellipodia formation, suggesting that vinculin-mediated cell adhesion to the ECM is needed to convert actin-based cell protrusion into persistent cell shape change and migration. Consistent with this finding, vinculin was necessary for efficient traction force generation in 3D collagen without affecting myosin II activity and promoted 3D collagen fiber alignment and macroscopical gel contraction. Our results suggest that vinculin promotes directionally persistent cell migration and tension-dependent ECM remodeling in complex 3D environments by increasing cell–ECM adhesion and traction force generation.—Thievessen, I., Fakhri, N., Steinwachs, J., Kraus, V., McIsaac, R. S., Gao, L., Chen, B.-C., Baird, M. A., Davidson, M. W., Betzig, E., Oldenbourg, R., Waterman, C., M., Fabry, B. Vinculin is required for cell polarization, migration, and extracellular matrix remodeling in 3D collagen. PMID:26195589

  11. Androgen-Induced Cell Migration: Role of Androgen Receptor/Filamin A Association

    PubMed Central

    Castoria, Gabriella; D'Amato, Loredana; Ciociola, Alessandra; Giovannelli, Pia; Giraldi, Tiziana; Sepe, Leandra; Paolella, Giovanni; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Migliaccio, Antimo; Auricchio, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    Background Androgen receptor (AR) controls male morphogenesis, gametogenesis and prostate growth as well as development of prostate cancer. These findings support a role for AR in cell migration and invasiveness. However, the molecular mechanism involved in AR-mediated cell migration still remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Mouse embryo NIH3T3 fibroblasts and highly metastatic human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells harbor low levels of transcriptionally incompetent AR. We now report that, through extra nuclear action, AR triggers migration of both cell types upon stimulation with physiological concentrations of the androgen R1881. We analyzed the initial events leading to androgen-induced cell migration and observed that challenging NIH3T3 cells with 10 nM R1881 rapidly induces interaction of AR with filamin A (FlnA) at cytoskeleton. AR/FlnA complex recruits integrin beta 1, thus activating its dependent cascade. Silencing of AR, FlnA and integrin beta 1 shows that this ternary complex controls focal adhesion kinase (FAK), paxillin and Rac, thereby driving cell migration. FAK-null fibroblasts migrate poorly and Rac inhibition by EHT impairs motility of androgen-treated NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, FAK and Rac activation by androgens are independent of each other. Findings in human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells strengthen the role of Rac in androgen signaling. The Rac inhibitor significantly impairs androgen-induced migration in these cells. A mutant AR, deleted of the sequence interacting with FlnA, fails to mediate FAK activation and paxillin tyrosine phosphorylation in androgen-stimulated cells, further reinforcing the role of AR/FlnA interaction in androgen-mediated motility. Conclusions/Significance The present report, for the first time, indicates that the extra nuclear AR/FlnA/integrin beta 1 complex is the key by which androgen activates signaling leading to cell migration. Assembly of this ternary complex may control organ development and prostate cancer

  12. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: RPE Lipofuscin is not Increased in Non-Lesion Areas of Retina

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell; Delori, François C.

    2018-01-01

    Since the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, we quantified fundus autofluorescence (quantitative fundus autofluorescence, qAF) as an indirect measure of RPE lipofuscin levels. Mean non-lesion qAF was found to be within normal limits for age. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) vitelliform lesions presented as fluid-filled subretinal detachments containing reflective material. We discuss photoreceptor outer segment debris as the source of the intense fluorescence of these lesions and loss of anion channel functioning as an explanation for the bullous photoreceptor-RPE detachment. Unexplained is the propensity of the disease for central retina. PMID:26427423

  13. Quantitative Fundus Autofluorescence in Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy: RPE Lipofuscin is not Increased in Non-Lesion Areas of Retina.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Janet R; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell; Delori, François C

    2016-01-01

    Since the lipofuscin of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, we quantified fundus autofluorescence (quantitative fundus autofluorescence, qAF) as an indirect measure of RPE lipofuscin levels. Mean non-lesion qAF was found to be within normal limits for age. By spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) vitelliform lesions presented as fluid-filled subretinal detachments containing reflective material. We discuss photoreceptor outer segment debris as the source of the intense fluorescence of these lesions and loss of anion channel functioning as an explanation for the bullous photoreceptor-RPE detachment. Unexplained is the propensity of the disease for central retina.

  14. Stable SET knockdown in breast cell carcinoma inhibits cell migration and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jie; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen; Yang, Xi-fei

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We employed RNA interference to knockdown SET expression in breast cancer cells. • Knockdown of SET expression inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion. • Knockdown of SET expression increases the activity and expression of PP2A. • Knockdown of SET expression decreases the expression of MMP-9. - Abstract: Breast cancer is the most malignant tumor for women, however, the mechanisms underlying this devastating disease remain unclear. SET is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and involved in many physiological and pathological processes. SET could promote the occurrence of tumor through inhibiting PP2A. In this study, we exploremore » the role of SET in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75-30. The stable suppression of SET expression through lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to inhibit the growth, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. Knockdown of SET increases the activity and expression of PP2Ac and decrease the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). These data demonstrate that SET may be involved in the pathogenic processes of breast cancer, indicating that SET can serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.« less

  15. Patterning of Endothelial Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting to Study Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Bourget, Jean-Michel; Kérourédan, Olivia; Medina, Manuela; Rémy, Murielle; Thébaud, Noélie Brunehilde; Bareille, Reine; Chassande, Olivier; Amédée, Joëlle; Catros, Sylvain; Devillard, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering of large organs is currently limited by the lack of potent vascularization in vitro . Tissue-engineered bone grafts can be prevascularized in vitro using endothelial cells (ECs). The microvascular network architecture could be controlled by printing ECs following a specific pattern. Using laser-assisted bioprinting, we investigated the effect of distance between printed cell islets and the influence of coprinted mesenchymal cells on migration. When printed alone, ECs spread out evenly on the collagen hydrogel, regardless of the distance between cell islets. However, when printed in coculture with mesenchymal cells by laser-assisted bioprinting, they remained in the printed area. Therefore, the presence of mesenchymal cell is mandatory in order to create a pattern that will be conserved over time. This work describes an interesting approach to study cell migration that could be reproduced to study the effect of trophic factors.

  16. Patterning of Endothelial Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Laser-Assisted Bioprinting to Study Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Manuela; Rémy, Murielle; Thébaud, Noélie Brunehilde; Bareille, Reine; Chassande, Olivier; Amédée, Joëlle; Catros, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering of large organs is currently limited by the lack of potent vascularization in vitro. Tissue-engineered bone grafts can be prevascularized in vitro using endothelial cells (ECs). The microvascular network architecture could be controlled by printing ECs following a specific pattern. Using laser-assisted bioprinting, we investigated the effect of distance between printed cell islets and the influence of coprinted mesenchymal cells on migration. When printed alone, ECs spread out evenly on the collagen hydrogel, regardless of the distance between cell islets. However, when printed in coculture with mesenchymal cells by laser-assisted bioprinting, they remained in the printed area. Therefore, the presence of mesenchymal cell is mandatory in order to create a pattern that will be conserved over time. This work describes an interesting approach to study cell migration that could be reproduced to study the effect of trophic factors. PMID:27833916

  17. Slits Affect the Timely Migration of Neural Crest Cells via Robo Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Giovannone, Dion; Reyes, Michelle; Reyes, Rachel; Correa, Lisa; Martinez, Darwin; Ra, Hannah; Gomez, Gustavo; Kaiser, Josh; Ma, Le; Stein, Mary-Pat; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from the dorsal neural tube and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrate embryos. These cells change from non-motile into highly motile cells migrating to distant areas before further differentiation. Mechanisms controlling delamination and subsequent migration of neural crest cells are not fully understood. Slit2, a chemorepellant for axonal guidance that repels and stimulates motility of trunk neural crest cells away from the gut has recently been suggested to be a tumor suppressor molecule. The goal of this study was to further investigate the role of Slit2 in trunk neural crest cell migration by constitutive expression in neural crest cells. Results We found that Slit gain-of-function significantly impaired neural crest cell migration while Slit loss-of-function favored migration. In addition, we observed that the distribution of key cytoskeletal markers was disrupted in both gain and loss of function instances. Conclusions These findings suggest that Slit molecules might be involved in the processes that allow neural crest cells to begin migration and transitioning to a mesenchymal type. PMID:22689303

  18. Tissue stiffening coordinates morphogenesis by triggering collective cell migration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Elias H; Franze, Kristian; Charras, Guillaume; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-02-22

    Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion. We found that, during morphogenesis, the head mesoderm underlying the cephalic neural crest stiffens. This stiffening initiates an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in neural crest cells and triggers their collective migration. To detect changes in their mechanical environment, neural crest cells use mechanosensation mediated by the integrin-vinculin-talin complex. By performing mechanical and molecular manipulations, we show that mesoderm stiffening is necessary and sufficient to trigger neural crest migration. Finally, we demonstrate that convergent extension of the mesoderm, which starts during gastrulation, leads to increased mesoderm stiffness by increasing the cell density underneath the neural crest. These results show that convergent extension of the mesoderm has a role as a mechanical coordinator of morphogenesis, and reveal a link between two apparently unconnected processes-gastrulation and neural crest migration-via changes in tissue mechanics. Overall, we demonstrate that changes in substrate stiffness can trigger collective cell migration by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vivo. More broadly, our results raise the idea that tissue mechanics combines with molecular effectors to coordinate morphogenesis.

  19. [Role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in proliferation and migration of pancreatic cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yu-chun; Kang, Quan; Luo, Qing; Wu, Dao-qi; Ye, Wei-xia; Lin, Xue-mei; Zhao, Yong

    2011-10-01

    To explore the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in pancreatic cancer and its influence on the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. The expression of CTGF in pancreatic cell line PANC-1 cells was analyzed by real-time PCR and in pancreatic carcinoma (50 cases) tissues by immunohistochemistry. The ability of proliferation and migration in vitro of PANC-1 cells was tested by MTT assay, scratch test and Boyden chamber test after the CTGF gene was overexpressed by Ad5-CTGF or silenced with Ad5-siCTGF transfection. CTGF was overexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cells and tissues. Overxpression of CTGF leads to increased proliferation and migration of PANC-1 cells. The CTGF-transfected PANC-1 cells showed apparent stronger proliferation ability and scratch-repair ability than that of empty vector controls. The results of Boyden chamber test showed that there were 34 cells/field (200× magnificantion) of the CTGF-transfected overexpressing cells, much more than the 11 cells/field of the empty vector control cells; and 6 cells/microscopic field of the Ad5-siCTGF-transfected silenced cells, much less than the 15 cells/field of the control cells. CTGF is overexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it may play an important role in the cell proliferation and migration in pancreatic cancer.

  20. Delphinidin inhibits BDNF-induced migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Seung-Ho; Song, Ji-Hye; Lee, Ki Heon; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Yoo-Kyung; So, Kyeong A; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Ko, Hyeonseok

    2017-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the TrkB ligand, is associated with aggressive malignant behavior, including migration and invasion, in tumor cells and a poor prognosis in patients with various types of cancer. Delphinidin is a diphenylpropane-based polyphenolic ring structure-harboring compound, which exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-mutagenic activity. However, the possible role of delphinidin in the cancer migration and invasion is unclear. We investigated the suppressive effect of delphinidin on the cancer migration and invasion. Thus, we found that BDNF enhanced cancer migration and invasion in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cell. To exam the inhibitory role of delphinidin in SKOV3 ovarian cancer migration and invasion, we investigated the use of delphinidin as inhibitors of BDNF-induced motility and invasiveness in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Here, we found that delphinidin prominently inhibited the BDNF-induced increase in cell migration and invasion of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, delphinidin remarkably inhibited BDNF-stimulated expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Also, delphinidin antagonized the phosphorylation of Akt and nuclear translocation of NF-κB permitted by the BDNF in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence that delphinidin suppressed the BDNF-induced ovarian cancer migration and invasion through decreasing of Akt activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene Therapy Rescues Cone Structure and Function in the 3-Month-Old rd12 Mouse: A Model for Midcourse RPE65 Leber Congenital Amaurosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Li, Wensheng; Dai, Xufeng; Kong, Fansheng; Zheng, Qinxiang; Zhou, Xiangtian; Lü, Fan; Chang, Bo; Rohrer, Bärbel; Hauswirth, William. W.; Qu, Jia; Pang, Ji-jing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. RPE65 function is necessary in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) to generate chromophore for all opsins. Its absence results in vision loss and rapid cone degeneration. Recent Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA with RPE65 mutations) phase I clinical trials demonstrated restoration of vision on RPE65 gene transfer into RPE cells overlying cones. In the rd12 mouse, a naturally occurring model of RPE65-LCA early cone degeneration was observed; however, some peripheral M-cones remained. A prior study showed that AAV-mediated RPE65 expression can prevent early cone degeneration. The present study was conducted to test whether the remaining cones in older rd12 mice can be rescued. Methods. Subretinal treatment with the scAAV5-smCBA-hRPE65 vector was initiated at postnatal day (P)14 and P90. After 2 months, electroretinograms were recorded, and cone morphology was analyzed by using cone-specific peanut agglutinin and cone opsin–specific antibodies. Results. Cone degeneration started centrally and spread ventrally, with cells losing cone-opsin staining before that for the PNA-lectin–positive cone sheath. Gene therapy starting at P14 resulted in almost wild-type M- and S-cone function and morphology. Delaying gene-replacement rescued the remaining M-cones, and most important, more M-cone opsin–positive cells were identified than were present at the onset of gene therapy, suggesting that opsin expression could be reinitiated in cells with cone sheaths. Conclusions. The results support and extend those of the previous study that gene therapy can stop early cone degeneration, and, more important, they provide proof that delayed treatment can restore the function and morphology of the remaining cones. These results have important implications for the ongoing LCA2 clinical trials. PMID:21169527

  2. Agmatine promotes the migration of murine brain endothelial cells via multiple signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Jeon, Yong-Heui; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Won Taek; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Jong-Eun

    2013-01-17

    The combination of adhesion and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) is an integral process for evolution, organization, repair and vessel formation in living organisms. Agmatine, a polycationic amine existing in brain, has been investigated to exert neuroprotective effects. Up to date, there are no studies reporting that agmatine modulates murine brain endothelial (bEnd.3) cells migration. In the present study, we intend to investigate the role of agmatine in bEnd.3 cells migration and the molecular mechanism mediating this action. The effect of agmatine on the bEnd.3 cells migration was examined by migration assay, and the mechanism involved for this effect was investigated by western blot analysis and NO contents measurements. Agmatine treatment (50, 100 and 200 μM) significantly accelerated bEnd.3 cells migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Western blotting revealed that agmatine treatment significantly induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor 2 (Flk-1/KDR or VEGFR2), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt/protein kinase B (also known as PKB, PI3K downstream effector protein), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) nitric oxide (NO; product by eNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expressions during bEnd.3 cells migration. The expression of ICAM-1 and migration of bEnd.3 cells, induced by agmatine, were significantly attenuated by treatment of wortmannin, a specific PI3K inhibitor. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that activation of VEGF/VEGFR2 and the consequential PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO/ICAM-1 signaling pathways are serial events, through which the treatment of agmatine could lead to bEnd.3 cells migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor suppressor berberine binds VASP to inhibit cell migration in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Ke; Hu, Pengchao; Wang, Xiaolan; Kuang, Changchun; Xiang, Qingmin; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Jin; Zhu, Shan; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Jingwei

    2016-07-19

    Berberine is a plant-derived compound used in traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer. On the other hand, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) promotes actin filament elongation and cell migration. We previously showed that VASP is overexpressed in high-motility breast cancer cells. Here we investigated whether the anti-tumorigenic effects of berberine are mediated by binding VASP in basal-like breast cancer. Our results show that berberine suppresses proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 nude mouse xenografts. We also show that berberine binds to VASP, inducing changes in its secondary structure and inhibits actin polymerization. Our study reveals the mechanism underlying berberine's inhibition of cell proliferation and migration in basal-like breast cancer, highlighting the use of berberine as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent.

  4. Tumor suppressor berberine binds VASP to inhibit cell migration in basal-like breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolan; Kuang, Changchun; Xiang, Qingmin; Yang, Fang; Xiang, Jin; Zhu, Shan; Wei, Lei; Zhang, Jingwei

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a plant-derived compound used in traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in breast cancer. On the other hand, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) promotes actin filament elongation and cell migration. We previously showed that VASP is overexpressed in high-motility breast cancer cells. Here we investigated whether the anti-tumorigenic effects of berberine are mediated by binding VASP in basal-like breast cancer. Our results show that berberine suppresses proliferation and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells as well as tumor growth in MDA-MB-231 nude mouse xenografts. We also show that berberine binds to VASP, inducing changes in its secondary structure and inhibits actin polymerization. Our study reveals the mechanism underlying berberine's inhibition of cell proliferation and migration in basal-like breast cancer, highlighting the use of berberine as a potential adjuvant therapeutic agent. PMID:27322681

  5. The role of aquaporin-5 in cancer cell migration: A potential active participant.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Helene H; Login, Frédéric H; Koffman, Jennifer S; Kwon, Tae-Hwan; Nejsum, Lene N

    2016-10-01

    Emerging data identifies the water channel aquaporin-5 as a major player in multiple cancers. Over-expression of aquaporin-5 has been associated with increased metastasis and poor prognosis, suggesting that aquaporin-5 may enhance cancer cell migration. This review aims to highlight the current knowledge and hypothesis regarding downstream signaling partners of aquaporin-5 in relation to cancer cell migration. The molecular mechanisms that link aquaporin-5 to cell migration are not completely understood. Aquaporin-5 may promote cell movement by increasing water uptake into the front of the cell allowing local swelling. Aquaporin-5 may also activate extracellular-regulated kinases, increasing proliferation and potentially stimulating the migration machinery. Thus, further studies are warranted to identify the underlying mechanisms and signaling pathways. This will reveal whether aquaporin-5 and downstream effectors could be targets for developing new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple scale model for cell migration in monolayers: Elastic mismatch between cells enhances motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Bresler, Yony; Wirtz, Denis; Grant, Martin

    2015-07-01

    We propose a multiscale model for monolayer of motile cells that comprise normal and cancer cells. In the model, the two types of cells have identical properties except for their elasticity; cancer cells are softer and normal cells are stiffer. The goal is to isolate the role of elasticity mismatch on the migration potential of cancer cells in the absence of other contributions that are present in real cells. The methodology is based on a phase-field description where each cell is modeled as a highly-deformable self-propelled droplet. We simulated two types of nearly confluent monolayers. One contains a single cancer cell in a layer of normal cells and the other contains normal cells only. The simulation results demonstrate that elasticity mismatch alone is sufficient to increase the motility of the cancer cell significantly. Further, the trajectory of the cancer cell is decorated by several speed “bursts” where the cancer cell quickly relaxes from a largely deformed shape and consequently increases its translational motion. The increased motility and the amplitude and frequency of the bursts are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  7. Computational Models Reveal a Passive Mechanism for Cell Migration in the Crypt

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Sara-Jane; Näthke, Inke S.; Osborne, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration in the intestinal crypt is essential for the regular renewal of the epithelium, and the continued upward movement of cells is a key characteristic of healthy crypt dynamics. However, the driving force behind this migration is unknown. Possibilities include mitotic pressure, active movement driven by motility cues, or negative pressure arising from cell loss at the crypt collar. It is possible that a combination of factors together coordinate migration. Here, three different computational models are used to provide insight into the mechanisms that underpin cell movement in the crypt, by examining the consequence of eliminating cell division on cell movement. Computational simulations agree with existing experimental results, confirming that migration can continue in the absence of mitosis. Importantly, however, simulations allow us to infer mechanisms that are sufficient to generate cell movement, which is not possible through experimental observation alone. The results produced by the three models agree and suggest that cell loss due to apoptosis and extrusion at the crypt collar relieves cell compression below, allowing cells to expand and move upwards. This finding suggests that future experiments should focus on the role of apoptosis and cell extrusion in controlling cell migration in the crypt. PMID:24260407

  8. Correlation between substratum roughness and wettability, cell adhesion, and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Lampin, M; Warocquier-Clérout; Legris, C; Degrange, M; Sigot-Luizard, M F

    1997-07-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading of chick embryo vascular and corneal explants grown on rough and smooth poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) were analyzed to test the cell response specificity to substratum surface properties. Different degrees of roughness were obtained by sand-blasting PMMA with alumina grains. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic components of the surface free energy (SFE) were calculated according to Good-van Oss's model. Contact angles were determined using a computerized angle meter. The apolar component of the SFE gamma s(LW), increased with a slight roughness whereas the basic component, gamma s-, decreased. The acido-basic properties disappeared as roughness increased. Incubation of PMMA in culture medium, performed to test the influence if the biological environment, allowed surface adsorption of medium proteins which annihilated roughness effect and restored hydrophilic properties. An organotypic culture assay was carried out in an attempt to relate the biocompatibility to substratum surface state. Cell migration was calculated from the area of cell layer. Cellular adhesion was determined by measuring the kinetic of release of enzymatically dissociated cells. A slight roughness raised the migration are to an upper extent no matter which cell type. Enhancement of the cell adhesion potential was related to the degree of roughness and the hydrophobicity.

  9. In-vivo cell tracking to quantify endothelial cell migration during zebrafish angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Prahlad G.; Rochon, Elizabeth R.; Roman, Beth L.

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of endothelial cell migration as individual cells or collectively while remaining an integral component of a functional blood vessel has not been well characterized. In this study, our overarching goal is to define an image processing workflow to facilitate quantification of how endothelial cells within the first aortic arch and are proximal to the zebrafish heart behave in response to the onset of flow (i.e. onset of heart beating). Endothelial cell imaging was conducted at this developmental time-point i.e. ~24-28 hours post fertilization (hpf) when flow first begins, using 3D+time two-photon confocal microscopy of a live, wild-type, transgenic, zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in endothelial cell nuclei. An image processing pipeline comprised of image signal enhancement, median filtering for speckle noise reduction, automated identification of the nuclei positions, extraction of the relative movement of nuclei between consecutive time instances, and finally tracking of nuclei, was designed for achieving the tracking of endothelial cell nuclei and the identification of their movement towards or away from the heart. Pilot results lead to a hypothesis that upon the onset of heart beat and blood flow, endothelial cells migrate collectively towards the heart (by 21.51+/-10.35 μm) in opposition to blood flow (i.e. subtending 142.170+/-21.170 with the flow direction).

  10. Optimising parameters for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells to study cell adhesion and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell migration is a fundamental biological process and has an important role in the developing brain by regulating a highly specific pattern of connections between nerve cells. Cell migration is required for axonal guidance and neurite outgrowth and involves a series of highly co-ordinated and overlapping signalling pathways. The non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) has an essential role in development and is the most highly expressed kinase in the developing CNS. FAK activity is essential for neuronal cell adhesion and migration. Results The objective of this study was to optimise a protocol for the differentiation of the neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y. We determined the optimal extracellular matrix proteins and growth factor combinations required for the optimal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells into neuronal-like cells and determined those conditions that induce the expression of FAK. It was confirmed that the cells were morphologically and biochemically differentiated when compared to undifferentiated cells. This is in direct contrast to commonly used differentiation methods that induce morphological differentiation but not biochemical differentiation. Conclusions We conclude that we have optimised a protocol for the differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells that results in a cell population that is both morphologically and biochemically distinct from undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells and has a distinct adhesion and spreading pattern and display extensive neurite outgrowth. This protocol will provide a neuronal model system for studying FAK activity during cell adhesion and migration events. PMID:24025096

  11. Aspirin Inhibits Platelet-Derived Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induced Endothelial Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Polzin, Amin; Knoop, Betül; Böhm, Andreas; Dannenberg, Lisa; Zurek, Mark; Zeus, Tobias; Kelm, Malte; Levkau, Bodo; Rauch, Bernhard H

    2018-01-01

    Aspirin plays a crucial role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We previously described that aspirin has effects beyond inhibition of platelet aggregation, as it inhibited thrombin-mediated release of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) from human platelets. S1P is a bioactive lipid with important functions on inflammation and apoptosis. In endothelial cells (EC), S1P is a key regulator of cell migration. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of aspirin on platelet-induced EC migration. Human umbilical EC migration was measured by Boyden chamber assay. EC migration was induced by platelet supernatants of thrombin receptor-activating peptide-1 (AP1) stimulated platelets. To investigate the S1P receptor subtype that promotes EC migration, specific inhibitors of S1P receptor subtypes were applied. S1P induced EC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. EC migration induced by AP1-stimulated platelet supernatants was reduced by aspirin. S1P1 receptor inhibition almost completely abolished EC migration induced by activated platelets. The inhibition of S1P2 or S1P3 receptor had no effect. Aspirin inhibits EC migration induced by activated platelets that is in part due to S1P and mediated by the endothelial S1P1 receptor. The clinical significance of this novel mechanism of aspirin action has to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Morphoregulatory functions of the RNA-binding motif protein 3 in cell spreading, polarity and migration.

    PubMed

    Pilotte, J; Kiosses, W; Chan, S W; Makarenkova, H P; Dupont-Versteegden, E; Vanderklish, P W

    2018-05-09

    RNA-binding proteins are emerging as key regulators of transitions in cell morphology. The RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) is a cold-inducible RNA-binding protein with broadly relevant roles in cellular protection, and putative functions in cancer and development. Several findings suggest that RBM3 has morphoregulatory functions germane to its roles in these contexts. For example, RBM3 helps maintain the morphological integrity of cell protrusions during cell stress and disease. Moreover, it is highly expressed in migrating neurons of the developing brain and in cancer invadopodia, suggesting roles in migration. We here show that RBM3 regulates cell polarity, spreading and migration. RBM3 was present in spreading initiation centers, filopodia and blebs that formed during cell spreading in cell lines and primary myoblasts. Reducing RBM3 triggered exaggerated spreading, increased RhoA expression, and a loss of polarity that was rescued by Rho kinase inhibition and overexpression of CRMP2. High RBM3 expression enhanced the motility of cells migrating by a mesenchymal mode involving extension of long protrusions, whereas RBM3 knockdown slowed migration, greatly reducing the ability of cells to extend protrusions and impairing multiple processes that require directional migration. These data establish novel functions of RBM3 of potential significance to tissue repair, metastasis and development.

  13. Microgrooved Polymer Substrates Promote Collective Cell Migration To Accelerate Fracture Healing in an in Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Dong, Hua; Li, Yuli; Zhu, Ye; Zeng, Lei; Gao, Huichang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Xiaofeng; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-10-21

    Surface topography can affect cell adhesion, morphology, polarity, cytoskeleton organization, and osteogenesis. However, little is known about the effect of topography on the fracture healing in repairing nonunion and large bone defects. Microgrooved topography on the surface of bone implants may promote cell migration into the fracture gap to accelerate fracture healing. To prove this hypothesis, we used an in vitro fracture (wound) healing assay on the microgrooved polycaprolactone substrates to study the effect of microgroove widths and depths on the osteoblast-like cell (MG-63) migration and the subsequent healing. We found that the microgrooved substrates promoted MG-63 cells to migrate collectively into the wound gap, which serves as a fracture model, along the grooves and ridges as compared with the flat substrates. Moreover, the groove widths did not show obvious influence on the wound healing whereas the smaller groove depths tended to favor the collective cell migration and thus subsequent healing. The microgrooved substrates accelerated the wound healing by facilitating the collective cell migration into the wound gaps but not by promoting the cell proliferation. Furthermore, microgrooves were also found to promote the migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to heal the fracture model. Though osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was not improved on the microgrooved substrate, collagen I and minerals deposited by hMSCs were organized in a way similar to those in the extracellular matrix of natural bone. These findings suggest the necessity in using microgrooved implants in enhancing fracture healing in bone repair.

  14. Wash functions downstream of Rho1 GTPase in a subset of Drosophila immune cell developmental migrations

    PubMed Central

    Verboon, Jeffrey M.; Rahe, Travis K.; Rodriguez-Mesa, Evelyn; Parkhurst, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila immune cells, the hemocytes, undergo four stereotypical developmental migrations to populate the embryo, where they provide immune reconnoitering, as well as a number of non–immune-related functions necessary for proper embryogenesis. Here, we describe a role for Rho1 in one of these developmental migrations in which posteriorly located hemocytes migrate toward the head. This migration requires the interaction of Rho1 with its downstream effector Wash, a Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome family protein. Both Wash knockdown and a Rho1 transgene harboring a mutation that prevents Wash binding exhibit the same developmental migratory defect as Rho1 knockdown. Wash activates the Arp2/3 complex, whose activity is needed for this migration, whereas members of the WASH regulatory complex (SWIP, Strumpellin, and CCDC53) are not. Our results suggest a WASH complex–independent signaling pathway to regulate the cytoskeleton during a subset of hemocyte developmental migrations. PMID:25739458

  15. Exposure to 60% oxygen promotes migration and upregulates angiogenesis factor secretion in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Peter D; Stuttgen, Vivian; O'Carroll, Emma; Ash, Simon A; Buggy, Donal J; Gallagher, Helen C

    2017-01-01

    Peri-operative factors, including anaesthetic drugs and techniques, may affect cancer cell biology and clinical recurrence. In breast cancer cells, we demonstrated that sevoflurane promotes migration and angiogenesis in high fractional oxygen but not in air. Follow-up analysis of the peri-operative oxygen fraction trial found an association between high inspired oxygen during cancer surgery and reduced tumor-free survival. Here we evaluated effects of acute, high oxygen exposure on breast cancer cell viability, migration and secretion of angiogenesis factors in vitro . MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were exposed to 21%, 30%, 60%, or 80% v/v O 2 for 3 hours. Cell viability at 24 hours was determined by MTT and migration at 24 hours with the Oris™ Cell Migration Assay. Secretion of angiogenesis factors at 24 hours was measured via membrane-based immunoarray. Exposure to 30%, 60% or 80% oxygen did not affect cell viability. Migration of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells was increased by 60% oxygen ( P = 0.012 and P = 0.007, respectively) while 30% oxygen increased migration in MCF-7 cells ( P = 0.011). These effects were reversed by dimethyloxaloylglycine. In MDA-MB-231 cells high fractional oxygen increased secretion of angiogenesis factors monocyte chemotactic protein 1, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and vascular endothelial growth factor. In MCF-7 cells, interleukin-8, angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion was significantly increased by high fractional oxygen. High oxygen exposure stimulates migration and secretion of angiogenesis factors in breast cancer cells in vitro .

  16. Interstitial flow influences direction of tumor cell migration through competing mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, William J.; Charest, Joseph L.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-01-01

    Interstitial flow is the convective transport of fluid through tissue extracellular matrix. This creeping fluid flow has been shown to affect the morphology and migration of cells such as fibroblasts, cancer cells, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. A microfluidic cell culture system was designed to apply stable pressure gradients and fluid flow and allow direct visualization of transient responses of cells seeded in a 3D collagen type I scaffold. We used this system to examine the effects of interstitial flow on cancer cell morphology and migration and to extend previous studies showing that interstitial flow increases the metastatic potential of MDA-MB-435S melanoma cells [Shields J, et al. (2007) Cancer Cell 11:526–538]. Using a breast carcinoma line (MDA-MB-231) we also observed cell migration along streamlines in the presence of flow; however, we further demonstrated that the strength of the flow as well as the cell density determined directional bias of migration along the streamline. In particular, we found that cells either at high seeding density or with the CCR-7 receptor inhibited migration against, rather than with the flow. We provide further evidence that CCR7-dependent autologous chemotaxis is the mechanism that leads to migration with the flow, but also demonstrate a competing CCR7-independent mechanism that causes migration against the flow. Data from experiments investigating the effects of cell concentration, interstitial flow rate, receptor activity, and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation support our hypothesis that the competing stimulus is integrin mediated. This mechanism may play an important role in development of metastatic disease. PMID:21690404

  17. Interactions between CXCR4 and CXCL12 promote cell migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Im, K S; Graef, A J; Breen, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; Modiano, J F; Kim, J-H

    2017-06-01

    The CXCR4/CXCL12 axis plays an important role in cell locomotion and metastasis in many cancers. In this study, we hypothesized that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis promotes migration and invasion of canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cells. Transcriptomic analysis across 12 HSA cell lines and 58 HSA whole tumour tissues identified heterogeneous expression of CXCR4 and CXCL12, which was associated with cell movement. In vitro, CXCL12 promoted calcium mobilization, cell migration and invasion that were directly proportional to surface expression of CXCR4; furthermore, these responses proved sensitive to the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, in HSA cell lines. These results indicate that CXCL12 potentiates migration and invasion of canine HSA cells through CXCR4 signalling. The direct relationship between these responses in HSA cells suggests that the CXCR4/CXCL12 axis contributes to HSA progression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Ring-Shaped Microlanes and Chemical Barriers as a Platform for Probing Single-Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christoph; Segerer, Felix J; Wagner, Ernst; Roidl, Andreas; Rädler, Joachim O

    2016-05-31

    Quantification and discrimination of pharmaceutical and disease-related effects on cell migration requires detailed characterization of single-cell motility. In this context, micropatterned substrates that constrain cells within defined geometries facilitate quantitative readout of locomotion. Here, we study quasi-one-dimensional cell migration in ring-shaped microlanes. We observe bimodal behavior in form of alternating states of directional migration (run state) and reorientation (rest state). Both states show exponential lifetime distributions with characteristic persistence times, which, together with the cell velocity in the run state, provide a set of parameters that succinctly describe cell motion. By introducing PEGylated barriers of different widths into the lane, we extend this description by quantifying the effects of abrupt changes in substrate chemistry on migrating cells. The transit probability decreases exponentially as a function of barrier width, thus specifying a characteristic penetration depth of the leading lamellipodia. Applying this fingerprint-like characterization of cell motion, we compare different cell lines, and demonstrate that the cancer drug candidate salinomycin affects transit probability and resting time, but not run time or run velocity. Hence, the presented assay allows to assess multiple migration-related parameters, permits detailed characterization of cell motility, and has potential applications in cell biology and advanced drug screening.

  20. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-11-15

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cells and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Downregulation of NEDD9 by apigenin suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jin; Van Wie, Peter G.; Fai, Leonard Yenwong; Kim, Donghern; Wang, Lei; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Luo, Jia; Zhang, Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid which possesses multiple anti-cancer properties such as anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and anti-metastasis in many types of cancers including colorectal cancer. Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is a multi-domain scaffolding protein of the Cas family which has been shown to correlate with cancer metastasis and progression. The present study investigates the role of NEDD9 in apigenin-inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of colorectal adenocarcinoma DLD1 and SW480 cells. The results show that knockdown of NEDD9 inhibited cell migration, invasion, and metastasis and that overexpression of NEDD9 promoted cell migration and invasion of DLD1 cells and SW4890 cells. Apigenin treatment attenuated NEDD9 expression at protein level, resulting in reduced phosphorylations of FAK, Src, and Akt, leading to inhibition on cell migration, invasion, and metastasis of both DLD1 and SW480 cells. The present study has demonstrated that apigenin inhibits cell migration, invasion, and metastasis through NEDD9/Src/Akt cascade in colorectal cancer cells. NEDD9 may function as a biomarker for evaluation of cancer aggressiveness and for selection of therapeutic drugs against cancer progression. PMID:27664007

  2. Inhibitory effect of blue light emitting diode on migration and invasion of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Phil-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Eun-Mi; Hwang, Hyosook; Ryu, Hyang Hwa; Lim, SeokTae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects and molecular mechanism of blue light emitting diode (LED) in tumor cells. A migration and invasion assay for the metastatic behavior of mouse colon cancer CT-26 and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells was performed. Cancer cell migration-related proteins were identified by obtaining a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in total cellular protein profile of blue LED-irradiated cancer cells, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis of proteins. Protein levels were examined by immunoblotting. Irradiation with blue LED inhibited CT-26 and HT-1080 cell migration and invasion. The anti-metastatic effects of blue LED irradiation were associated with inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. P38 MAPK phosphorylation was increased in blue LED-irradiated CT-26 and HT-1080 cells, but was inhibited after pretreatment with SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation by SB203580 treatment increased number of migratory cancer cells in CT-26 and HT-1080 cells, indicating that blue LED irradiation inhibited cancer cell migration via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Additionally blue LED irradiation of mice injected with CT-26 cells expressing luciferase decreased early stage lung metastasis compared to untreated control mice. These results indicate that blue LED irradiation inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Lamellipodia and Membrane Blebs Drive Efficient Electrotactic Migration of Rat Walker Carcinosarcoma Cells WC 256.

    PubMed

    Sroka, Jolanta; Krecioch, Izabela; Zimolag, Eliza; Lasota, Slawomir; Rak, Monika; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Borowicz, Pawel; Gajek, Marta; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous electric field (EF) may provide an important signal for directional cell migration during wound healing, embryonic development and cancer metastasis but the mechanism of cell electrotaxis is poorly understood. Additionally, there is no research addressing the question on the difference in electrotactic motility of cells representing various strategies of cell movement-specifically blebbing vs. lamellipodial migration. In the current study we constructed a unique experimental model which allowed for the investigation of electrotactic movement of cells of the same origin but representing different modes of cell migration: weakly adherent, spontaneously blebbing (BC) and lamellipodia forming (LC) WC256 cells. We report that both BC and LC sublines show robust cathodal migration in a physiological EF (1-3 V/cm). The directionality of cell movement was completely reversible upon reversing the field polarity. However, the full reversal of cell direction after the change of EF polarity was much faster in the case of BC (10 minutes) than LC cells (30 minutes). We also investigated the distinct requirements for Rac, Cdc42 and Rho pathways and intracellular Ca2+ in electrotaxis of WC256 sublines forming different types of cell protrusions. It was found that Rac1 is required for directional movement of LC to a much greater extent than for BC, but Cdc42 and RhoA are more crucial for BC than for LC cells. The inhibition of ROCK did not affect electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. The results also showed that intracellular Ca2+ is essential only for the electrotactic reaction of BC cells. Moreover, inhibition of MLCK and myosin II did not affect the electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that both lamellipodia and membrane blebs can efficiently drive electrotactic migration of WC 256 carcinosarcoma cells, however directional migration is mediated by different signalling pathways.

  4. Lamellipodia and Membrane Blebs Drive Efficient Electrotactic Migration of Rat Walker Carcinosarcoma Cells WC 256

    PubMed Central

    Sroka, Jolanta; Krecioch, Izabela; Zimolag, Eliza; Lasota, Slawomir; Rak, Monika; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Borowicz, Pawel; Gajek, Marta; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous electric field (EF) may provide an important signal for directional cell migration during wound healing, embryonic development and cancer metastasis but the mechanism of cell electrotaxis is poorly understood. Additionally, there is no research addressing the question on the difference in electrotactic motility of cells representing various strategies of cell movement—specifically blebbing vs. lamellipodial migration. In the current study we constructed a unique experimental model which allowed for the investigation of electrotactic movement of cells of the same origin but representing different modes of cell migration: weakly adherent, spontaneously blebbing (BC) and lamellipodia forming (LC) WC256 cells. We report that both BC and LC sublines show robust cathodal migration in a physiological EF (1–3 V/cm). The directionality of cell movement was completely reversible upon reversing the field polarity. However, the full reversal of cell direction after the change of EF polarity was much faster in the case of BC (10 minutes) than LC cells (30 minutes). We also investigated the distinct requirements for Rac, Cdc42 and Rho pathways and intracellular Ca2+ in electrotaxis of WC256 sublines forming different types of cell protrusions. It was found that Rac1 is required for directional movement of LC to a much greater extent than for BC, but Cdc42 and RhoA are more crucial for BC than for LC cells. The inhibition of ROCK did not affect electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. The results also showed that intracellular Ca2+ is essential only for the electrotactic reaction of BC cells. Moreover, inhibition of MLCK and myosin II did not affect the electrotaxis of LC in contrast to BC cells. In conclusion, our results revealed that both lamellipodia and membrane blebs can efficiently drive electrotactic migration of WC 256 carcinosarcoma cells, however directional migration is mediated by different signalling pathways. PMID:26863616

  5. Migration of guinea pig airway epithelial cells in response to bombesin analogues.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; McKinnis, V S; White, S R

    1997-03-01

    Bombesin-like peptides within neuroepithelial cells elicit proliferation of normal and malignant airway epithelial cells. It is not clear that these peptides also elicit epithelial cell migration, a necessary component of airway repair after injury. We studied the effects of the bombesin analogues, gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB), on guinea pig tracheal epithelial cell (GPTEC) migration. Primary GPTEC were allowed to migrate through 8-microm-pore gelatin-coated filters for 6 h in a chemotaxis chamber, after which the number of migrated cells per 10 high power fields (10 hpf) were counted. Both neuropeptides elicited migration of GPTEC: 24.8 +/- 4.5 cells for 10(-11) M NMB (P < 0.001 versus control, n = 4) and 16.8 +/- 1.2 cells for 10(-12) M GRP (P < 0.001 versus control, n = 8). Migration was attenuated substantially by a bombesin receptor antagonist. To investigate further the relationship of migration through a filter to the repair of a damaged epithelium, we studied the repair of epithelial cells by video microscopy. A 0.3- to 0.5-microm2 wound was created in a confluent monolayer of GPTEC, and wound closure was followed over 24 h. There was no significant acceleration in the rate of repair of GRP- or NMB-stimulated monolayers compared to control. These data demonstrate that GRP and NMB elicit migration of airway epithelial cells but may not play a significant role in the early repair of the airway epithelium in culture.

  6. Mast cell migration to Th2 stimulated airway smooth muscle from asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, A; Kaur, D; Page, S; Woodman, L; Armour, C L; Baraket, M; Bradding, P; Hughes, J M; Brightling, C E

    2006-01-01

    Background Mast cell microlocalisation within the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundle is an important determinant of the asthmatic phenotype. We hypothesised that mast cells migrate towards ASM in response to ASM derived chemokines. Methods Primary ASM cultures from subjects with and without asthma were stimulated with interleukin (IL)‐1β, IL‐4, and IL‐13 alone and in combination. Mast cell chemotaxis towards these ASM supernatants was investigated, and the chemotaxins mediating migration by using specific blocking antibodies for stem cell factor (SCF) and the chemokine receptors CCR3, CXCR1, 3 and 4 as well as the Gi inhibitor pertussis toxin and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein were defined. The concentrations of CCL11, CXCL8, CXCL10, TGF‐β, and SCF in the supernatants were measured and the effect of non‐asthmatic ASM supernatants on the mast cell chemotactic activity of asthmatic ASM was examined. Results Human lung mast cells and HMC‐1 cells migrated towards Th2 stimulated ASM from asthmatics but not non‐asthmatics. Mast cell migration was mediated through the combined activation of CCR3 and CXCR1. CCL11 and CXCL8 expression by ASM increased markedly after stimulation, but was similar in those with and without asthma. ASM supernatants from non‐asthmatics inhibited mast cell migration towards the asthmatic ASM supernatant. Conclusion Th2 stimulated ASM from asthmatics is chemotactic for mast cells. Non‐asthmatic ASM releases a mediator or mediators that inhibit mast cell migration towards stimulated asthmatic ASM. Specifically targeting mast cell migration into the ASM bundle may provide a novel treatment for asthma. PMID:16601090

  7. The role of Exo70 in vascular smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqing; Wang, Yu; Yao, Xiaomeng; Xu, Zijian; An, Liguo; Yin, Miao

    2016-01-01

    As a key subunit of the exocyst complex, Exo70 has highly conserved sequence and is widely found in yeast, mammals, and plants. In yeast, Exo70 mediates the process of exocytosis and promotes anchoring and integration of vesicles with the plasma membrane. In mammalian cells, Exo70 is involved in maintaining cell morphology, cell migration, cell connection, mRNA splicing, and other physiological processes, as well as participating in exocytosis. However, Exo70's function in mammalian cells has yet to be fully recognized. In this paper, the expression of Exo70 and its role in cell migration were studied in a rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A7r5. Immunofluorescent analysis the expression of Exo70, α-actin, and tubulin in A7r5 cells showed a co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin, we treated the cells with cytochalasin B to depolymerize α-actin, in order to further confirm the co-localization of Exo70 and α-actin. We analyzed Exo70 co-localization with actin at the edge of migrating cells by wound-healing assay to establish whether Exo70 might play a role in cell migration. Next, we analyzed the migration and invasion ability of A7r5 cells before and after RNAi silencing through the wound healing assay and transwell assay. The mechanism of interaction between Exo70 and cytoskeleton can be clarified by the immunoprecipitation techniques and wound-healing assay. The results showed that Exo70 and α-actin were co-localized at the leading edge of migrating cells. The ability of A7r5 to undergo cell migration was decreased when Exo70 expression was silenced by RNAi. Reducing Exo70 expression in RNAi treated A7r5 cells significantly lowered the invasion and migration ability of these cells compared to the normal cells. These results indicate that Exo70 participates in the process of A7r5 cell migration. This research is importance for the study on the pathological process of vascular intimal hyperplasia, since it provides a new research direction for the treatment of

  8. Past matrix stiffness primes epithelial cells and regulates their future collective migration through a mechanical memory.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi, Samila; Walter, Christopher; Loza, Andrew J; Schimizzi, Gregory V; Longmore, Gregory D; Pathak, Amit

    2017-11-01

    During morphogenesis and cancer metastasis, grouped cells migrate through tissues of dissimilar stiffness. Although the influence of matrix stiffness on cellular mechanosensitivity and motility are well-recognized, it remains unknown whether these matrix-dependent cellular features persist after cells move to a new microenvironment. Here, we interrogate whether priming of epithelial cells by a given matrix stiffness influences their future collective migration on a different matrix - a property we refer to as the 'mechanical memory' of migratory cells. To prime cells on a defined matrix and track their collective migration onto an adjoining secondary matrix of dissimilar stiffness, we develop a modular polyacrylamide substrate through step-by-step polymerization of different PA compositions. We report that epithelial cells primed on a stiff matrix migrate faster, display higher actomyosin expression, form larger focal adhesions, and retain nuclear YAP even after arriving onto a soft secondary matrix, as compared to their control behavior on a homogeneously soft matrix. Priming on a soft ECM causes a reverse effect. The depletion of YAP dramatically reduces this memory-dependent migration. Our results present a previously unidentified regulation of mechanosensitive collective cell migration by past matrix stiffness, in which mechanical memory depends on YAP activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical Marking Pen Dye Inhibits Saphenous Vein Cell Proliferation and Migration in Saphenous Vein Graft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Kenagy, Richard D; Gao, Lu; Wight, Thomas N; Azuma, Nobuyoshi; Sobel, Michael; Clowes, Alexander W

    2014-01-01

    Objective Markers containing dyes such as crystal violet (CAS 548-62-9) are routinely used on the adventitia of vein bypass grafts to avoid twisting during placement. Since little is known about how these dyes affect vein graft healing and function, we determined the effect of crystal violet on cell migration and proliferation, which are responses to injury after grafting. Methods Fresh human saphenous veins were obtained as residual specimens from leg bypass surgeries. Portions of the vein that had been surgically marked with crystal violet were analyzed separately from those that had no dye marking. In the laboratory, they were split into easily dissected inner and outer layers after removal of endothelium. This f cleavage plane was within the circular muscle layer of the media. Cell migration from explants was measured daily as either 1) % migration positive explants, which exclusively measures migration, or 2) the number of cells on the plastic surrounding each explant, which measures migration plus proliferation. Cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ki67 and TUNEL staining, respectively) were determined in dye-marked and unmarked areas of cultured vein rings. The dose-dependent effects of crystal violet were measured for cell migration from explants as well as proliferation, migration, and death of cultured outer layer cells. Dye was extracted from explants with ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. Results There was significantly less cell migration from visibly blue, compared to unstained, outer layer explants by both methods. There was no significant difference in migration from inner layer explants adjacent to blue-stained or unstained sections of vein, because dye did not penetrate to the inner layer. Ki67 staining of vein in organ culture, which is a measure of proliferation, progressively increased up to 6 days in non-blue outer layer and was abolished in the blue outer layer. Evidence of apoptosis (TUNEL staining) was present throughout the wall

  10. Computational Modeling of Single-Cell Migration: The Leading Role of Extracellular Matrix Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Schlüter, Daniela K.; Ramis-Conde, Ignacio; Chaplain, Mark A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Cell migration is vitally important in a wide variety of biological contexts ranging from embryonic development and wound healing to malignant diseases such as cancer. It is a very complex process that is controlled by intracellular signaling pathways as well as the cell’s microenvironment. Due to its importance and complexity, it has been studied for many years in the biomedical sciences, and in the last 30 years it also received an increasing amount of interest from theoretical scientists and mathematical modelers. Here we propose a force-based, individual-based modeling framework that links single-cell migration with matrix fibers and cell-matrix interactions through contact guidance and matrix remodelling. With this approach, we can highlight the effect of the cell’s environment on its migration. We investigate the influence of matrix stiffness, matrix architecture, and cell speed on migration using quantitative measures that allow us to compare the results to experiments. PMID:22995486

  11. Interaction between p68 RNA helicase and Ca2+-calmodulin promotes cell migration and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haizhen; Gao, Xueliang; Yang, Jenny J.; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary p68 RNA helicase is a prototypical RNA helicase. Here we present evidence to show that, by interacting with Ca-calmodulin (CaM), p68 plays a role in cancer metastasis and cell migration. A peptide fragment that spans the IQ motif of p68 strongly inhibits cancer metastasis in two different animal models. The peptide interrupts p68 and CaM interaction and inhibits cell migration. Our results demonstrate that the p68-CaM interaction is essential for the formation of lamellipodia and filopodia in migrating cells. p68 interacts with microtubules in the presence of CaM. Our experiments show that interaction with microtubules stimulates p68 ATPase activity. Further, microtubule gliding assays demonstrate that p68, in the presence of CaM, can function as a microtubule motor. This motor activity may allow p68 to transport CaM to the leading edge of migrating cells. PMID:23322042

  12. XB130 translocation to microfilamentous structures mediates NNK-induced migration of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qifei; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Moodley, Serisha; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-07-20

    Cigarette smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is the most potent carcinogen among cigarette smoking components, and is known to enhance migration of cancer cells. However, the effect of NNK on normal human bronchial epithelial cells is not well studied. XB130 is a member of actin filament associated protein family and is involved in cell morphology changes, cytoskeletal rearrangement and outgrowth formation, as well as cell migration. We hypothesized that XB130 mediates NNK-induced migration of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that, after NNK stimulation, XB130 was translocated to the cell periphery and enriched in cell motility-associated structures, such as lamellipodia, in normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells. Moreover, overexpression of XB130 significantly enhanced NNK-induced migration, which requires both the N- and C-termini of XB130. Overexpression of XB130 enhanced NNK-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and promoted matrix metalloproteinase-14 translocation to cell motility-associated cellular structures after NNK stimulation. XB130-mediated NNK-induced cell migration may contribute to airway epithelial repair; however, it may also be involved in cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  13. Orai1 and STIM1 are critical for cell migration and proliferation of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Lkhagvadorj, Sayamaa; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2014-05-23

    Highlights: • Orai1 channel is highly expressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tissues. • Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in ccRCC cells. • Orai1 and STIM1 promote cell migration and proliferation of ccRCC cells. - Abstract: The intracellular Ca{sup 2+} regulation has been implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Notably, store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) is a major Ca{sup 2+} entry mechanism in non-excitable cells, being involved in cell proliferation and migration in several types of cancer. However, the expression and biological role of SOCE have not been investigated in clear cell renalmore » cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here, we demonstrate that Orai1 and STIM1, not Orai3, are crucial components of SOCE in the progression of ccRCC. The expression levels of Orai1 in tumor tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent normal parenchymal tissues. In addition, native SOCE was blunted by inhibiting SOCE or by silencing Orai1 and STIM1. Pharmacological blockade or knockdown of Orai1 or STIM1 also significantly inhibited RCC cell migration and proliferative capability. Taken together, Orai1 is highly expressed in ccRCC tissues illuminating that Orai1-mediated SOCE may play an important role in ccRCC development. Indeed, Orai1 and STIM1 constitute a native SOCE pathway in ccRCC by promoting cell proliferation and migration.« less

  14. Sensing of substratum rigidity and directional migration by fast-crawling cells.

    PubMed

    Okimura, Chika; Sakumura, Yuichi; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2018-05-01

    Living cells sense the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and respond accordingly. Crawling cells detect the rigidity of their substratum and migrate in certain directions. They can be classified into two categories: slow-moving and fast-moving cell types. Slow-moving cell types, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal stem cells, etc., move toward rigid areas on the substratum in response to a rigidity gradient. However, there is not much information on rigidity sensing in fast-moving cell types whose size is ∼10 μm and migration velocity is ∼10 μm/min. In this study, we used both isotropic substrata with different rigidities and an anisotropic substratum that is rigid on the x axis but soft on the y axis to demonstrate rigidity sensing by fast-moving Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells. Dictyostelium cells exerted larger traction forces on a more rigid isotropic substratum. Dictyostelium cells and HL-60 cells migrated in the "soft" direction on the anisotropic substratum, although myosin II-null Dictyostelium cells migrated in random directions, indicating that rigidity sensing of fast-moving cell types differs from that of slow types and is induced by a myosin II-related process.

  15. Sensing of substratum rigidity and directional migration by fast-crawling cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okimura, Chika; Sakumura, Yuichi; Shimabukuro, Katsuya; Iwadate, Yoshiaki

    2018-05-01

    Living cells sense the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and respond accordingly. Crawling cells detect the rigidity of their substratum and migrate in certain directions. They can be classified into two categories: slow-moving and fast-moving cell types. Slow-moving cell types, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal stem cells, etc., move toward rigid areas on the substratum in response to a rigidity gradient. However, there is not much information on rigidity sensing in fast-moving cell types whose size is ˜10 μ m and migration velocity is ˜10 μ m /min . In this study, we used both isotropic substrata with different rigidities and an anisotropic substratum that is rigid on the x axis but soft on the y axis to demonstrate rigidity sensing by fast-moving Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells. Dictyostelium cells exerted larger traction forces on a more rigid isotropic substratum. Dictyostelium cells and HL-60 cells migrated in the "soft" direction on the anisotropic substratum, although myosin II-null Dictyostelium cells migrated in random directions, indicating that rigidity sensing of fast-moving cell types differs from that of slow types and is induced by a myosin II-related process.

  16. Chicken HOXA3 Gene: Its Expression Pattern and Role in Branchial Nerve Precursor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Watari-Goshima, Natsuko; Chisaka, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    In vertebrates, the proximal and distal sensory ganglia of the branchial nerves are derived from neural crest cells (NCCs) and placodes, respectively. We previously reported that in Hoxa3 knockout mouse embryos, NCCs and placode-derived cells of the glossopharyngeal nerve were defective in their migration. In this report, to determine the cell-type origin for this Hoxa3 knockout phenotype, we blocked the expression of the gene with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) specifically in either NCCs/neural tube or placodal cells of chicken embryos. Our results showed that HOXA3 function was required for the migration of the epibranchial placode-derived cells and that HOXA3 regulated this cell migration in both NCCs/neural tube and placodal cells. We also report that the expression pattern of chicken HOXA3 was slightly different from that of mouse Hoxa3. PMID:21278919

  17. ATM regulation of IL-8 links oxidative stress to cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ta; Ebelt, Nancy D; Stracker, Travis H; Xhemalce, Blerta; Van Den Berg, Carla L; Miller, Kyle M

    2015-06-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase regulates the DNA damage response (DDR) and is associated with cancer suppression. Here we report a cancer-promoting role for ATM. ATM depletion in metastatic cancer cells reduced cell migration and invasion. Transcription analyses identified a gene network, including the chemokine IL-8, regulated by ATM. IL-8 expression required ATM and was regulated by oxidative stress. IL-8 was validated as an ATM target by its ability to rescue cell migration and invasion defects in ATM-depleted cells. Finally, ATM-depletion in human breast cancer cells reduced lung tumors in a mouse xenograft model and clinical data validated IL-8 in lung metastasis. These findings provide insights into how ATM activation by oxidative stress regulates IL-8 to sustain cell migration and invasion in cancer cells to promote metastatic potential. Thus, in addition to well-established roles in tumor suppression, these findings identify a role for ATM in tumor progression.

  18. Doxycycline inhibits leukemic cell migration via inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUNHUAI; XIANG, RU; ZHANG, XIANGZHONG; CHEN, YUNXIAN

    2015-01-01

    Doxycycline, a tetracycline-based antibiotic, has been reported to attenuate melanoma cell migration through inhibiting the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. However, it remains to be elucidated whether doxycycline exerts this effect on leukemia cell migration. The present study aimed to examine the role of doxycycline in leukemia cell migration. The invasion capacities of the human leukemia cell lines KG1a (acute myelogenous leukemia) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia) were evaluated using Matrigel® matrix-coated Transwell® chamber assays; leukemic cell lines treated with doxycycline (1 µg/ml) or anti-β1-integrin antibodies were added to the upper chamber, while untreated cells were included as controls. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed in order to further understand the influence of doxycycline treatment on the expression of FAK and gelatinases in the KG1a and K562 leukemic cell lines. In addition, FAK protein expression and phosphorylation were determined using western blot analysis in order to investigate the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibited leukemic cell migration. The results revealed that doxycycline treatment significantly attenuated the migration of KG1a and K562 cells, which was demonstrated to be associated with inhibition of the expression and phosphorylation of FAK. In addition, doxycycline treatment inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, incubation with blocking anti-β1-integrin antibodies had an analogous inhibitory effect on leukemic cell migration to that of doxycycline. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that doxycycline attenuated leukemic cell migration through inhibiting the FAK signaling pathway. Therefore, doxycycline may have potential for use as a novel strategy for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:26004127

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Complex Glioma Cell Migration on Electrospun Polycaprolactone Using Time-Lapse Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jed; Nowicki, M. Oskar; Lee, Carol H.; Chiocca, E. Antonio; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Lawler, Sean E.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common tumors originating within the central nervous system and account for over 15,000 deaths annually in the United States. The median survival for glioblastoma, the most common and aggressive of these tumors, is only 14 months. Therapeutic strategies targeting glioma cells migrating away from the tumor core are currently hampered by the difficulty of reproducing migration in the neural parenchyma in vitro. We utilized a tissue engineering approach to develop a physiologically relevant model of glioma cell migration. This revealed that glioma cells display dramatic differences in migration when challenged by random versus aligned electrospun poly-ɛ-caprolactone nanofibers. Cells on aligned fibers migrated at an effective velocity of 4.2 ± 0.39 μm/h compared to 0.8 ± 0.08 μm/h on random fibers, closely matching in vivo models and prior observations of glioma spread in white versus gray matter. Cells on random fibers exhibited extension along multiple fiber axes that prevented net motion; aligned fibers promoted a fusiform morphology better suited to infiltration. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the motion of individual cells was complex and was influenced by cell cycle and local topography. Glioma stem cell–containing neurospheres seeded on random fibers did not show cell detachment and retained their original shape; on aligned fibers, cells detached and migrated in the fiber direction over a distance sixfold greater than the perpendicular direction. This chemically and physically flexible model allows time-lapse analysis of glioma cell migration while recapitulating in vivo cell morphology, potentially allowing identification of physiological mediators and pharmacological inhibitors of invasion. PMID:19199562

  20. Breaking barriers through collaboration: the example of the Cell Migration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Alan Rick; Watson, Nikki; Parsons, J Thomas

    2002-10-15

    Understanding complex integrated biological processes, such as cell migration, requires interdisciplinary approaches. The Cell Migration Consortium, funded by a Large-Scale Collaborative Project Award from the National Institute of General Medical Science, develops and disseminates new technologies, data, reagents, and shared information to a wide audience. The development and operation of this Consortium may provide useful insights for those who plan similarly large-scale, interdisciplinary approaches.

  1. The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11/1/05 – 10/31/09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The goal of this program is to investigate the influence of controlled mechanical stimulation on the behavior of

  2. Matrikine and matricellular regulators of EGF Receptor signaling on cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Grahovac, Jelena; Wells, Alan

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cancer invasion is a complex process requiring, among other events, extensive remodeling of the extracellular matrix including deposition of pro-migratory and pro-proliferative moieties. In recent years it has been described that while invading through matrices cancer cells can change shape and adapt their migration strategies depending on the microenvironmental context. Although intracellular signaling pathways governing the mesenchymal to amoeboid migration shift and vice versa have been mostly elucidated, the extracellular signals promoting these shifts are largely unknown. In this review we summarize findings that point to matrikines that bind specifically to the EGF receptor as matricellular molecules that enable cancer cell migrational plasticity and promote invasion. PMID:24247562

  3. Bm-TFF2, a toad trefoil factor, promotes cell migration, survival and wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Yu, Guoyu

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Bm-TFF2 binds to epithelial cells and induces cell migration and wound healing. {yields} Bm-TFF2 suppresses cell apoptosis. {yields} Bm-TFF2 has no effect on cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Toad skin is naked and continually confronted by various injurious factors. Constant skin renewal and repairs occur frequently. However, the mechanisms of the renewal and repair have not clearly elucidated. In our previous work, a trefoil factor (TFF), Bm-TFF2, has been purified from the Bombina maxima skin and characterized as a platelet agonist. The mRNA of TFFs in toad skin was up-regulated greatly during the metamorphosis, indicating a pivotal rolemore » of TFFs in amphibian skin. Here, we presented the effects of Bm-TFF2 on the cell migration, apoptosis and proliferation. Bm-TFF2 bound to epithelial cells and showed strong cell motility activity. At the concentrations of 1-100 nM, Bm-TFF2-induced migration of human epithelial AGS and HT-29 cells, and rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cell lines. The in vitro wound healing assay also verified the activity of Bm-TFF2. Bm-TFF2 could also inhibit cell apoptosis induced by ceramide and sodium butyrate. The cell migration-promoting activity was abolished by MEK1 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for Bm-TFF2 to stimulate cell migration. Taken together, Bm-TFF2 promoted wound healing by stimulating cell migration via MAPK pathway and preventing cell apoptosis. The potent biological activity of Bm-TFF2 makes it a useful molecular tool for further studies of structure-function relationship of the related human TFFs.« less

  4. The role of backward cell migration in two-hit mutants' production in the stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Bollas, Audrey; Shahriyari, Leili

    2017-01-01

    It has been discovered that there are two stem cell groups in the intestinal crypts: central stem cells (CeSCs), which are at the very bottom of the crypt, and border stem cells (BSCs), which are located between CeSCs and transit amplifying cells (TAs). Moreover, backward cell migration from BSCs to CeSCs has been observed. Recently, a bi-compartmental stochastic model, which includes CeSCs and BSCs, has been developed to investigate the probability of two-hit mutant production in the stem cell niche. In this project, we improve this stochastic model by adding the probability of backward cell migration to the model. The model suggests that the probability of two-hit mutant production increases when the frequency of backward cell migration increases. Furthermore, a small non-zero probability of backward cell migration leads to the largest range of optimal values for the frequency of symmetric divisions and the portion of divisions at each stem cell compartment in terms of delaying 2-hit mutant production. Moreover, the probability of two-hit mutant production is more sensitive to the probability of symmetric divisions than to the rate of backward cell migrations. The highest probability of two-hit mutant production corresponds to the case when all stem cell's divisions are asymmetric.

  5. Tre1 GPCR initiates germ cell transepithelial migration by regulating Drosophila melanogaster E-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Prabhat S.; Sano, Hiroko; Renault, Andrew D.; Barbosa, Vitor; Fuse, Naoyuki; Lehmann, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant progress in identifying the guidance pathways that control cell migration, how a cell starts to move within an intact organism, acquires motility, and loses contact with its neighbors is poorly understood. We show that activation of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1) directs the redistribution of the G protein Gβ as well as adherens junction proteins and Rho guanosine triphosphatase from the cell periphery to the lagging tail of germ cells at the onset of Drosophila melanogaster germ cell migration. Subsequently, Tre1 activity triggers germ cell dispersal and orients them toward the midgut for directed transepithelial migration. A transition toward invasive migration is also a prerequisite for metastasis formation, which often correlates with down-regulation of adhesion proteins. We show that uniform down-regulation of E-cadherin causes germ cell dispersal but is not sufficient for transepithelial migration in the absence of Tre1. Our findings therefore suggest a new mechanism for GPCR function that links cell polarity, modulation of cell adhesion, and invasion. PMID:18824569

  6. An essential role for platelet-activating factor in activating mast cell migration following ultraviolet irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Chen, Limo; Chávez-Blanco, Alma D.; Limón-Flores, Alberto Y.; Ma, Ying; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    The UVB (290–320 nm) radiation in sunlight is responsible for inducing skin cancer. Exposure to UV radiation is also immunosuppressive, and the systemic immune suppression induced by UV is a well-recognized risk factor for cancer induction. As UVB radiation is absorbed within the upper layers of the skin, indirect mechanisms must play a role in activating systemic immune suppression. One prominent example is mast cell migration, which from the skin to the draining LN is an essential step in the cascade of events leading to immune suppression. What triggers mast cell migration is not entirely clear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PAF, a lipid mediator of inflammation produced by the skin in response to UV exposure, is involved. Mast cell-deficient mice (KitW-sh/W-sh) are resistant to the suppressive effect of UV radiation, and reconstituting mast cell-deficient mice with normal bone marrow-derived mast cells restores susceptibility to immunosuppression. However, when mast cells from PAFR−/− mice were used, the reconstituted mice were not susceptible to the suppressive effects of UV. Furthermore, PAFR−/− mice showed impaired UV-induced mast cell migration when compared with WT mice. Finally, injecting PAF into WT mice mimicked the effect of UV irradiation and induced mast cell migration but not in PAFR−/− mice. Our findings indicate that PAFR binding induces mast cells to migrate from the skin to the LNs, where they mediate immune suppression. PMID:24009177

  7. Development of a Single-Cell Migration and Extravasation Platform through Selective Surface Modification.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Steven A; Waziri, Allen E; Agrawal, Nitin

    2016-03-01

    Cell migration through three-dimensional (3D) tissue spaces is integral to many biological and pathological processes, including metastasis. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are phenotypically heterogeneous, and in vitro analysis of their extravasation behavior is often impeded by the inability to establish complex tissue-like extracellular matrix (ECM) environments and chemotactic gradients within microfluidic devices. We have developed a novel microfluidic strategy to manipulate surface properties of enclosed microchannels and create 3D ECM structures for real-time observation of individual migrating cells. The wettability of selective interconnected channels is controlled by a plasma pulse, enabling the incorporation of ECM exclusively within the transmigration regions. We applied this approach to collectively analyze CTC-endothelial adhesion, trans-endothelial migration, and subsequent motility of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) through a 3D ECM under artificial gradients of SDF-1α. We observed migration velocities ranging from 5.12 to 12.8 μm/h, which closely correspond to single-cell migration in collagen blocks, but are significantly faster than the migration of cell aggregates. The compartmentalized microchannels separated by the porous ECM makes this in vitro assay versatile and suitable for a variety of applications such as inflammation studies, drug screening, and coculture interactions.

  8. Spatial control of active CDC-42 during collective migration of hypodermal cells in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Marie-Hélène; Martin, Emmanuel; Lacoste-Caron, Germain; Hamiche, Karim; Jenna, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Collective epithelial cell migration requires the maintenance of cell-cell junctions while enabling the generation of actin-rich protrusions at the leading edge of migrating cells. Ventral enclosure of Caenorhabditis elegans embryos depends on the collective migration of anterior-positioned leading hypodermal cells towards the ventral midline where they form new junctions with their contralateral neighbours. In this study, we characterized the zygotic function of RGA-7/SPV-1, a CDC-42/Cdc42 and RHO-1/RhoA-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, which controls the formation of actin-rich protrusions at the leading edge of leading hypodermal cells and the formation of new junctions between contralateral cells. We show that RGA-7 controls these processes in an antagonistic manner with the CDC-42's effector WSP-1/N-WASP and the CDC-42-binding proteins TOCA-1/2/TOCA1. RGA-7 is recruited to spatially distinct locations at junctions between adjacent leading cells, where it promotes the accumulation of clusters of activated CDC-42. It also inhibits the spreading of these clusters towards the leading edge of the junctions and regulates their accumulation and distribution at new junctions formed between contralateral leading cells. Our study suggests that RGA-7 controls collective migration and junction formation between epithelial cells by spatially restricting active CDC-42 within cell-cell junctions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, IBCB, SIBS, CAS. All rights reserved.

  9. R-Ras Regulates Migration through an Interaction with Filamin A in Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gawecka, Joanna E.; Griffiths, Genevieve S.; Ek-Rylander, Barbro; Ramos, Joe W.; Matter, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Changes in cell adhesion and migration in the tumor microenvironment are key in the initiation and progression of metastasis. R-Ras is one of several small GTPases that regulate cell adhesion and migration on the extracellular matrix, however the mechanism has not been completely elucidated. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach we sought to identify novel R-Ras binding proteins that might mediate its effects on integrins. Methods and Findings We identified Filamin A (FLNa) as a candidate interacting protein. FLNa is an actin-binding scaffold protein that also binds to integrin β1, β2 and β7 tails and is associated with diverse cell processes including cell migration. Indeed, M2 melanoma cells require FLNa for motility. We further show that R-Ras and FLNa interact in co-immunoprecipitations and pull-down assays. Deletion of FLNa repeat 3 (FLNaΔ3) abrogated this interaction. In M2 melanoma cells active R-Ras co-localized with FLNa but did not co-localize with FLNa lacking repeat 3. Thus, activated R-Ras binds repeat 3 of FLNa. The functional consequence of this interaction was that active R-Ras and FLNa coordinately increased cell migration. In contrast, co-expression of R-Ras and FLNaΔ3 had a significantly reduced effect on migration. While there was enhancement of integrin activation and fibronectin matrix assembly, cell adhesion was not altered. Finally, siRNA knockdown of endogenous R-Ras impaired FLNa-dependent fibronectin matrix assembly. Conclusions These data support a model in which R-Ras functionally associates with FLNa and thereby regulates integrin-dependent migration. Thus in melanoma cells R-Ras and FLNa may cooperatively promote metastasis by enhancing cell migration. PMID:20585650

  10. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate human colon cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Belo, Angelica; Cheng, Kunrong; Chahdi, Ahmed; Shant, Jasleen; Xie, Guofeng; Khurana, Sandeep; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Muscarinic receptors (CHRM) are overexpressed in colon cancer. To explore a role for muscarinic receptor signaling in colon cancer metastasis, we used human H508 and HT29 colon cancer cells that coexpress epidermal growth factor (ERBB) and CHRM3 receptors. In a wound closure model, following 8-h incubation of H508 cells with 100 μM ACh we observed a threefold increase in cell migration indistinguishable from the actions of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Atropine blocked the actions of ACh but not of EGF. In SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express ERBB but not CHRM, EGF caused a threefold increase in migration; ACh had no effect. ACh-induced cell migration was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of ERBB1 activation, by anti-ERBB1 antibody, and by inhibitors of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Consistent with matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-mediated release of an ERBB1 ligand, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), ACh-induced migration was inhibited by an MMP inhibitor and by anti-MMP7 and -HBEGF antibodies. ACh-induced cell migration was blocked by inhibiting RhoA and ROCK, key proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton. ACh-induced RhoA activation was attenuated by agents that inhibit ERBB1, ERK, and PI3K activation. Collectively, these findings indicate that ACh-induced cell migration is mediated by MMP7-mediated release of HBEGF, an ERBB ligand that activates ERBB1 and downstream ERK and PI3K signaling. In a cell invasion model, ACh-induced HT29 cell invasion was blocked by atropine. In concert with previous observations, these findings indicate that muscarinic receptor signaling plays a key role in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion.

  11. Muscarinic receptor agonists stimulate human colon cancer cell migration and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Belo, Angelica; Cheng, Kunrong; Chahdi, Ahmed; Shant, Jasleen; Xie, Guofeng; Khurana, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Muscarinic receptors (CHRM) are overexpressed in colon cancer. To explore a role for muscarinic receptor signaling in colon cancer metastasis, we used human H508 and HT29 colon cancer cells that coexpress epidermal growth factor (ERBB) and CHRM3 receptors. In a wound closure model, following 8-h incubation of H508 cells with 100 μM ACh we observed a threefold increase in cell migration indistinguishable from the actions of epidermal growth factor (EGF). Atropine blocked the actions of ACh but not of EGF. In SNU-C4 colon cancer cells that express ERBB but not CHRM, EGF caused a threefold increase in migration; ACh had no effect. ACh-induced cell migration was attenuated by chemical inhibitors of ERBB1 activation, by anti-ERBB1 antibody, and by inhibitors of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Consistent with matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-mediated release of an ERBB1 ligand, heparin binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF), ACh-induced migration was inhibited by an MMP inhibitor and by anti-MMP7 and -HBEGF antibodies. ACh-induced cell migration was blocked by inhibiting RhoA and ROCK, key proteins that interact with the actin cytoskeleton. ACh-induced RhoA activation was attenuated by agents that inhibit ERBB1, ERK, and PI3K activation. Collectively, these findings indicate that ACh-induced cell migration is mediated by MMP7-mediated release of HBEGF, an ERBB ligand that activates ERBB1 and downstream ERK and PI3K signaling. In a cell invasion model, ACh-induced HT29 cell invasion was blocked by atropine. In concert with previous observations, these findings indicate that muscarinic receptor signaling plays a key role in colon cancer cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. PMID:21273532

  12. Effect of shear stress on the migration of hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Sera, Toshihiro; Sumii, Tateki; Fujita, Ryosuke; Kudo, Susumu

    2018-01-01

    When the liver is damaged, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) can change into an activated, highly migratory state. The migration of HSCs may be affected by shear stress due not only to sinusoidal flow but also by the flow in the space of Disse because this space is filled with blood plasma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of shear stress on HSC migration in a scratch-wound assay with a parallel flow chamber. At regions upstream of the wound area, the migration was inhibited by 0.6 Pa and promoted by 2.0 Pa shear stress, compared to the static condition. The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB receptor, PDGFR-β, was expressed in all conditions and the differences were not significant. PDGF increased HSC migration, except at 0.6 Pa shear stress, which was still inhibited. These results indicate that another molecular factor, such as PDGFR-α, may act to inhibit the migration under low shear stress. At regions downstream of the wound area, the migration was smaller under shear stress than under the static condition, although the expression of PDGFR-β was significantly higher. In particular, the migration direction was opposite to the wound area under high shear stress; therefore, migration might be influenced by the intercellular environment. Our results indicate that HSC migration was influenced by shear stress intensity and the intercellular environment.

  13. EphrinB3 restricts endogenous neural stem cell migration after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kirsty J; Mier, Jose; Gajavelli, Shyam; Turbic, Alisa; Bullock, Ross; Turnley, Ann M; Liebl, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to a series of pathological events that can have profound influences on motor, sensory and cognitive functions. Conversely, TBI can also stimulate neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation leading to increased numbers of neuroblasts migrating outside their restrictive neurogenic zone to areas of damage in support of tissue integrity. Unfortunately, the factors that regulate migration are poorly understood. Here, we examine whether ephrinB3 functions to restrict neuroblasts from migrating outside the subventricular zone (SVZ) and rostral migratory stream (RMS). We have previously shown that ephrinB3 is expressed in tissues surrounding these regions, including the overlying corpus callosum (CC), and is reduced after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Our current study takes advantage of ephrinB3 knockout mice to examine the influences of ephrinB3 on neuroblast migration into CC and cortex tissues after CCI injury. Both injury and/or ephrinB3 deficiency led to increased neuroblast numbers and enhanced migration outside the SVZ/RMS zones. Application of soluble ephrinB3-Fc molecules reduced neuroblast migration into the CC after injury and limited neuroblast chain migration in cultured SVZ explants. Our findings suggest that ephrinB3 expression in tissues surrounding neurogenic regions functions to restrict neuroblast migration outside the RMS by limiting chain migration. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tangential migration of glutamatergic neurons and cortical patterning during development: Lessons from Cajal-Retzius cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Melissa; Pierani, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form appropriate neural circuits within the cortical plate. While it was previously believed that only GABAergic cortical interneurons migrate tangentially from their origins in the subpallial ganglionic eminences to integrate in the cortical plate, it is now known that transient populations of glutamatergic neurons also adopt this mode of migration. These include Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), subplate neurons (SPs), and cortical plate transient neurons (CPTs), which have crucial roles in orchestrating the radial and tangential development of the embryonic cerebral cortex in a noncell-autonomous manner. While CRs have been extensively studied, it is only in the last decade that the molecular mechanisms governing their tangential migration have begun to be elucidated. To date, the mechanisms of SPs and CPTs tangential migration remain unknown. We therefore review the known signaling pathways, which regulate parameters of CRs migration including their motility, contact-redistribution and adhesion to the pial surface, and discuss this in the context of how CR migration may regulate their signaling activity in a spatial and temporal manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 847-881, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. On the role of PDZ domain-encoding genes in Drosophila border cell migration.

    PubMed

    Aranjuez, George; Kudlaty, Elizabeth; Longworth, Michelle S; McDonald, Jocelyn A

    2012-11-01

    Cells often move as collective groups during normal embryonic development and wound healing, although the mechanisms governing this type of migration are poorly understood. The Drosophila melanogaster border cells migrate as a cluster during late oogenesis and serve as a powerful in vivo genetic model for collective cell migration. To discover new genes that participate in border cell migration, 64 out of 66 genes that encode PDZ domain-containing proteins were systematically targeted by in vivo RNAi knockdown. The PDZ domain is one of the largest families of protein-protein interaction domains found in eukaryotes. Proteins that contain PDZ domains participate in a variety of biological processes, including signal transduction and establishment of epithelial apical-basal polarity. Targeting PDZ proteins effectively assesses a larger number of genes via the protein complexes and pathways through which these proteins function. par-6, a known regulator of border cell migration, was a positive hit and thus validated the approach. Knockdown of 14 PDZ domain genes disrupted migration with multiple RNAi lines. The candidate genes have diverse predicted cellular functions and are anticipated to provide new insights into the mechanisms that control border cell movement. As a test of this concept, two genes that disrupted migration were characterized in more detail: big bang and the Dlg5 homolog CG6509. We present evidence that Big bang regulates JAK/STAT signaling, whereas Dlg5/CG6509 maintains cluster cohesion. Moreover, these results demonstrate that targeting a selected class of genes by RNAi can uncover novel regulators of collective cell migration.

  16. Lipid Raft Association Restricts CD44-Ezrin Interaction and Promotion of Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S.; Hazelwood, Lee D.; Hill, Arnold D.K.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration. PMID:23031255

  17. The E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 mediates cell migration signaling of EGFR in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Genbao; Wang, Ranran; Sun, Aiqin; Wei, Jing; Peng, Ke; Dai, Qian; Yang, Wannian; Lin, Qiong

    2018-02-19

    EGFR-dependent cell migration plays an important role in lung cancer progression. Our previous study observed that the HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 is significantly correlated with tumor metastasis and required for migration and invasion signaling of EGFR in gastric cancer cells. However, how NEDD4 promotes the EGFR-dependent lung cancer cell migration is unknown. This study is to elucidate the mechanism by which NEDD4 mediates the EGFR lung cancer migration signaling. Lentiviral vector-loaded NEDD4 shRNA was used to deplete endogenous NEDD4 in lung cancer cell lines. Effects of the NEDD4 knockdown on the EGFR-dependent or independent lung cancer cell migration were determined using the wound-healing and transwell assays. Association of NEDD4 with activated EGFR was assayed by co-immunoprecipitation. Co-expression of NEDD4 with EGFR or PTEN was determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining in 63 lung adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Effects of NEDD4 ectopic expression or knockdown on PTEN ubiquitination and down-regulation, AKT activation and lysosomal secretion were examined using the GST-Uba pulldown assay, immunoblotting, immunofluorescent staining and a human cathepsin B ELISA assay respectively. The specific cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me was used for assessing the role of cathepsin B in lung cancer cell migration. Knockdown of NEDD4 significantly reduced EGF-stimulated cell migration in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Co-immunoprecipitation assay found that NEDD4 is associated with EGFR complex upon EGF stimulation, and IHC staining indicates that NEDD4 is co-expressed with EGFR in lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues, suggesting that NEDD4 might mediate lung cancer cell migration by interaction with the EGFR signaling complex. Interestingly, NEDD4 promotes the EGF-induced cathepsin B secretion, possibly through lysosomal exocytosis, as overexpression of the ligase-dead mutant of NEDD4 impedes lysosomal secretion, and knockdown of NEDD4

  18. The Role of Direct Current Electric Field-Guided Stem Cell Migration in Neural Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Li, Yongchao

    2016-06-01

    Effective directional axonal growth and neural cell migration are crucial in the neural regeneration of the central nervous system (CNS). Endogenous currents have been detected in many developing nervous systems. Experiments have demonstrated that applied direct current (DC) electric fields (EFs) can guide axonal growth in vitro, and attempts have been made to enhance the regrowth of damaged spinal cord axons using DC EFs in in vivo experiments. Recent work has revealed that the migration of stem cells and stem cell-derived neural cells can be guided by DC EFs. These studies have raised the possibility that endogenous and applied DC EFs can be used to direct neural tissue regeneration. Although the mechanism of EF-directed axonal growth and cell migration has not been fully understood, studies have shown that the polarization of cell membrane proteins and the activation of intracellular signaling molecules are involved in the process. The application of EFs is a promising biotechnology for regeneration of the CNS.

  19. TRPV2 mediates adrenomedullin stimulation of prostate and urothelial cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Oulidi, Agathe; Bokhobza, Alexandre; Gkika, Dimitra; Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Lehen'kyi, V'yacheslav; Ouafik, L'houcine; Mauroy, Brigitte; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level.

  20. TRPV2 Mediates Adrenomedullin Stimulation of Prostate and Urothelial Cancer Cell Adhesion, Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Abeele, Fabien; Lehen’kyi, V’yacheslav; Ouafik, L’Houcine; Mauroy, Brigitte; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52-amino acid peptide initially isolated from human pheochromocytoma. AM is expressed in a variety of malignant tissues and cancer cell lines and was shown to be a mitogenic factor capable of stimulating growth of several cancer cell types. In addition, AM is a survival factor for certain cancer cells. Some data suggest that AM might be involved in the progression cancer metastasis via angiogenesis and cell migration and invasion control. The Transient Receptor Potential channel TRPV2 is known to promote in prostate cancer cell migration and invasive phenotype and is correlated with the stage and grade of bladder cancer. In this work we show that AM induces prostate and urothelial cancer cell migration and invasion through TRPV2 translocation to plasma membrane and the subsequent increase in resting calcium level. PMID:23741410

  1. Reelin is involved in transforming growth factor-β1-induced cell migration in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi; Chen, Hongyan; Ma, Gang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Liu, Zhihua

    2012-01-01

    Reelin (RELN), which is a glycoprotein secreted by Cajal-Retzius cells of the developing cerebral cortex, plays an important role in neuronal migration, but its role in cell migration and cancer metastasis is largely unclear. Here, we showed that cell motility was significantly increased in KYSE-510 cells by TGF-β1 treatment. Moreover, TGF-β1 decreased RELN mRNA expression and overexpression of Reelin at least partly reversed TGF-β1-induced cell migration in KYSE-30 cells. Furthermore, this negative regulation of Reelin expression by TGF-β1 was through Snail, one transcription factor which was induced by TGF-β1 in KYSE-510 cells. RELN promoter activity was reduced in parallel with the induction of Snail after TGF-β1 treatment and Snail suppressed both RELN promoter activity and expression through binding to E-box sequences in the RELN promoter region in ESCC cells. Knockdown of RELN induced cell migration in KYSE-510 cells, together with the increase of mesenchymal markers expression. Taken together, Reelin is an essential negative regulator in the TGF-β1-induced cell migration process, and is suppressed by TGF-β pathway at the transcriptional level through Snail regulation. Therefore, the correlation of Reelin and TGF-β pathway was critical in cancer metastasis, and Reelin could be one potential anti-metastasis target in future clinical practice.

  2. The role of backward cell migration in two-hit mutants’ production in the stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Bollas, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    It has been discovered that there are two stem cell groups in the intestinal crypts: central stem cells (CeSCs), which are at the very bottom of the crypt, and border stem cells (BSCs), which are located between CeSCs and transit amplifying cells (TAs). Moreover, backward cell migration from BSCs to CeSCs has been observed. Recently, a bi-compartmental stochastic model, which includes CeSCs and BSCs, has been developed to investigate the probability of two-hit mutant production in the stem cell niche. In this project, we improve this stochastic model by adding the probability of backward cell migration to the model. The model suggests that the probability of two-hit mutant production increases when the frequency of backward cell migration increases. Furthermore, a small non-zero probability of backward cell migration leads to the largest range of optimal values for the frequency of symmetric divisions and the portion of divisions at each stem cell compartment in terms of delaying 2-hit mutant production. Moreover, the probability of two-hit mutant production is more sensitive to t