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Sample records for rpos mrna leader

  1. Positional effects of AAN motifs in rpoS regulation by sRNAs and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli stationary phase transcription factor RpoS is translated in response to small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs), which base pair with the rpoS mRNA leader. The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq anneals sRNAs with their mRNA targets by simultaneously binding the mRNA and sRNA. Intriguingly, Hfq is recruited to the rpoS leader via AAN motifs far upstream of the sRNA. SHAPE chemical footprinting showed that the rpoS leader is divided into a far upstream domain, an Hfq binding domain, and a downstream inhibitory stem-loop containing the sRNA and ribosome binding sites. To investigate how Hfq promotes sRNA-mRNA base pairing from a distance, the natural AAN Hfq binding site was deleted, and artificial AAN binding sites were inserted at various positions in the rpoS leader. All the relocated AAN motifs restored tight Hfq binding in vitro, but only insertion at the natural position restored Hfq-dependent sRNA annealing in vitro and sRNA regulation of rpoS translation in vivo. Furthermore, U-rich motifs in the downstream inhibitory domain stabilized the rpoS mRNA-Hfq complex and contributed to regulation of rpoS expression. We propose that the natural Hfq binding domain is optimal for positive regulation because it recruits Hfq to the mRNA and allows it to act on incoming sRNAs without opening the inhibitory stem-loop when sRNA are absent. PMID:24051417

  2. Roles for transcript leaders in translation and mRNA decay revealed by transcript leader sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Arribere, Joshua A.; Gilbert, Wendy V.

    2013-01-01

    Transcript leaders (TLs) can have profound effects on mRNA translation and stability. To map TL boundaries genome-wide, we developed TL-sequencing (TL-seq), a technique combining enzymatic capture of m7G-capped mRNA 5′ ends with high-throughput sequencing. TL-seq identified mRNA start sites for the majority of yeast genes and revealed many examples of intragenic TL heterogeneity. Surprisingly, TL-seq identified transcription initiation sites within 6% of protein-coding regions, and these sites were concentrated near the 5′ ends of ORFs. Furthermore, ribosome density analysis showed these truncated mRNAs are translated. Translation-associated TL-seq (TATL-seq), which combines TL-seq with polysome fractionation, enabled annotation of TLs, and simultaneously assayed their function in translation. Using TATL-seq to address relationships between TL features and translation of the downstream ORF, we observed that upstream AUGs (uAUGs), and no other upstream codons, were associated with poor translation and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). We also identified hundreds of genes with very short TLs, and demonstrated that short TLs were associated with poor translation initiation at the annotated start codon and increased initiation at downstream AUGs. This frequently resulted in out-of-frame translation and subsequent termination at premature termination codons, culminating in NMD of the transcript. Unlike previous approaches, our technique enabled observation of alternative TL variants for hundreds of genes and revealed significant differences in translation in genes with distinct TL isoforms. TL-seq and TATL-seq are useful tools for annotation and functional characterization of TLs, and can be applied to any eukaryotic system to investigate TL-mediated regulation of gene expression. PMID:23580730

  3. Dual posttranscriptional regulation via a cofactor-responsive mRNA leader.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Fortin, Laura M; Vakulskas, Christopher A; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2013-10-09

    Riboswitches are cis-acting mRNA elements that regulate gene expression in response to ligand binding. Recently, a class of riboswitches was proposed to respond to the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which serves as a redox center for metabolic enzymes. The 5' leader of the Escherichia coli moaABCDE transcript exemplifies this candidate riboswitch class. This mRNA encodes enzymes for Moco biosynthesis, and moaA expression is feedback inhibited by Moco. Previous RNA-seq analyses showed that moaA mRNA copurified with the RNA binding protein CsrA (carbon storage regulator), suggesting that CsrA binds to this RNA in vivo. Among its global regulatory roles, CsrA represses stationary phase metabolism and activates central carbon metabolism. Here, we used gel mobility shift analysis to determine that CsrA binds specifically and with high affinity to the moaA 5' mRNA leader. Northern blotting and studies with a series of chromosomal lacZ reporter fusions showed that CsrA posttranscriptionally activates moaA expression without altering moaA mRNA levels, indicative of translation control. Deletion analyses, nucleotide replacement studies and footprinting with CsrA-FeBABE identified two sites for CsrA binding. Toeprinting assays suggested that CsrA binding causes changes in moaA RNA structure. We propose that the moaA mRNA leader forms an aptamer, which serves as a target of posttranscriptional regulation by at least two different factors, Moco and the protein CsrA. While we are not aware of similar dual posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, additional examples are likely to emerge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dual Posttranscriptional Regulation via a Cofactor-Responsive mRNA Leader

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Fortin, Laura M.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Riboswitches are cis-acting mRNA elements that regulate gene expression in response to ligand binding. Recently, a class of riboswitches was proposed to respond to the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which serves as a redox center for metabolic enzymes. The 5′ leader of the Escherichia coli moaABCDE transcript exemplifies this candidate riboswitch class. This mRNA encodes enzymes for Moco biosynthesis, and moaA expression is feedback inhibited by Moco. Previous RNA-seq analyses showed that moaA mRNA copurified with the RNA binding protein CsrA (carbon storage regulator), suggesting that CsrA binds to this RNA in vivo. Among its global regulatory roles, CsrA represses stationary phase metabolism and activates central carbon metabolism. Here, we used gel mobility shift analysis to determine that CsrA binds specifically and with high affinity to the moaA 5′ mRNA leader. Northern blotting and studies with a series of chromosomal lacZ reporter fusions showed that CsrA posttranscriptionally activates moaA expression without altering moaA mRNA levels, indicative of translation control. Deletion analyses, nucleotide replacement studies and footprinting with CsrA-FeBABE identified two sites for CsrA binding. Toeprinting assays suggested that CsrA binding causes changes in moaA RNA structure. We propose that the moaA mRNA leader forms an aptamer, which serves as a target of posttranscriptional regulation by at least two different factors, Moco and the protein CsrA. While we are not aware of similar dual posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, additional examples are likely to emerge. PMID:23274138

  5. A comparison of eukaryotic viral 5'-leader sequences as enhancers of mRNA expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Sleat, D E; Watts, J W; Turner, P C; Wilson, T M

    1987-01-01

    The 5'-untranslated leader sequences of several plant RNA viruses, and a portion of the 5'-leader of an animal retrovirus, were tested for their ability to enhance expression of contiguous open reading frames for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, Escherichia coli and oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Translation of capped or uncapped transcripts was substantially enhanced in almost all systems by the leader sequence of either the U1 or SPS strain of TMV. All leader sequences, except that of TYMV, stimulated expression of 5'-capped GUS mRNA with the native prokaryotic initiation codon context, in electroporated protoplasts. Only the TMV leaders enhanced translation of uncapped GUS mRNAs in protoplasts and increased expression of uncapped CAT mRNA in microinjected X. laevis oocytes. In oocytes, the TYMV leader sequence was inhibitory. In transformed E. coli, the TMV-U1 leader enhanced expression of both the native and eukaryotic context forms of GUS mRNA about 7.5-fold, despite the absence of a Shine-Dalgarno region in any of the transcripts. The absolute levels of GUS activity were all about 6-fold higher with mRNAs containing the native initiation codon context. In E. coli, the leaders of AlMV RNA4 and TYMV were moderately stimulatory whereas those of BMV RNA3, RSV and the SPS strain of TMV enhanced GUS expression by only 2- to 3-fold. Images PMID:2825117

  6. Leader length and secondary structure modulate mRNA function under conditions of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.

    1988-07-01

    Simina virus 40-based plasmids that direct the synthesis of preproinsulin in cultured monkey cells were used to study the effects of mRNA structure on translational efficiency. Lengthening the leader sequence enhanced translation in this system. The enhancement was most obvious when an unstructured sequence (two, four, or eight copies of the oligonculeotide AGCTAAGTAAGTAAGTA) was inserted upstream from a region of deliberate secondary structure; the degree of enhancement was proportional to the number of copies of the inserted oligonucleotide. Lengthening the leader sequence on the 3' side of a stem-and-loop structure, in contrast, did not offset the potentially inhibitory effect of the hairpin structure. Both the facilitating effect of length and the inhibitory effect of secondary structure were demonstrated most easily under conditions of mRNA competition, which was brought about by an abrupt shift in the tonicity of the culture medium. These experiments suggest a simple structural basis for the long-recognized differential response of viral and cellular mRNAs to hypertonic stress. The fact that the translatability of structure-prone mRNAs varies with changes in the environment may also have general implications for gene expression in eucaryotic cells.

  7. The leader region of Laminin B1 mRNA confers cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Kozina, Daniela; Huber, Heidemarie; Siwiec, Tanja; Seipelt, Joachim; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5'-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.

  8. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E.; Fang, Xianyang; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2014-11-17

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. In this paper, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNA regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Finally, our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.

  9. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E.; Fang, Xianyang; ...

    2014-11-17

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. In this paper, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNAmore » regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Finally, our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.« less

  10. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E; Fang, Xianyang; Woodson, Sarah A

    2014-12-02

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. Here, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNA regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.

  11. Translation of vph mRNA in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli after removal of the 5' untranslated leader.

    PubMed

    Wu, C J; Janssen, G R

    1996-10-01

    The Streptomyces vinaceus viomycin phosphotransferase (vph) mRNA contains an untranslated leader with a conventional Shine-Dalgarno homology. The vph leader was removed by ligation of the vph coding sequence to the transcriptional start site of a Streptomyces or an Escherichia coli promoter, such that transcription would initiate at the first position of the vph start codon. Analysis of mRNA demonstrated that transcription initiated primarily at the A of the vph AUG translational start codon in both Streptomyces lividans and E. coli; cells expressing the unleadered vph mRNA were resistant to viomycin indicating that the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, or other features contained within the leader, was not necessary for vph translation. Addition of four nucleotides (5'-AUGC-3') onto the 5' end of the unleadered vph mRNA resulted in translation initiation from the vph start codon and the AUG triplet contained within the added sequence. Translational fusions of vph sequence to a Tn5 neo reporter gene indicated that the first 16 codons of vph coding sequence were sufficient to specify the translational start site and reading frame for expression of neomycin resistance in both E. coli and S. lividans.

  12. RpoS expression and the general stress response in Azotobacter vinelandii during carbon and nitrogen diauxic shifts.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, James R; Page, William J

    2008-02-01

    The general stress response mediated by the sigma factor RpoS is important for survival of bacteria in adverse environments. A mutant unable to produce RpoS was constructed using the diazotrophic bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii strain UW. Under nondesiccating, solid-medium growth conditions the wild type was culturable for 16.5 years, while the rpoS mutant remained viable for only 10 months. The rpoS mutant exhibited reduced survival compared to the wild type following hydrogen peroxide stress, and stationary phase cells were killed rapidly by 15 mM H2O2. Three catalases (Kat1, Kat2, and Kat3) were expressed in the wild type under the conditions used. Kat2 was expressed in exponential phase during shake flask growth and could be induced under highly aerated conditions in all growth phases, suggesting that there was induction by reactive oxygen intermediates. Kat3 was possibly an isoform of Kat2. In contrast, Kat1 was expressed in an RpoS-dependent manner during the mid-exponential to late stationary phases. RpoS expression did not occur exclusively in stationary phase but was influenced by changes in carbon and nitrogen source availability. There was 26- to 28-fold induction of the RpoS protein during acetate-to-glucose and ammonium-to-N2 diauxic shifts. Following recovery of growth on the alternative carbon or nitrogen source, RpoS protein concentrations declined rapidly to a basal level. However, rpoS mRNA levels did not correlate directly to RpoS levels, suggesting that there was posttranscriptional regulation. Evidence obtained using the RpoS-dependent reporter Kat1 suggested that there is regulation of the RNAP:RpoS holoenzyme at the level of complex formation or activity.

  13. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader.

    PubMed

    Kriner, Michelle A; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2017-01-25

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5' leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader

    PubMed Central

    Kriner, Michelle A.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2017-01-01

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5′ leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals. PMID:28123036

  15. Translational Repression of the RpoS Antiadapter IraD by CsrA Is Mediated via Translational Coupling to a Short Upstream Open Reading Frame.

    PubMed

    Park, Hongmarn; McGibbon, Louise C; Potts, Anastasia H; Yakhnin, Helen; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2017-08-29

    CsrA is a global regulatory RNA binding protein that has important roles in regulating carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and numerous other cellular processes. IraD functions as an antiadapter protein that inhibits RssB-mediated degradation of RpoS, the general stress response and stationary-phase sigma factor of Escherichia coli Here we identified a novel mechanism in which CsrA represses iraD translation via translational coupling. Expression studies with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, Western blotting, and lacZ fusions demonstrated that CsrA represses iraD expression. Gel mobility shift, footprint, and toeprint studies identified four CsrA binding sites in the iraD leader transcript, all of which are far upstream of the iraD ribosome binding site. Computational modeling and RNA structure mapping identified an RNA structure that sequesters the iraD Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. Three open reading frames (ORFs), all of which are translated, were identified in the iraD leader region. Two of these ORFs do not affect iraD expression. However, the translation initiation region of the third ORF contains three of the CsrA binding sites, one of which overlaps its SD sequence. Furthermore, the ORF stop codon overlaps the iraD start codon, a sequence arrangement indicative of translational coupling. In vivo expression and in vitro translation studies with wild-type and mutant reporter fusions demonstrated that bound CsrA directly represses translation initiation of this ORF. We further established that CsrA-dependent repression of iraD translation occurs entirely via translational coupling with this ORF, leading to accelerated iraD mRNA decay.IMPORTANCE CsrA posttranscriptionally represses gene expression associated with stationary-phase bacterial growth, often in opposition to the transcriptional effects of the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS. We show that CsrA employs a novel regulatory mechanism to repress translation of iraD, which encodes an

  16. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  17. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  18. The nuclear RNA binding protein RBP33 influences mRNA and spliced leader RNA abundance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Olivera; Trikin, Roman; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Doiron, Nicholas; Jakob, Martin; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein. Finally super-resolution microscopy detects RBP33 in small punctae throughout the nucleus and surrounding the nucleolus, however the signal is depleted inside the nucleolus.

  19. Hfq-bridged ternary complex is important for translation activation of rpoS by DsrA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Lijun; Wu, Jihui; Gong, Qingguo; Shi, Yunyu

    2013-01-01

    The rpoS mRNA, which encodes the master regulator σS of general stress response, requires Hfq-facilitated base pairing with DsrA small RNA for efficient translation at low temperatures. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism underlying Hfq action is to bridge a transient ternary complex by simultaneously binding to rpoS and DsrA. However, no structural evidence of Hfq simultaneously bound to different RNAs has been reported. We detected simultaneous binding of Hfq to rpoS and DsrA fragments. Crystal structures of AU6A•Hfq•A7 and Hfq•A7 complexes were resolved using 1.8- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Ternary complex has been further verified in solution by NMR. In vivo, activation of rpoS translation requires intact Hfq, which is capable of bridging rpoS and DsrA simultaneously into ternary complex. This ternary complex possibly corresponds to a meta-stable transition state in Hfq-facilitated small RNA–mRNA annealing process. PMID:23605038

  20. mRNA leader length and initiation codon context determine alternative AUG selection for the yeast gene MOD5.

    PubMed Central

    Slusher, L B; Gillman, E C; Martin, N C; Hopper, A K

    1991-01-01

    MOD5, a nuclear gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes two isozymic forms of a tRNA-modification enzyme. These enzymes modify both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Two inframe ATGs of the MOD5 gene are used for initiation of translation, and the form of the protein translated from the first AUG is imported into mitochondria. Protein translated from the second AUG functions in the cytoplasm. Since all transcripts contain both of these translational start sites and two proteins are made, the question arises as to the factors that influence the translation start-site choice. Extending the 5' ends of the MOD5 mRNA to include leader sequences of the ADH1 (alcohol dehydrogenase defective) transcript produces significant changes in the choice of AUGs. This suggests that for wild-type MOD5 transcripts, the length or structure of the leader sequence plays a role in AUG choice. The nucleotides surrounding the first ATG of MOD5 also have an effect on translation initiation. Altering these nucleotides changes initiation choice and suggests that ribosomal bypass of a suboptimal AUG is another mechanism controlling the alternate use of two initiation codons. Our data support the model that at least one MOD5 transcript is able to produce two proteins with different N-terminal sequences. Images PMID:1946403

  1. Upstream Open Reading Frames Located in the Leader of Protein Kinase Mζ mRNA Regulate Its Translation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Natalia V.; Susorov, Denis; Chesnokova, Ekaterina; Kasianov, Artem; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Alkalaeva, Elena; Balaban, Pavel M.; Kolosov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For protein synthesis that occurs locally in dendrites, the translational control mechanisms are much more important for neuronal functioning than the transcription levels. Here, we show that uORFs (upstream open reading frames) in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) play a critical role in regulation of the translation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Elimination of these uORFs activates translation of the reporter protein in vitro and in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Using cell-free translation systems, we demonstrate that translational initiation complexes are formed only on uORFs. Further, we address the mechanism of translational repression of PKMζ translation, by uORFs. We observed an increase in translation of the reporter protein under the control of PKMζ leader in neuronal culture during non-specific activation by picrotoxin. We also show that such a mechanism is similar to the mechanism seen in cell stress, as application of sodium arsenite to neuron cultures induced translation of mRNA carrying PKMζ 5′UTR similarly to picrotoxin activation. Therefore, we suppose that phosphorylation of eIF2a, like in cell stress, is a main regulator of PKMζ translation. Altogether, our findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of uORF in regulation of PKMζ translation in activated neurons, important at early stages of LTP. PMID:27790092

  2. Structural Requirement in Clostridium perfringens Collagenase mRNA 5′ Leader Sequence for Translational Induction through Small RNA-mRNA Base Pairing

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Kouji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is pathogenic to humans and animals, and the production of its toxins is strictly regulated during the exponential phase. We recently found that the 5′ leader sequence of the colA transcript encoding collagenase, which is a major toxin of this organism, is processed and stabilized in the presence of the small RNA VR-RNA. The primary colA 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) forms a long stem-loop structure containing an internal bulge and masks its own ribosomal binding site. Here we found that VR-RNA directly regulates colA expression through base pairing with colA mRNA in vivo. However, when the internal bulge structure was closed by point mutations in colA mRNA, translation ceased despite the presence of VR-RNA. In addition, a mutation disrupting the colA stem-loop structure induced mRNA processing and ColA-FLAG translational activation in the absence of VR-RNA, indicating that the stem-loop and internal bulge structure of the colA 5′ leader sequence is important for regulation by VR-RNA. On the other hand, processing was required for maximal ColA expression but was not essential for VR-RNA-dependent colA regulation. Finally, colA processing and translational activation were induced at a high temperature without VR-RNA. These results suggest that inhibition of the colA 5′ leader structure through base pairing is the primary role of VR-RNA in colA regulation and that the colA 5′ leader structure is a possible thermosensor. PMID:23585542

  3. Evidence That Base-pairing Interaction between Intron and mRNA Leader Sequences Inhibits Initiation of HAC1 mRNA Translation in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Leena; Bolinger, Cheryl; Mannan, M. Amin-ul; Dever, Thomas E.; Dey, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    The Hac1 transcription factor in yeast up-regulates a collection of genes that control protein homeostasis. Base-pairing interactions between sequences in the intron and the 5′-untranslated region (5′ UTR) of the HAC1 mRNA represses Hac1 protein production under basal conditions, whereas cytoplasmic splicing of the intron by the Ire1 kinase-endonuclease, activated under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, relieves the inhibition and enables Hac1 synthesis. Using a random mutational screen as well as site-directed mutagenesis, we identify point mutations within the 5′ UTR-intron interaction site that derepress translation of the unspliced HAC1 mRNA. We also show that insertion of an in-frame AUG start codon upstream of the interaction site releases the translational block, demonstrating that an elongating ribosome can disrupt the interaction. Moreover, overexpression of translation initiation factor eIF4A, a helicase, enhances production of Hac1 from an mRNA containing an upstream AUG start codon at the beginning of the base-paired region. These results suggest that the major block of translation occurs at the initiation stage. Supporting this interpretation, the point mutations that enhanced Hac1 production resulted in an increased percentage of the HAC1 mRNA associating with polysomes versus free ribosomal subunits. Thus, our results provide evidence that the 5′ UTR-intron interaction represses translation initiation on the unspliced HAC1 mRNA. PMID:26175153

  4. Translational enhancement of H-ferritin mRNA by interleukin-1 beta acts through 5' leader sequences distinct from the iron responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J T; Andriotakis, J L; Lacroix, L; Durmowicz, G P; Kasschau, K D; Bridges, K R

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (Il-1 beta), a key cytokine in the acute phase response, elevates hepatic expression of both the heavy (H) and light (L) ferritin subunits without influencing the steady-state levels of either ferritin transcript. Transfection experiments with human hepatoma cells reveal that sequences within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of H-ferritin mRNA confer translational regulation to chimaeric chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) mRNAs in response to Il-1 beta in the absence of marked changes in CAT mRNA levels. Il-1 beta dependent translational enhancement is mediated by a distinct G + C rich RNA sequence within 70 nucleotides (nt) of the start codon. The upstream Iron Responsive Element RNA stemloop does not confer increased expression to CAT mRNA in Il-1 beta stimulated hepatoma transfectants. A 38 nucleotide consensus sequence within the 5'UTRs of the mRNAs encoding the hepatic acute phase proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and haptoglobin (Dente et al., 1985) is similar to sequences in the G + C rich H-ferritin mRNA translational regulatory element. Deletion of three nucleotides from this region of the 61 nt G + C rich element in the H-ferritin mRNA 5' leader eliminates Il-1 beta translational enhancement of the CAT reporter transcripts. Images PMID:8041631

  5. Signal Transduction and Regulatory Mechanisms Involved in Control of the σS (RpoS) Subunit of RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Hengge-Aronis, Regine

    2002-01-01

    The σS (RpoS) subunit of RNA polymerase is the master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. While rapidly growing cells contain very little σS, exposure to many different stress conditions results in rapid and strong σS induction. Consequently, transcription of numerous σS-dependent genes is activated, many of which encode gene products with stress-protective functions. Multiple signal integration in the control of the cellular σS level is achieved by rpoS transcriptional and translational control as well as by regulated σS proteolysis, with various stress conditions differentially affecting these levels of σS control. Thus, a reduced growth rate results in increased rpoS transcription whereas high osmolarity, low temperature, acidic pH, and some late-log-phase signals stimulate the translation of already present rpoS mRNA. In addition, carbon starvation, high osmolarity, acidic pH, and high temperature result in stabilization of σS, which, under nonstress conditions, is degraded with a half-life of one to several minutes. Important cis-regulatory determinants as well as trans-acting regulatory factors involved at all levels of σS regulation have been identified. rpoS translation is controlled by several proteins (Hfq and HU) and small regulatory RNAs that probably affect the secondary structure of rpoS mRNA. For σS proteolysis, the response regulator RssB is essential. RssB is a specific direct σS recognition factor, whose affinity for σS is modulated by phosphorylation of its receiver domain. RssB delivers σS to the ClpXP protease, where σS is unfolded and completely degraded. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the molecular functions and interactions of these components and tries to establish a framework for further research on the mode of multiple signal input into this complex regulatory system. PMID:12208995

  6. Identification of a Mg2+-sensitive ORF in the 5′-leader of TRPM7 magnesium channel mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Nikonorova, Inna A.; Kornakov, Nikolay V.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Vassilenko, Konstantin S.; Ryazanov, Alexey G.

    2014-01-01

    TRPM7 is an essential and ubiquitous channel-kinase regulating cellular influx of Mg2+. Although TRPM7 mRNA is highly abundant, very small amount of the protein is detected in cells, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of trpm7 gene expression. We found that TRPM7 mRNA 5′-leader contains two evolutionarily conserved upstream open reading frames that act together to drastically inhibit translation of the TRPM7 reading frame at high magnesium levels and ensure its optimal translation at low magnesium levels, when the activity of the channel-kinase is most required. The study provides the first example of magnesium channel synthesis being controlled by Mg2+ in higher eukaryotes. PMID:25326319

  7. Stabilization of Clostridium perfringens collagenase mRNA by VR-RNA-dependent cleavage in 5' leader sequence.

    PubMed

    Obana, Nozomu; Shirahama, Yu; Abe, Kimihiro; Nakamura, Kouji

    2010-09-01

    The small RNA (sRNA), VR-RNA that is directly regulated by the VirR/VirS two-component system, regulates many genes including toxin genes such as collagenase (colA) and phospholipase C (plc) in Clostridium perfringens. Although the VR-RNA 3' region is sufficient to regulate the colA and plc genes, the molecular mechanism of toxin gene regulation by VR-RNA remains unclear. Here, we found that colA mRNA is cleaved at position -79 and -78 from the A of the first codon (ATG) in the presence of VR-RNA. The processed transcripts were stable compared with longer intact transcripts. On the other hand, colA mRNA was labile in a VR-RNA-deficient strain, and processed transcripts were undetectable. The stability and processing of colA mRNA were restored by transformation of the 3' region of VR-RNA-expression vector. The 3' region of VR-RNA and colA mRNA had significant complementation and interacted in vitro. These results show that VR-RNA base pairs with colA mRNA and induces cleavage in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of colA mRNA, which leads to the stabilization of colA mRNA and the activation of colA expression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Translational Repression of the RpoS Antiadapter IraD by CsrA Is Mediated via Translational Coupling to a Short Upstream Open Reading Frame

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hongmarn; McGibbon, Louise C.; Potts, Anastasia H.; Yakhnin, Helen; Romeo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT CsrA is a global regulatory RNA binding protein that has important roles in regulating carbon metabolism, motility, biofilm formation, and numerous other cellular processes. IraD functions as an antiadapter protein that inhibits RssB-mediated degradation of RpoS, the general stress response and stationary-phase sigma factor of Escherichia coli. Here we identified a novel mechanism in which CsrA represses iraD translation via translational coupling. Expression studies with quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, Western blotting, and lacZ fusions demonstrated that CsrA represses iraD expression. Gel mobility shift, footprint, and toeprint studies identified four CsrA binding sites in the iraD leader transcript, all of which are far upstream of the iraD ribosome binding site. Computational modeling and RNA structure mapping identified an RNA structure that sequesters the iraD Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence. Three open reading frames (ORFs), all of which are translated, were identified in the iraD leader region. Two of these ORFs do not affect iraD expression. However, the translation initiation region of the third ORF contains three of the CsrA binding sites, one of which overlaps its SD sequence. Furthermore, the ORF stop codon overlaps the iraD start codon, a sequence arrangement indicative of translational coupling. In vivo expression and in vitro translation studies with wild-type and mutant reporter fusions demonstrated that bound CsrA directly represses translation initiation of this ORF. We further established that CsrA-dependent repression of iraD translation occurs entirely via translational coupling with this ORF, leading to accelerated iraD mRNA decay. PMID:28851853

  9. Phenotypic Diversity Caused by Differential RpoS Activity among Environmental Escherichia coli Isolates▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sarah M.; Dong, Tao; Edge, Thomas A.; Schellhorn, Herb E.

    2011-01-01

    Enteric bacteria deposited into the environment by animal hosts are subject to diverse selective pressures. These pressures may act on phenotypic differences in bacterial populations and select adaptive mutations for survival in stress. As a model to study phenotypic diversity in environmental bacteria, we examined mutations of the stress response sigma factor, RpoS, in environmental Escherichia coli isolates. A total of 2,040 isolates from urban beaches and nearby fecal pollution sources on Lake Ontario (Canada) were screened for RpoS function by examining growth on succinate and catalase activity, two RpoS-dependent phenotypes. The rpoS sequence was determined for 45 isolates, including all candidate RpoS mutants, and of these, six isolates were confirmed as mutants with the complete loss of RpoS function. Similarly to laboratory strains, the RpoS expression of these environmental isolates was stationary phase dependent. However, the expression of RpoS regulon members KatE and AppA had differing levels of expression in several environmental isolates compared to those in laboratory strains. Furthermore, after plating rpoS+ isolates on succinate, RpoS mutants could be readily selected from environmental E. coli. Naturally isolated and succinate-selected RpoS mutants had lower generation times on poor carbon sources and lower stress resistance than their rpoS+ isogenic parental strains. These results show that RpoS mutants are present in the environment (with a frequency of 0.003 among isolates) and that, similarly to laboratory and pathogenic strains, growth on poor carbon sources selects for rpoS mutations in environmental E. coli. RpoS selection may be an important determinant of phenotypic diversification and, hence, the survival of E. coli in the environment. PMID:21948830

  10. Secondary structure analysis of the RepA mRNA leader transcript involved in control of replication of plasmid R1.

    PubMed Central

    Ohman, M; Wagner, E G

    1989-01-01

    The main replication control function in plasmid R1 is an antisense RNA, CopA RNA. By binding to its target (CopT) in the leader of the RepA mRNA, CopA RNA inhibits the expression of the rate-limiting RepA protein. The formation of the RNA duplex has been proposed to alter the folding around the RepA start region. Knowledge of the secondary structure of both CopA and CopT RNA is crucial for an understanding of the regulation. Previously, we reported the structure of CopA RNA under native conditions. In the present communication we have analyzed the secondary structure of the RepA leader transcript. Our main findings are: The two loops of CopA RNA have their correspondence in CopT RNA. No major structural changes are found downstream of the duplex when CopA was bound to its target RNA during transcription. Furthermore, in agreement with CopA/CopT RNA binding studies reported recently we do not find evidence for the existence of a binding window. Images PMID:2470028

  11. DNA sequence of a mutation in the leader region of the yeast iso-1-cytochrome c mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.I.; Szostak, J.W.; Young, A.T.; Wu, R.; Consaul, S.; Sherman, F.

    1981-07-01

    A plasmid was constructed that selectively integrates adjacent to the CYC1 locus, which determines iso-1-cytochrome c in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Different CYC1 alleles can be conveniently recovered by digestion of total DNA from transformed strains with BgI II, a restriction endouclease that does not cut the vector or the CYC1 gene, followed by transformation of Escherichia coli, selecting the ampicillin resistance gene carried on the original vector. This procedure was used to clone the cyc1-362 gene, which contains an alteration in front of the AUG initiation codon. The cyc1-362 mutation causes a deficiency of the iso-1-cytochrome c protein but still allows transcription of the iso-1-cytochrome c mRNA. DNA sequence analysis showed that the cyc1-362 mutation consisted of two single-base-pair substitutions, producing an A ..-->.. G change 18 nucleotides and a G ..-->.. A change 30 nucleotides in front of the AUG initiation codon in the mRNA. The A ..-->.. G change at position -18 resulted in the creation of an AUG triplet, which is proximal to the normal initiation site and out of phase with the normal reading frame. The deficiency of iso-1-cytochrome c is most simply explained by assuming that translation initiates at the more proximal abnormal AUG site but not at the normal AUG site.

  12. Altered Stationary-Phase Response in a Borrelia burgdorferi rpoS Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Abdallah F.; Bono, James L.; Carroll, James A.; Stewart, Philip; Tilly, Kit; Rosa, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    The homolog of the chromosomally encoded stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS in Borrelia burgdorferi was inactivated using gyrBr as a selectable marker. Two-dimensional nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of stationary-phase cell lysates identified at least 11 differences between the protein profiles of the rpoS mutant and wild-type organisms. Wild-type B. burgdorferi had a growth phase-dependent resistance to 1 N NaCl, similar to the stationary-phase response reported for other bacteria. The B. burgdorferi rpoS mutant strain was less resistant to osmotic stress in stationary phase than the isogenic rpoS wild-type organism. The results indicate that the B. burgdorferi rpoS homolog influences protein composition and participates in stationary-phase-dependent osmotic resistance. This rpoS mutant will be useful for studying regulation of gene expression in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:10781562

  13. RpoS regulation of gene expression during exponential growth of Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Kirchhof, Mark G; Schellhorn, Herb E

    2008-03-01

    RpoS is a major regulator of genes required for adaptation to stationary phase in E. coli. However, the exponential phase expression of some genes is affected by rpoS mutation, suggesting RpoS may also have an important physiological role in growing cells. To test this hypothesis, we examined the regulatory role of RpoS in exponential phase using both genomic and biochemical approaches. Microarray expression data revealed that, in the rpoS mutant, the expression of 268 genes was attenuated while the expression of 24 genes was enhanced. Genes responsible for carbon source transport (the mal operon for maltose), protein folding (dnaK and mopAB), and iron acquisition (fepBD, entCBA, fecI, and exbBD) were positively controlled by RpoS. The importance of RpoS-mediated control of iron acquisition was confirmed by cellular metal analysis which revealed that the intracellular iron content of wild type cells was two-fold higher than in rpoS mutant cells. Surprisingly, many previously identified RpoS stationary-phase dependent genes were not controlled by RpoS in exponential phase and several genes were RpoS-regulated only in exponential phase, suggesting the involvement of other regulators. The expression of RpoS-dependent genes osmY, tnaA and malK was controlled by Crl, a transcriptional regulator that modulates RpoS activity. In summary, the identification of a group of exponential phase genes controlled by RpoS reveals a novel aspect of RpoS function.

  14. Stringent factor and proteolysis control of sigma factor RpoS expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Philipp; Tutz, Sarah; Mutsam, Beatrice; Vorkapic, Dina; Heyne, Barbara; Grabner, Claudia; Kleewein, Katharina; Halscheidt, Anja; Schild, Stefan; Reidl, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Vibrio cholerae can colonize the gastrointestinal track of humans and cause the disease cholera. During colonization, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, controls a process known as "mucosal escape response," defining a specific spatial and temporal response and effecting chemotaxis and motility. In this report, the expression and proteolytic control of RpoS in V. cholerae was characterized. To date, aspects of proteolysis control, the involved components, and proteolysis regulation have not been addressed for RpoS in V. cholerae. Similar to Escherichia coli, we find that the RpoS protein is subjected to regulated intracellular proteolysis, which is mediated by homologues of the proteolysis-targeting factor RssB and the protease complex ClpXP. As demonstrated, RpoS expression transiently peaks after cells are shifted from rich to minimal growth medium. This peak level is dependent on (p)ppGpp-activated rpoS transcription and controlled RpoS proteolysis. The RpoS peak level also correlates with induction of a chemotaxis gene, encoding a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein, earlier identified to belong to the mucosal escape response pathway. These results suggest that the RpoS expression peak is linked to (p)ppGpp alarmone increase, leading to enhanced motility and chemotaxis, and possibly contributing to the mucosal escape response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress and Survival of Aging Escherichia coli rpoS Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Taddei, François; Matic, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the expression of the RpoS regulon is known to be crucial for survival in liquid cultures during stationary phase. By measuring cell viability and by transcriptome analysis, here we show that rpoS cells as well as wild-type cells survive when they form colonies on solid media. PMID:15454563

  16. The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Laura M.; Shuman, Howard A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate regulatory networks in Legionella pneumophila, the gene encoding the homolog of the Escherichia coli stress and stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS was identified by complementation of an E. coli rpoS mutation. An open reading frame that is approximately 60% identical to the E. coli rpoS gene was identified. Western blot analysis showed that the level of L. pneumophila RpoS increased in stationary phase. An insertion mutation was constructed in the rpoS gene on the chromosome of L. pneumophila, and the ability of this mutant strain to survive various stress conditions was assayed and compared with results for the wild-type strain. Both the mutant and wild-type strains were more resistant to stress when in stationary phase than when in the logarithmic phase of growth. This finding indicates that L. pneumophila RpoS is not required for a stationary-phase-dependent resistance to stress. Although the mutant strain was able to kill HL-60- and THP-1-derived macrophages, it could not replicate within a protozoan host, Acanthamoeba castellanii. These data suggest that L. pneumophila possesses a growth phase-dependent resistance to stress that is independent of RpoS control and that RpoS likely regulates genes that enable it to survive in the environment within protozoa. Our data indicate that the role of rpoS in L. pneumophila is very different from what has previously been reported for E. coli rpoS. PMID:10438758

  17. Polymorphisms in rpoS and Stress Tolerance Heterogeneity in Natural Isolates of Cronobacter sakazakii

    PubMed Central

    Begley, Máire; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Significant phenotypic diversity was observed when we examined the abilities of a number of Cronobacter sakazakii natural isolates to cope with various sublethal stress conditions (acid, alkaline, osmotic, oxidative, or heat stress). Levels of catalase activity and use of acetate as a carbon source, phenotypes commonly used as indirect assays to predict RpoS function, revealed a high correlation between predicted RpoS activity and tolerance to acid, alkaline, osmotic, and oxidative treatments. The rpoS genes were sequenced and analyzed for polymorphisms. Loss-of-function mutations were found in two strains; C. sakazakii DPC 6523 and the genome-sequenced strain C. sakazakii ATCC BAA-894. The complementation of these strains with a functional rpoS gene resulted in an increase in bacterial tolerance to acid, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. The pigmentation status of strains was also assessed, and a high variability in carotenoid content was observed, with a functional rpoS gene being essential for the production of the characteristic yellow pigment. In conclusion, the evidence presented in this study demonstrates that rpoS is a highly polymorphic gene in C. sakazakii, and it supports the importance of RpoS for the tolerance under stress conditions that C. sakazakii may encounter in the food chain and in the host during infection. PMID:22447602

  18. RpoS is required for natural transformation of Vibrio cholerae through regulation of chitinases.

    PubMed

    Dalia, Ankur B

    2016-11-01

    Vibrio species naturally reside in the aquatic environment and a major metabolite in this habitat is the chitinous exoskeletons of crustacean zooplankton. In addition to serving as a nutrient, chitin-derived oligosaccharides also induce natural genetic competence in many Vibrio spp., a physiological state in which bacteria take up DNA from the extracellular environment and can integrate it into their chromosome by homologous recombination. Another inducing cue required for competence are quorum-sensing autoinducers. The alternative sigma factor RpoS is critical for natural transformation in Vibrio cholerae, and it was previously presumed to exert this effect through regulation of quorum sensing. Here, we show that RpoS does not affect quorum sensing-dependent regulation of competence. Instead, we show that an rpoS mutant has reduced chitinase activity, which is required to liberate the soluble chitin oligosaccharides that serve as an inducing cue for competence. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that RpoS is required for growth of V. cholerae on insoluble chitin. RpoS also regulates the mucosal escape response in pathogenic strains of V. cholerae. Thus, in addition to promoting egress from its human host, RpoS may also prime this pathogen for successful reentry into the aquatic environment. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The 5′ Leader of the mRNA Encoding the Marek's Disease Virus Serotype 1 pp14 Protein Contains an Intronic Internal Ribosome Entry Site with Allosteric Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Matsuda, Daiki; Xu, Hongtao; Panagiotis, Panopoulos; Burman, Luke; Lambeth, Luke S.; Petherbridge, Lawrence; James, William; Mauro, Vincent; Nair, Venugopal

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of a functional internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′ leader (designated 5L) from a variant of bicistronic mRNAs that encode the pp14 and RLORF9 proteins from Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1. Transcribed as a 1.8-kb family of immediate-early genes, the mature bicistronic mRNAs have variable 5′ leader sequences due to alternative splicing or promoter usage. Consequently, the presence or absence of the 5L IRES in the mRNA dictates the mode of pp14 translation and leads to the production of two pp14 isoforms that differ in their N-terminal sequences. Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR indicates that the mRNA variants with the 5L IRES is two to three times more abundant in MDV-infected and transformed cells than the mRNA variants lacking the 5L IRES. A common feature to all members of the 1.8-kb family of transcripts is the presence of an intercistronic IRES that we have previously shown to control the translation of the second open reading frame (i.e., RLORF9). Investigation of the two IRESs residing in the same bicistronic reporter mRNA revealed functional synergism for translation efficiency. In analogy with allosteric models in proteins, we propose IRES allostery to describe such a novel phenomenon. The functional implications of our findings are discussed in relation to host-virus interactions and translational control. PMID:19793814

  20. Role of rpoS in Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain H32 Biofilm Development and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Jessica R.; Yim, Mi-Sung; Saliba, Jessica H.; Chung, Wai-Hong; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The protein RpoS is responsible for mediating cell survival during the stationary phase by conferring cell resistance to various stressors and has been linked to biofilm formation. In this study, the role of the rpoS gene in Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and survival in water was investigated. Confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms established on coverslips revealed a nutrient-dependent role of rpoS in biofilm formation, where the biofilm biomass volume of the rpoS mutant was 2.4- to 7.5-fold the size of its rpoS+ wild-type counterpart in minimal growth medium. The enhanced biofilm formation of the rpoS mutant did not, however, translate to increased survival in sterile double-distilled water (ddH2O), filter-sterilized lake water, or unfiltered lake water. The rpoS mutant had an overall reduction of 3.10 and 5.30 log10 in sterile ddH2O and filter-sterilized lake water, respectively, while only minor reductions of 0.53 and 0.61 log10 in viable counts were observed for the wild-type form in the two media over a 13-day period, respectively. However, the survival rates of the detached biofilm-derived rpoS+ and rpoS mutant cells were comparable. Under the competitive stress conditions of unfiltered lake water, the advantage conferred by the presence of rpoS was lost, and both the wild-type and knockout forms displayed similar declines in viable counts. These results suggest that rpoS does have an influence on both biofilm formation and survival of E. coli O157:H7 and that the advantage conferred by rpoS is contingent on the environmental conditions. PMID:23001657

  1. A Regulatory Feedback Loop between RpoS and SpoT Supports the Survival of Legionella pneumophila in Water

    PubMed Central

    Trigui, Hana; Dudyk, Paulina; Oh, Jinrok; Hong, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a waterborne pathogen, and survival in the aquatic environment is central to its transmission to humans. Therefore, identifying genes required for its survival in water could help prevent Legionnaires' disease outbreaks. In the present study, we investigate the role of the sigma factor RpoS in promoting survival in water, where L. pneumophila experiences severe nutrient deprivation. The rpoS mutant showed a strong survival defect compared to the wild-type strain in defined water medium. The transcriptome of the rpoS mutant during exposure to water revealed that RpoS represses genes associated with replication, translation, and transcription, suggesting that the mutant fails to shut down major metabolic programs. In addition, the rpoS mutant is transcriptionally more active than the wild-type strain after water exposure. This could be explained by a misregulation of the stringent response in the rpoS mutant. Indeed, the rpoS mutant shows an increased expression of spoT and a corresponding decrease in the level of (p)ppGpp, which is due to the presence of a negative feedback loop between RpoS and SpoT. Therefore, the lack of RpoS causes an aberrant regulation of the stringent response, which prevents the induction of a successful response to starvation. PMID:25416763

  2. Roles of RpoS and PsrA in cyst formation and alkylresorcinol synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Sampieri, Arístides; Moreno, Soledad; Núñez, Cinthia; Castañeda, Miguel; Segura, Daniel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-06-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts that are resistant to desiccation. Upon induction of cyst formation, the bacterium synthesizes alkylresorcinols that are present in cysts but not in vegetative cells. Alternative sigma factors play important roles in differentiation. In A. vinelandii, AlgU (sigma E) is involved in controlling the loss of flagella upon induction of encystment. We investigated the involvement of the sigma factor RpoS in cyst formation in A. vinelandii. We analysed the transcriptional regulation of the rpoS gene by PsrA, the main regulator of rpoS in Pseudomonas species, which are closely related to A. vinelandii. Inactivation of rpoS resulted in the inability to form cysts resistant to desiccation and to produce cyst-specific alkylresorcinols, whereas inactivation of psrA reduced by 50 % both production of alkylresorcinols and formation of cysts resistant to desiccation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed specific binding of PsrA to the rpoS promoter region and that inactivation of psrA reduced rpoS transcription by 60 %. These results indicate that RpoS and PsrA are involved in regulation of encystment and alkylresorcinol synthesis in A. vinelandii.

  3. Mutation of rpoS gene decreased resistance to environmental stresses, synthesis of extracellular products and virulence of Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Chen, Jixiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Ying-An

    2009-11-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes vibriosis in marine fish, freshwater fish and other aquatic animals. Bacteria have developed strategies to survive in harsh environments. The alternative sigma factor, RpoS (sigma(S)), plays a key role in surviving under stress conditions in some gram-negative bacteria. An rpoS mutant of pathogenic V. anguillarum W-1 was constructed by homologous recombination. The sensitivity of the rpoS mutant to osmotic stress [2.4 M NaCl in artificial seawater (ASW)] did not change obviously, but the sensitivity of the rpoS mutant to high temperature (45 degrees C in ASW), UV-irradiation and oxidative stress (5 mM H(2)O(2) in ASW) increased 33-fold, sixfold and 10-fold, respectively. The production of extracellular phospholipase, diastase, lipase, caseinase, hemolysin, catalase and protease of the rpoS mutant decreased markedly compared with those of the wild-type strain. Virulence of the rpoS mutant strain was also decreased when it was inoculated intraperitoneally into zebra fish; the lethal dose 50% of the wild type and the mutant was 8.66 x 10(4) and 2.55 x 10(6) CFU per fish, respectively. These results indicated that the RpoS of V. anguillarum plays important roles in bacterial adaptation to environmental stresses and its pathogenicity.

  4. Influence of rpoS mutations on the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Oscar J; Costa, Cristina S; Pizarro, Ramón A

    2011-01-10

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important pathogen, and exhibits considerable resistance to the lethal effects of solar radiation. To evaluate the involvement of the RpoS transcription factor in the defense mechanisms of this organism, the sunlight response of a wild type strain (ATCC14028) was compared with that of an rpoS mutant, which exhibited increased sensitivity. Kinetics of cell death was complex in both strains, probably due to the presence of a variety of targets for the radiation. When ultraviolet radiation was excluded from the incident sunlight, lethal effects were abolished independently of the allelic state of rpoS. Reduction of oxygen concentration in the irradiation medium provided moderate protection to ATCC14028, but notably improved survival of the mutant. Similar assays were developed with another S. enterica strain (DA1468), which is a derivative of strain LT2 and produces low levels of RpoS. In this strain the loss of viability reveals the dependence on solar ultraviolet and oxygen concentration found for ATCC14028, but radiation resistance was slightly reduced. Increased sensitivity was observed in an rpoS mutant derived from DA1468, indicating that RpoS functions related to photoprotection are conserved in this strain. In addition, notable differences in the shape of the survival curves obtained for mutants derived from ATCC14028 and DA1468 were found, suggesting that genes beyond RpoS control are relevant in the sunlight response of these mutants.

  5. Burkholderia pseudomallei rpoS mediates iNOS suppression in human hepatocyte (HC04) cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanongkiet, Sucharat; Ponnikorn, Saranyoo; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a widespread disease in Southeast Asia. Reactive nitrogen, in an intermediate form of nitric oxide (NO), is one of the first lines of defense used by host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens, through the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Studies in phagocytotic cells have shown that the iNOS response is muted in B. pseudomallei infection, and implicated the rpoS sigma factor as a key regulatory factor mediating suppression. The liver is a main visceral organ affected by B. pseudomallei, and there is little knowledge about the interaction of liver cells and B. pseudomallei. This study investigated the induction of iNOS, as well as autophagic flux and light-chain 3 (LC3) localization in human liver (HC04) cells in response to infection with B. pseudomallei and its rpoS deficient mutant. Results showed that the rpoS mutant was unable to suppress iNOS induction and that the mutant showed less induction of autophagy and lower co-localization with LC3, and this was coupled with a lower intracellular growth rate. Combining these results suggest that B. pseudomallei rpoS is an important factor in establishing infection in liver cells. PMID:27324398

  6. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and 5’ mRNA leader sequences as agents of translational regulation in Arabidopsis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2015-02-04

    Protein synthesis, or translation, consumes a sizable fraction of the cell’s energy budget, estimated at 5% and up to 50% in differentiated and growing cells, respectively. Plants also invest significant energy and biomass to construct and maintain the translation apparatus. Translation is regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Compared to transcriptional control, attributes of translational control include reduced sensitivity to stochastic fluctuation, a finer gauge of control, and more rapid responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Yet, our murky understanding of translational control allows few generalizations. Consequently, translational regulation is underutilized in the context of transgene regulation, although synthetic biologists are now beginning to appropriate RNA-level gene regulation into their regulatory circuits. We also know little about how translational control contributes to the diversity of plant form and function. This project explored how an emerging regulatory mRNA sequence element, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), is integrated with the general translation initiation machinery to permit translational regulation on specific mRNAs.

  7. Effect of Translesion DNA Polymerases, Endonucleases and RpoS on Mutation Rates in Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Koskiniemi, Sanna; Hughes, Diarmaid; Andersson, Dan I.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that bacteria have evolved mechanisms to increase their mutation rate in response to various stresses and that the translesion DNA polymerase Pol IV under control of the LexA regulon and the alternative sigma factor RpoS are involved in regulating this mutagenesis. Here we examined in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 the rates for four different types of mutations (rifampicin, nalidixic acid, and chlorate resistance and Lac+ reversion) during various growth conditions and with different levels of four translesion DNA polymerases (Pol II, Pol IV, Pol V, and SamAB) and RpoS. Constitutive derepression of the LexA regulon by a lexA(def) mutation had no effect on Lac+ reversion rates but increased the other three mutation rates up to 11-fold, and the contribution of the translesion DNA polymerases to this mutagenesis varied with the type of mutation examined. The increase in mutation rates in the lexA(def) mutant required the presence of the LexA-controlled UvrB protein and endonucleases UvrC and Cho. With regard to the potential involvement of RpoS in mutagenesis, neither an increase in RpoS levels conferred by artificial overexpression from a plasmid nor long-term stationary phase incubation or slow growth caused an increase in any of the four mutation rates measured, alone or in combination with overexpression of the translesion DNA polymerases. In conclusion, mutation rates are remarkably robust and no combination of growth conditions, induction of translesion DNA polymerases by inactivation of LexA, or increased RpoS expression could confer an increase in mutation rates higher than the moderate increase caused by derepression of the LexA regulon alone. PMID:20421601

  8. Roles of RpoS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis stress survival, motility, biofilm formation and type VI secretion system expression.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jingyuan; Xiao, Xiao; Xu, Shengjuan; Gao, Fen; Wang, Jianbo; Wang, Tietao; Song, Yunhong; Pan, Junfeng; Shen, Xihui; Wang, Yao

    2015-09-01

    RpoS (σ(S)), the stationary phase/stress σ factor, controls the expression of a large number of genes involved in cellular responses to a variety of stresses. However, the role of RpoS appears to differ in different bacteria. While RpoS is an important regulator of flagellum biosynthesis, it is associated with biofilm development in Edwardsiella tarda. Biofilms are dense communities formed by bacteria and are important for microbe survival under unfavorable conditions. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) discovered recently is reportedly associated with several phenotypes, ranging from biofilm formation to stress sensing. For example, Vibrio anguillarum T6SS was proposed to serve as a sensor for extracytoplasmic signals and modulates RpoS expression and stress response. In this study, we investigated the physiological roles of RpoS in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, including bacterial survival under stress conditions, flagella formation, biofilm development and T6SS expression. We found that RpoS is important in resistance to multiple stressors-including H2O2, acid, osmotic and heat shock-in Y. pseudotuberculosis. In addition, our study showed that RpoS not only modulates the expression of T6SS but also regulates flagellum formation by positively controlling the flagellar master regulatory gene flhDC, and affects the formation of biofilm on Caenorhabditis elegans by regulating the synthesis of exopolysaccharides. Taken together, these results show that RpoS plays a central role in cell fitness under several adverse conditions in Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  9. H-NS Regulation of IraD and IraM Antiadaptors for Control of RpoS Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Battesti, A.; Tsegaye, Y. M.; Packer, D. G.; Majdalani, N.

    2012-01-01

    RpoS, the master sigma factor during stationary phase and under a variety of stress conditions, is regulated at multiple levels, including regulated degradation. Degradation is dependent upon ClpXP and the RssB adaptor protein. H-NS, a nucleoid-associated protein, affects the regulated degradation of RpoS; in the absence of H-NS, RpoS is stable. The mechanisms involved in this regulation were not known. We have found that H-NS inhibits the expression of iraD and iraM, the genes coding for two antiadaptor proteins that stabilize RpoS when overexpressed. The regulation by H-NS of iraM is independent from the previously demonstrated regulation by the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system. Moreover, differences in the behavior of several hns alleles are explained by a role for StpA, an H-NS-like protein, in the regulation of RpoS stability. This finding parallels recent observations for a role of StpA in regulation of RpoS stability in Salmonella. PMID:22408168

  10. The sigma factor RpoS is required for stress tolerance and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Loper, Joyce E

    2005-09-01

    Many micro-organisms exist in natural habitats that are subject to severe or dramatically fluctuating environmental conditions. Such is the case for bacteria inhabiting plant surfaces, where they are exposed to UV irradiation, oxygen radicals, and large fluctuations in temperature and moisture. This study focuses on the role of RpoS, a central regulator of stationary-phase gene expression in bacterial cells, in stress response and environmental fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5. Strain Pf-5 is a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses plant diseases caused by several plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. Previous studies demonstrated that rpoS was required for osmotic and oxidative stress resistance of Pf-5. The results of this study demonstrate a role for rpoS in tolerance of Pf-5 to freezing, starvation, UV irradiation and desiccation stress. In field studies, an rpoS mutant was compromised in rhizosphere colonization of plants in dry soil, whereas similar rhizosphere populations were established by Pf-5 and an rpoS mutant in well-irrigated soils. RpoS is a key determinant in stress response and environmental fitness of the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5.

  11. Role of RpoS in stress tolerance and environmental fitness of the phyllosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Hockett, Kevin; Loper, Joyce E

    2009-06-01

    Bacteria living epiphytically on aerial plant surfaces encounter severe and rapidly fluctuating environmental conditions, and their capacity to withstand environmental stress contributes to epiphytic fitness. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS is a key determinant in stress response of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp. This study focused on the role of RpoS in stress response and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122 on aerial plant surfaces. RpoS had a significant role in the response of the phyllosphere bacterium P. fluorescens 122 to stresses imposed by desiccation, UV irradiation, starvation, and an oxidative environment. While significant, the difference in stress response between an rpoS mutant and the parental strain was less for strain 122 than for the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5. No consistent influence of RpoS on epiphytic population size of strain 122 on pear or apple flowers or leaves was observed in field trials. These data may indicate that P. fluorescens occupies protected microsites on aerial plant surfaces where the bacteria escape exposure to environmental stress, or that redundant stress-response mechanisms are operating in this bacterium, thereby obscuring the role of RpoS in epiphytic fitness of the bacterium.

  12. Significance of rpoS during maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akinobu; May, Thithiwat; Kawata, Koji; Okabe, Satoshi

    2008-04-15

    Presence of starved, stationary phase-like zones in biofilms seems to be an important factor for biofilm formation. In this study, roles of rpoS gene in the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms were investigated. E. coli MG1655 wild type (WT) and rpoS mutant (DeltarpoS) strains were used to compare biofilm formation capacity and global gene expression. Even though the DeltarpoS strain could attach and form microcolonies on glass surfaces, it could not establish mature biofilms. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WT biofilms (WBF) showed similar pattern of gene expression with WT planktonic stationary phase, whereas DeltarpoS biofilms (MBF) showed similar pattern of gene expression with WT planktonic exponential phase. Genes involved in energy metabolism (atpIBEFHAG, atpC, cydAB) and flagella synthesis (flgB, flgC, flhD, fliA, fliC, fliY) showed increased expression in the MBF, but not in the WBF. Moreover, genes involved in stress responses (blc, cspG, dinD poxB, wcaF, wcaI, and yfcF) showed increased expression in the WBF compared to the MBF. These results suggested that the rpoS gene contributed in maturation of E. coli biofilms through regulation of global gene expression including energy metabolism, motility, and stress responses.

  13. The Polymorphic Aggregative Phenotype of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111 Depends on RpoS and Curli

    PubMed Central

    Diodati, M. E.; Bates, A. H.; Miller, W. G.; Carter, M. Q.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 serotype of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic-case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and M. T. Brandl, Foodborne Pathog Dis 12:235−243, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1887). We show here the natural occurrence of nonaggregative variants in single STEC O111 strains. These variants do not produce curli fimbriae and lack RpoS function but synthesize cellulose. The deletion of csgBAC or rpoS in an aggregative outbreak strain abolished aggregate formation, which was rescued when curli biogenesis or RpoS function, respectively, was restored. Complementation of a nonaggregative variant with RpoS also conferred curli production and aggregation. These observations were supported by Western blotting with an anti-CsgA antibody. Immunomicroscopy revealed that curli were undetectable on the cells of the nonaggregative variant and the RpoS mutant but were present in large quantities in the intercellular matrix of the assemblages formed by aggregative strains. Sequence analysis of rpoS in the aggregative strain and its variant showed a single substitution of threonine for asparagine at amino acid 124. Our results indicate that the multicellular behavior of STEC O111 is RpoS dependent via positive regulation of curli production. Aggregation may confer a fitness advantage in O111 outbreak strains under stressful conditions in hydrodynamic environments along the food production chain and in the host, while the occurrence of nonaggregative variants may allow the cell population to adapt to conditions benefiting a planktonic lifestyle. PMID:26712542

  14. Influence of the RpoS (KatF) sigma factor on maintenance of viability and culturability of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, P M; Flatau, G N; Clément, R L; Gauthier, M J

    1995-01-01

    The sigma factor RpoS is essential for stationary-phase-specific, multiple-stress resistance. We compared the viabilities (direct viable counts) and culturabilities (colony counts) in seawater of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains and those in which rpoS was deleted or which were deficient in guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp) synthesis (relA spoT). RpoS, possibly via ppGpp regulation, positively influenced the culturability of these bacteria in oligotrophic seawater. This influence closely depended, however, upon the growth state of the cells and the conditions under which they were grown prior to their transfer to seawater. The protective effect of RpoS was observed only in stationary-phase cells grown at low osmolarity. A previous exposure of cells to high osmolarity (0.5 M NaCl) also had a strong influence on the effect of RpoS on cell culturability in seawater. Both E. coli and S. typhimurium RpoS mutants lost the ability to acquire a high resistance to seawater, as observed in both logarithmic-phase and stationary-phase RpoS+ cells grown at high osmolarity. A previous growth of S. typhimurium cells under anoxic conditions also modulated the incidence of RpoS on their culturability. When grown anaerobically at high osmolarity, logarithmic-phase S. typhimurium RpoS+ cells partly lost their resistance to seawater through preadaptation to high osmolarity. When grown anaerobically at high osmolarity until stationary phase, both RpoS+ and RpoS- cells retained very high levels of both viability and culturability and then did not enter the viable but nonculturable state for over 8 days in seawater because of an RpoS-independent, unknown mechanism. PMID:7646022

  15. The rpoS gene is predominantly inactivated during laboratory storage and undergoes source-sink evolution in Escherichia coli species.

    PubMed

    Bleibtreu, Alexandre; Clermont, Olivier; Darlu, Pierre; Glodt, Jérémy; Branger, Catherine; Picard, Bertrand; Denamur, Erick

    2014-12-01

    The rpoS gene codes for an alternative RNA polymerase sigma factor, which acts as a general regulator of the stress response. Inactivating alleles of rpoS in collections of natural Escherichia coli isolates have been observed at very variable frequencies, from less than 1% to more than 70% of strains. rpoS is easily inactivated in nutrient-deprived environments such as stab storage, which makes it difficult to determine the true frequency of rpoS inactivation in nature. We studied the evolutionary history of rpoS and compared it to the phylogenetic history of bacteria in two collections of 82 human commensal and extraintestinal E. coli strains. These strains were representative of the phylogenetic diversity of the species and differed only by their storage conditions. In both collections, the phylogenetic histories of rpoS and of the strains were congruent, indicating that horizontal gene transfer had not occurred at the rpoS locus, and rpoS was under strong purifying selection, with a ratio of the nonsynonymous mutation rate (Ka) to the synonymous substitution rate (Ks) substantially smaller than 1. Stab storage was associated with a high frequency of inactivating alleles, whereas almost no amino acid sequence variation was observed in RpoS in the collection studied directly after isolation of the strains from the host. Furthermore, the accumulation of variations in rpoS was typical of source-sink dynamics. In conclusion, rpoS is rarely inactivated in natural E. coli isolates within their mammalian hosts, probably because such strains rapidly become evolutionary dead ends. Our data should encourage bacteriologists to freeze isolates immediately and to avoid the use of stab storage. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Contribution of rpoS and bolA genes in biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohd; Morton, Glyn; Singh, Jaipaul; Hadi, Sibte

    2010-09-01

    Flexibility of gene expression in bacteria permits its survival in varied environments. The genetic adaptation of bacteria through systematized gene expression is not only important, but also clinically relevant in their ability to grow biofilms in stress environments. Stress responses enable their survival under more severe conditions, enhanced resistance and/or virulence. In Escherichia coli (E. coli), two of the possible important genes for biofilm growth are rpoS and bolA gene. RpoS is also called as a master regulator of general stress response. Even though many studies have revealed the importance of rpoS in planktonic cells, little is known about the functions of rpoS in biofilms. In contrast, bolA which is a morphogene in E. coli is overexpressed under stressed environments resulting in round morphology. The hypothesis is that bolA could be implicated in biofilm development. This study reviewed the literature with the aim of understanding the stress tolerance response of E. coli in relation with rpoS and bolA genes in different environmental conditions including heat shock, cold shock, and stress in response to oxidation, acidic condition and in presence of cadmium. Knowledge of the genetic regulation of biofilm formation may lead to the understanding of the factors that drive the bacteria to switch to the biofilm mode of growth.

  17. Transcriptional activation of the Azotobacter vinelandii polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic genes phbBAC by PhbR and RpoS.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Eligio, Alberto; Castellanos, Mildred; Moreno, Soledad; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-11-01

    We previously showed that in Azotobacter vinelandii, accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) occurs mainly during the stationary phase, and that a mutation in phbR, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the AraC family, reduces PHB accumulation. In this study, we characterized the roles of PhbR and RpoS, a central regulator during stationary phase in bacteria, in the regulation of expression of the PHB biosynthetic operon phbBAC and phbR. We showed that inactivation of rpoS reduced PHB accumulation, similar to the phbR mutation, and inactivation of both rpoS and phbR resulted in an inability to produce PHB. We carried out expression studies with the wild-type, and the rpoS, phbR and double rpoS-phbR mutant strains, using quantitative RT-PCR, as well as phbB : : gusA and phbR : : gusA gene fusions. These studies showed that both PhbR and RpoS act as activators of phbB and phbR, and revealed a role for PhbR as an autoactivator. We also demonstrated that PhbR binds specifically to two almost identical 18 bp sites, TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CACTA and TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CAGTA, present in the phbB promoter region. The activation of phbB and phbR transcription by RpoS reported here is in agreement with the observation that accumulation of PHB in A. vinelandii occurs mainly during the stationary phase.

  18. Osmotic and desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires rpoS (σ(38)).

    PubMed

    Stasic, Andrew J; Lee Wong, Amy C; Kaspar, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of RecA, Dps, and RpoS to survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during desiccation and osmotic stress was determined in Luria-Bertani broth with 12 % NaCl (LB-12) at 30 and 37 °C, on filter disks at 23 and 30 °C, and in sterile bovine feces at 30 °C. RecA did not significantly contribute to survival in any condition or temperature. The contribution of Dps to survival was only significant in LB-12 at 37 °C. RpoS was necessary for survival during desiccation and osmotic stress, and survival of the RpoS mutant was significantly less than the parent in all conditions and temperatures. The RpoS mutant survived up to 21 days in bovine feces, <4 days on filter disks, and >8 and <4 days in LB-12 at 30 and 37 °C, respectively. The parent, ΔrecA, dps, and dps/ΔrecA mutant strains survived >8 days in LB-12, >28 days on filter disks, and >28 days in bovine feces. Increased incubation temperatures were associated with decreased survival. E. coli O157:H7 can persist in desiccating and osmotically challenging environments, especially sterile feces, for an extended period time.

  19. The role of ClpP, RpoS and CsrA in growth and filament formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonellae are food-borne pathogens of great health and economic importance. To pose a threat to humans, Salmonellae normally have to cope with a series of stressful conditions in the food chain, including low temperature. In the current study, we evaluated the importance of the Clp proteolytic complex and the carbon starvation protein, CsrA, for the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to grow at low temperature. Results A clpP mutant was severely affected in growth and formed pin point colonies at 10°C. Contrary to this, rpoS and clpP/rpoS mutants were only slightly affected. The clpP mutant formed cold resistant suppressor mutants at a frequency of 2.5 × 10−3 and these were found not to express RpoS. Together these results indicated that the impaired growth of the clpP mutant was caused by high level of RpoS. Evaluation by microscopy of the clpP mutant revealed that it formed filamentous cells when grown at 10°C, and this phenotype too, disappered when rpoS was mutated in parallel indicating a RpoS-dependency. A csrA (sup) mutant was also growth attenuated a low temperature. An rpoS/csrA (sup) double mutant was also growth attenuated, indicating that the phenotype of the csrA mutant was independent from RpoS. Conclusions The cold sensitivity of clpP mutant was associated with increased levels of RpoS and probably caused by toxic levels of RpoS. Although a csrA mutant also accumulated high level of RpoS, growth impairment caused by lack of csrA was not related to RpoS levels in a similar way. PMID:25123657

  20. The role of ClpP, RpoS and CsrA in growth and filament formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Nielsen, Maj-Britt; Thomsen, Line Elnif; Aabo, Søren; Rychlik, Ivan; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2014-08-14

    Salmonellae are food-borne pathogens of great health and economic importance. To pose a threat to humans, Salmonellae normally have to cope with a series of stressful conditions in the food chain, including low temperature. In the current study, we evaluated the importance of the Clp proteolytic complex and the carbon starvation protein, CsrA, for the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to grow at low temperature. A clpP mutant was severely affected in growth and formed pin point colonies at 10°C. Contrary to this, rpoS and clpP/rpoS mutants were only slightly affected. The clpP mutant formed cold resistant suppressor mutants at a frequency of 2.5 × 10(-3) and these were found not to express RpoS. Together these results indicated that the impaired growth of the clpP mutant was caused by high level of RpoS. Evaluation by microscopy of the clpP mutant revealed that it formed filamentous cells when grown at 10°C, and this phenotype too, disappered when rpoS was mutated in parallel indicating a RpoS-dependency. A csrA (sup) mutant was also growth attenuated a low temperature. An rpoS/csrA (sup) double mutant was also growth attenuated, indicating that the phenotype of the csrA mutant was independent from RpoS. The cold sensitivity of clpP mutant was associated with increased levels of RpoS and probably caused by toxic levels of RpoS. Although a csrA mutant also accumulated high level of RpoS, growth impairment caused by lack of csrA was not related to RpoS levels in a similar way.

  1. Mutation of rpoS enhances Pseudomonas sp. KL28 growth at higher concentrations of m-cresol and changes its surface-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji In; Cho, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Lee, Soo O; Cho, Kyungyun; Lee, Kyoung

    2007-04-01

    A Tn5 transposon mutant was isolated of the alkylphenol degrader Pseudomonas sp. KL28 that showed increased growth at higher levels of m-cresol on solid and in liquid cultures. The transposon was inserted at the 5'-terminus of rpoS, which encodes a stationary-phase sigma factor. When grown on agar plates, the rpoS mutant developed prominent wrinkles, especially at lower temperatures, and spread faster on soft agar. In addition, the rpoS mutant had enhanced biofilm-forming ability that was not due to self-produced diffusible signals.

  2. Teaching Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Lisa; Penney, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    In an age of instantaneous information sharing and increased interdependence, today's leaders must learn to work collaboratively, leveraging the strengths, skills, and experiences of those around them, in order to address the challenges they face. The Center for Collaborative Leadership is uniquely situated in the College of Management at the…

  3. Genetic Evidence that Legionella pneumophila RpoS Modulates Expression of the Transmission Phenotype in Both the Exponential Phase and the Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Michael A.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila alternates between two states: replication within phagocytes and transmission between host amoebae or macrophages. In broth cultures that model this life cycle, during the replication period, CsrA inhibits expression of transmission traits. When nutrients become limiting, the alarmone (p)ppGpp accumulates and the sigma factors RpoS and FliA and the positive activators LetA/S and LetE promote differentiation to the transmissible form. Here we show that when cells enter the postexponential growth phase, RpoS increases expression of the transmission genes fliA, flaA, and mip, factors L. pneumophila needs to establish a new replication niche. In contrast, in exponential (E)-phase cells whose (p)ppGpp levels are low, rpoS inhibits expression of transmission traits, on the basis of three separate observations. First, rpoS RNA levels peak in the E phase, suggestive of a role for RpoS during replication. Second, in multiple copies, rpoS decreases the amounts of csrA, letE, fliA, and flaA transcripts and inhibits the transmission traits of motility, infectivity, and cytotoxicity. Third, rpoS blocks expression of cytotoxicity and motility by E-phase bacteria that have been induced to express the LetA activator ectopically. The data are discussed in the context of a model in which the alarmone (p)ppGpp enables RpoS to outcompete other sigma factors for binding to RNA polymerase to promote transcription of transmission genes, while LetA/S acts in parallel to relieve CsrA posttranscriptional repression of the transmission regulon. By coupling transcriptional and posttranscriptional control pathways, intracellular L. pneumophila could respond to stress by rapidly differentiating to a transmissible form. PMID:15102753

  4. Non-destructive monitoring of rpoS promoter activity as stress marker for evaluating cellular physiological status.

    PubMed

    Funabashi, Hisakage; Haruyama, Tetsuya; Mie, Masayasu; Yanagida, Yasuko; Kobatake, Eiry; Aizawa, Masuo

    2002-04-25

    To monitor the extent of cellular physiological stress, the activity of the rpoS promoter was evaluated as a marker of the stress pathway. A reporter plasmid was constructed by inserting the GFPuv gene under the rpoS promoter and used to transform Escherichia coli cells. The fluorescence of the GFPuv protein was measured in intact cells in a non-destructive manner. The physiological status of the cells could be conveniently monitored using the rpoS-GFPuv reporter gene with respect to the cellular growth phase and to elevated ethanol and NaCl concentrations as two examples of environmental stress factors. Comparison of the response of different E. coli strains demonstrated an essential role of the relA gene in the induction of the rpoS-GFPuv reporter gene.

  5. RpoS integrates CRP, Fis, and PhoP signaling pathways to control Salmonella Typhi hlyE expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SPI-18 is a pathogenicity island found in some Salmonella enterica serovars, including S. Typhi. SPI-18 harbors two ORFs organized into an operon, hlyE and taiA genes, both implicated in virulence. Regarding the hlyE regulation in S. Typhi, it has been reported that RpoS participates as transcriptional up-regulator under low pH and high osmolarity. In addition, CRP down-regulates hlyE expression during exponential growth. Previously, it has been suggested that there is another factor related to catabolite repression, different from CRP, involved in the down-regulation of hlyE. Moreover, PhoP-dependent hlyE up-regulation has been reported in bacteria cultured simultaneously under low pH and low concentration of Mg2+. Nevertheless, the relative contribution of each environmental signal is not completely clear. In this work we aimed to better understand the regulation of hlyE in S. Typhi and the integration of different environmental signals through global regulators. Results We found that Fis participates as a CRP-independent glucose-dependent down-regulator of hlyE. Also, Fis and CRP seem to exert the repression over hlyE through down-regulating rpoS. Moreover, PhoP up-regulates hlyE expression via rpoS under low pH and low Mg2+ conditions. Conclusions All these results together show that, at least under the tested conditions, RpoS is the central regulator in the hlyE regulatory network, integrating multiple environmental signals and global regulators. PMID:24885225

  6. Unphosphorylated EIIA(N)(tr) induces ClpAP-mediated degradation of RpoS in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Muriel-Millán, Luis Felipe; Moreno, Soledad; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramsés; Espín, Guadalupe

    2017-04-01

    The nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr) ) is composed of the EI(Ntr) , NPr and EIIA(Ntr) proteins that form a phosphorylation cascade from phosphoenolpyruvate. PTS(Ntr) is a global regulatory system present in most Gram-negative bacteria that controls some pivotal processes such as potassium and phosphate homeostasis, virulence, nitrogen fixation and ABC transport activation. In the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) negatively regulates the expression of genes related to the synthesis of the bioplastic polyester poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cyst-specific lipids alkylresorcinols (ARs). The mechanism by which EIIA(Ntr) controls gene expression in A. vinelandii is not known. Here, we show that, in presence of unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) , the stability of the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, which is necessary for transcriptional activation of PHB and ARs synthesis related genes, is reduced, and that the inactivation of genes coding for ClpAP protease complex in strains that carry unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) , restored the levels and in vivo stability of RpoS, as well as the synthesis of PHB and ARs. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism, by which EIIA(Ntr) globally controls gene expression in A. vinelandii, where the unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) induces the degradation of RpoS by the proteolytic complex ClpAP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Xenorhabdus nematophilus as a Model for Host-Bacterium Interactions: rpoS Is Necessary for Mutualism with Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Eugenio I.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophilus, a gram-negative bacterium, is a mutualist of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and a pathogen of larval-stage insects. We use this organism as a model of host-microbe interactions to identify the functions bacteria require for mutualism, pathogenesis, or both. In many gram-negative bacteria, the transcription factor ςS controls regulons that can mediate stress resistance, survival, or host interactions. Therefore, we examined the role of ςS in the ability of X. nematophilus to interact with its hosts. We cloned, sequenced, and disrupted the X. nematophilus rpoS gene that encodes ςS. The X. nematophilus rpoS mutant pathogenized insects as well as its wild-type parent. However, the rpoS mutant could not mutualistically colonize nematode intestines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific allele that affects the ability of X. nematophilus to exist within nematode intestines, an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of this association. PMID:11466270

  8. Solubility enhancement of aggregation-prone heterologous proteins by fusion expression using stress-responsive Escherichia coli protein, RpoS.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seung; Han, Kyung-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Song, Jong-Am; Ahn, Keum-Young; Seo, Hyuk-Seong; Sim, Sang-Jun Jun; Kim, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jeewon

    2008-02-19

    The most efficient method for enhancing solubility of recombinant proteins appears to use the fusion expression partners. Although commercial fusion partners including maltose binding protein and glutathione-S-transferase have shown good performance in enhancing the solubility, they cannot be used for the proprietory production of commercially value-added proteins and likely cannot serve as universal helpers to solve all protein solubility and folding issues. Thus, novel fusion partners will continue to be developed through systematic investigations including proteome mining presented in this study. We analyzed the Escherichia coli proteome response to the exogenous stress of guanidine hydrochloride using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and found that RpoS (RNA polymerase sigma factor) was significantly stress responsive. While under the stress condition the total number of soluble proteins decreased by about 7 %, but a 6-fold increase in the level of RpoS was observed, indicating that RpoS is a stress-induced protein. As an N-terminus fusion expression partner, RpoS increased significantly the solubility of many aggregation-prone heterologous proteins in E. coli cytoplasm, indicating that RpoS is a very effective solubility enhancer for the synthesis of many recombinant proteins. RpoS was also well suited for the production of a biologically active fusion mutant of Pseudomonas putida cutinase. RpoS is highly effective as a strong solubility enhancer for aggregation-prone heterologous proteins when it is used as a fusion expression partner in an E. coli expression system. The results of these findings may, therefore, be useful in the production of other biologically active industrial enzymes, as successfully demonstrated by cutinase.

  9. General stress response regulator RpoS in adaptive mutation and amplification in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Aponyi, Ildiko; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2004-01-01

    Microbial cells under growth-limiting stress can generate mutations by mechanisms distinct from those in rapidly growing cells. These mechanisms might be specific stress responses that increase mutation rates, potentially altering rates of evolution, or might reflect non-stress-specific processes in rare growing cells. In an Escherichia coli model system, both frameshift reversion mutations and gene amplifications occur as apparent starvation-induced mutations. Whereas frameshift reversion ("point mutation") requires recombination proteins, the SOS response, and error-prone DNA polymerase IV (DinB), amplification requires neither SOS nor pol IV. We report that both point mutation and amplification require the stationary-phase and general stress response transcription factor RpoS (sigmaS). Growth-dependent mutation does not. Alternative interpretations are excluded. The results imply, first, that point mutation and amplification are stress responses that occur in differentiated stationary-phase (not rare growing) cells and, second, that transient genetic instability, producing both point mutation and genome rearrangement, may be a previously unrecognized component of the RpoS-dependent general stress response. PMID:15020458

  10. The i6A37 tRNA modification is essential for proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons during rpoS and iraP translation

    PubMed Central

    Aubee, Joseph I.; Olu, Morenike

    2016-01-01

    The translation of rpoS (σS), the general stress/stationary phase sigma factor, is tightly regulated at the post-transcriptional level by several factors via mechanisms that are not clearly defined. One of these factors is MiaA, the enzyme necessary for the first step in the N6-isopentyl-2-thiomethyladenosinemethyladenosine 37 (ms2i6A37) tRNA modification. We tested the hypothesis that an elevated UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio can be used to identify transcripts whose translation would be sensitive to loss of the MiaA-dependent modification. We identified iraP as another candidate MiaA-sensitive gene, based on the UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio. An iraP-lacZ fusion was significantly decreased in the absence of MiaA, consistent with our predictive model. To determine the role of MiaA in UUX-Leucine decoding in rpoS and iraP, we measured β-galactosidase-specific activity of miaA− rpoS and iraP translational fusions upon overexpression of leucine tRNAs. We observed suppression of the MiaA effect on rpoS, and not iraP, via overexpression of tRNALeuX but not tRNALeuZ. We also tested the hypothesis that the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translation is due to decoding of UUX-Leucine codons within the rpoS and iraP transcripts, respectively. We observed a partial suppression of the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translational fusions containing one or both UUX-Leucine codons removed. Taken together, this suggests that MiaA is necessary for rpoS and iraP translation through proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons and that rpoS and iraP mRNAs are both modification tunable transcripts (MoTTs) via the presence of the modification. PMID:26979278

  11. Exploring new roles for the rpoS gene in the survival and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Santander, Ricardo D; Monte-Serrano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-12-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in economically important plants of the family Rosaceae. This bacterial pathogen spends part of its life cycle coping with starvation and other fluctuating environmental conditions. In many Gram-negative bacteria, starvation and other stress responses are regulated by the sigma factor RpoS. We obtained an E. amylovora rpoS mutant to explore the role of this gene in starvation responses and its potential implication in other processes not yet studied in this pathogen. Results showed that E. amylovora needs rpoS to develop normal starvation survival and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) responses. Furthermore, this gene contributed to stationary phase cross-protection against oxidative, osmotic, and acid stresses and was essential for cross-protection against heat shock, but nonessential against acid shock. RpoS also mediated regulation of motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and virulence in immature loquats, but not in pear plantlets, and contributed to E. amylovora survival in nonhost tissues during incompatible interactions. Our results reveal some unique roles for the rpoS gene in E. amylovora and provide new knowledge on the regulation of different processes related to its ecology, including survival in different environments and virulence in immature fruits.

  12. Translational feedback regulation of the gene for L35 in Escherichia coli requires binding of ribosomal protein L20 to two sites in its leader mRNA: a possible case of ribosomal RNA-messenger RNA molecular mimicry.

    PubMed Central

    Guillier, Maude; Allemand, Frédéric; Raibaud, Sophie; Dardel, Frédéric; Springer, Mathias; Chiaruttini, Claude

    2002-01-01

    In addition to being a component of the large ribosomal subunit, ribosomal protein L20 of Escherichia coli also acts as a translational repressor. L20 is synthesized from the IF3 operon that contains three cistrons coding for IF3, and ribosomal proteins L35 and L20. L20 directly represses the expression of the gene encoding L35 and the expression of its own gene by translational coupling. All of the cis-acting sequences required for repression by L20, called the operator, are found on an mRNA segment extending from the middle of the IF3 gene to the start of the L35 gene. L20-mediated repression requires a long-range base-pairing interaction between nucleotide residues within the IF3 gene and residues just upstream of the L35 gene. This interaction results in the formation of a pseudoknot. Here we show that L20 causes protection of nucleotide residues in two regions of the operator in vitro. The first region is the pseudoknot itself and the second lies in an irregular stem located upstream of the L35 gene. By primer extension analysis, we show that L20 specifically induces reverse transcriptase stops in both regions. Therefore, these two regions define two L20-binding sites in the operator. Using mutations and deletions of rpml'-'lacZ fusions, we show that both sites are essential for repression in vivo. However L20 can bind to each site independently in vitro. One site is similar to the L20-binding site on 23S rRNA. Here we propose that L20 recognizes its mRNA and its rRNA in similar way. PMID:12166643

  13. Regulation of Universal Stress Protein Genes by Quorum Sensing and RpoS in Burkholderia glumae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongsup; Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae possesses a quorum-sensing (QS) system mediated by N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and its cognate receptor TofR. TofR/C8-HSL regulates the expression of a transcriptional regulator, qsmR. We identified one of the universal stress proteins (Usps), Usp2, from a genome-wide analysis of QS-dependent proteomes of B. glumae. In the whole genome of B. glumae BGR1, 11 usp genes (usp1 to usp11) were identified. Among the stress conditions tested, usp1 and usp2 mutants died 1 h after heat shock stress, whereas the other usp mutants and the wild-type strain survived for more than 3 h at 45°C. The expressions of all usp genes were positively regulated by QS, directly by QsmR. In addition, the expressions of usp1 and usp2 were dependent on RpoS in the stationary phase, as confirmed by the direct binding of RpoS-RNA holoenzyme to the promoter regions of the usp1 and usp2 genes. The expression of usp1 was upregulated upon a temperature shift from 37°C to either 28°C or 45°C, whereas the expression of usp2 was independent of temperature stress. This indicates that the regulation of usp1 and usp2 expression is different from what is known about Escherichia coli. Compared to the diverse roles of Usps in E. coli, Usps in B. glumae are dedicated to heat shock stress. PMID:22178971

  14. Regulation of universal stress protein genes by quorum sensing and RpoS in Burkholderia glumae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongsup; Goo, Eunhye; Kang, Yongsung; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2012-03-01

    Burkholderia glumae possesses a quorum-sensing (QS) system mediated by N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(8)-HSL) and its cognate receptor TofR. TofR/C(8)-HSL regulates the expression of a transcriptional regulator, qsmR. We identified one of the universal stress proteins (Usps), Usp2, from a genome-wide analysis of QS-dependent proteomes of B. glumae. In the whole genome of B. glumae BGR1, 11 usp genes (usp1 to usp11) were identified. Among the stress conditions tested, usp1 and usp2 mutants died 1 h after heat shock stress, whereas the other usp mutants and the wild-type strain survived for more than 3 h at 45°C. The expressions of all usp genes were positively regulated by QS, directly by QsmR. In addition, the expressions of usp1 and usp2 were dependent on RpoS in the stationary phase, as confirmed by the direct binding of RpoS-RNA holoenzyme to the promoter regions of the usp1 and usp2 genes. The expression of usp1 was upregulated upon a temperature shift from 37°C to either 28°C or 45°C, whereas the expression of usp2 was independent of temperature stress. This indicates that the regulation of usp1 and usp2 expression is different from what is known about Escherichia coli. Compared to the diverse roles of Usps in E. coli, Usps in B. glumae are dedicated to heat shock stress.

  15. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates the Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Lunin, V. V.; Skarina, T.; Savchenko, A.; Schurr, M. J.; Hoang, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5{beta}-oxidation operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5 operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-non-responsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFAs influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa.

  16. Natural rpoS mutations contribute to population heterogeneity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains linked to the 2006 US spinach-associated outbreak.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported significantly different acid resistance between curli variants derived from the same Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain, although the curli fimbriae were not associated with this phenotypic divergence. Here we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by examining the genes encoding the common transcriptional regulators of curli biogenesis and acid resistance. rpoS null mutations were detected in all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains, whereas a wild-type rpoS was present in all curli-deficient variants. Consequently curli-expressing variants were much more sensitive to various stress challenges than curli-deficient variants. This loss of general stress fitness appeared solely to be the result of rpoS mutation since the stress resistances could be restored in curli-expressing variants by a functional rpoS. Comparative transcriptomic analyses between the curli variants revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, characterized by the enhanced expression of metabolic genes in curli-expressing variants, but a marked decrease in transcription of genes related to stress resistances. Unlike the curli-expressing variants of the 1993 US hamburger-associated outbreak strains (Applied Environmental Microbiology 78: 7706-7719), all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains carry a functional rcsB gene, suggesting an alternative mechanism governing intra-strain phenotypic divergence in E. coli O157:H7.

  17. Mutations in the rpoS gene are the major limiting factor for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 clinical isolates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Biofilm formation is a complex process that is highly regulated through a battery of transcriptional regulators, small regulatory RNAs, and environmental conditions. RpoS sigma factor along with MlrA protein directly regulate the expression of the curli key regulator CsgD. In most serot...

  18. Genes expressed by the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 on seed surfaces under the control of the global regulators GacA and RpoS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The GacA/Rsm signal transduction system and the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS have both been shown to affect secondary metabolite production and biological control in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 and related strains. Microarray analysis of Pf-5 grown on pea seed surfaces showed that 595 genes ar...

  19. Live Recombinant Salmonella Typhi Vaccines Constructed to Investigate the Role of rpoS in Eliciting Immunity to a Heterologous Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, Karen E.; Wanda, Soo-Young; Wang, Shifeng; Senechal, Patti; Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the immunogenicity of live Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccines expressing heterologous antigens depends, at least in part, on its rpoS status. As part of our project to develop a recombinant attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (RASTyV) to prevent pneumococcal diseases in infants and children, we constructed three RASTyV strains synthesizing the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein PspA to test this hypothesis. Each vector strain carried ten engineered mutations designed to optimize safety and immunogenicity. Two S. Typhi vector strains (χ9639 and χ9640) were derived from the rpoS mutant strain Ty2 and one (χ9633) from the RpoS+ strain ISP1820. In χ9640, the nonfunctional rpoS gene was replaced with the functional rpoS gene from ISP1820. Plasmid pYA4088, encoding a secreted form of PspA, was moved into the three vector strains. The resulting RASTyV strains were evaluated for safety in vitro and for immunogenicity in mice. All three RASTyV strains were similar to the live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a in their ability to survive in human blood and human monocytes. They were more sensitive to complement and were less able to survive and persist in sewage and surface water than their wild-type counterparts. Adult mice intranasally immunized with any of the RASTyV strains developed immune responses against PspA and Salmonella antigens. The RpoS+ vaccines induced a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response while the RpoS− strain χ9639(pYA4088) induced a strong Th2 immune response. Immunization with any RASTyV provided protection against S. pneumoniae challenge; the RpoS+ strain χ9640(pYA4088) provided significantly greater protection than the ISP1820 derivative, χ9633(pYA4088). In the pre-clinical setting, these strains exhibited a desirable balance between safety and immunogenicity and are currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial to determine which of the three RASTyVs has the optimal safety and immunogenicity profile in human

  20. The i6A37 tRNA modification is essential for proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons during rpoS and iraP translation.

    PubMed

    Aubee, Joseph I; Olu, Morenike; Thompson, Karl M

    2016-05-01

    The translation of rpoS(σ(S)), the general stress/stationary phase sigma factor, is tightly regulated at the post-transcriptional level by several factors via mechanisms that are not clearly defined. One of these factors is MiaA, the enzyme necessary for the first step in theN(6)-isopentyl-2-thiomethyl adenosinemethyl adenosine 37 (ms(2)i(6)A37) tRNA modification. We tested the hypothesis that an elevated UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio can be used to identify transcripts whose translation would be sensitive to loss of the MiaA-dependent modification. We identified iraPas another candidate MiaA-sensitive gene, based on the UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio. AniraP-lacZ fusion was significantly decreased in the abse nce of MiaA, consistent with our predictive model. To determine the role of MiaA in UUX-Leucine decoding in rpoS and iraP, we measured β-galactosidase-specific activity of miaA(-)rpo Sandira P translational fusions upon overexpression of leucine tRNAs. We observed suppression of the MiaA effect on rpoS, and notira P, via overexpression of tRNA(LeuX)but not tRNA(LeuZ) We also tested the hypothesis that the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translation is due to decoding of UUX-Leucine codons within the rpoS and iraP transcripts, respectively. We observed a partial suppression of the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translational fusions containing one or both UUX-Leucine codons removed. Taken together, this suggests that MiaA is necessary for rpoS and iraP translation through proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons and that rpoS and iraP mRNAs are both modification tunable transcripts (MoTTs) via the presence of the modification.

  1. Crl binds to domain 2 of σ(S) and confers a competitive advantage on a natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Véronique; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Norel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    The RpoS sigma factor (σ(S)) is the master regulator of the bacterial response to a variety of stresses. Mutants in rpoS arise in bacterial populations in the absence of stress, probably as a consequence of a subtle balance between self-preservation and nutritional competence. We characterized here one natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty19). We show that the rpoS allele of Ty19 (rpoS(Ty19)) led to the synthesis of a σ(S)(Ty19) protein carrying a single glycine-to-valine substitution at position 282 in σ(S) domain 4, which was much more dependent than the wild-type σ(S) protein on activation by Crl, a chaperone-like protein that increases the affinity of σ(S) for the RNA polymerase core enzyme (E). We used the bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system to demonstrate that Crl bound to residues 72 to 167 of σ(S) domain 2 and that G282V substitution did not directly affect Crl binding. However, this substitution drastically reduced the ability of σ(S)(Ty19) to bind E in a surface plasmon resonance assay, a defect partially rescued by Crl. The modeled structure of the Eσ(S) holoenzyme suggested that substitution G282V could directly disrupt a favorable interaction between σ(S) and E. The rpoS(Ty19) allele conferred a competitive fitness when the bacterial population was wild type for crl but was outcompeted in Δcrl populations. Thus, these results indicate that the competitive advantage of the rpoS(Ty19) mutant is dependent on Crl and suggest that crl plays a role in the appearance of rpoS mutants in bacterial populations.

  2. An RpoS (sigmaS) homologue regulates acylhomoserine lactone-dependent autoinduction in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Flavier, A B; Schell, M A; Denny, T P

    1998-05-01

    Many bacteria sense an appropriate growth condition or a critical population density for gene expression by producing acylhomoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) that act as intercellular autoinduction signals. We recently showed that, in Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum, a phytopathogenic bacterium, acyl-HSL production requires soll, which encodes a putative acyl-HSL synthase, and that its expression is positively regulated by the acyl-HSL-responsive SolR transcriptional regulator. This acyl-HSL-dependent autoinduction system is noteworthy because (i) it is regulated by a 'higher level' autoinducer system (responsive to 3-hydroxypalmitic acid methyl ester) via PhcA, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and (ii) acyl-HSL production requires two additional unlinked loci. As reported here, cloning and sequencing of one of these other loci revealed that it encodes a homologue of RpoS, an alternative sigma factor (sigmaS) that in other bacteria activates gene expression during stationary phase or in response to stress conditions. R. solanacearum RpoS (RpoS(Rso)) was demonstrated to function as a sigma factor because when introduced in trans into an Escherichia coli rpoS mutant it largely restored expression of the RpoS-dependent bolAp1 gene. Mutation of rpoS(Rso) in R. solanacearum reduced survival during starvation and low pH conditions, but did not affect survival during exposure to hydrogen peroxide, high osmolarity or high temperature. This mutant was also altered in its production of several virulence factors and wilted tomato plants several days more slowly than the wild-type parent. Transcription of solR and soll were decreased in an rpoS(Rso) background (thereby reducing acyl-HSL production), but neither mutations in solR, soll or phcA nor addition of acyl-HSLs affected rpoS(Rso) expression. Therefore, in R. solanacearum the acyl-HSL-dependent autoinduction system is controlled both by a second autoinduction system and by the RpoS(Rso) sigma factor.

  3. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  4. The Resilient Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  5. The Resilient Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  6. Acid shock induction of RpoS is mediated by the mouse virulence gene mviA of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, S M; Benjamin, W H; Swords, W E; Foster, J W

    1996-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during growth in host and nonhost environments. The organism can survive potentially lethal acid conditions (pH <4) if it is first able to adapt to mild or more moderate acid levels. The molecular events that occur during this adaptive process are collectively referred to as the acid tolerance response and vary depending on whether the cells are in log- or stationary-phase growth. The acid tolerance response of logarithmically growing cells includes the participation of an alternate sigma factor, sigmaS (RpoS), commonly associated with stationary-phase physiology. Of 51 acid shock proteins (ASPs) induced during shifts to pH 4.4, 8 are clearly dependent on sigmaS for production (I. S. Lee, J. Lin, H. K. Hall, B. Bearson, and J. W. Foster, Mol. Microbiol. 17:155-167, 1995). The acid shock induction of these proteins appears to be the result of an acid shock-induced increase in the level of sigmaS itself. We have discovered that one component of a potential signal transduction system responsible for inducing rpoS expression is the product of the mouse virulence gene mviA+. MviA exhibits extensive homology to the regulatory components of certain two-component signal transduction systems (W. H. Benjamin, Jr., and P. D. Hall, abstr. B-67, p. 38, in Abstracts of the 93rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 1993, 1993). Mutations in mviA (mviA::Km) caused the overproduction of sigmaS and sigmaS-dependent ASPs in logarithmically growing cells, as well as increases in tolerances to acid, heat, osmolarity and oxidative stresses and significant decreases in growth rate and colony size. Mutations in rpoS suppressed the mviA::Km-associated defects in growth rate, colony size, ASP production, and stress tolerance, suggesting that the effects of MviA on cell physiology occur via its control of sigmaS levels. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses of sigmaS produced from natural or arabinose

  7. Role of rpoS in the Development of Cell Envelope Resilience and Pressure Resistance in Stationary-Phase Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Charoenwong, Duangkamol; Andrews, Simon; Mackey, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    This work investigated the role of rpoS in the development of increased cell envelope resilience and enhanced pressure resistance in stationary-phase cells of Escherichia coli. Loss of both colony-forming ability and membrane integrity, measured as uptake of propidium iodide (PI), occurred at lower pressures in E. coli BW3709 (rpoS) than in the parental strain (BW2952). The rpoS mutant also released much higher concentrations of protein under pressure than the parent. We propose that RpoS-regulated functions are responsible for the increase in membrane resilience as cells enter stationary phase and that this plays a major role in the development of pressure resistance. Strains from the Keio collection with mutations in two RpoS-regulated genes, cfa (cyclopropane fatty acyl phospholipid synthase) and osmB (outer membrane lipoprotein), were significantly more pressure sensitive and took up more PI than the parent strain, with cfa having the greatest effect. Mutations in the bolA morphogene and other RpoS-regulated lipoprotein genes (osmC, osmE, osmY, and ybaY) had no effect on pressure resistance. The cytoplasmic membranes of the rpoS mutant failed to reseal after pressure treatment, and strains with mutations in osmB and nlpI (new lipoprotein) were also somewhat impaired in the ability to reseal their membranes. The cfa mutant, though pressure sensitive, was unaffected in membrane resealing, implying that the initial transient permeabilization event is critical for loss of viability rather than the failure to reseal. The enhanced pressure sensitivity of polA, recA, and xthA mutants suggested that DNA may be a target of oxidative stress in pressure-treated cells. PMID:21705547

  8. A small heat-shock protein (Hsp20) regulated by RpoS is essential for cyst desiccation resistance in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Moreno, Soledad; Encarnación, Sergio; López-Pliego, Liliana; Castañeda, Miguel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2014-03-01

    In Azotobacter vinelandii, a cyst-forming bacterium, the alternative sigma factor RpoS is essential to the formation of cysts resistant to desiccation and to synthesis of the cyst-specific lipids, alkylresorcinols. In this study, we carried out a proteome analysis of vegetative cells and cysts of A. vinelandii strain AEIV and its rpoS mutant derivative AErpoS. This analysis allowed us to identify a small heat-shock protein, Hsp20, as one of the most abundant proteins of cysts regulated by RpoS. Inactivation of hsp20 did not affect the synthesis of alkylresorcinols or the formation of cysts with WT morphology; however, the cysts formed by the hsp20 mutant strain were unable to resist desiccation. We also demonstrated that expression of hsp20 from an RpoS-independent promoter in the AErpoS mutant strain is not enough to restore the phenotype of resistance to desiccation. These results indicate that Hsp20 is essential for the resistance to desiccation of A. vinelandii cysts, probably by preventing the aggregation of proteins caused by the lack of water. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a small heat-shock protein that is essential for desiccation resistance in bacteria.

  9. Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 isolated from foodborne illness outbreaks in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Bacciu, Donatella; Santi, Lucélia; Silva, Walter Orlando Beys da; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2012-03-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the principal microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease. The present study was conducted to compare the sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 with that of other strains of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different regions of the world and to investigate the involvement of the rpoS and dps genes in resistance to this disinfectant. We tested five Salmonella Enteritidis wild-type (WT) strains isolated from different countries, two mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86, and two tagged (3XFLAG) strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 for their resistance to sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm). The survival of the WT and attenuated strains was determined based on bacterial counts, and tagged proteins (Dps and RpoS) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. None of the WT strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were totally inactivated after 20 min. The SE86 strain lacking dps was more sensitive to sodium hypochlorite than was the WT SE86 strain, with a 2-log reduction in counts after 1 min. The RpoS and Dps proteins were actively expressed under the conditions tested, indicating that in Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 these genes, which are expressed when in contact with sodium hypochlorite, are related to oxidative stress.

  10. Interaction of the Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein and the General Stress Response Regulator RpoS at Vibrio cholerae Promoters That Regulate Motility and Hemagglutinin/Protease Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae colonizes the human small intestine and secretes cholera toxin (CT) to cause the rice-watery diarrhea characteristic of this illness. The ability of this pathogen to colonize the small bowel, express CT, and return to the aquatic environment is controlled by a complex network of regulatory proteins. Two global regulators that participate in this process are the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) and the general stress response regulator RpoS. In this study, we address the role of RpoS and H-NS in the coordinate regulation of motility and hemagglutinin (HA)/protease expression. In addition to initiating transcription of hapA encoding HA/protease, RpoS enhanced flrA and rpoN transcription to increase motility. In contrast, H-NS was found to bind to the flrA, rpoN, and hapA promoters and represses their expression. The strength of H-NS repression at the above-mentioned promoters was weaker for hapA, which exhibited the strongest RpoS dependency, suggesting that transcription initiation by RNA polymerase containing σS could be more resistant to H-NS repression. Occupancy of the flrA and hapA promoters by H-NS was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We show that the expression of RpoS in the stationary phase significantly diminished H-NS promoter occupancy. Furthermore, RpoS enhanced the transcription of integration host factor (IHF), which positively affected the expression of flrA and rpoN by diminishing the occupancy of H-NS at these promoters. Altogether, we propose a model for RpoS regulation of motility gene expression that involves (i) attenuation of H-NS repression by IHF and (ii) RpoS-dependent transcription initiation resistant to H-NS. PMID:22194453

  11. The PhzI/PhzR quorum-sensing system is required for pyrrolnitrin and phenazine production, and exhibits cross-regulation with RpoS in Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23.

    PubMed

    Selin, Carrie; Fernando, W G Dilantha; de Kievit, Teresa

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how quorum sensing (QS) affects the production of secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23. A phzR mutant (PA23phzR) and an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-deficient strain (PA23-6863) were generated that no longer inhibited the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in vitro. Both strains exhibited reduced pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ) and protease production. Moreover, phzA-lacZ and prnA-lacZ transcription was significantly reduced in PA23phzR and PA23-6863. As the majority of secondary metabolites are produced at the onset of stationary phase, we investigated whether cross-regulation occurs between QS and RpoS. Analysis of transcriptional fusions revealed that RpoS has a positive and negative effect on phzI and phzR, respectively. In a reciprocal manner, RpoS is positively regulated by QS. Characterization of a phzRrpoS double mutant showed reduced antifungal activity as well as PRN and PHZ production, similar to the QS-deficient strains. Furthermore, phzR but not rpoS was able to complement the phzRrpoS double mutant for the aforementioned traits, indicating that the Phz QS system is a central regulator of PA23-mediated antagonism. Finally, we discovered that QS and RpoS have opposing effects on PA23 biofilm formation. While both QS-deficient strains produced little biofilm, the rpoS mutant showed enhanced biofilm production compared with PA23. Collectively, our findings indicate that QS controls diverse aspects of PA23 physiology, including secondary metabolism, RpoS and biofilm formation. As such, QS is expected to play a crucial role in PA23 biocontrol and persistence in the environment.

  12. Becoming a Professional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K., Ed.

    This book is about teacher-leaders who work in schools, universities, district and county offices, and other educational institutions and who serve as consultants, mentors, principals, project leaders, and teacher educators. The professional model of teaching emphasizes the role of teachers as informed, responsible decision makers, grounded in the…

  13. Portrait of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Grundy, Thomas

    Chapter 1 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter examines several kinds of leader characteristics: inherited traits and those springing from early childhood experience; attitudes toward relationships with other people; and qualities differentiating effective from ineffective leaders. Modern researchers tend to stress nurture over…

  14. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  15. What Good Leaders Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Jeanie

    1997-01-01

    According to California's National Distinguished Principal, good leaders celebrate creativity and capitalize on others' creativity while building schools on foundations of trust, commitment, and fun. Successful leaders are optimistic, generate trust, reward innovation, create a safety net for risk-taking behavior, delegate authority, and lead…

  16. Leaders from Nursing's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fondiller, Shirley H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at the lives and accomplishments of four leaders in professional nursing: (1) Loretta Ford, who championed the cause of nurse practitioners; (2) Mable Staupers, a pioneer in community health and nursing; (3) Janet Geister, a leader in private nursing; and (4) Isabel Stewart, who led the movement to standardize nursing education. (JOW)

  17. Demands for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley-Levine, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the ways that graduate courses in teacher leadership influenced the ways that teachers described the nature of leadership and their role as educational leaders. Using Foster's (1989) four demands for school leaders as a theoretical framework, participants' perceptions are examined to determine how teachers synthesized their…

  18. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  19. Follow the leader.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare leaders can strengthen their leadership skills by: Gaining a deeper understanding of their personal convictions. Requesting regular feedback regarding their leadership skills. Defining the key competencies needed to help their organizations succeed and building on key skill sets. Reflecting on department-specific results from employee opinion surveys and making behavioral changes, when appropriate. Reading biographies of great leaders.

  20. Becoming a Professional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K., Ed.

    This book is about teacher-leaders who work in schools, universities, district and county offices, and other educational institutions and who serve as consultants, mentors, principals, project leaders, and teacher educators. The professional model of teaching emphasizes the role of teachers as informed, responsible decision makers, grounded in the…

  1. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  2. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  3. Evolving Army Leader Training: Adapting for GWOT Experienced Junior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-10

    and centralized system. If this system does not adapt, flex, and evolve in parallel with the demands of Junior Leaders from the Millennial Generation ...TERMS Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very Senior Leaders: Baby Boomer Generation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Research Project DATE: 10 March 2009 WORD COUNT: 6,506 PAGES: 32 KEY TERMS: Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very

  4. Biosynthesis of the antifungal haterumalide, oocydin A, in Serratia, and its regulation by quorum sensing, RpoS and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Polyketides represent an important class of bioactive natural products with a broad range of biological activities. We identified recently a large trans-acyltransferase (AT) polyketide synthase gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and antitumor haterumalide, oocydin A (ooc). Using genome sequencing and comparative genomics, we show that the ooc gene cluster is widespread within biocontrol and phytopathogenic strains of the enterobacteria, Serratia and Dickeya. The analysis of in frame deletion mutants confirmed the role of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase cassette, three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes, a free-standing acyl carrier protein and two hypothetical proteins in oocydin A biosynthesis. The requirement of the three trans-acting AT domains for the biosynthesis of the macrolide was also demonstrated. Expression of the ooc gene cluster was shown to be positively regulated by an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system, but operating in a strain-dependent manner. At a post-transcriptional level, the RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a key role in oocydin A biosynthesis. The Hfq-dependent regulation is partially mediated by the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, which was also shown to positively regulate the synthesis of the macrolide. Our results reveal differential regulation of the divergently transcribed ooc transcriptional units, highlighting the complexity of oocydin A production. PMID:25753587

  5. Leader as communicator.

    PubMed

    Haynor, Patricia M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines common communication factors that have an impact on leader effectiveness (language, listening, mode of delivery, and feedback) and the role of the organization, organizational culture, and group dynamics in the development of the leader as a communicator. Communication, like any skill, is a learned behavior that is honed over time. Communication is a two-way process with stimulus-response shaping future behavior. But, it is even more complex when used in an organizational setting because there are multilevel communications, multiple message, senders and receivers, and competing agendas. Leaders in today's complex health care organizations must be skilled communicators to earn trust and respect. Once trust and respect have been earned, others are willing to listen to the leader's vision and to help make it a reality because, done well, it demonstrates expertise, critical thinking, achievement, and mentoring abilities.

  6. The Wounded Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Richard H.; Ostrowski, Pat Maslin

    2004-01-01

    Real leadership means learning and growing from experiences. Different ways in which leadership crisis influences professional and personal development of a leader are discussed with reference to crises faced by high school principals.

  7. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  8. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    corps, discipline, initiative, drive, and willing service of subordinates and the units they comprise. Narcissism Because narcissism is a...and an extreme preoccupation with Narcissism and Toxic Leaders Lieutenant Colonel Joe Doty, Ph.D., U.S. Army, Retired, and Master Sergeant Jeff...REPORT DATE FEB 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Narcissism and Toxic Leaders 5a

  9. Understanding the Lightning Leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Before the flash and the bang that lay-people think of as lightning, it is necessary to break down a channel of air several kilometers long through what is known as the leader process. We have been studying the growth of lightning leaders for nearly a decade through a combination of balloon-borne electric field measurements on balloons and on the ground, time of arrival radio-measurements, and high-speed video cameras. Our combination of techniques can penetrate clouds and shows the development of both positive and negative leader channels growing at about 0.001c and carrying net-charge around the sky as they try to minimize electrostatic energy. Recent analysis has revealed the existence of step-recoil waves that propagate away from the tip of a growing leader as well as K-changes that propagate toward the leader tip. These waves probably help keep the leader hot and conductive enough to allow it to persist over the several hundred milliseconds it needs to reach ground.[4pt] In collaboration with William Winn, Ken Eack, Jeff LaPierre, New Mexico Tech, Langmuir Lab; William Hager, University of Florida; and Gaopeng Lu, Duke University, ECE Dept.

  10. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader.

  11. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Daniel P; Narvaez, Maria J; Martinez, Keith A; Harden, Mark M; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower) in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS), cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa) and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating) in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2). With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract) was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE). We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2) requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  12. Effect of high temperature on Pseudomonas putida NBRI0987 biofilm formation and expression of stress sigma factor RpoS.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S; Yadav, A; Seem, K; Mishra, S; Chaudhary, V; Nautiyal, C S

    2008-05-01

    Pseudomonas is an efficient plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; however, among the limiting factors for its commercialization, tolerance for high temperature is the most critical one. After screening 2,500 Pseudomnas sp. strains, a high temperature tolerant-strain Pseudomonas putida NBRI0987 was isolated from the drought-exposed rhizosphere of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cv. Radhey), which was grown under rain-fed conditions. P. putida NBRI0987 tolerated a temperature of 40 degrees C for < or = 5 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a Pseudomnas sp. demonstrating survival estimated by counting viable cells under such a high temperature. P. putida NBRI0987 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml on day 10 in both the absence and presence of MgSO4 x 7H2O (MgSO4) in combination with glycerol at 40 degrees C were 0.0 and 1.7 x 10(11), respectively. MgSO4 plus glycerol also enhanced the ability of P. putida NBRI0987 to tolerate high temperatures by inducing its ability to form biofilm. However, production of alginate was not critical for biofilm formation. The present study demonstrates overexpression of stress sigma factor sigma(S) (RpoS) when P. putida NBRI0987 is grown under high-temperature stress at 40 degrees C compared with 30 degrees C. We present evidence, albeit indirect, that the adaptation of P. putida NBRI0987 to high temperatures is a complex multilevel regulatory process in which many different genes can be involved.

  13. Analysis of rpoS and bolA gene expression under various stress-induced environments in planktonic and biofilm phase using 2(-ΔΔCT) method.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohd; Morton, Glyn; Hadi, Sibte

    2011-11-01

    Genetic adaptation is one of the key features of Escherichia coli (E. coli) that ensure its survival in different hostile environments. E. coli seems to initiate biofilm development in response to specific environmental cues. A number of properties inherent within bacterial biofilms indicate that their gene expression is different from that of planktonic bacteria. Two of the possible important genes are rpoS and bolA. The rpoS gene has been known as the alternative sigma (σ) factor, which controls the expression of a large number of genes, which are involved in responses to a varied number of stresses, as well as transition to stationary phase from exponential form of growth. Morphogene bolA response to stress environment leads to round morphology of E. coli cells, but little is known about its involvement in biofilms and its development or maintenance. The purpose of this study was to understand and analyse the responses of rpoS and bolA gene to sudden change in the environment. In this study, E. coli K-12 MG1655, rpoS, and bolA mutant strains were used and gene expression was studied. Results show that both genes contribute to the ability to respond and adapt in response to various types of stresses. RpoS response to various stress environments was somehow constant in both the planktonic and biofilm phases, whereas bolA responded well under various stress conditions, in both planktonic and biofilm mode, up to 5-6-fold change in the expression was noticed in the case of pH variation and hydrogen peroxide stress (H(2)O(2)) as compared with rpoS.

  14. The Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates The Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA-Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Skarina, Tatiana; Savchenko, Alexei; Schurr, Michael J.; Hoang, Tung T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5 β-oxidation-operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA-operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5-operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene-fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production, respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-nonresponsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFA influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:19508282

  15. The Hfq homolog in Legionella pneumophila demonstrates regulation by LetA and RpoS and interacts with the global regulator CsrA.

    PubMed

    McNealy, Tamara L; Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Shi, Chunwei; Marre, Reinhard

    2005-02-01

    A gene in Legionella pneumophila that has significant homology to published hfq genes demonstrated regulation by RpoS and the transcriptional regulator LetA. Additionally, Hfq has a positive effect on the presence of transcripts of the genes for CsrA and the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Mutants lacking hfq demonstrate defects in growth and pigmentation and slight defects in virulence in both amoeba and macrophage infection models. Hfq appears to play a major role in exponential-phase regulatory cascades of L. pneumophila.

  16. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  17. Being a responsible leader.

    PubMed

    Waldman, David A

    2010-11-01

    People who administer organizations of various types, including medical practices, are finding it increasingly necessary to demonstrate leadership. The challenge is to understand the meaning of effective leadership and to have guiding principles with regard to its implementation. It is argued here that responsibility represents a key guiding theme that doctors and practice managers can use to chart their day-to-day actions as leaders. Responsibility implies accountability to a broad array of groups and individuals who increasingly expect that leaders act in a manner that is aligned with their interests. This new era of leader accountability raises the question, to whom and what are organizational leaders responsible? In an attempt to answer this question, The author elaborates a broad perspective of responsible leadership and address both internal and external stakeholders to which a leader is responsible. Recommendations and principles are provided for how to balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders when leading one's practice. The article ends with a consideration of important caveats with regard to responsible leadership.

  18. Correlation between biofilm production, antibiotic susceptibility and exopolysaccharide composition in Burkholderia pseudomallei bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Mongkolrob, Rungrawee; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2015-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a fatal tropical infectious disease, which has been reported to have a high rate of recurrence, even when an intensive dose of antibiotics is used. Biofilm formation is believed to be one of the possible causes of relapse because of its ability to increase drug resistance. EPS in biofilms have been reported to be related to the limitation of antibiotic penetration in B. pseudomallei. However, the mechanisms by which biofilms restrict the diffusion of antibiotics remain unclear. The present study presents a correlation between exopolysaccharide production in biofilm matrix and antibiotic resistance in B. pseudomallei using bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains. CLSM revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide production and disabled micro-colony formation in B. pseudomallei mutants, which paralleled the antibiotic resistance. Different ratios of carbohydrate contents in the exopolysaccharides of the mutants were detected, although they have the same components, including glucose, galactose, mannose, and rhamnose, with the exception being that no detectable rhamnose peak was observed in the bpsI mutant. These results indicate that the correlation between these phenomena in the B. pseudomallei biofilm at least results from the exopolysaccharide, which may be under the regulation of bpsI, ppk, or rpoS genes.

  19. Sigma factor RpoS controls alkylresorcinol synthesis through ArpR, a LysR-type regulatory protein, during encystment of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Romero, Yanet; Moreno, Soledad; Guzmán, Josefina; Espín, Guadalupe; Segura, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium which undergoes a differentiation process leading to the formation of metabolically dormant cysts. During the encystment process, A. vinelandii produces alkylresorcinol lipids (ARs) that replace the membrane phospholipids and are also components of the layers covering the cyst. The synthesis of ARs in A. vinelandii has been shown to occur by the activity of enzymes encoded by the arsABCD operon, which is expressed only during the differentiation process. Also, the production of ARs has been shown to be dependent on the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, which is also implicated in the control of the synthesis of other cyst components (i.e., alginate and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, we identified ArpR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator expressed only during encystment that positively regulates arsABCD transcription. We show that this activation is dependent on acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA), which might provide a metabolic signal for encystment. We also show that RpoS regulates arsABCD expression through the control of arpR transcription.

  20. Sigma Factor RpoS Controls Alkylresorcinol Synthesis through ArpR, a LysR-Type Regulatory Protein, during Encystment of Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Yanet; Moreno, Soledad; Guzmán, Josefina; Espín, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium which undergoes a differentiation process leading to the formation of metabolically dormant cysts. During the encystment process, A. vinelandii produces alkylresorcinol lipids (ARs) that replace the membrane phospholipids and are also components of the layers covering the cyst. The synthesis of ARs in A. vinelandii has been shown to occur by the activity of enzymes encoded by the arsABCD operon, which is expressed only during the differentiation process. Also, the production of ARs has been shown to be dependent on the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, which is also implicated in the control of the synthesis of other cyst components (i.e., alginate and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, we identified ArpR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator expressed only during encystment that positively regulates arsABCD transcription. We show that this activation is dependent on acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA), which might provide a metabolic signal for encystment. We also show that RpoS regulates arsABCD expression through the control of arpR transcription. PMID:23378510

  1. Senior Leader Career Management: Implications for Senior Leaders and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study across three large consumer products organizations explored career management of senior leaders to gain an understanding of what is important to senior leaders in their careers and what strategies they are using for career management. It also investigated senior leaders' expectations of organizations for career…

  2. Senior Leader Career Management: Implications for Senior Leaders and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study across three large consumer products organizations explored career management of senior leaders to gain an understanding of what is important to senior leaders in their careers and what strategies they are using for career management. It also investigated senior leaders' expectations of organizations for career…

  3. World-Class Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  4. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  5. "Leader Attributes Inventory" Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…

  6. Leaders and Followers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between leaders and followers is crucial and often misunderstood. Ninety percent of leadership can be taught, and the remainder consists of energy, stamina, and ingredients of undetermined origin. Those who study leadership come from many disciplines, but what is learned should be shared. (MSE)

  7. Lessons for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Among the current crop of business leadership manuals, the six reviewed are applicable for school leaders as well. Themes of effective employee management and motivation, personal responsibility, and having the ability to initiate and implement constructive change are among the common threads running through the books. Information on ordering the…

  8. Teachers as Instructional Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Jane L.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This study examined the roles, functions, and effectiveness of a group of teachers who became Instructional Leaders (ILs), assuming major responsibility for assuring the implementation of a voluntary school improvement program within their respective schools. The program, called SITIP (School Improvement Through Instructional Process), and…

  9. Senior Leader Mentorship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    Stephen E. Wilson, LTC, AR TITLE: Senior Leader Mentorship FORMAT: Individual Study Intended for Publication DATE: 31 March 1989 PAGES: 31...of reference, values, and skills required at higher organizational levels, Deal with job- related or personal problems through counseling, and Receive...with key organizational figures who judge his potential for advancement. Additionally, the mentee is prepared for positions of increased responsibilty

  10. Today's Students, Tomorrow's Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2008-01-01

    According to Warren Bennis, professor at the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business and a recognized authority on organizational development, leadership and change, becoming a leader is synonymous with becoming oneself. It is precisely that simple, and it is also that difficult. In career and technical student…

  11. World-Class Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  12. So Few Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Francesca; Fried, Linda P.; Zeger, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present sobering findings of a study about women and leadership in higher education. The findings of the authors' study are based on the experiences of a small group of women faculty at Johns Hopkins University. The study found that, despite good intentions and occasional interventions by leaders in higher education, women are still …

  13. Training College Wilderness Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rick

    College outdoor program leaders are often paraprofessionals, who may have less training than professional outdoor educators, yet must deal with the same types of problems on the trail. This paper describes the Outdoor Action (OA) Program at Princeton University, and outlines the training assessment and development model used to train OA program…

  14. Preparing Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Mathew D.; Page, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Findings from an extensive four-year program with a single cohort of elementary and early middle school mathematics instructors highlight several important themes that can inform other efforts in developing teacher leaders. The authors describe the Arizona Master Teachers of Mathematics (AZ-MTM) program as an example that supports the development…

  15. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  16. Salesperson, Catalyst, Manager, Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Michael J.; Asp, James W., II

    1996-01-01

    This article examines four roles of the college or university development officer: salesperson (when direct solicitation is seen as the officer's primary role); catalyst (or sales manager, adviser, expert, facilitator); manager (stressing the importance of the overall office functioning); and leader (who exerts a leadership role in the…

  17. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  18. The Inconspicuous Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braz, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    There are many hundreds if not thousands of registrars--unsung leaders in U.S. higher education who often may be "unseen" but who are both quite present and surprisingly influential. Leadership styles among them vary somewhat, but many of them practice what the author calls "inconspicuous" leadership. "Inconspicuous"…

  19. Women Outdoor Leaders Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…

  20. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  1. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Alessandro G; Ihssen, Julian; Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σ(D) with σ(S). Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon

  2. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σD with σS. Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth

  3. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  4. Leadership Style and Leader Title.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynn R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Varied leadership style against form of address (Mr., Ms., Miss, Mrs.) in a simulated small group case study. Student ratings indicated significant effects due to leader style (i.e., greater subordination and stronger friendship attraction to democratic leaders). Authoritarian leaders using title Ms. evoked higher subordination than other…

  5. Cloning and characterization of a Leishmania gene encoding a RNA spliced leader sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S I; Landfear, S M; Wirth, D F

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies on leishmania enriettii tubulin mRNAs revealed a 35 nucleotide addition to their 5' end. The gene that codes for this 35 nucleotide leader sequence has now been cloned and sequenced. In the Leishmania genome, the spliced leader gene exists as a tandem repeat of 438 bases. There are approximately 150 copies of this gene comprising 0.1% of the parasite genome. This gene codes for a 85 nucleotide transcript that contains the spliced leader at its 5' end. The 35 nucleotide sequence and the regions immediately 5' and 3' to it are highly conserved across trypanosomatids. We have detected a RNA molecule that is a putative by-product of the processing reaction in which the 35 nucleotide spliced leader has been transferred to mRNA. We suggest that this molecule is the remnant of the spliced leader transcript after removal of the 35 nucleotide spliced leader. Images PMID:2429261

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL Are Controlled by Quorum Sensing and by RpoS

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Klaus; Falconer, Colin; Garber, Nachman C.; Diggle, Stephen P.; Camara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, many exoproduct virulence determinants are regulated via a hierarchical quorum-sensing cascade involving the transcriptional regulators LasR and RhlR and their cognate activators, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) and N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). In this paper, we demonstrate that the cytotoxic lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL are regulated via quorum sensing. Using immunoblot analysis, the production of both lectins was found to be directly dependent on the rhl locus while, in a lasR mutant, the onset of lectin synthesis was delayed but not abolished. The PA-IL structural gene, lecA, was cloned and sequenced. Transcript analysis indicated a monocistronic organization with a transcriptional start site 70 bp upstream of the lecA translational start codon. A lux box-type element together with RpoS (ςS) consensus sequences was identified upstream of the putative promoter region. In Escherichia coli, expression of a lecA::lux reporter fusion was activated by RhlR/C4-HSL, but not by LasR/3O-C12-HSL, confirming direct regulation by RhlR/C4-HSL. Similarly, in P. aeruginosa PAO1, the expression of a chromosomal lecA::lux fusion was enhanced but not advanced by the addition of exogenous C4-HSL but not 3O-C12-HSL. Furthermore, mutation of rpoS abolished lectin synthesis in P. aeruginosa, demonstrating that both RpoS and RhlR/C4-HSL are required. Although the C4-HSL-dependent expression of the lecA::lux reporter in E. coli could be inhibited by the presence of 3O-C12-HSL, this did not occur in P. aeruginosa. This suggests that, in the homologous genetic background, 3O-C12-HSL does not function as a posttranslational regulator of the RhlR/C4-HSL-dependent activation of lecA expression. PMID:11053384

  7. The new clinical leader.

    PubMed

    Oates, Kim

    2012-06-01

    The complexity and cost of health care, along with a greater need for accountability calls for a new style of clinical leadership. The new clinical leader will lead reform by putting the needs of the patient first and foremost, looking at current and planned services from the patient's point of view as well as the clinician's. Excellent clinical skills will remain essential but will be supplemented by a focus on team work and mentoring, patient safety, clear communication and reduction in waste and inefficiency, leading to better financial outcomes. The new clinical leaders will understand the importance of consulting widely and engaging colleagues in creating change to improve patient care. They will develop trusting and mutually respectful relationships with health service management and be able to negotiate the delicate balance between clinical judgement, resource constraints and personal loyalties by keeping the best outcome for the patient at the forefront of their thinking.

  8. Leader as critical thinker.

    PubMed

    Lemire, Judith A

    2002-01-01

    A leader possess the critical-thinking knowledge and skills that provide the framework from which complex problem solving evolves. This article explores the leader as critical thinker, including a progressive plan for integrating critical-thinking concepts and associated teaching strategies into the RN to BSN and graduate curricula. To improve the critical thinking of nurses, educators must emphasize the cognitive and disposition aspects of critical thinking; promote active and sequential learning; role model critical thinking; design practical that focus on leadership and critical thinking; and conduct valid and consistent evaluations. The acquisition and application of critical thinking and problem-solving skills are progressive and refined through life-long learning and experience. This expertise begins with a sound knowledge base of the critical thinking composite and problem-solving strategies.

  9. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  10. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1999-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  11. Learning with leaders.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2009-01-01

    This column focuses on ideas concerning leaders and leadership. The author proposes that leadership is about showing up and participating with others in doing something. "Mandela: His 8 Lessons of Leadership" by Richard Stengel is explored in light of selected philosophical writings, literature on nursing leadership, and nurse theorist Rosemarie Rizzo Parse's humanbecoming leading-following model. Teaching-learning questions are then posed to stimulate further reflection on the lessons of leadership.

  12. The wise leader.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka

    2011-05-01

    In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders.

  13. Transcriptional Expression of Escherichia coli Glutamate-Dependent Acid Resistance Genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS Mutant†

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Scott R.; Small, P. L. C.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to being killed by acidic environments with pH values lower than 3 is an important feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. The most potent E. coli acid resistance system utilizes two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase encoded by gadA and gadB and a putative glutamate:γ-aminobutyric acid antiporter encoded by gadC. The gad system is controlled by two repressors (H-NS and CRP), one activator (GadX), one repressor-activator (GadW), and two sigma factors (σS and σ70). In contrast to results of previous reports, we demonstrate that gad transcription can be detected in an hns rpoS mutant strain of E. coli K-12, indicating that gad promoters can be initiated by σ70 in the absence of H-NS. PMID:12867478

  14. Transcriptional expression of Escherichia coli glutamate-dependent acid resistance genes gadA and gadBC in an hns rpoS mutant.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Scott R; Small, P L C

    2003-08-01

    Resistance to being killed by acidic environments with pH values lower than 3 is an important feature of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Escherichia coli. The most potent E. coli acid resistance system utilizes two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase encoded by gadA and gadB and a putative glutamate:gamma-aminobutyric acid antiporter encoded by gadC. The gad system is controlled by two repressors (H-NS and CRP), one activator (GadX), one repressor-activator (GadW), and two sigma factors (sigma(S) and sigma(70)). In contrast to results of previous reports, we demonstrate that gad transcription can be detected in an hns rpoS mutant strain of E. coli K-12, indicating that gad promoters can be initiated by sigma(70) in the absence of H-NS.

  15. Trehalose synthesis genes are controlled by the putative sigma factor encoded by rpoS and are involved in stationary-phase thermotolerance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Hengge-Aronis, R; Klein, W; Lange, R; Rimmele, M; Boos, W

    1991-01-01

    The rpoS (katF) gene of Escherichia coli encodes a putative sigma factor (sigma S) required for the expression of a variety of stationary phase-induced genes, for the development of stationary-phase stress resistance, and for long-term starvation survival (R. Lange and R. Hengge-Aronis, Mol. Microbiol. 5:49-59, 1991). Here we show that the genes otsA, otsB, treA, and osmB, previously known to be osmotically regulated, are also induced during transition into stationary phase in a sigma S-dependent manner. otsA and otsB, which encode trehalose-6-phosphate synthase and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, respectively, are involved in sigma S-dependent stationary-phase thermotolerance. Neither sigma S nor trehalose, however, is required for the development of adaptive thermotolerance in growing cells, which might be controlled by sigma E. PMID:1744047

  16. Quorum-Sensing System and Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor (rpoS) of the Onion Pathogen Burkholderia cepacia Genomovar I Type Strain, ATCC 25416

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Claudio; Bertani, Iris; Venturi, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia can be human opportunistic pathogens, plant pathogens, and plant growth promoting and have remarkable catabolic activity. B. cepacia consists of several genomovars comprising what is now known as the B. cepacia complex. Here we report the quorum-sensing system of a genomovar I onion rot type strain ATCC 25416. Quorum sensing is a cell-density-dependent regulatory response which involves the production of N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL) signal molecules. The cep locus has been inactivated in the chromosome, and it has been shown that CepI is responsible for the biosynthesis of an N-hexanoyl HSL (C6-HSL) and an N-octanoyl HSL (C8-HSL) and that the cep locus regulates protease production as well as onion pathogenicity via the expression of a secreted polygalacturonase. A cep-lacZ-based sensor plasmid has been constructed and used to demonstrate that CepR responded to C6-HSL with only 15% of the molar efficiency of C8-HSL, that a cepR knockout mutant synthesized 70% less HSLs, and that CepR responded best towards long-chain HSLs. In addition, we also report the cloning and characterization of the stationary-phase sigma factor gene rpoS of B. cepacia ATCC 25416. It was established that quorum sensing in B. cepacia has a negative effect on rpoS expression as determined by using an rpoS-lacZ transcriptional fusion; on the other hand, rpoS-null mutants displayed no difference in the accumulation of HSL signal molecules. PMID:12620866

  17. Global regulatory mutations in csrA and rpoS cause severe central carbon stress in Escherichia coli in the presence of acetate.

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Shin, S; LaPorte, D; Wolfe, A J; Romeo, T

    2000-03-01

    The csrA gene encodes a small RNA-binding protein, which acts as a global regulator in Escherichia coli and other bacteria (T. Romeo, Mol. Microbiol. 29:1321-1330, 1998). Its key regulatory role in central carbon metabolism, both as an activator of glycolysis and as a potent repressor of glycogen biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis, prompted us to examine the involvement of csrA in acetate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. We found that growth of csrA rpoS mutant strains was very poor on acetate as a sole carbon source. Surprisingly, growth also was inhibited specifically by the addition of modest amounts of acetate to rich media (e.g., tryptone broth). Cultures grown in the presence of >/=25 mM acetate consisted substantially of glycogen biosynthesis (glg) mutants, which were no longer inhibited by acetate. Several classes of glg mutations were mapped to known and novel loci. Several hypotheses were examined to provide further insight into the effects of acetate on growth and metabolism in these strains. We determined that csrA positively regulates acs (acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase; Acs) expression and isocitrate lyase activity without affecting key TCA cycle enzymes or phosphotransacetylase. TCA cycle intermediates or pyruvate, but not glucose, galactose, or glycerol, restored growth and prevented the glg mutations in the presence of acetate. Furthermore, amino acid uptake was inhibited by acetate specifically in the csrA rpoS strain. We conclude that central carbon flux imbalance, inhibition of amino acid uptake, and a deficiency in acetate metabolism apparently are combined to cause metabolic stress by depleting the TCA cycle.

  18. Career anchors of dentist leaders.

    PubMed

    Tuononen, Tiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa

    2016-08-01

    The work of a health care leader is demanding; in order to cope, leaders need motivation and support. The occurrence of intrinsic factors called career anchors (combination of one's competence, motives and values) could be a contributing factor in dentist leaders' career decisions. The aim of our study was to identify dentist leaders' career anchors and their association to dentist leaders' retention or turnover of the leadership position. Materials were gathered in 2014 via an electronic questionnaire from 156 current (Leaders) or former (Leavers) Finnish dentist leaders. Career anchor evaluation was conducted by the questionnaire and scoring-table taken from Edgar Schein's Career Anchors Self-Assessment. Both the most and the least important career anchors were detected by the highest and lowest scores and their occurrence reported as percentages. Associations between career anchor scores and tendency to stay were analyzed with logistic regression. 'Technical/Functional Competence' and 'Lifestyle' were most frequently reported as the most important and 'Entrepreneurial Creativity' and 'General Managerial Competence' as the least important career anchors. However, a higher level of 'General Managerial Competence' anchor was most significantly associated with staying in a leadership position. Instead, 'Pure Challenge' and 'Lifestyle' decreased the odds to stay. The knowledge of the important and essential career anchors of dentist leaders' and individuals' could perform crucial part in career choices and also in planning education, work opportunities and human resource policies promoting retention of dentist leaders and probably also other health care leaders.

  19. Positive Effect of Carbon Sources on Natural Transformation in Escherichia coli: Role of Low-Level Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein in the Derepression of rpoS

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengyue; Wang, Huanyu; Xie, Nengbin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is a complex process that occurs strictly on agar plates and requires the global stress response factor σS. Here, we showed that additional carbon sources could significantly enhance the transformability of E. coli. Inactivation of phosphotransferase system genes (ptsH, ptsG, and crr) caused an increase in the transformation frequency, and the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) neutralized the promotional effect of carbon sources. This implies a negative role of cAMP in natural transformation. Further study showed that crp and cyaA mutations conferred a higher transformation frequency, suggesting that the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex has an inhibitory effect on transformation. Moreover, we observed that rpoS is negatively regulated by cAMP-CRP in early log phase and that both crp and cyaA mutants show no transformation superiority when rpoS is knocked out. Therefore, it can be concluded that both the crp and cyaA mutations derepress rpoS expression in early log phase, whereby they aid in the promotion of natural transformation ability. We also showed that the accumulation of RpoS during early log phase can account for the enhanced transformation aroused by additional carbon sources. Our results thus demonstrated that the presence of additional carbon sources promotes competence development and natural transformation by reducing cAMP-CRP and, thus, derepressing rpoS expression during log phase. This finding could contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrition state and competence, as well as the mechanism of natural plasmid transformation in E. coli. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli, which is not usually considered to be naturally transformable, was found to spontaneously take up plasmid DNA on agar plates. Researching the mechanism of natural transformation is important for understanding the role of transformation in evolution, as well as in the transfer of pathogenicity and

  20. On leadership and leaders.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is the vital ingredient to achieving organizational excellence and outstanding healthcare systems. There is so much to be celebrated when reflecting on the evolution of healthcare leadership over the past 50 years. However, in 50 years, we have created silos of care, of funding and of social policy that have undermined our progress in improving the care process, shifting away from health and toward healthcare, and we have lost the opportunity to promote streamlined care through the continuum of health needs. Exemplary healthcare leaders of tomorrow will need sophisticated business skills, balanced with the capacity to inspire innovation, in order to manage an ever-growing complex environment.

  1. Leading Strategic Leader Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-25

    SUBTITLE Leading Strategic Leader Teams 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Willard Burleson 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College ,122 Forbes Ave.,Carlisle...PA,17013-5220 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11

  2. Becoming a nursing faculty leader.

    PubMed

    Young, Patricia K; Pearsall, Catherine; Stiles, Kim A; Horton-Deutsch, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Academic leaders are one component of a well-prepared faculty that is required to achieve and sustain excellent educational programs. But what is it like to become an academic leader? How does one become a leader? These questions were addressed in an interpretive study in which nurse faculty leaders were interviewed about the experience of becoming a leader. Interview texts were analyzed hermeneutically by a research team to uncover three themes (common, shared experiences): Being Thrust into Leadership, Taking Risks, and Facing Challenges, which are explicated in this article. This study develops the evidence base for leadership preparation at a time when there is a strong need for nursing education leaders in academia.

  3. Developing Future Strategic Logistics Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and our focus on tactical level lessons learned has 12 skewed our emphasis in PME to a very narrow band of excellence. As such our current...A partnership between senior logistics leaders, PME developers, and personnel managers is essential to constructing and maintaining strategic...short term and inconsistent PME system that does not produce strategic logistic leaders. The Logistics Corps, sustainment branches, LOO lead for leader

  4. Quantum leader election

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganz, Maor

    2017-03-01

    A group of n individuals A1,ldots An who do not trust each other and are located far away from each other, want to select a leader. This is the leader election problem, a natural extension of the coin flipping problem to n players. We want a protocol which will guarantee that an honest player will have at least 1/n-ɛ chance of winning (forall ɛ >0), regardless of what the other players do (whether they are honest, cheating alone or in groups). It is known to be impossible classically. This work gives a simple algorithm that does it, based on the weak coin flipping protocol with arbitrarily small bias derived by Mochon (Quantum weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias, arXiv:0711.4114, 2000) in 2007, and recently published and simplified in Aharonov et al. (SIAM J Comput, 2016). A protocol with linear number of coin flipping rounds is quite simple to achieve; we further provide an improvement to logarithmic number of coin flipping rounds. This is a much improved journal version of a preprint posted in 2009; the first protocol with linear number of rounds was achieved independently also by Aharon and Silman (New J Phys 12:033027, 2010) around the same time.

  5. Innovativeness of nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Clement-O'Brien, Karen; Polit, Denise F; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the innovativeness and the rate of adoption of change among chief nursing officers (CNOs) of acute care hospitals, and explore the difference in the innovativeness of CNOs of Magnet hospitals vs. non-Magnet hospitals. There is little evidence to guide the description of innovativeness for nurse leaders, crucial to the implementation of evidence-based practice standards. CNOs of acute care hospitals of New York State participated in a mailed survey which incorporated the Scale for the Measurement of Innovativeness. The response rate was 41% (106/261). The majority of the sample was prepared at the master's level with 5-10 years of experience in the CNO role. A significant relationship was found between the innovativeness scale scores and the innovativeness diversity index. The CNOs who completed more leadership courses had implemented significantly more types of innovations and had higher innovativeness scale scores.   Graduate level education, years of CNO experience and leadership course completion were identified as significantly influencing innovativeness of CNOs. The characteristics of innovativeness for nurse leaders presented in the present study may assist organizations, CNOs and the Magnet recognition programme to describe innovativeness that supports organizations to continuously improve the quality of patient care. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Direct evidence for translational regulation by leader RNA and Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    SenGupta, D N; Berkhout, B; Gatignol, A; Zhou, A M; Silverman, R H

    1990-01-01

    Translational effects of the RNA leader and Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were investigated in rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Hybrid RNA species with natural or mutated HIV-1 leader fused to human interferon- gamma mRNA were produced in vitro from recombinant plasmids. HIV-1 leader RNA was found to inhibit translation through two mechanisms. A 3-fold trans-inhibition of translation was demonstrated by mixing hybrid HIV-1 leader RNA with indicator interferon mRNA. By comparison, HIV-1 leader caused a 50-fold cis-inhibition in lysate in which two trans-inhibitory factors, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase and (2'-5')oligoadenylate synthetase, were suppressed. In contrast, purified HIV-1 Tat protein produced in Escherichia coli enhanced by 4-fold translation from HIV-1 leader-interferon mRNA but not from interferon mRNA lacking HIV sequences or from total poly(A)+ RNA. Translation of mRNA containing either a single base substitution in the loop of the "trans-acting responsive" sequence (TAR) or an alternative stem-loop in TAR was nevertheless stimulated by Tat. The enhancement of translation by Tat was largely due to relief of cis-inhibition, since the effect was found even in lysate in which double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase was inhibited with 2-aminopurine. These results suggest that translation is an important level of control in the replication cycle of HIV-1. Images PMID:2120701

  7. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  8. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  9. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  10. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  11. Leaders for a New Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruth G.

    The turn of the century will signal a profound change in the composition and character of the leadership of community colleges. Future leaders will have in common with their peers in the private sector a global perspective and a mastery of technology seldom seen in today's leaders. More of them will be women, minorities, and immigrants. Beyond…

  12. From the Field: Learning Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…

  13. Future Leaders: The Way Forward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick; Bubb, Sara; Glenn, Meli

    2009-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of senior school leaders is high on the UK Government's agenda with much attention currently being given to succession planning. Future Leaders and other fast track leadership development programmes are, in part, a response to this "crisis" brought about by demographic change--many headteachers are due to…

  14. Master Leaders Produce Master Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeley, Mary Ellen; Scricca, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Two district leaders developed a set of processes for their district's principals, assistant principals, and curriculum directors. The professional development model they created included summer workshops, monthly seminars, observations, and workshops on effective hiring. The results affirmed that developing effective educational leaders is a…

  15. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  16. Counselling Techniques for Outdoor Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Michelle; Chase, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Outdoor leaders need counseling skills to deal with interpersonal conflicts that arise within a group and to facilitate participant growth and change. Person-centered counseling, reality therapy counseling, and behavioral counseling are discussed, as well as how various techniques from each can be used to the benefit of the leader and the group.…

  17. Team Leader System description

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.

  18. Leading Your Leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then

  19. Coaching the toxic leader.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Manfred F R Kets

    2014-04-01

    In his work as an executive coach, psychotherapist Kets de Vries sometimes comes across bosses with mental demons. The four kinds he encounters most frequently are pathological narcissists, who are selfish and entitled, have grandiose fantasies, and pursue power at all costs; manic-depressives, who can leave a trail of emotional blazes behind them; passive-aggressives, who shy away from confrontation but are obstructive and under-handed; and the emotionally disconnected--literal-minded people who cannot describe or even recognize their feelings. Left unchecked, these personalities can warp the interactions, plans, and systems of entire organizations. But with appropriate coaching, toxic bosses can learn to manage their conditions and become effective mentors and leaders. This article describes how to recognize each pathology and, step by step, guide people who suffer from it toward healthier and more-productive interactions.

  20. The uncompromising leader.

    PubMed

    Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.

  1. ClpP deletion causes attenuation of Salmonella Typhimurium virulence through mis-regulation of RpoS and indirect control of CsrA and the SPI genes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Olsen, John E; Aabo, Søren; Barrow, Paul; Rychlik, Ivan; Thomsen, Line E

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and controlled by the master regulator, HilA, to penetrate the intestinal epithelium. Numerous regulators affect virulence through influence on this system, including the proteolytic component ClpP, the stationary phase regulator RpoS and the carbon-storage regulator CsrA. However, the mechanism behind the ClpP regulation is not fully understood. To elucidate this we examined differentially expressed genes in a ΔclpP mutant compared with WT using global transcriptomic analysis. SPI1 and SPI4 virulence genes were significantly downregulated in the ΔclpP mutant, whereas several RpoS-dependent genes and the fliC gene encoding flagellin were upregulated. While the ΔclpP mutant was attenuated in cell invasion, this attenuation was not present in a ΔclpP/rpoS : : amp double mutant, suggesting the repression of invasion was directed through RpoS. The expression of the csrA virulence regulator was increased in the ΔclpP mutant and decreased in the rpoS : : amp and ΔclpP/rpoS : : amp mutants, indicating that ClpP affects the csrA expression level as well. Thus, this study suggests that ClpP affects SPI1 expression and thereby virulence indirectly through its regulation of both RpoS and CsrA.

  2. Leader Sex, Leader Descriptions of Own Behavior, and Subordinates Description of Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerome; Hicks, Jack M.

    The relationship between male and female leaders' descriptions of their own behavior and the followers' descriptions of the leader's behavior in traditionally male-oriented leadership positions was examined. The data were collected as part of a research project to assess the assimilation of females at West Point and to determine how females were…

  3. Characterization of a Legionella pneumophila relA Insertion Mutant and Roles of RelA and RpoS in Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Tal; Gal-Mor, Ohad; Segal, Gil

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of RelA in the regulation of Legionella pneumophila virulence, a deletion substitution was constructed in the relA gene. The relA knockout resulted in an undetectable level of ppGpp in the cells during the stationary phase, but the original level was restored when the relA gene product was supplied on a plasmid. The effect of the relA mutation was examined with two systems that are known to be expressed during the stationary phase in L. pneumophila. Pigment production was found to be dependent on the relA gene product, and only one-half as much pigment was produced by the relA mutant as by the wild-type strain. Flagellum gene expression was also found to be dependent on the relA gene product, as determined with a flaA::lacZ fusion. However, the relA gene product was found to be dispensable for intracellular growth both in HL-60-derived human macrophages and in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii. To determine the involvement of the relA gene product in expression of L. pneumophila genes required for intracellular growth (icm/dot genes), nine icm::lacZ fusions were constructed, and expression of these fusions in the wild-type strain was compared with their expression in relA mutant strains. Expression of only one of the icm::lacZ fusions was moderately reduced in the relA mutant strain. Expression of the nine icm::lacZ fusions was also examined in a strain containing an insertion in the gene that codes for the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, and similar results were obtained. We concluded that RelA is dispensable for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in the two hosts examined and that both RelA and RpoS play minor roles in L. pneumophila icm/dot gene expression. PMID:11741845

  4. Osmotolerance provided by the alternative sigma factors σB and rpoS to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is solute dependent and does not result in an increased growth fitness in NaCl containing media.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of the alternative general stress sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, to grow in liquid and solid media of different osmolarity. For this purpose, S. aureus strain Newman and its isogenic ΔsigB mutant IK84 and E. coli strain BJ4 and its isogenic ΔrpoS mutant BJ4L1 were grown in media (TSBYE) with different concentrations of NaCl. Growth parameters (lag phase duration, growth rate and maximum number of microorganisms) and limiting growth concentrations (Maximum Non-Inhibitory Concentration - MNIC - and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC-) were determined. The mechanisms underlying the differences observed between parental and mutant strains were also explored. The absence of the sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS led to a decrease in the MNICs and MICs calculated for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Conversely, neither σ(B) nor rpoS provided with increased growth fitness to S. aureus and E. coli cells at NaCl concentrations up to 1.36M and 1M, respectively. The decreased osmotolerance of the σ(B) and rpoS deficient strains, as compared to their parental strains, was compensated by the addition of glycine-betaine (1mM) to the growth medium. It was also observed that the decreased tolerance to NaCl of the mutant strains was coincident with a decreased tolerance to sucrose, KCl, and LiCl but not to glycerol, MgCl2, and CaCl2. Results obtained also demonstrate that the increased osmotolerance of stationary growth phase E. coli cells, as compared to exponential growth phase ones, would be due to the activation of both rpoS-independent and rpoS-dependent mechanisms. This work will help to understand the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to osmotic stress and the role of the alternative sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS in this process.

  5. Leaders, managers, and employee care.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Della W

    2012-01-01

    With the economic and market changes currently taking place, organizations cannot survive or prosper without quality employees. Key to employee loyalty, performance, and retention is the relationship between the leader, manager, and employee. Leaders are visionaries who make sure that the right things are done for the organization. Managers are in a position to make sure that things are done right within the organization. There are traits and qualities that good leaders and managers must possess to ensure organizational success. Displaying these characteristics will ensure that employees are taken care of, which will benefit both the employees and the organization.

  6. Concert of regulators to switch on LEE expression in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: interplay between Ler, GrlA, HNS and RpoS.

    PubMed

    Laaberki, Maria-Halima; Janabi, Nazila; Oswald, Eric; Repoila, Francis

    2006-08-01

    Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli strains carry a pathogenicity island termed locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) responsible for attaching and effacing lesions on epithelial cells. The expression of LEE varies among isolates and is dependent on environmental cues. In the EHEC O157:H7 Sakaï isolate (RIMD-0509952 strain), we found that the non-coding RNA, DsrA, activates the expression of the LEE. This activation requires RpoS, the stress sigma factor. The DsrA/RpoS regulatory pathway mediates its positive effect by stimulating the transcription of ler, a positive regulatory gene encoded by the LEE. A second regulatory pathway, repressed by HNS, is also able to activate the transcription of ler and requires GrlA, another LEE-encoded regulator. Both regulatory pathways, DsrA/RpoS and HNS/GrlA, affect the activity of the ler distal promoter and require the Ler protein to be functional. Our data demonstrate that the LEE expression can be turned on by at least two separate pathways acting on the transcription of ler.

  7. Effect of RpoN, RpoS and LuxS Pathways on the Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Borrelia Burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Sapi, Eva; Theophilus, Priyanka A. S.; Pham, Truc V.; Burugu, Divya; Luecke, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is capable of forming biofilm in vivo and in vitro, a structure well known for its resistance to antimicrobial agents. For the formation of biofilm, signaling processes are required to communicate with the surrounding environment such as it was shown for the RpoN–RpoS alternative sigma factor and for the LuxS quorum-sensing pathways. Therefore, in this study, the wild-type B. burgdorferi and different mutant strains lacking RpoN, RpoS, and LuxS genes were studied for their growth characteristic and development of biofilm structures and markers as well as for their antibiotic sensitivity. Our results showed that all three mutants formed small, loosely formed aggregates, which expressed previously identified Borrelia biofilm markers such as alginate, extracellular DNA, and calcium. All three mutants had significantly different sensitivity to doxycyline in the early log phase spirochete cultures; however, in the biofilm rich stationary cultures, only LuxS mutant showed increased sensitivity to doxycyline compared to the wild-type strain. Our findings indicate that all three mutants have some effect on Borrelia biofilm, but the most dramatic effect was found with LuxS mutant, suggesting that the quorum-sensing pathway plays an important role of Borrelia biofilm formation and antibiotic sensitivity. PMID:27980856

  8. RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ringgaard, Simon; Hubbard, Troy; Mandlik, Anjali; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-08-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V. cholerae's 'cluster III' chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and in conjunction with growth arrest linked to carbon starvation. This expression, as well as expression in vivo in suckling rabbits, is dependent upon RpoS. V. cholerae's CAI-1 quorum sensing (QS) system is also required for cluster III expression in stationary phase and modulates its expression in vivo, but is not required for cluster III expression in response to carbon starvation. Surprisingly, even though the CAI-1 and AI-2 QS systems are thought to feed into the same signaling pathway, the AI-2 system inhibited cluster III gene expression, revealing that the outputs of the two QS systems are not always the same. The distinctions between genetic determinants of cluster III expression in vitro and in vivo highlight the distinctive nature of the in vivo environment.

  9. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  10. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  11. Managing a Leader Transition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-23

    organization, leaders should gather information about the political, cultural, economic , and security situations. Ideally, leaders can obtain much of the...Consider External Conditions and Contextual Influences (e.g., social, political, cultural, economic , historical and environmental) Program Results...Evaluation Work Shop Briefing, December 5, 2001, Slide 25 and adapted from McLaughlin, J. A., & Jordon, G. B. (1999) and Rossi, Lipsey , and Freeman (2004

  12. Transformational Leaders Know Themselves Better

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    content analysis and showed that the leaders ethnocentric behavior, conformity to ingroup norms, and hostility to outgroups correlated highly with the...likely to relate to supervisors’ evaluations than others’ ratings of the same employees. According to a meta- analysis by Harris and Schaubroeck (1988...independent criteria were used to gauge leader success in this study. Also, a parsimonious explanation of such results in terms of the lower predictions

  13. Remembering the Leaders of China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K. Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory. PMID:27065899

  14. What Is an Innovative Educational Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…

  15. Identification of Combat Unit Leader Skills and Leader-Group Interaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Kermit F.; And Others

    Research identified leader skills and leader-group interactive processes that have potential influence on unit performance in tactical situations. An historical review of the leader research literature was conducted, and leader models from leader research along with theory from industrial, managerial, and academic settings were reviewed. The…

  16. The Emotional Intelligence of Leaders as Antecedent to Leader-Member Exchanges: A Field Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Bugenhagen, Marilyn J.

    2009-01-01

    Eighty elected leaders and 388 followers were sampled to test the relationships between leaders' emotional intelligence and the quality of leader-member exchange. Results of the field study found a significant relationship between leaders' emotional intelligence (total) and leader-member exchange quality. Specific subscales of emotional…

  17. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5′-Leader

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Sarah C.; Summers, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The 5′-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5′-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function. PMID:28009832

  18. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5'-Leader.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Summers, Michael F

    2016-12-21

    The 5'-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5'-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function.

  19. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    PubMed

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  20. Role of bolA and rpoS genes in biofilm formation and adherence pattern by Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on polypropylene, stainless steel, and silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohd; Sousa, Ana Margarida; Machado, Idalina; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Khan, Saif; Morton, Glyn; Hadi, Sibte

    2017-06-01

    Escherichia coli has developed sophisticated means to sense, respond, and adapt in stressed environment. It has served as a model organism for studies in molecular genetics and physiology since the 1960s. Stress response genes are induced whenever a cell needs to adapt and survive under unfavorable growth conditions. Two of the possible important genes are rpoS and bolA. The rpoS gene has been known as the alternative sigma (σ) factor, which controls the expression of a large number of genes, which are involved in responses to various stress factors as well as transition to stationary phase from exponential form of growth. Morphogene bolA response to stressed environment leads to round morphology of E. coli cells, but little is known about its involvement in biofilms and its development or maintenance. This study has been undertaken to address the adherence pattern and formation of biofilms by E. coli on stainless steel, polypropylene, and silicone surfaces after 24 h of growth at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used for direct examination of the cell attachment and biofilm formation on various surfaces and it was found that, in the presence of bolA, E. coli cells were able to attach to the stainless steel and silicone very well. By contrast, polypropylene surface was not found to be attractive for E. coli cells. This indicates that bolA responded and can play a major role in the presence and absence of rpoS in cell attachment.

  1. Perioperative Nurse Leaders and Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Dawn

    2016-08-01

    Professionalism in nursing leadership encompasses key elements that include a common body of knowledge, autonomous practice, self-regulation through education and licensure, a set code of ethics, and a commitment to altruism. Perioperative nurse leaders also must embrace collaboration, vision, accountability, and patient and staff member advocacy based on established ethics, values, and standards of care. Nurse leaders who are committed to professional development through pursuit of higher degrees, application of evidence-based practice, collaboration with colleagues, and certification show a strong commitment to their profession and serve as role models for staff members. This article discusses professionalism in nursing and offers information specific to perioperative nurse leaders. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Leader Requirements Survey Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    dis - cuss the various parts of the Leader Requirements Survey Package. I. THE LEADER REQUIREMENTS SURVEY The Leader Requirements Survey was designed...L 0FORSCOM FORCES CVD C, EL VC: R HA 0TRADOC JTRA N:O & DOC C%! Di c E::% hAP’D\\ C S9l ~*- C USARPEUR EUROPE) C B;:V~ C, v G. 5 - C US.AEIGHT ,E C...0000 -0 40000000©Q0 0 a950C000 O= - 041 )000000D0 o, (D-0960000’-O0O 042000000 097 0T0 0 (00 43- 0 000000D 0980C Os©o - 440000000 ossO ©©00 O " - 046

  3. Control of cell division in Escherichia coli: regulation of transcription of ftsQA involves both rpoS and SdiA-mediated autoinduction.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, D M; Schineller, J B; Baldwin, T O

    1996-01-09

    The conditioning of culture medium by the production of growth-regulatory substances is a well-established phenomenon with eukaryotic cells. It has recently been shown that many prokaryotes are also capable of modulating growth, and in some cases sensing cell density, by production of extracellular signaling molecules, thereby allowing single celled prokaryotes to function in some respects as multicellular organisms. As Escherichia coli shifts from exponential growth to stationary growth, many changes occur, including cell division leading to formation of short minicells and expression of numerous genes not expressed in exponential phase. An understanding of the coordination between the morphological changes associated with cell division and the physiological and metabolic changes is of fundamental importance to understanding regulation of the prokaryotic cell cycle. The ftsQA genes, which encode functions required for cell division in E. coli, are regulated by promoters P1 and P2, located upstream of the ftsQ gene. The P1 promoter is rpoS-stimulated and the second, P2, is regulated by a member of the LuxR subfamily of transcriptional activators, SdiA, exhibiting features characteristic of an autoinduction (quorum sensing) mechanism. The activity of SdiA is potentiated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones, which are the autoinducers of luciferase synthesis in luminous marine bacteria as well as of pathogenesis functions in several pathogenic bacteria. A compound(s) produced by E. coli itself during growth in Luria Broth stimulates transcription from P2 in an SdiA-dependent process. Another substance(s) enhances transcription of rpoS and (perhaps indirectly) of ftsQA via promoter P1. It appears that this bimodal control mechanism may comprise a fail-safe system, such that transcription of the ftsQA genes may be properly regulated under a variety of different environmental and physiological conditions.

  4. The H-NS-like protein StpA represses the RpoS (sigma 38) regulon during exponential growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Sacha; McDermott, Paul; Thompson, Arthur; Hinton, Jay C D

    2009-12-01

    StpA is a paralogue of the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS that is conserved in a range of enteric bacteria and had no known function in Salmonella Typhimurium. We show that 5% of the Salmonella genome is regulated by StpA, which contrasts with the situation in Escherichia coli where deletion of stpA only had minor effects on gene expression. The StpA-dependent genes of S. Typhimurium are a specific subset of the H-NS regulon that are predominantly under the positive control of sigma(38) (RpoS), CRP-cAMP and PhoP. Regulation by StpA varied with growth phase; StpA controlled sigma(38) levels at mid-exponential phase by preventing inappropriate activation of sigma(38) during rapid bacterial growth. In contrast, StpA only activated the CRP-cAMP regulon during late exponential phase. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that StpA binds to PhoP-dependent genes but not to most genes of the CRP-cAMP and sigma(38) regulons. In fact, StpA indirectly regulates sigma(38)-dependent genes by enhancing sigma(38) turnover by repressing the anti-adaptor protein rssC. We discovered that StpA is essential for the dynamic regulation of sigma(38) in response to increased glucose levels. Our findings identify StpA as a novel growth phase-specific regulator that plays an important physiological role by linking sigma(38) levels to nutrient availability.

  5. Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Lacking the Secondary Messenger C-di-GMP and RpoS as a Live Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    García, Begoña; Gil, Carmen; García-Ona, Enrique; Burgui, Saioa; Casares, Noelia; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Lasarte, Juan José; Lasa, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence. C-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. An additional mutation of the rpoS gene resulted in a synergic attenuating effect that led to a highly attenuated strain, referred to as ΔXIII, immunogenic enough to protect mice against a lethal oral challenge of a S. Typhimurium virulent strain. ΔXIII immunogenicity relied on activation of both antibody and cell mediated immune responses characterized by the production of opsonizing antibodies and the induction of significant levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-10. ΔXIII was unable to form a biofilm and did not survive under desiccation conditions, indicating that it could be easily eliminated from the environment. Moreover, ΔXIII shows DIVA features that allow differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. Altogether, these results show ΔXIII as a safe and effective live DIVA vaccine. PMID:27537839

  6. Preparing nurse leaders for 2020.

    PubMed

    Huston, Carol

    2008-11-01

    This article highlights eight leadership competencies likely to be an essential part of the nurse leader's repertoire in 2020. Planning for the future is difficult, even when environments are relatively static. When environments are dynamic, the challenges multiply exponentially. Unfortunately, few environments have been more unpredictable in the 21st century than health care. The healthcare system is in chaos, as is much of the business world. It is critical then that contemporary nursing and healthcare leaders identify skill sets that will be needed by nurse leaders in 2020 and begin now to create the educational models and management development programs necessary to assure these skills are present. Essential nurse leader competencies for 2020 include: (i) A global perspective or mindset regarding healthcare and professional nursing issues. (ii) Technology skills which facilitate mobility and portability of relationships, interactions, and operational processes. (iii) Expert decision-making skills rooted in empirical science. (iv) The ability to create organization cultures that permeate quality healthcare and patient/worker safety. (v) Understanding and appropriately intervening in political processes. (vi) Highly developed collaborative and team building skills. (vii) The ability to balance authenticity and performance expectations. (viii) Being able to envision and proactively adapt to a healthcare system characterized by rapid change and chaos. Nursing education programmes and healthcare organizations must be begin now to prepare nurses to be effective leaders in 2020. This will require the formal education and training that are a part of most management development programmes as well as a development of appropriate attitudes through social learning. Proactive succession planning will also be key to having nurse leaders who can respond effectively to the new challenges and opportunities that will be presented to them in 2020.

  7. The Search for Teacher Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 400 high school teachers nominated by colleagues suggest teacher leaders seek challenge, change, growth; are supportive of colleagues; serve as role models for students but not for other teachers. Interviewees felt their influence in the high school was curtailed by school-culture and professional norms, as well as self-imposed…

  8. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  9. The Superintendent as Change Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portis, Carrie; Garcia, Mary W.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present Edwin Diaz, superintendent of California's Gilroy Unified School District and discuss the common challenges and strategies among those education leaders who take on--and succeed at--the role of change agent and reformer. When Edwin Diaz became superintendent of California's Gilroy Unified School District in…

  10. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  11. Competencies for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development and availability of well-prepared leaders is vital to the continued success of community colleges and their students. Throughout its history, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has made proactive leadership development a central focus of its mission. Now, that focus takes on even greater urgency as the level of…

  12. Risk Management: A Leader's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Roger E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses what facilities management leaders can do to ensure the safety of students and employees. Focuses on six specific tasks, such as detecting hazards and assessing the risks, and offers three rules underlying the application of risk management, including do not accept unnecessary risk. Provides an outline of prevention responsibilities.…

  13. Teambuilding: A Strategic Leader Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    following teambuilding lessons learned. In their book, The Wisdom of Teams, Jon Katzenbach and Douglas, provide a set of guidelines that leaders can follow...Leadership Quarterly, (1995): 219. 12 Northouse, 152. 13 Palmer, 139. 14 Northouse, 153. 15 Palmer, 140. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Jon R. Katzenbach & Douglas K

  14. Teacher Leaders: Advancing Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli

    2014-01-01

    Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…

  15. Essential Lessons for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This gold mine of wisdom from top education researcher and the best-selling author of "Turning Around Failing Schools and Connecting Teacher Leadership and School Improvement" contains key tips and strategies every school leader should know. Award-winning professor and former school administrator Joseph F. Murphy's concise and instructive lessons…

  16. Strategic Communication for Tactical Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    intent of senior Army leaders is to leverage social media as a medium to allow soldiers to ‘tell the Army story’ and to facilitate the dissemination of......audience in near-real time. Social media is the vehicle providing the majority of this 6 outlet, and it is growing in popularity at a meteoric rate

  17. American Religious Leaders. American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Timothy L.

    Founded on the principle of religious pluralism, the United States comprises scores of religious traditions. Although the spiritual lives of most people throughout the nation's history are private and undocumented, an examination of the lives and influence of U.S. religious leaders offers insights into the religious heritage of the United States.…

  18. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  19. The Principal as Instructional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1986-01-01

    Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…

  20. Educating School Leaders for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2010-01-01

    In order to be able to discuss, in meaningful ways, how school leaders should be educated one needs to sketch the context in which they are going to lead, that is the visions and purpose of education and the schooling, which is dominant in society. In most societies one sees clashes of many discourses and cultural/political fights. In order to…

  1. A Leader, Not a Hero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Lynda

    2005-01-01

    The author writes her experience in leading. She points out that a good leader should know when and how to let go than trying to do all the work by herself. It changed her focus on looking at details, implementation, dealing with the contractors, to leading leading people.

  2. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  3. Every Child Matters. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This guide is one of a series of Education for Parenthood manuals developed by the Salvation Army for use in programs to prepare teenagers for parenthood or for child care careers. This volume presents one of two programs for training future leaders of the Salvation Army Corps Cadets (ages 12 to 18). The program aims at increasing participants'…

  4. Research Administrators as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Joann

    2011-01-01

    Within the sponsored research support offices in departments at research institutions, non-profits, and undergraduate institutions, research administrators are often perceived as servant leaders by their own membership organizations and those who work with them. This perception is influenced by survey results focusing on character. Parolini (2004)…

  5. Women Religious Leaders and Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayburn, Carole A.; And Others

    This study examined stress, strain, and coping mechanisms in women religious leaders. Subjects were nuns (N=51), Reform women rabbis (N=45), Episcopal women priests (N=32), United Methodist clergywomen (N=45) and Presbyterian clergywomen (N=45), matched for age and years on the job and pulpit assignments. All subjects were given the Osipow and…

  6. Strategic Communications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…

  7. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  8. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  9. Teacher Leaders: Advancing Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli

    2014-01-01

    Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…

  10. Ethical Tensions and Academic Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Cranston, Neil; Starr, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Internationally universities have been characterised by shrinking government funding, fierce competition for student enrolments, and greater pressures to become commercially viable. It is against this complex background that academic leaders have been required to confront and resolve a multitude of conflicting interests as they seek to balance a…

  11. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  12. Educating Earth-Literate Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen; Jucker, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg made it clear that political leadership the world over is incapable of rising to the challenges of sustainability. Yet, most of the hundred or so world leaders who attended have a higher education degree from some of the world's most prestigious universities. This paper tries to…

  13. American Religious Leaders. American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Timothy L.

    Founded on the principle of religious pluralism, the United States comprises scores of religious traditions. Although the spiritual lives of most people throughout the nation's history are private and undocumented, an examination of the lives and influence of U.S. religious leaders offers insights into the religious heritage of the United States.…

  14. Strategic Communications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…

  15. Links & Contacts | Climate Leaders Collaboration | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  16. Climate Leaders Collaboration | New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  17. The failure-tolerant leader.

    PubMed

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.

  18. Analysis of the phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase mRNA in the rat spermatozoon and effect of selenium deficiency on the mRNA.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Hirata, S; Hoshi, K; Shinohara, A; Chiba, M

    2000-04-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) is a selenium (Se)-dependent glutathione peroxidase. It is reported that the relative PHGPx mRNA levels are much higher in the testis than in the other tissues. We have analyzed the existence and structure of the PHGPx mRNA in rat sperm and the changes in the level of the PHGPx mRNA after feeding with Se-deficient diets. We used 8-wk-old male Wistar strain rats given Se-adequate feed (control group, n = 5) and Se-deficient diets with marginal levels of Se (0.03 ppm or less) (Se-deficient group, n = 5) for 4 wk. The existence and level of the PHGPx mRNA in the cauda epididymal sperm, testis, and liver from the Se-adequate rats were analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the Southern blotting method. As a result, the existence of the PHGPx mRNA was demonstrated in the cauda epididymal sperm as well as in the testis and liver. Moreover, the subtype of the PHGPx mRNA in the rat sperm was the mitochondrial-type mRNA, which included a region corresponding to the mitochondrial transfer leader sequence. These results imply that the intracellular localization of PHGPx may be regulated by the transcription level. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the control group and the Se-deficient group in the Se level of the cauda epididymal sperm and the level of the PHGPx mRNA. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the PHGPx mRNA exists in rat sperm for the first time. The analysis of the PHGPx mRNA in the sperm would be a useful tool for investigating the disfunction caused by the disorder of the level or structure of the PHGPx in the sperm.

  19. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  20. Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

    This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

  1. In Search of the Congruent Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussrow, Paul G.; Purland, John

    A lack of congruency on the part of many leaders results in diminished effectiveness, if not outright failure. The soundness of a person in authority is an essential characteristic for potency as a leader. Irrespective of what system of ethical thought is proposed, effectiveness for leaders only comes from a stream of thought that demonstrates a…

  2. Adult Education Programs with Church Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, W. H.; Tait, John L.

    This document is a historical resume of adult education programs with church leaders sponsored by the Cooperative Extension Service of Iowa State University since the early 20th century. Supported by research, resident teaching and administrative leaders in the institution, the Extension Division has cooperated educationally with church leaders,…

  3. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  4. Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A., Ed.; Boggs, George R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The contributors relate examples of situations in which leaders encountered unexpected and sometimes unprecedented incivility in their role as community college leaders. The chapters present their experiences, observations, lessons, and recommendations for handling crises that may befall leaders in an academic setting. This book contains the…

  5. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  6. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  7. Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A., Ed.; Boggs, George R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The contributors relate examples of situations in which leaders encountered unexpected and sometimes unprecedented incivility in their role as community college leaders. The chapters present their experiences, observations, lessons, and recommendations for handling crises that may befall leaders in an academic setting. This book contains the…

  8. Leader Authenticity: Key to Organizational Climate, Health, and Perceived Leader Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Brookhart, Susan M.

    This paper describes the development of a revised Organizational Leader Authenticity Scale (OLAS) for use in determining the authenticity of both educational leaders and noneducational leaders. "Authenticity" refers to the degree to which the leader's action matches his or her words. A Staff Authenticity Scale was also developed and tested. The…

  9. Discovering the leader within yourself: school nurses as leaders.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Linda J; Wesoloski, Mary Anne; Lawinger, Sandra; Fishman, Donna

    2012-03-01

    School nurses are leaders every day, sometimes with ambivalence and sometimes fully embracing the leadership role. The authors were participants and trainers in the successful School Nurse Leadership Program of the Healthy Schools Campaign. The article describes five principles of effective school nurse leadership to help school nurses discover the leaders within themselves: passion, knowledge, advocacy, relationships, and communication. School nurses are encouraged to set leadership goals. Participants in a session at the NASN 2011 annual conference described a variety of 6-month goals including "Invite myself to the administrative meetings at least one time per quarter; present on a topic for at least 5 minutes. "Setting simple yet attainable goals is the first step to recognizing leadership in oneself.

  10. Combat Leaders’ Guide (CLG) Leader Handbook 2003

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    operations. Provides " big picture" or master plan. It is "how" information needed to accom- plish the mission. EXECUTION. Intent: Commander’s intent is a...equipment 4 Rescue friendly personnel 5 Gather Priority Intelligence Requirements (PIR) 6 Do not become decisively engaged 7 Attack when least... becomes ORP for next phase Leader selects ORP, a series of recon routes, and link up points 8-25 88 RECON AREA Separate recon and security ele- ments if

  11. Combat Leader’s Guide; 1994 Leader Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Stockpile ammo, food , water 21 Continue to improve positions 5 5-2 5 A-50 DEFENSE PLANNING OUTLINE 1. Commander’s intent 2. Platoon/squad mission 3...the position: throw & pack dirt Armpit deep Parapets filled, all camouflaged Grenade sumps dug/floor sloped Rucksack storage optional Leader inspects...shade for 15 seconds, eyes open 4 Reseal , clear & check masks, wait 10 minutes 5 Check for symptoms; if none, break seal of mask, take 2-3 breaths

  12. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic determinants that regulate internal initiation of translation mediated by the FMR1 5' leader

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Tara; Kube, Erika; Timmerman, Stephanie; Krushel, Les A

    2008-01-01

    Background Regulating synthesis of the Fragile X gene (FMR1) product, FMRP alters neural plasticity potentially through its role in the microRNA pathway. Cap-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA, a process requiring ribosomal scanning through the 5' leader, is likely impeded by the extensive secondary structure generated by the high guanosine/cytosine nucleotide content including the CGG triplet nucleotide repeats in the 5' leader. An alternative mechanism to initiate translation – internal initiation often utilizes secondary structure to recruit the translational machinery. Consequently, studies were undertaken to confirm and extend a previous observation that the FMR1 5' leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Results Cellular transfection of a dicistronic DNA construct containing the FMR1 5' leader inserted into the intercistronic region yielded significant translation of the second cistron, but the FMR1 5' leader was also found to contain a cryptic promoter possibly confounding interpretation of these results. However, transfection of dicistronic and monocistronic RNA ex vivo or in vitro confirmed that the FMR1 5' leader contains an IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo did not affect the expression level of endogenous FMRP indicating a role for IRES-dependent translation of FMR1 mRNA. Analysis of the FMR1 5' leader revealed that the CGG repeats and the 5' end of the leader were vital for internal initiation. Functionally, exposure to potassium chloride or intracellular acidification and addition of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid as mimics of neural activity and double stranded RNA, respectively, differentially affected FMR1 IRES activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that multiple stimuli influence IRES-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA and suggest a functional role for the CGG nucleotide repeats. PMID:18922172

  13. Expression of a streptomycete leaderless mRNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C J; Janssen, G R

    1997-01-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene from Streptomyces acrimycini encodes a leaderless mRNA. Expression of the cat coding sequence as a leaderless mRNA from a modified lac promoter resulted in chloramphenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Transcript mapping with nuclease S1 confirmed that the 5' end of the cat message initiated at the A of the AUG translational start codon. Site-directed mutagenesis of the lac promoter or the cat start codon abolished chloramphenicol resistance, indicating that E. coli initiated translation at the 5' terminal AUG of the cat leaderless mRNA. Addition of 5'-AUGC-3' to the 5' end of the cat mRNA resulted in translation occurring also from the reading frame defined by the added AUG triplet, suggesting that a 5'-terminal start codon is an important recognition feature for initiation and establishing reading frame during translation of leaderless mRNA. Addition of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence to the cat coding sequence increased cat expression in a cat:lacZ fusion; however, the level of expression was significantly lower than when a fragment of the bacteriophage lambda cI gene, also encoding a leaderless mRNA, was fused to lacZ. These results indicate that in the absence of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, the streptomycete cat mRNA is translated by E. coli; however, the cat translation signals, or other features of the cat mRNA, provide for only a low level of expression in E. coli. PMID:9352935

  14. Translation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae tcm1 gene in the absence of a 5'-untranslated leader.

    PubMed Central

    Maicas, E; Shago, M; Friesen, J D

    1990-01-01

    The role of eukaryotic 5'-untranslated messenger RNA leaders is not entirely clear, since they share little sequence similarity among each other. The importance of the leader in determining the efficiency of translation initiation was addressed here by examining the polyribosome distribution of several leader-deletion alleles of the yeast tcm1 gene (coding for ribosomal protein L3). Shortening of this 22-nucleotide leader, or complete removal of it (the first nucleotide of the mRNA becoming the A of the translation initiation codon AUG) permitted translation, albeit reduced. Further deletion of as few as the first two nucleotides of the initiation codon leads to a substantial reduction in ribosome loading, which is compatible with inefficient initiation at the next downstream, out-of-frame, AUG triplet. A second measure of translation initiation was obtained by assaying qualitatively for the production of biologically active L3 protein using growth-resistance to trichodermin. This experiment indicates that ribosomes can recognize the correct initiation codon even in the complete absence of a leader. We conclude that the 5'-untranslated leader of the yeast tcm1 gene is not essential for accurate translation initiation, but enhances its efficiency. Images PMID:2216774

  15. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  16. Is Mohammed a Strategic Leader?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    and expansion of Islam initiated by Mohammed and ended with the collapse of the Umayyad Dynasty .16 At the height of this period of expansion, Islam...spreading Islam early in his life while in Mecca. Some have placed the estimate at 100 people converted to Islam in the first thirteen years of peaceful...Mohammed remains an extraordinary world figure and a strategic leader even almost thirteen centuries after his death. Islam continues to expand

  17. Strategic Military Leaders - Leading Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    strategic vision, and prepare their commands as a whole for their future roles .”7 Transiting from an environment of relative clarity in missions...in war, their role is to dominate and win. Social Intelligence Daniel Goleman defines social intelligence as a combination of two inseparable...therefore has two crucial roles : first to develop the right people, with the right strategic competencies, as its strategic leaders; and second, to

  18. Cycling of the Sm-like protein Hfq on the DsrA small regulatory RNA.

    PubMed

    Lease, Richard A; Woodson, Sarah A

    2004-12-10

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial genes involved in environmental adaptation. This RNA regulation requires Hfq, a bacterial Sm-like protein that stabilizes sRNAs and enhances RNA-RNA interactions. To understand the mechanism of target recognition by sRNAs, we investigated the interactions between Hfq, the sRNA DsrA, and its regulatory target rpoS mRNA, which encodes the stress response sigma factor. Nuclease footprinting revealed that Hfq recognized multiple sites in rpoS mRNA without significantly perturbing secondary structure in the 5' leader that inhibits translation initiation. Base-pairing with DsrA, however, made the rpoS ribosome binding site fully accessible, as predicted by genetic data. Hfq bound DsrA four times more tightly than the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex in gel mobility-shift assays. Consequently, Hfq is displaced rapidly from its high-affinity binding site on DsrA by conformational changes in DsrA, when DsrA base-pairs with rpoS mRNA. Hfq accelerated DsrA.rpoS RNA association and stabilized the RNA complex up to twofold. Hybridization of DsrA and rpoS mRNA was optimal when Hfq occupied its primary binding site on free DsrA, but was inhibited when Hfq associated with the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex. We conclude that recognition of rpoS mRNA is stimulated by binding of Hfq to free DsrA sRNA, followed by release of Hfq from the sRNA.mRNA complex.

  19. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  20. Lethality of a heat- and phosphate-catalyzed glucose by-product to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and partial protection conferred by the rpoS regulon.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J J; Cheville, A M; Bose, J L; Kaspar, C W

    1999-06-01

    A by-product of glucose produced during sterilization (121 degrees C, 15 lb/in2, 15 min) at neutral pH and in the presence of phosphate (i.e., phosphate-buffered saline) was bactericidal to Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). Other six-carbon (fructose and galactose) and five-carbon (arabinose, ribose, and xylose) reducing sugars also produced a toxic by-product under the same conditions. Fructose and the five-carbon sugars yielded the most bactericidal activity. Glucose concentrations of 1% (wt/vol) resulted in a 99.9% decline in the CFU of stationary-phase cells per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. An rpoS mutant (pRR10::rpoS) of strain 43895 (FRIK 816-3) was significantly (P < 0.001) more sensitive to the glucose-phosphate by-product than the parent strain, as glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 0.25% resulted in a 2- to 3-log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. Likewise, log-phase cells of the wild-type strain, 43895, were significantly more sensitive (P < 0.001) to the glucose-phosphate by-product than were stationary-phase cells, which is consistent with the stability of rpoS and the regulation of rpoS-regulated genes. The bactericidal effect of the glucose-phosphate by-product was reduced when strains ATCC 43895 and FRIK 816-3 were incubated at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Also, growth in glucose-free medium (i.e., nutrient broth) did not alleviate the sensitivity to the glucose-phosphate by-product and excludes the possibility of substrate-accelerated death as the cause of the bactericidal effect observed. The glucose-phosphate by-product was also bactericidal to Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, and a Klebsiella sp. Attempts to identify the glucose-phosphate by-product were unsuccessful. These studies demonstrate the production of a glucose-phosphate by-product bactericidal to E. coli O157:H7 and the protective effects afforded by rpoS-regulated gene products. Additionally, the detection of sublethally

  1. Role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in bacterial heat resistance as a function of treatment medium pH.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, A; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R; García-Gonzalo, D

    2012-02-15

    This investigation aimed to determine the role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in heat resistance and the occurrence of sublethal injuries in cell envelopes of stationary-phase Escherichia coli BJ4 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e cells, respectively, as a function of treatment medium pH. Given that microbial death followed first-order inactivation kinetics (R(2)>0.95) the traditional D(T) and z values were used to describe the heat inactivation kinetics. Influence of rpoS deletion was constant at every treatment temperature and pH, making a ΔrpoS deletion mutant strain approximately 5.5 times more heat sensitive than its parental strain for every studied condition. Furthermore, the influence of the pH of the treatment medium on the reduction of the heat resistance of E. coli was also constant and independent of the treatment temperature (average z value=4.9°C) in both parental and mutant strains. L. monocytogenes EGD-e z values obtained at pH 7.0 and 5.5 were not significantly different (p>0.05) in either parental or the ∆sigB deletion mutant strains (average z value=4.8°C). Nevertheless, at pH 4.0 the z value was higher (z=8.4°C), indicating that heat resistance of both L. monocytogenes strains was less dependent on temperature at pH 4.0. At both pH 5.5 and 7.0 the influence of sigB deletion was constant and independent of the treatment temperature, decreasing L. monocytogenes heat resistance approximately 2.5 times. In contrast, the absence of sigB did not decrease the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The role of RpoS in protecting cell envelopes was more important in E. coli (4 times) than SigB in L. monocytogenes (1.5 times). Moreover, the role of σ(S) in increasing heat resistance seems more relevant in enhancing the intrinsic resilience of the cytoplasmic membrane, and to a lesser extent, outer membrane resilience. Knowledge of environmental conditions related to the activation of

  2. Leader charisma and affective team climate: the moderating role of the leader's influence and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.

  3. Effects of leaders' and evaluators' sex on sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, James P

    2002-12-01

    This study extends research on sex and leadership by examining the relation between evaluators' and leaders' sex and the sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders. A total of 219 students (110 men and 109 women) from a large northeastern university rated charismatic leaders depicted in vignettes using the revised Bem Sex-Role Inventory: overall, the leaders were rated higher on masculinity than femininity. Analysis by sex of evaluator and leader showed masculinity was higher in all cases except when male charismatic leaders were evaluated by women. In this case, the results support an androgynous view, i.e., high on both masculinity and femininity.

  4. Developing capable quality improvement leaders.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Geraldine M; Britto, Maria T; Schoettker, Pamela J; Farber, Stacey L; Muething, Stephen; Kotagal, Uma R

    2012-11-01

    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center created the Intermediate Improvement Science Series (I(2)S(2)) training course to develop organisational leaders to do improvement, lead improvement and get results on specific projects. Each multidisciplinary class consists of 25-30 participants and 12 in-class training days over 6 months. Instructional methods include lectures, case studies, interactive application exercises and dialogue, participant reports and assigned readings. Participants demonstrate competence in improvement science by completing a project with improvement in outcome and/or process measures. They present on their projects and receive feedback during each session and one-on-one coaching between sessions. Since 2006, 279 participants in 11 classes have completed the I(2)S(2) course. Participant evaluations have consistently rated satisfaction, learning, application, impact and value very high. Large and statistically significant changes were observed in pre-course to post-course self-assessment of knowledge of five quality improvement topics. Approximately 85% of the projects demonstrated measurable improvement. At follow-up, 72% of improvement projects were completed and made a part of everyday operations in the participant's unit or were the focus of continuing improvement work. Many changes were spread to other units or programmes. Most (88%) responding graduates continued to participate in formal quality improvement efforts and many led other improvement projects. Nearly half of the respondents presented their results at one or more professional conference. Through the I(2)S(2) course, the authors are developing improvement leaders, accelerating the shift in the culture from a traditional academic medical centre to an improvement-focused culture, and building cross-silo relationships by developing leaders who understand the organisation as a large system of interdependent subsystems focused on improving health.

  5. Developing first-level leaders.

    PubMed

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say.

  6. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-11-20

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  7. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  8. Leader selection for fast consensus in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a leader-follower system with the aim to select an optimal leader so as to drive the remaining nodes to reach the desired consensus with the fastest convergence speed. An index called consensus centrality (CC) is proposed to quantify how fast a leader could guide the network to achieve the desired consensus. The experiment results explored the big similarities between the distributions of CC and degree in the network, which suggest that the suboptimal leader selected by the maximum degree can approximately approach the optimal leader in heterogeneous networks. Combining the degree-based k-shell decomposition with consensus centrality, a leader selection algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in large-scale networks. Finally, the convergence time of an equivalent discrete-time model is given to illustrate the properties of the suboptimal solutions.

  9. Passion in today's health care leaders.

    PubMed

    Piper, Llewellyn E

    2005-01-01

    Passion in today's health care leaders is essential as health care organizations face increasing demands for survival. Leaders in health care have been educated, selected, promoted, and retained based on their analytical and creativity skills. Today's health care leaders must also have emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is primal for passion. Emotional intelligence, which leads to passion, is crucial to the survivability of today's health care organizations. In order for health care organizations to go from good to great, the leader must inspire followers through passion. This article encourages health care leaders to gain awareness of emotional intelligence and to use emotional intelligence as part of their leadership to inspire passion. Through passion, leaders and followers become more motivated to accomplish the health care mission of serving others.

  10. Is the Army Developing Strategic Leaders?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    provide a definition and list of competencies that outlines what a strategic leader should possess. With that definition and list of competencies, the...researcher will examine three military leaders, showing linkage to doctrine, which will illustrate examples of this doctrinal definition . Once this is...Army currently developing strategic leaders? The US Army doctrine and the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) provide a definition and list of

  11. Using Danielson's Framework to Develop Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Considering the constructs of teacher leadership, the author provides a practical starting point for systematically encouraging and developing teacher leaders using Danielson's framework for teaching.

  12. Developing Socially Responsible Leaders in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, T. W., III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.

  13. Using Danielson's Framework to Develop Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Considering the constructs of teacher leadership, the author provides a practical starting point for systematically encouraging and developing teacher leaders using Danielson's framework for teaching.

  14. Beyond Individual Leader Development: Cultivating Collective Capacities.

    PubMed

    Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change.

  15. Developing Socially Responsible Leaders in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, T. W., III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.

  16. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  17. Be seen as a leader.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Kilduff, Gavin J

    2013-12-01

    When a new work group forms, people often make snap judgments about who is qualified to lead. If the players don't already know one another, they tend to afford status to teammates on the basis of factors such as age, gender, race, attractiveness, and rank. These are characteristics beyond your control, but they don't necessarily predetermine the influence you can have on a group. Anyone, the authors say, can achieve higher status and more influence by getting in the right mind-set before engaging with new teammates. There are three psychological states that can increase the optimism, confidence, and proactive behavior that people associate with leaders: promotion focus (defined as a focus on goals and positive outcomes), happiness, and a feeling of power. And all it takes to help you enter one of these states is a simple five-minute exercise before starting a group task: Write about your ambitions or a time when you felt happy or powerful. The authors report that study subjects who did exactly that were more likely than others to speak up, steer decision making, and be viewed by their teammates as leaders--both in initial group meetings and in follow-up meetings two days later.

  18. Human Leader and Robot Follower Team: Correcting Leader’s Position From Follower’s Heading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    of the leader’s navigation system and corrects those errors. Keywords: Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), robot, leader - follower , dead-reckoning, gyro...drift, error correction 1 INTRODUCTION Leader - follower constellations have been subject of research for many years now. Most of the work in this...pair of small mobile robots (both were PackBots from iRobot [6]) made up the leader - follower team. Both the leader and the follower were equipped with

  19. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  20. Team leader`s preparation guide for Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides instructions, explanations, and examples for the performance of all phases of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). Details pertinent to the team leader, team members, and review coordinator are outlined. Sample forms and correspondence are included in appendices. Although this document is for use by DOE ORR team leaders, it can be used by contractor ORR team leaders also.

  1. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  2. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-07

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  3. The IT Leader as Alchemist: Finding the True Gold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleed, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The Information technology (IT) leader within higher education can be viewed from three scenarios: (1) the IT leader as plumber; (2) the IT leader as gardener; and (3) the IT leader as alchemist. In the first scenario, the college or university network consists of pipes, and the role of the IT leader resembles that of a plumber, who keeps the…

  4. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  5. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  6. The IT Leader as Alchemist: Finding the True Gold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleed, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The Information technology (IT) leader within higher education can be viewed from three scenarios: (1) the IT leader as plumber; (2) the IT leader as gardener; and (3) the IT leader as alchemist. In the first scenario, the college or university network consists of pipes, and the role of the IT leader resembles that of a plumber, who keeps the…

  7. Should School Administrators Be Leaders or Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, W. Warner

    Research in leadership relevant to school administrators is reviewed and summarized here. The author maintains that most previous authors identified two primary leader functions, concerns, types, or dimensions. These authors include Wortman, who, following in the footsteps of Zaleznick, saw a dichotomy between leaders and managers; Burns, who…

  8. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  9. Conceptualizing Leadership and Assessing Leader Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; Johansen, Barry-Craig

    Leadership may be defined as both a process and a property. Research shows that some attributes common to successful leaders (characteristics, knowledge, and skills) can be significantly influenced by planned education or training. In the process of developing a leadership assessment instrument, a study specified four broad tasks that leaders are…

  10. SVP [School Volunteer Program] Leader's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed to aid school-level administrators of the School Volunteer Program (SVP), this handbook is organized into five sections as follows: (1) what the responsibilities of SVP leaders are, including SVP resource person and volunteer chairman job description; (2) with whom SVP leaders work, including communication network, division of…

  11. Leaders as Learners: Developing New Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aas, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Professional learning and development of school leaders are considered keys to educational change. However, a growing body of research has identified how difficult it is to design professional leadership programmes that make a difference in leaders' professional practice. Drawing on the framework of expansive learning and data from the six-year…

  12. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  13. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  14. Preparing Preservice Teachers to become Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Since PreK-12 student achievement is the primary focus of schools, all teachers are called to serve as teachers leaders and improve learning on their campuses. Rather than waiting until they have gained experience, teachers can begin acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher leaders during their preservice programs. Drawing upon…

  15. A System Dynamic Model of Leader Emergence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    complexity and organizational sciences. Applying complexity science to leadership research expands previous notions of leadership beyond dyadic...Contingency approaches to leadership suggest that environmental conditions combined with leader behavoirs , determine leader effectiveness (Judge...events and represents the foundation of understanding system dynamics. Feedback in organizational behavior parlance is simply the reaction to a

  16. 10 Ideas for Recruiting New Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Vicki; Wall, Milan

    This booklet presents ideas based on actions taken by community leaders to recruit new and emerging leaders to join in the improvement of a community. The discussion includes: (1) asking the question "who's not here?" to make sure the community organization is representative; (2) looking for skills, not names to discover leadership…

  17. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  18. Where the Leaders of 1989 Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the current lives of the Chinese leaders of 1989. Wang Dan, an active organizer year before the demonstrations and quickly became a leader in the square, has completed a Ph.D. in Chinese history at Harvard University last year and is now on a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Oxford. Wu'er Kaixi, who took a…

  19. "Yes, but...": Education Leaders Discuss Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Ward, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents answers to the question: What do powerful educational leaders think about training practitioners for social justice? The data are drawn from interviews with a former governor and leaders from the American Association of School Administration (AASA), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), National…

  20. AFMS Flight Path: Building Future Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03-001. Cambridge, Mass...Building Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03‐001

  1. Science Teacher Leaders: Exploring Practices and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, John Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments,…

  2. Vermont Guidelines for Teacher & Leader Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, the State of Vermont Department of Education charged the Vermont Task Force on Teacher & Leader Effectiveness to develop guidelines for teacher and leader evaluation. Knowing and respecting the fiercely independent nature of Vermonters, Task Force members were committed to developing these guidelines for creating and assessing…

  3. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  4. Where the Leaders of 1989 Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the current lives of the Chinese leaders of 1989. Wang Dan, an active organizer year before the demonstrations and quickly became a leader in the square, has completed a Ph.D. in Chinese history at Harvard University last year and is now on a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Oxford. Wu'er Kaixi, who took a…

  5. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  6. How Sociological Leaders Teach: Some Key Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persell, Caroline Hodges; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.; Syed, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This paper arose from a larger study designed to explore what leaders in the field of sociology think are the most important goals and principles for students to understand after taking a college-level introductory course and how they teach those principles. A population of scholarly leaders in sociology was defined by various forms of peer…

  7. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  8. Leader Succession and Socialization: A Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    1991-01-01

    Leader-succession research is refocused on its interactive roots whereas the advances of recent succession inquiry are explored in this synthesis of the literature. The approach capitalizes on efforts to understand leader-succession research from a multidimensional and social viewpoint. Organizational socialization is used to frame the discussion.…

  9. Major Changes Afoot for Leaders Council

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This article presents major alterations afoot for Leaders Council. The Education Leaders Council (ELC), which has been grappling with financial and leadership problems for months, is merging with another Washington-based nonprofit organization. The new organization, which will likely keep the ELC name, now will manage the Following the Leaders…

  10. Assistant Principals: Their Readiness as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searby, Linda; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Wang, Chih-hsuan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study investigating the capacity of assistant principals to be instructional leaders. Analyses of survey responses yielded four interesting findings: (a) years of experience as a teacher and age had no significance on assistant principals' perceived readiness as an instructional leader; (b) those completing…

  11. Of Card Tricks and Charismatic Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jonathan F.

    1989-01-01

    Outlines a lecture designed for an introductory sociology course. Explores the ways that cult leaders manipulate their followers. Deals with possible dysfunctions of extremely religious groups of people. Utilizes a card trick to illustrate the ways in which charismatic leaders successfully control their audience. (KO)

  12. Key Characteristics of Teacher Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Claxton, Heather; Wilson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leaders who share their specialized knowledge, expertise, and experience with other teachers broaden and sustain school and classroom improvement efforts. Teacher leaders can transform classrooms into learning laboratories where every student is engaged in relevant and well-designed curricular content, every teacher embraces the use of…

  13. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  14. The Space between: Women Teachers as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podjasek, Heidi L.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study focused on listening to the voices of women teacher leaders regarding their leadership experiences within one elementary school. The question guiding this dissertation was "How do women elementary school teacher leaders perceive leadership?" Within the stories of the participants, two essential theme…

  15. Get Organized! Time Management for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Too often, time-management books target the business executive. Although it is true that those in the educational arena share many of the same challenges, it is also true that schools are unique places. This book is written for school leaders. Its scenarios specifically address the day-to-day situations school leaders face on a regular basis. This…

  16. College Student Leaders: Meet the Alpha Female

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; DiPaolo, Donald G.; Popson, Halle C.

    2009-01-01

    With the emergence of a new generation of strong and empowered female student leaders on college campuses, a special type of female leader, the Alpha Female, has developed. This study examines the essence of having an Alpha Female identity for 13 undergraduate women at a Midwestern university. Extensive interviews were conducted; transcripts were…

  17. Developing high-performance leaders.

    PubMed

    Melum, Mara

    2002-01-01

    Although there is widespread recognition that strong leadership is key in these challenging times, many companies provide only the tip of the iceberg of leadership development support. This article is a resource for high-powered leadership development systems that will have an impact on performance. Four topics are discussed: (1) models, (2) investment and results, (3) critical success factors, and (4) case studies of how the 3M Company and HealthPartners develop high-performance leaders. Studies that quantity the effect of leadership development on performance are noted. Five critical success factors are described, and examples from leadership development benchmark organizations such as General Electric and Reell Precision Manufacturing are discussed.

  18. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    PubMed

    Washburn, E R

    1998-01-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  19. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  20. What about the leader? Crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Tobamovirus infection is independent of HSP101 mRNA induction and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tyrell; Wang, Yongzeng; Huang, Zhonglian; Yeakley, Joanne M; Fan, Jian-Bing; Whitham, Steven A

    2006-10-01

    Heat shock protein 101 (HSP101) has been implicated in tobamovirus infections by virtue of its ability to enhance translation of mRNAs possessing the 5'Omega-leader of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Enhanced translation is mediated by HSP101 binding to a CAA-repeat motif in TMV Omega leader. CAA repeat sequences are present in the 5' leaders of other tobamoviruses including Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), which infects Arabidopsis thaliana. HSP101 is one of eight HSP100 gene family members encoded by the A. thaliana genome, and of these, HSP101 and HSP98.7 are predicted to encode proteins localized to the cytoplasm where they could potentially interact with TMV RNA. Analysis of the expression of the HSP100s showed that only HSP101 mRNA transcripts were induced significantly by ORMV in A. thaliana. The induction of HSP101 mRNA was also correlated with an increase in its protein levels and was independent of defense-related signaling pathways involving salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene. A. thaliana mutants lacking HSP101, HSP98.7, or both supported wild-type levels of ORMV replication and movement. Similar results were obtained for TMV infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants silenced for HSP101, demonstrating that HSP101 is not necessary for efficient tobamovirus infection.

  2. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Carey Roth; Smith, L Lerissa; Volny Darko, Renée; McKool, Marissa; Yan, Fengxia; Heiman, Harry

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders. We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis. Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage. This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  3. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader–follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower–follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders’ communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time. PMID:25831535

  4. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.

  5. Are you a collaborative leader?

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Hansen, Morten T

    2011-01-01

    Social media and technologies have put connectivity on steroids and made collaboration more integral to business than ever. But without the right leadership, collaboration can go astray. Employees who try to collaborate on everything may wind up stuck in endless meetings, struggling to reach agreement. On the other side of the coin, executives who came of age during the heyday of "command and control" management can have trouble adjusting their style to fit the new realities. In their research on top-performing CEOs, Insead professors Ibarra and Hansen have examined what it takes to be a collaborative leader. They've found that it requires connecting people and ideas outside an organization to those inside it, leveraging diverse talent, modeling collaborative behavior at the top, and showing a strong hand to keep teams from getting mired in debate. In this article, they describe tactics that executives from Akamai, GE, Reckitt Benckiser, and other firms use in those four areas and how they foster high-performance collaborative cultures in their organizations.

  6. Identification and expression of small non-coding RNA, L10-Leader, in different growth phases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Xia, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Li, Wuju; Liu, Jiaojiao; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Chen, Ying; Su, Xueting; Wang, Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Chenglong; Shao, Ningsheng; Chu, Bingfeng

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the major cariogenic bacteria in the oral environment. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of bacterial growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. In this study, we experimentally verified the existence of sRNA, L10-Leader, in S. mutans for the first time. Our results show that the expression level of L10-Leader was growth-phase dependent in S. mutans and varied among different clinical strains of S. mutans. The level of L10-Leader in S. mutans UA159 was closely related to the pH value, but not to the concentrations of glucose and sucrose in culture medium. We predicted target mRNAs of L10-Leader bioinformatically and found that some of these mRNAs were related to growth and stress response. Five predicted mRNA targets were selected and detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and we found that the expression levels of these mRNAs were closely related to the level of L10-Leader at different growth phases of the bacteria. Our results indicate that L10-Leader may play an important role in the regulation of responses in S. mutans, especially during its growth phase and acid adaption response.

  7. Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.

    SciTech Connect

    Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2010-01-01

    Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

  8. Interprofessional Care and Role of Team Leaders.

    PubMed

    Kaini, B K

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care team leader is vital to ensuring continuity and consistency of care and to mobilise and motivate health care professionals for the effective delivery of health services. Medical professionals usually lead interprofessional care teams. Interprofessional care leaders require various skills and competencies for the successful delivery of interprofessional care.

  9. Nurse managers as transformational and transactional leaders.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elaine; Kennerly, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Nurse managers demonstrating transformational leadership are more likely than transactional leaders to have committed staff nurse followers. Committed followers exert extra effort, thus improving unit performance and enhancing the organization's competitive advantage.

  10. Recognizing and defining clinical nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Stanley, David

    This article addresses the issue of clinical leadership and how it is defined. The concepts and definitions of clinical leadership are considered as well as the results of new research that suggests that clinical leaders can be seen as experts in their field, and because they are approachable and are effective communicators, are empowered to act as a role model, motivating others by matching their values and beliefs about nursing and care to their practice. This is supported by a new leadership theory, congruent leadership, proposed as the most appropriate leadership theory to support an understanding of clinical leadership. Congruent leaders (clinical nurse leaders) are followed because there is a match between the leader's values and beliefs and their actions.

  11. Differential utilization of upstream AUGs in the β-secretase mRNA suggests that a shunting mechanism regulates translation

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, George W.; Edelman, Gerald M.; Mauro, Vincent P.

    2004-01-01

    β-Secretase [also known as the β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1)] is an enzyme involved in the production of Aβ-amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. The enhanced production of this enzyme occurs without corresponding changes in BACE1 mRNA levels. The complex 5′ leader of BACE1 mRNA contains three upstream ORFs (uORFs) preceding the BACE1 initiation codon. In this study, we investigated how this 5′ leader affects translation efficiency as a first step in understanding the enhanced production of the enzyme in the disease. Using reporter constructs in transfected mammalian cell lines and cell-free lysates, we showed that the translation mediated by the BACE1 5′ leader is cap-dependent and inhibited by cis-acting segments contained within the 5′ leader. Disruption of the uORFs had no effect on translation in B104 cells, which was surprising because the first two AUGs reside in contexts able to function as initiation codons. Possible mechanisms to explain how ribosomes bypass the uORFs, including reinitiation, leaky scanning, and internal initiation of translation were found to be inconsistent with the data. The data are most consistent with a model in which ribosomes shunt uORF-containing segments of the 5′ leader as the ribosomes move from the 5′ end of the mRNA to the initiation codon. In PC12 cells, however, the second uORF appears to be translated. We hypothesize that the translation efficiency of the BACE1 initiation codon may be increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease by molecular mechanisms that enhance shunting or increase the relative accessibility the BACE1 initiation codon. PMID:14981268

  12. Bossing or serving?: How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2008-04-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  13. Bossing or serving? How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2007-01-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  14. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile leader must be prepared to operate within and the...senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago? To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile...to the reader. BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING MENTALLY AGILE JUNIOR LEADERS Persistent conflict and change characterize the strategic environment . We have

  15. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  16. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Sub-Cellular Localization and Function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. In addition to its role in shutti...

  17. Erythromycin-induced ribosome stall in the ermA leader: a barricade to 5'-to-3' nucleolytic cleavage of the ermA transcript.

    PubMed

    Sandler, P; Weisblum, B

    1989-12-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus ermA gene, whose product confers resistance to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B family of antibiotics, is induced at the level of translation by nanomolar concentrations of erythromycin. Erythromycin also specifically stabilizes ermA transcripts, and the induced stabilization requires in-phase translation of at least one of two small leader peptides in the 5' leader region of the transcript. Erythromycin-induced mRNA stabilization was tested in three constructions in which the ermA transcript was elongated by making insertions at the ermA transcription start. Whereas mRNA downstream of the leader peptide is stabilized by erythromycin, mRNA upstream is not. In the presence of erythromycin, specific mRNA decay intermediates in both the extended ermA genes and the wild-type ermA gene were detected by both Northern blotting and S1 nuclease mapping. The 5' ends of the intermediates map to the sequences that encode each of the two ermA leader peptides, suggesting that the intermediates are produced by stalled erythromycin-bound ribosomes acting as barricades to degradation by 5'-to-3' RNases. In addition, whereas erythromycin was found previously to stabilize ermA transcripts only physically, an ermC-cat-86 hybrid transcript was stabilized both physically and functionally by erythromycin.

  18. Erythromycin-induced ribosome stall in the ermA leader: a barricade to 5'-to-3' nucleolytic cleavage of the ermA transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, P; Weisblum, B

    1989-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus ermA gene, whose product confers resistance to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B family of antibiotics, is induced at the level of translation by nanomolar concentrations of erythromycin. Erythromycin also specifically stabilizes ermA transcripts, and the induced stabilization requires in-phase translation of at least one of two small leader peptides in the 5' leader region of the transcript. Erythromycin-induced mRNA stabilization was tested in three constructions in which the ermA transcript was elongated by making insertions at the ermA transcription start. Whereas mRNA downstream of the leader peptide is stabilized by erythromycin, mRNA upstream is not. In the presence of erythromycin, specific mRNA decay intermediates in both the extended ermA genes and the wild-type ermA gene were detected by both Northern blotting and S1 nuclease mapping. The 5' ends of the intermediates map to the sequences that encode each of the two ermA leader peptides, suggesting that the intermediates are produced by stalled erythromycin-bound ribosomes acting as barricades to degradation by 5'-to-3' RNases. In addition, whereas erythromycin was found previously to stabilize ermA transcripts only physically, an ermC-cat-86 hybrid transcript was stabilized both physically and functionally by erythromycin. Images PMID:2592348

  19. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    PubMed

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility.

  20. Rotation rates of leader and follower sunspots

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.A.; Howard, R.

    1985-08-01

    We have measured the rotation rates of leader and follower sunspots found on Mount Wilson white light plates, for the years 1917--1983. We find that at all latitudes, leader spots rotate faster than follower spots by approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, or 14 m s/sup -1/. We also find that, when examined separately, leaders and followers show the same variations in rotation with cycle phase as do all spots taken together, as reported earlier in Gilman and Howard. Leaders and followers show similar variations in rotation rate even on an annual basis. Thus, while leaders and followers in each group diverge in longitude from each other at an average rate of approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, each is separately speeding up or slowing down its rotation according to the phase in the cycle, and by a similar amount. Leaders and followers also give about the same covariance of longitude and latitude motions, indicating that whole sunspot groups participate in tracing the apparent angular momentum transport toward the equator, as previously reported for all spots in Gilman and Howard.

  1. In search of global leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.

  2. A survival guide for leaders.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald A; Linsky, Marty

    2002-06-01

    Let's face it, to lead is to live dangerously. While leadership is often viewed as an exciting and glamorous endeavor, one in which you inspire others to follow you through good times and bad, such a portrayal ignores leadership's dark side: the inevitable attempts to take you out of the game. This is particularly true when a leader must steer an organization through difficult change. When the status quo is upset, people feel a sense of profound loss and dashed expectations. They may need to undergo a period of feeling incompetent or disloyal. It's no wonder they resist the change and often try to eliminate its visible agent. This "survival guide" offers a number of techniques--relatively straightforward in concept but difficult to execute--for protecting yourself as you lead such a change initiative. Adapted from the book Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading (Harvard Business School Press, 2002), the article has two main parts. The first looks outward, offering tactical advice about relating to your organization and the people in it. It is designed to protect you from those who would push you aside before you complete your initiatives. The second looks inward, focusing on your own needs and vulnerabilities. It is designed to keep you from bringing yourself down. The hard truth is that it is not possible to experience the rewards and joys of leadership without experiencing the pain as well. But staying in the game and bearing that pain is worth it, not only for the positive changes you can make in the lives of others but also for the meaning it gives your own.

  3. Preparing School Leaders to Serve as Agents for Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed.…

  4. Public Leadership Education: The Role of Citizen Leaders. Volume VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Suzanne W.; And Others

    This document is devoted to the topic of citizen leaders. The first article, "Defining a Citizen Leader" (Richard A. Couto), provides a pragmatic definition of citizenship by describing citizen leaders with whom Couto has worked. "The Making of the Citizen Leader" (Cheryl Mabey) describes ways to educate for leadership while showing that…

  5. Moral Frameworks for Leaders of Gifted Programs and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elissa F.; Rinko-Gay, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Given the complexities of being an educational leader and, specifically, an educational leader of a gifted program or school, should there be a moral guide or framework that can inform the daily practices of leaders within an ever-changing educational context of competing demands? Should leaders of gifted programs employ the same ethos as any…

  6. The Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Methyltransferase Correlates with mRNA Stability Independently of Ribosome Stalling

    PubMed Central

    Dzyubak, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm. Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus ErmB leader peptide (ErmBL) lead to high basal and induced expression of downstream ErmB in the absence or presence of macrolide concomitantly with elevated ribosome methylation and resistance. The overexpression of ErmB is associated with the reduced turnover of the ermBL-ermB transcript, and the macrolide appears to mitigate mRNA cleavage at a site immediately downstream of the ermBL SD sequence. The stabilizing effect of antibiotics on mRNA is not limited to ermBL-ermB; cationic antibiotics representing a ribosome-stalling inducer and a noninducer increase the half-life of specific transcripts. These data unveil a new layer of ermB regulation and imply that ErmBL translation or ribosome stalling serves as a “tuner” to suppress aberrant production of ErmB because methylated ribosome may impose a fitness cost on the bacterium as a result of misregulated translation. PMID:27645242

  7. Resilient Women Educational Leaders in Turbulent Times: Applying the Leader Resilience Profile® to Assess Women's Leadership Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Diane E.; Blaine, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Women leaders across the world confront a common challenge: extremely turbulent times that challenge even the most skillful leaders. The paper begins with a brief overview of the meaning of leader resilience and describes the resilience cycle that all leaders experience when adversity strikes. Five phases of the resilience cycle discussed are:…

  8. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.

  9. Structural positioning of nurse leaders and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kerri-Ann; Carryer, Jennifer Barbara; White, Jill

    2015-08-01

    To analyse the reporting structures of nursing leaders of publicly funded hospitals and seek both the views of nurse leaders and Chief Executive Officers/Chief Operating Officers on the structural positioning of nurse leaders in the organisation. Concern that the continuing restructuring within hospital structures and focus on economic outputs in health services is diminishing the value of nursing leadership. Qualitative surveys with Nursing leaders and Chief Executive Officers of public hospitals. Seventeen Directors of Nursing and 10 Chief Executive Officer/Chief Operating Officers' responses were received using two semi-structured questionnaires. Themes were developed from data coded and analysed by hand. Four broad themes emerged from analysis of the data: (1) variable positional reporting between Director of Nursing and Chief Executive Officers occurred; (2) variable levels of inclusion and influence at the executive decision-making level; (3) ambiguous financial responsibilities and accountabilities held by Director of Nursing; and (4) blurred lines existed between operational and professional reporting lines. Findings unique to the research indicate that the varying levels of visibility and inclusion impact on the structural positioning of nurse leaders which influences authority and empowerment. Responses from the data analysis indicate that the structural power of nurse leaders defined by the factors of opportunity, power and proportion were hindered by dual accountability reporting lines and a lack of financial control. The structural positioning of nurse leaders is vital to ensure that they are empowered and able to meet the adaptations required in a changing environment that supports the delivery of effective, quality healthcare. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The LetA-RsmYZ-CsrA regulatory cascade, together with RpoS and PmrA, post-transcriptionally regulates stationary phase activation of Legionella pneumophila Icm/Dot effectors.

    PubMed

    Rasis, Michal; Segal, Gil

    2009-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila utilize the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Some of these effectors were shown before to be regulated at the transcriptional level by the PmrAB and CpxRA two-component systems. In addition, the stationary phase-related regulators LetA and CsrA, which are both members of the same post-transcriptional regulatory cascade, were shown to be involved in L. pneumophila virulence. In this report, we identified two small non-coding RNAs which are part of the LetA-CsrA regulatory cascade and three effector-encoding genes which are directly controlled by this regulatory system. We found that the small non-coding RNAs RsmY and RsmZ, were upregulated by LetA at stationary phase, and relieve the repression of CsrA from its target genes. The three effector-encoding genes were found to be post-transcriptionally upregulated at stationary phase and to contain CsrA regulatory elements that were found to be essential for their stationary phase activation. In addition, rsmY and rsmZ were found to be regulated by the RpoS sigma-factor and the csrA encoding gene was found to be regulated by PmrA. Our results demonstrate that L. pneumophila effectors are regulated at both the transcriptional and the post-transcriptional levels by a complicated regulatory network.

  11. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  12. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  13. The Impact of Educational Change on School Leaders: Experiences of Pakistani School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzaq, Jamila; Forde, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Pakistani education system, like many other countries across the world, is going through a phase of concerted change in the first decade of the 21st century and school leaders are expected to play a crucial role in the management of this change programme. This article considers the impact of educational change on a group of school leaders who…

  14. The Impact of Educational Change on School Leaders: Experiences of Pakistani School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzaq, Jamila; Forde, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Pakistani education system, like many other countries across the world, is going through a phase of concerted change in the first decade of the 21st century and school leaders are expected to play a crucial role in the management of this change programme. This article considers the impact of educational change on a group of school leaders who…

  15. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  16. The School Leader Communication Model: An Emerging Method for Bridging School Leader Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders make countless decisions but do not receive adequate preparation for communicating their decisions to parents, students, and teachers. Building on the need to prepare school leaders for a variety of complex professional situations, this article introduces the medical education pedagogy of standardized patients to the field of school…

  17. Leader to Leader: Enduring Insights on Leadership from the Drucker Foundation's Award-Winning Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.

    Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and…

  18. Leader to Leader: Enduring Insights on Leadership from the Drucker Foundation's Award-Winning Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.

    Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and…

  19. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  20. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  1. Evolutionary preferences for physical formidability in leaders.

    PubMed

    Murray, Gregg R

    2014-01-01

    This research uses evolutionary theory to evaluate followers' preferences for physically formidable leaders and to identify conditions that stimulate those preferences. It employs a population-based survey experiment (N ≥ 760), which offers the advantages to internal validity of experiments and external validity of a highly heterogeneous sample drawn from a nationally representative subject pool. The theoretical argument proffered here is followers tend to prefer leaders with greater physical formidability because of evolutionary adaptations derived from humans' violent ancestral environment. In this environment, individuals who allied with and ultimately followed physically powerful partners were more likely to acquire and retain important resources necessary for survival and reproduction because the presence of the physically powerful partner cued opponents to avoid a challenge for the resources or risk a costly confrontation. This argument suggests and the results indicate that threatening (war) and nonthreatening (peace, cooperation, and control) stimuli differentially motivate preferences for physically formidable leaders. In particular, the findings suggest threatening conditions lead to preferences for leaders with more powerful physical attributes, both anthropometric (i.e., weight, height, and body mass index) and perceptual (i.e., attributes of being "physically imposing or intimidating" and "physically strong"). Overall, this research offers a theoretical framework from which to understand this otherwise seemingly irrational phenomenon. Further, it advances the emerging but long-neglected investigation of biological effects on political behavior and has implications for a fundamental process in democratic society, leader selection.

  2. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Retargeting a Dual-Acting sRNA for Multiple mRNA Transcript Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Ashwin; Stimple, Samuel D; Wood, David W; Lease, Richard A

    2017-01-24

    Multitargeting small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) represent a potentially useful tool for metabolic engineering applications. Natural multitargeting sRNAs govern bacterial gene expression by binding to the translation initiation regions of protein-coding mRNAs through base pairing. We designed an Escherichia coli based genetic system to create and assay dual-acting retargeted-sRNA variants. The variants can be assayed for coordinate translational regulation of two alternate mRNA leaders fused to independent reporter genes. Accordingly, we began with the well-characterized E. coli native DsrA sRNA. The merits of using DsrA include its well-characterized separation of function into two independently folded stem-loop domains, wherein alterations at one stem do not necessarily abolish activity at the other stem. Expression of the sRNA and each reporter mRNA was independently controlled by small inducer molecules, allowing precise quantification of the regulatory effects of each sRNA:mRNA interaction in vivo with a microtiter plate assay. Using this system, we semirationally designed DsrA variants screened in E. coli for their ability to regulate key mRNA leader sequences from the Clostridium acetobutylicum n-butanol synthesis pathway. To coordinate intervention at two points in a metabolic pathway, we created bifunctional sRNA prototypes by combining sequences from two singly retargeted DsrA variants. This approach constitutes a platform for designing sRNAs to specifically target arbitrary mRNA transcript sequences, and thus provides a generalizable tool for retargeting and characterizing multitarget sRNAs for metabolic engineering.

  4. When are transgressing leaders punitively judged? An empirical test.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed.

  5. Visual Feedback Leader-following Attitude Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, Tatsuya; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki

    In this paper we investigate visual feedback attitude synchronization in leader-follower type visibility structures on the Special Euclidean group SE(3). We first define visual robotic networks consisting of the dynamics describing rigid body motion, visibility structures among bodies and visual measurements. We then propose a visual feedback attitude synchronization law combining a vision-based observer with the attitude synchronization law presented in our previous works. We then prove that when the leader does not rotate, the visual robotic network with the control law achieves visual feedback attitude synchronization. Moreover, for a rotating leader, we evaluate the tracking performance of the other bodies. In analysis, we employ the notion of input-to-state stability and L2-gain performance regarding the leader’s angular velocity as an external disturbance. Finally, the validity of the proposed control law and the analysis is demonstrated through simulations.

  6. The health care leader as humanist.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Anne Osborne

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of humanism in healthcare management and leadership. Humanism in healthcare management should entail serving 1) patients and their families, 2) organizational members, and 3) the community. The article describes how humanism is largely absent from healthcare organizations as a critical and important value. In the twentieth century, a number of models of healthcare leadership were developed that were humanistic in focus. These models primarily stressed the value of attention by leaders on the needs and values of people working in the organization. However, humanistic, healthcare leadership involves not only motivating and empowering employees, but a primary, essential focus is for leaders to create environments that support and uplift patients and their families. Humanistic care in healthcare organizations can be facilitated by leaders establishing positive, supportive, and empowering environments for clinicians and other employees. Secondly, managers can establish programs to develop and train employees to provide humanistic care.

  7. Optimal parameters of leader development in lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, N. I.; Petrova, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    The dependences between the different parameters of a leader in lightning are obtained theoretically. The physical mechanism of the instability leading to the formation of the streamer zone is proposed. The instability has the wave nature and is caused by the self-influence effects of the space charge. Using a stability condition of the leader propagation, a dependence is obtained between the current across the leader head and its velocity of motion. The dependence of the streamer zone length on the gap length is also obtained. It is shown that the streamer zone length is saturated with the increasing of the gap length. A comparison between the obtained dependences and the experimental data is presented.

  8. The five messages leaders must manage.

    PubMed

    Hamm, John

    2006-05-01

    If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities.

  9. Leader genes in osteogenesis: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Bruno; Giacomelli, Luca; Ricci, Massimiliano; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Little is still known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of osteogenesis. In this paper, the leader genes approach, a new bioinformatics method which has already been experimentally validated, is adopted in order to identify the genes involved in human osteogenesis. Interactions among genes are then calculated and genes are ranked according to their relative importance in this process. In total, 167 genes were identified as being involved in osteogenesis. Genes were divided into 4 groups, according to their main function in the osteogenic processes: skeletal development; cell adhesion and proliferation; ossification; and calcium ion binding. Seven genes were consistently identified as leader genes (i.e. the genes with the greatest importance in osteogenesis), while 14 were found to have slightly less importance (class B genes). It was interesting to notice that the larger part of leader and class B genes belonged to the cell adhesion and proliferation or to the ossification sub-groups. This finding suggested that these two particular sub-processes could play a more important role in osteogenesis. Moreover, among the 7 leader genes, it is interesting to notice that RUNX2, BMP2, SPARC, PTH play a direct role in bone formation, while the 3 other leader genes (VEGF, IL6, FGF2) seem to be more connected with an angiogenetic process. Twenty-nine genes have no known interactions (orphan genes). From these results, it may be possible to plan an ad hoc experimentation, for instance by microarray analyses, focused on leader, class B and orphan genes, with the aim to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenesis.

  10. Regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2012-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means to modulate gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies focused largely on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay, and the ribonucleases that catalyze decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This review examines our current understanding of how mammalian-cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signaling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. PMID:22392217

  11. Final report: FASEB Summer Research Conference on ''Post-transcriptional control of gene expression: Effectors of mRNA decay'' [agenda and attendees list

    SciTech Connect

    Maquat, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this meeting was to provide an interactive forum for scientists working on prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decay. A special seminar presented by a leader in the field of mRNA decay in S. cerevisiae focused on what is known and what needs to be determined, not only for yeast but for other organisms. The large attendance (110 participants) reflects the awareness that mRNA decay is a key player in gene regulation in a way that is affected by the many steps that precede mRNA formation. Sessions were held on the following topics: mRNA transport and mRNP; multicomponent eukaryotic nucleases; nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and nonsense-associated altered splicing; Cis-acting sequences/Trans-acting factors of mRNA decay; translational accuracy; multicomponent bacterial nucleases; interplay between mRNA polyadenylation, translation and decay in prokaryotes and prokaryotic organelles; and RNA interference and other RNA mediators of gene expression. In addition to the talks and two poster sessions, there were three round tables: (1) Does translation occur in the nucleus? (2) Differences and similarities in the mechanisms of mRNA decay in different eukaryotes, and (3) RNA surveillance in bacteria?

  12. Smart pumps: implications for nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, Geri; Vermace, Bev

    2011-01-01

    Nurse leaders are challenged to stay abreast of the unintended consequences of safety technology. Many hospitals have adopted smart pumps to improve medication safety. Unfortunately, this technology has limitations. Despite their success in averting some errors, lethal outcomes are still reported in organizations using smart pumps. Documented workarounds, such as bypassing safety features, threaten patient safety. This concerning information has prompted leaders to evaluate current implementation strategies. This article provides an overview of smart pumps, highlights the Institute for Safe Medication Practices' implementation guidelines, and presents a case report of the use of smart pump data to improve clinical practice.

  13. Cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the mRNA clearance as well as mRNA stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the mRNA decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the mRNA fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time affect the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and mRNA turnover mechanisms. PMID:26432921

  14. Bearing-based localization for leader-follower formation control

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qing; Ren, Shan; Lang, Hao; Zhang, Changliang

    2017-01-01

    The observability of the leader robot system and the leader-follower formation control are studied. First, the nonlinear observability is studied for when the leader robot observes landmarks. Second, the system is shown to be completely observable when the leader robot observes two different landmarks. When the leader robot system is observable, multi-robots can rapidly form and maintain a formation based on the bearing-only information that the follower robots observe from the leader robot. Finally, simulations confirm the effectiveness of the proposed formation control. PMID:28426706

  15. Diagnosis of trypanosomatid infections: targeting the spliced leader RNA.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Pablo; Camara, Mamady; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-07-01

    Trypanosomatids transcribe their genes in large polycistronic clusters that are further processed into mature mRNA molecules by trans-splicing. During this maturation process, a conserved spliced leader RNA (SL-RNA) sequence of 39 bp is physically linked to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA molecules. Trypanosomatid infections cause a series of devastating diseases in man (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease) and animals (nagana, surra, dourine). Here, we investigated the SL-RNA molecule for its diagnostic potential using reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. As a model, we used Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes sleeping sickness in west and central Africa. We showed that the copy number of the SL-RNA molecule in one single parasitic cell is at least 8600. We observed a lower detection limit of the SL-RNA assay in spiked blood samples of 100 trypanosomes per milliliter of blood. We also proved that we can detect the trypanosome's SL-RNA in the blood of sleeping sickness patients with a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 78%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI, 86%-99%). The SL-RNA is thus an attractive new molecular target for next-generation diagnostics in diseases caused by trypanosomatids.

  16. The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS mRNA from degradation by RNase E.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Patricia B; Hsieh, Ping-Kun; Belasco, Joel G; Kaper, James B

    2012-12-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli harbours a pathogenicity island encoding a type 3 secretion system used to translocate effector proteins into the cytosol of intestinal epithelial cells and subvert their function. The structural proteins of the translocon are encoded in a major espADB mRNA processed from a precursor. The translocon mRNA should be highly susceptible to RNase E cleavage because of its AU-rich leader region and monophosphorylated 5'-terminus, yet it manages to avoid rapid degradation. Here, we report that the espADB leader region contains a strong Shine-Dalgarno element (SD2) and a translatable mini-ORF of six codons. Disruption of SD2 so as to weaken ribosome binding significantly reduces the concentration and stability of esp mRNA, whereas codon substitutions that impair translation of the mini-ORF have no such effect. These findings suggest that occupancy of SD2 by ribosomes, but not mini-ORF translation, helps to protect espADB mRNA from degradation, likely by hindering RNase E access to the AU-rich leader region.

  17. Attributes of Successful Leaders in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    What makes a leader successful? As the Director of Research at the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center's (VICC) Clinical Trials Office, the author had to think of new ways to engage employees when becoming the director nearly 15 years ago. The staff started a GLUE (Greater Loyalty Utilizing Empowerment) Committee. The committee was established to help…

  18. Creating the Leaders of Tomorrow Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Students who participated in Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) have gone on to become leaders in business, education, and public service in the nation. Among former CTSO members are university presidents, governors, U.S. Congressmen and Senators, and a former President of the United States, FFA member Jimmy Carter. The CTSOs…

  19. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  20. Lebanese Cherishing a Transformational Educational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out if the characteristics, traits and leadership style of an effective university leader in Lebanon match those of a transformational one. Moreover, it is intended to shed light on the possible transferability of the transformational leadership's success to the Middle-Eastern society where norms and…

  1. My School Principal Is Not a Leader!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal powers…

  2. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  3. Preparing and Developing Community College International Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner; Valeau, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership training for future senior United States (US) community college leaders is an ongoing focus of US community college education. Leadership training is also a focus of US university international educators. Community college literature has assumed that full-time positions at community colleges devoted to overseeing and implementing…

  4. Nursing Education Leaders' Perceived Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices perceived by nursing education leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The framework used was a contemporary transformational leadership model described in "The Leadership Challenge" ("4th ed.") by Dr. James Kouzes and Dr. Barry Posner,…

  5. Developing the "Leader Attributes Inventory": An Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) to evaluate others were confirmed in testing with college students. As a self-report, however, the LAI was more valid when participants rated themselves after leadership training as they thought they were before training. (SK)

  6. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  7. Reflections from One Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Velvie

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender provides a framework for understanding what it means to be a woman working within the community college; however, the voice of experience helps to add meaning to what it means to live as a woman leader of color within these institutions. Dr. Green provides a reflection on her career leading up to her presidency, and she outlines…

  8. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  9. Preparing the Next IT Leaders: Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of IT leaders must learn to navigate the complexities of higher education financial planning and negotiation. Technology infrastructure, hardware, software, and services are very expensive to provide and will continue to be so for some time to come. Most CIOs have learned about complex IT finances the hard way--they were handed…

  10. Literacy. LeaderPost Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1987

    This special report is a look at illiteracy across Canada and in Saskatchewan. It includes stories by Peter Calamai, a national correspondent with Southam News, and by Regina Leader-Post reporters Kevin O'Connor, Zena Olijnyk, Ron Petrie, and Beverley Spencer. The publication also includes stories by the Canadian press. Calamai's stories are the…

  11. Developing Outdoor Leaders: Paul Petzoldt's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Cashel, Christine

    Paul Petzoldt, an early pioneer in outdoor education, saw the need for trained outdoor leaders. This paper presents material from unpublished papers retrieved after his death that clarify and expand on his philosophy of leadership development. Key ideas such as: judgment, 20-20 vision, and use of wilderness expeditions, are expanded upon and…

  12. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  13. Systems Thinking among School Middle Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim; Schechter, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Systems thinking is a holistic approach that puts the study of wholes before that of parts. This study explores systems thinking among school middle leaders--teachers who have management responsibility for a team of teachers or for an aspect of the school's work. Interviews were held with 93 school coordinators, among them year heads, heads of…

  14. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  15. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  16. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  17. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  18. Deciding (Leader's Guide and Student Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelatt, H. B.; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board's Decision-Making Program is a course of study in the development of decision-making skills, designed for students in junior and senior high schools. It consists of student and leader materials that may serve as a basis for a school guidance program, as a major component for a school-wide decision-making…

  19. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  20. Sustaining Army Civilians: Senior Leaders’ Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    creates a sort of dangerous illusion . People will think they are building on a solid base, only to find that the bottom of the structure...truism reverberates: “Vision without action is hallucination ". In this constantly changing environment, strategic leaders must effectively lead change

  1. Recognizing and Preventing Burnout among Orthopaedic Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Sime, Wesley E.; Novicoff, Wendy M.; Einhorn, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Stress, emotional exhaustion, and burnout are widespread in the medical profession in general and in orthopaedic surgery in particular. We attempted to identify variables associated with burnout as assessed by validated instruments. Surveys were sent to 282 leaders from orthopaedic surgery academic departments in the United States by e-mail and mail. Responses were received from 195 leaders for a response rate of 69%. The average surgeon worked 68.3 hours per week and more than ½ of this time was allocated to patient care. Highest stressors included excessive workload, increasing overhead, departmental budget deficits, tenure and promotion, disputes with the dean, and loss of key faculty. Personal-professional life imbalance was identified as an important risk factor for emotional exhaustion. Withdrawal, irritability, and family disagreements are early warning indicators of burnout and emotional exhaustion. Orthopaedic leaders can learn, and potentially model, ways to mitigate stress from other high-stress professions. Building on the strength of marital and family bonds, improving stress management skills and self-regulation, and improving efficiency and productivity can combine to assist the orthopaedic surgery leader in preventing burnout and emotional exhaustion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0622-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19030943

  2. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  3. The Professional Development of Kosovan Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author provides a discussion around issues related to the professional development of educational leaders in a resource-free, post-conflict environment. Drawing upon the author's ongoing experiences (2001-present) in Kosovo, the author presents a series of vignettes concerning leadership development in the Balkans. Lessons…

  4. Reflections of a Faraday Challenge Day Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…

  5. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  6. My School Principal Is Not a Leader!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal powers…

  7. College Prep: A Timeline for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard; Williamson, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Everyone acknowledges the importance of leadership in good schools, but sometimes a leader's influence extends into unexpected areas. Getting admitted to and succeeding in college is certainly the result of hard work on the part of individual students and their families, but for many kids, particularly those from impoverished backgrounds or from…

  8. Leader Development: Leveraging Combat Power Through Leadership,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-17

    rite of passage " 67...qualification tasks, and physical endurance tasks (i.e. APFT, 12-mile road march, 300-meter individual movement- techniques course). Having a " rite of passage " focused...One Way to Success" Army Trainer (Fall: 1992), pp. 23-24. This article discusses leader certification as a rite of passage . The Ranger

  9. The Learning Leader: Reflecting, Modeling, and Sharing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jacqueline E.; O'Gorman, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    With this book, principals, principals-in-training, and other school leaders get practical, easy-to-implement strategies for professional growth, strengthening relationships with faculty and staff, and making the necessary changes to improve K-12 learning environments. Grounded in specific, real-world examples and personal experiences, "The…

  10. The Next Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, Sullivan presented her interpretation of the four generations of community college leaders by describing them as "the founding fathers, the good managers, the collaborators, and the millennium generation" (Sullivan, 2001, p. 559). She predicted a shift to frames utilizing the Four-Frame Model of Leadership by Bolman…

  11. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  12. Outdoor Leaders' Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Aya; Ewert, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the concept of outdoor leadership from the perspectives of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership. Levels of emotional intelligence, multifactor leadership, outdoor experience, and social desirability were examined using 46 individuals designated as outdoor leaders. The results revealed a number of unique…

  13. Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from British Council seminars in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Dubai on "Absent Talent: Women in Research and Academic Leadership" (2012-2013), this paper discusses academic women's experiences and explanations for women's under-representation as knowledge leaders and producers in the global academy. Participants from…

  14. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  15. Preparing and Developing Community College International Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner; Valeau, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership training for future senior United States (US) community college leaders is an ongoing focus of US community college education. Leadership training is also a focus of US university international educators. Community college literature has assumed that full-time positions at community colleges devoted to overseeing and implementing…

  16. Leader Challenge: What Would You Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Chris; Self, Nate; Garven, Sena; Allen, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Given the complex environment in which the U.S. military operates, leaders at all levels must be prepared for a force that is more responsive to regional combatant commanders needs, better employs joint capabilities, facilitates force packaging and rapid deployment, and fights self contained units in non-linear, non-contiguous battle space. This…

  17. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  18. Reflections of a Faraday Challenge Day Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…

  19. The Academic Librarian as Leader or Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Anne F.

    1985-01-01

    Two paradigms of academic librarians are examined: one, "leader" is closely tied to nineteenth-century ideals; two, "manager" reflects democratization and new technology of twentieth century. Highlights include literature of organization (sociology, psychology, political science), patterns of change, Japanese model, and need to…

  20. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  1. Leader Behavior Characteristics and Organizational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Thomas W.

    To investigate the leader behavior characteristics of elementary school principals and to examine these characteristics as they relate to organizational climate, 35 randomly selected southern California schools with approximately 715 teachers and principals were studied. The data on organizational climate were collected by means of the…

  2. Making Progress as Leaders among University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quah, Cheng Sim; Sim, Sandra Phek Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the overview of how individuals in their respective teams operated and contributed to their organization. This study also identified the salient characteristics of how the respondents made progress as leaders in their respective faculties or departments towards identifying directions for innovative future practice through…

  3. Servant Leader Development at Southeastern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Servant leadership as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf (1970) is a philosophy whereby leaders put the interests and growth of the follower ahead of themselves. Though the concept has been around since antiquity, scholars and practitioners in organizations began to embrace and expand the idea since the early 1990s. There are currently 20 models of…

  4. Managers and leaders: are they different?

    PubMed

    Zaleznik, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.

  5. Lived Experience of University Continuing Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Janice

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on a study that explored the professional lives of eight leaders of continuing education in Canadian universities, with a focus on their administrative role, to provide a deeper understanding of how they live within their practice (lived experience). A practical listing of 56 horizons of experience was identified, useful as…

  6. Wise Use of Buy Power: Leader Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The guide was designed for use by leaders of adult groups working in the area of personal money management. The content of the guide (presented in 10 lessons) includes the following areas reported to be most pressing by persons competent in the field of money management who counsel middle and lower-income groups: the role of advertising in the…

  7. How Leaders Can Make a Big Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Time and collaborative learning experiences are key to successful implementation of literacy standards. Leadership is just as important. What do system and school leaders do that teachers value most and identify as most helpful in their efforts to ensure high-quality literacy and standards-based instruction for all students? According survey…

  8. Leaders for Learning: A Collaborative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri Professors of Educational Administration (MPEA) initiated the Leaders for Learning project to create technology based instructional materials aligned with the standards of the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). With funding from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE), faculty from…

  9. When Student Leaders Don't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaolo, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    This introspective and reflective idea brief explores the nature of the gap between what leadership educators hope to accomplish in the lives of students and what actually happens. The author draws upon 30 years of leadership education and a wealth of interactions with leadership educators and student leaders across North America. Five latent…

  10. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  11. School Leaders, ICT Competence and Championing Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Lindsay H.; Mills, Annette M.; Remus, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of new technology is becoming more important to schools and the success of such implementations is often due to the presence of ICT champions. This article examines ICT champions to determine whether the intention to champion ICT is determined by the ICT competence of school leaders. This article, based on responses from 64…

  12. An Elective Course in Leader Development

    PubMed Central

    Sucher, Brandon; Nelson, Michael; Brown, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leader-development elective course. Design. Students discovered, reflected on, and enhanced their leadership skills by participating in leadership quality presentations, selecting and facilitating team-building activities for pharmacy-based scenarios, creating a personal mission statement, maintaining a journal, creating pharmacy performance matrices, facilitating leadership discussions and activities, and completing a variety of leader-development inventories to identify their strengths and opportunities for growth. Assessment. Students successfully completed 98% of the assignments. The most valued topics and assignments involved validated instruments, which promoted self-discovery and development. End-of-course survey results revealed all students agreed the course achieved all learning outcomes except preventing conflict from escalating (9% disagreed) and applying knowledge of core values to achieve greater effectiveness in interpersonal communication (4% disagreed). Conclusions. Students perceived this leader-development elective course was effective in achieving learning outcomes. Assignments guided the creation of personalized leader-development tracks, ultimately promoting lifelong learning. PMID:24371348

  13. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  14. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  15. The isolated leader: extraverted and introverted styles.

    PubMed

    Arond-Thomas, Manya

    2003-01-01

    When an executive moves up the hierarchal ladder in the organization, the promotion is often accompanied by an increasing sense of isolation and loneliness. Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee coined the phrase "CEO disease" to describe the isolation of top executives in their book Primal Leadership. It refers to an information vacuum around leaders, created when people withhold important and sometimes unpleasant information.

  16. Leaders Go to School on Business Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Lots of districts like to think they have close-knit leadership teams. But few school leaders can say they've ironed their clothes together, which became a morning ritual for a group from San Francisco that spent a week at the Harvard Business School in Boston. Joined by similar teams from seven other large districts, they camped out in dorm-like…

  17. The Professional Development of Kosovan Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author provides a discussion around issues related to the professional development of educational leaders in a resource-free, post-conflict environment. Drawing upon the author's ongoing experiences (2001-present) in Kosovo, the author presents a series of vignettes concerning leadership development in the Balkans. Lessons…

  18. Lebanese Cherishing a Transformational Educational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out if the characteristics, traits and leadership style of an effective university leader in Lebanon match those of a transformational one. Moreover, it is intended to shed light on the possible transferability of the transformational leadership's success to the Middle-Eastern society where norms and…

  19. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  20. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  1. Developing Senior Leaders for the Reserve Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-01-01

    military. To build a force that is agile, flex- ible, creative , and innovative, the Department of Defense (DoD) is rethinking how it develops talent...Annotated Bibliography, Greensboro, N.C.: Center for Creative Leadership, 1998. McGuire, Mark A., “Senior Officers and Strategic Leader Development

  2. Virtual Mentoring: Developing Global Leaders for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Matthew; Froman, Russell

    2012-01-01

    CAMP (Collegiate Achievement Mentoring Program) Gator is a leadership-mentoring program in which collegiate student leaders serve as mentors to at-risk K-12 students. In addition, partnerships with Cisco and Franklin Covey Education have provided the program with the technology resources to conduct "virtual leadership mentoring" sessions…

  3. Leader in a diffusion competition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzhevaikin, V. N.

    2015-03-01

    A one-dimensional Cauchy problem is considered for a system of reaction-diffusion equations that, in the point version, generalizes the Volterra competition model. It is proved that the number of the leader in the propagation velocity of nonvanishing solution values at the periphery is independent of nonnegative finite initial distributions.

  4. Variation in leader length of bitterbrush

    Treesearch

    Richard L. Hubbard; David. Dunaway

    1958-01-01

    The estimation of herbage production and· utilization in browse plants has been a problem for many years. Most range technicians have simply estimated the average length of twigs or leaders. then expressed use by deer and livestock as a percentage thereof based on the estimated average length left after grazing. Riordan used this method on mountain mahogany (

  5. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  6. The Next Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, Sullivan presented her interpretation of the four generations of community college leaders by describing them as "the founding fathers, the good managers, the collaborators, and the millennium generation" (Sullivan, 2001, p. 559). She predicted a shift to frames utilizing the Four-Frame Model of Leadership by Bolman…

  7. The School Leader's Guide to Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Social media has exploded onto American culture--including our schools--giving educators a unique opportunity to shape this phenomenon into a powerful tool for improving educational leadership practices. With real-world examples and practical tips, this essential guide shows school leaders how to address both the potential benefits and common…

  8. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  9. Vocational Coping Training. Leader's Manual, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia A.

    This Leader's Manual is part of a training program to teach individuals with physical, intellectual, or emotional disabilities the skills required to cope with common on-the-job situations encountered with one's supervisor and co-workers. The 40-hour training incorporates videotaping, self-observation through video feedback, group processing, and…

  10. Presidential Power and the Modern College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author notes that an academic institution is essentially a political, not a corporate, system, and that its leader is more akin to the president of the United States than to a corporate chief executive. This is in spite of the argument, particularly when defending the compensation of college presidents, that leading an…

  11. Virtual Mentoring: Developing Global Leaders for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Matthew; Froman, Russell

    2012-01-01

    CAMP (Collegiate Achievement Mentoring Program) Gator is a leadership-mentoring program in which collegiate student leaders serve as mentors to at-risk K-12 students. In addition, partnerships with Cisco and Franklin Covey Education have provided the program with the technology resources to conduct "virtual leadership mentoring" sessions…

  12. Connecting Leaders and Learning--"In Conversation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Wendy; Dorgan, Fran

    2012-01-01

    Last September ten Australian educators set out to explore how the Paradise Valley School District in Phoenix Arizona cultivates world class thinkers and leaders. Over the course of a week, study Tour delegates were immersed in K-12 schools where a district-wide approach fosters equity and empowers teachers and students to use technology…

  13. Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from British Council seminars in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Dubai on "Absent Talent: Women in Research and Academic Leadership" (2012-2013), this paper discusses academic women's experiences and explanations for women's under-representation as knowledge leaders and producers in the global academy. Participants from…

  14. Presidential Power and the Modern College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author notes that an academic institution is essentially a political, not a corporate, system, and that its leader is more akin to the president of the United States than to a corporate chief executive. This is in spite of the argument, particularly when defending the compensation of college presidents, that leading an…

  15. From Student Leaders to Leading Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudaitis, Cheryl

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that the collegiate chapters of the Music Educators National Conference act as an excellent training ground for student leaders. Recommends continuing the support and guidance for these students to emerge as leading teachers. Provides specific advice for MENC chapter advisors on fostering support and independence. (MJP)

  16. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  17. A Workbook for Training Discussion Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkin, Paula

    This guide on group discussion leader training provides for a four session course structured to enable each trainee to practice and be evaluated. Session 1 stresses the nature and uses of discussion, and introduces trainees to role playing. Other sessions concentrate on summarizing and decision making; on group satisfaction or problem solving and…

  18. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  19. Developing 21st Century Senior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    leader must have ambition to succeed, and Julius Caesar had plenty of it. He set Rome on the path to empire, but his success made him believe he was a...after the assassination of Julius Caesar and ruled it for more than forty years; bringing the empire to the height of its power. What made him

  20. The School Leader's Guide to Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Social media has exploded onto American culture--including our schools--giving educators a unique opportunity to shape this phenomenon into a powerful tool for improving educational leadership practices. With real-world examples and practical tips, this essential guide shows school leaders how to address both the potential benefits and common…

  1. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  2. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  3. Global Population Trends: Challenges Facing World Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scommegna, Paola, Ed.

    This pamphlet explores the dynamics of world population, highlighting steps world leaders can take to address population problems and improve the lives of people worldwide. With jet-age transportation and electronic communication, economic and social interdependence of nations is greater than ever before and is likely to increase in the future.…

  4. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  5. Women leaders: ensuring you fulfil your potential.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2016-09-14

    The Athena programme is a King's Fund initiative designed to support women to fulfil their potential as public sector leaders - whether in the NHS or beyond, such as social services, police and prison services, education, or the voluntary and community sectors.

  6. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  7. Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders.

    PubMed

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M

    2002-04-01

    Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed.

  8. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  9. Emory U. Trains Its Own Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Emory University's Excellence Through Leadership program. Started in 2006, the yearlong program is designed to help up to 20 administrators and faculty members annually improve their leadership skills, as well as create a pipeline to eventually replace senior leaders at the institution. Emory's leadership program is just one…

  10. Lead on! Motivational Lessons for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Pete

    2012-01-01

    Every school leader will benefit from this must-have book by award-winning educator Pete Hall. In it he shares his wisdom, insights, and lessons lived and learned with educators at all stages of their careers. His lively, readable style makes it easy to follow his practical tips and strategies for taking action, goal-setting, motivating others,…

  11. Class Size: Major Implications for School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gloria J.

    2000-01-01

    Clearly, class-size reduction has become a public-relations issue that educational leaders can use as an opportunity to communicate and gain support for all school reforms. Implications for principals include keeping the school community informed, involving teachers, knowing relevant research, and using creative class-size reduction methods.…

  12. Preparing the Next IT Leaders: Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of IT leaders must learn to navigate the complexities of higher education financial planning and negotiation. Technology infrastructure, hardware, software, and services are very expensive to provide and will continue to be so for some time to come. Most CIOs have learned about complex IT finances the hard way--they were handed…

  13. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  14. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  15. Emory U. Trains Its Own Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Emory University's Excellence Through Leadership program. Started in 2006, the yearlong program is designed to help up to 20 administrators and faculty members annually improve their leadership skills, as well as create a pipeline to eventually replace senior leaders at the institution. Emory's leadership program is just one…

  16. Innovation credit: when can leaders oppose their group's norms?

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; de Moura, Georgina Randsley; Marques, José M; Hutchison, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Two preliminary studies and 5 experiments examined judgments of leaders who challenge their group's norms. Participants viewed information about group members whose attitudes were normative or deviated in a pronormative or antinormative direction. The antinorm member was identified as (a) either a nonleader or an established leader (Study 1), (b) an ex-leader (Studies 2 and 5), or (c) a future leader (Studies 3, 4, and 5). Antinorm future leaders were judged more positively and were granted greater innovation credit (license to innovate and remuneration) relative to antinorm members, ex-leaders, and established leaders. Results are discussed in terms of the idea that leadership can accrue from prototypicality and can also confer the right to define prescriptive norms. However, innovation credit is only granted in the case of future leaders.

  17. The Value of Physician Leaders to Nonphysician Coworkers.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, physician leaders are perceived as valuable to their organizations, helping to define goals, set priorities, and plan future direction. In some cases, however, physician leaders are misunderstood or devalued by senior business leaders. There could be several reasons for this observation: (1) the roles and responsibilities of physician leaders may be unclear to business leaders; (2) nonmedical leaders may question the business relevance of the activities performed by physician leaders; and (3) some business executives may believe (erroneously) that the activities performed by physician leaders are nonessential, or could be performed equally well by lesser trained healthcare professionals. Under such circumstances, physicians may become demoralized and indignant, but they should never lose sight of their importance to the everyday coworkers who are the most valuable asset of any organization.

  18. Observations of corona in triggered dart-stepped leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    Corona streamers are a critical component of lightning leader step formation and are postulated to produce the very high electric fields at their tips that produce runaway electrons resulting in the observed X-ray bursts associated with leader stepping. Corona emanating from the vicinity of the leader tip between leader steps was analyzed using three sequential high-speed video sequences of dart-stepped leaders in three different triggered lightning flashes during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in northeast Florida. Images were recorded at 648 kiloframes per second (1.16 µs exposure time, 380 ns dead time) at an altitude of 65 m or less. In each image sequence, the leader propagates downward in consecutive frames, with corona streamers observed to fan outward from the bright leader tip in less than the image frame time of about 1.5 µs. In 21 exposures, corona streamers propagate, on average, 9 m below the bright leader tip.

  19. DOE handbook: Guide to good practices for operational readiness reviews (ORR) team leader`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This guidance section provides instructions, explanations and examples for the performance of all phases of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). Details pertinent to the Team Leader (TL), Team Members (TM) and Review Coordinator (RC) are outlined. An appendix contains sample forms and correspondence which are typically used to initiate and perform the ORR. Although this document was written specifically for use by DOE ORR Team Leaders, its use may also be beneficial to contractor ORR Team Leaders. The handbook is also useful for Team Leaders of Readiness Assessments conducted in accordance with requirements of DOE O 425.1. Lessons learned, which are promulgated with this handbook, will benefit any line manager, particularly those preparing a facility or process for startup or restart.

  20. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  1. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  2. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  3. Army Leader Development Strategy: Developing Brigade Level Leaders through Balance, Emphasis, and Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    and authorities. DA Pamphlet 350-58 DA Pamphlet 350-58 outlines the processes for the Army Leader Development Program ( ALDP ). It guides those who...Guard, and the U.S. Army Reserve. It describes methodology and processes used to manage the ALDP which supports the three pillars of leader...initiative processes involved in designing, amending, or changing the ALDP . This includes the various stakeholders, forums, committees, and methods

  4. Leader Attributions and Leader Behavior. First Stage Testing of Theoretical Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Research accomplished under contract for the Department of the Army University of Washington NOTICE$ DISTRIBUTION Primary distribution of this reprt ...further work needs to be done. ii Unclassified SgCUMITY CLASSIICAION OP ?NIS PAQI(WRh Dat RMtws Tschd Reprt 522 LEADER ATTRIBUTIONS AND LEADER BEHAVIOR...realizes that 1) this subordinate is always tardy in getting in reports, 2) the person is always late with financial reports, and 3) none of the

  5. Identification of Combat Unit Leader Skills and Leader-Group Interaction Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    David L. Hannaraan, Peter B. Wylie, and Edgar L. Shriver Kinton, Inc. I !• and Bruce W. Hamill and Robert H. Sulzen Army Research Institute...LEADER SKILLS AND LEADER-GROUP INTERACTION PROCESSES Kermit F. Henriksen, Donald R. Jones, Jr., David L. Hannaman, Peter B. Wylie, and Edgar 1. Shrlver...depends upon how well group members reuspond to cues and other sources of information regarding the enemy’s movement. Berlo (1974) [ ~has shown that

  6. Engaging the next generation of health leaders: perspectives of emerging health leaders.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer C; Gruenwoldt, Emily; Lyster, Adrienne Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and engaging the next generation of emerging health leaders (EHLs) is a foremost challenge for the Canadian healthcare system. If intellectual capital is the currency of the 21st century, identifying and developing EHLs must be a strategic objective of innovative and progressive health organizations. We have integrated our experiential knowledge with some relevant findings from the literature and data collected from a cohort of EHLs to assist senior leaders and organizations with this challenge.

  7. The Leader/Follower Concept in Systems Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-15

    The objectives of this study were to: assess the experience in DOD with use of the Leader / Follower concept, evaluate views of acquisition and...both directly and indirectly related to the Leader / Follower Concept and ’Leader Company Procurement.’ The researcher also interviewed government and...end research and development. While Leader / Follower has been used at least since World War II, current use appears to center on two related decisions

  8. Discrete Event Simulation Modeling and Analysis of Key Leader Engagements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    ENGAGEMENTS 1. Key Leaders Key leaders are the formal or informal leaders that are powerful in a society and can influence a target audience in a way...Leader Engagements 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Clifford C. Wakeman 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate...School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10

  9. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  10. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries. PMID:27886048

  11. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-11-23

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N⁶-methyladenosine (m⁶A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N⁶-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m⁶A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries.

  12. A trans-acting leader RNA from a Salmonella virulence gene.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eunna; Han, Yoontak; Cho, Yong-Joon; Nam, Daesil; Lee, Eun-Jin

    2017-09-05

    Bacteria use flagella to move toward nutrients, find its host, or retract from toxic substances. Because bacterial flagellum is one of the ligands that activate the host innate immune system, its synthesis should be tightly regulated during host infection, which is largely unknown. Here, we report that a bacterial leader mRNA from the mgtCBR virulence operon in the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium binds to the fljB coding region of mRNAs in the fljBA operon encoding the FljB phase 2 flagellin, a main component of bacterial flagella and the FljA repressor for the FliC phase 1 flagellin, and degrades fljBA mRNAs in an RNase E-dependent fashion during infection. A nucleotide substitution of the fljB flagellin gene that prevents the mgtC leader RNA-mediated down-regulation increases the fljB-encoded flagellin synthesis, leading to a hypermotile phenotype inside macrophages. Moreover, the fljB nucleotide substitution renders Salmonella hypervirulent, indicating that FljB-based motility must be compromised in the phagosomal compartment where Salmonella resides. This suggests that this pathogen promotes pathogenicity by producing a virulence protein and limits locomotion by a trans-acting leader RNA from the same virulence gene during infection.

  13. Leadership behaviors of athletic training leaders compared with leaders in other fields.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Timothy G; Bradney, Debbie A

    2007-01-01

    Athletic trainers are in positions of leadership. To determine self-reported leadership practices of head athletic trainers (HATCs) and program directors (PDs). Cross-sectional study. Respondents' academic institutions. A total of 238 athletic training leaders completed the Leadership Practices Inventory. Of these, 50.4% (n = 120) were HATCs and 49.6% (n = 118) were PDs; 69.3% (n = 165) were men and 30.7% (n = 73) were women; almost all respondents (97.1%, n = 231) were white. Respondents typically reported having 11 to 15 years of experience as an athletic trainer (n = 57, 23.9%) and being between the ages of 30 and 39 years (n = 109, 45.8%). Categories of leadership behaviors (ie, Model, Inspire, Challenge, Encourage, and Enable) were scored from 1 (almost never) to 10 (almost always). Item scores were summed to compute mean category scores. We analyzed demographic information; used t ratios to compare the data from athletic training leaders (PDs and HATCs) with normative data; compared sex, age, position, ethnicity, and years of experience with leadership practices; and computed mean scores. Athletic training leaders reported using leadership behaviors similar to those of other leaders. The PDs reported using inspiring, challenging, enabling, and encouraging leadership behaviors more often than did the HATCs. No differences were found by ethnicity, age, years of experience, or leadership practices. Athletic training leaders are transformational leaders. Athletic training education program accreditation requirements likely account for the difference in leadership practices between PDs and HATCs.

  14. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition.

  15. Not even the past: The joint influence of former leader and new leader during leader succession in the midst of organizational change.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Helen H; Seibert, Scott E; Taylor, M Susan; Lee, Cynthia; Lam, Wing

    2016-12-01

    Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders' transformational leadership on employees' behavioral resistance to and support for change. On the basis of contrast effect theory, a highly transformational former leader constrains the potential effectiveness of the new leader, but a former leader low in transformational leadership enhances this potential effectiveness. We also propose conditional indirect effects transmitted through commitment to the changing organization. Our research was conducted in a large Chinese hospitality organization that was implementing radical organizational change, during which virtually all aspects of processes and products are changed. We collected a 2-wave multisource data from employees who had recently experienced a leader succession and their newly assigned leaders. On the basis of a final sample of 203 employees from 22 teams, we found empirical support for the proposed interaction effects. The conditional indirect effects were also consistent with our expectations, but the effect on behavioral resistance to change was stronger than the effect on behavioral support for change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who do not…

  17. Ethical Practice: A Study of Chilean School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Carolina; Giles, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to report on a research inquiry that explored the educational praxis of ethical school leaders in Chile. Behaving ethically is an imperative for school leaders. Being an ethical educational leader is something different. It is not only about behaving according to standards, but also rather involves an ethical way of…

  18. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The... crew leader within the meaning of section 3121(o) and of this section if he does not pay...

  20. Leader Authenticity: The Development and Test of an Operational Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    A definition of leader authentication was developed, focusing on a leader's salience of self over role, non-manipulation of subordinates and accepting of personal and organizational responsibility. The Leader Authenticity Scale (LAS) was constructed to be consistent with this definition. Its validity was checked by specifying and testing…