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Sample records for rpos mrna leader

  1. Analysis of rpoS mRNA in Salmonella dublin: identification of multiple transcripts with growth-phase-dependent variation in transcript stability.

    PubMed

    Paesold, G; Krause, M

    1999-02-01

    In Salmonella dublin, rpoS encodes an alternative sigma factor of the RNA polymerase that activates a variety of stationary-phase-induced genes, including some virulence-associated genes. In this work, we studied the regulation and transcriptional organization of rpoS during growth. We found two transcripts, 2.3 and 1.6 kb in length, that represent the complete rpoS sequence. The 2.3-kb transcript is a polycistronic message that also includes the upstream nlpD gene. It is driven by a weak promoter with increasing activity when cells enter early stationary growth. The 1.6-kb message includes 566 bp upstream of the rpoS start codon. It is transcribed from a strong sigma70 RNA polymerase-dependent promoter which is independent of growth. The decay of this transcript decreases substantially in early stationary growth, resulting in a significant net increase in rpoS mRNA levels. These levels are approximately 10-fold higher than the levels of the 2.3-kb mRNA, indicating that the 1.6-kb message is mainly responsible for RpoS upregulation. In addition to the 2.3- and 1.6-kb transcripts, two smaller 1.0- and 0.4-kb RNA species are produced from the nlpD-rpoS locus. They do not allow translation of full-length RpoS; hence their significance for rpoS regulation remains unclear. We conclude that of four transcripts arising from the nlpD-rpoS locus, only one plays a significant role in rpoS expression in S. dublin. Its upregulation when cells enter stationary growth is due primarily to an increase in transcript stability.

  2. Ribosomal Protein S1 Specifically Binds to the 5′ Untranslated Region of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Stationary-Phase Sigma Factor rpoS mRNA in the Logarithmic Phase of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ševo, Milica; Buratti, Emanuele; Venturi, Vittorio

    2004-01-01

    The rpoS gene encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor (RpoS or σs), which was identified in several gram-negative bacteria as a central regulator controlling the expression of genes involved in cell survival in response to cessation of growth (stationary phase) and providing cross-protection against various stresses. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the levels of σs increase dramatically at the onset of the stationary phase and are regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The P. aeruginosa rpoS gene is transcribed as a monocistronic rpoS mRNA transcript comprised of an unusually long 373-bp 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR). In this study, the 5′ UTR and total protein extracts from P. aeruginosa logarithmic and stationary phases of growth were used in order to investigate the protein-RNA interactions that may modulate the translational process. It was observed that a 69-kDa protein, which corresponded to ribosomal protein S1, preferentially binds the 5′ UTR of the rpoS mRNA in the logarithmic phase and not in the stationary phase. This is the first report of a protein-rpoS mRNA 5′ UTR interaction in P. aeruginosa, and the possible involvement of protein S1 in translation regulation of rpoS is discussed. PMID:15262927

  3. Heterogeneous rpoS and rhlR mRNA levels and 16S rRNA/rDNA (rRNA gene) ratios within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, sampled by laser capture microdissection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C; Williamson, Kerry S; Franklin, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The local environmental conditions in biofilms are dependent on the impinging aqueous solution, chemical diffusion, and the metabolic activities of cells within the biofilms. Chemical gradients established in biofilms lead to physiological heterogeneities in bacterial gene expression. Previously, we used laser capture microdissection (LCM) and quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to target defined biofilm subpopulations for gene expression studies. Here, we combined this approach with quantitative PCR of bacterial DNA to normalize the amount of gene expression per cell. By comparing the ratio of 16S rRNA to 16S rDNA (rRNA gene), we demonstrated that cells at the top of thick Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms have 16S rRNA/genome ratios similar to those of cells in a transition from the exponential phase to the stationary phase. Cells in the middle and bottom layers of these biofilms have ratios that are not significantly different from those of stationary-phase planktonic cultures. Since much of each biofilm appeared to be in a stationary-phase-like state, we analyzed the local amounts of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS gene and the quorum-sensing regulator rhlR gene per cell. Surprisingly, the amount of rpoS mRNA was largest at the top of the biofilms at the air-biofilm interface. Less than one rpoS mRNA transcript per cell was observed in the middle or base of the biofilms. The rhlR mRNA content was also greatest at the top of the biofilms, and there was little detectable rhlR expression at the middle or bottom of the biofilms. While the cell density was slightly greater at the bottom of the biofilms, expression of the quorum-sensing regulator occurred primarily at the top of the biofilms, where the cell metabolic activity was greatest, as indicated by local expression of the housekeeping gene acpP and by expression from a constitutive P(trc) promoter. The results indicate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells in the 30 microm adjacent to the

  4. Dual Posttranscriptional Regulation via a Cofactor-Responsive mRNA Leader

    PubMed Central

    Patterson-Fortin, Laura M.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul; Romeo, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Riboswitches are cis-acting mRNA elements that regulate gene expression in response to ligand binding. Recently, a class of riboswitches was proposed to respond to the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), which serves as a redox center for metabolic enzymes. The 5′ leader of the Escherichia coli moaABCDE transcript exemplifies this candidate riboswitch class. This mRNA encodes enzymes for Moco biosynthesis, and moaA expression is feedback inhibited by Moco. Previous RNA-seq analyses showed that moaA mRNA copurified with the RNA binding protein CsrA (carbon storage regulator), suggesting that CsrA binds to this RNA in vivo. Among its global regulatory roles, CsrA represses stationary phase metabolism and activates central carbon metabolism. Here, we used gel mobility shift analysis to determine that CsrA binds specifically and with high affinity to the moaA 5′ mRNA leader. Northern blotting and studies with a series of chromosomal lacZ reporter fusions showed that CsrA posttranscriptionally activates moaA expression without altering moaA mRNA levels, indicative of translation control. Deletion analyses, nucleotide replacement studies and footprinting with CsrA-FeBABE identified two sites for CsrA binding. Toeprinting assays suggested that CsrA binding causes changes in moaA RNA structure. We propose that the moaA mRNA leader forms an aptamer, which serves as a target of posttranscriptional regulation by at least two different factors, Moco and the protein CsrA. While we are not aware of similar dual posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms, additional examples are likely to emerge. PMID:23274138

  5. Herpes simplex virus virion stimulatory protein mRNA leader contains sequence elements which increase both virus-induced transcription and mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Blair, E D; Blair, C C; Wagner, E K

    1987-08-01

    To investigate the role of 5' noncoding leader sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mRNA in infected cells, the promoter for the 65,000-dalton virion stimulatory protein (VSP), a beta-gamma polypeptide, was introduced into plasmids bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene together with various lengths of adjacent viral leader sequences. Plasmids containing longer lengths of leader sequence gave rise to significantly higher levels of CAT enzyme in transfected cells superinfected with HSV-1. RNase T2 protection assays of CAT mRNA showed that transcription was initiated from an authentic viral cap site in all VSP-CAT constructs and that CAT mRNA levels corresponded to CAT enzyme levels. Use of cis-linked simian virus 40 enhancer sequences demonstrated that the effect was virus specific. Constructs containing 12 and 48 base pairs of the VSP mRNA leader gave HSV infection-induced CAT activities intermediate between those of the leaderless construct and the VSP-(+77)-CAT construct. Actinomycin D chase experiments demonstrated that the longest leader sequences increased hybrid CAT mRNA stability at least twofold in infected cells. Cotransfection experiments with a cosmid bearing four virus-specified transcription factors (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and VSP-65K) showed that sequences from -3 to +77, with respect to the viral mRNA cap site, also contained signals responsive to transcriptional activation. PMID:3037112

  6. A comparison of eukaryotic viral 5'-leader sequences as enhancers of mRNA expression in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Sleat, D E; Watts, J W; Turner, P C; Wilson, T M

    1987-01-01

    The 5'-untranslated leader sequences of several plant RNA viruses, and a portion of the 5'-leader of an animal retrovirus, were tested for their ability to enhance expression of contiguous open reading frames for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) in tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, Escherichia coli and oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Translation of capped or uncapped transcripts was substantially enhanced in almost all systems by the leader sequence of either the U1 or SPS strain of TMV. All leader sequences, except that of TYMV, stimulated expression of 5'-capped GUS mRNA with the native prokaryotic initiation codon context, in electroporated protoplasts. Only the TMV leaders enhanced translation of uncapped GUS mRNAs in protoplasts and increased expression of uncapped CAT mRNA in microinjected X. laevis oocytes. In oocytes, the TYMV leader sequence was inhibitory. In transformed E. coli, the TMV-U1 leader enhanced expression of both the native and eukaryotic context forms of GUS mRNA about 7.5-fold, despite the absence of a Shine-Dalgarno region in any of the transcripts. The absolute levels of GUS activity were all about 6-fold higher with mRNAs containing the native initiation codon context. In E. coli, the leaders of AlMV RNA4 and TYMV were moderately stimulatory whereas those of BMV RNA3, RSV and the SPS strain of TMV enhanced GUS expression by only 2- to 3-fold. Images PMID:2825117

  7. Leader length and secondary structure modulate mRNA function under conditions of stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, M.

    1988-07-01

    Simina virus 40-based plasmids that direct the synthesis of preproinsulin in cultured monkey cells were used to study the effects of mRNA structure on translational efficiency. Lengthening the leader sequence enhanced translation in this system. The enhancement was most obvious when an unstructured sequence (two, four, or eight copies of the oligonculeotide AGCTAAGTAAGTAAGTA) was inserted upstream from a region of deliberate secondary structure; the degree of enhancement was proportional to the number of copies of the inserted oligonucleotide. Lengthening the leader sequence on the 3' side of a stem-and-loop structure, in contrast, did not offset the potentially inhibitory effect of the hairpin structure. Both the facilitating effect of length and the inhibitory effect of secondary structure were demonstrated most easily under conditions of mRNA competition, which was brought about by an abrupt shift in the tonicity of the culture medium. These experiments suggest a simple structural basis for the long-recognized differential response of viral and cellular mRNAs to hypertonic stress. The fact that the translatability of structure-prone mRNAs varies with changes in the environment may also have general implications for gene expression in eucaryotic cells.

  8. Regulation in the rpoS regulon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Loewen, P C; Hu, B; Strutinsky, J; Sparling, R

    1998-08-01

    In Escherichia coli, the transcription factor sigma s, encoded by rpoS, controls the expression of a large number of genes involved in cellular responses to a diverse number of stresses, including starvation, osmotic stress, acid shock, cold shock, heat shock, oxidative DNA damage, and transition to stationary phase. A list of over 50 genes under the control of rpoS has been compiled. The transcription factor sigma s acts predominantly as a positive effector, but it does have a negative effect on some genes. The synthesis and accumulation of sigma s are controlled by mechanisms affecting transcription, translation, proteolysis, and the formation of the holoenzyme complex. Transcriptional control of rpoS involves guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp) and polyphosphate as positive regulators and the cAMP receptor protein-cAMP complex (CRP-cAMP) as a negative regulator. Translation of rpoS mRNA is controlled by a cascade of interacting factors, including Hfq, H-NS, dsrA RNA, LeuO, and oxyS RNA that seem to modulate the stability of a region of secondary structure in the ribosome-binding region of the gene's mRNA. The transcription factor sigma s is sensitive to proteolysis by ClpPX in a reaction that is promoted by RssB and inhibited by the chaperone DnaK. Despite the demonstrated involvement of so many factors, arguments have been presented suggesting that sensitivity to proteolysis may be the single most important modulator of sigma s levels. The activity of sigma s may also be modulated by trehalose and glutamate, which activate holoenzyme formation and promote holoenzyme binding to certain promoters.

  9. The stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, regulates the production of a carbapenem antibiotic, a bioactive prodigiosin and virulence in the enterobacterial pathogen Serratia sp. ATCC 39006.

    PubMed

    Wilf, Nabil M; Salmond, George P C

    2012-03-01

    Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006) is a Gram-negative bacterium that is virulent in plant (potato) and invertebrate animal (Caenorhabditis elegans) models. It produces two secondary metabolite antibiotics, a prodigiosin and a carbapenem, and the exoenzymes pectate lyase and cellulase. We showed previously that deletion of the RNA chaperone Hfq abolished antibiotic production and attenuated virulence in both animal and plant hosts. Hfq and dependent small RNAs (sRNAs) are known to regulate the post-transcriptional expression of rpoS, which encodes σ(S), the stationary phase sigma factor subunit of RNA polymerase. An S39006 hfq deletion mutant showed decreased transcript levels of rpoS. Therefore, in this study we investigated whether the phenotypes regulated by Hfq were mediated through its control of rpoS. Whereas loss of Hfq abolished prodigiosin and carbapenem production and attenuated virulence in both C. elegans and potato, characterization of an S39006 rpoS mutant showed unexpectedly elevated prodigiosin and carbapenem production. Furthermore, the rpoS mutant exhibited attenuated animal pathogenesis, but not plant pathogenesis. Additionally, a homologue of the Hfq-dependent sRNA, RprA, was identified and shown to regulate prodigiosin production in a manner consistent with its role in positively regulating translation of rpoS mRNA. Combined, these results demonstrate that Hfq regulation of secondary metabolism and plant pathogenesis is independent of RpoS and establishes RpoS and RprA as regulators of antibiotic production.

  10. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  11. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  12. Upstream Open Reading Frames Located in the Leader of Protein Kinase Mζ mRNA Regulate Its Translation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Natalia V.; Susorov, Denis; Chesnokova, Ekaterina; Kasianov, Artem; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Alkalaeva, Elena; Balaban, Pavel M.; Kolosov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For protein synthesis that occurs locally in dendrites, the translational control mechanisms are much more important for neuronal functioning than the transcription levels. Here, we show that uORFs (upstream open reading frames) in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) play a critical role in regulation of the translation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Elimination of these uORFs activates translation of the reporter protein in vitro and in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Using cell-free translation systems, we demonstrate that translational initiation complexes are formed only on uORFs. Further, we address the mechanism of translational repression of PKMζ translation, by uORFs. We observed an increase in translation of the reporter protein under the control of PKMζ leader in neuronal culture during non-specific activation by picrotoxin. We also show that such a mechanism is similar to the mechanism seen in cell stress, as application of sodium arsenite to neuron cultures induced translation of mRNA carrying PKMζ 5′UTR similarly to picrotoxin activation. Therefore, we suppose that phosphorylation of eIF2a, like in cell stress, is a main regulator of PKMζ translation. Altogether, our findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of uORF in regulation of PKMζ translation in activated neurons, important at early stages of LTP. PMID:27790092

  13. Inhibition of mRNA export and dimerization of interferon regulatory factor 3 by Theiler's virus leader protein.

    PubMed

    Ricour, Céline; Delhaye, Sophie; Hato, Stanleyson V; Olenyik, Tamara D; Michel, Bénédicte; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Gustin, Kurt E; Michiels, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV or Theiler's virus) is a neurotropic picornavirus that can persist lifelong in the central nervous system of infected mice, causing a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease. The leader (L) protein of the virus is an important determinant of viral persistence and has been shown to inhibit transcription of type I interferon (IFN) genes and to cause nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of host proteins. In this study, it was shown that expression of the L protein shuts off synthesis of the reporter proteins green fluorescent protein and firefly luciferase, suggesting that it induces a global shut-off of host protein expression. The L protein did not inhibit transcription or translation of the reporter genes, but blocked cellular mRNA export from the nucleus. This activity correlated with the phosphorylation of nucleoporin 98 (Nup98), an essential component of the nuclear pore complex. In contrast, the data confirmed that the L protein inhibited IFN expression at the transcriptional level, and showed that transcription of other chemokine or cytokine genes was affected by the L protein. This transcriptional inhibition correlated with inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) dimerization. Whether inhibition of IRF-3 dimerization and dysfunction of the nuclear pore complex are related phenomena remains an open question. In vivo, IFN antagonism appears to be an important role of the L protein early in infection, as a virus bearing a mutation in the zinc finger of the L protein replicated as efficiently as the wild-type virus in type I IFN receptor-deficient mice, but had impaired fitness in IFN-competent mice.

  14. Characterization of the major altered leader sequence of late mRNA induced by SV40 deletion mutant d1-1811.

    PubMed

    Haegeman, G; Iserentant, D; Gheysen, D; Fiers, W

    1979-12-11

    d1-1811 is a viable SV40 mutant with a 40 base pair deletion that includes the major wild-type capping site of late mRNA at map position 0.72. The late viral mRNAs induced by d1-1811 have now been further characterized by inversed S1-mapping analysis. The S1-resistant, 32P-labeled RNA fragments derived from the leader region were examined by fingerprinting and by analysis of RNase T2-generated 5'-terminal cap structures. The results show that most if not all of the mutant leader fragments analyzed have their 5' terminus to the left of the d1-1811 deletion site, i.e., closer to the origin of DNA replication. The major altered leader fragment is a continuous transcript from the DNA in the region 0.716 to 0.761 map unit and its 5' terminus has been precisely mapped at nucleotide L290. The observation that the cap structure of the major altered leader is only a minor cap species in wild-type late RNA suggests regulation in the use of different capping sites in SV40.

  15. Identification of a Mg2+-sensitive ORF in the 5′-leader of TRPM7 magnesium channel mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Nikonorova, Inna A.; Kornakov, Nikolay V.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Vassilenko, Konstantin S.; Ryazanov, Alexey G.

    2014-01-01

    TRPM7 is an essential and ubiquitous channel-kinase regulating cellular influx of Mg2+. Although TRPM7 mRNA is highly abundant, very small amount of the protein is detected in cells, suggesting post-transcriptional regulation of trpm7 gene expression. We found that TRPM7 mRNA 5′-leader contains two evolutionarily conserved upstream open reading frames that act together to drastically inhibit translation of the TRPM7 reading frame at high magnesium levels and ensure its optimal translation at low magnesium levels, when the activity of the channel-kinase is most required. The study provides the first example of magnesium channel synthesis being controlled by Mg2+ in higher eukaryotes. PMID:25326319

  16. A single mutation in the oprF mRNA leader confers strict translational control by the Gac/Rsm system in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0.

    PubMed

    Crespo, María Cecilia Alvarez; Valverde, Claudio

    2009-02-01

    The rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 is able to antagonize fungal phytopathogens on a variety of crop plants, mainly due to the production of secondary metabolites that are coordinately upregulated by the global regulatory Gac/Rsm cascade. The two-component system GacS/GacA activates transcription of the three small regulatory RNAs RsmX, RsmY, and RsmZ, which counteract translational repression of target mRNAs by RsmA and RsmE proteins. In a search for novel Gac/Rsm targets based on the minimal sequence on mRNA leaders required for RsmA/RsmE control, the leader region of the major porin OprF emerged as a candidate. Although an isogenic CHA0 oprF mutant showed a reduced ability to attach to cucumber and tomato roots, suggesting a role for OprF in root colonization as a requisite for pathogen antagonism, a translational oprF'-'lacZ fusion was weakly regulated by Gac/Rsm despite its high sequence similarity to the hcnA leader. A single base substitution put the modified oprF 5'-UTR under strict control by Gac/Rsm. The results highlight the subtle sequence requirements of Gac/Rsm targets.

  17. Transcriptional induction of the conserved alternative sigma factor RpoS in Escherichia coli is dependent on BarA, a probable two-component regulator.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Audia, J P; Roy, R N; Schellhorn, H E

    2000-07-01

    The stationary phase expression of many conserved, adaptive bacterial proteins is dependent on RpoS, a second vegetative sigma factor. The regulation of RpoS itself, however, is complex and not fully understood, particularly at the level of transcription. In this report, we show that the observed hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of a mutant defective in expression of barA, a bacterial virulence factor, can be explained by a reduction in catalase activity, an RpoS-controlled function. Levels of katE mRNA, encoding the major catalase of Escherichia coli, were much lower in the barA mutant, suggesting that BarA is required for the expression of this RpoS-regulated gene. Expression of another RpoS-regulated gene, osmY, was also found to be severely reduced in the barA mutant. Employing Western analyses with anti-RpoS antisera and Northern analyses using probes specific for rpoS, we found that BarA is required for the exponential phase induction of RpoS itself. Operon lacZ fusion expression studies and Northern analyses indicate that BarA itself is maximally expressed in early exponential phase cultures immediately preceding the transcriptional induction of RpoS. Results of primer extension studies indicate that exponential phase expression from the rpoSp1 promoter is reduced by more than 85% in a barA mutant but could be efficiently complemented by a plasmid-borne copy of barA in trans. These results suggest that regulatory signals that are operant in exponentially growing cultures play an important role in effecting stationary phase gene expression.

  18. Negative regulation of mutS and mutH repair gene expression by the Hfq and RpoS global regulators of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, H C; Feng, G; Winkler, M E

    1997-01-01

    The MutS, MutL, and MutH proteins play major roles in several DNA repair pathways. We previously reported that the cellular amounts of MutS and MutH decreased by as much as 10-fold in stationary-phase cultures. Consequently, we tested whether the amounts of MutS, MutL, and MutH were regulated by two global regulators, RpoS (sigma38) and Hfq (HF-I [putative RNA chaperone]), which are involved in stationary-phase transition. We report here that mutations in hfq and rpoS reversed the stationary-phase down-regulation of the amounts of MutS and MutH. hfq regulation of the amount of MutS in stationary-phase cultures was mediated by RpoS-dependent and -independent mechanisms, whereas hfq regulation of the amount of MutH was mediated only through RpoS. Consistent with this interpretation, the amount of MutS but not MutH was regulated by Hfq, but not RpoS, in exponentially growing cells. The amount of MutL remained unchanged in rpoS, hfq-1, and rpoS+, hfq+ strains in exponentially growing and stationary-phase cultures and served as a control. The beta-galactosidase activities of single-copy mutS-lacZ operon and gene fusions suggested that hfq regulates mutS posttranscriptionally in exponentially growing cultures. RNase T2 protection assays revealed increased amounts of mutS transcript that are attributed to increased mutS transcript stability in hfq-1 mutants. Lack of Hfq also increased the amounts and stabilities of transcripts initiated from P(miaA) and P1hfqHS, two of the promoters for hfq, suggesting autoregulation, but did not change the half-life of bulk mRNA. These results suggest that the amounts of MutS and MutH may be adjusted in cells subjected to different stress conditions by an RpoS-dependent mechanism. In addition, Hfq directly or indirectly regulates several genes, including mutS, hfq, and miaA, by an RpoS-independent mechanism that destabilizes transcripts. PMID:9393714

  19. Role of RpoS in the Virulence of Citrobacter rodentium▿

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Tao; Coombes, Brian K.; Schellhorn, Herb E.

    2009-01-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a mouse enteropathogen that is closely related to Escherichia coli and causes severe colonic hyperplasia and bloody diarrhea. C. rodentium infection requires expression of genes of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which simulates infection by enteropathogenic E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli in the human intestine, providing an effective model for studying enteropathogenesis. In this study we investigated the role of RpoS, the stationary phase sigma factor, in virulence in C. rodentium. Sequence analysis showed that the rpoS gene is highly conserved in C. rodentium and E. coli, exhibiting 92% identity. RpoS was critical for survival under heat shock conditions and during exposure to H2O2 and positively regulated the expression of catalase KatE (HPII). The development of the RDAR (red dry and rough) morphotype, an important virulence trait in E. coli, was also mediated by RpoS in C. rodentium. Unlike E. coli, C. rodentium grew well in the mouse colon, and the wild-type strain colonized significantly better than rpoS mutants. However, a mutation in rpoS conferred a competitive growth advantage over the wild type both in vitro in Luria-Bertani medium and in vivo in the mouse colon. Survival analysis showed that the virulence of an rpoS mutant was attenuated. The expression of genes on the LEE pathogenicity island, which are essential for colonization and virulence, was reduced in the rpoS mutant. In conclusion, RpoS is important for the stress response and is required for full virulence in C. rodentium. PMID:18981255

  20. Photorhabdus luminescens LN2 requires rpoS for nematicidal activity and nematode development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuehong; Wu, Chunyan; Cao, Li; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo; Han, Richou

    2016-03-01

    Photorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria are pathogenic to insects and mutualistic with entomopathogenic Heterorhabditis nematodes. Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii LN2, associated with Heterorhabditis indica LN2, shows nematicidal activity against H. bacteriophora H06 infective juveniles (IJs). In the present study, an rpoS mutant of P. luminescens LN2 was generated through allelic exchange to examine the effects of rpoS deletion on the nematicidal activity and nematode development. The results showed that P. luminescens LN2 required rpoS for nematicidal activity against H06 nematodes, normal IJ recovery and development of H. indica LN2, however, not for the bacterial colonization in LN2 and H06 IJs. This provides cues for further understanding the role of rpoS in the mutualistic association between entomopathogenic nematodes and their symbionts. PMID:26884480

  1. Role of RpoS in fine-tuning the synthesis of Vi capsular polysaccharide in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.

    PubMed

    Santander, Javier; Wanda, Soo-Young; Nickerson, Cheryl A; Curtiss, Roy

    2007-03-01

    Regulation of the synthesis of Vi polysaccharide, a major virulence determinant in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, is under the control of two regulatory systems, ompR-envZ and rscB-rscC, which respond to changes in osmolarity. Some serotype Typhi strains exhibit overexpression of Vi polysaccharide, which masks clinical detection of lipopolysaccharide O antigen. This variation in Vi polysaccharide and O antigen display (VW variation) has been observed since the initial studies of serotype Typhi. In this study, we report that rpoS plays a role in this increased expression in Vi polysaccharide. We constructed a variety of isogenic serotype Typhi mutants that differed in their expression levels of RpoS and examined the role of the rpoS product in synthesis of Vi polysaccharide under different osmolarity conditions. Vi polysaccharide synthesis was also examined in serotype Typhi mutants in which the native promoter of the rpoS was replaced by an araCP(BAD) cassette, so that the expression of rpoS was arabinose dependent. The RpoS(-) strains showed increased syntheses of Vi polysaccharide, which at low and medium osmolarities masked O antigen detection. In contrast, RpoS(+) strains showed lower syntheses of Vi polysaccharide, and an increased detection of O antigen was observed. During exponential growth, when rpoS is unstable or present at low levels, serotype Typhi RpoS(+) strains overexpress the Vi polysaccharide at levels comparable to those for RpoS(-) strains. Our results show that RpoS is another regulator of Vi polysaccharide synthesis and contributes to VW variation in serotype Typhi, which has implications for the development of recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines in humans.

  2. The MiaA tRNA Modification Enzyme Is Necessary for Robust RpoS Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gottesman, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The stationary phase/general stress response sigma factor RpoS (σS) is necessary for adaptation and restoration of homeostasis in stationary phase. As a physiological consequence, its levels are tightly regulated at least at two levels. Multiple small regulatory RNA molecules modulate its translation, in a manner that is dependent on the RNA chaperone Hfq and the rpoS 5′ untranslated region. ClpXP and the RssB adaptor protein degrade RpoS, unless it is protected by an anti-adaptor. We here find that, in addition to these posttranscriptional levels of regulation, tRNA modification also affects the steady-state levels of RpoS. We screened mutants of several RNA modification enzymes for an effect on RpoS expression and identified the miaA gene, encoding a tRNA isopentenyltransferase, as necessary for full expression of both an rpoS750-lacZ translational fusion and the RpoS protein. This effect is independent of rpoS, the regulatory RNAs, and RpoS degradation. RpoD steady-state levels were not significantly different in the absence of MiaA, suggesting that this is an RpoS-specific effect. The rpoS coding sequence is significantly enriched for leu codons that use MiaA-modified tRNAs, compared to rpoD and many other genes. Dependence on MiaA may therefore provide yet another way for RpoS levels to respond to growth conditions. PMID:24296670

  3. RpoS differentially affects the general stress response and biofilm formation in the endophytic Serratia plymuthica G3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Fang; Halliday, Nigel; Gao, Kexiang; Chan, Kok Gan; Cámara, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The σ(S) subunit RpoS of RNA polymerase functions as a master regulator of the general stress response in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. RpoS has been reported to modulate biocontrol properties in the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. However, the role of RpoS in the stress response and biofilm formation in S. plymuthica remains largely unknown. Here we studied the role of RpoS from an endophytic S. plymuthica G3 in regulating these phenotypes. Mutational analysis demonstrated that RpoS positively regulates the global stress response to acid or alkaline stresses, oxidative stress, hyperosmolarity, heat shock and carbon starvation, in addition to proteolytic and chitinolytic activities. Interestingly, rpoS mutations resulted in significantly enhanced swimming motility, biofilm formation and production of the plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which may contribute to competitive colonization and environmental fitness for survival. These findings provide further insight into the strain-specific role of RpoS in the endophytic strain G3 of S. plymuthica, where it confers resistance to general stresses encountered within the plant environment. The heterogeneous functionality of RpoS in rhizosphere and endophytic S. plymuthica populations may provide a selective advantage for better adaptation to various physiological and environmental stresses. PMID:26671319

  4. rpoS gene expression in carbon-starved cultures of the Polyhydroxyalkanoate-accumulating species Pseudomonas oleovorans.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jimena A; López, Nancy I; Méndez, Beatriz S

    2004-06-01

    The expression of the rpoS gene during PHA depolymerization was monitored in Pseudomonas oleovorans GPo1 and its mutant defective in PHA degradation by analyzing the tolerance to oxidative and thermal stresses and the RpoS intracellular content. An increase in the tolerance to H2O2 and heat shock was observed coincidentally with PHA degradation. Western blotting experiments performed in carbon-starved cultures showed that the RpoS levels were higher in the wild type than in the mutant strain. Complementation of the phaZ mutation restores the wild-type RpoS levels. These results suggest a probable association between PHA depolymerization and the stress tolerance phenotype controlled by RpoS. PMID:15170232

  5. A key role for the mRNA leader structure in translational control of ribosomal protein S1 synthesis in γ-proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tchufistova, Ludmila S.; Komarova, Anastassia V.; Boni, Irina V.

    2003-01-01

    The translation initiation region (TIR) of the Escherichia coli rpsA mRNA coding for ribosomal protein S1 is characterized by a remarkable efficiency in driving protein synthesis despite the absence of the canonical Shine–Dalgarno element, and by a strong and specific autogenous repression in the presence of free S1 in trans. The efficient and autoregulated E.coli rpsA TIR comprises not less than 90 nt upstream of the translation start and can be unambiguously folded into three irregular hairpins (HI, HII and HIII) separated by A/U-rich single-stranded regions (ss1 and ss2). Phylogenetic comparison revealed that this specific fold is highly conserved in the γ-subdivision of proteobacteria (but not in other subdivisions), except for the Pseudomonas group. To test phylogenetic predictions experimentally, we have generated rpsA′–′lacZ translational fusions by inserting the rpsA TIRs from various γ-proteobacteria in-frame with the E.coli chromosomal lacZ gene. Measurements of their translation efficiency and negative regulation by excess protein S1 in trans have shown that only those rpsA TIRs which share the structural features with that of E.coli can govern efficient and regulated translation. We conclude that the E.coli-like mechanism for controlling the efficiency of protein S1 synthesis evolved after divergence of Pseudomona PMID:14627832

  6. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and 5’ mRNA leader sequences as agents of translational regulation in Arabidopsis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2015-02-04

    Protein synthesis, or translation, consumes a sizable fraction of the cell’s energy budget, estimated at 5% and up to 50% in differentiated and growing cells, respectively. Plants also invest significant energy and biomass to construct and maintain the translation apparatus. Translation is regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Compared to transcriptional control, attributes of translational control include reduced sensitivity to stochastic fluctuation, a finer gauge of control, and more rapid responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Yet, our murky understanding of translational control allows few generalizations. Consequently, translational regulation is underutilized in the context of transgene regulation, although synthetic biologists are now beginning to appropriate RNA-level gene regulation into their regulatory circuits. We also know little about how translational control contributes to the diversity of plant form and function. This project explored how an emerging regulatory mRNA sequence element, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), is integrated with the general translation initiation machinery to permit translational regulation on specific mRNAs.

  7. In silico analysis and molecular modeling of RNA polymerase, sigma S (RpoS) protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mansour; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Pournajaf, Abazar; Emadi, Behzad; Tohidfar, Masoud; Gholami, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sigma factors are proteins that regulate transcription in bacteria. Sigma factors can be activated in response to different environmental conditions. The rpoS (RNA polymerase, sigma S) gene encodes sigma-38 (σ38, or RpoS), a 37.8 kDa protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) strains. RpoS is a central regulator of the general stress response and operates in both retroactive and proactive manners; not only does it allow the cell to survive environmental challenges; it also prepares the cell for subsequent stresses (cross-protection). Methods: The significance of RpoS for stress resistance and protein expression in stationary-phase P. aeruginosa cells was assessed. The goal of the current study was to characterize RpoS of P. aeruginosa PAO1 using bioinformatics tools. Results: The results showed that RpoS is an unstable protein that belongs to the sigma-70 factor family. Secondary structure analysis predicted that random coil is the predominant structure followed by extended alpha helix. The three-dimensional (3D) structure was modeled using SWISS-MODEL Workspace. Conclusion: Determination of sequence, function, structure, and predicted epitopes of RpoS is important for modeling of inhibitors that will help in the design of new drugs to combat multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Such information may aid in the development of new diagnostic tools, drugs, and vaccines for treatment in endemic regions. PMID:26989748

  8. Influence of rpoS mutations on the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Oscar J; Costa, Cristina S; Pizarro, Ramón A

    2011-01-10

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important pathogen, and exhibits considerable resistance to the lethal effects of solar radiation. To evaluate the involvement of the RpoS transcription factor in the defense mechanisms of this organism, the sunlight response of a wild type strain (ATCC14028) was compared with that of an rpoS mutant, which exhibited increased sensitivity. Kinetics of cell death was complex in both strains, probably due to the presence of a variety of targets for the radiation. When ultraviolet radiation was excluded from the incident sunlight, lethal effects were abolished independently of the allelic state of rpoS. Reduction of oxygen concentration in the irradiation medium provided moderate protection to ATCC14028, but notably improved survival of the mutant. Similar assays were developed with another S. enterica strain (DA1468), which is a derivative of strain LT2 and produces low levels of RpoS. In this strain the loss of viability reveals the dependence on solar ultraviolet and oxygen concentration found for ATCC14028, but radiation resistance was slightly reduced. Increased sensitivity was observed in an rpoS mutant derived from DA1468, indicating that RpoS functions related to photoprotection are conserved in this strain. In addition, notable differences in the shape of the survival curves obtained for mutants derived from ATCC14028 and DA1468 were found, suggesting that genes beyond RpoS control are relevant in the sunlight response of these mutants. PMID:20875749

  9. Role of the rpoS gene in the survival of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in artificial seawater and fish homogenate.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Pradeep; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2006-06-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a foodborne pathogen isolated from coastal waters of the United States and from a variety of seafood, including fish. Seawater represents a nutrient-limiting environment for V. parahaemolyticus. During its persistence in seawater, V. parahaemolyticus is exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, including hyperosmolarity, fluctuations in temperature, and cold stress. The alternate sigma factor of RNA polymerase, designated as (RpoS), encoded by the gene rpoS has been shown to play a major role in bacterial adaptive responses to adverse environmental conditions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of rpoS in the survival of V. parahaemolyticus in seawater and fish. A V. parahaemolyticus rpoS mutant was constructed by the insertion of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene cassette within the rpoS gene, and the wild and mutant strains were assayed for their ability to survive in artificial seawater (ASW) at 6 and 1 degrees C and in fish homogenate at 4 and 8 degrees C. The survival of the rpoS mutant of V. parahaemolyticus both in ASW and fish homogenate at either storage temperature was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the wild strain. Further, the viability of V. parahaemolyticus, especially the mutant, was significantly reduced at lower storage temperatures of ASW and fish homogenate. Results of this study indicate that rpoS potentially plays an important role in the survival of V. parahaemolyticus under conditions of cold stress and hyperosmolarity. PMID:16786870

  10. Roles of RpoS and PsrA in cyst formation and alkylresorcinol synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Sampieri, Arístides; Moreno, Soledad; Núñez, Cinthia; Castañeda, Miguel; Segura, Daniel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-06-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts that are resistant to desiccation. Upon induction of cyst formation, the bacterium synthesizes alkylresorcinols that are present in cysts but not in vegetative cells. Alternative sigma factors play important roles in differentiation. In A. vinelandii, AlgU (sigma E) is involved in controlling the loss of flagella upon induction of encystment. We investigated the involvement of the sigma factor RpoS in cyst formation in A. vinelandii. We analysed the transcriptional regulation of the rpoS gene by PsrA, the main regulator of rpoS in Pseudomonas species, which are closely related to A. vinelandii. Inactivation of rpoS resulted in the inability to form cysts resistant to desiccation and to produce cyst-specific alkylresorcinols, whereas inactivation of psrA reduced by 50 % both production of alkylresorcinols and formation of cysts resistant to desiccation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed specific binding of PsrA to the rpoS promoter region and that inactivation of psrA reduced rpoS transcription by 60 %. These results indicate that RpoS and PsrA are involved in regulation of encystment and alkylresorcinol synthesis in A. vinelandii.

  11. Role of RpoS in stress survival, synthesis of extracellular autoinducer 2, and virulence in Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yang; Wang, Qiyao; Liu, Qin; Ma, Yue; Cao, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2008-11-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus, a marine bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing vibriosis with high mortality to fishes in the South China Sea. Stress resistance is very important for its survival in the natural environment and upon infection of the host. RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, is considered as an important regulator involved in stress response and virulence in many pathogens. In this study, the rpoS gene was cloned and characterized to evaluate the role of RpoS in V. alginolyticus. The predicted protein showed high identity with other reported rpoS gene products. The in-frame deleted mutation of rpoS in V. alginolyticus led to sensitivity of the strain to ethanol, hyperosmolarity, heat, and hydrogen peroxide challenges. Further studies showed that extracellular autoinducer 2 level, four of seven detected protease activities, and cytotoxicity of extracellular products were markedly decreased in the rpoS mutant compared with that in the wild-type strain. The results indicated that the global regulator RpoS was part of the regulatory networks of virulence and LuxS quorum sensing system.

  12. Burkholderia pseudomallei rpoS mediates iNOS suppression in human hepatocyte (HC04) cells.

    PubMed

    Sanongkiet, Sucharat; Ponnikorn, Saranyoo; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2016-08-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a widespread disease in Southeast Asia. Reactive nitrogen, in an intermediate form of nitric oxide (NO), is one of the first lines of defense used by host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens, through the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Studies in phagocytotic cells have shown that the iNOS response is muted in B. pseudomallei infection, and implicated the rpoS sigma factor as a key regulatory factor mediating suppression. The liver is a main visceral organ affected by B. pseudomallei, and there is little knowledge about the interaction of liver cells and B. pseudomallei This study investigated the induction of iNOS, as well as autophagic flux and light-chain 3 (LC3) localization in human liver (HC04) cells in response to infection with B. pseudomallei and its rpoS deficient mutant. Results showed that the rpoS mutant was unable to suppress iNOS induction and that the mutant showed less induction of autophagy and lower co-localization with LC3, and this was coupled with a lower intracellular growth rate. Combining these results suggest that B. pseudomallei rpoS is an important factor in establishing infection in liver cells. PMID:27324398

  13. Burkholderia pseudomallei rpoS mediates iNOS suppression in human hepatocyte (HC04) cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanongkiet, Sucharat; Ponnikorn, Saranyoo; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a widespread disease in Southeast Asia. Reactive nitrogen, in an intermediate form of nitric oxide (NO), is one of the first lines of defense used by host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens, through the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Studies in phagocytotic cells have shown that the iNOS response is muted in B. pseudomallei infection, and implicated the rpoS sigma factor as a key regulatory factor mediating suppression. The liver is a main visceral organ affected by B. pseudomallei, and there is little knowledge about the interaction of liver cells and B. pseudomallei. This study investigated the induction of iNOS, as well as autophagic flux and light-chain 3 (LC3) localization in human liver (HC04) cells in response to infection with B. pseudomallei and its rpoS deficient mutant. Results showed that the rpoS mutant was unable to suppress iNOS induction and that the mutant showed less induction of autophagy and lower co-localization with LC3, and this was coupled with a lower intracellular growth rate. Combining these results suggest that B. pseudomallei rpoS is an important factor in establishing infection in liver cells. PMID:27324398

  14. Plasmid DNA Supercoiling and Gyrase Activity in Escherichia coli Wild-Type and rpoS Stationary-Phase Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Domínguez, Yazmid; Contreras-Ferrat, Gabriel; Ramírez-Santos, Jesús; Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge; Gómez-Eichelmann, M. Carmen

    2003-01-01

    Stationary-phase cells displayed a distribution of relaxed plasmids and had the ability to recover plasmid supercoiling as soon as nutrients became available. Preexisting gyrase molecules in these cells were responsible for this recovery. Stationary-phase rpoS cells showed a bimodal distribution of plasmids and failed to supercoil plasmids after the addition of nutrients, suggesting that rpoS plays a role in the regulation of plasmid topology during the stationary phase. PMID:12533486

  15. RpoS and Indole Signaling Control the Virulence of Vibrio anguillarum towards Gnotobiotic Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Yang, Qian; Dierckens, Kristof; Milton, Debra L.; Defoirdt, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules, controls the virulence of many pathogens. In contrast to other vibrios, neither the VanI/VanR acylhomoserine lactone quorum sensing system, nor the three-channel quorum sensing system affects virulence of the economically important aquatic pathogen Vibrio anguillarum. Indole is another molecule that recently gained attention as a putative signal molecule. The data presented in this study indicate that indole signaling and the alternative sigma factor RpoS have a significant impact on the virulence of V. anguillarum. Deletion of rpoS resulted in increased expression of the indole biosynthesis gene tnaA and in increased production of indole. Both rpoS deletion and the addition of exogenous indole (50–100 µM) resulted in decreased biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide production (a phenotype that is required for pathogenicity) and expression of the exopolysaccharide synthesis gene wbfD. Further, indole inhibitors increased the virulence of the rpoS deletion mutant, suggesting that indole acts downstream of RpoS. Finally, in addition to the phenotypes found to be affected by indole, the rpoS deletion mutant also showed increased motility and decreased sensitivity to oxidative stress. PMID:25360804

  16. Role of RpoS in stress tolerance and environmental fitness of the phyllosphere bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Hockett, Kevin; Loper, Joyce E

    2009-06-01

    Bacteria living epiphytically on aerial plant surfaces encounter severe and rapidly fluctuating environmental conditions, and their capacity to withstand environmental stress contributes to epiphytic fitness. The stationary phase sigma factor RpoS is a key determinant in stress response of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp. This study focused on the role of RpoS in stress response and epiphytic fitness of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain 122 on aerial plant surfaces. RpoS had a significant role in the response of the phyllosphere bacterium P. fluorescens 122 to stresses imposed by desiccation, UV irradiation, starvation, and an oxidative environment. While significant, the difference in stress response between an rpoS mutant and the parental strain was less for strain 122 than for the rhizosphere bacterium P. fluorescens Pf-5. No consistent influence of RpoS on epiphytic population size of strain 122 on pear or apple flowers or leaves was observed in field trials. These data may indicate that P. fluorescens occupies protected microsites on aerial plant surfaces where the bacteria escape exposure to environmental stress, or that redundant stress-response mechanisms are operating in this bacterium, thereby obscuring the role of RpoS in epiphytic fitness of the bacterium.

  17. The Polymorphic Aggregative Phenotype of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111 Depends on RpoS and Curli

    PubMed Central

    Diodati, M. E.; Bates, A. H.; Miller, W. G.; Carter, M. Q.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 serotype of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic-case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and M. T. Brandl, Foodborne Pathog Dis 12:235−243, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1887). We show here the natural occurrence of nonaggregative variants in single STEC O111 strains. These variants do not produce curli fimbriae and lack RpoS function but synthesize cellulose. The deletion of csgBAC or rpoS in an aggregative outbreak strain abolished aggregate formation, which was rescued when curli biogenesis or RpoS function, respectively, was restored. Complementation of a nonaggregative variant with RpoS also conferred curli production and aggregation. These observations were supported by Western blotting with an anti-CsgA antibody. Immunomicroscopy revealed that curli were undetectable on the cells of the nonaggregative variant and the RpoS mutant but were present in large quantities in the intercellular matrix of the assemblages formed by aggregative strains. Sequence analysis of rpoS in the aggregative strain and its variant showed a single substitution of threonine for asparagine at amino acid 124. Our results indicate that the multicellular behavior of STEC O111 is RpoS dependent via positive regulation of curli production. Aggregation may confer a fitness advantage in O111 outbreak strains under stressful conditions in hydrodynamic environments along the food production chain and in the host, while the occurrence of nonaggregative variants may allow the cell population to adapt to conditions benefiting a planktonic lifestyle. PMID:26712542

  18. Impact of the rpoS genotype for acid resistance patterns of pathogenic and probiotic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Coldewey, Sina M; Hartmann, Maike; Schmidt, Dorothea S; Engelking, Uta; Ukena, Sya N; Gunzer, Florian

    2007-01-01

    Background Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), a subgroup of Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC), may cause severe enteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and is transmitted orally via contaminated foods or from person to person. The infectious dose is known to be very low, which requires most of the bacteria to survive the gastric acid barrier. Acid resistance therefore is an important mechanism of EHEC virulence. It should also be a relevant characteristic of E. coli strains used for therapeutic purposes such as the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN). In E. coli and related enteric bacteria it has been extensively demonstrated, that the alternative sigma factor σS, encoded by the rpoS gene, acts as a master regulator mediating resistance to various environmental stress factors. Methods Using rpoS deletion mutants of a highly virulent EHEC O26:H11 patient isolate and the sequenced prototype EHEC EDL933 (ATCC 700927) of serotype O157:H7 we investigated the impact of a functional rpoS gene for orchestrating a satisfactory response to acid stress in these strains. We then functionally characterized rpoS of probiotic EcN and five rpoS genes selected from STEC isolates pre-investigated for acid resistance. Results First, we found out that ATCC isolate 700927 of EHEC EDL933 has a point mutation in rpoS, not present in the published sequence, leading to a premature stop codon. Moreover, to our surprise, one STEC strain as well as EcN was acid sensitive in our test environment, although their cloned rpoS genes could effectively complement acid sensitivity of an rpoS deletion mutant. Conclusion The attenuation of sequenced EHEC EDL933 might be of importance for anyone planning to do either in vitro or in vivo studies with this prototype strain. Furthermore our data supports recently published observations, that individual E. coli isolates are able to significantly modulate their acid resistance phenotype independent of their rpoS genotype. PMID:17386106

  19. The RpoS Sigma Factor Negatively Regulates Production of IAA and Siderophore in a Biocontrol Rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang A; Kim, Ji Soo; Park, Ju Yeon; Han, Song Hee; Dimkpa, Christian; Anderson, Anne J; Kim, Young Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The stationary-phase sigma factor, RpoS, influences the expression of factors important in survival of Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 in the rhizosphere. A partial proteomic profile of a rpoS mutant in P. chlororaphis O6 was conducted to identify proteins under RpoS regulation. Five of 14 differentially regulated proteins had unknown roles. Changes in levels of proteins in P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant were associated with iron metabolism, and protection against oxidative stress. The P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant showed increased production of a pyoverdine-like siderophore, indole acetic acid, and altered isozyme patterns for peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Consequently, sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide exposure increased in the P. chlororaphis O6 rpoS mutant, compared with the wild type. Taken together, RpoS exerted regulatory control over factors important for the habitat of P. chlororaphis O6 in soil and on root surfaces. The properties of several of the proteins in the RpoS regulon are currently unknown. PMID:25288959

  20. Contribution of RpoS to metabolic efficiency and ectoines synthesis during the osmo- and heat-stress response in the halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Manuel; Argandoña, Montserrat; Pastor, Jose M; Bernal, Vicente; Cánovas, Manuel; Csonka, Laszlo N; Nieto, Joaquín J; Vargas, Carmen

    2015-04-01

    Chromohalobacter salexigens is a halophilic γ-proteobacterium that responds to osmotic and heat stresses by accumulating ectoine and hydroxyectoine respectively. Evolution has optimized its metabolism to support high production of ectoines. We analysed the effect of an rpoS mutation in C. salexigens metabolism and ectoines synthesis. In long-term adapted cells, the rpoS strain was osmosensitive but not thermosensitive and showed unaltered ectoines content, suggesting that RpoS regulates ectoine(s)-independent osmoadaptive mechanisms. RpoS is involved in the regulation of C. salexigens metabolic adaptation to stress, as early steps of glucose oxidation through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were deregulated in the rpoS mutant, leading to improved metabolic efficiency at low salinity. Moreover, a reduced pyruvate (but not acetate) overflow was displayed by the rpoS strain at low salt, probably linked to a slowdown in gluconate production and/or subsequent metabolism. Interestingly, RpoS does not seem to be the main regulator triggering the immediate transcriptional response of ectoine synthesis to osmotic or thermal upshifts. However, it contributed to the expression of the ect genes in cells previously adapted to low or high salinity.

  1. Osmotic and desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 requires rpoS (σ(38)).

    PubMed

    Stasic, Andrew J; Lee Wong, Amy C; Kaspar, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of RecA, Dps, and RpoS to survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during desiccation and osmotic stress was determined in Luria-Bertani broth with 12 % NaCl (LB-12) at 30 and 37 °C, on filter disks at 23 and 30 °C, and in sterile bovine feces at 30 °C. RecA did not significantly contribute to survival in any condition or temperature. The contribution of Dps to survival was only significant in LB-12 at 37 °C. RpoS was necessary for survival during desiccation and osmotic stress, and survival of the RpoS mutant was significantly less than the parent in all conditions and temperatures. The RpoS mutant survived up to 21 days in bovine feces, <4 days on filter disks, and >8 and <4 days in LB-12 at 30 and 37 °C, respectively. The parent, ΔrecA, dps, and dps/ΔrecA mutant strains survived >8 days in LB-12, >28 days on filter disks, and >28 days in bovine feces. Increased incubation temperatures were associated with decreased survival. E. coli O157:H7 can persist in desiccating and osmotically challenging environments, especially sterile feces, for an extended period time.

  2. The role of ClpP, RpoS and CsrA in growth and filament formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonellae are food-borne pathogens of great health and economic importance. To pose a threat to humans, Salmonellae normally have to cope with a series of stressful conditions in the food chain, including low temperature. In the current study, we evaluated the importance of the Clp proteolytic complex and the carbon starvation protein, CsrA, for the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to grow at low temperature. Results A clpP mutant was severely affected in growth and formed pin point colonies at 10°C. Contrary to this, rpoS and clpP/rpoS mutants were only slightly affected. The clpP mutant formed cold resistant suppressor mutants at a frequency of 2.5 × 10−3 and these were found not to express RpoS. Together these results indicated that the impaired growth of the clpP mutant was caused by high level of RpoS. Evaluation by microscopy of the clpP mutant revealed that it formed filamentous cells when grown at 10°C, and this phenotype too, disappered when rpoS was mutated in parallel indicating a RpoS-dependency. A csrA (sup) mutant was also growth attenuated a low temperature. An rpoS/csrA (sup) double mutant was also growth attenuated, indicating that the phenotype of the csrA mutant was independent from RpoS. Conclusions The cold sensitivity of clpP mutant was associated with increased levels of RpoS and probably caused by toxic levels of RpoS. Although a csrA mutant also accumulated high level of RpoS, growth impairment caused by lack of csrA was not related to RpoS levels in a similar way. PMID:25123657

  3. Global repression of host-associated genes of the Lyme disease spirochete through post-transcriptional modulation of the alternative sigma factor RpoS.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, Daniel P; Hayes, Beth M; Rosa, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is a vector-borne pathogen that transits between Ixodes ticks and vertebrate hosts. During the natural infectious cycle, spirochetes must globally adjust their transcriptome to survive in these dissimilar environments. One way B. burgdorferi accomplishes this is through the use of alternative sigma factors to direct transcription of specific genes. RpoS, one of only three sigma factors in B. burgdorferi, controls expression of genes required during tick-transmission and infection of the mammalian host. How spirochetes switch between different sigma factors during the infectious cycle has remained elusive. Here we establish a role for a novel protein, BBD18, in the regulation of the virulence-associated sigma factor RpoS. Constitutive expression of BBD18 repressed transcription of RpoS-dependent genes to levels equivalent to those observed in an rpoS mutant. Consistent with the global loss of RpoS-dependent transcripts, we were unable to detect RpoS protein. However, constitutive expression of BBD18 did not diminish the amount of rpoS transcript, indicating post-transcriptional regulation of RpoS by BBD18. Interestingly, BBD18-mediated repression of RpoS is independent of both the rpoS promoter and the 5' untranslated region, suggesting a mechanism of protein destabilization rather than translational control. We propose that BBD18 is a novel regulator of RpoS and its activity likely represents a first step in the transition from an RpoS-ON to an RpoS-OFF state, when spirochetes transition from the host to the tick vector.

  4. Building Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddekopp, Therese

    2008-01-01

    A main responsibility of leaders is helping others develop their leadership skills, and the impending retirement of many principals and assistant principals has also made succession planning a major concern for school districts. Many school systems are fulfilling this responsibility by strategically cultivating up-and-coming administrators to…

  5. Impact of co-deficiency of RpoN and RpoS on stress tolerance, virulence and gene regulation in Edwardsiella tarda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfu; Ye, Jiang; Song, ShanShan; Wang, Keping; Zhang, Yuanxing; Zhang, Huizhan

    2014-07-01

    Edwardsiella tarda the etiological agent for edwardsiellosis, a devastating fish disease prevailing in worldwide aquaculture industries was subjected to a molecular genetic study. To research into the influence when RpoN (σ(54) ) and RpoS (σ(38) ) were deleted simultaneously, the double deletion mutant of RpoN (σ(54) ) and RpoS (σ(38) ), namely rnrs, was constructed. Firstly, RpoN and RpoS are both essential for H2 O2 , starvation, high osmotic pressure and acid resistance, which have synergistic effect. Secondly, virulence of rnrs reduces significantly compared to E. tarda EIB 202 WT, ΔrpoN mutant and ΔrpoS mutant. Furthermore, transcriptional control of rpoS by rpoN in stationary phase was observed through qRT-PCR, while rpoS had no influence on rpoN in the level of transcription. Meanwhile, regulation of flagellar sigma factor σ(F) (FliA) and other flagella-related genes including flgA, flgK, flgL, motA, and motB by rpoS, and rpoN was found. fliA and other flagella-related genes were controlled positively by rpoN, while negatively by rpoS. At last, two differential expression genes in transcriptional level of rnrs strain were detected by DD-RT-PCR, namely cheY and narK. This study therefore indicated interaction between sigma factors RpoN and RpoS, which modulates stress response, virulence, motility, and provides new insights into the regulatory networks of E. tarda. PMID:24633758

  6. The Fur homologue BosR requires Arg39 to activate rpoS transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi and thereby direct spirochaete infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Katona, Laura I

    2015-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease. In B. burgdorferi, RpoS controls the expression of virulence genes needed for mammalian infection. The Fur homologue BosR regulates the transcription of rpoS and therefore BosR determines, albeit indirectly, the infection status of the spirochaete. Transcription of rpoS in B. burgdorferi is complex: rpoS can be transcribed either from an RpoD-dependent promoter to yield a long transcript or from an RpoN-dependent promoter to yield a short transcript. This study shows that BosR repressed synthesis of the long transcript while at the same time activating synthesis of the short transcript. How BosR does this is unclear. To address this, spirochaetes were engineered to express either BosR or the naturally occurring variant BosRR39K. Mice became infected by the spirochaetes expressing BosR but not by the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K. Furthermore, the spirochaetes expressing BosR activated rpoS transcription during growth in culture whereas the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K did not. Thus, BosR's activation of rpoS transcription somehow involves Arg39. This arginine is highly conserved in other FUR proteins and therefore other FUR proteins may also require this arginine to function.

  7. The Fur homologue BosR requires Arg39 to activate rpoS transcription in Borrelia burgdorferi and thereby direct spirochaete infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease. In B. burgdorferi, RpoS controls the expression of virulence genes needed for mammalian infection. The Fur homologue BosR regulates the transcription of rpoS and therefore BosR determines, albeit indirectly, the infection status of the spirochaete. Transcription of rpoS in B. burgdorferi is complex: rpoS can be transcribed either from an RpoD-dependent promoter to yield a long transcript or from an RpoN-dependent promoter to yield a short transcript. This study shows that BosR repressed synthesis of the long transcript while at the same time activating synthesis of the short transcript. How BosR does this is unclear. To address this, spirochaetes were engineered to express either BosR or the naturally occurring variant BosRR39K. Mice became infected by the spirochaetes expressing BosR but not by the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K. Furthermore, the spirochaetes expressing BosR activated rpoS transcription during growth in culture whereas the spirochaetes expressing BosRR39K did not. Thus, BosR's activation of rpoS transcription somehow involves Arg39. This arginine is highly conserved in other FUR proteins and therefore other FUR proteins may also require this arginine to function. PMID:26318670

  8. The growth advantage in stationary-phase phenotype conferred by rpoS mutations is dependent on the pH and nutrient environment.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Michael J; Finkel, Steven E

    2003-12-01

    Escherichia coli cells that are aged in batch culture display an increased fitness referred to as the growth advantage in stationary phase, or GASP, phenotype. A common early adaptation to this culture environment is a mutant rpoS allele, such as rpoS819, that results in attenuated RpoS activity. However, it is important to note that during long-term batch culture, environmental conditions are in flux. To date, most studies of the GASP phenotype have focused on identifying alleles that render an advantage in a specific environment, Luria-Bertani broth (LB) batch culture. To determine what role environmental conditions play in rendering relative fitness advantages to E. coli cells carrying either the wild-type or rpoS819 alleles, we performed competitions under a variety of culture conditions in which either the available nutrients, the pH, or both were manipulated. In LB medium, we found that while the rpoS819 allele confers a strong competitive fitness advantage at basic pH, it confers a reduced advantage under neutral conditions, and it is disadvantageous under acidic conditions. Similar results were found using other media. rpoS819 conferred its greatest advantage in basic minimal medium in which either glucose or Casamino Acids were the sole source of carbon and energy. In acidic medium supplemented with either Casamino Acids or glucose, the wild-type allele conferred a slight advantage. In addition, populations were dynamic under all pH conditions tested, with neither the wild-type nor mutant rpoS alleles sweeping a culture. We also found that the strength of the fitness advantage gained during a 10-day incubation is pH dependent. PMID:14645263

  9. The Growth Advantage in Stationary-Phase Phenotype Conferred by rpoS Mutations Is Dependent on the pH and Nutrient Environment

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Michael J.; Finkel, Steven E.

    2003-01-01

    Escherichia coli cells that are aged in batch culture display an increased fitness referred to as the growth advantage in stationary phase, or GASP, phenotype. A common early adaptation to this culture environment is a mutant rpoS allele, such as rpoS819, that results in attenuated RpoS activity. However, it is important to note that during long-term batch culture, environmental conditions are in flux. To date, most studies of the GASP phenotype have focused on identifying alleles that render an advantage in a specific environment, Luria-Bertani broth (LB) batch culture. To determine what role environmental conditions play in rendering relative fitness advantages to E. coli cells carrying either the wild-type or rpoS819 alleles, we performed competitions under a variety of culture conditions in which either the available nutrients, the pH, or both were manipulated. In LB medium, we found that while the rpoS819 allele confers a strong competitive fitness advantage at basic pH, it confers a reduced advantage under neutral conditions, and it is disadvantageous under acidic conditions. Similar results were found using other media. rpoS819 conferred its greatest advantage in basic minimal medium in which either glucose or Casamino Acids were the sole source of carbon and energy. In acidic medium supplemented with either Casamino Acids or glucose, the wild-type allele conferred a slight advantage. In addition, populations were dynamic under all pH conditions tested, with neither the wild-type nor mutant rpoS alleles sweeping a culture. We also found that the strength of the fitness advantage gained during a 10-day incubation is pH dependent. PMID:14645263

  10. General stress response regulator RpoS in adaptive mutation and amplification in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Aponyi, Ildiko; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2004-01-01

    Microbial cells under growth-limiting stress can generate mutations by mechanisms distinct from those in rapidly growing cells. These mechanisms might be specific stress responses that increase mutation rates, potentially altering rates of evolution, or might reflect non-stress-specific processes in rare growing cells. In an Escherichia coli model system, both frameshift reversion mutations and gene amplifications occur as apparent starvation-induced mutations. Whereas frameshift reversion ("point mutation") requires recombination proteins, the SOS response, and error-prone DNA polymerase IV (DinB), amplification requires neither SOS nor pol IV. We report that both point mutation and amplification require the stationary-phase and general stress response transcription factor RpoS (sigmaS). Growth-dependent mutation does not. Alternative interpretations are excluded. The results imply, first, that point mutation and amplification are stress responses that occur in differentiated stationary-phase (not rare growing) cells and, second, that transient genetic instability, producing both point mutation and genome rearrangement, may be a previously unrecognized component of the RpoS-dependent general stress response. PMID:15020458

  11. Regulation of Expression of the adhE Gene, Encoding Ethanol Oxidoreductase in Escherichia coli: Transcription from a Downstream Promoter and Regulation by Fnr and RpoS

    PubMed Central

    Membrillo-Hernández, Jorge; Lin, E. C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The adhE gene of Escherichia coli, located at min 27 on the chromosome, encodes the bifunctional NAD-linked oxidoreductase responsible for the conversion of acetyl-coenzyme A to ethanol during fermentative growth. The expression of adhE is dependent on both transcriptional and posttranscriptional controls and is about 10-fold higher during anaerobic than during aerobic growth. Two putative transcriptional start sites have been reported: one at position −292 and the other at −188 from the translational start codon ATG. In this study we show, by using several different transcriptional and translational fusions to the lacZ gene, that both putative transcriptional start sites can be functional and each site can be redox regulated. Although both start sites are NarL repressible in the presence of nitrate, Fnr activates only the −188 start site and Fis is required for the transcription of only the −292 start site. In addition, it was discovered that RpoS activates adhE transcription at both start sites. Under all experimental conditions tested, however, only the upstream start site is active. Available evidence indicates that under those conditions, the upstream promoter region acts as a silencer of the downstream transcriptional start site. Translation of the mRNA starting at −292, but not the one starting at −188, requires RNase III. The results support the previously postulated ribosomal binding site (RBS) occlusion model, according to which RNase III cleavage is required to release the RBS from a stem-loop structure in the long transcript. PMID:10601216

  12. Exploring new roles for the rpoS gene in the survival and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Santander, Ricardo D; Monte-Serrano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-12-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in economically important plants of the family Rosaceae. This bacterial pathogen spends part of its life cycle coping with starvation and other fluctuating environmental conditions. In many Gram-negative bacteria, starvation and other stress responses are regulated by the sigma factor RpoS. We obtained an E. amylovora rpoS mutant to explore the role of this gene in starvation responses and its potential implication in other processes not yet studied in this pathogen. Results showed that E. amylovora needs rpoS to develop normal starvation survival and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) responses. Furthermore, this gene contributed to stationary phase cross-protection against oxidative, osmotic, and acid stresses and was essential for cross-protection against heat shock, but nonessential against acid shock. RpoS also mediated regulation of motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and virulence in immature loquats, but not in pear plantlets, and contributed to E. amylovora survival in nonhost tissues during incompatible interactions. Our results reveal some unique roles for the rpoS gene in E. amylovora and provide new knowledge on the regulation of different processes related to its ecology, including survival in different environments and virulence in immature fruits.

  13. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates the Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Lunin, V. V.; Skarina, T.; Savchenko, A.; Schurr, M. J.; Hoang, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5{beta}-oxidation operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5 operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-non-responsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFAs influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa.

  14. Mutations in the rpoS gene are the major limiting factor for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 clinical isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Biofilm formation is a complex process that is highly regulated through a battery of transcriptional regulators, small regulatory RNAs, and environmental conditions. RpoS sigma factor along with MlrA protein directly regulate the expression of the curli key regulator CsgD. In most serot...

  15. Genes expressed by the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 on seed surfaces under the control of the global regulators GacA and RpoS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The GacA/Rsm signal transduction system and the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS have both been shown to affect secondary metabolite production and biological control in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 and related strains. Microarray analysis of Pf-5 grown on pea seed surfaces showed that 595 genes ar...

  16. The Resilient Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  17. RpoS and RpoN are involved in the growth-dependent regulation of rfaH transcription and O antigen expression in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Mauricio; Saldías, Soledad; Altamirano, Francisco; Valvano, Miguel A; Contreras, Inés

    2004-01-01

    We reported earlier that the production of O antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella typhi) increases at the onset of stationary phase and correlates with a growth-regulated expression of the rfaH gene under the control of the alternative sigma factor RpoN (Microbiology 148 (2002) 3789). In this study, we demonstrate that RpoS also modulates rfaH promoter activity as revealed by the absence of growth-dependent regulation of an rfaH-lacZ transcriptional fusion and O antigen production in a S. typhi rpoS mutant. Introduction of a constitutively expressed rpoN gene into the rpoS mutant restored increased production of O antigen during stationary phase, suggesting that constitutive production of RpoN could overcome the RpoS defect. Similar results were observed when an rpoS rpoN double mutant was transformed with the intact rpoN gene. Thus, we conclude that both RpoS and RpoN control the rfaH promoter activity and concomitantly, the production of O-specific LPS in S. typhi. PMID:14643636

  18. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees.

  19. Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure rapidly selects for increased RpoS activity and general stress-resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Vanlint, Dietrich; Rutten, Nele; Govers, Sander K; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is increasingly being used in food preservation as a non-thermal pasteurization process, and its further implementation necessitates a more thorough understanding of bacterial resistance development and intraspecies variability with regard to inactivation by HHP. In this report, we discovered that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure stress can rapidly select for strongly increased RpoS activity in a hypersensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain (ATCC 43888), leading to a simultaneous increase in HHP and heat resistance. Moreover, the level of RpoS activity correlated well with the original hypersensitivity and the extent of acquired HHP resistance, and extremely HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 clearly incurred a number of additional RpoS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest that implementation of novel processing techniques in the food production chain can readily affect the physiology of food-borne pathogens.

  20. Growth history influences starvation-induced expression of uspA, grpE, and rpoS and subsequent cryotolerance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Gawande, Purushottam V; Griffiths, Mansel W

    2005-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of starvation on cryotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 grown in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and Luria-Bertani broth (LB). Starved cells (cells suspended in water at 37 degrees C for 6 h) and control cells (cells in TSB or LB) were frozen at -18 degrees C for up to 240 h in their respective growth media. The E. coli grown in TSB showed a greater starvation effect (the difference in percent survival of starved and control cells) and cryotolerance. The starved E. coli grown in TSB showed a 30% increase in their ability to survive frozen storage for 24 h at -18 degrees C. The corresponding increase in survival for LB-grown E. coli was only 3.8%. Cryotolerance induced by starvation of TSB- and LB-grown E. coli was correlated with the expression of genes involved in general stress response pathways, such as uspA, grpE, and rpoS. The expression of uspA, grpE, and rpoS was quantified by measuring the green fluorescence generated from autofluorescent E. coli harboring puspA::gfp, pgrpE::gfp, and prpoS::gfp gene fusions. The results obtained in this study indicate that uspA, grpE, and rpoS were induced on starvation when E. coli was grown in TSB, and their expression correlated well with subsequent induction of cryotolerance developed at -18 degrees C. In contrast, cells grown in LB and subsequently exposed to starvation conditions showed no increase in expression of uspA, grpE, or rpoS, and, as expected, these cells did not exhibit increased cryotolerance at -18 degrees C. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in cross-protection might make it possible to devise strategies to limit their effects and lead to ways to predict the survival of foodborne pathogens in stressful environments.

  1. Portrait of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Grundy, Thomas

    Chapter 1 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter examines several kinds of leader characteristics: inherited traits and those springing from early childhood experience; attitudes toward relationships with other people; and qualities differentiating effective from ineffective leaders. Modern researchers tend to stress nurture over…

  2. Leaders from Nursing's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fondiller, Shirley H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at the lives and accomplishments of four leaders in professional nursing: (1) Loretta Ford, who championed the cause of nurse practitioners; (2) Mable Staupers, a pioneer in community health and nursing; (3) Janet Geister, a leader in private nursing; and (4) Isabel Stewart, who led the movement to standardize nursing education. (JOW)

  3. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  4. Becoming a Professional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K., Ed.

    This book is about teacher-leaders who work in schools, universities, district and county offices, and other educational institutions and who serve as consultants, mentors, principals, project leaders, and teacher educators. The professional model of teaching emphasizes the role of teachers as informed, responsible decision makers, grounded in the…

  5. How leaders really emerge.

    PubMed

    Guastello, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Comments on the article by R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman which offered several research questions that should be productive for furthering leadership research. This comment summarizes some recent progress on one of those questions, "Not what are the traits of leaders, but how do leaders' personal attributes interact with situational properties to shape outcomes?"

  6. Developing Local Community Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Delwyn A.; Williams, Oscar M.

    The successful development of local leaders is the goal of leadership training and community development. Development involves defining and developing leadership. Although leader-centered leadership offers few chances of meeting the maintenance needs of the group as a whole, shared leadership allows the group to join in the decision-making…

  7. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  8. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees. PMID:26710553

  9. Biosynthesis of the antifungal haterumalide, oocydin A, in Serratia, and its regulation by quorum sensing, RpoS and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Polyketides represent an important class of bioactive natural products with a broad range of biological activities. We identified recently a large trans-acyltransferase (AT) polyketide synthase gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and antitumor haterumalide, oocydin A (ooc). Using genome sequencing and comparative genomics, we show that the ooc gene cluster is widespread within biocontrol and phytopathogenic strains of the enterobacteria, Serratia and Dickeya. The analysis of in frame deletion mutants confirmed the role of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase cassette, three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes, a free-standing acyl carrier protein and two hypothetical proteins in oocydin A biosynthesis. The requirement of the three trans-acting AT domains for the biosynthesis of the macrolide was also demonstrated. Expression of the ooc gene cluster was shown to be positively regulated by an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system, but operating in a strain-dependent manner. At a post-transcriptional level, the RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a key role in oocydin A biosynthesis. The Hfq-dependent regulation is partially mediated by the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, which was also shown to positively regulate the synthesis of the macrolide. Our results reveal differential regulation of the divergently transcribed ooc transcriptional units, highlighting the complexity of oocydin A production. PMID:25753587

  10. Training Bicultural Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minehan, Paula L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a hospital-sponsored program to train bicultural leaders to ease the school-to-work transition for new graduate nurses. Specific information on planning, implementation, sponsorship requirements, and evaluation is presented. (Author/SK)

  11. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader.

  12. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  13. mRNA imprinting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Following its synthesis in the nucleus, mRNA undergoes various stages that are critical for the proper synthesis, localization and possibly functionality of its encoded protein. Recently, we have shown that two RNA polymerase II (Pol II) subunits, Rpb4p and Rpb7p, associate with the nascent transcript co-transcriptionally. This “mRNA imprinting” lasts throughout the mRNA lifetime and is required for proper regulation of all major stages that the mRNA undergoes. Other possible cases of co-transcriptional imprinting are discussed. Since mRNAs can be transported from the synthesizing cell to other cells, we propose that mRNA imprinting can also affect the phenotype of the recipient cells. This can be viewed as “mRNA-based epigenetics.” PMID:21686103

  14. The Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates The Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA-Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun; Lunin, Vladimir V.; Skarina, Tatiana; Savchenko, Alexei; Schurr, Michael J.; Hoang, Tung T.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5 β-oxidation-operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA-operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5-operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene-fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum-sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production, respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-nonresponsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFA influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa. PMID:19508282

  15. [Identification of community leaders].

    PubMed

    Chevalier, S; Dedobbeleer, N; Tremblay, M

    1995-01-01

    Although many methods of measuring leadership have been developed in sociological studies, there are few articles on the feasibility of these methods. The goal of this study was to verify the feasibility of the "modified positional-reputational approach" developed by Nix. The study was conducted in a small community located north of Montreal. Nix's questionnaire was translated, adapted and administered to 49 key informants. Two hundred and fourteen leaders were selected. Three types of leaders were identified: the legitimizers, the effectors and the activists. Through a sociometric analysis, we established links between the different leaders and we described the power structure of the community. Despite a few shortcomings, Nix's approach was found extremely useful.

  16. Chloramphenicol induction of cat-86 requires ribosome stalling at a specific site in the leader.

    PubMed

    Alexieva, Z; Duvall, E J; Ambulos, N P; Kim, U J; Lovett, P S

    1988-05-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. Induction by the antibiotic is primarily due to activation of the translation of cat-86-encoded mRNA. It has been suggested that the inducer stalls ribosomes at a discrete location in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA, which causes the destabilization of a downstream RNA secondary structure that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome binding site. It is the destabilization of this RNA secondary structure that permits translation of the cat-86 coding sequence. In the present report, we show that ribosomes that were stalled in the cat-86 leader by starvation of host cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6 induced gene expression to a level above that detected when cells were starved for the amino acids specified by leader codons 7 and 8. Starvation for amino acids specified by leader codons 3, 4, or 5 failed to activate cat-86 expression. These results indicate that the stalled ribosome that is most active in cat-86 induction has its aminoacyl site occupied by leader codon 6. To determine if chloramphenicol also stalled ribosomes in the cat-86 regulatory leader such that the aminoacyl site was occupied by codon 6, we separately changed leader codons 3, 4, 5, and 6 to the translation termination (ochre) codon TAA. Each of the mutated genes was tested for its ability to be induced by chloramphenicol. The results show that replacement of leader codons 3, 4, or 5 by the ochre codon blocked induction, whereas replacement of leader codon 6 by the ochre codon permitted induction. Collectively, these observations lead to the conclusion that cat-86 induction requires ribosome stalling in leader mRNA, and they identify leader codon 6 as the codon most likely to be occupied by the aminoacyl site of a stalled ribosome that is active in the induction.

  17. Chloramphenicol induction of cat-86 requires ribosome stalling at a specific site in the leader.

    PubMed Central

    Alexieva, Z; Duvall, E J; Ambulos, N P; Kim, U J; Lovett, P S

    1988-01-01

    The plasmid gene cat-86 specifies chloramphenicol-inducible chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Bacillus subtilis. Induction by the antibiotic is primarily due to activation of the translation of cat-86-encoded mRNA. It has been suggested that the inducer stalls ribosomes at a discrete location in the leader region of cat-86 mRNA, which causes the destabilization of a downstream RNA secondary structure that normally sequesters the cat-86 ribosome binding site. It is the destabilization of this RNA secondary structure that permits translation of the cat-86 coding sequence. In the present report, we show that ribosomes that were stalled in the cat-86 leader by starvation of host cells for the amino acid specified by leader codon 6 induced gene expression to a level above that detected when cells were starved for the amino acids specified by leader codons 7 and 8. Starvation for amino acids specified by leader codons 3, 4, or 5 failed to activate cat-86 expression. These results indicate that the stalled ribosome that is most active in cat-86 induction has its aminoacyl site occupied by leader codon 6. To determine if chloramphenicol also stalled ribosomes in the cat-86 regulatory leader such that the aminoacyl site was occupied by codon 6, we separately changed leader codons 3, 4, 5, and 6 to the translation termination (ochre) codon TAA. Each of the mutated genes was tested for its ability to be induced by chloramphenicol. The results show that replacement of leader codons 3, 4, or 5 by the ochre codon blocked induction, whereas replacement of leader codon 6 by the ochre codon permitted induction. Collectively, these observations lead to the conclusion that cat-86 induction requires ribosome stalling in leader mRNA, and they identify leader codon 6 as the codon most likely to be occupied by the aminoacyl site of a stalled ribosome that is active in the induction. PMID:3129723

  18. Valuing Youth. Leader's Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; And Others

    This leader's notebook is an attempt to present value education tools for persons working with elementary age children in various YMCA settings. These tools are value education strategies designed to stimulate discussion by the children and to help create a learning environment. The strategies are presented in two ways. First, a series of basic…

  19. Today's Students, Tomorrow's Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2008-01-01

    According to Warren Bennis, professor at the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business and a recognized authority on organizational development, leadership and change, becoming a leader is synonymous with becoming oneself. It is precisely that simple, and it is also that difficult. In career and technical student…

  20. World-Class Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  1. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  2. Empowering Leaders & Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Trevor Greene, the 2013 MetLife/NASSP National High School Principal of the Year, empowers staff members and students to be the best teachers and learners they can be and provides the community resources to support them. In this article, Greene, principal of Toppenish High School in Washington, shares his biggest motivator as a school leader and…

  3. So Few Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Francesca; Fried, Linda P.; Zeger, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present sobering findings of a study about women and leadership in higher education. The findings of the authors' study are based on the experiences of a small group of women faculty at Johns Hopkins University. The study found that, despite good intentions and occasional interventions by leaders in higher education, women are still …

  4. Developing Urban School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCown, Claire H.; Eakin, Carolyn J.; Dusenbery, Kay

    1997-01-01

    The St. Louis Educational Leadership Institute, a partnership between St. Louis University, local public schools, and a charitable foundation, is designed to develop future urban school leaders. The four-year program includes seminars, a problems course, an internship, advisement sessions, and portfolio exhibition. This paper describes the…

  5. Lessons for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Among the current crop of business leadership manuals, the six reviewed are applicable for school leaders as well. Themes of effective employee management and motivation, personal responsibility, and having the ability to initiate and implement constructive change are among the common threads running through the books. Information on ordering the…

  6. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  7. Context Matters: Support for Leader Developmental Readiness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sara E; Reichard, Rebecca J

    2016-01-01

    Leader developers need to consider support for leader developmental readiness by examining organizational culture, job design and rewards, social support, and availability and structure of leader development programming.

  8. Senior Leader Career Management: Implications for Senior Leaders and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study across three large consumer products organizations explored career management of senior leaders to gain an understanding of what is important to senior leaders in their careers and what strategies they are using for career management. It also investigated senior leaders' expectations of organizations for career…

  9. The 5' leader sequence of mouse mammary tumor virus enhances expression of the envelope and reporter genes.

    PubMed

    Hohenadl, Christine; Gunzburg, Walter H; Salmons, Brian; Indik, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a complex betaretrovirus, which utilizes a Rev-like auxiliary protein Rem to export the unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus. MMTV env mRNA appears to be exported via a distinct, Rem-independent, mechanism. Here, we analysed the effect of an extensively folded region coinciding with the 5' leader sequence on env gene expression. We found that the presence of the 5' leader stimulates expression of the envelope protein. Enhanced Env production was accompanied by increased cytoplasmic levels of env mRNA. The 5' leader promotes nucleocytoplasmic translocation and increases stability of env mRNA. The region responsible for this effect was mapped to the distal part of the 5' leader. Furthermore, the 5' leader inserted in the sense orientation into a heterologous luciferase expression construct increased luciferase activity. PMID:22113011

  10. Sigma Factor RpoS Controls Alkylresorcinol Synthesis through ArpR, a LysR-Type Regulatory Protein, during Encystment of Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Yanet; Moreno, Soledad; Guzmán, Josefina; Espín, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium which undergoes a differentiation process leading to the formation of metabolically dormant cysts. During the encystment process, A. vinelandii produces alkylresorcinol lipids (ARs) that replace the membrane phospholipids and are also components of the layers covering the cyst. The synthesis of ARs in A. vinelandii has been shown to occur by the activity of enzymes encoded by the arsABCD operon, which is expressed only during the differentiation process. Also, the production of ARs has been shown to be dependent on the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, which is also implicated in the control of the synthesis of other cyst components (i.e., alginate and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, we identified ArpR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator expressed only during encystment that positively regulates arsABCD transcription. We show that this activation is dependent on acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA), which might provide a metabolic signal for encystment. We also show that RpoS regulates arsABCD expression through the control of arpR transcription. PMID:23378510

  11. Developing Efficacy in School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abusham, Jaymi

    2010-01-01

    Many new school leaders will be needed in the coming years, and the demands placed upon them are increasingly complex. Research has shown that leaders need a strong sense of self-efficacy in order to succeed. This study examined the relationship between the leadership readiness beliefs of prospective school leaders and the efficacy-building…

  12. Professional Learning for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of articles from a decade's worth of NSDC's newsletters and "JSD" that will aid school leaders in honing their skills for instructional leadership. This comprehensive collection is organized so that school leaders can explore the topic in chunks and learn from real examples. Interspersed tools will help leaders take action. A…

  13. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  14. Can Teachers Really Be Leaders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann

    2011-01-01

    This is a wonderfully provocative question that might be answered simply: Yes, teachers can be leaders! Much more complicated and interesting, though, are the specifics of how teachers become leaders and the different ways teachers lead. Before considering how teachers become leaders, there is a need to understand the context within which teachers…

  15. Leaders and Leadership in Academe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Victor H.

    1983-01-01

    Four contingency theories of leadership are explored and contrasted. Predictions of leader types and leader behaviors that would follow from each are counterposed. External functions of the leader and interactions with organizational members who are not subordinates are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  16. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σD with σS. Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth

  17. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Alessandro G; Ihssen, Julian; Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σ(D) with σ(S). Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon

  18. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1999-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  19. Women as leaders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L K

    1996-12-01

    The role of women as leaders has undergone considerable review in recent years, both outside and within the dental profession. Growing awareness of gender as an issue in leadership has focused attention on leadership styles and qualities with particular emphasis on the differences between male and female approaches. Further research is proposed, specifically on leadership within the dental profession. Trends are identified which lead to optimistic conclusions as to the future involvement of women in leadership in dentistry.

  20. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  1. The wise leader.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka

    2011-05-01

    In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders. PMID:21548419

  2. How successful leaders think.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger

    2007-06-01

    In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648

  3. On leadership and leaders.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is the vital ingredient to achieving organizational excellence and outstanding healthcare systems. There is so much to be celebrated when reflecting on the evolution of healthcare leadership over the past 50 years. However, in 50 years, we have created silos of care, of funding and of social policy that have undermined our progress in improving the care process, shifting away from health and toward healthcare, and we have lost the opportunity to promote streamlined care through the continuum of health needs. Exemplary healthcare leaders of tomorrow will need sophisticated business skills, balanced with the capacity to inspire innovation, in order to manage an ever-growing complex environment. PMID:23107908

  4. Biosynthesis of adenovirus type 2 i-leader protein.

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J S; Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Virtanen, A; Pettersson, U; Green, M

    1986-01-01

    The i-leader is a 440-base-pair sequence located between 21.8 and 23.0 map units on the adenovirus type 2 genome and is spliced between the second and third segments of the major tripartite leader in certain viral mRNA molecules. The i-leader contains an open translational reading frame for a hypothetical protein of Mr about 16,600, and a 16,000-Mr polypeptide (16K protein) has been translated in vitro on mRNA selected with DNA containing the i-leader (A. Virtanen, P. Aleström, H. Persson, M. G. Katze, and U. Pettersson, Nucleic Acids Res. 10:2539-2548, 1982). To determine whether the i-leader protein is synthesized during productive infection and to provide an immunological reagent to study the properties and functions of the i-leader protein, we prepared antipeptide antibodies directed to a 16-amino acid synthetic peptide which is encoded near the N terminus of the hypothetical i-leader protein and contains a high acidic amino acid and proline content. Antipeptide antibodies immunoprecipitated from extracts of adenovirus type 2-infected cells a major 16K protein that comigrated with a 16K protein translated in vitro. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis by Edman degradation of radiolabeled 16K antigen showed that methionine is present at residue 1 and leucine is present at residues 8 and 10, as predicted from the DNA sequence, establishing that the 16K protein precipitated by this antibody is indeed the i-leader protein. Thus, the i-leader protein is a prominent species that is synthesized during productive infection. The i-leader protein is often seen as a doublet on polyacrylamide gels, suggesting that either two related forms of i-leader protein are synthesized in infected cells or that a posttranslational modification occurs. Time course studies using immunoprecipitation analysis with antipeptide antibodies revealed that the E1A 289R T antigen and the E1B-19K (175R) T antigen are synthesized beginning at 2 to 3 and 4 to 5 h postinfection

  5. Positive Effect of Carbon Sources on Natural Transformation in Escherichia coli: Role of Low-Level Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-cAMP Receptor Protein in the Derepression of rpoS

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengyue; Wang, Huanyu; Xie, Nengbin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural plasmid transformation of Escherichia coli is a complex process that occurs strictly on agar plates and requires the global stress response factor σS. Here, we showed that additional carbon sources could significantly enhance the transformability of E. coli. Inactivation of phosphotransferase system genes (ptsH, ptsG, and crr) caused an increase in the transformation frequency, and the addition of cyclic AMP (cAMP) neutralized the promotional effect of carbon sources. This implies a negative role of cAMP in natural transformation. Further study showed that crp and cyaA mutations conferred a higher transformation frequency, suggesting that the cAMP-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex has an inhibitory effect on transformation. Moreover, we observed that rpoS is negatively regulated by cAMP-CRP in early log phase and that both crp and cyaA mutants show no transformation superiority when rpoS is knocked out. Therefore, it can be concluded that both the crp and cyaA mutations derepress rpoS expression in early log phase, whereby they aid in the promotion of natural transformation ability. We also showed that the accumulation of RpoS during early log phase can account for the enhanced transformation aroused by additional carbon sources. Our results thus demonstrated that the presence of additional carbon sources promotes competence development and natural transformation by reducing cAMP-CRP and, thus, derepressing rpoS expression during log phase. This finding could contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between nutrition state and competence, as well as the mechanism of natural plasmid transformation in E. coli. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli, which is not usually considered to be naturally transformable, was found to spontaneously take up plasmid DNA on agar plates. Researching the mechanism of natural transformation is important for understanding the role of transformation in evolution, as well as in the transfer of pathogenicity and

  6. Perceived Problems of Leader, Non-Leader and Deviant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, John D.; And Others

    The study compares the problems perceived by leader, non-leader, and deviant adolescents. A total of 2,948 secondary school students in the West Vancouver School District, British Columbia, were divided into three behavior groups and an analysis was made of the problems checked on the Mooney Problem Check List (MPCL) by members of each group. The…

  7. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  8. Team Leader System description

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.

  9. Leading Your Leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then

  10. The uncompromising leader.

    PubMed

    Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.

  11. The uncompromising leader.

    PubMed

    Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies. PMID:18681297

  12. [Mutation analysis of the purine operon leader region in Bacillus subtilis].

    PubMed

    Lobanov, K V; korol'kova, N V; Eremina, S Iu; Érrais Lopes, L; Mironov, A S

    2011-07-01

    Expression of Bacillus subtilis purine (purE) operon is a subject of double negative control involving repressor protein PurR and a transcription terminator located in the operon leader region. We have performed site-directed mutagenesis of the specific motives, which are involved in formation of alternative hairpin structures, one of which produces transcription termination at the leader region ofpurEoperon. In vivo and in vitro analyses of the generated mutants have shown that purine bases, guanine and hypoxantine, serve as effector metabolites capable of increasing stability of terminating hairpin within the leader mRNA. Therefore, the leader RNA of purE operon serves as a sensor towards these metabolites and a riboswitch that provides premature termination of the operon transcription. The synergistic effect of the PurR repressor protein and a transcription terminator located at the leader region on the expression of purE operon was also revealed.

  13. Developing Leaders from "Seeming Opposites".

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Mario R

    2015-10-01

    The development of nurse leaders arises out of nursing and knowledge from other disciplines. In this column, Dr. McBride shares her experiences as a nurse leader and takes a view of leadership that makes the "tensions" of apparent "opposites" explicit to provide clarity within leading-following situations. PMID:26396218

  14. From the Field: Learning Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…

  15. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  16. Future Leaders: The Way Forward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick; Bubb, Sara; Glenn, Meli

    2009-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of senior school leaders is high on the UK Government's agenda with much attention currently being given to succession planning. Future Leaders and other fast track leadership development programmes are, in part, a response to this "crisis" brought about by demographic change--many headteachers are due to retire in…

  17. Keeping 4-H Volunteer Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Keith L.; Bigler, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    This study showed that continuing and discontinuing volunteer 4-H Club leaders are significantly different in their geographical location, number of children in family, and number of children in family who have participated in 4-H. These variables may affect the volunteer's decision to continue serving as a 4-H Club leader. (Author/CT)

  18. Remembering the Leaders of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students' memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China's history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader's recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory.

  19. ClpP deletion causes attenuation of Salmonella Typhimurium virulence through mis-regulation of RpoS and indirect control of CsrA and the SPI genes.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Gitte M; Olsen, John E; Aabo, Søren; Barrow, Paul; Rychlik, Ivan; Thomsen, Line E

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires the type III secretion system encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and controlled by the master regulator, HilA, to penetrate the intestinal epithelium. Numerous regulators affect virulence through influence on this system, including the proteolytic component ClpP, the stationary phase regulator RpoS and the carbon-storage regulator CsrA. However, the mechanism behind the ClpP regulation is not fully understood. To elucidate this we examined differentially expressed genes in a ΔclpP mutant compared with WT using global transcriptomic analysis. SPI1 and SPI4 virulence genes were significantly downregulated in the ΔclpP mutant, whereas several RpoS-dependent genes and the fliC gene encoding flagellin were upregulated. While the ΔclpP mutant was attenuated in cell invasion, this attenuation was not present in a ΔclpP/rpoS : : amp double mutant, suggesting the repression of invasion was directed through RpoS. The expression of the csrA virulence regulator was increased in the ΔclpP mutant and decreased in the rpoS : : amp and ΔclpP/rpoS : : amp mutants, indicating that ClpP affects the csrA expression level as well. Thus, this study suggests that ClpP affects SPI1 expression and thereby virulence indirectly through its regulation of both RpoS and CsrA.

  20. Perioperative Nurse Leaders and Professionalism.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Dawn

    2016-08-01

    Professionalism in nursing leadership encompasses key elements that include a common body of knowledge, autonomous practice, self-regulation through education and licensure, a set code of ethics, and a commitment to altruism. Perioperative nurse leaders also must embrace collaboration, vision, accountability, and patient and staff member advocacy based on established ethics, values, and standards of care. Nurse leaders who are committed to professional development through pursuit of higher degrees, application of evidence-based practice, collaboration with colleagues, and certification show a strong commitment to their profession and serve as role models for staff members. This article discusses professionalism in nursing and offers information specific to perioperative nurse leaders. PMID:27472973

  1. Local leaders in random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, Vincent D.; Guillaume, Jean-Loup; Hendrickx, Julien M.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2008-03-01

    We consider local leaders in random uncorrelated networks, i.e., nodes whose degree is higher than or equal to the degree of all their neighbors. An analytical expression is found for the probability for a node of degree k to be a local leader. This quantity is shown to exhibit a transition from a situation where high-degree nodes are local leaders to a situation where they are not, when the tail of the degree distribution behaves like the power law ˜k-γc with γc=3 . Theoretical results are verified by computer simulations, and the importance of finite-size effects is discussed.

  2. Osmotolerance provided by the alternative sigma factors σB and rpoS to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is solute dependent and does not result in an increased growth fitness in NaCl containing media.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of the alternative general stress sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, to grow in liquid and solid media of different osmolarity. For this purpose, S. aureus strain Newman and its isogenic ΔsigB mutant IK84 and E. coli strain BJ4 and its isogenic ΔrpoS mutant BJ4L1 were grown in media (TSBYE) with different concentrations of NaCl. Growth parameters (lag phase duration, growth rate and maximum number of microorganisms) and limiting growth concentrations (Maximum Non-Inhibitory Concentration - MNIC - and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC-) were determined. The mechanisms underlying the differences observed between parental and mutant strains were also explored. The absence of the sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS led to a decrease in the MNICs and MICs calculated for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Conversely, neither σ(B) nor rpoS provided with increased growth fitness to S. aureus and E. coli cells at NaCl concentrations up to 1.36M and 1M, respectively. The decreased osmotolerance of the σ(B) and rpoS deficient strains, as compared to their parental strains, was compensated by the addition of glycine-betaine (1mM) to the growth medium. It was also observed that the decreased tolerance to NaCl of the mutant strains was coincident with a decreased tolerance to sucrose, KCl, and LiCl but not to glycerol, MgCl2, and CaCl2. Results obtained also demonstrate that the increased osmotolerance of stationary growth phase E. coli cells, as compared to exponential growth phase ones, would be due to the activation of both rpoS-independent and rpoS-dependent mechanisms. This work will help to understand the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to osmotic stress and the role of the alternative sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS in this process.

  3. Osmotolerance provided by the alternative sigma factors σB and rpoS to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is solute dependent and does not result in an increased growth fitness in NaCl containing media.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of the alternative general stress sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, to grow in liquid and solid media of different osmolarity. For this purpose, S. aureus strain Newman and its isogenic ΔsigB mutant IK84 and E. coli strain BJ4 and its isogenic ΔrpoS mutant BJ4L1 were grown in media (TSBYE) with different concentrations of NaCl. Growth parameters (lag phase duration, growth rate and maximum number of microorganisms) and limiting growth concentrations (Maximum Non-Inhibitory Concentration - MNIC - and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC-) were determined. The mechanisms underlying the differences observed between parental and mutant strains were also explored. The absence of the sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS led to a decrease in the MNICs and MICs calculated for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Conversely, neither σ(B) nor rpoS provided with increased growth fitness to S. aureus and E. coli cells at NaCl concentrations up to 1.36M and 1M, respectively. The decreased osmotolerance of the σ(B) and rpoS deficient strains, as compared to their parental strains, was compensated by the addition of glycine-betaine (1mM) to the growth medium. It was also observed that the decreased tolerance to NaCl of the mutant strains was coincident with a decreased tolerance to sucrose, KCl, and LiCl but not to glycerol, MgCl2, and CaCl2. Results obtained also demonstrate that the increased osmotolerance of stationary growth phase E. coli cells, as compared to exponential growth phase ones, would be due to the activation of both rpoS-independent and rpoS-dependent mechanisms. This work will help to understand the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to osmotic stress and the role of the alternative sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS in this process. PMID:26256716

  4. What leaders really do.

    PubMed

    Kotter, J P

    1990-01-01

    Leadership is different from management, but not for the reasons most people think. Leadership isn't mystical and mysterious. It has nothing to do with having "charisma" or other exotic personality traits. It is not the province of a chosen few. Nor is leadership necessarily better than management or a replacement for it. Rather, leadership and management are two distinctive and complementary systems of action. Each has its own function and characteristic activities. Both are necessary for success in today's business environment. Management is about coping with complexity. Its practices and procedures are largely a response to the emergence of large, complex organizations in the twentieth century. Leadership, by contrast, is about coping with change. Part of the reason it has become so important in recent years is that the business world has become more competitive and more volatile. More change always demands more leadership. Most U. S. corporations today are overmanaged and underled. They need to develop their capacity to exercise leadership. Successful corporations don't wait for leaders to come along. They actively seek out people with leadership potential and expose them to career experiences designed to develop that potential. Indeed, with careful selection, nurturing, and encouragement, dozens of people can play important leadership roles in a business organization. But while improving their ability to lead, companies should remember that strong leadership with weak management is no better, and is sometimes actually worse, than the reverse. The real challenge is to combine strong leadership and strong management and use each to balance the other.

  5. Remembering the Leaders of China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K. Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory. PMID:27065899

  6. What Is an Innovative Educational Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…

  7. RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ringgaard, Simon; Hubbard, Troy; Mandlik, Anjali; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-08-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V. cholerae's 'cluster III' chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and in conjunction with growth arrest linked to carbon starvation. This expression, as well as expression in vivo in suckling rabbits, is dependent upon RpoS. V. cholerae's CAI-1 quorum sensing (QS) system is also required for cluster III expression in stationary phase and modulates its expression in vivo, but is not required for cluster III expression in response to carbon starvation. Surprisingly, even though the CAI-1 and AI-2 QS systems are thought to feed into the same signaling pathway, the AI-2 system inhibited cluster III gene expression, revealing that the outputs of the two QS systems are not always the same. The distinctions between genetic determinants of cluster III expression in vitro and in vivo highlight the distinctive nature of the in vivo environment.

  8. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    PubMed

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  9. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  10. Growing our future nursing leaders.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Rose O

    2005-01-01

    The need for strong nursing leadership to meet the future challenges of the healthcare delivery system is widely acknowledged, yet many of today's nursing leaders express concern about a lack of interest in leadership among their younger nurses. This article reports on a qualitative research study that involved focus groups with 48 younger nurses under the age of 40 who were not currently in formal leadership positions. Using a ConCensus process, participants were asked questions to identify and prioritize the factors that influence their decisions to accept or reject nursing leadership positions. In this study, participants did see a potential in the nursing leadership role to make a difference for both patients and staff. Adequate compensation for the role and true decision-making power were factors of concern for younger nurses. Feedback from current leaders about nursing leadership positions is not positive. Strategies that current nursing leaders will need to consider to encourage interest in nursing leadership will be discussed.

  11. mRNA transcript therapy.

    PubMed

    Weissman, Drew

    2015-02-01

    mRNA is the central molecule of all forms of life. It is generally accepted that current life on Earth descended from an RNA world. mRNA, after its first therapeutic description in 1992, has recently come into increased focus as a method to deliver genetic information. The recent solution to the two main difficulties in using mRNA as a therapeutic, immune stimulation and potency, has provided the basis for a wide range of applications. While mRNA-based cancer immunotherapies have been in clinical trials for a few years, novel approaches; including, in vivo delivery of mRNA to replace or supplement proteins, mRNA-based generation of pluripotent stem cells, or genome engineering using mRNA-encoded meganucleases are beginning to be realized. This review presents the current state of mRNA drug technologies and potential applications, as well as discussing the challenges and prospects in mRNA development and drug discovery. PMID:25359562

  12. Future Leaders Institute: Rising Leaders and the AACC Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Desna L.

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is "Building a Nation of Learners by Advancing America's Community Colleges." A significant component of this mission statement involves the development of leadership. The AACC believes that leadership can be learned and is committed to supporting and growing leaders. In…

  13. Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Lacking the Secondary Messenger C-di-GMP and RpoS as a Live Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    García, Begoña; Gil, Carmen; García-Ona, Enrique; Burgui, Saioa; Casares, Noelia; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Lasarte, Juan José; Lasa, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence. C-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. An additional mutation of the rpoS gene resulted in a synergic attenuating effect that led to a highly attenuated strain, referred to as ΔXIII, immunogenic enough to protect mice against a lethal oral challenge of a S. Typhimurium virulent strain. ΔXIII immunogenicity relied on activation of both antibody and cell mediated immune responses characterized by the production of opsonizing antibodies and the induction of significant levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-10. ΔXIII was unable to form a biofilm and did not survive under desiccation conditions, indicating that it could be easily eliminated from the environment. Moreover, ΔXIII shows DIVA features that allow differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. Altogether, these results show ΔXIII as a safe and effective live DIVA vaccine. PMID:27537839

  14. Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Lacking the Secondary Messenger C-di-GMP and RpoS as a Live Oral Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Latasa, Cristina; Echeverz, Maite; García, Begoña; Gil, Carmen; García-Ona, Enrique; Burgui, Saioa; Casares, Noelia; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Lasarte, Juan José; Lasa, Iñigo; Solano, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence. C-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. An additional mutation of the rpoS gene resulted in a synergic attenuating effect that led to a highly attenuated strain, referred to as ΔXIII, immunogenic enough to protect mice against a lethal oral challenge of a S. Typhimurium virulent strain. ΔXIII immunogenicity relied on activation of both antibody and cell mediated immune responses characterized by the production of opsonizing antibodies and the induction of significant levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-10. ΔXIII was unable to form a biofilm and did not survive under desiccation conditions, indicating that it could be easily eliminated from the environment. Moreover, ΔXIII shows DIVA features that allow differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. Altogether, these results show ΔXIII as a safe and effective live DIVA vaccine. PMID:27537839

  15. Preparing Effective Outdoor Pursuit Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon

    Information related to selecting, training, and certifying outdoor leaders for high adventure pursuits, is provided by selected experts from five English-speaking nations (Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States). Patterns of differences and similarities among these nations regarding outdoor leadership components and…

  16. Strategic Communications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…

  17. Educating School Leaders for Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2010-01-01

    In order to be able to discuss, in meaningful ways, how school leaders should be educated one needs to sketch the context in which they are going to lead, that is the visions and purpose of education and the schooling, which is dominant in society. In most societies one sees clashes of many discourses and cultural/political fights. In order to…

  18. Strategic Listening for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Jeannine S.; Dunklee, Dennis R.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to communicate effectively with multiple constituencies is recognized as an essential characteristic of effective leaders. Listening strategically is a way of showing parents, students, faculty, staff, and others that their ideas and beliefs are of value. The authors' practitioner-friendly book concentrates on the importance of…

  19. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  20. A Leader, Not a Hero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Lynda

    2005-01-01

    The author writes her experience in leading. She points out that a good leader should know when and how to let go than trying to do all the work by herself. It changed her focus on looking at details, implementation, dealing with the contractors, to leading leading people.

  1. Training and Selecting School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark E.

    Chapter 3 of a revised handbook on school leadership, this chapter discusses the task of training and selecting the school principal--a key person in efforts to achieve educational excellence. Unfortunately, administrator training and selection methods are often ill-suited to developing and employing outstanding leaders. Traditional avenues to the…

  2. Lessons from Exceptional School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark

    Leadership is situational and cannot be predicted or necessarily taught. This book is the distillation of ideas and practices derived from interviews with some of education's top leaders. Chapter 1, "Forming Beliefs," makes the point that teachers and administrators must carefully learn about excellence and then find the elements of excellence…

  3. American Religious Leaders. American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Timothy L.

    Founded on the principle of religious pluralism, the United States comprises scores of religious traditions. Although the spiritual lives of most people throughout the nation's history are private and undocumented, an examination of the lives and influence of U.S. religious leaders offers insights into the religious heritage of the United States.…

  4. Emerging Leaders: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Jennifer J.; Peterson, Karen; Gailor-Loflin, Heidi

    In an increasingly global, technology-driven marketplace, a key organizational challenge is the development of leaders from the newest generation of managers. Recent and ongoing demographic studies and population research indicate that currently there are too few people in Generation X (born between 1964 and 1978) who can be considered as emerging…

  5. Teacher Leaders: Advancing Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli

    2014-01-01

    Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…

  6. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  7. Research Administrators as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Joann

    2011-01-01

    Within the sponsored research support offices in departments at research institutions, non-profits, and undergraduate institutions, research administrators are often perceived as servant leaders by their own membership organizations and those who work with them. This perception is influenced by survey results focusing on character. Parolini (2004)…

  8. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of…

  9. Competencies for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The development and availability of well-prepared leaders is vital to the continued success of community colleges and their students. Throughout its history, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has made proactive leadership development a central focus of its mission. Now, that focus takes on even greater urgency as the level of…

  10. The Making of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. George

    A 2 X 3 (with repeated measures) design explored the nature of nonverbal communication (NVC), associated with judging one to be a leader or a follower. This study explored several aspects of the folk maxim "It is not what you say, but how you say it." The relationship investigated was between on one hand (1) communicator's NVC, (2) mode of…

  11. Essential Lessons for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This gold mine of wisdom from top education researcher and the best-selling author of "Turning Around Failing Schools and Connecting Teacher Leadership and School Improvement" contains key tips and strategies every school leader should know. Award-winning professor and former school administrator Joseph F. Murphy's concise and instructive lessons…

  12. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  13. Educating Earth-Literate Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen; Jucker, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg made it clear that political leadership the world over is incapable of rising to the challenges of sustainability. Yet, most of the hundred or so world leaders who attended have a higher education degree from some of the world's most prestigious universities. This paper tries to…

  14. Boston Structure Supports School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Jennifer Welsh

    2008-01-01

    Boston Public Schools, winner of the 2006 Broad Prize for Urban Education, creates innovative programs to develop school leaders based on the idea that "school leadership is the single most important factor in schools' success." Teachers play an invaluable role in determining the quality of classroom instruction, but a principal is, in the words…

  15. The failure-tolerant leader.

    PubMed

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation. PMID:12195921

  16. The adenovirus type 5 i-leader open reading frame functions in cis to reduce the half-life of L1 mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, P D; Shenk, T

    1990-01-01

    The 440-nucleotide adenovirus type 5 i-leader sequence, encoding a 13.6-kilodalton protein, is located between the second and third components of the tripartite leader sequence. It appears primarily on the L1 family of mRNAs. To study its function, we constructed two point mutations within the i leader. pm382 lacks the wild-type i-leader splice acceptor and failed to splice the leader onto L1 mRNAs. pm383 lacks the ATG used for translation of the i-leader protein; it synthesized i-leader-containing mRNAs, but failed to produce detectable levels of the polypeptide. Both mutants exhibited modestly reduced yields in some but not all cell lines tested and accumulated slightly elevated levels of L1 mRNA and L1 52- and 55-kilodalton proteins in infected cells. Mutant phenotypes were consistently more pronounced in pm382- than in pm383-infected cells. In wild-type virus-infected cells, L1 mRNAs lacking the i leader displayed a half-life of about 26 h, whereas L1 mRNAs containing the leader were much less stable, with a half-life of less than 4 h. In pm383-infected cells (ATG mutant), L1 mRNAs containing the i leader exhibited a half-life of 26 h. The abnormally long half-life of pm383-encoded L1 mRNAs containing a mutant i leader was not reduced by coinfection with wild-type virus, suggesting that synthesis of the i-leader protein leads to destabilization of the i-leader-containing L1 mRNA undergoing translation. Images PMID:2296076

  17. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times. PMID:27556647

  18. The Nurse Leader Role in Crisis Management.

    PubMed

    Edmonson, Cole; Sumagaysay, Dio; Cueman, Marie; Chappell, Stacey

    2016-09-01

    Leaders from the American Organization of Nurse Executives describe the dynamic state of today's healthcare system related to crisis management. Adaptive leadership, driven by strong values and morality, can guide leaders and organizations through the most difficult times.

  19. Leadership, Leaders, and Leading (Part One).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of the leadership literature. Highlights include "great man" theories; studies of leaders' traits; studies of leaders' behavioral style; studies of leadership functions; and studies of the situational aspects of leadership. (LRW)

  20. Managers and Leaders: Are They Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaleznik, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the differences between managers and leaders in terms of personality, attitudes toward goals, conceptions of work, relations with others, and senses of self. Also examines the development of leadership and how organizations can develop leaders. (CT)

  1. Adult Education Programs with Church Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, W. H.; Tait, John L.

    This document is a historical resume of adult education programs with church leaders sponsored by the Cooperative Extension Service of Iowa State University since the early 20th century. Supported by research, resident teaching and administrative leaders in the institution, the Extension Division has cooperated educationally with church leaders,…

  2. Assessment of an Aspiring Leaders Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alao, Solomon; Wright, Henrietta; Newton, Vera

    This paper describes a program designed to support aspiring educational leaders' leadership competence, autonomy, relatedness, and leadership motivation. It also discusses the New Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards. To assess the extent to which the program achieved its goals, 27 aspiring leaders, all of whom are…

  3. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  4. Where Have All the Leaders Gone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gmelch, Walter H.

    This paper examines personal challenges that academic leaders face, attributes that institutional leaders should possess to succeed in transforming the university, how institutions of higher education can build the capacity for preparing new leaders, and how universities can respond to the leadership crisis in this time of transformation. Personal…

  5. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  6. Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A., Ed.; Boggs, George R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The contributors relate examples of situations in which leaders encountered unexpected and sometimes unprecedented incivility in their role as community college leaders. The chapters present their experiences, observations, lessons, and recommendations for handling crises that may befall leaders in an academic setting. This book contains the…

  7. In Search of the Congruent Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussrow, Paul G.; Purland, John

    A lack of congruency on the part of many leaders results in diminished effectiveness, if not outright failure. The soundness of a person in authority is an essential characteristic for potency as a leader. Irrespective of what system of ethical thought is proposed, effectiveness for leaders only comes from a stream of thought that demonstrates a…

  8. Leader Authenticity: Key to Organizational Climate, Health, and Perceived Leader Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Brookhart, Susan M.

    This paper describes the development of a revised Organizational Leader Authenticity Scale (OLAS) for use in determining the authenticity of both educational leaders and noneducational leaders. "Authenticity" refers to the degree to which the leader's action matches his or her words. A Staff Authenticity Scale was also developed and tested. The…

  9. Women Leaders in Oxford House.

    PubMed

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed. PMID:25419529

  10. Women Leaders in Oxford House

    PubMed Central

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed. PMID:25419529

  11. Women Leaders in Oxford House.

    PubMed

    Timpo, Phyllis; Price, Temple; Salina, Doreen; Witek, Caroline; Pommer, Nicole; Jason, Leonard A

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined women assuming leadership roles in Oxford Houses, which are communal, democratically run recovery settings for substance use disorder. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women Oxford House leaders who shared their thoughts and experiences on leadership. Several themes emerged from qualitative data analysis, most notably that stepping up and accepting a leadership role in Oxford House had a positive effect on self-esteem, which is vital to women with a history of substance abuse. Barriers to leadership were also identified such as negative interpersonal relationships with other women. A number of methods mentioned to increase the number of women leaders included: developing workshops, providing positive encouragement, and accessing existing female role models. The implications of this study are discussed.

  12. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  13. Surprising diversity and distribution of spliced leader RNAs in flatworms.

    PubMed

    Davis, R E

    1997-07-01

    Trans-splicing generates the mature 5' ends of certain mRNAs through the addition of a small spliced leader (SL) exon to pre-mRNAs. To search for novel flatworm spliced leaders, degenerate oligonucleotides and 5' RACE [corrected was used to isolate and characterize the 5' terminal sequences of enolase mRNAs in diverse flatworms. Several new spliced leaders and their SL RNA genes were identified, characterized, and compared. All parasitic trematodes examined trans-splice enolase. A primitive polyclad turbellarian, Stylochus zebra, also contains a trans-spliced enolase mRNA. The S. zebra SL is the longest SL yet identified, 51 nucleotides. Comparison of flatworm SLs indicates that they vary significantly in sequence and length. This suggests that neither spliced leader exon sequence nor size is likely to be essential for trans-splicing in flatworms. Flatworm SL RNAs have unusual Sm binding sites with characteristics distinct from other known flatworm snRNA Sm binding sites. Predicted flatworm SL RNA secondary structures show variation exhibiting 2-4 stem loops. Although limited in sequence similarity, phylogenetically conserved regions within the diverse flatworm SL RNAs suggest that they are likely to be derived from a common ancestor and provide information on potentially important SL RNA elements. The identification of a SL in a primitive flatworm suggests that trans-splicing may have been an ancestral feature in the phylum. Representative species of other early and more recent clades within the phylum, however, do not trans-splice enolase, nor do they or representatives of several other flatworm groups, have an SL RNA with a phylogenetically conserved region identified in the current study.

  14. Sigma Factor N, Liaison to an ntrC and rpoS Dependent Regulatory Pathway Controlling Acid Resistance and the LEE in Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Avishek; Fay, Pamela A.; Morgan, Jason K.; Vendura, Khoury W.; Versaggi, Salvatore L.; Riordan, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is dependent on acid resistance for gastric passage and low oral infectious dose, and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) for intestinal colonization. Mutation of rpoN, encoding sigma factor N (σN), dramatically alters the growth-phase dependent regulation of both acid resistance and the LEE. This study reports on the determinants of σN-directed acid resistance and LEE expression, and the underlying mechanism attributable to this phenotype. Glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR) in TW14359ΔrpoN correlated with increased expression of the gadX-gadW regulatory circuit during exponential growth, whereas upregulation of arginine-dependent acid resistance (ADAR) genes adiA and adiC in TW14359ΔrpoN did not confer acid resistance by the ADAR mechanism. LEE regulatory (ler), structural (espA and cesT) and effector (tir) genes were downregulated in TW14359ΔrpoN, and mutation of rpoS encoding sigma factor 38 (σS) in TW14359ΔrpoN restored acid resistance and LEE genes to WT levels. Stability, but not the absolute level, of σS was increased in TW14359ΔrpoN; however, increased stability was not solely attributable to the GDAR and LEE expression phenotype. Complementation of TW14359ΔrpoN with a σN allele that binds RNA polymerase (RNAP) but not DNA, did not restore WT levels of σS stability, gadE, ler or GDAR, indicating a dependence on transcription from a σN promoter(s) and not RNAP competition for the phenotype. Among a library of σN enhancer binding protein mutants, only TW14359ΔntrC, inactivated for nitrogen regulatory protein NtrC, phenocopied TW14359ΔrpoN for σS stability, GDAR and ler expression. The results of this study suggest that during exponential growth, NtrC-σN regulate GDAR and LEE expression through downregulation of σS at the post-translational level; likely by altering σS stability or activity. The regulatory interplay between NtrC, other EBPs, and σN–σS, represents a mechanism by

  15. Influence of sex differences in leaders' behavior.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jennifer A; Barbuto, John E; Matkin, Gina S; Chin, Tzu-Yun

    2005-04-01

    Sex differences in influence tactics were examined with a sample of 269 followers (67 men, 202 women) at a large midwestern national insurance company who rated the downward influence tactics used by their direct supervisors. Downward influence tactics are behaviors used by leaders to gain compliance from followers. One department within the organization was identified as a source for participants in the study. Participation was voluntary. The age range for the sample was 21 to 65 years, with the largest percentage falling in the 40-49 year range (M = 3.8, SD = .8). Hierarchical linear modeling procedures were utilized to analyze the multiple level data (leader and follower) and to examine variables within the organization at different levels of analysis. Leader participants were asked to solicit their followers to complete an influence tactic measure, which consisted of the most reliable subscales taken from the Influence Behavior Questionnaire, Schriesheim and Hinkin Influence Measure, and the Profiles of Organizational Influence Strategies. The integrated measure resulted in a 45-item scale. It was hypothesized that, overall, followers would report that male leaders would use hard influence tactics more frequently than female leaders. On the other hand, followers would report that female leaders would use soft influence tactics more frequently than male leaders. When differentiating followers by sex, however, we expected that male followers would report more than female followers that their leaders use hard tactics more frequently. Also, we expected that female followers would report (more than male followers) that their leaders use soft tactics more frequently. Overall, followers reported that male leaders used significantly more personal appeal and consultation, so called "soft tactics," with their followers than did female leaders. Female followers reported that their leaders (both male and female) used consultation and inspirational appeal more frequently

  16. Effects of leaders' and evaluators' sex on sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders.

    PubMed

    Grinnell, James P

    2002-12-01

    This study extends research on sex and leadership by examining the relation between evaluators' and leaders' sex and the sex-role stereotyping of charismatic leaders. A total of 219 students (110 men and 109 women) from a large northeastern university rated charismatic leaders depicted in vignettes using the revised Bem Sex-Role Inventory: overall, the leaders were rated higher on masculinity than femininity. Analysis by sex of evaluator and leader showed masculinity was higher in all cases except when male charismatic leaders were evaluated by women. In this case, the results support an androgynous view, i.e., high on both masculinity and femininity.

  17. Developing first-level leaders.

    PubMed

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say.

  18. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  19. Patterns of death in world leaders.

    PubMed

    Pyenson, L R; Cove, L A; Brickfield, F X

    1998-12-01

    This study presents an analysis of the mortality patterns of people who become world leaders. Using information in the public domain, we identified 261 world leaders who died between 1965 and 1996. Of these, 118 died while in office, 44% violently, often by assassination. Of the 143 leaders who died after leaving office, 11% died violently. The violent deaths occurred worldwide but most frequently in the Middle East/South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa regions. The most frequent natural causes of death among world leaders were heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Mortality patterns reveal that the longevity of those leaders who died of natural causes could have been predicted by U.S. life tables. This study suggests that world leaders are neither biologically "tougher" nor more vulnerable to disease than others; however, their odds of dying violently while in office are high.

  20. Observations of bidirectional lightning leader initiation and development near positive leader channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Tom A.; Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Schumann, Carina; Helsdon, John H.; Orville, Richard E.

    2016-08-01

    Based on the analysis of high-speed optical and electric field change data, we present three observed cases in which a naturally occurring bidirectional lightning leader initiated and developed in virgin air near a previous established positive leader channel. Twice a new leader formed near an upward propagating positive leader that had initiated from a tower during an upward flash and once a new leader formed near a downward propagating positive leader prior to a positive cloud-to-ground return stroke. There were clear and consistent behavioral differences between the positive and negative leader ends of the newly formed bidirectional leader, and the positive end grew more slowly than the negative end in each case. In all three cases, the negative end of the bipolar leader connected with the previously formed positive leader channel creating a new positive leader branch. These rare observations show the bidirectional nature of naturally occurring lightning and suggest that positive leaders can gain branches by connection with newly formed bipolar leaders.

  1. Selected important characteristics for enlightened medical leaders.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay

    2004-05-01

    An enlightened leader understands that unleashing the creativity and energy of the individuals in an organization is crucial to maximizing the potential of that group. A quality leader is more than a manager and invites the membership to help in the process of directing and caring for an organization and its people. A wise leader promotes communication, learning, innovation, and empowerment for all and always acts with integrity and professionalism.

  2. Role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in bacterial heat resistance as a function of treatment medium pH.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, A; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R; García-Gonzalo, D

    2012-02-15

    This investigation aimed to determine the role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in heat resistance and the occurrence of sublethal injuries in cell envelopes of stationary-phase Escherichia coli BJ4 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e cells, respectively, as a function of treatment medium pH. Given that microbial death followed first-order inactivation kinetics (R(2)>0.95) the traditional D(T) and z values were used to describe the heat inactivation kinetics. Influence of rpoS deletion was constant at every treatment temperature and pH, making a ΔrpoS deletion mutant strain approximately 5.5 times more heat sensitive than its parental strain for every studied condition. Furthermore, the influence of the pH of the treatment medium on the reduction of the heat resistance of E. coli was also constant and independent of the treatment temperature (average z value=4.9°C) in both parental and mutant strains. L. monocytogenes EGD-e z values obtained at pH 7.0 and 5.5 were not significantly different (p>0.05) in either parental or the ∆sigB deletion mutant strains (average z value=4.8°C). Nevertheless, at pH 4.0 the z value was higher (z=8.4°C), indicating that heat resistance of both L. monocytogenes strains was less dependent on temperature at pH 4.0. At both pH 5.5 and 7.0 the influence of sigB deletion was constant and independent of the treatment temperature, decreasing L. monocytogenes heat resistance approximately 2.5 times. In contrast, the absence of sigB did not decrease the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The role of RpoS in protecting cell envelopes was more important in E. coli (4 times) than SigB in L. monocytogenes (1.5 times). Moreover, the role of σ(S) in increasing heat resistance seems more relevant in enhancing the intrinsic resilience of the cytoplasmic membrane, and to a lesser extent, outer membrane resilience. Knowledge of environmental conditions related to the activation of

  3. Lethality of a heat- and phosphate-catalyzed glucose by-product to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and partial protection conferred by the rpoS regulon.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J J; Cheville, A M; Bose, J L; Kaspar, C W

    1999-06-01

    A by-product of glucose produced during sterilization (121 degrees C, 15 lb/in2, 15 min) at neutral pH and in the presence of phosphate (i.e., phosphate-buffered saline) was bactericidal to Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). Other six-carbon (fructose and galactose) and five-carbon (arabinose, ribose, and xylose) reducing sugars also produced a toxic by-product under the same conditions. Fructose and the five-carbon sugars yielded the most bactericidal activity. Glucose concentrations of 1% (wt/vol) resulted in a 99.9% decline in the CFU of stationary-phase cells per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. An rpoS mutant (pRR10::rpoS) of strain 43895 (FRIK 816-3) was significantly (P < 0.001) more sensitive to the glucose-phosphate by-product than the parent strain, as glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 0.25% resulted in a 2- to 3-log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. Likewise, log-phase cells of the wild-type strain, 43895, were significantly more sensitive (P < 0.001) to the glucose-phosphate by-product than were stationary-phase cells, which is consistent with the stability of rpoS and the regulation of rpoS-regulated genes. The bactericidal effect of the glucose-phosphate by-product was reduced when strains ATCC 43895 and FRIK 816-3 were incubated at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Also, growth in glucose-free medium (i.e., nutrient broth) did not alleviate the sensitivity to the glucose-phosphate by-product and excludes the possibility of substrate-accelerated death as the cause of the bactericidal effect observed. The glucose-phosphate by-product was also bactericidal to Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, and a Klebsiella sp. Attempts to identify the glucose-phosphate by-product were unsuccessful. These studies demonstrate the production of a glucose-phosphate by-product bactericidal to E. coli O157:H7 and the protective effects afforded by rpoS-regulated gene products. Additionally, the detection of sublethally

  4. Be seen as a leader.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Kilduff, Gavin J

    2013-12-01

    When a new work group forms, people often make snap judgments about who is qualified to lead. If the players don't already know one another, they tend to afford status to teammates on the basis of factors such as age, gender, race, attractiveness, and rank. These are characteristics beyond your control, but they don't necessarily predetermine the influence you can have on a group. Anyone, the authors say, can achieve higher status and more influence by getting in the right mind-set before engaging with new teammates. There are three psychological states that can increase the optimism, confidence, and proactive behavior that people associate with leaders: promotion focus (defined as a focus on goals and positive outcomes), happiness, and a feeling of power. And all it takes to help you enter one of these states is a simple five-minute exercise before starting a group task: Write about your ambitions or a time when you felt happy or powerful. The authors report that study subjects who did exactly that were more likely than others to speak up, steer decision making, and be viewed by their teammates as leaders--both in initial group meetings and in follow-up meetings two days later. PMID:24383350

  5. Science leaders discuss budget crunch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Although funding for research fared relatively well in the budget proposed by the Reagan Administration for fiscal year (FY) 1987, leaders of the science community should expect lean times ahead for federal funding and should plan accordingly. This was the message delivered February 26-27, 1986, to nearly 400 participants in a conference at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, D.C.Leaders and policymakers from all segments of the research establishment were invited to attend the 2-day conference, which was sponsored by the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, an independent group associated with NAS, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. Discussions at the conference revolved around the question “What research strategies best serve the national interest in a period of budgetary stress?” After hearing perspectives from representatives from the Administration, industry, federal agencies, universities, and a federal laboratory, participants were divided into seven working groups. Each group was assigned a topic of discussion, such as “Management at the Campus Level,” “The Relative Roles of Federal Laboratories and Outside Research Institutions,” and “Possible Non-Federal Sources of Support: States, Industry, and Foundations.” On the second day of the conference, the working group chairmen reported back to the conference at large.

  6. Developing Socially Responsible Leaders in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, T. W., III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.

  7. Science Teacher Leaders: Exploring Practices and Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinson, John Kevin

    It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments, rarely includes a disciplinary focus. In this exploratory, descriptive study the results of a web-based survey containing both closed and open-ended items were used in an inquiry into teacher leaders working with the discipline of science. Data from Ohio teachers responding to the survey were used first to create a standard profile for science teacher leaders. Descriptive statistics and correlations were then performed on quantitative survey data to explore science teacher leader tasks and factors that influence task performance. Analysis of data included descriptions of sense of purpose for their role held by these science teacher leaders. Results indicate that science teacher leaders appear to embrace their role as advocates for science and have great potential for implementing science education reform as well as other science-related school initiatives. Aligning performance, administrative oversight, impact on student achievement and teacher training concerning tasks science teacher leaders are expected to perform would enhance this potential. However, science teacher leaders face challenges to realizing that potential due to ambiguity of their leadership role, the breadth of tasks they tend to perform and lack of alignment between task and outcomes.

  8. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  9. Team leader`s preparation guide for Operational Readiness Reviews (ORR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides instructions, explanations, and examples for the performance of all phases of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). Details pertinent to the team leader, team members, and review coordinator are outlined. Sample forms and correspondence are included in appendices. Although this document is for use by DOE ORR team leaders, it can be used by contractor ORR team leaders also.

  10. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-01

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  11. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  12. The IT Leader as Alchemist: Finding the True Gold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleed, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The Information technology (IT) leader within higher education can be viewed from three scenarios: (1) the IT leader as plumber; (2) the IT leader as gardener; and (3) the IT leader as alchemist. In the first scenario, the college or university network consists of pipes, and the role of the IT leader resembles that of a plumber, who keeps the…

  13. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  14. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    PubMed

    Washburn, E R

    1998-01-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  15. Vermont Guidelines for Teacher & Leader Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, the State of Vermont Department of Education charged the Vermont Task Force on Teacher & Leader Effectiveness to develop guidelines for teacher and leader evaluation. Knowing and respecting the fiercely independent nature of Vermonters, Task Force members were committed to developing these guidelines for creating and assessing…

  16. Science Teacher Leaders: Exploring Practices and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, John Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments,…

  17. Today's Leader--"An Endangered Species"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tregoe, Ben

    1976-01-01

    Leadership behavior derives from the different ways in which leaders respond to different situations. Problems arise when only one type of behavior is utilized in a variety of different situations. A list of variables to be considered by leaders in making appropriate behavioral decisions is provided. (EC)

  18. Taking Responsibility: Leaders' Expectations of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerwahr, John

    A survey of 601 leaders was conducted to identify the concerns of those who are most involved with decision making about higher education and what they see for the future. Individuals surveyed included professors, higher education deans and administrators, government officials, and business leaders. The study found that disagreements between…

  19. Take Me to Your (Male) Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Examined the Scottish Mountain Leader Training Board's training and assessment scheme for mountain leaders, how people progressed through the scheme, why they entered and left, and how men and women viewed particular aspects of the scheme. Surveys indicated that there were gender differences in occupational status, in the way men and women used…

  20. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  1. Key Characteristics of Teacher Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Claxton, Heather; Wilson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leaders who share their specialized knowledge, expertise, and experience with other teachers broaden and sustain school and classroom improvement efforts. Teacher leaders can transform classrooms into learning laboratories where every student is engaged in relevant and well-designed curricular content, every teacher embraces the use of…

  2. Growing the Next Generation of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Rebecca; Unger, Elizabeth; Bacon, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Most CIOs and IT leaders agree that the community must work deliberately to develop talent among the IT staff, not wait for it to appear. However, responsibility for professional development also lies with the individual. There is no one right way for would-be leaders to hone their skills, but rather a multitude of strategies that will support a…

  3. Cabin Leader's Handbook: Environmental Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The cabin leaders for the Environmental Education Outdoor School program are selected by their high school and by the elementary school teachers of the children in their cabin. This handbook was developed to aid cabin leaders in their special role as "big brother" or "big sister" to 12 to 15 sixth graders. Not only is the handbook useful in…

  4. The Space between: Women Teachers as Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podjasek, Heidi L.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study focused on listening to the voices of women teacher leaders regarding their leadership experiences within one elementary school. The question guiding this dissertation was "How do women elementary school teacher leaders perceive leadership?" Within the stories of the participants, two essential theme…

  5. Should School Administrators Be Leaders or Managers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, W. Warner

    Research in leadership relevant to school administrators is reviewed and summarized here. The author maintains that most previous authors identified two primary leader functions, concerns, types, or dimensions. These authors include Wortman, who, following in the footsteps of Zaleznick, saw a dichotomy between leaders and managers; Burns, who…

  6. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  7. Preparing Educational Leaders to Close Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joseph F., Jr.; Uline, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    For more than 25 years, researchers have described the critical roles leaders play in creating effective schools and school districts. If U.S. schools are to close achievement gaps, their leaders must possess the appropriate knowledge, dispositions, and skills to assume these critical roles. The Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium…

  8. "Yes, but...": Education Leaders Discuss Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Ward, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents answers to the question: What do powerful educational leaders think about training practitioners for social justice? The data are drawn from interviews with a former governor and leaders from the American Association of School Administration (AASA), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), National…

  9. Get Organized! Time Management for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Too often, time-management books target the business executive. Although it is true that those in the educational arena share many of the same challenges, it is also true that schools are unique places. This book is written for school leaders. Its scenarios specifically address the day-to-day situations school leaders face on a regular basis. This…

  10. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  11. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  12. Where the Leaders of 1989 Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the current lives of the Chinese leaders of 1989. Wang Dan, an active organizer year before the demonstrations and quickly became a leader in the square, has completed a Ph.D. in Chinese history at Harvard University last year and is now on a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Oxford. Wu'er Kaixi, who took a…

  13. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  14. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  15. Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in…

  16. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Show and tell: how supervisors facilitate leader development among transitioning leaders.

    PubMed

    Dragoni, Lisa; Park, Haeseen; Soltis, Jim; Forte-Trammell, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    We argue that studying leaders experiencing a job transition offers a unique opportunity to explore initial changes in leaders' development in their cognition and action. Here, we examine 2 early indicators of leaders' development-their acquisition of knowledge regarding their new role (a cognitive outcome) and the time they allocate toward leading others (a behavioral outcome)-and how supervisors can facilitate these forms of development among transitioning leaders. With a sample of 110 first-line leaders who we tracked over approximately 10 months at 4 different points in time, we tested the efficacy of supervisors' support in the form of modeling effective leadership behavior (i.e., "show") and the provision of job information (i.e., "tell"). Results from random coefficient modeling revealed that the interactive effect of supervisors' "show" and "tell" accelerates the rate of transitioning leaders' self-perceived role knowledge acquisition over time. This upward trajectory is even more pronounced for transitioning leaders who have not been exposed to an exceptional leader during their careers. Further, with a lagged design, we found that leaders who report greater role knowledge allocate more time toward leading others, thus indicating initial changes in these leaders' behavior. We discuss these findings in light of their theoretical and practical importance to the field of leader development. PMID:24060160

  18. Principals of Effective Schools Are Strong Instructional Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ian

    1986-01-01

    Examines research on effective schools and on principals as instructional leaders. Research shows that principals of effective schools are strong instructional leaders. Mention is made of weaknesses found in the research on principals as instructional leaders. (MD)

  19. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader–follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower–follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders’ communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time. PMID:25831535

  20. Are you a collaborative leader?

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herminia; Hansen, Morten T

    2011-01-01

    Social media and technologies have put connectivity on steroids and made collaboration more integral to business than ever. But without the right leadership, collaboration can go astray. Employees who try to collaborate on everything may wind up stuck in endless meetings, struggling to reach agreement. On the other side of the coin, executives who came of age during the heyday of "command and control" management can have trouble adjusting their style to fit the new realities. In their research on top-performing CEOs, Insead professors Ibarra and Hansen have examined what it takes to be a collaborative leader. They've found that it requires connecting people and ideas outside an organization to those inside it, leveraging diverse talent, modeling collaborative behavior at the top, and showing a strong hand to keep teams from getting mired in debate. In this article, they describe tactics that executives from Akamai, GE, Reckitt Benckiser, and other firms use in those four areas and how they foster high-performance collaborative cultures in their organizations. PMID:21800471

  1. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.

  2. Identification and expression of small non-coding RNA, L10-Leader, in different growth phases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Xia, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Li, Wuju; Liu, Jiaojiao; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Chen, Ying; Su, Xueting; Wang, Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Chenglong; Shao, Ningsheng; Chu, Bingfeng

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the major cariogenic bacteria in the oral environment. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of bacterial growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. In this study, we experimentally verified the existence of sRNA, L10-Leader, in S. mutans for the first time. Our results show that the expression level of L10-Leader was growth-phase dependent in S. mutans and varied among different clinical strains of S. mutans. The level of L10-Leader in S. mutans UA159 was closely related to the pH value, but not to the concentrations of glucose and sucrose in culture medium. We predicted target mRNAs of L10-Leader bioinformatically and found that some of these mRNAs were related to growth and stress response. Five predicted mRNA targets were selected and detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and we found that the expression levels of these mRNAs were closely related to the level of L10-Leader at different growth phases of the bacteria. Our results indicate that L10-Leader may play an important role in the regulation of responses in S. mutans, especially during its growth phase and acid adaption response.

  3. Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora

    2016-09-01

    In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals. PMID:27624797

  4. Misinformed leaders lose influence over pigeon flocks.

    PubMed

    Watts, Isobel; Nagy, Máté; Burt de Perera, Theresa; Biro, Dora

    2016-09-01

    In animal groups where certain individuals have disproportionate influence over collective decisions, the whole group's performance may suffer if these individuals possess inaccurate information. Whether in such situations leaders can be replaced in their roles by better-informed group mates represents an important question in understanding the adaptive consequences of collective decision-making. Here, we use a clock-shifting procedure to predictably manipulate the directional error in navigational information possessed by established leaders within hierarchically structured flocks of homing pigeons (Columba livia). We demonstrate that in the majority of cases when leaders hold inaccurate information they lose their influence over the flock. In these cases, inaccurate information is filtered out through the rearrangement of hierarchical positions, preventing errors by former leaders from propagating down the hierarchy. Our study demonstrates that flexible decision-making structures can be valuable in situations where 'bad' information is introduced by otherwise influential individuals.

  5. Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.

    SciTech Connect

    Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2010-01-01

    Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

  6. Recognizing and defining clinical nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Stanley, David

    This article addresses the issue of clinical leadership and how it is defined. The concepts and definitions of clinical leadership are considered as well as the results of new research that suggests that clinical leaders can be seen as experts in their field, and because they are approachable and are effective communicators, are empowered to act as a role model, motivating others by matching their values and beliefs about nursing and care to their practice. This is supported by a new leadership theory, congruent leadership, proposed as the most appropriate leadership theory to support an understanding of clinical leadership. Congruent leaders (clinical nurse leaders) are followed because there is a match between the leader's values and beliefs and their actions.

  7. The dean as spiritual leader.

    PubMed

    Evans, C

    1998-06-01

    These are hard times for medical school deans--high turnover among deans, the fiscal distress of many medical schools, the gap between what deans expect the job will be and what is required of them, the stark differences between what the job of dean is today and what it was in the past, and the threats to the academic missions of education and research. Using stories, anecdotes, and parables, the authors illustrates how these very difficulties might be an opportunity to rethink the role of deans and to re-examine the attributes and skills required of successful deans today. The ultimate goals of medical education have not changed, but the drastic nature of the changes taking place all around, and within, medical education make it more critical than ever to keep in mind what is really important. Deans must be exquisitely attuned to what is really important and they must make sure that the academic medical community never loses sight of what that is. To do that, deans must be deeply rooted personally in the enduring values and commitments that inform medicine as a profession and a vocation and in the fundamental values of medical education and scholarship; they must personify and embody these values; and they must remind us of these values and inspire us to embrace them and be guided by them. This is the sense in which deans must be "spiritual" leaders--that is, through their personal example, they must rekindle and engage the spirit of those working on behalf of the academic mission. While the need for fiscal expertise, management skills, and diplomatic and interpersonal skills in deans is widely acknowledged, the need for sensitivity to the spiritual dimensions of the work of deans has not received the attention it deserves.

  8. In search of global leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.

  9. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  10. Bossing or serving? How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2007-01-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  11. Bossing or serving?: How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2008-04-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  12. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    PubMed

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility.

  13. Translational control of germ cell-expressed mRNA imposed by alternative splicing: opioid peptide gene expression in rat testis.

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, J E; Collard, M W; Douglass, J O

    1989-01-01

    The three genes encoding the opioid peptide precursors (prodynorphin, proenkephalin, and proopiomelanocortin) are expressed in the rat testis. The sizes of the three opioid mRNAs in the testis differ from the sizes of the corresponding mRNAs in other rat tissues in which these genes are expressed. The smaller testicular proopiomelanocortin mRNA has previously been demonstrated to arise from alternative transcriptional initiation. In the present study, we found that the smaller testicular prodynorphin mRNA, expressed in Sertoli cells, results from alternative mRNA processing. Exon 2, which makes up 5' untranslated sequence, is removed from the mature transcript. Polysome analysis of brain and testis RNA indicates that the alteration of the prodynorphin leader sequence in the testis-specific transcript does not affect the efficiency of translation of this mRNA. The larger testicular proenkephalin transcript, expressed in developing germ cells, also results from alternative mRNA processing. Alternative acceptor site usage in the splicing of intron A results in a germ cell-specific proenkephalin transcript with a 491-nucleotide 5' untranslated leader sequence preceding the preproenkephalin-coding sequence. Polysome analysis indicates that this germ cell-specific proenkephalin mRNA is not efficiently translated. Mechanisms by which alternative mRNA splicing may serve to confer translational regulation upon the testicular proenkephalin transcript are discussed. Images PMID:2573832

  14. Definition of a novel promoter for the major adenovirus-associated virus mRNA.

    PubMed

    Green, M R; Roeder, R G

    1980-11-01

    A 660 nucleotide adenovirus-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) DNA fragment which encodes the 5' terminal leader and the entire intervening sequence of the major viral mRNA has been cloned into pBR322, and its primary sequence has been determined. The 5' terminal viral mRNA sequence was deduced by sequencing the reverse-transcriptase cDNA extension product of a 5' end-labeled DNA primer complementary to the RNA 5' terminal region. From combined DNA and RNA sequence analyses (which confirm our previous mapping data) we conclude that the major AAV2 transcript contains a 5' terminal leader sequence about 55 nucleotides in length encoded from a continuous region of DNA (near position 39 on the viral genome) 320 bases from the RNA body. The DNA sequences of the splice junctions are similar to those found for other class II genes. No other nucleotide sequence, indicative of promotion at another (upstream) site, is present at the 5' terminus. The DNA region encoding and flanking the leader sequence displays structural features expected for a class II gene promoter, including the canonical ATATAA sequence 23-25 bases upstream from the presumed initiation site. When the cloned viral DNA fragment is transcribed in vitro by RNA polymerase II in a cell-free system, a transcript is produced with a 5' end that is similar or identical to that found on the in vivo mRNA. Taken together these data strongly suggest that the major polysomal RNA may be generated from a transcription unit with a promoter at position 39, even though this transcription unit is part of a larger transcription unit with an upstream promoter near position 6. This indication of overlapping transcription units with independent promoters provides a major new insight into parvovirus gene expression.

  15. Leader-Member Exchange Theory in Higher and Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Robert Leo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike many other prominent leadership theories, leader-member exchange (LMX) theory does not focus on the specific characteristics of an effective organizational leader. Rather, LMX focuses on the nature and quality of the relationships between a leader and his or her individual subordinates. The ideal is for a leader to develop as many…

  16. In praise of the incomplete leader.

    PubMed

    Ancona, Deborah; Malone, Thomas W; Orlikowski, Wanda J; Senge, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    Today's top executives are expected to do everything right, from coming up with solutions to unfathomably complex problems to having the charisma and prescience to rally stakeholders around a perfect vision of the future. But no one leader can be all things to all people. It's time to end the myth of the complete leader, say the authors. Those at the top must come to understand their weaknesses as well as their strengths. Only by embracing the ways in which they are incomplete can leaders fill in the gaps in their knowledge with others' skills. The incomplete leader has the confidence and humility to recognize unique talents and perspectives throughout the organization--and to let those qualities shine. The authors' work studying leadership over the past six years has led them to develop a framework of distributed leadership. Within that model, leadership consists of four capabilities: sensemaking, relating, "visioning," and inventing. Sensemaking involves understanding and mapping the context in which a company and its people operate. A leader skilled in this area can quickly identify the complexities of a given situation and explain them to others. The second capability, relating, means being able to build trusting relationships with others through inquiring (listening with intention), advocating (explaining one's own point of view), and connecting (establishing a network of allies who can help a leader accomplish his or her goals). Visioning, the third capability, means coming up with a compelling image of the future. It is a collaborative process that articulates what the members of an organization want to create. Finally, inventing involves developing new ways to bring that vision to life. Rarely will a single person be skilled in all four areas. That's why it's critical that leaders find others who can offset their limitations and complement their strengths. Those who don't will not only bear the burden of leadership alone but will find themselves at the helm

  17. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing. PMID:10232143

  18. It takes chutzpah: oncology nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, E

    1999-01-01

    Chutzpah, according to the Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1996) is a slang term from the Yiddish language which means shameless audacity. Chutzpah has been used to identify people with courage who take on situations that others avoid and somehow achieve the impossible. Tim Porter-O'Grady (1997) recently wrote that management is dead, and has been replaced by process leadership. Health care organizations have made shifts from hierarchical structures to process or program models where people have dual/multiple reporting/communication relationship. In this new orientation, management functions of controlling, directing, organizing and disciplining are replaced by process leadership functions of coordinating, facilitating, linking and sustaining (Porter O'Grady, 1997). Herein lies the challenge for oncology nurse leaders: "what lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us" (Ralph Waldo Emerson). Leadership is not a function of job title. The evidence for this is clear in current practice.... There are no/few positions of nurse leaders. Titles have changed to eliminate the professional discipline, and reflect a non-descript orientation. The new titles are process leaders, program leaders, professional practice leaders. Nurse leaders need new points of reference to take in the challenges of influencing, facilitating and linking. Those points of reference are: principle-centered leadership, integrity and chutzpah. This presentation will focus on examining current thinking, defining key characteristics and attributes, and using scenarios to illustrate the impact of leadership. We, as leaders in oncology nursing, must use chutzpah to make positive change and long-term gains for patient care and the profession of nursing.

  19. Biomaterials for mRNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K. G.; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R.; Zetter, Bruce R.; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  20. Biomaterials for mRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Reesor, Emma K G; Xu, Yingjie; Zope, Harshal R; Zetter, Bruce R; Shi, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) has recently emerged with remarkable potential as an effective alternative to DNA-based therapies because of several unique advantages. mRNA does not require nuclear entry for transfection activity and has a negligible chance of integrating into the host genome which excludes the possibility of potentially detrimental genomic alternations. Chemical modification of mRNA has further enhanced its stability and decreased its activation of innate immune responses. Additionally, mRNA has been found to have rapid expression and predictable kinetics. Nevertheless, the ubiquitous application of mRNA remains challenging given its unfavorable attributes, such as large size, negative charge and susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. Further refinement of mRNA delivery modalities is therefore essential for its development as a therapeutic tool. This review provides an exclusive overview of current state-of-the-art biomaterials and nanotechnology platforms for mRNA delivery, and discusses future prospects to bring these exciting technologies into clinical practice. PMID:26280625

  1. Attractiveness and Leader Style: Evaluations of Male and Female Leaders by Male and Female Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopasakis, Maria; Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Previous research has suggested that men are stereotypically believed to be better leaders than women; that more physically attractive people are evaluated more positively than less attractive people; and that men and women use different leadership styles. This study examined the interactions of sex, leader style, and physical attractiveness on…

  2. Leader to Leader: Enduring Insights on Leadership from the Drucker Foundation's Award-Winning Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.

    Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and Leadership,"…

  3. Leadership and Leader Developmental Self-Efficacy: Their Role in Enhancing Leader Development Efforts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan Elaine; Johnson, Stefanie K

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the role of two types of self-efficacy-leader self-efficacy and leader developmental efficacy-for enhancing leadership development. Practical implications for designing and developing leadership programs that take into account these two types of self-efficacy are discussed.

  4. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  5. The School Leader Communication Model: An Emerging Method for Bridging School Leader Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    School leaders make countless decisions but do not receive adequate preparation for communicating their decisions to parents, students, and teachers. Building on the need to prepare school leaders for a variety of complex professional situations, this article introduces the medical education pedagogy of standardized patients to the field of school…

  6. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  7. Leader Guide: A Bilingual Guide for New Leaders (Spanish and English).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Maria Recardo

    This guide is designed to provide new Girl Scout troop leaders with basic information about scouting and about their responsibilities as leaders. Developed by the Girl Scouts Migrant Communities Project, the guide is written in Spanish and English, with every heading, caption, and discussion presented in both languages. Among the topics covered…

  8. Preparing pediatric nurse leaders for practice.

    PubMed

    O'Conner-Von, Susan K; Looman, Wendy S; Lindeke, Linda L; Garwick, Ann; Leonard, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The growing prevalence of chronic conditions in childhood underscores the urgent need to educate pediatric nurse leaders to address the complex issues these children and families face. This article describes a model of graduate education for preparing pediatric nurse leaders who are equipped to manage and advocate for these children and families. Fifty-one master's prepared graduates completed a Strategic Plan Needs Assessment Survey in 2007 and were asked to indicate specific clinical and leadership competencies that they perceived were essential for pediatric nurse leaders in their areas of practice. Results revealed the highest priority for continuing education and outreach regarding pediatric health to be clinical updates and management of children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN), followed by health promotion for CSHCN and care coordination/case management. The highest priority for continuing education and outreach regarding leadership in pediatrics was evidence-based practice, followed by team care/interdisciplinary practice. The challenge for current nurse leaders is to be cognizant of the urgent need to prepare and retain future pediatric nurse leaders who are experts in the care of CSHCN and their families.

  9. Leader affective presence and innovation in teams.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Totterdell, Peter; Niven, Karen; Barros, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Affective presence is a novel personality construct that describes the tendency of individuals to make their interaction partners feel similarly positive or negative. We adopt this construct, together with the input-process-output model of teamwork, to understand how team leaders influence team interaction and innovation performance. In 2 multisource studies, based on 350 individuals working in 87 teams of 2 public organizations and 734 individuals working in 69 teams of a private organization, we tested and supported hypotheses that team leader positive affective presence was positively related to team information sharing, whereas team leader negative affective presence was negatively related to the same team process. In turn, team information sharing was positively related to team innovation, mediating the effects of leader affective presence on this team output. The results indicate the value of adopting an interpersonal individual differences approach to understanding how affect-related characteristics of leaders influence interaction processes and complex performance in teams. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26783828

  10. Leader streamers nature of blue jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2007-06-01

    A new model of blue jets as a lightning-related phenomenon is proposed. A blue jet consists of the bi-leader, whose top part is seen on photos as a “trunk of a tree”, and is capped at the topside of the leader by its streamer zone. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of “the tree”. It is shown that the time independent fractal blue jet model does not provide an adequate description of blue jets and streamer zone of a leader. It ignores an important fact of the fast loss of the streamer channel conductivity due to the electron attachment to the oxygen. The top streamer branches were born mostly prior to the bottom branches not as result of branching, but formed by the leader tip. It was shown that due to transfer of the high potential of the edge of the thundercloud by the leader, long streamers of blue jets can be sustained by moderate cloud charge. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can reach the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N and in the self-consistent electric field of the streamer zone was computed. It was found that the critical external field ES required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law ES/N⋍const. The similarity law was numerically studied in a wide range of N.

  11. Final report: FASEB Summer Research Conference on ''Post-transcriptional control of gene expression: Effectors of mRNA decay'' [agenda and attendees list

    SciTech Connect

    Maquat, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this meeting was to provide an interactive forum for scientists working on prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decay. A special seminar presented by a leader in the field of mRNA decay in S. cerevisiae focused on what is known and what needs to be determined, not only for yeast but for other organisms. The large attendance (110 participants) reflects the awareness that mRNA decay is a key player in gene regulation in a way that is affected by the many steps that precede mRNA formation. Sessions were held on the following topics: mRNA transport and mRNP; multicomponent eukaryotic nucleases; nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and nonsense-associated altered splicing; Cis-acting sequences/Trans-acting factors of mRNA decay; translational accuracy; multicomponent bacterial nucleases; interplay between mRNA polyadenylation, translation and decay in prokaryotes and prokaryotic organelles; and RNA interference and other RNA mediators of gene expression. In addition to the talks and two poster sessions, there were three round tables: (1) Does translation occur in the nucleus? (2) Differences and similarities in the mechanisms of mRNA decay in different eukaryotes, and (3) RNA surveillance in bacteria?

  12. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Rice, Christopher J; Ramachandran, Vinoy K; Shearer, Neil; Thompson, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modification of RNA polymerase (RNAP) specificity. These factors include the bacterial alarmone, ppGpp, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, and the RNAP accessory protein, DksA. In this report we show not only how these three factors modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression but also how they contribute to the 'phased' expression of SPI1 and SPI2 during progress through late-log and stationary phase in aerobic rich broth culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of at least one SPI1-encoded protein, SipC is subject to DksA-dependent post-transcriptional control.

  13. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Christopher J.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Shearer, Neil; Thompson, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modification of RNA polymerase (RNAP) specificity. These factors include the bacterial alarmone, ppGpp, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, and the RNAP accessory protein, DksA. In this report we show not only how these three factors modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression but also how they contribute to the ‘phased’ expression of SPI1 and SPI2 during progress through late-log and stationary phase in aerobic rich broth culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of at least one SPI1-encoded protein, SipC is subject to DksA-dependent post-transcriptional control. PMID:26039089

  14. Upstream AUGs in embryonic proinsulin mRNA control its low translation level

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; Mansilla, Alicia; de la Rosa, Enrique J.; Pollerberg, G.Elisabeth; Martínez-Salas, Encarna; de Pablo, Flora

    2003-01-01

    Proinsulin is expressed prior to development of the pancreas and promotes cell survival. Here we study the mechanism affecting the translation efficiency of a specific embryonic proinsulin mRNA. This transcript shares the coding region with the pancreatic form, but presents a 32 nt extended leader region. Translation of proinsulin is markedly reduced by the presence of two upstream AUGs within the 5′ extension of the embryonic mRNA. This attenuation is lost when the two upstream AUGs are mutated to AAG, leading to translational efficiency similar to that of the pancreatic mRNA. The upstream AUGs are recognized as initiator codons, because expression of upstream ORF is detectable from the embryonic transcript, but not from the mutated or the pancreatic mRNAs. Strict regulation of proinsulin biosynthesis appears to be necessary, since exogenous proinsulin added to embryos in ovo decreased apoptosis and generated abnormal developmental traits. A novel mechanism for low level proinsulin expression thus relies on upstream AUGs within a specific form of embryonic proinsulin mRNA, emphasizing its importance as a tightly regulated developmental signal. PMID:14532130

  15. Optimal parameters of leader development in lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, N. I.; Petrova, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    The dependences between the different parameters of a leader in lightning are obtained theoretically. The physical mechanism of the instability leading to the formation of the streamer zone is proposed. The instability has the wave nature and is caused by the self-influence effects of the space charge. Using a stability condition of the leader propagation, a dependence is obtained between the current across the leader head and its velocity of motion. The dependence of the streamer zone length on the gap length is also obtained. It is shown that the streamer zone length is saturated with the increasing of the gap length. A comparison between the obtained dependences and the experimental data is presented.

  16. How healthcare leaders can increase emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jason

    2013-01-01

    How leaders deal with a variety of feelings will deduce how successful they are in dealing with the daily challenges of being in a leadership position. Successful healthcare leaders are those who lead with heart and possess the soft skills needed to positively influence others. All humans have two minds: the rational one and the emotional one, which operate in tight harmony to assist in decision making. When passions surge, the emotional mind takes over and sometimes makes a decision before the rational mind has time to react. Some strategies to help leaders strengthen emotional intelligence include keeping an emotional journal, daily meditation, positive visualization, appreciative inquiry, thought before action, and empathetic listening. Four skills that will enhance an individual's emotional intelligence include self awareness, self management, social management, and relationship management. PMID:24358581

  17. Leader-Streamer Nature of Blue Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raizer, Y. P.; Milikh, G. M.; Shneider, M. N.

    2006-12-01

    A new model of Blue Jets (BJ's) is proposed and substantiated. It consists of the leader whose top part is seen on BJ photos as a "trunk of a tree", and of the streamer zone of the leader. The latter is shown as tall and narrow branches of "the tree". It is obtained that due to upward transfer of the high thundercloud potential by the leader, BJ streamers can be sustained by moderate cloud charges. The streamer length is estimated along with the height at which the streamers can escape into the ionosphere. The propagation of a streamer in the atmosphere of exponentially falling density N is computed. It is justified by the numerical simulations for a wide range of air density that the critical field Es required for unlimited streamer growth satisfies the similarity law Es/N = const. Shortcomings of the existing BJ models are discussed in detail.

  18. Learning organizations need teachers: the leader's challenge.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2003-01-01

    The leader as learner and the leader as teacher are very basic to the role of any leader, but often overlooked in favor of command and control styles of leadership. Continual improvement is the only way we can insure to our patients that we can provide the best care available to them. In the words of Florence Nightingale: "For us who Nurse, our Nursing is a thing, which, unless in it we are making progress every year, every month, every week, take my word for it, we are going back (Ulrich, 1992, p. 12). When we truly believe that everyone in the organization possesses useful knowledge they can share, and when we truly believe that the best organizations comprise true learners and teachers, we will achieve the excellence that we are determined to achieve.

  19. When are transgressing leaders punitively judged? An empirical test.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed.

  20. Leader genes in osteogenesis: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Bruno; Giacomelli, Luca; Ricci, Massimiliano; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Little is still known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of osteogenesis. In this paper, the leader genes approach, a new bioinformatics method which has already been experimentally validated, is adopted in order to identify the genes involved in human osteogenesis. Interactions among genes are then calculated and genes are ranked according to their relative importance in this process. In total, 167 genes were identified as being involved in osteogenesis. Genes were divided into 4 groups, according to their main function in the osteogenic processes: skeletal development; cell adhesion and proliferation; ossification; and calcium ion binding. Seven genes were consistently identified as leader genes (i.e. the genes with the greatest importance in osteogenesis), while 14 were found to have slightly less importance (class B genes). It was interesting to notice that the larger part of leader and class B genes belonged to the cell adhesion and proliferation or to the ossification sub-groups. This finding suggested that these two particular sub-processes could play a more important role in osteogenesis. Moreover, among the 7 leader genes, it is interesting to notice that RUNX2, BMP2, SPARC, PTH play a direct role in bone formation, while the 3 other leader genes (VEGF, IL6, FGF2) seem to be more connected with an angiogenetic process. Twenty-nine genes have no known interactions (orphan genes). From these results, it may be possible to plan an ad hoc experimentation, for instance by microarray analyses, focused on leader, class B and orphan genes, with the aim to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenesis.

  1. The five messages leaders must manage.

    PubMed

    Hamm, John

    2006-05-01

    If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities. PMID:16649703

  2. On the specificity of antisense RNA to arrest in vitro translation of mRNA coding for Drosophila hsp 23.

    PubMed

    Nicole, L M; Tanguay, R M

    1987-03-01

    The specificity of action of antisense RNA for one of Drosophila low molecular weight heat shock proteins (hsp 23) was tested at the translational level using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate cell-free system. T7 polymerase-driven transcripts of hsp 23 in the antisense orientation were mixed with mRNA from heat-shocked cells under various stringency conditions prior to translation in vitro. Although the four small hsps show considerable sequence homology in their coding sequences, antisense hsp 23 RNA was shown to specifically inhibit hsp 23 mRNA translation under both high (formamide, 45 degrees C) and low stringency (37 degrees C) conditions. This suggests that the 5' leader and the ribosome binding region of mRNA are of prime importance in the specificity of action of antisense RNA at the translational level.

  3. Diagnosis of trypanosomatid infections: targeting the spliced leader RNA.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Pablo; Camara, Mamady; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-07-01

    Trypanosomatids transcribe their genes in large polycistronic clusters that are further processed into mature mRNA molecules by trans-splicing. During this maturation process, a conserved spliced leader RNA (SL-RNA) sequence of 39 bp is physically linked to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA molecules. Trypanosomatid infections cause a series of devastating diseases in man (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease) and animals (nagana, surra, dourine). Here, we investigated the SL-RNA molecule for its diagnostic potential using reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. As a model, we used Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes sleeping sickness in west and central Africa. We showed that the copy number of the SL-RNA molecule in one single parasitic cell is at least 8600. We observed a lower detection limit of the SL-RNA assay in spiked blood samples of 100 trypanosomes per milliliter of blood. We also proved that we can detect the trypanosome's SL-RNA in the blood of sleeping sickness patients with a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 78%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI, 86%-99%). The SL-RNA is thus an attractive new molecular target for next-generation diagnostics in diseases caused by trypanosomatids.

  4. Recognizing and Preventing Burnout among Orthopaedic Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Quick, James Campbell; Sime, Wesley E.; Novicoff, Wendy M.; Einhorn, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Stress, emotional exhaustion, and burnout are widespread in the medical profession in general and in orthopaedic surgery in particular. We attempted to identify variables associated with burnout as assessed by validated instruments. Surveys were sent to 282 leaders from orthopaedic surgery academic departments in the United States by e-mail and mail. Responses were received from 195 leaders for a response rate of 69%. The average surgeon worked 68.3 hours per week and more than ½ of this time was allocated to patient care. Highest stressors included excessive workload, increasing overhead, departmental budget deficits, tenure and promotion, disputes with the dean, and loss of key faculty. Personal-professional life imbalance was identified as an important risk factor for emotional exhaustion. Withdrawal, irritability, and family disagreements are early warning indicators of burnout and emotional exhaustion. Orthopaedic leaders can learn, and potentially model, ways to mitigate stress from other high-stress professions. Building on the strength of marital and family bonds, improving stress management skills and self-regulation, and improving efficiency and productivity can combine to assist the orthopaedic surgery leader in preventing burnout and emotional exhaustion. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11999-008-0622-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19030943

  5. Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from British Council seminars in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Dubai on "Absent Talent: Women in Research and Academic Leadership" (2012-2013), this paper discusses academic women's experiences and explanations for women's under-representation as knowledge leaders and producers in the global academy.…

  6. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  7. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  8. Attributes of Successful Leaders in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    What makes a leader successful? As the Director of Research at the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center's (VICC) Clinical Trials Office, the author had to think of new ways to engage employees when becoming the director nearly 15 years ago. The staff started a GLUE (Greater Loyalty Utilizing Empowerment) Committee. The committee was established to…

  9. An Elective Course in Leader Development

    PubMed Central

    Sucher, Brandon; Nelson, Michael; Brown, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leader-development elective course. Design. Students discovered, reflected on, and enhanced their leadership skills by participating in leadership quality presentations, selecting and facilitating team-building activities for pharmacy-based scenarios, creating a personal mission statement, maintaining a journal, creating pharmacy performance matrices, facilitating leadership discussions and activities, and completing a variety of leader-development inventories to identify their strengths and opportunities for growth. Assessment. Students successfully completed 98% of the assignments. The most valued topics and assignments involved validated instruments, which promoted self-discovery and development. End-of-course survey results revealed all students agreed the course achieved all learning outcomes except preventing conflict from escalating (9% disagreed) and applying knowledge of core values to achieve greater effectiveness in interpersonal communication (4% disagreed). Conclusions. Students perceived this leader-development elective course was effective in achieving learning outcomes. Assignments guided the creation of personalized leader-development tracks, ultimately promoting lifelong learning. PMID:24371348

  10. The Principal as Professional Development Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Phyllis H.; Speck, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    Individual teachers have the greatest effect on student performance. Principals, as professional development leaders, are in the best position to provide teachers with the professional development strategies they need to improve skills and raise student achievement. This book guides readers through a step-by-step process to formulate, implement,…

  11. My School Principal Is Not a Leader!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal…

  12. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  13. Nursing Education Leaders' Perceived Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices perceived by nursing education leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The framework used was a contemporary transformational leadership model described in "The Leadership Challenge" ("4th ed.") by Dr. James Kouzes and Dr. Barry Posner, which identifies the…

  14. Wise Use of Buy Power: Leader Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The guide was designed for use by leaders of adult groups working in the area of personal money management. The content of the guide (presented in 10 lessons) includes the following areas reported to be most pressing by persons competent in the field of money management who counsel middle and lower-income groups: the role of advertising in the…

  15. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  16. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  17. Virtual Mentoring: Developing Global Leaders for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Matthew; Froman, Russell

    2012-01-01

    CAMP (Collegiate Achievement Mentoring Program) Gator is a leadership-mentoring program in which collegiate student leaders serve as mentors to at-risk K-12 students. In addition, partnerships with Cisco and Franklin Covey Education have provided the program with the technology resources to conduct "virtual leadership mentoring" sessions with…

  18. Lebanese Cherishing a Transformational Educational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out if the characteristics, traits and leadership style of an effective university leader in Lebanon match those of a transformational one. Moreover, it is intended to shed light on the possible transferability of the transformational leadership's success to the Middle-Eastern society where norms and…

  19. Connecting Leaders and Learning--"In Conversation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Wendy; Dorgan, Fran

    2012-01-01

    Last September ten Australian educators set out to explore how the Paradise Valley School District in Phoenix Arizona cultivates world class thinkers and leaders. Over the course of a week, study Tour delegates were immersed in K-12 schools where a district-wide approach fosters equity and empowers teachers and students to use technology…

  20. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  1. Preparing the Next IT Leaders: Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of IT leaders must learn to navigate the complexities of higher education financial planning and negotiation. Technology infrastructure, hardware, software, and services are very expensive to provide and will continue to be so for some time to come. Most CIOs have learned about complex IT finances the hard way--they were handed…

  2. The School Leader's Guide to Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Social media has exploded onto American culture--including our schools--giving educators a unique opportunity to shape this phenomenon into a powerful tool for improving educational leadership practices. With real-world examples and practical tips, this essential guide shows school leaders how to address both the potential benefits and common…

  3. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  4. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  5. Determinants of Leader-Subordinate Exchange Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ken I.; Organ, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the value of "noncontractual social exchange" (NSE) to describe leader behavior. Results of an experiment using an in-basket memo device showed that subordinate competence best predicted the intentions of such behavior by a sample of working adults: subjects were more likely to initiate NSE with highly competent subordinates. (Author)

  6. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  7. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  8. College Prep: A Timeline for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard; Williamson, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Everyone acknowledges the importance of leadership in good schools, but sometimes a leader's influence extends into unexpected areas. Getting admitted to and succeeding in college is certainly the result of hard work on the part of individual students and their families, but for many kids, particularly those from impoverished backgrounds or from…

  9. Best Practices of Successful Elementary School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crum, Karen S.; Sherman, Whitney H.; Myran, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study is one in a series which aims to examine the theories of actions developed and internalized by school principals that help them serve as successful leaders in the tumultuous accountability climate. The dearth of recent empirical research focusing on best practices of successful school principals in a post-NCLB nation sets the…

  10. Leader Challenge: What Would You Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Chris; Self, Nate; Garven, Sena; Allen, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Given the complex environment in which the U.S. military operates, leaders at all levels must be prepared for a force that is more responsive to regional combatant commanders needs, better employs joint capabilities, facilitates force packaging and rapid deployment, and fights self contained units in non-linear, non-contiguous battle space. This…

  11. Reflections from One Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Velvie

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender provides a framework for understanding what it means to be a woman working within the community college; however, the voice of experience helps to add meaning to what it means to live as a woman leader of color within these institutions. Dr. Green provides a reflection on her career leading up to her presidency, and she outlines…

  12. Managers and leaders: are they different?

    PubMed

    Zaleznik, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish. PMID:15222154

  13. School Leaders, ICT Competence and Championing Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Lindsay H.; Mills, Annette M.; Remus, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of new technology is becoming more important to schools and the success of such implementations is often due to the presence of ICT champions. This article examines ICT champions to determine whether the intention to champion ICT is determined by the ICT competence of school leaders. This article, based on responses from 64…

  14. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  15. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  16. Servant Leader Development at Southeastern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Servant leadership as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf (1970) is a philosophy whereby leaders put the interests and growth of the follower ahead of themselves. Though the concept has been around since antiquity, scholars and practitioners in organizations began to embrace and expand the idea since the early 1990s. There are currently 20 models of…

  17. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  18. Leader Behavior Characteristics and Organizational Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Thomas W.

    To investigate the leader behavior characteristics of elementary school principals and to examine these characteristics as they relate to organizational climate, 35 randomly selected southern California schools with approximately 715 teachers and principals were studied. The data on organizational climate were collected by means of the…

  19. The Right Leader at the Right Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of educational leadership's sustainability and finding the right leader to fit in the system at the right time. Just as book quality and preferences vary from author to author and critic to critic, the quality of educational leadership and the culture of individual schools or school districts…

  20. Creating the Leaders of Tomorrow Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Students who participated in Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) have gone on to become leaders in business, education, and public service in the nation. Among former CTSO members are university presidents, governors, U.S. Congressmen and Senators, and a former President of the United States, FFA member Jimmy Carter. The CTSOs…

  1. Resilient Women Leaders: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Julia; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Efinger, Joan

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated perceptions of resilient, transformational, successful women leaders regarding their own resiliency and leadership. The ten participants provided information during semi-structured, open-ended, audio taped interviews which were transcribed, hand coded, and then analyzed with QSR N6 software. Findings indicated…

  2. The Instructional Leader's Primer in Systems Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Nedra

    Learning to see reality at multiple levels provides instructional leaders with several advantages (e.g., being adaptive and solving problems before they occur, being creative by choosing a different future, and being generative by bringing forth something new). Four distinct levels of reality in systems thinking are: events encountered on a daily…

  3. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  4. Emory U. Trains Its Own Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Emory University's Excellence Through Leadership program. Started in 2006, the yearlong program is designed to help up to 20 administrators and faculty members annually improve their leadership skills, as well as create a pipeline to eventually replace senior leaders at the institution. Emory's leadership program is just one…

  5. The Next Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, Sullivan presented her interpretation of the four generations of community college leaders by describing them as "the founding fathers, the good managers, the collaborators, and the millennium generation" (Sullivan, 2001, p. 559). She predicted a shift to frames utilizing the Four-Frame Model of Leadership by Bolman…

  6. Reflections of a Faraday Challenge Day Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…

  7. How Leaders Can Make a Big Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Time and collaborative learning experiences are key to successful implementation of literacy standards. Leadership is just as important. What do system and school leaders do that teachers value most and identify as most helpful in their efforts to ensure high-quality literacy and standards-based instruction for all students? According survey…

  8. Making Progress as Leaders among University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quah, Cheng Sim; Sim, Sandra Phek Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the overview of how individuals in their respective teams operated and contributed to their organization. This study also identified the salient characteristics of how the respondents made progress as leaders in their respective faculties or departments towards identifying directions for innovative future practice through…

  9. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  10. Managers and leaders: are they different?

    PubMed

    Zaleznik, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    The traditional view of management, back in 1977 when Abraham Zaleznik wrote this article, centered on organizational structure and processes. Managerial development at the time focused exclusively on building competence, control, and the appropriate balance of power. That view, Zaleznik argued, omitted the essential leadership elements of inspiration, vision, and human passion which drive corporate success. The difference between managers and leaders, he wrote, lies in the conceptions they hold, deep in their psyches, of chaos and order. Managers embrace process, seek stability and control, and instinctively try to resolve problems quickly--sometimes before they fully understand a problems significance. Leaders, in contrast, tolerate chaos and lack of structure and are willing to delay closure to understand the issues more fully. In this way, Zaleznik argued, business leaders have much more in common with artists, scientists, and other creative thinkers than they do with managers. Organizations need both managers and leaders to succeed, but developing both requires a reduced focus on logic and strategic exercises in favor of an environment where creativity and imagination are permitted to flourish.

  11. Preparing and Developing Community College International Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner; Valeau, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership training for future senior United States (US) community college leaders is an ongoing focus of US community college education. Leadership training is also a focus of US university international educators. Community college literature has assumed that full-time positions at community colleges devoted to overseeing and implementing…

  12. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  13. Values Perception and Future Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Robert P.; Norris, Cynthia J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an effort to incorporate personal values awareness into a university preparation program aimed at future school administrators. This model allows future leaders opportunities to identify the values governing their actions, clarify their philosophical leadership foundations, reflect on current educational practices, and determine…

  14. The Professional Development of Kosovan Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author provides a discussion around issues related to the professional development of educational leaders in a resource-free, post-conflict environment. Drawing upon the author's ongoing experiences (2001-present) in Kosovo, the author presents a series of vignettes concerning leadership development in the Balkans. Lessons…

  15. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas…

  16. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  17. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  18. Modification: A Leader Skill in Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Arthur J.

    1995-01-01

    Modification mitigates negative feedback by immediately attempting to improve the feedback's level of acceptability. This article introduces modification as a group-leader skill necessary for the processing of messages containing both counterproductive and productive elements. Describes the value and application of modification in group work. (RJM)

  19. Elected medical staff leaders: who needs 'em?

    PubMed

    Thompson, R E

    1994-03-01

    Authority, influence, and power are not synonyms. In working with elected medical staff leaders, a physician executive who chooses to exert authority may soon find him- or herself relatively powerless. But one who chooses to downplay authority, to influence through persuasion, and to coach leaders to lead effectively soon generates support for his or her ideas. The need to coax, cajole, explain, persuade, and "seek input" frustrates many leaders in all kinds of organizations. It would be much easier just to order people about. It's so tempting to think: "Who needs 'em? I'm the 'chief physician.' I know what needs to be done. Let's weigh anchor, take her out, and do what it takes to sail those rough, uncharted seas." If you really enjoy sailing a large ship in rough seas without a crew, go right ahead. Or if you think it makes sense to run an organization with only an executive staff and no knowledgeable middle managers, by all means let clinician leaders know that, now that you're aboard, they're just window-dressing. If you can make this approach work, well and good. Your life will be much less complicated, each day will have far fewer frustrations, and progress toward established goals will be much faster. However, given the reality of traditionally thinking physicians, it would be best to keep an up-dated resume in the locked lower left-hand drawer of your desk.

  20. Coupling mRNA Synthesis and Decay

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.—Ecclesiastes 1:9 (New International Version) Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression has an important role in defining the phenotypic characteristics of an organism. Well-defined steps in mRNA metabolism that occur in the nucleus—capping, splicing, and polyadenylation—are mechanistically linked to the process of transcription. Recent evidence suggests another link between RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and a posttranscriptional process that occurs in the cytoplasm—mRNA decay. This conclusion appears to represent a conundrum. How could mRNA synthesis in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm be mechanistically linked? After a brief overview of mRNA processing, we will review the recent evidence for transcription-coupled mRNA decay and the possible involvement of Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, in this process. PMID:25154419

  1. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  2. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  3. DOE handbook: Guide to good practices for operational readiness reviews (ORR) team leader`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    This guidance section provides instructions, explanations and examples for the performance of all phases of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR). Details pertinent to the Team Leader (TL), Team Members (TM) and Review Coordinator (RC) are outlined. An appendix contains sample forms and correspondence which are typically used to initiate and perform the ORR. Although this document was written specifically for use by DOE ORR Team Leaders, its use may also be beneficial to contractor ORR Team Leaders. The handbook is also useful for Team Leaders of Readiness Assessments conducted in accordance with requirements of DOE O 425.1. Lessons learned, which are promulgated with this handbook, will benefit any line manager, particularly those preparing a facility or process for startup or restart.

  4. Take me to my leader: the importance of ethical leadership among formal nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Storch, Janet; Schick Makaroff, Kara; Pauly, Bernie; Newton, Lorelei

    2013-03-01

    Although ethical leadership by formal nurse leaders is critical to enhancing ethical health-care practice, research has shown that many nurses feel unsupported by their leaders. In this article, we consider the limited attention directed toward ethical leadership of formal nurse leaders and how our own research on ethical nurse leadership compares to other research in this field. In searching Nursing Ethics since its inception 20 years ago, we found only a dozen articles that directly addressed this topic. We then reviewed nurses' professional codes of ethics in Canada and found significant retractions of ethical guidelines for formal nurse leaders' ethical responsibilities over the past decade. We began to seek explanations of why this is so and offer some recommendations for the study and enhancement of ethics for formal nurse leadership.

  5. The Value of Physician Leaders to Nonphysician Coworkers.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, physician leaders are perceived as valuable to their organizations, helping to define goals, set priorities, and plan future direction. In some cases, however, physician leaders are misunderstood or devalued by senior business leaders. There could be several reasons for this observation: (1) the roles and responsibilities of physician leaders may be unclear to business leaders; (2) nonmedical leaders may question the business relevance of the activities performed by physician leaders; and (3) some business executives may believe (erroneously) that the activities performed by physician leaders are nonessential, or could be performed equally well by lesser trained healthcare professionals. Under such circumstances, physicians may become demoralized and indignant, but they should never lose sight of their importance to the everyday coworkers who are the most valuable asset of any organization.

  6. The Value of Physician Leaders to Nonphysician Coworkers.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, physician leaders are perceived as valuable to their organizations, helping to define goals, set priorities, and plan future direction. In some cases, however, physician leaders are misunderstood or devalued by senior business leaders. There could be several reasons for this observation: (1) the roles and responsibilities of physician leaders may be unclear to business leaders; (2) nonmedical leaders may question the business relevance of the activities performed by physician leaders; and (3) some business executives may believe (erroneously) that the activities performed by physician leaders are nonessential, or could be performed equally well by lesser trained healthcare professionals. Under such circumstances, physicians may become demoralized and indignant, but they should never lose sight of their importance to the everyday coworkers who are the most valuable asset of any organization. PMID:26223099

  7. Leading the leaders: the challenge of leading an empowered organization.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-08-01

    Professionals expect to be treated as peers and equals to the leader/manager. Nurse leaders must concentrate on leading the empowered workforce in new and different ways. The rewards make the concept of "herding cats" challenging and worthwhile.

  8. Leading the leaders: the challenge of leading an empowered organization.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2004-06-01

    Professionals expect to be treated as peers and equals to the leader/manager. Nurse leaders must concentrate on leading the empowered workforce in new and different ways. The rewards make the concept of "herding cats" challenging and worthwhile.

  9. Engaging the next generation of health leaders: perspectives of emerging health leaders.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer C; Gruenwoldt, Emily; Lyster, Adrienne Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and engaging the next generation of emerging health leaders (EHLs) is a foremost challenge for the Canadian healthcare system. If intellectual capital is the currency of the 21st century, identifying and developing EHLs must be a strategic objective of innovative and progressive health organizations. We have integrated our experiential knowledge with some relevant findings from the literature and data collected from a cohort of EHLs to assist senior leaders and organizations with this challenge. PMID:21630621

  10. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition.

  11. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition. PMID:24417554

  12. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  13. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

  14. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization. PMID:25620012

  15. Leader Authenticity: The Development and Test of an Operational Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    A definition of leader authentication was developed, focusing on a leader's salience of self over role, non-manipulation of subordinates and accepting of personal and organizational responsibility. The Leader Authenticity Scale (LAS) was constructed to be consistent with this definition. Its validity was checked by specifying and testing…

  16. Healthcare Leaders' Intention to Serve as Organizational Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Today's organizational leaders are expected to actively participate and facilitate learning. A highly engaged and knowledgeable workforce, inspired by leaders, may increase the quality of service, and aid in maintaining and attracting loyal employees and customers. These leaders are now being asked to serve as organizational teachers. However,…

  17. Eta Sigma Gamma: Preparing Leaders Today for Tomorrow's Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelli McCormack

    2007-01-01

    There is no one definition for a leader or for leadership, but most people can identify a leader and can provide qualities of a good leader or good leadership. The founders of Eta Gamma Gamma--William Bock, Warren Schaller, and Robert Synovitz--all displayed a critical characteristic of leadership by having and acting on a vision. Leadership has…

  18. Teachers and Coaches as Leaders Demonstrating Character and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In a time of scandalous actions and me-first behaviors, teachers and coaches as leaders of character and competence are needed. Leaders have integrity and demonstrate their character by adhering to moral principles and displaying moral values. The competence of leaders is based on knowledge, skills, and abilities and enhanced by exploring varying…

  19. 75 FR 74703 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application November 23, 2010 Take notice that on November 15, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One), 4643 South Ulster Street, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80237, filed in Docket No. CP11-33-000...

  20. Learn to Lead: Mapping Workplace Learning of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…

  1. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  2. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who…

  3. Teacher Leader Model Standards: Implications for Preparation, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Carver, Cynthia L.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leadership is increasingly recognized as a resource for instructional improvement. Consequently, teacher leader initiatives have expanded rapidly despite limited knowledge about how to prepare and support teacher leaders. In this context, the "Teacher Leader Model Standards" represent an important development in the field. In…

  4. What Do Students Experience as Peer Leaders of Learning Teams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik C.; Robbins, Brett A.; Loui, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    In a course for engineering freshmen, peer leaders facilitated optional study sessions, which implemented peer-led team learning workshops. Some leaders were paid teaching assistants, but most were undergraduate volunteers. To understand the experiences of the peer leaders, we asked them to keep weekly reflective journals. By performing a basic…

  5. Ethical Practice: A Study of Chilean School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Carolina; Giles, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to report on a research inquiry that explored the educational praxis of ethical school leaders in Chile. Behaving ethically is an imperative for school leaders. Being an ethical educational leader is something different. It is not only about behaving according to standards, but also rather involves an ethical way of…

  6. The Uniform Salary Schedule: A Progressive Leader Proposes Differential Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, Brad

    2005-01-01

    For at least two and a half decades, political leaders and opinion makers have been telling teachers and union leaders that it is high time to move away from the single salary schedule. For a long time, it was easy for teachers and union leaders to dismiss those calls for change. Recently, with more voices joining the choir calling for change, it…

  7. An Analysis of Findings Comparing Women and Men as Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Jan D.; Hollander, Edwin P.

    Psychological literature seemingly provides contradictory answers to the question of whether women and men are equally effective as leaders. There are generally two approaches used to answer this question: assign males and females the role of leader, keeping certain extraneous factors constant, and then compare leader or group effectiveness; or…

  8. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  9. Handicapped Girls and Girl Scouting: A Guide for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marian Weller

    Designed as a handbook for girl scount leaders involved with the handicapped girl scout, the manual first makes general statements about handicaps, leader qualifications, and troop placement and organization. Information and guidelines for leaders are provided for the following exceptionalities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic…

  10. Identity Crisis: A Leader's Image Is Worth a Thousand Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Craig; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2009-01-01

    There is a short supply, yet tacit demand, for creative and effective communication training for educational leaders. A field of literature indicates that a leader's identity is a potent communication tool. A leader's image can frame expectations for followers, symbolically evoking a family of concepts and patterns of meaning (receiving). The…

  11. The Hidden Leader: Leadership Lessons on the Potential Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L.; Coble, Larry D.

    2004-01-01

    The best leaders are visionaries--individuals who possess a strong sense of purpose that inspires and motivates others. This book offers practical tools and insights designed to help school leaders access the power of their personal vision and translate it into truly dynamic leadership. This exciting new guide to becoming an authentic leader is…

  12. Constitutive and allergen-induced expression of eotaxin mRNA in the guinea pig lung

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Eotaxin is a member of the C-C family of chemokines and is related during antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic airway inflammation (asthma). Consistent with its putative role in eosinophilic inflammation, eotaxin induces the selective infiltration of eosinophils when injected into the lung and skin. Using a guinea pig lung cDNA library, we have cloned full-length eotaxin cDNA. The cDNA encodes a protein of 96 amino acids, including a putative 23-amino acid hydrophobic leader sequence, followed by 73 amino acids composing the mature active eotaxin protein. The protein-coding region of this cDNA is 73, 71, 50, and 48% identical in nucleic acid sequence to those of human macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP) 3, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha, and RANTES, respectively. Analysis of genomic DNA suggested that there is a single eotaxin gene in guinea pig which is apparently conserved in mice. High constitutive levels of eotaxin mRNA expression were observed in the lung, while the intestines, stomach, spleen, liver, heart, thymus, testes, and kidney expressed lower levels. To determine if eotaxin mRNA levels are elevated during allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized antigen. Compared with the lungs from saline-challenged animals, eotaxin mRNA levels increased sixfold within 3 h and returned to baseline by 6 h. Thus, eotaxin mRNA levels are increased in response to allergen challenge during the late phase response. The identification of constitutive eotaxin mRNA expression in multiple tissues suggests that in addition to regulating airway eosinophilia, eotaxin is likely to be involved in eosinophil recruitment into other tissues as well as in baseline tissue homing. PMID:7869037

  13. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  14. [Eight characteristics of leaders in crisis management].

    PubMed

    Yen, Miaofen; Fang, Szu-Ting

    2006-02-01

    Everything is changing in our daily life. The ancient Chinese philosopher, Sun Tzu, said "The art of war teaches us to rely not on the likelihood of the enemy's not coming, but on our own readiness to receive him". In the challenging environment of today, nursing administrators should prepare themselves by developing a range of skills to face the changing world. This article introduces Chinese and Western leadership theories and suggests eight key characteristics of successful leaders in health care. Equipped with these characteristics, nursing leaders should be able to collaborate with other professionals in their organization to manage any crisis. Success in crisis management also enhances an organization's general potential to succeed in this competitive world.

  15. Why leaders punish: A power perspective.

    PubMed

    Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; Ellemers, Naomi; van Dijk, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We propose that power fundamentally changes why leaders punish and we develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Specifically, we argue that power increases the reliance on deterrence, but not just deserts, as a punishment motive and relate this to power fostering a distrustful mindset. We tested our model in 9 studies using different instantiations of power, different measurements and manipulations of distrust while measuring punishment motives and recommended punishments across a number of different situations. These 9 studies demonstrate that power fosters distrust and hereby increases both the reliance on deterrence as a punishment motive and the implementation of punishments aimed at deterrence (i.e., public punishments, public naming of rule breakers and punishments with a mandatory minimum). We discuss the practical implications for leaders, managers and policymakers and the theoretical implications for scholars interested in power, trust, and punishments.

  16. Nurse leader resilience: career defining moments.

    PubMed

    Cline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is an essential component of effective nursing leadership. It is defined as the ability to survive and thrive in the face of adversity. Resilience can be developed and internalized as a measure to improve retention and reduce burnout. Nurse leaders at all levels should develop these competencies to survive and thrive in an increasingly complex health care environment. Building positive relationships, maintaining positivity, developing emotional insight, creating work-life balance, and reflecting on successes and challenges are effective strategies for resilience building. Nurse leaders have a professional obligation to develop resilience in themselves, the teams they supervise, and the organization as a whole. Additional benefits include reduced turnover, reduced cost, and improved quality outcomes through organizational mindfulness. PMID:25714948

  17. Monitoring antitobacco sentiment among community leaders.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Gordon G; Lyons-Lepke, Elaine M

    2003-08-01

    Two public health objectives, one methodological and the other substantive, are realized in the present study. First, average survey ratings are replaced by negated mean cumulative logits (MCLs), which have the advantage of interitem commensuration. Second, these negated MCLs improve the analysis of two Florida tobacco control surveys of community leaders. Because of their common logit metric, negated MCLs for different item types are compared on their expressed antitobacco sentiment. They are also averaged to construct a precise indicator of overall sentiment. These results show that in 1998 and 1999, community leaders were most averse to selling to minors, kids buying cigarettes, and restaurant and workplace smoking. The latter aversion anticipated voters' overwhelming support of the 2002 Florida constitutional amendment prohibiting smoking in restaurants and workplaces. The authors hope that this analysis for antitobacco programs will improve other substance-abuse monitoring with surveys whose items are yet unwritten.

  18. Why leaders punish: A power perspective.

    PubMed

    Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; Ellemers, Naomi; van Dijk, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We propose that power fundamentally changes why leaders punish and we develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Specifically, we argue that power increases the reliance on deterrence, but not just deserts, as a punishment motive and relate this to power fostering a distrustful mindset. We tested our model in 9 studies using different instantiations of power, different measurements and manipulations of distrust while measuring punishment motives and recommended punishments across a number of different situations. These 9 studies demonstrate that power fosters distrust and hereby increases both the reliance on deterrence as a punishment motive and the implementation of punishments aimed at deterrence (i.e., public punishments, public naming of rule breakers and punishments with a mandatory minimum). We discuss the practical implications for leaders, managers and policymakers and the theoretical implications for scholars interested in power, trust, and punishments. PMID:26030053

  19. A leader's framework for decision making. A leader's framework for decision making.

    PubMed

    Snowden, David J; Boone, Mary E

    2007-11-01

    Many executives are surprised when previously successful leadership approaches fail in new situations, but different contexts call for different kinds of responses. Before addressing a situation, leaders need to recognize which context governs it -and tailor their actions accordingly. Snowden and Boone have formed a new perspective on leadership and decision making that's based on complexity science. The result is the Cynefin framework, which helps executives sort issues into five contexts: Simple contexts are characterized by stability and cause-and-effect relationships that are clear to everyone. Often, the right answer is self-evident. In this realm of "known knowns," leaders must first assess the facts of a situation -that is, "sense" it -then categorize and respond to it. Complicated contexts may contain multiple right answers, and though there is a clear relationship between cause and effect, not everyone can see it. This is the realm of "known unknowns." Here, leaders must sense, analyze, and respond. In a complex context, right answers can't be ferreted out at all; rather, instructive patterns emerge if the leader conducts experiments that can safely fail. This is the realm of "unknown unknowns," where much of contemporary business operates. Leaders in this context need to probe first, then sense, and then respond. In a chaotic context, searching for right answers is pointless. The relationships between cause and effect are impossible to determine because they shift constantly and no manageable patterns exist. This is the realm of unknowables (the events of September 11, 2001, fall into this category). In this domain, a leader must first act to establish order, sense where stability is present, and then work to transform the situation from chaos to complexity. The fifth context, disorder, applies when it is unclear which of the other four contexts is predominant. The way out is to break the situation into its constituent parts and assign each to one of the

  20. Creativity and the role of the leader.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti

    2008-10-01

    In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation.

  1. Emerging leaders 1991. Six who have arrived.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1991-01-01

    "I would quibble with the idea that Cheryl is an 'emerging leader,"' observes a colleague of one of this year's honorees. "I believe she has arrived." In truth, each of the six extraordinary people cited as 1991's Emerging Leaders have had a major impact on their organizations and, by example and design, on the nature and quality of healthcare in their communities. But then, the annual call for nominations demands nothing less. Sponsors Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are "looking for...talented people with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry. They are dynamic, decisive young leaders who have already made a mark." Five men and one woman, all age 40 or younger, were selected as this year's Emerging Leaders in two separate categories. Three represent large healthcare organizations, three smaller urban or rural institutions--generally hospitals with fewer than 200 beds. Interestingly, nearly all were influenced to pursue careers in healthcare at an early age. Two had physician parents, two were sons of healthcare administrators, two worked in hospitals as teenagers. All, of course, have shown their mettle in difficult times and complex, uncomfortable situations. All have been pivotal in turning around failing--or at least beleaguered--organizations. Yet, while each has labored diligently to further the interests of his or her own organization and constituency, each has also sought to shape a more cooperative system. As honoree Larry Sanders observes, "Competition without conscience will deny our claim to a true community leadership role." Marveling at the accomplishments of honoree Kevin Fickenscher, an awed peer declared: "One of these days we'll all be working for him!"(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10160736

  2. Ames Lab Named an Industry Safety Leader

    SciTech Connect

    Wessels, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has been named a 2010 Industry Leader Award winner by the National Safety Council. The Ames Laboratory was one of only 81 companies/organizations to receive the award for their safety performance and the only DOE national laboratory on the list. The award represents the top 5 percent of members that have qualified for the National Safety Council 2010 Occupational Excellence Achievement Award, based on 2009 calendar year data.

  3. Ames Lab Named an Industry Safety Leader

    ScienceCinema

    Wessels, Tom

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has been named a 2010 Industry Leader Award winner by the National Safety Council. The Ames Laboratory was one of only 81 companies/organizations to receive the award for their safety performance and the only DOE national laboratory on the list. The award represents the top 5 percent of members that have qualified for the National Safety Council 2010 Occupational Excellence Achievement Award, based on 2009 calendar year data.

  4. Where will we find tomorrow's leaders?

    PubMed

    Hill, Linda A

    2008-01-01

    Unless we challenge long-held assumptions about how business leaders are supposed to act and where they're supposed to come from, many people who could become effective global leaders will remain invisible, warns Harvard Business School professor Hill. Instead of assuming that leaders must exhibit take-charge behavior, broaden the definition of leadership to include creating a context in which other people are willing and able to guide the organization. And instead of looking for the next generation of global leaders in huge Western corporations and elite business schools, expand the search to developing countries. In this conversation with HBR senior editor Paul Hemp, Hill describes the changing nature of leadership and what we can learn from parts of the world where people have not, until recently, had opportunities to become globally savvy executives. In South Africa, for instance, the African National Congress has provided rigorous leadership preparation for many black executives. Hill has also observed two approaches--in developed and developing economies alike--that she believes will be necessary in an increasingly complex business environment. The first, leading from behind, involves letting people hand off the reins to one another, depending on their strengths, as situations change. The second, leadership as collective genius, calls for both unleashing and harnessing individuals' collective talents, particularly to spur innovation. Through her descriptions of these approaches in such companies as Sekunjalo Investments, HCL Technologies, and IBM, Hill highlights the challenges of finding and preparing people who can lead by stepping back and letting others come forward to make their own judgments and take risks.

  5. Creativity and the role of the leader.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti

    2008-10-01

    In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation. PMID:18822674

  6. The evolution of spliced leader trans-splicing in nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Jonathan; Harrison, Neale; Stansfield, Ian; Connolly, Bernadette; Müller, Berndt

    2010-08-01

    Spliced leader trans-splicing occurs in many primitive eukaryotes including nematodes. Most of our knowledge of trans-splicing in nematodes stems from the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans and relatives, and from work with Ascaris. Our investigation of spliced leader trans-splicing in distantly related Dorylaimia nematodes indicates that spliced-leader trans-splicing arose before the nematode phylum and suggests that the spliced leader RNA gene complements in extant nematodes have evolved from a common ancestor with a diverse set of spliced leader RNA genes.

  7. Core then care: the nurse leader's role in "caring".

    PubMed

    Hardt, M

    2001-01-01

    When discussing caring practices of health care professionals, often the nurse leader's role is not articulated, because the leader is not a direct caregiver. The leader, however, has the ability to potentiate or impede the level of practice that results in expert caring. In this article an argument is presented for the use of empowerment to promote the clinician-leader partnership model. Two theories--novice-to-expert and symphonology--are presented to assist leaders to create environments that foster expert level care.

  8. Identifying Network Public Opinion Leaders Based on Markov Logic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Xiaoqiang; He, Hui; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity. PMID:24977188

  9. Working well with the informal leaders in your practice.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Anyone with an up-to-date organizational chart can determine the formal leadership roles in a medical practice. What many practice administrators fail to realize, however, is that there is another, complementary leadership model that exists between the lines in an org chart: informal leadership. This article defines the term informal leadership and describes informal leaders' three bases of power. It suggests seven characteristics of informal leaders and the specific techniques a practice administrator can use to identify the real informal leaders in the practice. This article also offers practice administrators practical tips for dealing effectively with informal leaders who oppose them. It suggests strategies for counseling a reluctant informal leader and for developing the informal leaders in a medical practice. Finally, this article argues that informal leaders can be a source of great help for medical practices that have been downsized or restructured.

  10. Identifying network public opinion leaders based on Markov Logic Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhe; Li, Xiaoqiang; He, Hui; Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    Public opinion emergencies have important effect on social activities. Recognition of special communities like opinion leaders can contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the development trend of public opinion. In this paper, a network opinion leader recognition method based on relational data was put forward, and an opinion leader recognition system integrating public opinion data acquisition module, data characteristic selection, and fusion module as well as opinion leader discovery module based on Markov Logic Networks was designed. The designed opinion leader recognition system not only can overcome the incomplete data acquisition and isolated task of traditional methods, but also can recognize opinion leaders comprehensively with considerations to multiple problems by using the relational model. Experimental results demonstrated that, compared with the traditional methods, the proposed method can provide a more accurate opinion leader recognition and has good noise immunity.

  11. Human leader and robot follower team: correcting leader's position from follower's heading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borenstein, Johann; Thomas, David; Sights, Brandon; Ojeda, Lauro; Bankole, Peter; Fellars, Donald

    2010-04-01

    In multi-agent scenarios, there can be a disparity in the quality of position estimation amongst the various agents. Here, we consider the case of two agents - a leader and a follower - following the same path, in which the follower has a significantly better estimate of position and heading. This may be applicable to many situations, such as a robotic "mule" following a soldier. Another example is that of a convoy, in which only one vehicle (not necessarily the leading one) is instrumented with precision navigation instruments while all other vehicles use lower-precision instruments. We present an algorithm, called Follower-derived Heading Correction (FDHC), which substantially improves estimates of the leader's heading and, subsequently, position. Specifically, FHDC produces a very accurate estimate of heading errors caused by slow-changing errors (e.g., those caused by drift in gyros) of the leader's navigation system and corrects those errors.

  12. Leader peptides of inducible chloramphenicol resistance genes from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria bind to yeast and Archaea large subunit rRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Harrod, R; Lovett, P S

    1997-01-01

    catA86 is the second gene in a constitutively transcribed, two-gene operon cloned from Bacillus pumilus . The region that intervenes between the upstream gene, termed the leader, and the catA86 coding sequence contains a pair of inverted repeat sequences which cause sequestration of the catA86 ribosome binding site in mRNA secondary structure. As a consequence, the catA86 coding sequence is untranslatable in the absence of inducer. Translation of the catA86 coding sequence is induced by chloramphenicol in Gram-positives and induction requires a function of the leader coding sequence. The leader-encoded peptide has been proposed to instruct its translating ribosome to pause at leader codon 6, enabling chloramphenicol to stall the ribosome at that site. Ribosome stalling causes destabilization of the RNA secondary structure, exposing the catA86 ribosome binding site, allowing activation of its translation. A comparable mechanism of induction by chloramphenicol has been proposed for the regulated cmlA gene from Gram-negative bacteria. The catA86 and cmlA leader-encoded peptides are in vitro inhibitors of peptidyl transferase, which is thought to be the basis for selection of the site of ribosome stalling. Both leader-encoded peptides have been shown to alter the secondary structure of Escherichia coli 23S rRNA in vitro. All peptide-induced changes in rRNA conformation are within domains IV and V, which contains the peptidyl transferase center. Here we demonstrate that the leader peptides alter the conformation of domains IV and V of large subunit rRNA from yeast and a representative of the Archaea. The rRNA target for binding the leader peptides is therefore conserved across kingdoms. PMID:9108153

  13. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  14. Two Essential Roles: Health Care Network Nurse Leaders and Local Nurse Leaders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    American health care organizations are experiencing increasing change driven by emerging partnerships, market demographics, population health initiatives, and merger and acquisition trends. The health care business environment necessitates alterations in how companies operate on a larger scale. New regional leadership roles are being created to provide leadership to systematize networks, build market share, and strengthen market needs. It is important and necessary to explore, review, and contrast the roles, skills, and behaviors of regional leader's roles and the solo organization leaders. It is also imperative to review the benefits of new affiliations for the community and hospital entity.

  15. Two Essential Roles: Health Care Network Nurse Leaders and Local Nurse Leaders.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    American health care organizations are experiencing increasing change driven by emerging partnerships, market demographics, population health initiatives, and merger and acquisition trends. The health care business environment necessitates alterations in how companies operate on a larger scale. New regional leadership roles are being created to provide leadership to systematize networks, build market share, and strengthen market needs. It is important and necessary to explore, review, and contrast the roles, skills, and behaviors of regional leader's roles and the solo organization leaders. It is also imperative to review the benefits of new affiliations for the community and hospital entity. PMID:27584890

  16. An effective model of developing teacher leaders in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublette, Heidi

    In the last 5 years, industries have begun to recognize a growing gap in the production of college graduates in areas of STEM. Researchers in various industries believe this gap will create a significant loss of competitive edge in the STEM fields, which will leave the United States pursuing STEM graduates from foreign countries and may ultimately leave the US behind in the industry of science, technology and innovation. This qualitative study analyzes the value and impact of STEM teacher leaders in secondary education. A phenomenological study was conducted with 10 secondary school science and math teacher leaders in order to gain a better understanding of teacher leaders' perceptions, classroom practices and the role of a STEM teacher leader. This study addresses the following research questions: 1) What attributes define effective STEM teacher leaders, according to teacher leaders who have completed the Center for Math and Science Teaching system? 2) What success strategies, among teacher leaders of the Center for Math and Science Teaching program, have enabled further development of teacher leadership? 3) What is the best model in developing teacher leaders, according to literature from 2005 to present? 4) What is an optimal model of developing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) teacher leaders within secondary education? This research aims to explore teacher leaders' perceptions of their role as a teacher leader based on strategies learned from CMAST and past experiences. Findings from this study provide critical data for making informed decisions on including important elements when implementing an effective STEM teacher leader system or program, and the impact it can create on science and math teaching and learning in secondary education. The investigator concludes this study with the development of a STEM teacher leader model that merges these findings with existing research.

  17. ARC-1, a sequence element complementary to an internal 18S rRNA segment, enhances translation efficiency in plants when present in the leader or intercistronic region of mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Akbergenov, R. Zh.; Zhanybekova, S. Sh.; Kryldakov, R. V.; Zhigailov, A.; Polimbetova, N. S.; Hohn, T.; Iskakov, B. K.

    2004-01-01

    The sequences of different plant viral leaders with known translation enhancer ability show partial complementarity to the central region of 18S rRNA. Such complementarity might serve as a means to attract 40S ribosomal subunits and explain in part the translation-enhancing property of these sequences. To verify this notion, we designed β-glucuronidase (GUS) mRNAs differing only in the nature of 10 nt inserts in the center of their 41 base leaders. These were complementary to consecutive domains of plant 18S rRNA. Sucrose gradient analysis revealed that leaders with inserts complementary to regions 1105–1114 and 1115–1124 (‘ARC-1’) of plant 18S rRNA bound most efficiently to the 40S ribosomal subunit after dissociation from 80S ribosomes under conditions of high ionic strength, a treatment known to remove translation initiation factors. Using wheat germ cell-free extracts, we could demonstrate that mRNAs with these leaders were translated more than three times more efficiently than a control lacking such a complementarity. Three linked copies of the insert enhanced translation of reporter mRNA to levels comparable with those directed by the natural translation enhancing leaders of tobacco mosaic virus and potato virus Y RNAs. Moreover, inserting the same leaders as intercistronic sequences in dicistronic mRNAs substantially increased translation of the second cistron, thereby revealing internal ribosome entry site activity. Thus, for plant systems, the complementary interaction between mRNA leader and the central region of 18S rRNA allows cap-independent binding of mRNA to the 43S pre-initiation complex without assistance of translation initiation factors. PMID:14718549

  18. The seven ages of the leader.

    PubMed

    Bennis, Warren G

    2004-01-01

    Leaders go through many transitions in their careers. Each brings new crises and challenges--from taking over a damaged organization to having to fire somebody to passing the baton to the next generation. These moments can be wrenching--and can threaten your confidence--but they're also predictable. Knowing what to expect can help you get through and perhaps emerge stronger. In this engaging article, Warren G. Bennis, professor and founding chairman of the University of Southern California's Leadership Institute, reflects on leadership, recounting his own experiences as a young lieutenant in the infantry in World War II, as the new president of a university, and as the mentor to a unique nursing student. Bennis also describes the experiences of other leaders he has known throughout his career. Drawing on more than 50 years of academic research and business expertise--and borrowing from Shakespeare's seven ages of man--Bennis says the leader's life unfolds in seven stages. "The infant executive" seeks to recruit a mentor for guidance. "The schoolboy" must learn how to do the job in public, subjected to unsettling scrutiny of every word and act. "The lover with a woeful ballad" struggles with the tsunami of problems every organization presents. "The bearded soldier" must be willing--even eager--to hire people better than he is, because he knows that talented underlings can help him shine. "The general" must become adept at not simply allowing people to speak the truth but at actually being able to hear what they are saying. "The statesman" is hard at work preparing to pass on wisdom in the interests of the organization. And, finally, "the sage" embraces the role of mentor to young executives.

  19. Working with religious leaders in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M

    1991-10-01

    For over a decade, family planning organizations in Bangladesh have worked to overturn religious opposition to family planning. In a Muslim country where 86% of the population lives in rural areas, ending religious opposition is seen as essential to the success family planning. As Mukkaram Chowdhury, director general of the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB), explained in a recent interview, recent efforts around the issue have focused on approaching local religious leaders and engaging them in constructive dialogues concerning contraception and family planning. The FPAB distributes pamphlets that explain that the Koran and other Muslim tests advocate practices that can be enhanced by family planning. According to Chowdhury, the Koran argues against people having children they cannot support, points out that too many children results in poverty, and insists on personal responsibility towards the well-being of one's family. National meetings to discuss these issues have had success in changing attitudes. While not all religious leaders have ceased opposing family planning, Chowdhury is encourage by the fact that many have become tolerant -- and some even support -- family planning. At a recent meeting in Khaka, religious leaders and scholars agreed that family planning can be justified as a health measure (reservations, however, were expressed toward sterilization). Noting that Bangladesh's efforts to change religious opposition may serve as models for other Muslim countries, Chowdhury points out that the country's family planning program still faces several obstacles, including the need to make rural communities health conscious, and the need to improve the educational and professional status of women, which will strengthen their role in the family.

  20. hexA of Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora strain Ecc71 negatively regulates production of RpoS and rsmB RNA, a global regulator of extracellular proteins, plant virulence and the quorum-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Cui, Y; Ma, W; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, A K

    2000-04-01

    The soft-rotting bacterium, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E. c. carotovora), produces an array of extracellular enzymes (= exoenzymes), including pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cel) and protease (Prt), as well as HarpinEcc, the elicitor of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The production of these exoenzymes and HarpinEcc responds to plant products and the quorum-sensing signal [N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone; OHL] and is subject to both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. hexA of E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 (hereafter hexA71), like that of another E. c. carotovora strain, negatively controls the production of exoenzymes, OHL and virulence in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71. In addition to exoenzymes, HexA71 negatively regulates the expression of hrpNEcc, the structural gene for HarpinEcc. Exoenzyme overproduction is abolished by OHL deficiency in a HexA- and Ohll- double mutant, indicating that HexA and OHL are components of a common regulatory pathway controlling exoenzyme production. HexA71 negatively affects RpoS, as the levels of this alternative sigma factor are higher in the HexA- mutant than in the HexA+ strain. However, a HexA- and RpoS double mutant produces higher levels of exoenzymes and transcripts of pel-1, peh-1 and celVgenes than the HexA- and RpoS+ parent. Thus, the elevated levels of RpoS protein in the HexA- mutant do not account for exoenzyme overproduction. The following evidence associates for the first time the phenotypic changes in the HexA mutant to overproduction of rsmB RNA, a global regulator of exoenzymes, HarpinEcc, OHL and secondary metabolites. Analyses of rsmB transcripts and expression of an rsmB-lacZoperon fusion in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 revealed that HexA71 negatively regulates transcription of rsmB. Multiple copies of hexA71+ DNA suppress various phenotypes, including exoenzyme production in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71, and concomitantly inhibit the production of rsm

  1. Training opinion leaders to promote safer sex.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, P M; Tillotson, T S; Roberts, C M; Roach, K J; Brault, B A

    1993-05-01

    Training opinion leaders in a men's residence hall in a brief program focused on communication and life skills is an effective way to stimulate peer discussions on HIV prevention and risk reduction and appears likely to have positive influences on behavioral change or intention. The program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison was extremely cost-effective and generated more than 350 conversations in a single residence hall in 1 month. This limited intervention revealed several key indicators of risk reduction. We believe that larger, more refined programs over a longer period will produce sustained prevention benefits and changes in the peer norms that so strongly influence behavior. PMID:8514962

  2. Authentic leadership: develop the leader within.

    PubMed

    Yasinski, Lesia

    2014-03-01

    Great leadership usually starts with a willing heart, a positive attitude, and a desire to make a difference. Strong leadership is important, in today's health care climate, to ensure optimal patient outcomes and the fostering of future generations of knowledgeable, motivated and enthusiastic perioperative nurses. This article will explore key elements necessary for the development of authentic leadership. While highlighting the role that personal development plays in leadership skills, this article will also discuss ways to cultivate authenticity in leadership. The following questions will be addressed: What is authentic leadership? How does one become an authentic leader?

  3. The servant leader: a higher calling for dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Certosimo, Fred

    2009-09-01

    The dental profession is guided by normative principles that provide guidance to our leaders and practicing dentists in addressing the needs of patients and the profession, yet there is room for incorporating new ideas that help dental professionals meet their professional obligations. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the concept of "servant leadership," especially in contrast with "self-serving leaders," and to suggest that servant leadership is consistent with the high ethical and professional ideals of the dental profession. The servant leader is the antithesis of the self-serving leader, who incessantly seeks more power and acquisition of material possessions. The servant leader's highest priority is the people (patients/students/customers) he or she serves. The concept of the servant-leader can take us away from self-serving, top-down leadership and encourage us to think harder about how to respect, value, and motivate people and ultimately provide better service to our patients.

  4. Beyond the classroom: nurse leader preparation and practices.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Formal academic education and experience as a nurse are established preparation for the chief nurse executive (CNE) or upcoming nurse leaders. This article proposes that the nurse leader must build on these fundamentals through self-discipline, lifelong learning, and practice. Three critical ingredients are discussed to guide the nurse leader on a life/career for the CNE and the nurse leader at every level. These include fostering relationships, feeding intellectual curiosity, and engaging in self-care practices. These indispensable ingredients of the successful nurse leader serve as an augmentation to formal education and experience for the nurse aspiring to reach the CNE level and beyond as well as for the current CNE mentoring future leaders.

  5. Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.

    PubMed

    Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness. PMID:22931014

  6. LEADER'S GUIDE--A MANUAL ON BETTER HUMAN RELATIONS FOR LEADERS IN YOUTH AGENCIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOLFE, ANN G.

    YOUTH AGENCIES ARE DEMONSTRATING A GROWING CONSCIOUSNESS OF INTERGROUP PROBLEMS, AND LEADERS ARE SEEKING NEW INSIGHTS AND SKILLS TO HELP IN OVERCOMING THEM. MEANS OF INFLUENCING INDIVIDUAL ATTITUDES INCLUDE THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION, THE GROUP PROCESS, DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP AND A PERMISSIVE GROUP CLIMATE, A STRONG SENSE OF BELONGING AND…

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the New Jersey Leaders to Leaders Induction Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the groundbreaking 1983 report A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform and the enactment of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2001, America's public schools have undergone dramatic changes. These significant changes have required school administrators to be more of an educational leader to students and…

  8. Simulations Help School Leaders Hone People Skills: Simulations Help School Leaders Practice "Tough Conversations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a simulation training program for school leaders at Syracuse University. The project is creating a series of parent, teacher, student, and community-member roles to help principals and teachers learn how to handle tricky conversations. Supported by a three-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of…

  9. Building Relevant Leaders: Identifying the Development Needs of the Modern Construction Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shands, Mike

    2014-01-01

    "Do senior level construction leaders possess a common set of leadership development needs that can be addressed to better prepare them to lead and retain the Millennial workforce?" As older generations begin to retire in-mass, many organizations are reevaluating their approach to employee recruitment, performance, and retention. This…

  10. Education Week Leaders to Learn From, 2013: Lessons from District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; Klein, Alyson; Samuels, Christina A.; Casey, Diette Courrege; Shah, Nirvi; Sawchuk, Stephen; Molnar, Michele; Zubrzycki, Jaclyn; Adams, Caralee; Davis, Michelle R.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    In an environment of tight resources, tough academic challenges, and increasingly stiff competition from new education providers, smart leadership may matter more than ever for the success of America's school districts. Against this backdrop, "Education Week" introduces the first of what will be an annual "Leaders To Learn From" report--a way to…

  11. The Effect of Teacher Leader Certification Academy (TLCA) on Teacher Leaders: Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative research measuring teacher leadership's impact in education is lacking, specifically at the site level. It has been proven time and again that most successful schools have well-established and strong leaders with a great capacity to lead. While the world of transformational teacher leadership is intensifying on many levels, it…

  12. Preparing Principals as Instructional Leaders: Perceptions of University Faculty, Expert Principals, and Expert Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor Backor, Karen; Gordon, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Although research has established links between the principal's instructional leadership and student achievement, there is considerable concern in the literature concerning the capacity of principal preparation programs to prepare instructional leaders. This study interviewed educational leadership faculty as well as expert principals and teacher…

  13. Leaders Learning from Leaders as an Emergent Action Learning Strategy Type of Paper: Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice describes what three executive leaders in a professional association have learned about action learning and their own practices of organizational renewal. Data are approached narratively and stories are told from the perspectives of diverse educators' experiences, agency, and expertise. Mature organizations can be…

  14. The Leader's Leader: Examining the HR Executive's Role as Performance Coach at the Management Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strodel, Neil; Novak, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Higher education human resource professionals know the importance of performance management and coaching for university employees. However, the standards of performance often are not enforced to those in high-level positions. Neil Strodel and Christopher Novak examine how HR leaders are in a unique position to extend performance coaching to those…

  15. Characteristics of lightning leader propagation and ground attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Rubin; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Hongbo; Lu, Gaopeng; Sun, Zhuling; Liu, Mingyuan; Li, Xun

    2015-12-01

    The grounding process and the associated leader behavior were analyzed by using high-speed video record and time-correlated electric field change for 37 natural negative cloud-to-ground flashes. Weak luminous grounded channel was recognized below the downward leader tip in the frame preceding the return stroke, which is inferred as upward connecting leader considering the physical process of lightning attachment, though not directly confirmed by sequential frames. For stepped leader-first return strokes, the upward connecting leaders tend to be induced by those downward leader branches with brighter luminosity and lower channel tip above ground, and they may accomplish the attachment with great possibility. The upward connecting leaders for 2 out of 61 leader-subsequent stroke sequences were captured in the frame prior to the return stroke, exhibiting relatively long channel lengths of 340 m and 105 m, respectively. The inducing downward subsequent leaders were of the chaotic type characterized by irregular electric field pulse train with duration of 0.2-0.3 ms. The transient drop of the high potential difference between stepped leader system and ground when the attachment occurred would macroscopically terminate the propagation of those ungrounded branches while would not effectively prevent the development of the existing space stem systems in the low-conductivity streamer zone apart from the leader tip. When the ungrounded branches are of poor connection with the main stroke channel, their further propagation toward ground would be feasible. These two factors may contribute to the occurrence of multiple grounding within the same leader-return stroke sequence.

  16. Leaders, self-confidence, and hubris: what's the difference?

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2010-01-01

    Success can easily breed hubris. As leaders become more confident, their success can limit their learning because they develop repetitive patterns of filtering information based on past successes and discount information that does not agree with their patterns of success. It is important for leaders to stay grounded in reality and effective as their success grows. Humility, gratitude, and appreciation will avoid the overconfidence that leads to hubris. Building confidence in others is the mark of a great leader. Hubris is not.

  17. Capped poly(A) leaders of variable lengths at the 5' ends of vaccinia virus late mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, B.Y.; Moss, B.

    1989-01-01

    Evidence for capped poly(A) leaders of variable lengths located immediately upstream of the translation initiation codon was obtained by direct analyses of a major late mRNA species. A decapping-recapping method was used to specifically substitute a radioactively labeled phosphate for an unlabeled one within the cap structure. RNase H-susceptible sites were made by hybridizing synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides to the mRNA encoding a late major structural protein of 11 kilodaltons. Sequences of the type m/sup 7/G(5')pppAmp (Ap)/sub n/UpG /hor elipsis/, where n varies from a few to more than 40 nucleotides, were deduced by analysis of the length and sequence of RNase, H, RNase T/sub 1/, and RNase U2 digestion products.

  18. Designing and implementing the Army Nursing Leader Academy.

    PubMed

    Dunemn, Kathleen; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L; Connally, Tina; Bramley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps directed a thorough review of existing training programs available to and provided for Army Nursing personnel for the development of full-spectrum leaders for Army Nursing. The review provided the gap analysis necessary to restructure courses provided by the Department of Nursing Science at the Army Medical Department Center and School. This new grouping of courses is referred to as the Army Nursing Leader Academy. The Army Nursing Leader Academy is the first of its kind in that it addresses career-long learning of all Army Nursing by focusing on building skills, knowledge, and behaviors to produce sustainable, full-spectrum leaders. The Nursing Leader Academy consists of a series of sequential nurse leader development courses combined with a web based resource center. Grounded in the Patient CaringTouch System, guided by nurse competencies, and gauged by the Leader Capabilities Map, the Nursing Leader Academy provides learning that is relevant and timely designed to reinforce enterprise values and culture to ensure readiness for successive roles and positions. Full implementation of the Nursing Leader Academy will include the evidence-based elements of formal schooling, coaching, self-development, functional/technical (competency attainment), and professional experiences.

  19. Educating Transformational Leaders in Mexico at Universidad De Monterrey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantón, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Mexico faces numerous social, economic, and political challenges. Higher education institutions provide opportunity for change by educating socially responsible leaders to become civically engaged citizens.

  20. Managers, leaders, and teams in a team-based environment.

    PubMed

    DeMent, J

    1996-08-01

    In order to succeed in today's dynamic environment, abundant with corporate restructuring and downsizing, into what must today's manager transform? Part of the answer lies in "leadership." Some managers are leaders, some leaders are managers, but the two are not synonymous. There are notable differences between managers and leaders, particularly in the role each plays in the transition towards organizations that are customer-focused, empowered, and team-based. The evolution towards team-based organizations begins with three different, concurrent transitions: of managers into leaders, of employees into teammates, and of functional hierarchical organizations into those of team empowerment.

  1. How Tapping Informal Leaders Can Improve Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. Michelle; Knox, Donald W., Jr.; Beyerlein, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Defines those individuals within an organization who influence productivity as informal leaders; describes how to improve individual leadership that supports company goals. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  2. Designing and implementing the Army Nursing Leader Academy.

    PubMed

    Dunemn, Kathleen; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L; Connally, Tina; Bramley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps directed a thorough review of existing training programs available to and provided for Army Nursing personnel for the development of full-spectrum leaders for Army Nursing. The review provided the gap analysis necessary to restructure courses provided by the Department of Nursing Science at the Army Medical Department Center and School. This new grouping of courses is referred to as the Army Nursing Leader Academy. The Army Nursing Leader Academy is the first of its kind in that it addresses career-long learning of all Army Nursing by focusing on building skills, knowledge, and behaviors to produce sustainable, full-spectrum leaders. The Nursing Leader Academy consists of a series of sequential nurse leader development courses combined with a web based resource center. Grounded in the Patient CaringTouch System, guided by nurse competencies, and gauged by the Leader Capabilities Map, the Nursing Leader Academy provides learning that is relevant and timely designed to reinforce enterprise values and culture to ensure readiness for successive roles and positions. Full implementation of the Nursing Leader Academy will include the evidence-based elements of formal schooling, coaching, self-development, functional/technical (competency attainment), and professional experiences. PMID:22124867

  3. When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E

    2016-06-01

    The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. The effect of reduced air density on streamer-to-leader transition and on properties of long positive leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazelyan, E. M.; Raizer, Yu P.; Aleksandrov, N. L.

    2007-07-01

    New results of observations of the leader process in a pressure chamber are presented for reduced air pressures. The analysis of these data and observations of the leader discharge in peak regions shows that the length of the leader tip and some other characteristics vary by several times as pressure decreases from 1 to 0.3 atm, whereas, under the conditions considered, the leader velocity remains almost independent of air density, the leader current being the same. These data are used to extract relationships between discharge parameters. It is shown that, at reduced air densities, electric field in a 'young' section of the leader channel exceeds electric field in the streamer zone. Therefore, transition of the leader process to the final-jump phase is not inevitably followed by a breakdown of the gap for reduced pressures, as opposed to the discharge in atmospheric pressure air. The model suggested previously by the authors for the streamer-to- leader transition at atmospheric pressure is amended to take into account hydrodynamic expansion of the channel and used to simulate the process at a relative air density of 0.3. The calculated results are used to interpret the observations of the leader process at reduced air pressures.

  5. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  6. An essential nuclear protein in trypanosomes is a component of mRNA transcription/export pathway.

    PubMed

    Serpeloni, Mariana; Moraes, Carolina Borsoi; Muniz, João Renato Carvalho; Motta, Maria Cristina Machado; Ramos, Augusto Savio Peixoto; Kessler, Rafael Luis; Inoue, Alexandre Haruo; daRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Fragoso, Stenio Perdigão; Goldenberg, Samuel; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Avila, Andréa Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, different RNA species are exported from the nucleus via specialized pathways. The mRNA export machinery is highly integrated with mRNA processing, and includes a different set of nuclear transport adaptors as well as other mRNA binding proteins, RNA helicases, and NPC-associated proteins. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a widespread and neglected human disease which is endemic to Latin America. Gene expression in Trypanosoma has unique characteristics, such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-encoding genes and mRNA processing by trans-splicing. In general, post-transcriptional events are the major points for regulation of gene expression in these parasites. However, the export pathway of mRNA from the nucleus is poorly understood. The present study investigated the function of TcSub2, which is a highly conserved protein ortholog to Sub2/ UAP56, a component of the Transcription/Export (TREX) multiprotein complex connecting transcription with mRNA export in yeast/human. Similar to its orthologs, TcSub2 is a nuclear protein, localized in dispersed foci all over the nuclei -except the fibrillar center of nucleolus- and at the interface between dense and non-dense chromatin areas, proposing the association of TcSub2 with transcription/processing sites. These findings were analyzed further by BrUTP incorporation assays and confirmed that TcSub2 is physically associated with active RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II), but not RNA polymerase I (RNA pol I) or Spliced Leader (SL) transcription, demonstrating participation particularly in nuclear mRNA metabolism in T. cruzi. The double knockout of the TcSub2 gene is lethal in T. cruzi, suggesting it has an essential function. Alternatively, RNA interference assays were performed in Trypanosoma brucei. It allowed demonstrating that besides being an essential protein, its knockdown causes mRNA accumulation in the nucleus and decrease of

  7. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  8. The SL1 trans-spliced leader RNA performs an essential embryonic function in Caenorhabditis elegans that can also be supplied by SL2 RNA.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, K C; Heid, P J; Rothman, J H

    1996-06-15

    Covalent joining of leader RNA exons to pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing has been observed in protists and invertebrates, and can occur in cultured mammalian cells. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, approximately 60% of mRNA species are trans-spliced to the 22-nucleotide SL1 leader, and another approximately 10% of mRNAs receive the 22-nucleotide SL2 leader. We have isolated deletions that remove the rrs-1 cluster, a gene complex that contains approximately 110 tandem copies of a repeat encoding both SL1 RNA and 5S rRNA. An SL1-encoding gene alone rescues the embryonic lethality caused by these deletions. Mutations within the Sm-binding site of SL1 RNA, which is required for trans-splicing, eliminate rescue, suggesting that the ability of the SL1 leader to be trans-spliced is required for its essential activity. We observe pleiotropic defects in embryos lacking SL1 RNA, suggesting that multiple mRNAs may be affected by the absence of an SL1 leader. We found, however, that SL1-receiving messages are expressed without an SL1 leader. Surprisingly, when overexpressed, SL2 RNA, which performs a distinct function from that of SL1 RNA in wild-type animals, can rescue the lethality of embryos lacking SL1 RNA. Moreover, in these mutant embryos, we detect SL2 instead of SL1 leaders on normally SL1-trans-spliced messages; this result suggests that the mechanism that discriminates between SL1 and SL2-trans-splicing may involve competition between SL1 and SL2-specific trans-splicing. Our findings demonstrate that SL1 RNA is essential for embryogenesis in C. elegans and that SL2 RNA can substitute for SL1 RNA in vivo.

  9. Training the Future Leaders in Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Sweetser, David A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Morton, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    The era of personalized medicine has arrived, and with it a need for leaders in this discipline. This generation of trainees requires a cadre of new skill sets to lead the implementation of personalized medicine into mainstream healthcare. Traditional training programs no longer provide trainees with all the skills they will need to optimize implementation of this revolution now underway in medicine. Today’s trainees must manage clinical teams, act as clinical and molecular diagnostic consultants, train other healthcare professionals, teach future generations, and be knowledgeable about clinical trials to facilitate genomic-based therapies. To prepare trainees for the transition to junior faculty positions, contemporary genomic training programs must emphasize the development of these management, teaching, and clinical skills. PMID:26751479

  10. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  11. Ashley W. Oughterson, MD: Surgeon, Soldier, Leader

    PubMed Central

    Kunstman, John W.; Longo, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Ashley W. Oughterson, MD, (1895-1956) was a longtime faculty surgeon at Yale University. He performed some of the earliest pancreatic resections in the United States. During World War II, Colonel Oughterson was the primary “Surgical Consultant” in the South Pacific and present at nearly every major battle. His meticulously kept diary is regarded as the foremost source detailing wartime surgical care. Colonel Oughterson led the initial Army team to survey Hiroshima and Nagasaki following the nuclear attacks. Thoughout his academic career at Yale, Oughterson was a key leader in several medical and surgical societies. As scientific director of the American Cancer Society, Oughterson lectured widely and guided research priorities in oncology following World War II. Oughterson also authored numerous benchmark papers in surgical oncology that continue to be cited today. These extensive contributions are examined here and demonstrate the wide-ranging impact Oughterson exerted during a formative period of American surgery. PMID:26029018

  12. Course strategies for clinical nurse leader development.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Sally; Grossman, Sheila; Godfrey, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    The scope of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) is evolving in practice across the country. The preparation of this pivotal role in a complex healthcare environment has prompted the collaboration of nurse academics, nurse administrators, and clinicians to design unique educational experiences to maximize best practice. Knowledge attained regarding healthcare improvement and patient safety must not only be theoretical, but personal and application focused. Utilizing the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's CNL white paper and published resources faculty developed a clinical leadership course focused on active learning and reflection. Students explore concepts of improvement and quality related to business models of high functioning organizations including healthcare. Three key components of the course are described in detail; "quality is personal", executive interviews and the "5P" clinical microsystems assessment. Evaluation outcomes are discussed. Course content and innovative teaching/learning strategies for CNL are shared which may support the growth of CNL program development nationally.

  13. John Bryant Curtis: neurosurgeon, leader and mentor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon; Kaye, Andrew H; Buckley, Penelope

    2009-10-01

    In every generation of neurosurgeons, there are those whose judgment and professional accomplishments gain distinction among their peers. Such exceptional leaders often exhibit unique talent and inevitably, they exert a lasting influence on their field of endeavour. John Bryant Curtis was one of these. Rising from humble roots, Curtis made his impact in neurosurgery starting at the age of 36. A legendary and a master neurosurgeon for his period, he became the second director of Neurosurgery at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, succeeding R. S. Hooper in 1967. Like Hooper, Curtis had undertaken a three years Fellowship in Oxford at the Radcliffe Infirmary to train under Sir Hugh Cairns in 1947. On his return to Australia in 1950, he was among the pioneers in introducing percutaneous angiography into the country, which earned him the honourable Hunterian Professorship at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1958. This was in recognition for his contribution to the investigation of intracranial aneurysms. Among the many neurosurgeons whom John Bryant Curtis trained at the Royal Melbourne Hospital and at the Prince Henry Hospital, he was considered, by a few, a controversial figure. Others found the experience very positive. He was a distinguished neurosurgeon with expert clinical judgment, but simultaneously a stern and formidable character who demanded only the best from his staff and trainees. He was contrastingly thoughtful and gentle to his patients. Behind every great leader, there is a personal side, often more gentle and vulnerable than the public persona. Curtis was a generous, loving, funny, although at times eccentric human being. Although he died in 1989, ironically from metastatic brain tumours, his dynamic personality and work ethic imprinted a lasting impression on those who had met him.

  14. What your leader expects of you.

    PubMed

    Bossidy, Larry

    2007-04-01

    The success of an executive team depends heavily on the relationships the boss has with his or her direct reports. Yet the leadership literature has had little to say about what is expected in those relationships-on either side. Larry Bossidy, formerly the chairman and CEO of Honeywell, and before that of AlliedSignal, shares what he calls "the CEO compact," detailing the behaviors a leader should look for in subordinates and what they should be able to expect in return. A CEO's best people, he says, know when a situation calls for them to get involved. They generate ideas-remembering that some of the best ones may sound crazy at first. They are willing to collaborate, putting the long-term good of the company above short-term goals of their divisions. They step up to lead initiatives, even if the outcome is uncertain. They develop leaders among their people, especially through direct involvement in performance appraisals. They stay current on world events and anticipate how those events may affect the company and its competition. They drive their own growth by exposing themselves to new people and ideas and by accepting demanding assignments. And they sustain these behaviors in bad times as well as good. On the other side of the compact, the boss should provide clarity of direction; set goals and objectives; give frequent, specific, and immediate feedback; be decisive and timely; demonstrate honesty and candor; and offer an equitable compensation plan. Executives who aren't lucky enough to have such a boss can create a compact with their own subordinates, Bossidy says, and demonstrate by example. The result will be to improve team and company performance and accelerate individual growth. PMID:17432153

  15. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  16. External Mandates and Instructional Leadership: School Leaders as Mediating Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Robinson, Viviane M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how US school leaders make sense of external mandates, and the way in which their understanding of state and district accountability policies affects their work. It is posited that school leaders' responses to external accountability are likely to reflect a complex interaction between their…

  17. Growing Teacher Leaders in a Culture of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searby, Linda; Shaddix, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Viewing teachers as leaders requires a paradigm shift about the concept of leadership in a school system. The Teachers as Leaders program of the Mountain Brook, Alabama Schools represents that shift and is empowering teachers to utilize their leadership skills and contribute to the system as it fulfills its mission to offer education to its…

  18. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined.

  19. Culture of Sharing: North Slope Leaders Forge Trail into Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkotak, Elise Sereni

    2010-01-01

    To create a strong local economy, the community needs a workforce. In Native communities, the workforce should be grounded in the local culture and values. On the North Slope of Alaska, this has long been a goal of leaders. To achieve this goal, North Slope leaders came together February 2010 in Barrow, Alaska, for the "Tumitchiat" Leadership…

  20. Developing Leaders through Mentoring: A Brief Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    Our rapidly-changing, ambiguous, global business arena demands a unique and evolving set of insights and capabilities by which leaders may effectively navigate this new terrain. Mentoring can accomplish exactly that, as its processes orient, train, and advance the skills, knowledge, and experiences of aspiring leaders. Best utilized, mentoring is…

  1. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  2. Learning to Lead: Lessons from the NYSAIS Emerging Leaders Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Marcy; Swain, George

    2014-01-01

    In a time of great flux and dynamic change in schools, from where will our future school leaders come? The answer, of course, is from a variety of places. By and large, however, most of these leaders are already in the nation's schools. Some are highly engaging teachers who have a particular knack with parents, some are department chairs…

  3. A Case Study Framework for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevarez, Carlos; Wood, J. Luke

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a case study framework designed to aid in the preparation of emerging community college leaders. The framework is multidimensional and fluid in nature, taking into account the multiplicity of factors affecting leadership in community colleges. The steps in the framework consist of (a) assuming the role of the leader; (b)…

  4. Fostering Trust in Outdoor Leaders: The Role of Personal Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooter, Wynn; Paisley, Karen; Sibthorp, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This study examined trust development between participants of outdoor education programs and outdoor leaders. Participants were college students enrolled in outdoor education courses. Using a factorial survey design, the technical ability, interpersonal ability, benevolence, integrity, and gender of an outdoor leader was displayed randomly in a…

  5. As Leaders Learn: Personal Stories of Growth in School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr., Ed.; Marnik, George F., Ed.

    This book presents the stories of a group of Maine educators--teacher leaders, teaching principals, and principals--who met at the Maine Academy for School Leaders (MASL) in 1992 to share their experiences and frustrations and to help each other improve their understanding and practice of educational leadership. They share personal accounts of how…

  6. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined. PMID:16332556

  7. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  8. Managing Polarity, Paradox, and Dilemma during Leader Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Freeman, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review literature relevant to leader transition and the navigation of polarities, paradoxes, and dilemmas that exist in organizations. Furthermore, the researchers aim to critique the literature and provide suggestions for practitioners and researchers interested in leader transition through the lens of…

  9. Insights into Action: Successful School Leaders Share What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, William L.

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to be a great school leader? An award-winning former principal poses this question to renowned school leaders and experts in the field to provide you with insight into the actions that lead to success. These giants in the field of educational leadership--including Baruti Kafele, Rick DuFour, Carol Ann Tomlinson, and James…

  10. Wounded Leader: An Archetypal Embodiment of Compassionate Transcendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to seek to further the formation of the emerging transcendent leadership model by exploring the archetypal image identified as wounded leader. The wounded leader archetype is introduced as a leadership style of influence that fits well within the framework of the transcendent leadership model. This study…

  11. Transformational Leadership Characteristics Necessary for Today's Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Lloyd Moman

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the traits and characteristics of presidents of institutions of higher education who are considered transformational leaders. The study adds current data to the published and perceived characterization of leaders in higher education and their approaches to changing the learning environment at their institutions. This…

  12. Practical School Community Partnerships Leading to Successful Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kladifko, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    School leaders must have knowledge and understanding of the various external and internal entities in their school community. Partnerships, with a focus on communication and interaction with diverse community leaders and professionals, are essential for school success. In this article, the author discusses successful practical experiences and…

  13. Educating Danish School Leaders to Meet New Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf

    2011-01-01

    There is no shared understanding of what school leaders are expected to do. Schools have many external as well as internal stakeholders and each of them has different expectations as to leadership practice. Thus school leadership is a "fluid signifier". This article first outlines external expectations that school leaders are faced with and have…

  14. Competency Concerns in Group Co-Leader Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atieno Okech, Jane E.; Kline, William B.

    2006-01-01

    Group co-leaders' descriptions of their experiences and perceptions of each other as they led groups together illuminated competency concerns as a factor that strongly influenced their relationships and performance. Based on their narratives, group co-leaders' perceptions of their ability to form intimate relationships and beliefs regarding their…

  15. Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Rae

    2011-01-01

    In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…

  16. The Charismatic Leader. Behind the Mystique of Exceptional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Jay A.

    A systematic understanding of how various behavioral components (vision, articulation skills, empowerment, unconventionality, and risk-taking) work together to set apart certain individuals as charismatic leaders is presented. Using illustrations from the careers of charismatic leaders, including Steve Jobs, Lee Iacocca, Mary Kay, John DeLorean,…

  17. Member Disclosure in Personal Growth Groups: Effects of Leader Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Carolyn J.; Harren, Vincent A.

    1978-01-01

    This research explores the impact of leader behavior on individual group members in growth groups. Affect of message was found to be the only predictor of member-disclosure. Effects of leader-disclosure on member self-disclosure is difficult to interpret. (MFD)

  18. Strategic Planning: An Imperative Procedure for Educational Leaders to Employ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process that educational leaders must utilize to allow the organization to make its vision come into fruition. Bryson asserts that leaders must be masterful in this process to allow the organization to " . . . fulfill (its) mission, meet (its) mandates, and satisfy (its) constituents in the years ahead" (Bryson 1995, pg.…

  19. Advocacy for School Leaders: Becoming a Strong Voice for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…

  20. Describing an "Effective" Principal: Perceptions of the Central Office Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how district leaders of two school systems in the USA describe an effective principal. Membership categorisation analysis revealed that district leaders believed an effective principal had four major categories of characteristics: (1) documented characteristics (having a track record and being a…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010 Section 404.1010 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010 Section 404.1010 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm...

  3. 47 CFR 54.631 - Designation of Consortium Leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of Consortium Leader. 54.631 Section 54.631 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.631 Designation of Consortium Leader....

  4. Job Attainment and Perceived Role Differences of Cyberschool Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Beck, Dennis; LaFrance, Jason; McLeod, Scott

    2016-01-01

    As cyberschooling options expand, it is vital that we understand the nuances of these particular learning opportunities. Because little research exists on leaders of K-12 cyberschools, this exploratory case study had two purposes. We first examined how 18 cyberschool leaders in the United States obtained their position. Second, we explored the…

  5. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010 Section 404.1010 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm...

  6. 47 CFR 54.631 - Designation of Consortium Leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of Consortium Leader. 54.631 Section 54.631 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.631 Designation of Consortium Leader....

  7. A Death at School: What School Leaders Should Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    All school leaders at some point will find themselves confronted by the need to shepherd their school communities through emotionally draining experiences. Death requires school leaders to act with compassion, care, and awareness that they are modeling for young people how to grieve. Few better examples of servant leadership exist. Communication…

  8. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010 Section 404.1010 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010 Section 404.1010 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm...

  10. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.…

  11. A Manual for Training Leaders in Exploring Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn (Roy) Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed for individuals responsible for training Head Start staff and parents to lead "Exploring Parenting" groups. It focuses on the role of trainers of groups of leaders and effective training methods. Chapter 1, "Approach to Training," describes the approach to training group leaders in a nonthreatening, structured group…

  12. Overcoming Adversity: Resilience Development Strategies for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    School leadership has never been easy. However, some experts like Garcia (2005) wrote that current school leaders are facing a variety of difficulties that make sustaining school reform efforts exceedingly difficult. Collectively, these modern day challenges have the capacity to form the perfect storm. School leaders need effective strategies to…

  13. The Lived Transitions of Senior Student Affairs Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; King, Margaret; Forrest, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study of student affairs leaders who have left senior roles used an interpretive qualitative approach to explore these lived transitional experiences. The context of the departure, its immediate impact, the ensuing emotions, the change navigation process, and the envisioned future appear to shape the departing leaders' perceptions of the…

  14. Twenty under 30: Emerging Leaders in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Profiles 20 emerging young leaders in Indian Country, Hawaii, and Alaska, who have contributed to their indigenous communities in diverse ways, including educators; college students; tribal leaders and managers; businessmen; and professionals in law, archeology, and public health. Includes descriptions of accomplishments and educational background…

  15. Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

  16. The Rising Cost of Higher Education. APPA Thought Leaders 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the topic of the rising cost of higher education. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives, and facilities professionals--participated in a facilitated…

  17. Impact of the Supplemental Instruction Experience on Science SI Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockie, Nancy M.; Van Lanen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experiences of SI leaders in science courses. Analysis of data using Colaizzi's phenomenological approach has indicated the following advantages of the SI experience for SI leaders: (a) greater appreciation of the diversity of student learning styles, (b) increased understanding of the subject matter, (c)…

  18. Teacher Leaders: The Backbone of Sustained Improvement. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This newsletter defines teacher leadership and offers concrete ways teachers can step forward, sometimes out of their comfort zones, into leadership roles. In most schools, traditional structures are in place that define certain teachers as leaders such as department heads and grade-level team leaders. Many schools also have a leadership team,…

  19. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  20. Foundations of Change for the Scholar-Practitioner Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Change is a fact of life, and educational reform is replete with change. However, cosmetic changes fail to bring about real improvement. Rather than remodel the existing concept of public education, leaders must create a new one. The schools must be recultured. The change leader must build trust with open communication supporting followers through…

  1. Importing Leaders for School Turnarounds: Lessons and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in education today is identifying talented candidates to successfully lead turnarounds of persistently low-achieving schools. Evidence suggests that the traditional principal pool is already stretched to capacity and cannot supply enough leaders to fix failing schools. But potentially thousands of leaders capable of…

  2. Choosing a Values-Based Leader: An Experiential Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Anne H.; Ehlinger, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Scandals throughout corporate America have encouraged companies to seek leaders who can sustain profitability and embody positive values within the organization. This group exercise highlights some of the key challenges involved in choosing a values-based leader. Participants assess three hypothetical companies' values during a period of change…

  3. Why Teacher Leaders Don't Want to Be Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul M.; Denny, George S.; Pijanowski, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines reasons why teachers who were identified by their school principal as leaders or having leadership potential, chose not to become school principals. While the literature reports a shortage of qualified applicants for school administrative positions, the deterrents that teacher leaders most often identify include…

  4. Assessing Intercultural Competence for Educational Leaders: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Ganzoury, Hala A.

    2012-01-01

    The growing diversity of multi-cultural student populations in public schools coupled with the persistent challenge of narrowing the racial achievement gap raises questions about the preparedness of educational leaders to meet the needs of their diverse student population. Educational leaders are facing the challenge of responding to the needs of…

  5. Inside-Outside: Finding Future Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Stephen L.; Sanchez, Alex A.; Downey-Schilling, JoAnna

    2011-01-01

    Over the next decade, as the community college's current generation of leaders and administrators begin retiring in large numbers, important steps must be taken to identify and develop future leaders for the institution. A variety of internal opportunities (e.g., internships, leadership development programs, graduate school programs) provide…

  6. We Are the Leaders We've Been Waiting for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    As the Latino community in the United States grows and matures, the inevitable question continues to be asked: who is the leader of this community of 50 million? "Leadership" in the Latino community has been hotly debated for many years. Many decry the absence of the "great Brown hope," a single leader who can unite the community of 50 million…

  7. A Leader's Top Task Is to Nurture Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore

    2016-01-01

    In her full essay exploring the Leadership standard in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Leadership," author Karen Seashore Louis offers keen insights into the question of how leaders affect the learning of other adults in a school. She writes particularly about how "school leaders can create a school culture in…

  8. Distributed but Undefined: New Teacher Leader Roles to Change Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Jason; Huggins, Kristin Shawn

    2012-01-01

    This article examines teacher leader role development and definition by looking at one emergent model of distributed leadership: the hybrid teacher leader (HTL). HTLs are teachers whose official schedule includes both teaching K-12 students and leading teachers in some capacity. Participants included six HTLs across four school districts over 2…

  9. Intergenerational Learning Practices--Digital Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the management and outcomes of a specific model of intergenerational learning, concerned with student digital leader support in a number of secondary schools in England. A local educational partnership set up a student digital leader project late in 2011, which aimed to develop a range of skills and outcomes for both the…

  10. Using Multimedia Cases To Invigorate School Leaders' Organizational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudet, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Creating meaningful learning opportunities for school leaders (principals, teachers, peer professionals, and community members) is a central goal of educational staff developers. Describes results of one prototype collaborative effort to design and use multimedia cases to invigorate school leaders' organizational thinking and learning. (Author/AEF)

  11. Developing Successful Employees: Perceptions of Industry Leaders and Academicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Amanda; Cushman, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Needed skills and qualities of retailing employees were ranked by 11 faculty and 12 industry representatives. Industry leaders believed leadership and decision making were most important for future leaders. Faculty ranked interpersonal and cognitive skills higher, and they believed their rankings would match those of industry. (SK)

  12. The Personalities of Group Leaders: Implications for Selection and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLennan, Beryce W.

    This paper discusses the growing recognition that the personalities and life experiences of group leaders are important factors in their effectiveness. Leaders should be warm, empathetic, responsive, understand individual and group behavior, give feedback, be trusted and accepted. Life experiences and personal development are important for the…

  13. Educating Leaders: Is There Anything to Learn from Business Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Snidvongs, Kamontip

    2008-01-01

    The current focus on school leader preparation reflects the importance societies around the world are placing upon the goal of improving their educational systems. The investment of substantial new resources into leadership preparation and development activities is based upon "the belief that school leaders make a difference" in both the…

  14. Lacking Leaders: The Challenges of Principal Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Daniela; Locke, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Principals are vitally important. But ever-rising accountability standards, limited authority over key decisions, and mediocre pay make the job more and more demanding and less and less attractive to talented leaders. At a time when schools need high-quality leaders more than ever, the grueling nature of the job makes it a tough sell, and…

  15. Folkpatterns 4-H Leader's Guide: A Cultural Heritage Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, LuAnne Gaykowski

    Folkpatterns is a 4-H program in which young people investigate folklore, cultural traditions, and local history. These materials include a leader's guide and Folkpatterns activities. The leader's guide provides information for leading a Folkpatterns project and 12 sample meeting plans to be used with Folkpatterns members or to be adapted for use…

  16. An Analysis of Outdoor Leaders' Ethics: Guiding Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, Denise

    Outdoor leaders model their values, and their ethical frameworks and moral development help shape their influence on others. Outdoor leaders face many obstacles as they seek to define ethical standards, including the challenge of defining common ethics, lack of professional certifications, the limits of professional ethics, and issues of power and…

  17. Disability Identity of Leaders in the Self-Advocacy Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Life stories and perspectives of leaders in the self-advocacy movement were explored to enhance knowledge about disability identity formation. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 leaders in the self-advocacy movement. Five major themes emerged: (a) resistance-claiming personhood and voice; (b) connection with disability…

  18. Leadership Practices of Effective Student Leaders: Gender Makes No Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Brodsky, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Used Student Leadership Practices Inventory to survey fraternity and sorority presidents and executive committee members. Findings from 239 men and 389 women revealed that practices of effective student leaders did not vary according to gender. Effective leaders, both male and female, engaged in challenging, inspiring, enabling, modeling, and…

  19. Investing in Leaders and Leadership to Secure a Desirable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2014-01-01

    Investments in the select few who already are or will become academic leaders are essential but insufficient. Investments also need to be made in collective leadership because leadership is an activity or function, not merely a person. Both good leaders and collective leadership are needed in the never-ending journey toward selective excellence. A…

  20. Leveraging Facilities for Institutional Success. APPA Thought Leaders Series 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the issues and challenges related to leveraging campus facility assets to achieve desired institutional outcomes. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives,…

  1. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  2. Leaders' Perceptions of Mobile Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristin R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…

  3. Leadership by Consensus at MU: A Look at Two Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The researchers are interested in the views and perceptions, about leadership, of two leaders within the University of Missouri at the Columbia campus. Therefore, the aim of this research is to understand and to compare and contrast the leadership styles of these two leaders. In order to reach the aim of this recent study, the researchers have…

  4. What's the 411? High School Leaders' Perceptions of Inclusion Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Arnella L.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, descriptive study explored and described urban and suburban school leaders' perceptions of the definition of "inclusion" and perceptions of their level of involvement in the implementation of inclusion. Additionally, the study determined if there was a significant difference in the urban and suburban school leaders'…

  5. Characteristics of successful opinion leaders in a bounded confidence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwei; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the impact of competing opinion leaders on attracting followers in a social group based on a bounded confidence model in terms of four characteristics: reputation, stubbornness, appeal and extremeness. In the model, reputation differs among leaders and normal agents based on the weights assigned to them, stubbornness of leaders is reflected by their confidence towards normal agents, appeal of the leaders is represented by the confidence of followers towards them, and extremeness is captured by the opinion values of leaders. Simulations show that increasing reputation, stubbornness or extremeness makes it more difficult for the group to achieve consensus, but increasing the appeal will make it easier. The results demonstrate that successful opinion leaders should generally be less stubborn, have greater appeal and be less extreme in order to attract more followers in a competing environment. Furthermore, the number of followers can be very sensitive to small changes in these characteristics. On the other hand, reputation has a more complicated impact: higher reputation helps the leader to attract more followers when the group bound of confidence is high, but can hinder the leader from attracting followers when the group bound of confidence is low.

  6. National Agenda: Establishing Authority as an Educational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kritsonis, William Allen; Cloud, Michelle Annette

    2006-01-01

    Educational leaders must continually refine their skills to successfully utilize the following leadership components: reward, coercive, expert, and legitimate and referent power to help schools achieve and sustain their vision. The intent of this article is to examine how educational leaders can positively and successfully establish authority to…

  7. Black and Minority Ethnic Leaders in England: A Portrait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek; Sood, Krishan

    2006-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) leaders are greatly under-represented in English schools compared with the number of BME pupils. This paper reports the findings from research with BME leaders in 2004-2005 and links them to insights from a systematic literature review. The paper shows that BME teachers experience many barriers in developing their…

  8. Community College and Community Leader Expectations of the "Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    A level of consistency between community college leaders and community leaders is necessary to demonstrate behaviors, actions, and beliefs that shape, represent, and support expected community values. Likewise, communities, which are collectives of suborganizations, play an important role in aiding individual development, especially related to…

  9. Leader Positivity and Follower Creativity: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avey, James B.; Richmond, F. Lynn; Nixon, Don R.

    2012-01-01

    Using an experimental research design, 191 working adults were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in order to test a theoretical model linking leader and follower positive psychological capital (PsyCap). Multiple methods were used to gather information from the participants. We found when leader PsyCap was manipulated experimentally,…

  10. Profile of a 1:1 Technology Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Howard Todd

    2012-01-01

    There is a great amount of emphasis placed on the impact a principal has on a school. Likewise, there is an abundance of research focused on the necessary skills needed to be a successful school leader. The purpose of this study is to develop a profile that includes common characteristics and attributes of successful school leaders in a one-to-one…

  11. Growing nurse leaders: an undergraduate teaching assistant program.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Genevieve E

    2005-12-01

    In today's complex health care system, leader behaviors are critical for all nurses. The undergraduate teaching assistant (TA) program empowers students to develop leadership behaviors through a collaborative mentoring model. This successful program enables undergraduate students to collaborate with faculty and graduate TAs in co-teaching large classes. The collaborative mentoring, structured class, and ongoing support provide fertile ground for growing nurse leaders.

  12. Metastable structures and refolding kinetics in hok mRNA of plasmid R1.

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, J H; Gultyaev, A P; Gerdes, K; Pleij, C W

    1999-01-01

    Programmed cell death by hok/sok of plasmid R1 and pnd/pndB of R483 mediates plasmid maintenance by killing of plasmid-free cells. It has been previously suggested that premature translation of the plasmid-mediated toxin is prevented during transcription of the hok and pnd mRNAs by the formation of metastable hairpins in the mRNA at the 5' end. Here, experimental evidence is presented for the existence of metastable structures in the 5' leader of the hok and pnd mRNAs in vitro. The kinetics of refolding from the metastable to the stable structure in the isolated fragments of the 5' ends of both the hok and pnd mRNAs could be estimated, in agreement with the structural rearrangement in this region, as predicted to occur during transcription and mRNA activation. The refolding rates of hok and pnd structures are slow enough to allow for the formation of downstream hairpin structures during elongation of the mRNAs, which thereby helps to stabilize the metastable structures. Thus, the kinetic refolding parameters of the hok and pnd mRNAs are consistent with the proposal that the metastable structures prevent premature translation and/or antisense RNA binding during transcription. PMID:10580469

  13. Powerful women leaders rise in Asia despite gender inequality.

    PubMed

    Over the years, Asia has produced some of the worlds most formidable women leaders, including Indira Ghandi, Madame Mao, Benazir Bhutto, and Corazon Aquino. The list continues with South Asia's leaders, prime ministers, opposition leaders, and vice-presidents, however, such an impressive list does not reflect true equality nor enlightened gender politics. According to Sonny Lo, sociology professor at Hong Kong University, no Asian political system observes true gender equality. It is noted that these Asian leaders rose into prominence after the death or imprisonment of their fathers or husbands. Nevertheless, the elections of Anson Chan and life-long dissident Annette Lu, signal the emergence of a new model for women leaders in Asia. Still, Lo emphasizes that this new trend is merely a reflection of civil service equal opportunity rules. Lo adds that even Taiwan President Chen Sui-Bian's all-women cabinet does not reflect the nation's sentiment, but a wish to project an image.

  14. Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J

    2002-07-01

    A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.

  15. Role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Karau, Steven J

    2002-07-01

    A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles. PMID:12088246

  16. Structural analysis of leader peptide binding enables leader-free cyanobactin processing.

    PubMed

    Koehnke, Jesko; Mann, Greg; Bent, Andrew F; Ludewig, Hannes; Shirran, Sally; Botting, Catherine; Lebl, Tomas; Houssen, Wael E; Jaspars, Marcel; Naismith, James H

    2015-08-01

    Regioselective modification of amino acids within the context of a peptide is common to a number of biosynthetic pathways, and many of the resulting products have potential as therapeutics. The ATP-dependent enzyme LynD heterocyclizes multiple cysteine residues to thiazolines within a peptide substrate. The enzyme requires the substrate to have a conserved N-terminal leader for full activity. Catalysis is almost insensitive to immediately flanking residues in the substrate, suggesting that recognition occurs distant from the active site. Nucleotide and peptide substrate co-complex structures of LynD reveal that the substrate leader peptide binds to and extends the β-sheet of a conserved domain of LynD, whereas catalysis is accomplished in another conserved domain. The spatial segregation of catalysis from recognition combines seemingly contradictory properties of regioselectivity and promiscuity, and it appears to be a conserved strategy in other peptide-modifying enzymes. A variant of LynD that efficiently processes substrates without a leader peptide has been engineered.

  17. Recent innovations in mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Nucleic acid-based vaccines are being developed as a means to combine the positive attributes of both live-attenuated and subunit vaccines. Viral vectors and plasmid DNA vaccines have been extensively evaluated in human clinical trials and have been shown to be safe and immunogenic, although none have yet been licensed for human use. Recently, mRNA based vaccines have emerged as an alternative approach. They promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines, without the need for electroporation, but with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. In addition, they avoid the limitations of anti-vector immunity seen with viral vectors, and can be dosed repeatedly. This review highlights the key papers published over the past few years and summarizes prospects for the near future.

  18. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section 532.261 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing...

  19. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section 532.261 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing...

  20. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section 532.261 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing...