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Sample records for rpos mrna leader

  1. Positional effects of AAN motifs in rpoS regulation by sRNAs and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    The E. coli stationary phase transcription factor RpoS is translated in response to small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs), which base pair with the rpoS mRNA leader. The bacterial Sm-like protein Hfq anneals sRNAs with their mRNA targets by simultaneously binding the mRNA and sRNA. Intriguingly, Hfq is recruited to the rpoS leader via AAN motifs far upstream of the sRNA. SHAPE chemical footprinting showed that the rpoS leader is divided into a far upstream domain, an Hfq binding domain, and a downstream inhibitory stem-loop containing the sRNA and ribosome binding sites. To investigate how Hfq promotes sRNA-mRNA base pairing from a distance, the natural AAN Hfq binding site was deleted, and artificial AAN binding sites were inserted at various positions in the rpoS leader. All the relocated AAN motifs restored tight Hfq binding in vitro, but only insertion at the natural position restored Hfq-dependent sRNA annealing in vitro and sRNA regulation of rpoS translation in vivo. Furthermore, U-rich motifs in the downstream inhibitory domain stabilized the rpoS mRNA-Hfq complex and contributed to regulation of rpoS expression. We propose that the natural Hfq binding domain is optimal for positive regulation because it recruits Hfq to the mRNA and allows it to act on incoming sRNAs without opening the inhibitory stem-loop when sRNA are absent. PMID:24051417

  2. The leader region of Laminin B1 mRNA confers cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Kozina, Daniela; Huber, Heidemarie; Siwiec, Tanja; Seipelt, Joachim; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5'-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.

  3. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E; Fang, Xianyang; Woodson, Sarah A

    2014-12-02

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. Here, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNA regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.

  4. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E.; Fang, Xianyang; ...

    2014-11-17

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. In this paper, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNAmore » regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Finally, our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.« less

  5. Structural model of an mRNA in complex with the bacterial chaperone Hfq

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yi; Curtis, Joseph E.; Fang, Xianyang; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2014-11-17

    The Sm-like protein Hfq (host factor Q-beta phage) facilitates regulation by bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) in response to stress and other environmental signals. In this paper, we present a low-resolution model of Escherichia coli Hfq bound to the rpoS mRNA, a bacterial stress response gene that is targeted by three different sRNAs. Selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and primer extension, small-angle X-ray scattering, and Monte Carlo molecular dynamics simulations show that the distal face and lateral rim of Hfq interact with three sites in the rpoS leader, folding the RNA into a compact tertiary structure. These interactions are needed for sRNA regulation of rpoS translation and position the sRNA target adjacent to an sRNA binding region on the proximal face of Hfq. Finally, our results show how Hfq specifically distorts the structure of the rpoS mRNA to enable sRNA base pairing and translational control.

  6. Translation of vph mRNA in Streptomyces lividans and Escherichia coli after removal of the 5' untranslated leader.

    PubMed

    Wu, C J; Janssen, G R

    1996-10-01

    The Streptomyces vinaceus viomycin phosphotransferase (vph) mRNA contains an untranslated leader with a conventional Shine-Dalgarno homology. The vph leader was removed by ligation of the vph coding sequence to the transcriptional start site of a Streptomyces or an Escherichia coli promoter, such that transcription would initiate at the first position of the vph start codon. Analysis of mRNA demonstrated that transcription initiated primarily at the A of the vph AUG translational start codon in both Streptomyces lividans and E. coli; cells expressing the unleadered vph mRNA were resistant to viomycin indicating that the Shine-Dalgarno sequence, or other features contained within the leader, was not necessary for vph translation. Addition of four nucleotides (5'-AUGC-3') onto the 5' end of the unleadered vph mRNA resulted in translation initiation from the vph start codon and the AUG triplet contained within the added sequence. Translational fusions of vph sequence to a Tn5 neo reporter gene indicated that the first 16 codons of vph coding sequence were sufficient to specify the translational start site and reading frame for expression of neomycin resistance in both E. coli and S. lividans.

  7. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader.

    PubMed

    Kriner, Michelle A; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2017-01-25

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5' leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals.

  8. RNA secondary structures regulate three steps of Rho-dependent transcription termination within a bacterial mRNA leader

    PubMed Central

    Kriner, Michelle A.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2017-01-01

    Transcription termination events in bacteria often require the RNA helicase Rho. Typically, Rho promotes termination at the end of coding sequences, but it can also terminate transcription within leader regions to implement regulatory decisions. Rho-dependent termination requires initial recognition of a Rho utilization (rut) site on a nascent RNA by Rho's primary binding surface. However, it is presently unclear what factors determine the location of transcription termination, how RNA secondary structures influence this process and whether mechanistic differences distinguish constitutive from regulated Rho-dependent terminators. We previously demonstrated that the 5′ leader mRNA of the Salmonella corA gene can adopt two mutually exclusive conformations that dictate accessibility of a rut site to Rho. We now report that the corA leader also controls two subsequent steps of Rho-dependent termination. First, the RNA conformation that presents an accessible rut site promotes pausing of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at a single Rho-dependent termination site over 100 nt downstream. Second, an additional RNA stem-loop promotes Rho activity and controls the location at which Rho-dependent termination occurs, despite having no effect on initial Rho binding to the corA leader. Thus, the multi-step nature of Rho-dependent termination may facilitate regulation of a given coding region by multiple cytoplasmic signals. PMID:28123036

  9. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yi; Soper, Toby J; Woodson, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA-protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension.

  10. RNase footprinting of protein binding sites on an mRNA target of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Peng; Soper, Toby J.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Endoribonuclease footprinting is an important technique for probing RNA•protein interactions with single nucleotide resolution. The susceptibility of RNA residues to enzymatic digestion gives information about the RNA secondary structure, the location of protein binding sites, and the effects of protein binding on the RNA structure. Here we present a detailed protocol for using RNase T2, which cleaves single stranded RNA with a preference for A nucleotides, to footprint the protein Hfq on the rpoS mRNA leader. This protocol covers how to form the RNP complex, determine the correct dose of enzyme, footprint the protein, and analyze the cleavage pattern using primer extension. PMID:22736006

  11. The nuclear RNA binding protein RBP33 influences mRNA and spliced leader RNA abundance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Olivera; Trikin, Roman; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Doiron, Nicholas; Jakob, Martin; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein. Finally super-resolution microscopy detects RBP33 in small punctae throughout the nucleus and surrounding the nucleolus, however the signal is depleted inside the nucleolus.

  12. mRNA leader length and initiation codon context determine alternative AUG selection for the yeast gene MOD5.

    PubMed Central

    Slusher, L B; Gillman, E C; Martin, N C; Hopper, A K

    1991-01-01

    MOD5, a nuclear gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, encodes two isozymic forms of a tRNA-modification enzyme. These enzymes modify both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Two inframe ATGs of the MOD5 gene are used for initiation of translation, and the form of the protein translated from the first AUG is imported into mitochondria. Protein translated from the second AUG functions in the cytoplasm. Since all transcripts contain both of these translational start sites and two proteins are made, the question arises as to the factors that influence the translation start-site choice. Extending the 5' ends of the MOD5 mRNA to include leader sequences of the ADH1 (alcohol dehydrogenase defective) transcript produces significant changes in the choice of AUGs. This suggests that for wild-type MOD5 transcripts, the length or structure of the leader sequence plays a role in AUG choice. The nucleotides surrounding the first ATG of MOD5 also have an effect on translation initiation. Altering these nucleotides changes initiation choice and suggests that ribosomal bypass of a suboptimal AUG is another mechanism controlling the alternate use of two initiation codons. Our data support the model that at least one MOD5 transcript is able to produce two proteins with different N-terminal sequences. Images PMID:1946403

  13. Hfq-bridged ternary complex is important for translation activation of rpoS by DsrA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Lijun; Wu, Jihui; Gong, Qingguo; Shi, Yunyu

    2013-01-01

    The rpoS mRNA, which encodes the master regulator σS of general stress response, requires Hfq-facilitated base pairing with DsrA small RNA for efficient translation at low temperatures. It has recently been proposed that one mechanism underlying Hfq action is to bridge a transient ternary complex by simultaneously binding to rpoS and DsrA. However, no structural evidence of Hfq simultaneously bound to different RNAs has been reported. We detected simultaneous binding of Hfq to rpoS and DsrA fragments. Crystal structures of AU6A•Hfq•A7 and Hfq•A7 complexes were resolved using 1.8- and 1.9-Å resolution, respectively. Ternary complex has been further verified in solution by NMR. In vivo, activation of rpoS translation requires intact Hfq, which is capable of bridging rpoS and DsrA simultaneously into ternary complex. This ternary complex possibly corresponds to a meta-stable transition state in Hfq-facilitated small RNA–mRNA annealing process. PMID:23605038

  14. Upstream Open Reading Frames Located in the Leader of Protein Kinase Mζ mRNA Regulate Its Translation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, Natalia V.; Susorov, Denis; Chesnokova, Ekaterina; Kasianov, Artem; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Alkalaeva, Elena; Balaban, Pavel M.; Kolosov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    For protein synthesis that occurs locally in dendrites, the translational control mechanisms are much more important for neuronal functioning than the transcription levels. Here, we show that uORFs (upstream open reading frames) in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) play a critical role in regulation of the translation of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ). Elimination of these uORFs activates translation of the reporter protein in vitro and in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Using cell-free translation systems, we demonstrate that translational initiation complexes are formed only on uORFs. Further, we address the mechanism of translational repression of PKMζ translation, by uORFs. We observed an increase in translation of the reporter protein under the control of PKMζ leader in neuronal culture during non-specific activation by picrotoxin. We also show that such a mechanism is similar to the mechanism seen in cell stress, as application of sodium arsenite to neuron cultures induced translation of mRNA carrying PKMζ 5′UTR similarly to picrotoxin activation. Therefore, we suppose that phosphorylation of eIF2a, like in cell stress, is a main regulator of PKMζ translation. Altogether, our findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of uORF in regulation of PKMζ translation in activated neurons, important at early stages of LTP. PMID:27790092

  15. Evidence That Base-pairing Interaction between Intron and mRNA Leader Sequences Inhibits Initiation of HAC1 mRNA Translation in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Leena; Bolinger, Cheryl; Mannan, M. Amin-ul; Dever, Thomas E.; Dey, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    The Hac1 transcription factor in yeast up-regulates a collection of genes that control protein homeostasis. Base-pairing interactions between sequences in the intron and the 5′-untranslated region (5′ UTR) of the HAC1 mRNA represses Hac1 protein production under basal conditions, whereas cytoplasmic splicing of the intron by the Ire1 kinase-endonuclease, activated under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, relieves the inhibition and enables Hac1 synthesis. Using a random mutational screen as well as site-directed mutagenesis, we identify point mutations within the 5′ UTR-intron interaction site that derepress translation of the unspliced HAC1 mRNA. We also show that insertion of an in-frame AUG start codon upstream of the interaction site releases the translational block, demonstrating that an elongating ribosome can disrupt the interaction. Moreover, overexpression of translation initiation factor eIF4A, a helicase, enhances production of Hac1 from an mRNA containing an upstream AUG start codon at the beginning of the base-paired region. These results suggest that the major block of translation occurs at the initiation stage. Supporting this interpretation, the point mutations that enhanced Hac1 production resulted in an increased percentage of the HAC1 mRNA associating with polysomes versus free ribosomal subunits. Thus, our results provide evidence that the 5′ UTR-intron interaction represses translation initiation on the unspliced HAC1 mRNA. PMID:26175153

  16. Translational enhancement of H-ferritin mRNA by interleukin-1 beta acts through 5' leader sequences distinct from the iron responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J T; Andriotakis, J L; Lacroix, L; Durmowicz, G P; Kasschau, K D; Bridges, K R

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (Il-1 beta), a key cytokine in the acute phase response, elevates hepatic expression of both the heavy (H) and light (L) ferritin subunits without influencing the steady-state levels of either ferritin transcript. Transfection experiments with human hepatoma cells reveal that sequences within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of H-ferritin mRNA confer translational regulation to chimaeric chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) mRNAs in response to Il-1 beta in the absence of marked changes in CAT mRNA levels. Il-1 beta dependent translational enhancement is mediated by a distinct G + C rich RNA sequence within 70 nucleotides (nt) of the start codon. The upstream Iron Responsive Element RNA stemloop does not confer increased expression to CAT mRNA in Il-1 beta stimulated hepatoma transfectants. A 38 nucleotide consensus sequence within the 5'UTRs of the mRNAs encoding the hepatic acute phase proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and haptoglobin (Dente et al., 1985) is similar to sequences in the G + C rich H-ferritin mRNA translational regulatory element. Deletion of three nucleotides from this region of the 61 nt G + C rich element in the H-ferritin mRNA 5' leader eliminates Il-1 beta translational enhancement of the CAT reporter transcripts. Images PMID:8041631

  17. Secondary structure analysis of the RepA mRNA leader transcript involved in control of replication of plasmid R1.

    PubMed Central

    Ohman, M; Wagner, E G

    1989-01-01

    The main replication control function in plasmid R1 is an antisense RNA, CopA RNA. By binding to its target (CopT) in the leader of the RepA mRNA, CopA RNA inhibits the expression of the rate-limiting RepA protein. The formation of the RNA duplex has been proposed to alter the folding around the RepA start region. Knowledge of the secondary structure of both CopA and CopT RNA is crucial for an understanding of the regulation. Previously, we reported the structure of CopA RNA under native conditions. In the present communication we have analyzed the secondary structure of the RepA leader transcript. Our main findings are: The two loops of CopA RNA have their correspondence in CopT RNA. No major structural changes are found downstream of the duplex when CopA was bound to its target RNA during transcription. Furthermore, in agreement with CopA/CopT RNA binding studies reported recently we do not find evidence for the existence of a binding window. Images PMID:2470028

  18. Phenotypic Diversity Caused by Differential RpoS Activity among Environmental Escherichia coli Isolates▿†

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Sarah M.; Dong, Tao; Edge, Thomas A.; Schellhorn, Herb E.

    2011-01-01

    Enteric bacteria deposited into the environment by animal hosts are subject to diverse selective pressures. These pressures may act on phenotypic differences in bacterial populations and select adaptive mutations for survival in stress. As a model to study phenotypic diversity in environmental bacteria, we examined mutations of the stress response sigma factor, RpoS, in environmental Escherichia coli isolates. A total of 2,040 isolates from urban beaches and nearby fecal pollution sources on Lake Ontario (Canada) were screened for RpoS function by examining growth on succinate and catalase activity, two RpoS-dependent phenotypes. The rpoS sequence was determined for 45 isolates, including all candidate RpoS mutants, and of these, six isolates were confirmed as mutants with the complete loss of RpoS function. Similarly to laboratory strains, the RpoS expression of these environmental isolates was stationary phase dependent. However, the expression of RpoS regulon members KatE and AppA had differing levels of expression in several environmental isolates compared to those in laboratory strains. Furthermore, after plating rpoS+ isolates on succinate, RpoS mutants could be readily selected from environmental E. coli. Naturally isolated and succinate-selected RpoS mutants had lower generation times on poor carbon sources and lower stress resistance than their rpoS+ isogenic parental strains. These results show that RpoS mutants are present in the environment (with a frequency of 0.003 among isolates) and that, similarly to laboratory and pathogenic strains, growth on poor carbon sources selects for rpoS mutations in environmental E. coli. RpoS selection may be an important determinant of phenotypic diversification and, hence, the survival of E. coli in the environment. PMID:21948830

  19. RpoS regulation of gene expression during exponential growth of Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tao; Kirchhof, Mark G; Schellhorn, Herb E

    2008-03-01

    RpoS is a major regulator of genes required for adaptation to stationary phase in E. coli. However, the exponential phase expression of some genes is affected by rpoS mutation, suggesting RpoS may also have an important physiological role in growing cells. To test this hypothesis, we examined the regulatory role of RpoS in exponential phase using both genomic and biochemical approaches. Microarray expression data revealed that, in the rpoS mutant, the expression of 268 genes was attenuated while the expression of 24 genes was enhanced. Genes responsible for carbon source transport (the mal operon for maltose), protein folding (dnaK and mopAB), and iron acquisition (fepBD, entCBA, fecI, and exbBD) were positively controlled by RpoS. The importance of RpoS-mediated control of iron acquisition was confirmed by cellular metal analysis which revealed that the intracellular iron content of wild type cells was two-fold higher than in rpoS mutant cells. Surprisingly, many previously identified RpoS stationary-phase dependent genes were not controlled by RpoS in exponential phase and several genes were RpoS-regulated only in exponential phase, suggesting the involvement of other regulators. The expression of RpoS-dependent genes osmY, tnaA and malK was controlled by Crl, a transcriptional regulator that modulates RpoS activity. In summary, the identification of a group of exponential phase genes controlled by RpoS reveals a novel aspect of RpoS function.

  20. Stress and Survival of Aging Escherichia coli rpoS Colonies

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Ruf, Claude; Taddei, François; Matic, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, the expression of the RpoS regulon is known to be crucial for survival in liquid cultures during stationary phase. By measuring cell viability and by transcriptome analysis, here we show that rpoS cells as well as wild-type cells survive when they form colonies on solid media. PMID:15454563

  1. The Legionella pneumophila rpoS Gene Is Required for Growth within Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Laura M.; Shuman, Howard A.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate regulatory networks in Legionella pneumophila, the gene encoding the homolog of the Escherichia coli stress and stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS was identified by complementation of an E. coli rpoS mutation. An open reading frame that is approximately 60% identical to the E. coli rpoS gene was identified. Western blot analysis showed that the level of L. pneumophila RpoS increased in stationary phase. An insertion mutation was constructed in the rpoS gene on the chromosome of L. pneumophila, and the ability of this mutant strain to survive various stress conditions was assayed and compared with results for the wild-type strain. Both the mutant and wild-type strains were more resistant to stress when in stationary phase than when in the logarithmic phase of growth. This finding indicates that L. pneumophila RpoS is not required for a stationary-phase-dependent resistance to stress. Although the mutant strain was able to kill HL-60- and THP-1-derived macrophages, it could not replicate within a protozoan host, Acanthamoeba castellanii. These data suggest that L. pneumophila possesses a growth phase-dependent resistance to stress that is independent of RpoS control and that RpoS likely regulates genes that enable it to survive in the environment within protozoa. Our data indicate that the role of rpoS in L. pneumophila is very different from what has previously been reported for E. coli rpoS. PMID:10438758

  2. The 5′ Leader of the mRNA Encoding the Marek's Disease Virus Serotype 1 pp14 Protein Contains an Intronic Internal Ribosome Entry Site with Allosteric Properties ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tahiri-Alaoui, Abdessamad; Matsuda, Daiki; Xu, Hongtao; Panagiotis, Panopoulos; Burman, Luke; Lambeth, Luke S.; Petherbridge, Lawrence; James, William; Mauro, Vincent; Nair, Venugopal

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the presence of a functional internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′ leader (designated 5L) from a variant of bicistronic mRNAs that encode the pp14 and RLORF9 proteins from Marek's disease virus (MDV) serotype 1. Transcribed as a 1.8-kb family of immediate-early genes, the mature bicistronic mRNAs have variable 5′ leader sequences due to alternative splicing or promoter usage. Consequently, the presence or absence of the 5L IRES in the mRNA dictates the mode of pp14 translation and leads to the production of two pp14 isoforms that differ in their N-terminal sequences. Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR indicates that the mRNA variants with the 5L IRES is two to three times more abundant in MDV-infected and transformed cells than the mRNA variants lacking the 5L IRES. A common feature to all members of the 1.8-kb family of transcripts is the presence of an intercistronic IRES that we have previously shown to control the translation of the second open reading frame (i.e., RLORF9). Investigation of the two IRESs residing in the same bicistronic reporter mRNA revealed functional synergism for translation efficiency. In analogy with allosteric models in proteins, we propose IRES allostery to describe such a novel phenomenon. The functional implications of our findings are discussed in relation to host-virus interactions and translational control. PMID:19793814

  3. Role of rpoS in Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strain H32 Biofilm Development and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Jessica R.; Yim, Mi-Sung; Saliba, Jessica H.; Chung, Wai-Hong; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The protein RpoS is responsible for mediating cell survival during the stationary phase by conferring cell resistance to various stressors and has been linked to biofilm formation. In this study, the role of the rpoS gene in Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and survival in water was investigated. Confocal scanning laser microscopy of biofilms established on coverslips revealed a nutrient-dependent role of rpoS in biofilm formation, where the biofilm biomass volume of the rpoS mutant was 2.4- to 7.5-fold the size of its rpoS+ wild-type counterpart in minimal growth medium. The enhanced biofilm formation of the rpoS mutant did not, however, translate to increased survival in sterile double-distilled water (ddH2O), filter-sterilized lake water, or unfiltered lake water. The rpoS mutant had an overall reduction of 3.10 and 5.30 log10 in sterile ddH2O and filter-sterilized lake water, respectively, while only minor reductions of 0.53 and 0.61 log10 in viable counts were observed for the wild-type form in the two media over a 13-day period, respectively. However, the survival rates of the detached biofilm-derived rpoS+ and rpoS mutant cells were comparable. Under the competitive stress conditions of unfiltered lake water, the advantage conferred by the presence of rpoS was lost, and both the wild-type and knockout forms displayed similar declines in viable counts. These results suggest that rpoS does have an influence on both biofilm formation and survival of E. coli O157:H7 and that the advantage conferred by rpoS is contingent on the environmental conditions. PMID:23001657

  4. Influence of rpoS mutations on the response of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Oppezzo, Oscar J; Costa, Cristina S; Pizarro, Ramón A

    2011-01-10

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important pathogen, and exhibits considerable resistance to the lethal effects of solar radiation. To evaluate the involvement of the RpoS transcription factor in the defense mechanisms of this organism, the sunlight response of a wild type strain (ATCC14028) was compared with that of an rpoS mutant, which exhibited increased sensitivity. Kinetics of cell death was complex in both strains, probably due to the presence of a variety of targets for the radiation. When ultraviolet radiation was excluded from the incident sunlight, lethal effects were abolished independently of the allelic state of rpoS. Reduction of oxygen concentration in the irradiation medium provided moderate protection to ATCC14028, but notably improved survival of the mutant. Similar assays were developed with another S. enterica strain (DA1468), which is a derivative of strain LT2 and produces low levels of RpoS. In this strain the loss of viability reveals the dependence on solar ultraviolet and oxygen concentration found for ATCC14028, but radiation resistance was slightly reduced. Increased sensitivity was observed in an rpoS mutant derived from DA1468, indicating that RpoS functions related to photoprotection are conserved in this strain. In addition, notable differences in the shape of the survival curves obtained for mutants derived from ATCC14028 and DA1468 were found, suggesting that genes beyond RpoS control are relevant in the sunlight response of these mutants.

  5. Roles of RpoS and PsrA in cyst formation and alkylresorcinol synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Sampieri, Arístides; Moreno, Soledad; Núñez, Cinthia; Castañeda, Miguel; Segura, Daniel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-06-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a soil bacterium that undergoes differentiation to form cysts that are resistant to desiccation. Upon induction of cyst formation, the bacterium synthesizes alkylresorcinols that are present in cysts but not in vegetative cells. Alternative sigma factors play important roles in differentiation. In A. vinelandii, AlgU (sigma E) is involved in controlling the loss of flagella upon induction of encystment. We investigated the involvement of the sigma factor RpoS in cyst formation in A. vinelandii. We analysed the transcriptional regulation of the rpoS gene by PsrA, the main regulator of rpoS in Pseudomonas species, which are closely related to A. vinelandii. Inactivation of rpoS resulted in the inability to form cysts resistant to desiccation and to produce cyst-specific alkylresorcinols, whereas inactivation of psrA reduced by 50 % both production of alkylresorcinols and formation of cysts resistant to desiccation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed specific binding of PsrA to the rpoS promoter region and that inactivation of psrA reduced rpoS transcription by 60 %. These results indicate that RpoS and PsrA are involved in regulation of encystment and alkylresorcinol synthesis in A. vinelandii.

  6. Mutation of rpoS gene decreased resistance to environmental stresses, synthesis of extracellular products and virulence of Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Chen, Jixiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Jiang, Ying-An

    2009-11-01

    Vibrio anguillarum is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium that causes vibriosis in marine fish, freshwater fish and other aquatic animals. Bacteria have developed strategies to survive in harsh environments. The alternative sigma factor, RpoS (sigma(S)), plays a key role in surviving under stress conditions in some gram-negative bacteria. An rpoS mutant of pathogenic V. anguillarum W-1 was constructed by homologous recombination. The sensitivity of the rpoS mutant to osmotic stress [2.4 M NaCl in artificial seawater (ASW)] did not change obviously, but the sensitivity of the rpoS mutant to high temperature (45 degrees C in ASW), UV-irradiation and oxidative stress (5 mM H(2)O(2) in ASW) increased 33-fold, sixfold and 10-fold, respectively. The production of extracellular phospholipase, diastase, lipase, caseinase, hemolysin, catalase and protease of the rpoS mutant decreased markedly compared with those of the wild-type strain. Virulence of the rpoS mutant strain was also decreased when it was inoculated intraperitoneally into zebra fish; the lethal dose 50% of the wild type and the mutant was 8.66 x 10(4) and 2.55 x 10(6) CFU per fish, respectively. These results indicated that the RpoS of V. anguillarum plays important roles in bacterial adaptation to environmental stresses and its pathogenicity.

  7. Burkholderia pseudomallei rpoS mediates iNOS suppression in human hepatocyte (HC04) cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanongkiet, Sucharat; Ponnikorn, Saranyoo; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a widespread disease in Southeast Asia. Reactive nitrogen, in an intermediate form of nitric oxide (NO), is one of the first lines of defense used by host cells to eliminate intracellular pathogens, through the stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Studies in phagocytotic cells have shown that the iNOS response is muted in B. pseudomallei infection, and implicated the rpoS sigma factor as a key regulatory factor mediating suppression. The liver is a main visceral organ affected by B. pseudomallei, and there is little knowledge about the interaction of liver cells and B. pseudomallei. This study investigated the induction of iNOS, as well as autophagic flux and light-chain 3 (LC3) localization in human liver (HC04) cells in response to infection with B. pseudomallei and its rpoS deficient mutant. Results showed that the rpoS mutant was unable to suppress iNOS induction and that the mutant showed less induction of autophagy and lower co-localization with LC3, and this was coupled with a lower intracellular growth rate. Combining these results suggest that B. pseudomallei rpoS is an important factor in establishing infection in liver cells. PMID:27324398

  8. Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and 5’ mRNA leader sequences as agents of translational regulation in Arabidopsis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    von Arnim, Albrecht G.

    2015-02-04

    Protein synthesis, or translation, consumes a sizable fraction of the cell’s energy budget, estimated at 5% and up to 50% in differentiated and growing cells, respectively. Plants also invest significant energy and biomass to construct and maintain the translation apparatus. Translation is regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Compared to transcriptional control, attributes of translational control include reduced sensitivity to stochastic fluctuation, a finer gauge of control, and more rapid responsiveness to environmental stimuli. Yet, our murky understanding of translational control allows few generalizations. Consequently, translational regulation is underutilized in the context of transgene regulation, although synthetic biologists are now beginning to appropriate RNA-level gene regulation into their regulatory circuits. We also know little about how translational control contributes to the diversity of plant form and function. This project explored how an emerging regulatory mRNA sequence element, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), is integrated with the general translation initiation machinery to permit translational regulation on specific mRNAs.

  9. Significance of rpoS during maturation of Escherichia coli biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akinobu; May, Thithiwat; Kawata, Koji; Okabe, Satoshi

    2008-04-15

    Presence of starved, stationary phase-like zones in biofilms seems to be an important factor for biofilm formation. In this study, roles of rpoS gene in the formation of Escherichia coli biofilms were investigated. E. coli MG1655 wild type (WT) and rpoS mutant (DeltarpoS) strains were used to compare biofilm formation capacity and global gene expression. Even though the DeltarpoS strain could attach and form microcolonies on glass surfaces, it could not establish mature biofilms. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WT biofilms (WBF) showed similar pattern of gene expression with WT planktonic stationary phase, whereas DeltarpoS biofilms (MBF) showed similar pattern of gene expression with WT planktonic exponential phase. Genes involved in energy metabolism (atpIBEFHAG, atpC, cydAB) and flagella synthesis (flgB, flgC, flhD, fliA, fliC, fliY) showed increased expression in the MBF, but not in the WBF. Moreover, genes involved in stress responses (blc, cspG, dinD poxB, wcaF, wcaI, and yfcF) showed increased expression in the WBF compared to the MBF. These results suggested that the rpoS gene contributed in maturation of E. coli biofilms through regulation of global gene expression including energy metabolism, motility, and stress responses.

  10. The Polymorphic Aggregative Phenotype of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O111 Depends on RpoS and Curli

    PubMed Central

    Diodati, M. E.; Bates, A. H.; Miller, W. G.; Carter, M. Q.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O111 is an emerging non-O157:H7 serotype of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). We previously reported that outbreak and environmental, but not sporadic-case, strains of STEC O111 share a distinct aggregation phenotype (M. E. Diodati, A. H. Bates, M. B. Cooley, S. Walker, R. E. Mandrell, and M. T. Brandl, Foodborne Pathog Dis 12:235−243, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1887). We show here the natural occurrence of nonaggregative variants in single STEC O111 strains. These variants do not produce curli fimbriae and lack RpoS function but synthesize cellulose. The deletion of csgBAC or rpoS in an aggregative outbreak strain abolished aggregate formation, which was rescued when curli biogenesis or RpoS function, respectively, was restored. Complementation of a nonaggregative variant with RpoS also conferred curli production and aggregation. These observations were supported by Western blotting with an anti-CsgA antibody. Immunomicroscopy revealed that curli were undetectable on the cells of the nonaggregative variant and the RpoS mutant but were present in large quantities in the intercellular matrix of the assemblages formed by aggregative strains. Sequence analysis of rpoS in the aggregative strain and its variant showed a single substitution of threonine for asparagine at amino acid 124. Our results indicate that the multicellular behavior of STEC O111 is RpoS dependent via positive regulation of curli production. Aggregation may confer a fitness advantage in O111 outbreak strains under stressful conditions in hydrodynamic environments along the food production chain and in the host, while the occurrence of nonaggregative variants may allow the cell population to adapt to conditions benefiting a planktonic lifestyle. PMID:26712542

  11. Influence of the RpoS (KatF) sigma factor on maintenance of viability and culturability of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in seawater.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, P M; Flatau, G N; Clément, R L; Gauthier, M J

    1995-01-01

    The sigma factor RpoS is essential for stationary-phase-specific, multiple-stress resistance. We compared the viabilities (direct viable counts) and culturabilities (colony counts) in seawater of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains and those in which rpoS was deleted or which were deficient in guanosine 3',5'-bispyrophosphate (ppGpp) synthesis (relA spoT). RpoS, possibly via ppGpp regulation, positively influenced the culturability of these bacteria in oligotrophic seawater. This influence closely depended, however, upon the growth state of the cells and the conditions under which they were grown prior to their transfer to seawater. The protective effect of RpoS was observed only in stationary-phase cells grown at low osmolarity. A previous exposure of cells to high osmolarity (0.5 M NaCl) also had a strong influence on the effect of RpoS on cell culturability in seawater. Both E. coli and S. typhimurium RpoS mutants lost the ability to acquire a high resistance to seawater, as observed in both logarithmic-phase and stationary-phase RpoS+ cells grown at high osmolarity. A previous growth of S. typhimurium cells under anoxic conditions also modulated the incidence of RpoS on their culturability. When grown anaerobically at high osmolarity, logarithmic-phase S. typhimurium RpoS+ cells partly lost their resistance to seawater through preadaptation to high osmolarity. When grown anaerobically at high osmolarity until stationary phase, both RpoS+ and RpoS- cells retained very high levels of both viability and culturability and then did not enter the viable but nonculturable state for over 8 days in seawater because of an RpoS-independent, unknown mechanism. PMID:7646022

  12. Transcriptional activation of the Azotobacter vinelandii polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthetic genes phbBAC by PhbR and RpoS.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Eligio, Alberto; Castellanos, Mildred; Moreno, Soledad; Espín, Guadalupe

    2011-11-01

    We previously showed that in Azotobacter vinelandii, accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) occurs mainly during the stationary phase, and that a mutation in phbR, encoding a transcriptional regulator of the AraC family, reduces PHB accumulation. In this study, we characterized the roles of PhbR and RpoS, a central regulator during stationary phase in bacteria, in the regulation of expression of the PHB biosynthetic operon phbBAC and phbR. We showed that inactivation of rpoS reduced PHB accumulation, similar to the phbR mutation, and inactivation of both rpoS and phbR resulted in an inability to produce PHB. We carried out expression studies with the wild-type, and the rpoS, phbR and double rpoS-phbR mutant strains, using quantitative RT-PCR, as well as phbB : : gusA and phbR : : gusA gene fusions. These studies showed that both PhbR and RpoS act as activators of phbB and phbR, and revealed a role for PhbR as an autoactivator. We also demonstrated that PhbR binds specifically to two almost identical 18 bp sites, TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CACTA and TGTCACCAA-N(4)-CAGTA, present in the phbB promoter region. The activation of phbB and phbR transcription by RpoS reported here is in agreement with the observation that accumulation of PHB in A. vinelandii occurs mainly during the stationary phase.

  13. The role of ClpP, RpoS and CsrA in growth and filament formation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium at low temperature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonellae are food-borne pathogens of great health and economic importance. To pose a threat to humans, Salmonellae normally have to cope with a series of stressful conditions in the food chain, including low temperature. In the current study, we evaluated the importance of the Clp proteolytic complex and the carbon starvation protein, CsrA, for the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to grow at low temperature. Results A clpP mutant was severely affected in growth and formed pin point colonies at 10°C. Contrary to this, rpoS and clpP/rpoS mutants were only slightly affected. The clpP mutant formed cold resistant suppressor mutants at a frequency of 2.5 × 10−3 and these were found not to express RpoS. Together these results indicated that the impaired growth of the clpP mutant was caused by high level of RpoS. Evaluation by microscopy of the clpP mutant revealed that it formed filamentous cells when grown at 10°C, and this phenotype too, disappered when rpoS was mutated in parallel indicating a RpoS-dependency. A csrA (sup) mutant was also growth attenuated a low temperature. An rpoS/csrA (sup) double mutant was also growth attenuated, indicating that the phenotype of the csrA mutant was independent from RpoS. Conclusions The cold sensitivity of clpP mutant was associated with increased levels of RpoS and probably caused by toxic levels of RpoS. Although a csrA mutant also accumulated high level of RpoS, growth impairment caused by lack of csrA was not related to RpoS levels in a similar way. PMID:25123657

  14. Genetic Evidence that Legionella pneumophila RpoS Modulates Expression of the Transmission Phenotype in Both the Exponential Phase and the Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Michael A.; Swanson, Michele S.

    2004-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Legionella pneumophila alternates between two states: replication within phagocytes and transmission between host amoebae or macrophages. In broth cultures that model this life cycle, during the replication period, CsrA inhibits expression of transmission traits. When nutrients become limiting, the alarmone (p)ppGpp accumulates and the sigma factors RpoS and FliA and the positive activators LetA/S and LetE promote differentiation to the transmissible form. Here we show that when cells enter the postexponential growth phase, RpoS increases expression of the transmission genes fliA, flaA, and mip, factors L. pneumophila needs to establish a new replication niche. In contrast, in exponential (E)-phase cells whose (p)ppGpp levels are low, rpoS inhibits expression of transmission traits, on the basis of three separate observations. First, rpoS RNA levels peak in the E phase, suggestive of a role for RpoS during replication. Second, in multiple copies, rpoS decreases the amounts of csrA, letE, fliA, and flaA transcripts and inhibits the transmission traits of motility, infectivity, and cytotoxicity. Third, rpoS blocks expression of cytotoxicity and motility by E-phase bacteria that have been induced to express the LetA activator ectopically. The data are discussed in the context of a model in which the alarmone (p)ppGpp enables RpoS to outcompete other sigma factors for binding to RNA polymerase to promote transcription of transmission genes, while LetA/S acts in parallel to relieve CsrA posttranscriptional repression of the transmission regulon. By coupling transcriptional and posttranscriptional control pathways, intracellular L. pneumophila could respond to stress by rapidly differentiating to a transmissible form. PMID:15102753

  15. RpoS integrates CRP, Fis, and PhoP signaling pathways to control Salmonella Typhi hlyE expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background SPI-18 is a pathogenicity island found in some Salmonella enterica serovars, including S. Typhi. SPI-18 harbors two ORFs organized into an operon, hlyE and taiA genes, both implicated in virulence. Regarding the hlyE regulation in S. Typhi, it has been reported that RpoS participates as transcriptional up-regulator under low pH and high osmolarity. In addition, CRP down-regulates hlyE expression during exponential growth. Previously, it has been suggested that there is another factor related to catabolite repression, different from CRP, involved in the down-regulation of hlyE. Moreover, PhoP-dependent hlyE up-regulation has been reported in bacteria cultured simultaneously under low pH and low concentration of Mg2+. Nevertheless, the relative contribution of each environmental signal is not completely clear. In this work we aimed to better understand the regulation of hlyE in S. Typhi and the integration of different environmental signals through global regulators. Results We found that Fis participates as a CRP-independent glucose-dependent down-regulator of hlyE. Also, Fis and CRP seem to exert the repression over hlyE through down-regulating rpoS. Moreover, PhoP up-regulates hlyE expression via rpoS under low pH and low Mg2+ conditions. Conclusions All these results together show that, at least under the tested conditions, RpoS is the central regulator in the hlyE regulatory network, integrating multiple environmental signals and global regulators. PMID:24885225

  16. Xenorhabdus nematophilus as a Model for Host-Bacterium Interactions: rpoS Is Necessary for Mutualism with Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Eugenio I.; Goodrich-Blair, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Xenorhabdus nematophilus, a gram-negative bacterium, is a mutualist of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and a pathogen of larval-stage insects. We use this organism as a model of host-microbe interactions to identify the functions bacteria require for mutualism, pathogenesis, or both. In many gram-negative bacteria, the transcription factor ςS controls regulons that can mediate stress resistance, survival, or host interactions. Therefore, we examined the role of ςS in the ability of X. nematophilus to interact with its hosts. We cloned, sequenced, and disrupted the X. nematophilus rpoS gene that encodes ςS. The X. nematophilus rpoS mutant pathogenized insects as well as its wild-type parent. However, the rpoS mutant could not mutualistically colonize nematode intestines. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a specific allele that affects the ability of X. nematophilus to exist within nematode intestines, an important step in understanding the molecular mechanisms of this association. PMID:11466270

  17. Unphosphorylated EIIA(N)(tr) induces ClpAP-mediated degradation of RpoS in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Muriel-Millán, Luis Felipe; Moreno, Soledad; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramsés; Espín, Guadalupe

    2017-04-01

    The nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (PTS(Ntr) ) is composed of the EI(Ntr) , NPr and EIIA(Ntr) proteins that form a phosphorylation cascade from phosphoenolpyruvate. PTS(Ntr) is a global regulatory system present in most Gram-negative bacteria that controls some pivotal processes such as potassium and phosphate homeostasis, virulence, nitrogen fixation and ABC transport activation. In the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii, unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) negatively regulates the expression of genes related to the synthesis of the bioplastic polyester poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cyst-specific lipids alkylresorcinols (ARs). The mechanism by which EIIA(Ntr) controls gene expression in A. vinelandii is not known. Here, we show that, in presence of unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) , the stability of the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS, which is necessary for transcriptional activation of PHB and ARs synthesis related genes, is reduced, and that the inactivation of genes coding for ClpAP protease complex in strains that carry unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) , restored the levels and in vivo stability of RpoS, as well as the synthesis of PHB and ARs. Taken together, our results reveal a novel mechanism, by which EIIA(Ntr) globally controls gene expression in A. vinelandii, where the unphosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) induces the degradation of RpoS by the proteolytic complex ClpAP.

  18. Exploring new roles for the rpoS gene in the survival and virulence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Santander, Ricardo D; Monte-Serrano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Herva, José J; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Biosca, Elena G

    2014-12-01

    Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight in economically important plants of the family Rosaceae. This bacterial pathogen spends part of its life cycle coping with starvation and other fluctuating environmental conditions. In many Gram-negative bacteria, starvation and other stress responses are regulated by the sigma factor RpoS. We obtained an E. amylovora rpoS mutant to explore the role of this gene in starvation responses and its potential implication in other processes not yet studied in this pathogen. Results showed that E. amylovora needs rpoS to develop normal starvation survival and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) responses. Furthermore, this gene contributed to stationary phase cross-protection against oxidative, osmotic, and acid stresses and was essential for cross-protection against heat shock, but nonessential against acid shock. RpoS also mediated regulation of motility, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and virulence in immature loquats, but not in pear plantlets, and contributed to E. amylovora survival in nonhost tissues during incompatible interactions. Our results reveal some unique roles for the rpoS gene in E. amylovora and provide new knowledge on the regulation of different processes related to its ecology, including survival in different environments and virulence in immature fruits.

  19. Translational feedback regulation of the gene for L35 in Escherichia coli requires binding of ribosomal protein L20 to two sites in its leader mRNA: a possible case of ribosomal RNA-messenger RNA molecular mimicry.

    PubMed Central

    Guillier, Maude; Allemand, Frédéric; Raibaud, Sophie; Dardel, Frédéric; Springer, Mathias; Chiaruttini, Claude

    2002-01-01

    In addition to being a component of the large ribosomal subunit, ribosomal protein L20 of Escherichia coli also acts as a translational repressor. L20 is synthesized from the IF3 operon that contains three cistrons coding for IF3, and ribosomal proteins L35 and L20. L20 directly represses the expression of the gene encoding L35 and the expression of its own gene by translational coupling. All of the cis-acting sequences required for repression by L20, called the operator, are found on an mRNA segment extending from the middle of the IF3 gene to the start of the L35 gene. L20-mediated repression requires a long-range base-pairing interaction between nucleotide residues within the IF3 gene and residues just upstream of the L35 gene. This interaction results in the formation of a pseudoknot. Here we show that L20 causes protection of nucleotide residues in two regions of the operator in vitro. The first region is the pseudoknot itself and the second lies in an irregular stem located upstream of the L35 gene. By primer extension analysis, we show that L20 specifically induces reverse transcriptase stops in both regions. Therefore, these two regions define two L20-binding sites in the operator. Using mutations and deletions of rpml'-'lacZ fusions, we show that both sites are essential for repression in vivo. However L20 can bind to each site independently in vitro. One site is similar to the L20-binding site on 23S rRNA. Here we propose that L20 recognizes its mRNA and its rRNA in similar way. PMID:12166643

  20. Long-Chain Fatty Acid Sensor, PsrA, Modulates the Expression of rpoS and the Type III Secretion exsCEBA Operon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Lunin, V. V.; Skarina, T.; Savchenko, A.; Schurr, M. J.; Hoang, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PsrA autorepressor has dual roles as a repressor of the fadBA5{beta}-oxidation operon and an activator of the stationary-phase sigma factor rpoS and exsCEBA operon of the type III secretion system (TTSS). Previously, we demonstrated that the repression of the fadBA5 operon by PsrA is relieved by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs). However, the signal affecting the activation of rpoS and exsC via PsrA is unknown. In this study, microarray and gene fusion data suggested that LCFA (e.g. oleate) affected the expression of rpoS and exsC. DNA binding studies confirmed that PsrA binds to the rpoS and exsC promoter regions. This binding was inhibited by LCFA, indicating that LCFA directly affects the activation of these two genes through PsrA. LCFA decreased rpoS and exsC expression, resulting in increased N-(butyryl)-l-homoserine-lactone quorum sensing signal and decreased ExoS/T production respectively. Based on the crystal structure of PsrA, site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues, within the hydrophobic channel thought to accommodate LCFA, created two LCFA-non-responsive PsrA mutants. The binding and activation of rpoS and exsC by these PsrA mutants was no longer inhibited by LCFA. These data support a mechanistic model where LCFAs influence PsrA regulation to control LCFA metabolism and some virulence genes in P. aeruginosa.

  1. H-NS and RpoS regulate emergence of Lac Ara+ mutants of Escherichia coli MCS2.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, J M; Blázquez, J; Baquero, F; Martínez, J L

    1997-07-01

    Two master growth-phase regulatory proteins, H-NS and sigmaS, are involved in the formation of araB-lacZ fusion clones of Escherichia coli MCS2. The stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS is strictly required for the appearance of such mutants, whereas the histone-like protein H-NS represses their emergence. Our results support the idea that genetic changes leading to adaptive mutation in this model system are regulated by physiological signal transduction networks.

  2. Natural rpoS mutations contribute to population heterogeneity in Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains linked to the 2006 US spinach-associated outbreak.

    PubMed

    Carter, Michelle Qiu; Louie, Jacqueline W; Huynh, Steven; Parker, Craig T

    2014-12-01

    We previously reported significantly different acid resistance between curli variants derived from the same Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain, although the curli fimbriae were not associated with this phenotypic divergence. Here we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by examining the genes encoding the common transcriptional regulators of curli biogenesis and acid resistance. rpoS null mutations were detected in all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains, whereas a wild-type rpoS was present in all curli-deficient variants. Consequently curli-expressing variants were much more sensitive to various stress challenges than curli-deficient variants. This loss of general stress fitness appeared solely to be the result of rpoS mutation since the stress resistances could be restored in curli-expressing variants by a functional rpoS. Comparative transcriptomic analyses between the curli variants revealed a large number of differentially expressed genes, characterized by the enhanced expression of metabolic genes in curli-expressing variants, but a marked decrease in transcription of genes related to stress resistances. Unlike the curli-expressing variants of the 1993 US hamburger-associated outbreak strains (Applied Environmental Microbiology 78: 7706-7719), all curli-expressing variants of the 2006 spinach-associated outbreak strains carry a functional rcsB gene, suggesting an alternative mechanism governing intra-strain phenotypic divergence in E. coli O157:H7.

  3. Mutations in the rpoS gene are the major limiting factor for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 clinical isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Biofilm formation is a complex process that is highly regulated through a battery of transcriptional regulators, small regulatory RNAs, and environmental conditions. RpoS sigma factor along with MlrA protein directly regulate the expression of the curli key regulator CsgD. In most serot...

  4. Live Recombinant Salmonella Typhi Vaccines Constructed to Investigate the Role of rpoS in Eliciting Immunity to a Heterologous Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Brenneman, Karen E.; Wanda, Soo-Young; Wang, Shifeng; Senechal, Patti; Sun, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L.; Curtiss, Roy

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that the immunogenicity of live Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccines expressing heterologous antigens depends, at least in part, on its rpoS status. As part of our project to develop a recombinant attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (RASTyV) to prevent pneumococcal diseases in infants and children, we constructed three RASTyV strains synthesizing the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein PspA to test this hypothesis. Each vector strain carried ten engineered mutations designed to optimize safety and immunogenicity. Two S. Typhi vector strains (χ9639 and χ9640) were derived from the rpoS mutant strain Ty2 and one (χ9633) from the RpoS+ strain ISP1820. In χ9640, the nonfunctional rpoS gene was replaced with the functional rpoS gene from ISP1820. Plasmid pYA4088, encoding a secreted form of PspA, was moved into the three vector strains. The resulting RASTyV strains were evaluated for safety in vitro and for immunogenicity in mice. All three RASTyV strains were similar to the live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a in their ability to survive in human blood and human monocytes. They were more sensitive to complement and were less able to survive and persist in sewage and surface water than their wild-type counterparts. Adult mice intranasally immunized with any of the RASTyV strains developed immune responses against PspA and Salmonella antigens. The RpoS+ vaccines induced a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response while the RpoS− strain χ9639(pYA4088) induced a strong Th2 immune response. Immunization with any RASTyV provided protection against S. pneumoniae challenge; the RpoS+ strain χ9640(pYA4088) provided significantly greater protection than the ISP1820 derivative, χ9633(pYA4088). In the pre-clinical setting, these strains exhibited a desirable balance between safety and immunogenicity and are currently being evaluated in a Phase 1 clinical trial to determine which of the three RASTyVs has the optimal safety and immunogenicity profile in human

  5. The i6A37 tRNA modification is essential for proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons during rpoS and iraP translation.

    PubMed

    Aubee, Joseph I; Olu, Morenike; Thompson, Karl M

    2016-05-01

    The translation of rpoS(σ(S)), the general stress/stationary phase sigma factor, is tightly regulated at the post-transcriptional level by several factors via mechanisms that are not clearly defined. One of these factors is MiaA, the enzyme necessary for the first step in theN(6)-isopentyl-2-thiomethyl adenosinemethyl adenosine 37 (ms(2)i(6)A37) tRNA modification. We tested the hypothesis that an elevated UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio can be used to identify transcripts whose translation would be sensitive to loss of the MiaA-dependent modification. We identified iraPas another candidate MiaA-sensitive gene, based on the UUX-Leucine/total leucine codon ratio. AniraP-lacZ fusion was significantly decreased in the abse nce of MiaA, consistent with our predictive model. To determine the role of MiaA in UUX-Leucine decoding in rpoS and iraP, we measured β-galactosidase-specific activity of miaA(-)rpo Sandira P translational fusions upon overexpression of leucine tRNAs. We observed suppression of the MiaA effect on rpoS, and notira P, via overexpression of tRNA(LeuX)but not tRNA(LeuZ) We also tested the hypothesis that the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translation is due to decoding of UUX-Leucine codons within the rpoS and iraP transcripts, respectively. We observed a partial suppression of the MiaA requirement for rpoS and iraP translational fusions containing one or both UUX-Leucine codons removed. Taken together, this suggests that MiaA is necessary for rpoS and iraP translation through proper decoding of UUX-Leucine codons and that rpoS and iraP mRNAs are both modification tunable transcripts (MoTTs) via the presence of the modification.

  6. The Resilient Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Elle

    2012-01-01

    School leaders currently face so many challenges--some as basic as a lack of money to hire enough teachers--that they know they need to increase their resilience. According to Allison, who coaches school leaders, strong leaders know how important maintaining resilience is. They recognize when their reserves of hope--and those of their…

  7. Elementary Mathematics Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Francis; Kobett, Beth McCord; Wray, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics leaders often come to the realization that their position, however titled and determined, although dedicated to addressing needs in math teaching and learning, also entails and directly involves leadership. Elementary school math specialists/instructional leaders (referenced here as elementary mathematics leaders, or…

  8. Crl binds to domain 2 of σ(S) and confers a competitive advantage on a natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    PubMed

    Monteil, Véronique; Kolb, Annie; Mayer, Claudine; Hoos, Sylviane; England, Patrick; Norel, Françoise

    2010-12-01

    The RpoS sigma factor (σ(S)) is the master regulator of the bacterial response to a variety of stresses. Mutants in rpoS arise in bacterial populations in the absence of stress, probably as a consequence of a subtle balance between self-preservation and nutritional competence. We characterized here one natural rpoS mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty19). We show that the rpoS allele of Ty19 (rpoS(Ty19)) led to the synthesis of a σ(S)(Ty19) protein carrying a single glycine-to-valine substitution at position 282 in σ(S) domain 4, which was much more dependent than the wild-type σ(S) protein on activation by Crl, a chaperone-like protein that increases the affinity of σ(S) for the RNA polymerase core enzyme (E). We used the bacterial adenylate cyclase two-hybrid system to demonstrate that Crl bound to residues 72 to 167 of σ(S) domain 2 and that G282V substitution did not directly affect Crl binding. However, this substitution drastically reduced the ability of σ(S)(Ty19) to bind E in a surface plasmon resonance assay, a defect partially rescued by Crl. The modeled structure of the Eσ(S) holoenzyme suggested that substitution G282V could directly disrupt a favorable interaction between σ(S) and E. The rpoS(Ty19) allele conferred a competitive fitness when the bacterial population was wild type for crl but was outcompeted in Δcrl populations. Thus, these results indicate that the competitive advantage of the rpoS(Ty19) mutant is dependent on Crl and suggest that crl plays a role in the appearance of rpoS mutants in bacterial populations.

  9. An RpoS (sigmaS) homologue regulates acylhomoserine lactone-dependent autoinduction in Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Flavier, A B; Schell, M A; Denny, T P

    1998-05-01

    Many bacteria sense an appropriate growth condition or a critical population density for gene expression by producing acylhomoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) that act as intercellular autoinduction signals. We recently showed that, in Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum, a phytopathogenic bacterium, acyl-HSL production requires soll, which encodes a putative acyl-HSL synthase, and that its expression is positively regulated by the acyl-HSL-responsive SolR transcriptional regulator. This acyl-HSL-dependent autoinduction system is noteworthy because (i) it is regulated by a 'higher level' autoinducer system (responsive to 3-hydroxypalmitic acid methyl ester) via PhcA, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and (ii) acyl-HSL production requires two additional unlinked loci. As reported here, cloning and sequencing of one of these other loci revealed that it encodes a homologue of RpoS, an alternative sigma factor (sigmaS) that in other bacteria activates gene expression during stationary phase or in response to stress conditions. R. solanacearum RpoS (RpoS(Rso)) was demonstrated to function as a sigma factor because when introduced in trans into an Escherichia coli rpoS mutant it largely restored expression of the RpoS-dependent bolAp1 gene. Mutation of rpoS(Rso) in R. solanacearum reduced survival during starvation and low pH conditions, but did not affect survival during exposure to hydrogen peroxide, high osmolarity or high temperature. This mutant was also altered in its production of several virulence factors and wilted tomato plants several days more slowly than the wild-type parent. Transcription of solR and soll were decreased in an rpoS(Rso) background (thereby reducing acyl-HSL production), but neither mutations in solR, soll or phcA nor addition of acyl-HSLs affected rpoS(Rso) expression. Therefore, in R. solanacearum the acyl-HSL-dependent autoinduction system is controlled both by a second autoinduction system and by the RpoS(Rso) sigma factor.

  10. Acid shock induction of RpoS is mediated by the mouse virulence gene mviA of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Bearson, S M; Benjamin, W H; Swords, W E; Foster, J W

    1996-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium encounters a variety of acid stress situations during growth in host and nonhost environments. The organism can survive potentially lethal acid conditions (pH <4) if it is first able to adapt to mild or more moderate acid levels. The molecular events that occur during this adaptive process are collectively referred to as the acid tolerance response and vary depending on whether the cells are in log- or stationary-phase growth. The acid tolerance response of logarithmically growing cells includes the participation of an alternate sigma factor, sigmaS (RpoS), commonly associated with stationary-phase physiology. Of 51 acid shock proteins (ASPs) induced during shifts to pH 4.4, 8 are clearly dependent on sigmaS for production (I. S. Lee, J. Lin, H. K. Hall, B. Bearson, and J. W. Foster, Mol. Microbiol. 17:155-167, 1995). The acid shock induction of these proteins appears to be the result of an acid shock-induced increase in the level of sigmaS itself. We have discovered that one component of a potential signal transduction system responsible for inducing rpoS expression is the product of the mouse virulence gene mviA+. MviA exhibits extensive homology to the regulatory components of certain two-component signal transduction systems (W. H. Benjamin, Jr., and P. D. Hall, abstr. B-67, p. 38, in Abstracts of the 93rd General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology 1993, 1993). Mutations in mviA (mviA::Km) caused the overproduction of sigmaS and sigmaS-dependent ASPs in logarithmically growing cells, as well as increases in tolerances to acid, heat, osmolarity and oxidative stresses and significant decreases in growth rate and colony size. Mutations in rpoS suppressed the mviA::Km-associated defects in growth rate, colony size, ASP production, and stress tolerance, suggesting that the effects of MviA on cell physiology occur via its control of sigmaS levels. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses of sigmaS produced from natural or arabinose

  11. Developing Successful Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Everyone seems to agree the world desperately needs strong leaders who can manage a global workforce and all the inherent challenges that go with it. That's a big part of the raison d'etre for global leadership development programs. But are today's organizations fully utilizing these programs to develop global leaders, and, if so, are they…

  12. Portrait of a Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Grundy, Thomas

    Chapter 1 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter examines several kinds of leader characteristics: inherited traits and those springing from early childhood experience; attitudes toward relationships with other people; and qualities differentiating effective from ineffective leaders. Modern researchers tend to stress nurture over…

  13. Follow the leader.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeni

    2007-01-01

    Healthcare leaders can strengthen their leadership skills by: Gaining a deeper understanding of their personal convictions. Requesting regular feedback regarding their leadership skills. Defining the key competencies needed to help their organizations succeed and building on key skill sets. Reflecting on department-specific results from employee opinion surveys and making behavioral changes, when appropriate. Reading biographies of great leaders.

  14. The Inspirational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Hughes, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Amid the focus on improved standardized test scores, differentiated instruction, value-added initiatives and improved teacher evaluation, one must not ignore an education leader's need to inspire and be inspired. But how do education leaders inspire their students and teachers during some of the most difficult economic times the nation has ever…

  15. Becoming a Professional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemlech, Johanna K., Ed.

    This book is about teacher-leaders who work in schools, universities, district and county offices, and other educational institutions and who serve as consultants, mentors, principals, project leaders, and teacher educators. The professional model of teaching emphasizes the role of teachers as informed, responsible decision makers, grounded in the…

  16. Evolving Army Leader Training: Adapting for GWOT Experienced Junior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-10

    and centralized system. If this system does not adapt, flex, and evolve in parallel with the demands of Junior Leaders from the Millennial Generation ...TERMS Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very Senior Leaders: Baby Boomer Generation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Research Project DATE: 10 March 2009 WORD COUNT: 6,506 PAGES: 32 KEY TERMS: Junior Leaders: Millennial Generation , Senior Leaders: Generation X, Very

  17. Investigation of rpoS and dps genes in sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 isolated from foodborne illness outbreaks in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Bacciu, Donatella; Santi, Lucélia; Silva, Walter Orlando Beys da; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Rubino, Salvatore; Uzzau, Sergio; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2012-03-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the principal microorganisms responsible for foodborne disease. The present study was conducted to compare the sodium hypochlorite resistance of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 with that of other strains of Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from different regions of the world and to investigate the involvement of the rpoS and dps genes in resistance to this disinfectant. We tested five Salmonella Enteritidis wild-type (WT) strains isolated from different countries, two mutant strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86, and two tagged (3XFLAG) strains of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 for their resistance to sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm). The survival of the WT and attenuated strains was determined based on bacterial counts, and tagged proteins (Dps and RpoS) were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. None of the WT strains of Salmonella Enteritidis were totally inactivated after 20 min. The SE86 strain lacking dps was more sensitive to sodium hypochlorite than was the WT SE86 strain, with a 2-log reduction in counts after 1 min. The RpoS and Dps proteins were actively expressed under the conditions tested, indicating that in Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 these genes, which are expressed when in contact with sodium hypochlorite, are related to oxidative stress.

  18. A small heat-shock protein (Hsp20) regulated by RpoS is essential for cyst desiccation resistance in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Cocotl-Yañez, Miguel; Moreno, Soledad; Encarnación, Sergio; López-Pliego, Liliana; Castañeda, Miguel; Espín, Guadalupe

    2014-03-01

    In Azotobacter vinelandii, a cyst-forming bacterium, the alternative sigma factor RpoS is essential to the formation of cysts resistant to desiccation and to synthesis of the cyst-specific lipids, alkylresorcinols. In this study, we carried out a proteome analysis of vegetative cells and cysts of A. vinelandii strain AEIV and its rpoS mutant derivative AErpoS. This analysis allowed us to identify a small heat-shock protein, Hsp20, as one of the most abundant proteins of cysts regulated by RpoS. Inactivation of hsp20 did not affect the synthesis of alkylresorcinols or the formation of cysts with WT morphology; however, the cysts formed by the hsp20 mutant strain were unable to resist desiccation. We also demonstrated that expression of hsp20 from an RpoS-independent promoter in the AErpoS mutant strain is not enough to restore the phenotype of resistance to desiccation. These results indicate that Hsp20 is essential for the resistance to desiccation of A. vinelandii cysts, probably by preventing the aggregation of proteins caused by the lack of water. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a small heat-shock protein that is essential for desiccation resistance in bacteria.

  19. Interaction of the Histone-Like Nucleoid Structuring Protein and the General Stress Response Regulator RpoS at Vibrio cholerae Promoters That Regulate Motility and Hemagglutinin/Protease Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongxia; Ayala, Julio C.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae colonizes the human small intestine and secretes cholera toxin (CT) to cause the rice-watery diarrhea characteristic of this illness. The ability of this pathogen to colonize the small bowel, express CT, and return to the aquatic environment is controlled by a complex network of regulatory proteins. Two global regulators that participate in this process are the histone-like nucleoid structuring protein (H-NS) and the general stress response regulator RpoS. In this study, we address the role of RpoS and H-NS in the coordinate regulation of motility and hemagglutinin (HA)/protease expression. In addition to initiating transcription of hapA encoding HA/protease, RpoS enhanced flrA and rpoN transcription to increase motility. In contrast, H-NS was found to bind to the flrA, rpoN, and hapA promoters and represses their expression. The strength of H-NS repression at the above-mentioned promoters was weaker for hapA, which exhibited the strongest RpoS dependency, suggesting that transcription initiation by RNA polymerase containing σS could be more resistant to H-NS repression. Occupancy of the flrA and hapA promoters by H-NS was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We show that the expression of RpoS in the stationary phase significantly diminished H-NS promoter occupancy. Furthermore, RpoS enhanced the transcription of integration host factor (IHF), which positively affected the expression of flrA and rpoN by diminishing the occupancy of H-NS at these promoters. Altogether, we propose a model for RpoS regulation of motility gene expression that involves (i) attenuation of H-NS repression by IHF and (ii) RpoS-dependent transcription initiation resistant to H-NS. PMID:22194453

  20. Biosynthesis of the antifungal haterumalide, oocydin A, in Serratia, and its regulation by quorum sensing, RpoS and Hfq

    PubMed Central

    Matilla, Miguel A; Leeper, Finian J; Salmond, George P C

    2015-01-01

    Polyketides represent an important class of bioactive natural products with a broad range of biological activities. We identified recently a large trans-acyltransferase (AT) polyketide synthase gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of the antifungal, anti-oomycete and antitumor haterumalide, oocydin A (ooc). Using genome sequencing and comparative genomics, we show that the ooc gene cluster is widespread within biocontrol and phytopathogenic strains of the enterobacteria, Serratia and Dickeya. The analysis of in frame deletion mutants confirmed the role of a hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase cassette, three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes, a free-standing acyl carrier protein and two hypothetical proteins in oocydin A biosynthesis. The requirement of the three trans-acting AT domains for the biosynthesis of the macrolide was also demonstrated. Expression of the ooc gene cluster was shown to be positively regulated by an N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing system, but operating in a strain-dependent manner. At a post-transcriptional level, the RNA chaperone, Hfq, plays a key role in oocydin A biosynthesis. The Hfq-dependent regulation is partially mediated by the stationary phase sigma factor, RpoS, which was also shown to positively regulate the synthesis of the macrolide. Our results reveal differential regulation of the divergently transcribed ooc transcriptional units, highlighting the complexity of oocydin A production. PMID:25753587

  1. Leader as communicator.

    PubMed

    Haynor, Patricia M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines common communication factors that have an impact on leader effectiveness (language, listening, mode of delivery, and feedback) and the role of the organization, organizational culture, and group dynamics in the development of the leader as a communicator. Communication, like any skill, is a learned behavior that is honed over time. Communication is a two-way process with stimulus-response shaping future behavior. But, it is even more complex when used in an organizational setting because there are multilevel communications, multiple message, senders and receivers, and competing agendas. Leaders in today's complex health care organizations must be skilled communicators to earn trust and respect. Once trust and respect have been earned, others are willing to listen to the leader's vision and to help make it a reality because, done well, it demonstrates expertise, critical thinking, achievement, and mentoring abilities.

  2. Leader as achiever.

    PubMed

    Dienemann, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    This article examines one outcome of leadership: productive achievement. Without achievement one is judged to not truly be a leader. Thus, the ideal leader must be a visionary, a critical thinker, an expert, a communicator, a mentor, and an achiever of organizational goals. This article explores the organizational context that supports achievement, measures of quality nursing care, fiscal accountability, leadership development, rewards and punishments, and the educational content and teaching strategies to prepare graduates to be achievers.

  3. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    PubMed

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader.

  4. Leaders produce leaders and managers produce followers

    PubMed Central

    Khoshhal, Khalid I.; Guraya, Salman Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elaborate the desired qualities, traits, and styles of physician’s leadership with a deep insight into the recommended measures to inculcate leadership skills in physicians. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were searched for the full-text English-language articles published during the period 2000-2015. Further search, including manual search of grey literature, was conducted from the bibliographic list of all included articles. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords “Leadership” AND “Leadership traits” AND “Leadership styles” AND “Physicians’ leadership” AND “Tomorrow’s doctors” were used for the literature search. This search followed a step-wise approach defined by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The retrieved bibliographic list was analyzed and non-relevant material such as abstracts, conference proceedings, letters to editor, and short communications were excluded. Finally, 21 articles were selected for this review. Results: The literature search showed a number of leadership courses and formal training programs that can transform doctors to physician leaders. Leaders can inculcate confidence by integrating diverse views and listening; supporting skillful conversations through dialogue and helping others assess their influence and expertise. In addition to their clinical competence, physician leaders need to acquire the industry knowledge (clinical processes, health-care trends, budget), problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence. Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for embedding formal leadership courses in the medical curricula for fostering tomorrow doctors’ leadership and organizational skills. The in-house and off-campus training programs and workshops should be arranged for grooming the potential candidates for effective leadership. PMID:27652355

  5. Being a responsible leader.

    PubMed

    Waldman, David A

    2010-11-01

    People who administer organizations of various types, including medical practices, are finding it increasingly necessary to demonstrate leadership. The challenge is to understand the meaning of effective leadership and to have guiding principles with regard to its implementation. It is argued here that responsibility represents a key guiding theme that doctors and practice managers can use to chart their day-to-day actions as leaders. Responsibility implies accountability to a broad array of groups and individuals who increasingly expect that leaders act in a manner that is aligned with their interests. This new era of leader accountability raises the question, to whom and what are organizational leaders responsible? In an attempt to answer this question, The author elaborates a broad perspective of responsible leadership and address both internal and external stakeholders to which a leader is responsible. Recommendations and principles are provided for how to balance the needs and interests of various stakeholders when leading one's practice. The article ends with a consideration of important caveats with regard to responsible leadership.

  6. Escherichia coli K-12 survives anaerobic exposure at pH 2 without RpoS, Gad, or hydrogenases, but shows sensitivity to autoclaved broth products.

    PubMed

    Riggins, Daniel P; Narvaez, Maria J; Martinez, Keith A; Harden, Mark M; Slonczewski, Joan L

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria survive exposure to extreme acid (pH 2 or lower) in gastric fluid. Aerated cultures survive via regulons expressing glutamate decarboxylase (Gad, activated by RpoS), cyclopropane fatty acid synthase (Cfa) and others. But extreme-acid survival is rarely tested under low oxygen, a condition found in the stomach and the intestinal tract. We observed survival of E. coli K-12 W3110 at pH 1.2-pH 2.0, conducting all manipulations (overnight culture at pH 5.5, extreme-acid exposure, dilution and plating) in a glove box excluding oxygen (10% H2, 5% CO2, balance N2). With dissolved O2 concentrations maintained below 6 µM, survival at pH 2 required Cfa but did not require GadC, RpoS, or hydrogenases. Extreme-acid survival in broth (containing tryptone and yeast extract) was diminished in media that had been autoclaved compared to media that had been filtered. The effect of autoclaved media on extreme-acid survival was most pronounced when oxygen was excluded. Exposure to H2O2 during extreme-acid treatment increased the death rate slightly for W3110 and to a greater extent for the rpoS deletion strain. Survival at pH 2 was increased in strains lacking the anaerobic regulator fnr. During anaerobic growth at pH 5.5, strains deleted for fnr showed enhanced transcription of acid-survival genes gadB, cfa, and hdeA, as well as catalase (katE). We show that E. coli cultured under oxygen exclusion (<6 µM O2) requires mechanisms different from those of aerated cultures. Extreme acid survival is more sensitive to autoclave products under oxygen exclusion.

  7. Today's Students, Tomorrow's Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2008-01-01

    According to Warren Bennis, professor at the University of Southern California's Marshall School of Business and a recognized authority on organizational development, leadership and change, becoming a leader is synonymous with becoming oneself. It is precisely that simple, and it is also that difficult. In career and technical student…

  8. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  9. So Few Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominici, Francesca; Fried, Linda P.; Zeger, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The authors present sobering findings of a study about women and leadership in higher education. The findings of the authors' study are based on the experiences of a small group of women faculty at Johns Hopkins University. The study found that, despite good intentions and occasional interventions by leaders in higher education, women are still …

  10. Teachers as Instructional Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Jane L.; Roberts, Jane M. E.

    This study examined the roles, functions, and effectiveness of a group of teachers who became Instructional Leaders (ILs), assuming major responsibility for assuring the implementation of a voluntary school improvement program within their respective schools. The program, called SITIP (School Improvement Through Instructional Process), and…

  11. Salesperson, Catalyst, Manager, Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worth, Michael J.; Asp, James W., II

    1996-01-01

    This article examines four roles of the college or university development officer: salesperson (when direct solicitation is seen as the officer's primary role); catalyst (or sales manager, adviser, expert, facilitator); manager (stressing the importance of the overall office functioning); and leader (who exerts a leadership role in the…

  12. Lessons for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Among the current crop of business leadership manuals, the six reviewed are applicable for school leaders as well. Themes of effective employee management and motivation, personal responsibility, and having the ability to initiate and implement constructive change are among the common threads running through the books. Information on ordering the…

  13. Narcissism and Toxic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    not self-aware and does not practice self- regulation. As noted by emotional intelligence scholar Daniel Goleman , “Truly effective leaders are...11. Travis Bradberry and Jean Greaves, Emotional Intelligence 2.0 (San Francisco: Publishers Group West, 2009). 12. Daniel Goleman , “What makes a

  14. World-Class Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2012-01-01

    Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…

  15. Preparing School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1999-01-01

    This issue reviews five publications that provide a sampling of current perspectives on the preparation of school leaders. Joseph Murphy's "Preparation for the School Principalship: The United States' Story" traces the history of leadership preparation programs in the United States from the 19th century to the present. David L. Clark's "Searching…

  16. "Leader Attributes Inventory" Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    This manual, which is designed to assist potential users of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) and individuals studying leadership and its measurement, presents the rationale and psychometric characteristics of the LAI and guidelines for using it. Described in chapter 1 are the context in which the LAI was developed and the conceptualization of…

  17. Cultivating Leaders from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Maggie; Schertzer, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    A major problem faced by school districts in the US is the paucity of applicants for the posts of school principals. A solution adopted by The Capistrano Unified School District (CUSD) in Orange County California was the cultivation of good leaders from within the district through the Teaching Assistant Principal (TAP) program.

  18. Leaders and Followers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between leaders and followers is crucial and often misunderstood. Ninety percent of leadership can be taught, and the remainder consists of energy, stamina, and ingredients of undetermined origin. Those who study leadership come from many disciplines, but what is learned should be shared. (MSE)

  19. Women Outdoor Leaders Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Wilma; Yerkes, Rita

    1987-01-01

    Questionnaire responses of 130 women outdoor leaders representing Outward Bound, all-women groups, university recreation instructors, and primary/secondary school teachers were compared as to background, income, motivations, and leadership perceptions. Essential leadership qualities were identified: effective communication skills and knowledge of…

  20. Senior Leader Career Management: Implications for Senior Leaders and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Jean

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research study across three large consumer products organizations explored career management of senior leaders to gain an understanding of what is important to senior leaders in their careers and what strategies they are using for career management. It also investigated senior leaders' expectations of organizations for career…

  1. Correlation between biofilm production, antibiotic susceptibility and exopolysaccharide composition in Burkholderia pseudomallei bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains.

    PubMed

    Mongkolrob, Rungrawee; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Tungpradabkul, Sumalee

    2015-11-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is the cause of melioidosis, a fatal tropical infectious disease, which has been reported to have a high rate of recurrence, even when an intensive dose of antibiotics is used. Biofilm formation is believed to be one of the possible causes of relapse because of its ability to increase drug resistance. EPS in biofilms have been reported to be related to the limitation of antibiotic penetration in B. pseudomallei. However, the mechanisms by which biofilms restrict the diffusion of antibiotics remain unclear. The present study presents a correlation between exopolysaccharide production in biofilm matrix and antibiotic resistance in B. pseudomallei using bpsI, ppk, and rpoS mutant strains. CLSM revealed a reduction in exopolysaccharide production and disabled micro-colony formation in B. pseudomallei mutants, which paralleled the antibiotic resistance. Different ratios of carbohydrate contents in the exopolysaccharides of the mutants were detected, although they have the same components, including glucose, galactose, mannose, and rhamnose, with the exception being that no detectable rhamnose peak was observed in the bpsI mutant. These results indicate that the correlation between these phenomena in the B. pseudomallei biofilm at least results from the exopolysaccharide, which may be under the regulation of bpsI, ppk, or rpoS genes.

  2. Sigma Factor RpoS Controls Alkylresorcinol Synthesis through ArpR, a LysR-Type Regulatory Protein, during Encystment of Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Yanet; Moreno, Soledad; Guzmán, Josefina; Espín, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a bacterium which undergoes a differentiation process leading to the formation of metabolically dormant cysts. During the encystment process, A. vinelandii produces alkylresorcinol lipids (ARs) that replace the membrane phospholipids and are also components of the layers covering the cyst. The synthesis of ARs in A. vinelandii has been shown to occur by the activity of enzymes encoded by the arsABCD operon, which is expressed only during the differentiation process. Also, the production of ARs has been shown to be dependent on the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, which is also implicated in the control of the synthesis of other cyst components (i.e., alginate and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate). In this study, we identified ArpR, a LysR-type transcriptional regulator expressed only during encystment that positively regulates arsABCD transcription. We show that this activation is dependent on acetoacetyl-coenzyme A (acetoacetyl-CoA), which might provide a metabolic signal for encystment. We also show that RpoS regulates arsABCD expression through the control of arpR transcription. PMID:23378510

  3. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  4. Cloning and characterization of a Leishmania gene encoding a RNA spliced leader sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S I; Landfear, S M; Wirth, D F

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies on leishmania enriettii tubulin mRNAs revealed a 35 nucleotide addition to their 5' end. The gene that codes for this 35 nucleotide leader sequence has now been cloned and sequenced. In the Leishmania genome, the spliced leader gene exists as a tandem repeat of 438 bases. There are approximately 150 copies of this gene comprising 0.1% of the parasite genome. This gene codes for a 85 nucleotide transcript that contains the spliced leader at its 5' end. The 35 nucleotide sequence and the regions immediately 5' and 3' to it are highly conserved across trypanosomatids. We have detected a RNA molecule that is a putative by-product of the processing reaction in which the 35 nucleotide spliced leader has been transferred to mRNA. We suggest that this molecule is the remnant of the spliced leader transcript after removal of the 35 nucleotide spliced leader. Images PMID:2429261

  5. The new clinical leader.

    PubMed

    Oates, Kim

    2012-06-01

    The complexity and cost of health care, along with a greater need for accountability calls for a new style of clinical leadership. The new clinical leader will lead reform by putting the needs of the patient first and foremost, looking at current and planned services from the patient's point of view as well as the clinician's. Excellent clinical skills will remain essential but will be supplemented by a focus on team work and mentoring, patient safety, clear communication and reduction in waste and inefficiency, leading to better financial outcomes. The new clinical leaders will understand the importance of consulting widely and engaging colleagues in creating change to improve patient care. They will develop trusting and mutually respectful relationships with health service management and be able to negotiate the delicate balance between clinical judgement, resource constraints and personal loyalties by keeping the best outcome for the patient at the forefront of their thinking.

  6. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm, whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather, it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  7. What makes a leader?

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1999-01-01

    Superb leaders have very different ways of directing a team, a division, or a company. Some are subdued and analytical; others are charismatic and go with their gut. And different of situations call for different types of leadership. Most mergers need a sensitive negotiator at the helm whereas many turnarounds require a more forceful kind of authority. Psychologist and noted author Daniel Goleman has found, however, that effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of what has come to be known as emotional intelligence. In fact, Goleman's research at nearly 200 large, global companies revealed that emotional intelligence--especially at the highest levels of a company--is the sine qua non for leadership. Without it, a person can have first-class training, an incisive mind, and an endless supply of good ideas, but he still won't make a great leader. The components of emotional intelligence--self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill--can sound unbusinesslike. But exhibiting emotional intelligence at the workplace does not mean simply controlling your anger or getting along with people. Rather it means understanding your own and other people's emotional makeup well enough to move people in the direction of accomplishing your company's goals. In this article, the author discusses each component of emotional intelligence and shows through examples how to recognize it in potential leaders, how and why it leads to measurable business results, and how it can be learned. It takes time and, most of all, commitment. But the benefits that come from having a well-developed emotional intelligence, both for the individual and the organization, make it worth the effort.

  8. The wise leader.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ikujiro; Takeuchi, Hirotaka

    2011-05-01

    In an era of increasing discontinuity, wise leadership has nearly vanished. Many leaders find it difficult to reinvent their corporations rapidly enough to cope with new technologies, demographic shifts, and consumption trends. They can't develop truly global organizations that operate effortlessly across borders. And they find it tough to ensure that their people adhere to values and ethics. The authors assert that leaders must acquire practical wisdom, or what Aristotle called phronesis: experiential knowledge that enables people to make ethically sound judgments. Wise leaders demonstrate six abilities: (i) They make decisions on the basis of what is good for the organization and for society. (2) They quickly grasp the essence of a situation and fathom the nature and meaning of people, things, and events. (3) They provide contexts in which executives and employees can interact to create new meaning. (4) They employ metaphors and stories to convert their experience into tacit knowledge that others can use. (5) They exert political power to bring people together and spur them to act. (6) They use apprenticeship and mentoring to cultivate practical wisdom in orders.

  9. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σD with σS. Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon-limited growth

  10. Effect of Global Regulators RpoS and Cyclic-AMP/CRP on the Catabolome and Transcriptome of Escherichia coli K12 during Carbon- and Energy-Limited Growth.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Alessandro G; Ihssen, Julian; Egli, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    For heterotrophic microbes, limited availability of carbon and energy sources is one of the major nutritional factors restricting the rate of growth in most ecosystems. Physiological adaptation to this hunger state requires metabolic versatility which usually involves expression of a wide range of different catabolic pathways and of high-affinity carbon transporters; together, this allows for simultaneous utilization of mixtures of carbonaceous compounds at low concentrations. In Escherichia coli the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS and the signal molecule cAMP are the major players in the regulation of transcription under such conditions; however, their interaction is still not fully understood. Therefore, during growth of E. coli in carbon-limited chemostat culture at different dilution rates, the transcriptomes, expression of periplasmic proteins and catabolomes of strains lacking one of these global regulators, either rpoS or adenylate cyclase (cya), were compared to those of the wild-type strain. The inability to synthesize cAMP exerted a strong negative influence on the expression of alternative carbon source uptake and degradation systems. In contrast, absence of RpoS increased the transcription of genes belonging to high-affinity uptake systems and central metabolism, presumably due to reduced competition of σ(D) with σ(S). Phenotypical analysis confirmed this observation: The ability to respire alternative carbon substrates and to express periplasmic high-affinity binding proteins was eliminated in cya and crp mutants, while these properties were not affected in the rpoS mutant. As expected, transcription of numerous stress defence genes was negatively affected by the rpoS knock-out mutation. Interestingly, several genes of the RpoS stress response regulon were also down-regulated in the cAMP-negative strain indicating a coordinated global regulation. The results demonstrate that cAMP is crucial for catabolic flexibility during slow, carbon

  11. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL Are Controlled by Quorum Sensing and by RpoS

    PubMed Central

    Winzer, Klaus; Falconer, Colin; Garber, Nachman C.; Diggle, Stephen P.; Camara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, many exoproduct virulence determinants are regulated via a hierarchical quorum-sensing cascade involving the transcriptional regulators LasR and RhlR and their cognate activators, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) and N-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL). In this paper, we demonstrate that the cytotoxic lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL are regulated via quorum sensing. Using immunoblot analysis, the production of both lectins was found to be directly dependent on the rhl locus while, in a lasR mutant, the onset of lectin synthesis was delayed but not abolished. The PA-IL structural gene, lecA, was cloned and sequenced. Transcript analysis indicated a monocistronic organization with a transcriptional start site 70 bp upstream of the lecA translational start codon. A lux box-type element together with RpoS (ςS) consensus sequences was identified upstream of the putative promoter region. In Escherichia coli, expression of a lecA::lux reporter fusion was activated by RhlR/C4-HSL, but not by LasR/3O-C12-HSL, confirming direct regulation by RhlR/C4-HSL. Similarly, in P. aeruginosa PAO1, the expression of a chromosomal lecA::lux fusion was enhanced but not advanced by the addition of exogenous C4-HSL but not 3O-C12-HSL. Furthermore, mutation of rpoS abolished lectin synthesis in P. aeruginosa, demonstrating that both RpoS and RhlR/C4-HSL are required. Although the C4-HSL-dependent expression of the lecA::lux reporter in E. coli could be inhibited by the presence of 3O-C12-HSL, this did not occur in P. aeruginosa. This suggests that, in the homologous genetic background, 3O-C12-HSL does not function as a posttranslational regulator of the RhlR/C4-HSL-dependent activation of lecA expression. PMID:11053384

  12. Becoming a nursing faculty leader.

    PubMed

    Young, Patricia K; Pearsall, Catherine; Stiles, Kim A; Horton-Deutsch, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Academic leaders are one component of a well-prepared faculty that is required to achieve and sustain excellent educational programs. But what is it like to become an academic leader? How does one become a leader? These questions were addressed in an interpretive study in which nurse faculty leaders were interviewed about the experience of becoming a leader. Interview texts were analyzed hermeneutically by a research team to uncover three themes (common, shared experiences): Being Thrust into Leadership, Taking Risks, and Facing Challenges, which are explicated in this article. This study develops the evidence base for leadership preparation at a time when there is a strong need for nursing education leaders in academia.

  13. Developing Future Strategic Logistics Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    and our focus on tactical level lessons learned has 12 skewed our emphasis in PME to a very narrow band of excellence. As such our current...A partnership between senior logistics leaders, PME developers, and personnel managers is essential to constructing and maintaining strategic...short term and inconsistent PME system that does not produce strategic logistic leaders. The Logistics Corps, sustainment branches, LOO lead for leader

  14. Is Mohammed a Strategic Leader?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    This document is considered to be perfect. The Koran, when coupled with the Sunna ( Sira and Haddith) create the doctrinal foundation of Islam. It...and control on a regular basis, how leaders react to critical incidents and organizational crises, observed criteria by which leaders allocate scarce...resources, deliberate role modeling, teaching, and coaching, observed criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and status, observed criteria by

  15. Quantum leader election

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganz, Maor

    2017-03-01

    A group of n individuals A1,ldots An who do not trust each other and are located far away from each other, want to select a leader. This is the leader election problem, a natural extension of the coin flipping problem to n players. We want a protocol which will guarantee that an honest player will have at least 1/n-ɛ chance of winning (forall ɛ >0), regardless of what the other players do (whether they are honest, cheating alone or in groups). It is known to be impossible classically. This work gives a simple algorithm that does it, based on the weak coin flipping protocol with arbitrarily small bias derived by Mochon (Quantum weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias, arXiv:0711.4114, 2000) in 2007, and recently published and simplified in Aharonov et al. (SIAM J Comput, 2016). A protocol with linear number of coin flipping rounds is quite simple to achieve; we further provide an improvement to logarithmic number of coin flipping rounds. This is a much improved journal version of a preprint posted in 2009; the first protocol with linear number of rounds was achieved independently also by Aharon and Silman (New J Phys 12:033027, 2010) around the same time.

  16. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  17. Ten Roles for Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Cindy; Killion, Joellen

    2007-01-01

    Teacher leaders assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success. Harrison and Killion describe 10 roles that teacher leaders can fulfill in their schools. As resource providers, they provide materials to help their colleagues. Instructional specialists help colleagues with instructional strategies, and curriculum specialists…

  18. Master Leaders Produce Master Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeley, Mary Ellen; Scricca, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Two district leaders developed a set of processes for their district's principals, assistant principals, and curriculum directors. The professional development model they created included summer workshops, monthly seminars, observations, and workshops on effective hiring. The results affirmed that developing effective educational leaders is a…

  19. From the Field: Learning Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Kathleen; Jones, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is essential to successful schools. One of the ways to support effective school leadership is to share ideas and best practices to address the common challenges faced by school leaders. This question and response format addresses common challenges and questions from practicing school leaders in the manner that a mentor might respond to…

  20. Future Leaders: The Way Forward?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earley, Peter; Weindling, Dick; Bubb, Sara; Glenn, Meli

    2009-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of senior school leaders is high on the UK Government's agenda with much attention currently being given to succession planning. Future Leaders and other fast track leadership development programmes are, in part, a response to this "crisis" brought about by demographic change--many headteachers are due to…

  1. Leading Your Leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Wayne N.

    2008-01-01

    Even though working on a problem has been your primary effort for the past year, your leadership may have heard about this once in a briefing a decade ago. Now they are basically clueless. Pretend that you are talking to your daughter's fifth-grade class. Explain how your complicated gizmo works. If possible, do not use acronyms. Define your terms. Put your work in context. Assume your leader has no idea what you do, who you work for, or what your gizmo does. That is a good place to start. Remember, taking the next century to study the problem or spending the Gross National Product to invent a new solution are probably not going to be acceptable solutions. Real engineers and technicians build real hardware that works in the real world in a reasonable manner within a reasonable time at a reasonable cost. True, skimping on time or money can cause mistakes, but folks whose gizmos are delayed unreasonably or cost more than is practical get their programs canceled, force the business into bankruptcy, or give the market over to the competition. Real engineers and technicians always consider cost and schedule in their work. Raising questions is important. However, we are in the business of doing things. Engineers and technicians are paid to get things done. Yes, you have to identify the problem, frame the design, identify the tests, perform the analysis, and assemble the hardware. But the goal is to solve the problem. Nobody ever said flying in space was easy. We make it look easy the same way that an Olympic champion makes her sport look easy: by working hard at improving performance every day. Better are the results of a well-defined test. Remember that a test on a laboratory bench is always an approximation of reality, and rules similar to those for good analysis also apply. One should always be mindful of Mechelay's rule: "It is better to be stupid than to run a stupid test." Often we try to overtest. If a piece of hardware passes an unbelievably difficult test, then

  2. Team Leader System description

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.J.; Lundeen, T.F.; Moon, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    Purpose of the project is to design, develop, and demonstrate an advanced, prototype computer system to support on-site inspections. The system is a highly portable field computer with on-line access to facilities information, real-time communications, positioning information, and an electronic notebook for data capture. The Team Leader System provides an inspection team with a suite of advanced communication, data gathering, and data analysis tools and can be implemented on many PC-based hardware platforms. The suitcase unit is a transportable system for on-site support in a vehicle or at a stationary location at an inspection site; the personal unit is a wearable computer for in-facility or on-foot inspections.

  3. Coaching the toxic leader.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Manfred F R Kets

    2014-04-01

    In his work as an executive coach, psychotherapist Kets de Vries sometimes comes across bosses with mental demons. The four kinds he encounters most frequently are pathological narcissists, who are selfish and entitled, have grandiose fantasies, and pursue power at all costs; manic-depressives, who can leave a trail of emotional blazes behind them; passive-aggressives, who shy away from confrontation but are obstructive and under-handed; and the emotionally disconnected--literal-minded people who cannot describe or even recognize their feelings. Left unchecked, these personalities can warp the interactions, plans, and systems of entire organizations. But with appropriate coaching, toxic bosses can learn to manage their conditions and become effective mentors and leaders. This article describes how to recognize each pathology and, step by step, guide people who suffer from it toward healthier and more-productive interactions.

  4. The uncompromising leader.

    PubMed

    Eisenstat, Russell A; Beer, Michael; Foote, Nathaniel; Fredberg, Tobias; Norrgren, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Managing the tension between performance and people is at the heart of the CEO's job. But CEOs under fierce pressure from capital markets often focus solely on the shareholder, which can lead to employee disenchantment. Others put so much stock in their firms' heritage that they don't notice as their organizations slide into complacency. Some leaders, though, manage to avoid those traps and create high-commitment, high-performance (HCHP) companies. The authors' in-depth research of HCHP CEOs reveals several shared traits: These CEOs earn the trust of their organizations through their openness to the unvarnished truth. They are deeply engaged with their people, and their exchanges are direct and personal. They mobilize employees around a focused agenda, concentrating on only one or two initiatives. And they work to build collective leadership capabilities. These leaders also forge an emotionally resonant shared purpose across their companies. That consists of a three-part promise: The company will help employees build a better world and deliver performance they can be proud of, and will provide an environment in which they can grow. HCHP CEOs approach finding a firm's moral and strategic center in a competitive market as a calling, not an engineering problem. They drive their firms to be strongly market focused while at the same time reinforcing their firms' core values. They are committed to short-term performance while also investing in long-term leadership and organizational capabilities. By refusing to compromise on any of these terms, they build great companies.

  5. Leader Sex, Leader Descriptions of Own Behavior, and Subordinates Description of Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerome; Hicks, Jack M.

    The relationship between male and female leaders' descriptions of their own behavior and the followers' descriptions of the leader's behavior in traditionally male-oriented leadership positions was examined. The data were collected as part of a research project to assess the assimilation of females at West Point and to determine how females were…

  6. Characterization of a Legionella pneumophila relA Insertion Mutant and Roles of RelA and RpoS in Virulence Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zusman, Tal; Gal-Mor, Ohad; Segal, Gil

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of RelA in the regulation of Legionella pneumophila virulence, a deletion substitution was constructed in the relA gene. The relA knockout resulted in an undetectable level of ppGpp in the cells during the stationary phase, but the original level was restored when the relA gene product was supplied on a plasmid. The effect of the relA mutation was examined with two systems that are known to be expressed during the stationary phase in L. pneumophila. Pigment production was found to be dependent on the relA gene product, and only one-half as much pigment was produced by the relA mutant as by the wild-type strain. Flagellum gene expression was also found to be dependent on the relA gene product, as determined with a flaA::lacZ fusion. However, the relA gene product was found to be dispensable for intracellular growth both in HL-60-derived human macrophages and in the protozoan host Acanthamoeba castellanii. To determine the involvement of the relA gene product in expression of L. pneumophila genes required for intracellular growth (icm/dot genes), nine icm::lacZ fusions were constructed, and expression of these fusions in the wild-type strain was compared with their expression in relA mutant strains. Expression of only one of the icm::lacZ fusions was moderately reduced in the relA mutant strain. Expression of the nine icm::lacZ fusions was also examined in a strain containing an insertion in the gene that codes for the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS, and similar results were obtained. We concluded that RelA is dispensable for intracellular growth of L. pneumophila in the two hosts examined and that both RelA and RpoS play minor roles in L. pneumophila icm/dot gene expression. PMID:11741845

  7. Humor in Counseling: Leader Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldin, Eugene; Bordan, Terry; Araoz, Daniel L.; Gladding, Samuel T.; Kaplan, David; Krumboltz, John; Lazarus, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the existence of humor in counseling from the perspectives of several leaders in the field. Specifically, the last 5 authors describe some of their thoughts and experiences regarding the emergence of humor in counseling.

  8. Managing a Leader Transition Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-23

    organization, leaders should gather information about the political, cultural, economic , and security situations. Ideally, leaders can obtain much of the...Consider External Conditions and Contextual Influences (e.g., social, political, cultural, economic , historical and environmental) Program Results...Evaluation Work Shop Briefing, December 5, 2001, Slide 25 and adapted from McLaughlin, J. A., & Jordon, G. B. (1999) and Rossi, Lipsey , and Freeman (2004

  9. Remembering the Leaders of China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Mingchen; Xue, Yan; DeSoto, K. Andrew; Yuan, Ti-Fei

    2016-01-01

    In two studies, we examined Chinese students’ memory for the names of the leaders of China. In Study 1, subjects were cued with the names of periods from China’s history. Subjects listed as many leaders as possible from each period and put them in the correct ordinal position when they could (see Roediger and DeSoto, 2014). Results showed that within each period, a primacy effect and sometimes a recency effect emerged. Moreover, the average recall probability for leaders within a specific period was a function of the ordinal position of the period. In Study 2, we asked another group of subjects to identify the sources through which they were able to recall each leader. We found that most subjects remembered leaders due to class and coursework. We also found a relation between a leader’s recall probability and the amount of information available on that leader on the Internet. Our findings further imply that the serial position function captures the form of collective memory. PMID:27065899

  10. Osmotolerance provided by the alternative sigma factors σB and rpoS to Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is solute dependent and does not result in an increased growth fitness in NaCl containing media.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, G; Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Mañas, P

    2015-12-02

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of the alternative general stress sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS on the ability of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively, to grow in liquid and solid media of different osmolarity. For this purpose, S. aureus strain Newman and its isogenic ΔsigB mutant IK84 and E. coli strain BJ4 and its isogenic ΔrpoS mutant BJ4L1 were grown in media (TSBYE) with different concentrations of NaCl. Growth parameters (lag phase duration, growth rate and maximum number of microorganisms) and limiting growth concentrations (Maximum Non-Inhibitory Concentration - MNIC - and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC-) were determined. The mechanisms underlying the differences observed between parental and mutant strains were also explored. The absence of the sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS led to a decrease in the MNICs and MICs calculated for S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Conversely, neither σ(B) nor rpoS provided with increased growth fitness to S. aureus and E. coli cells at NaCl concentrations up to 1.36M and 1M, respectively. The decreased osmotolerance of the σ(B) and rpoS deficient strains, as compared to their parental strains, was compensated by the addition of glycine-betaine (1mM) to the growth medium. It was also observed that the decreased tolerance to NaCl of the mutant strains was coincident with a decreased tolerance to sucrose, KCl, and LiCl but not to glycerol, MgCl2, and CaCl2. Results obtained also demonstrate that the increased osmotolerance of stationary growth phase E. coli cells, as compared to exponential growth phase ones, would be due to the activation of both rpoS-independent and rpoS-dependent mechanisms. This work will help to understand the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to osmotic stress and the role of the alternative sigma factors σ(B) and rpoS in this process.

  11. What Is an Innovative Educational Leader?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marron, Joseph M.; Cunniff, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlined the traits of an innovative educational leader in our changing society. It discussed the difference in a manager and leader, as well as the specific dispositions that differentiate the innovative educational leader from what many consider the average leader. The authors used the acronym "HELPSS" to highlight the…

  12. RpoS and quorum sensing control expression and polar localization of Vibrio cholerae chemotaxis cluster III proteins in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ringgaard, Simon; Hubbard, Troy; Mandlik, Anjali; Davis, Brigid M; Waldor, Matthew K

    2015-08-01

    The diarrheal pathogen Vibrio cholerae contains three gene clusters that encode chemotaxis-related proteins, but only cluster II appears to be required for chemotaxis. Here, we present the first characterization of V. cholerae's 'cluster III' chemotaxis system. We found that cluster III proteins assemble into foci at bacterial poles, like those formed by cluster II proteins, but the two systems assemble independently and do not colocalize. Cluster III proteins are expressed in vitro during stationary phase and in conjunction with growth arrest linked to carbon starvation. This expression, as well as expression in vivo in suckling rabbits, is dependent upon RpoS. V. cholerae's CAI-1 quorum sensing (QS) system is also required for cluster III expression in stationary phase and modulates its expression in vivo, but is not required for cluster III expression in response to carbon starvation. Surprisingly, even though the CAI-1 and AI-2 QS systems are thought to feed into the same signaling pathway, the AI-2 system inhibited cluster III gene expression, revealing that the outputs of the two QS systems are not always the same. The distinctions between genetic determinants of cluster III expression in vitro and in vivo highlight the distinctive nature of the in vivo environment.

  13. Effect of RpoN, RpoS and LuxS Pathways on the Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Borrelia Burgdorferi

    PubMed Central

    Sapi, Eva; Theophilus, Priyanka A. S.; Pham, Truc V.; Burugu, Divya; Luecke, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is capable of forming biofilm in vivo and in vitro, a structure well known for its resistance to antimicrobial agents. For the formation of biofilm, signaling processes are required to communicate with the surrounding environment such as it was shown for the RpoN–RpoS alternative sigma factor and for the LuxS quorum-sensing pathways. Therefore, in this study, the wild-type B. burgdorferi and different mutant strains lacking RpoN, RpoS, and LuxS genes were studied for their growth characteristic and development of biofilm structures and markers as well as for their antibiotic sensitivity. Our results showed that all three mutants formed small, loosely formed aggregates, which expressed previously identified Borrelia biofilm markers such as alginate, extracellular DNA, and calcium. All three mutants had significantly different sensitivity to doxycyline in the early log phase spirochete cultures; however, in the biofilm rich stationary cultures, only LuxS mutant showed increased sensitivity to doxycyline compared to the wild-type strain. Our findings indicate that all three mutants have some effect on Borrelia biofilm, but the most dramatic effect was found with LuxS mutant, suggesting that the quorum-sensing pathway plays an important role of Borrelia biofilm formation and antibiotic sensitivity. PMID:27980856

  14. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5'-Leader.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Summers, Michael F

    2016-12-21

    The 5'-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5'-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function.

  15. NMR Studies of the Structure and Function of the HIV-1 5′-Leader

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Sarah C.; Summers, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The 5′-leader of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genome plays several critical roles during viral replication, including differentially establishing mRNA versus genomic RNA (gRNA) fates. As observed for proteins, the function of the RNA is tightly regulated by its structure, and a common paradigm has been that genome function is temporally modulated by structural changes in the 5′-leader. Over the past 30 years, combinations of nucleotide reactivity mapping experiments with biochemistry, mutagenesis, and phylogenetic studies have provided clues regarding the secondary structures of stretches of residues within the leader that adopt functionally discrete domains. More recently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy approaches have been developed that enable direct detection of intra- and inter-molecular interactions within the intact leader, providing detailed insights into the structural determinants and mechanisms that regulate HIV-1 genome packaging and function. PMID:28009832

  16. Converting Bangladesh's influential religious leaders.

    PubMed

    Neaz, A

    1996-01-01

    While the Family Planning Association of Bangladesh (FPAB) introduced family planning to Bangladesh in 1953, very little progress was achieved before the 1980s. It was noticed during the 1980s that despite solid service delivery efforts with interpersonal communication at the community level and expanding choices of contraceptive methods, program success was impeded by religious leader opposition. Religious leader claims that family planning was against Islam reinforce male opposition to contraception. In an effort to win the support of religious leaders, the FPAB established an Islamic Research Cell (IRC) in 1984 and launched targeted advocacy and orientation programs. An expert with religious education and background ran the IRC. The leaders were taught that Islam directly or indirectly promotes family welfare from the viewpoint of the health and economic needs of the family, and that the Qur'an nowhere argues that family planning is forbidden. The Qur'an actually encourages prolonged breastfeeding and the avoidance of unwanted births. Orientation courses, seminars, a national conference, and the distribution of educational printed media eventually convinced the religious leaders to support family planning. Male involvement in family planning is essential in such a male-dominated society.

  17. Combat Leader’s Guide; 1994 Leader Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A198 873) Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987a...for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. (AD A192 049) Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987b). Combat leaders’ guide: Rifle platoon and...References Evensen, E. B ., Winn, R. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987). Evaluation of a job aid system for combat leaders: Rifle platoon and squad (ARI Research

  18. Role of bolA and rpoS genes in biofilm formation and adherence pattern by Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 on polypropylene, stainless steel, and silicone surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mohd; Sousa, Ana Margarida; Machado, Idalina; Pereira, Maria Olivia; Khan, Saif; Morton, Glyn; Hadi, Sibte

    2016-11-15

    Escherichia coli has developed sophisticated means to sense, respond, and adapt in stressed environment. It has served as a model organism for studies in molecular genetics and physiology since the 1960s. Stress response genes are induced whenever a cell needs to adapt and survive under unfavorable growth conditions. Two of the possible important genes are rpoS and bolA. The rpoS gene has been known as the alternative sigma (σ) factor, which controls the expression of a large number of genes, which are involved in responses to various stress factors as well as transition to stationary phase from exponential form of growth. Morphogene bolA response to stressed environment leads to round morphology of E. coli cells, but little is known about its involvement in biofilms and its development or maintenance. This study has been undertaken to address the adherence pattern and formation of biofilms by E. coli on stainless steel, polypropylene, and silicone surfaces after 24 h of growth at 37 °C. Scanning electron microscopy was used for direct examination of the cell attachment and biofilm formation on various surfaces and it was found that, in the presence of bolA, E. coli cells were able to attach to the stainless steel and silicone very well. By contrast, polypropylene surface was not found to be attractive for E. coli cells. This indicates that bolA responded and can play a major role in the presence and absence of rpoS in cell attachment.

  19. Teachers as Leaders in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, thousands of visitors have flocked to Finland--now a leader in education rankings--to uncover this small Nordic country's secret to its education success. In this article, Finnish educator and scholar Pasi Sahlberg explains how Finland has managed such a feat. A rigorous graduate degree and at least five years of full-time…

  20. Ethics Issues Snare School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on ethics issues involving school leaders. Some superintendents have landed in murky ethical waters for their ties to for-profit companies, highlighting the temptations administrators face as industry and education increasingly intersect. Some questionable judgments by superintendents--from accepting company-paid trips to…

  1. American Religious Leaders. American Biographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Timothy L.

    Founded on the principle of religious pluralism, the United States comprises scores of religious traditions. Although the spiritual lives of most people throughout the nation's history are private and undocumented, an examination of the lives and influence of U.S. religious leaders offers insights into the religious heritage of the United States.…

  2. Strategic Communications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunther, Vicki; McGowan, James; Donegan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Gunther, McGowan and Donegan draw on their own experiences and those of others in the field, to explain the importance of communication in school leadership. In focusing on the communication process--why it's critical for schools, and how it can be executed well--they make the case that communication must be a primary emphasis for leaders, not an…

  3. A Leader, Not a Hero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Lynda

    2005-01-01

    The author writes her experience in leading. She points out that a good leader should know when and how to let go than trying to do all the work by herself. It changed her focus on looking at details, implementation, dealing with the contractors, to leading leading people.

  4. Ethical Tensions and Academic Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Cranston, Neil; Starr, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Internationally universities have been characterised by shrinking government funding, fierce competition for student enrolments, and greater pressures to become commercially viable. It is against this complex background that academic leaders have been required to confront and resolve a multitude of conflicting interests as they seek to balance a…

  5. Teacher Leaders: Advancing Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Rincón, Mari; Ward, Jana; Rincón, Ricardo; Gomez, Lesli

    2014-01-01

    Four elementary school instructors offer insights into their classrooms, their unique professional roles, and their leadership approaches as they reflect on their journey to advance teacher and student mathematics learning. They note a "teacher leader" serves as an example to other educators and strives to impact student learning;…

  6. Research Administrators as Servant Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Joann

    2011-01-01

    Within the sponsored research support offices in departments at research institutions, non-profits, and undergraduate institutions, research administrators are often perceived as servant leaders by their own membership organizations and those who work with them. This perception is influenced by survey results focusing on character. Parolini (2004)…

  7. Every Child Matters. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This guide is one of a series of Education for Parenthood manuals developed by the Salvation Army for use in programs to prepare teenagers for parenthood or for child care careers. This volume presents one of two programs for training future leaders of the Salvation Army Corps Cadets (ages 12 to 18). The program aims at increasing participants'…

  8. The Principal as Instructional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1986-01-01

    Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…

  9. Teambuilding: A Strategic Leader Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    following teambuilding lessons learned. In their book, The Wisdom of Teams, Jon Katzenbach and Douglas, provide a set of guidelines that leaders can follow...Leadership Quarterly, (1995): 219. 12 Northouse, 152. 13 Palmer, 139. 14 Northouse, 153. 15 Palmer, 140. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid. 18 Jon R. Katzenbach & Douglas K

  10. Educating Earth-Literate Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen; Jucker, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    The World Summit for Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg made it clear that political leadership the world over is incapable of rising to the challenges of sustainability. Yet, most of the hundred or so world leaders who attended have a higher education degree from some of the world's most prestigious universities. This paper tries to…

  11. Why Teachers Trust School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handford, Victoria; Leithwood, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Trust among teachers in schools is significantly related to student achievement and trust in school leaders is an important influence on such trust. The purpose of this study is to identify leadership practices which teachers interpret as signs of trustworthiness on the part of their principals. Design/methodology/approach: Evidence for…

  12. Control of cell division in Escherichia coli: regulation of transcription of ftsQA involves both rpoS and SdiA-mediated autoinduction.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, D M; Schineller, J B; Baldwin, T O

    1996-01-09

    The conditioning of culture medium by the production of growth-regulatory substances is a well-established phenomenon with eukaryotic cells. It has recently been shown that many prokaryotes are also capable of modulating growth, and in some cases sensing cell density, by production of extracellular signaling molecules, thereby allowing single celled prokaryotes to function in some respects as multicellular organisms. As Escherichia coli shifts from exponential growth to stationary growth, many changes occur, including cell division leading to formation of short minicells and expression of numerous genes not expressed in exponential phase. An understanding of the coordination between the morphological changes associated with cell division and the physiological and metabolic changes is of fundamental importance to understanding regulation of the prokaryotic cell cycle. The ftsQA genes, which encode functions required for cell division in E. coli, are regulated by promoters P1 and P2, located upstream of the ftsQ gene. The P1 promoter is rpoS-stimulated and the second, P2, is regulated by a member of the LuxR subfamily of transcriptional activators, SdiA, exhibiting features characteristic of an autoinduction (quorum sensing) mechanism. The activity of SdiA is potentiated by N-acyl-homoserine lactones, which are the autoinducers of luciferase synthesis in luminous marine bacteria as well as of pathogenesis functions in several pathogenic bacteria. A compound(s) produced by E. coli itself during growth in Luria Broth stimulates transcription from P2 in an SdiA-dependent process. Another substance(s) enhances transcription of rpoS and (perhaps indirectly) of ftsQA via promoter P1. It appears that this bimodal control mechanism may comprise a fail-safe system, such that transcription of the ftsQA genes may be properly regulated under a variety of different environmental and physiological conditions.

  13. Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Lacking the Secondary Messenger C-di-GMP and RpoS as a Live Oral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    García, Begoña; Gil, Carmen; García-Ona, Enrique; Burgui, Saioa; Casares, Noelia; Hervás-Stubbs, Sandra; Lasarte, Juan José; Lasa, Iñigo

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases transmitted through the consumption of contaminated food, with chicken and pig related products being key reservoirs of infection. Although numerous studies on animal vaccination have been performed in order to reduce Salmonella prevalence, there is still a need for an ideal vaccine. Here, with the aim of constructing a novel live attenuated Salmonella vaccine candidate, we firstly analyzed the impact of the absence of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) in Salmonella virulence. C-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that controls a wide range of bacterial processes, including biofilm formation and synthesis of virulence factors, and also modulates the host innate immune response. Our results showed that a Salmonella multiple mutant in the twelve genes encoding diguanylate cyclase proteins that, as a consequence, cannot synthesize c-di-GMP, presents a moderate attenuation in a systemic murine infection model. An additional mutation of the rpoS gene resulted in a synergic attenuating effect that led to a highly attenuated strain, referred to as ΔXIII, immunogenic enough to protect mice against a lethal oral challenge of a S. Typhimurium virulent strain. ΔXIII immunogenicity relied on activation of both antibody and cell mediated immune responses characterized by the production of opsonizing antibodies and the induction of significant levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 and IL-10. ΔXIII was unable to form a biofilm and did not survive under desiccation conditions, indicating that it could be easily eliminated from the environment. Moreover, ΔXIII shows DIVA features that allow differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. Altogether, these results show ΔXIII as a safe and effective live DIVA vaccine. PMID:27537839

  14. The H-NS-like protein StpA represses the RpoS (sigma 38) regulon during exponential growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Sacha; McDermott, Paul; Thompson, Arthur; Hinton, Jay C D

    2009-12-01

    StpA is a paralogue of the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS that is conserved in a range of enteric bacteria and had no known function in Salmonella Typhimurium. We show that 5% of the Salmonella genome is regulated by StpA, which contrasts with the situation in Escherichia coli where deletion of stpA only had minor effects on gene expression. The StpA-dependent genes of S. Typhimurium are a specific subset of the H-NS regulon that are predominantly under the positive control of sigma(38) (RpoS), CRP-cAMP and PhoP. Regulation by StpA varied with growth phase; StpA controlled sigma(38) levels at mid-exponential phase by preventing inappropriate activation of sigma(38) during rapid bacterial growth. In contrast, StpA only activated the CRP-cAMP regulon during late exponential phase. ChIP-chip analysis revealed that StpA binds to PhoP-dependent genes but not to most genes of the CRP-cAMP and sigma(38) regulons. In fact, StpA indirectly regulates sigma(38)-dependent genes by enhancing sigma(38) turnover by repressing the anti-adaptor protein rssC. We discovered that StpA is essential for the dynamic regulation of sigma(38) in response to increased glucose levels. Our findings identify StpA as a novel growth phase-specific regulator that plays an important physiological role by linking sigma(38) levels to nutrient availability.

  15. Links & Contacts | Climate Leaders Collaboration | New ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  16. Climate Leaders Collaboration | New England | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    In 2013 EPA New England held a climate leaders summit. A key outgrowth of that summit was the formation of a Climate Leaders Steering Committee and six Action Plan Teams to help New England communities achieve climate resilience.

  17. The failure-tolerant leader.

    PubMed

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.

  18. A Phenomenology of Outdoor Education Leader Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Stephanie C.; Lauzon, Lara L.; Meldrum, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Limited qualitative research exists on the experiences of outdoor education leaders. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the job-related experiences of outdoor education leaders within and outside the workplace. Five participants who had experience as outdoor education leaders completed in-depth, one-on-one interviews about…

  19. Holding on to 4-H Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hass, Glen

    1979-01-01

    Data from a survey of 4-H Club leaders in Saskatchewan, Canada, were used to determine the effect of attendance at leadership training events on leaders' decisions to re-enroll or discontinue. It was found that involvement in 4-H activities, supported by leadership training, increased leaders' satisfaction and likelihood of re-enrolling. (MF)

  20. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  1. In Search of the Congruent Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussrow, Paul G.; Purland, John

    A lack of congruency on the part of many leaders results in diminished effectiveness, if not outright failure. The soundness of a person in authority is an essential characteristic for potency as a leader. Irrespective of what system of ethical thought is proposed, effectiveness for leaders only comes from a stream of thought that demonstrates a…

  2. Encouraging Civility as a Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsner, Paul A., Ed.; Boggs, George R., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The contributors relate examples of situations in which leaders encountered unexpected and sometimes unprecedented incivility in their role as community college leaders. The chapters present their experiences, observations, lessons, and recommendations for handling crises that may befall leaders in an academic setting. This book contains the…

  3. Leader Authenticity: Key to Organizational Climate, Health, and Perceived Leader Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Brookhart, Susan M.

    This paper describes the development of a revised Organizational Leader Authenticity Scale (OLAS) for use in determining the authenticity of both educational leaders and noneducational leaders. "Authenticity" refers to the degree to which the leader's action matches his or her words. A Staff Authenticity Scale was also developed and tested. The…

  4. Combat Leaders’ Guide (CLG): Leader Handbook 1997.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    14). Alexandria, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987a...Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Winn, R. B ., Evensen, E. B ., & Salter, M . S. (1987b). Combat leaders’ guide: Rifle platoon and squad...Behavioral and Social Sciences A Directorate of the U.S. Army Total Personnel Command EDGAR M . JOHNSON Director Technical Review by MAJ James P

  5. Identifying intrinsic and extrinsic determinants that regulate internal initiation of translation mediated by the FMR1 5' leader

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Tara; Kube, Erika; Timmerman, Stephanie; Krushel, Les A

    2008-01-01

    Background Regulating synthesis of the Fragile X gene (FMR1) product, FMRP alters neural plasticity potentially through its role in the microRNA pathway. Cap-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA, a process requiring ribosomal scanning through the 5' leader, is likely impeded by the extensive secondary structure generated by the high guanosine/cytosine nucleotide content including the CGG triplet nucleotide repeats in the 5' leader. An alternative mechanism to initiate translation – internal initiation often utilizes secondary structure to recruit the translational machinery. Consequently, studies were undertaken to confirm and extend a previous observation that the FMR1 5' leader contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). Results Cellular transfection of a dicistronic DNA construct containing the FMR1 5' leader inserted into the intercistronic region yielded significant translation of the second cistron, but the FMR1 5' leader was also found to contain a cryptic promoter possibly confounding interpretation of these results. However, transfection of dicistronic and monocistronic RNA ex vivo or in vitro confirmed that the FMR1 5' leader contains an IRES. Moreover, inhibiting cap-dependent translation ex vivo did not affect the expression level of endogenous FMRP indicating a role for IRES-dependent translation of FMR1 mRNA. Analysis of the FMR1 5' leader revealed that the CGG repeats and the 5' end of the leader were vital for internal initiation. Functionally, exposure to potassium chloride or intracellular acidification and addition of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid as mimics of neural activity and double stranded RNA, respectively, differentially affected FMR1 IRES activity. Conclusion Our results indicate that multiple stimuli influence IRES-dependent translation of the FMR1 mRNA and suggest a functional role for the CGG nucleotide repeats. PMID:18922172

  6. How to grow great leaders.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  7. Strategic Military Leaders - Leading Tomorrow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-29

    strategic vision, and prepare their commands as a whole for their future roles .”7 Transiting from an environment of relative clarity in missions...in war, their role is to dominate and win. Social Intelligence Daniel Goleman defines social intelligence as a combination of two inseparable...therefore has two crucial roles : first to develop the right people, with the right strategic competencies, as its strategic leaders; and second, to

  8. Translation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae tcm1 gene in the absence of a 5'-untranslated leader.

    PubMed Central

    Maicas, E; Shago, M; Friesen, J D

    1990-01-01

    The role of eukaryotic 5'-untranslated messenger RNA leaders is not entirely clear, since they share little sequence similarity among each other. The importance of the leader in determining the efficiency of translation initiation was addressed here by examining the polyribosome distribution of several leader-deletion alleles of the yeast tcm1 gene (coding for ribosomal protein L3). Shortening of this 22-nucleotide leader, or complete removal of it (the first nucleotide of the mRNA becoming the A of the translation initiation codon AUG) permitted translation, albeit reduced. Further deletion of as few as the first two nucleotides of the initiation codon leads to a substantial reduction in ribosome loading, which is compatible with inefficient initiation at the next downstream, out-of-frame, AUG triplet. A second measure of translation initiation was obtained by assaying qualitatively for the production of biologically active L3 protein using growth-resistance to trichodermin. This experiment indicates that ribosomes can recognize the correct initiation codon even in the complete absence of a leader. We conclude that the 5'-untranslated leader of the yeast tcm1 gene is not essential for accurate translation initiation, but enhances its efficiency. Images PMID:2216774

  9. Analysis of the phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase mRNA in the rat spermatozoon and effect of selenium deficiency on the mRNA.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, K; Hirata, S; Hoshi, K; Shinohara, A; Chiba, M

    2000-04-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) is a selenium (Se)-dependent glutathione peroxidase. It is reported that the relative PHGPx mRNA levels are much higher in the testis than in the other tissues. We have analyzed the existence and structure of the PHGPx mRNA in rat sperm and the changes in the level of the PHGPx mRNA after feeding with Se-deficient diets. We used 8-wk-old male Wistar strain rats given Se-adequate feed (control group, n = 5) and Se-deficient diets with marginal levels of Se (0.03 ppm or less) (Se-deficient group, n = 5) for 4 wk. The existence and level of the PHGPx mRNA in the cauda epididymal sperm, testis, and liver from the Se-adequate rats were analyzed by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the Southern blotting method. As a result, the existence of the PHGPx mRNA was demonstrated in the cauda epididymal sperm as well as in the testis and liver. Moreover, the subtype of the PHGPx mRNA in the rat sperm was the mitochondrial-type mRNA, which included a region corresponding to the mitochondrial transfer leader sequence. These results imply that the intracellular localization of PHGPx may be regulated by the transcription level. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between the control group and the Se-deficient group in the Se level of the cauda epididymal sperm and the level of the PHGPx mRNA. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the PHGPx mRNA exists in rat sperm for the first time. The analysis of the PHGPx mRNA in the sperm would be a useful tool for investigating the disfunction caused by the disorder of the level or structure of the PHGPx in the sperm.

  10. Expression of a streptomycete leaderless mRNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C J; Janssen, G R

    1997-01-01

    The chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene from Streptomyces acrimycini encodes a leaderless mRNA. Expression of the cat coding sequence as a leaderless mRNA from a modified lac promoter resulted in chloramphenicol resistance in Escherichia coli. Transcript mapping with nuclease S1 confirmed that the 5' end of the cat message initiated at the A of the AUG translational start codon. Site-directed mutagenesis of the lac promoter or the cat start codon abolished chloramphenicol resistance, indicating that E. coli initiated translation at the 5' terminal AUG of the cat leaderless mRNA. Addition of 5'-AUGC-3' to the 5' end of the cat mRNA resulted in translation occurring also from the reading frame defined by the added AUG triplet, suggesting that a 5'-terminal start codon is an important recognition feature for initiation and establishing reading frame during translation of leaderless mRNA. Addition of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence to the cat coding sequence increased cat expression in a cat:lacZ fusion; however, the level of expression was significantly lower than when a fragment of the bacteriophage lambda cI gene, also encoding a leaderless mRNA, was fused to lacZ. These results indicate that in the absence of an untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, the streptomycete cat mRNA is translated by E. coli; however, the cat translation signals, or other features of the cat mRNA, provide for only a low level of expression in E. coli. PMID:9352935

  11. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  12. Leader charisma and affective team climate: the moderating role of the leader's influence and interaction.

    PubMed

    Hernández Baeza, Ana; Araya Lao, Cristina; García Meneses, Juliana; González Romá, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we evaluate the role of leader charisma in fostering positive affective team climate and preventing negative affective climate. The analysis of a longitudinal database of 137 bank branches by means of hierarchical moderated regression shows that leader charisma has a stronger effect on team optimism than on team tension. In addition, the leader's influence and the frequency of leader-team interaction moderate the relationship between charisma and affective climate. However, whereas the leader's influence enhances the relationship between leader charisma and positive affective climate, the frequency of interaction has counterproductive effects.

  13. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  14. Cycling of the Sm-like protein Hfq on the DsrA small regulatory RNA.

    PubMed

    Lease, Richard A; Woodson, Sarah A

    2004-12-10

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) regulate bacterial genes involved in environmental adaptation. This RNA regulation requires Hfq, a bacterial Sm-like protein that stabilizes sRNAs and enhances RNA-RNA interactions. To understand the mechanism of target recognition by sRNAs, we investigated the interactions between Hfq, the sRNA DsrA, and its regulatory target rpoS mRNA, which encodes the stress response sigma factor. Nuclease footprinting revealed that Hfq recognized multiple sites in rpoS mRNA without significantly perturbing secondary structure in the 5' leader that inhibits translation initiation. Base-pairing with DsrA, however, made the rpoS ribosome binding site fully accessible, as predicted by genetic data. Hfq bound DsrA four times more tightly than the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex in gel mobility-shift assays. Consequently, Hfq is displaced rapidly from its high-affinity binding site on DsrA by conformational changes in DsrA, when DsrA base-pairs with rpoS mRNA. Hfq accelerated DsrA.rpoS RNA association and stabilized the RNA complex up to twofold. Hybridization of DsrA and rpoS mRNA was optimal when Hfq occupied its primary binding site on free DsrA, but was inhibited when Hfq associated with the DsrA.rpoS RNA complex. We conclude that recognition of rpoS mRNA is stimulated by binding of Hfq to free DsrA sRNA, followed by release of Hfq from the sRNA.mRNA complex.

  15. Leader selection for fast consensus in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaofan

    2015-12-01

    This paper considers a leader-follower system with the aim to select an optimal leader so as to drive the remaining nodes to reach the desired consensus with the fastest convergence speed. An index called consensus centrality (CC) is proposed to quantify how fast a leader could guide the network to achieve the desired consensus. The experiment results explored the big similarities between the distributions of CC and degree in the network, which suggest that the suboptimal leader selected by the maximum degree can approximately approach the optimal leader in heterogeneous networks. Combining the degree-based k-shell decomposition with consensus centrality, a leader selection algorithm is proposed to reduce the computational complexity in large-scale networks. Finally, the convergence time of an equivalent discrete-time model is given to illustrate the properties of the suboptimal solutions.

  16. Taking Charge: A Practical Guide for Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    well organized and a goal- setter . By teach- ing, leaders can inspire, motivate, and influence subordinates at various levels. 3. A Leader Should Rarehl...unit softball leagues, basketball pro- grams, tennis matches, or volleyball competitions serve the same purpose. A leader often can find out more...round robin tennis tourna- ments, volleyball , or softball work well as sports mixers). Spouses should not be included. Room- mates should be paired so

  17. Is the Army Developing Strategic Leaders?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-12

    provide a definition and list of competencies that outlines what a strategic leader should possess. With that definition and list of competencies, the...researcher will examine three military leaders, showing linkage to doctrine, which will illustrate examples of this doctrinal definition . Once this is...Army currently developing strategic leaders? The US Army doctrine and the Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) provide a definition and list of

  18. Developing Socially Responsible Leaders in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, T. W., III

    2016-01-01

    This chapter begins the exploration of what leadership education is through examining the relationship between educational involvement and academic autonomy in the development of socially responsible leaders.

  19. Beyond Individual Leader Development: Cultivating Collective Capacities.

    PubMed

    Dugan, John P; Turman, Natasha T; Torrez, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    This chapter addresses the overemphasis on individual-leader development in leadership education, offering insights and pragmatic approaches for advancing collective leadership focused on social and political change.

  20. Using Danielson's Framework to Develop Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunzicker, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Considering the constructs of teacher leadership, the author provides a practical starting point for systematically encouraging and developing teacher leaders using Danielson's framework for teaching.

  1. Be seen as a leader.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Adam D; Kilduff, Gavin J

    2013-12-01

    When a new work group forms, people often make snap judgments about who is qualified to lead. If the players don't already know one another, they tend to afford status to teammates on the basis of factors such as age, gender, race, attractiveness, and rank. These are characteristics beyond your control, but they don't necessarily predetermine the influence you can have on a group. Anyone, the authors say, can achieve higher status and more influence by getting in the right mind-set before engaging with new teammates. There are three psychological states that can increase the optimism, confidence, and proactive behavior that people associate with leaders: promotion focus (defined as a focus on goals and positive outcomes), happiness, and a feeling of power. And all it takes to help you enter one of these states is a simple five-minute exercise before starting a group task: Write about your ambitions or a time when you felt happy or powerful. The authors report that study subjects who did exactly that were more likely than others to speak up, steer decision making, and be viewed by their teammates as leaders--both in initial group meetings and in follow-up meetings two days later.

  2. Role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in bacterial heat resistance as a function of treatment medium pH.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, A; Mañas, P; Condón, S; Pagán, R; García-Gonzalo, D

    2012-02-15

    This investigation aimed to determine the role of general stress-response alternative sigma factors σ(S) (RpoS) and σ(B) (SigB) in heat resistance and the occurrence of sublethal injuries in cell envelopes of stationary-phase Escherichia coli BJ4 and Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e cells, respectively, as a function of treatment medium pH. Given that microbial death followed first-order inactivation kinetics (R(2)>0.95) the traditional D(T) and z values were used to describe the heat inactivation kinetics. Influence of rpoS deletion was constant at every treatment temperature and pH, making a ΔrpoS deletion mutant strain approximately 5.5 times more heat sensitive than its parental strain for every studied condition. Furthermore, the influence of the pH of the treatment medium on the reduction of the heat resistance of E. coli was also constant and independent of the treatment temperature (average z value=4.9°C) in both parental and mutant strains. L. monocytogenes EGD-e z values obtained at pH 7.0 and 5.5 were not significantly different (p>0.05) in either parental or the ∆sigB deletion mutant strains (average z value=4.8°C). Nevertheless, at pH 4.0 the z value was higher (z=8.4°C), indicating that heat resistance of both L. monocytogenes strains was less dependent on temperature at pH 4.0. At both pH 5.5 and 7.0 the influence of sigB deletion was constant and independent of the treatment temperature, decreasing L. monocytogenes heat resistance approximately 2.5 times. In contrast, the absence of sigB did not decrease the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes at pH 4.0. The role of RpoS in protecting cell envelopes was more important in E. coli (4 times) than SigB in L. monocytogenes (1.5 times). Moreover, the role of σ(S) in increasing heat resistance seems more relevant in enhancing the intrinsic resilience of the cytoplasmic membrane, and to a lesser extent, outer membrane resilience. Knowledge of environmental conditions related to the activation of

  3. Lethality of a heat- and phosphate-catalyzed glucose by-product to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and partial protection conferred by the rpoS regulon.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J J; Cheville, A M; Bose, J L; Kaspar, C W

    1999-06-01

    A by-product of glucose produced during sterilization (121 degrees C, 15 lb/in2, 15 min) at neutral pH and in the presence of phosphate (i.e., phosphate-buffered saline) was bactericidal to Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). Other six-carbon (fructose and galactose) and five-carbon (arabinose, ribose, and xylose) reducing sugars also produced a toxic by-product under the same conditions. Fructose and the five-carbon sugars yielded the most bactericidal activity. Glucose concentrations of 1% (wt/vol) resulted in a 99.9% decline in the CFU of stationary-phase cells per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. An rpoS mutant (pRR10::rpoS) of strain 43895 (FRIK 816-3) was significantly (P < 0.001) more sensitive to the glucose-phosphate by-product than the parent strain, as glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 0.25% resulted in a 2- to 3-log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. Likewise, log-phase cells of the wild-type strain, 43895, were significantly more sensitive (P < 0.001) to the glucose-phosphate by-product than were stationary-phase cells, which is consistent with the stability of rpoS and the regulation of rpoS-regulated genes. The bactericidal effect of the glucose-phosphate by-product was reduced when strains ATCC 43895 and FRIK 816-3 were incubated at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Also, growth in glucose-free medium (i.e., nutrient broth) did not alleviate the sensitivity to the glucose-phosphate by-product and excludes the possibility of substrate-accelerated death as the cause of the bactericidal effect observed. The glucose-phosphate by-product was also bactericidal to Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, and a Klebsiella sp. Attempts to identify the glucose-phosphate by-product were unsuccessful. These studies demonstrate the production of a glucose-phosphate by-product bactericidal to E. coli O157:H7 and the protective effects afforded by rpoS-regulated gene products. Additionally, the detection of sublethally

  4. Human Leader and Robot Follower Team: Correcting Leader’s Position From Follower’s Heading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    of the leader’s navigation system and corrects those errors. Keywords: Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), robot, leader - follower , dead-reckoning, gyro...drift, error correction 1 INTRODUCTION Leader - follower constellations have been subject of research for many years now. Most of the work in this...pair of small mobile robots (both were PackBots from iRobot [6]) made up the leader - follower team. Both the leader and the follower were equipped with

  5. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study examines the perceptions of 22 national Hispanic American leaders about poverty among Hispanics. Eleven of the leaders were Mexican American; five were Puerto Rican; four were Cuban American; one was Central American; and one was South American. Twelve of the leaders were heads of public interest organizations; six were members of…

  6. Leader emergence through interpersonal neural synchronization.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing; Chen, Chuansheng; Dai, Bohan; Shi, Guang; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2015-04-07

    The neural mechanism of leader emergence is not well understood. This study investigated (i) whether interpersonal neural synchronization (INS) plays an important role in leader emergence, and (ii) whether INS and leader emergence are associated with the frequency or the quality of communications. Eleven three-member groups were asked to perform a leaderless group discussion (LGD) task, and their brain activities were recorded via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based hyperscanning. Video recordings of the discussions were coded for leadership and communication. Results showed that the INS for the leader-follower (LF) pairs was higher than that for the follower-follower (FF) pairs in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), an area important for social mentalizing. Although communication frequency was higher for the LF pairs than for the FF pairs, the frequency of leader-initiated and follower-initiated communication did not differ significantly. Moreover, INS for the LF pairs was significantly higher during leader-initiated communication than during follower-initiated communications. In addition, INS for the LF pairs during leader-initiated communication was significantly correlated with the leaders' communication skills and competence, but not their communication frequency. Finally, leadership could be successfully predicted based on INS as well as communication frequency early during the LGD (before half a minute into the task). In sum, this study found that leader emergence was characterized by high-level neural synchronization between the leader and followers and that the quality, rather than the frequency, of communications was associated with synchronization. These results suggest that leaders emerge because they are able to say the right things at the right time.

  7. Educators as Serving Leaders in the Classroom and on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Counterintuitively, the more one develops as a leader, the less of a leader one becomes. What do great leaders do? Great leaders are ambitious first and foremost for the cause, the mission, the work--not themselves. Educators as "serving leaders" sense that every action they take, together with every decision that they make, either…

  8. The IT Leader as Alchemist: Finding the True Gold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleed, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The Information technology (IT) leader within higher education can be viewed from three scenarios: (1) the IT leader as plumber; (2) the IT leader as gardener; and (3) the IT leader as alchemist. In the first scenario, the college or university network consists of pipes, and the role of the IT leader resembles that of a plumber, who keeps the…

  9. Science Teacher Leaders: Exploring Practices and Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, John Kevin

    2013-01-01

    It has become standard practice for teachers to step into the role of "teacher leaders" and perform a variety of curriculum, instruction and assessment tasks for schools and school districts. The literature regarding these Ohio K-12 teacher leaders, who may perform these tasks in addition to or in lieu of regular teaching assignments,…

  10. AFMS Flight Path: Building Future Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-12

    Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03-001. Cambridge, Mass...Building Better Leaders: Developing Air Force Squadron Leadership for the Next Century. National Security Program Discussion Paper Series 03‐001

  11. Key Characteristics of Teacher Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela; Claxton, Heather; Wilson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leaders who share their specialized knowledge, expertise, and experience with other teachers broaden and sustain school and classroom improvement efforts. Teacher leaders can transform classrooms into learning laboratories where every student is engaged in relevant and well-designed curricular content, every teacher embraces the use of…

  12. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  13. Leader Succession and Socialization: A Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    1991-01-01

    Leader-succession research is refocused on its interactive roots whereas the advances of recent succession inquiry are explored in this synthesis of the literature. The approach capitalizes on efforts to understand leader-succession research from a multidimensional and social viewpoint. Organizational socialization is used to frame the discussion.…

  14. 10 Ideas for Recruiting New Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Vicki; Wall, Milan

    This booklet presents ideas based on actions taken by community leaders to recruit new and emerging leaders to join in the improvement of a community. The discussion includes: (1) asking the question "who's not here?" to make sure the community organization is representative; (2) looking for skills, not names to discover leadership…

  15. Orange County Outdoor School: Cabin Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    Presented in five sections, the manual furnishes cabin leaders (high school students) with background information concerning philosophy, teaching, objectives, daily schedule, and cabin leader responsibilities in the Orange County Outdoor School program. The welcome section contains the history of the Outdoor School, staff responsibilities,…

  16. Middle Leaders' Learning in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franken, Margaret; Penney, Dawn; Branson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the phenomenon of middle leadership in a university context and directs attention to the significance of learning as a central facet of leadership development. Drawing on the reflections of two of the authors as new middle leaders (chairpersons of departments), this article critically examines how middle leaders learn…

  17. Preparing Preservice Teachers to become Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Since PreK-12 student achievement is the primary focus of schools, all teachers are called to serve as teachers leaders and improve learning on their campuses. Rather than waiting until they have gained experience, teachers can begin acquiring the knowledge, skills, and dispositions of teacher leaders during their preservice programs. Drawing upon…

  18. Blue & C--Personality Traits of Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Virgil

    2009-01-01

    School superintendents and school leaders can be most effective if they understand their personality traits and the traits of those they learn and work with. A school leader can maximize their effectiveness by examining their own behaviors, thinking and habits as well as recognizing the behaviors of others. The DISC Pure Behavioral styles and the…

  19. Where the Leaders of 1989 Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the current lives of the Chinese leaders of 1989. Wang Dan, an active organizer year before the demonstrations and quickly became a leader in the square, has completed a Ph.D. in Chinese history at Harvard University last year and is now on a postdoctoral fellowship at the University of Oxford. Wu'er Kaixi, who took a…

  20. How Sociological Leaders Teach: Some Key Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persell, Caroline Hodges; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M.; Syed, Ali

    2008-01-01

    This paper arose from a larger study designed to explore what leaders in the field of sociology think are the most important goals and principles for students to understand after taking a college-level introductory course and how they teach those principles. A population of scholarly leaders in sociology was defined by various forms of peer…

  1. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  2. "Yes, but...": Education Leaders Discuss Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; Ward, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article presents answers to the question: What do powerful educational leaders think about training practitioners for social justice? The data are drawn from interviews with a former governor and leaders from the American Association of School Administration (AASA), National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP), National…

  3. The Called, Chosen, and Faithful Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hartwell T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Leaders are made, not born. Like so many other of life's complex issues, the question of nature vs. nurture in leadership is one that is analyzed, researched, and debated by educators, philosophers, social scientist, and even leaders themselves. Leadership has been dissected as to personality, character, and behavior. Researchers have developed…

  4. Conceptualizing Leadership and Assessing Leader Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; Johansen, Barry-Craig

    Leadership may be defined as both a process and a property. Research shows that some attributes common to successful leaders (characteristics, knowledge, and skills) can be significantly influenced by planned education or training. In the process of developing a leadership assessment instrument, a study specified four broad tasks that leaders are…

  5. SVP [School Volunteer Program] Leader's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed to aid school-level administrators of the School Volunteer Program (SVP), this handbook is organized into five sections as follows: (1) what the responsibilities of SVP leaders are, including SVP resource person and volunteer chairman job description; (2) with whom SVP leaders work, including communication network, division of…

  6. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    PubMed

    Washburn, E R

    1998-01-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  7. What about the leader? Crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Nina; Rigotti, Thomas; Otto, Kathleen; Loeb, Carina

    2017-01-01

    Although a growing body of research links leadership behavior to follower health, comparatively little is known about the health effects of being in the lead. This longitudinal study of 315 team members and 67 leaders examined the crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement from followers to leaders. Leader emotional self-efficacy was tested as a moderator in the crossover process. Multiple regression analyses revealed that followers' work engagement was positively related to leaders' work engagement eight months later, controlling for followers' tenure with the leader, leader gender, autonomy, workload, and work engagement at Time 1. Leaders' emotional self-efficacy did not moderate the crossover of work engagement. Followers' emotional exhaustion was not directly related to leaders' emotional exhaustion over time. We did find a significant interaction effect for follower emotional exhaustion and leader emotional self-efficacy. This study is the first to show that crossover of emotional exhaustion and work engagement can unfold over time from team members to leaders. Main theoretical implications lie in the finding that-in line with job demands-resources theory-followers' psychological states can pose a demand or resource for leaders, and influence their well-being. For practitioners, our results offer valuable insights regarding the design of organizational health interventions as well as leadership development measures. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. 76 FR 14678 - Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... SECURITY Communications Unit Leader Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs... Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation. DHS previously published this information collection request... III Communications Unit Leader (COML) training course for state, regional, local, and tribal...

  9. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.

  10. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  11. Identification and expression of small non-coding RNA, L10-Leader, in different growth phases of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li; Xia, Wei; Li, Shaohua; Li, Wuju; Liu, Jiaojiao; Ding, Hongmei; Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Chen, Ying; Su, Xueting; Wang, Wei; Sun, Li; Wang, Chenglong; Shao, Ningsheng; Chu, Bingfeng

    2012-06-01

    Streptococcus mutans is one of the major cariogenic bacteria in the oral environment. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of bacterial growth, stress tolerance, and virulence. In this study, we experimentally verified the existence of sRNA, L10-Leader, in S. mutans for the first time. Our results show that the expression level of L10-Leader was growth-phase dependent in S. mutans and varied among different clinical strains of S. mutans. The level of L10-Leader in S. mutans UA159 was closely related to the pH value, but not to the concentrations of glucose and sucrose in culture medium. We predicted target mRNAs of L10-Leader bioinformatically and found that some of these mRNAs were related to growth and stress response. Five predicted mRNA targets were selected and detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and we found that the expression levels of these mRNAs were closely related to the level of L10-Leader at different growth phases of the bacteria. Our results indicate that L10-Leader may play an important role in the regulation of responses in S. mutans, especially during its growth phase and acid adaption response.

  12. Tobamovirus infection is independent of HSP101 mRNA induction and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Carr, Tyrell; Wang, Yongzeng; Huang, Zhonglian; Yeakley, Joanne M; Fan, Jian-Bing; Whitham, Steven A

    2006-10-01

    Heat shock protein 101 (HSP101) has been implicated in tobamovirus infections by virtue of its ability to enhance translation of mRNAs possessing the 5'Omega-leader of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Enhanced translation is mediated by HSP101 binding to a CAA-repeat motif in TMV Omega leader. CAA repeat sequences are present in the 5' leaders of other tobamoviruses including Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), which infects Arabidopsis thaliana. HSP101 is one of eight HSP100 gene family members encoded by the A. thaliana genome, and of these, HSP101 and HSP98.7 are predicted to encode proteins localized to the cytoplasm where they could potentially interact with TMV RNA. Analysis of the expression of the HSP100s showed that only HSP101 mRNA transcripts were induced significantly by ORMV in A. thaliana. The induction of HSP101 mRNA was also correlated with an increase in its protein levels and was independent of defense-related signaling pathways involving salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene. A. thaliana mutants lacking HSP101, HSP98.7, or both supported wild-type levels of ORMV replication and movement. Similar results were obtained for TMV infection in Nicotiana benthamiana plants silenced for HSP101, demonstrating that HSP101 is not necessary for efficient tobamovirus infection.

  13. Nurse managers as transformational and transactional leaders.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elaine; Kennerly, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Nurse managers demonstrating transformational leadership are more likely than transactional leaders to have committed staff nurse followers. Committed followers exert extra effort, thus improving unit performance and enhancing the organization's competitive advantage.

  14. Interprofessional Care and Role of Team Leaders.

    PubMed

    Kaini, B K

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional care is an essential part of the health service delivery system. It helps to achieve improved care and to deliver the optimal and desired health outcomes by working together, sharing and learning skills. Health care organisation is a collective sum of many leaders and followers. Successful delivery of interprofessional care relies on the contribution of interprofessional care team leaders and health care professionals from all groups. The role of the interprofessional care team leader is vital to ensuring continuity and consistency of care and to mobilise and motivate health care professionals for the effective delivery of health services. Medical professionals usually lead interprofessional care teams. Interprofessional care leaders require various skills and competencies for the successful delivery of interprofessional care.

  15. Solving multi-leader-common-follower games.

    SciTech Connect

    Leyffer, S.; Munson, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2010-01-01

    Multi-leader-common-follower games arise when modelling two or more competitive firms, the leaders, that commit to their decisions prior to another group of competitive firms, the followers, that react to the decisions made by the leaders. These problems lead in a natural way to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints (EPECs). We develop a characterization of the solution sets for these problems and examine a variety of nonlinear optimization and nonlinear complementarity formulations of EPECs. We distinguish two broad cases: problems where the leaders can cost-differentiate and problems with price-consistent followers. We demonstrate the practical viability of our approach by solving a range of medium-sized test problems.

  16. Identification of Combat Unit Leader Skills and Leader-Group Interaction Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    and Alvares, K. M. Cnntingency model ofleadership effectiveness : Some methodological issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1971, 55, 205-10. Graen, G...potential of identifying the important variables producing effective unit and leader performance. When the important variables are identified, a training...producing effects of weapons found on the modern battlefield. Experience with ES indicates that leader behavior and leader-subordinate interaction

  17. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-21

    To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile leader must be prepared to operate within and the...senior leadership identified their need over eight years ago? To help answer this question, this paper will describe the operational environment the agile...to the reader. BARRIERS TO ACHIEVING MENTALLY AGILE JUNIOR LEADERS Persistent conflict and change characterize the strategic environment . We have

  18. Anomalous light output from lightning dart leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1985-01-01

    About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground lightning discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.

  19. Bossing or serving? How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2007-01-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  20. Bossing or serving?: How leaders execute effectively.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2008-04-01

    Many new leaders believe that the way to get things done is to be autocratic and directive. Successful leadership is a negotiated process with the employees that must be mutually satisfying for the evolution into a high-performing unit or organization. Well-intentioned leaders often overlook the very simple truth of learning to help people move forward in their work and to treat people as decent human beings.

  1. Evaluation of ARI Leader Assessment Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    version: 1) warmth of maternal relationship; 2) social leadership; 3) academic achievement; 4) parental control vs. freedom; 5) cultural-literary...and problem-solving styles . Finally, the output deals with the effectiveness of various leader actions as indexed by such things as evaluations of...covers leader behaviors such as their interaction, communication, and problem-solving styles . Finally, the output section deals with the

  2. Leader narcissism and follower outcomes: The counterbalancing effect of leader humility.

    PubMed

    Owens, Bradley P; Wallace, Angela S; Walker, Angela S; Waldman, David A

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-29666-001). The last name of the second author was misspelled in the Online First version of the article. All versions of this article have been corrected.] In response to recent calls to theorize and examine how multiple leader characteristics may work together in their effects, the current research examines how leader narcissism and humility interact to predict perceived leader effectiveness and follower (i.e., direct-report) job engagement and performance. Although an examination of leaders who are narcissistic yet humble may seem oxymoronic and even paradoxical, researchers have suggested that seemingly contradictory personal attributes may exist simultaneously and may actually work together to produce positive outcomes. Results from survey data from followers and leaders working for a large health insurance organization showed that the interaction of leader narcissism and leader humility is associated with perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower job engagement, and subjective and objective follower job performance. Together, these results suggest that narcissistic leaders can have positive effects on followers when their narcissism is tempered by humility.

  3. A survival guide for leaders.

    PubMed

    Heifetz, Ronald A; Linsky, Marty

    2002-06-01

    Let's face it, to lead is to live dangerously. While leadership is often viewed as an exciting and glamorous endeavor, one in which you inspire others to follow you through good times and bad, such a portrayal ignores leadership's dark side: the inevitable attempts to take you out of the game. This is particularly true when a leader must steer an organization through difficult change. When the status quo is upset, people feel a sense of profound loss and dashed expectations. They may need to undergo a period of feeling incompetent or disloyal. It's no wonder they resist the change and often try to eliminate its visible agent. This "survival guide" offers a number of techniques--relatively straightforward in concept but difficult to execute--for protecting yourself as you lead such a change initiative. Adapted from the book Leadership on the Line: Staying Alive Through the Dangers of Leading (Harvard Business School Press, 2002), the article has two main parts. The first looks outward, offering tactical advice about relating to your organization and the people in it. It is designed to protect you from those who would push you aside before you complete your initiatives. The second looks inward, focusing on your own needs and vulnerabilities. It is designed to keep you from bringing yourself down. The hard truth is that it is not possible to experience the rewards and joys of leadership without experiencing the pain as well. But staying in the game and bearing that pain is worth it, not only for the positive changes you can make in the lives of others but also for the meaning it gives your own.

  4. In search of global leaders.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen; Hassan, Fred; Immelt, Jeffrey; Marks, Michael; Meiland, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    For all the talk about global organizations and executives, there's no definitive answer to the question of what we really mean by "global." A presence in multiple countries? Cultural adaptability? A multilingual top team? We asked four CEOs and the head of an international recruiting agency--HSBC's Stephen Green, Schering-Plough's Fred Hassan, GE's Jeffrey-lmmelt, Flextronics's Michael Marks, and Egon Zehnder's Daniel Meiland--to tell us what they think. They share some common ground. They all agree, for example, that the shift from a local to a global marketplace is irreversible and gaining momentum. "We're losing sight of the reality of globalization. But we should pay attention, because national barriers are quickly coming down", Daniel Meiland says. "If you look ahead five or ten years, the people with the top jobs in large corporations ... will be those who have lived in several cultures and who can converse in at least two languages." But the CEOs also disagree on many issues--on the importance of overseas assignments, for instance, and on the degree to which you need to adhere to local cultural norms. Some believe strongly that the global leader should, as a prerequisite to the job, live and work in other countries. As Stephen Green put it, "If you look at the executives currently running [HSBC's] largest businesses, all of them have worked in more than one, and nearly all in more than two, major country markets." Others downplay the importance of overseas assignments. "Putting people in foreign settings doesn't automatically imbue new attitudes, and it is attitudes rather than experiences that make a culture global," says Fred Hassan. The executives' essays capture views that are as diverse and multidimensional as the companies they lead.

  5. Rotation rates of leader and follower sunspots

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, P.A.; Howard, R.

    1985-08-01

    We have measured the rotation rates of leader and follower sunspots found on Mount Wilson white light plates, for the years 1917--1983. We find that at all latitudes, leader spots rotate faster than follower spots by approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, or 14 m s/sup -1/. We also find that, when examined separately, leaders and followers show the same variations in rotation with cycle phase as do all spots taken together, as reported earlier in Gilman and Howard. Leaders and followers show similar variations in rotation rate even on an annual basis. Thus, while leaders and followers in each group diverge in longitude from each other at an average rate of approx.0/sup 0/.1 per day, each is separately speeding up or slowing down its rotation according to the phase in the cycle, and by a similar amount. Leaders and followers also give about the same covariance of longitude and latitude motions, indicating that whole sunspot groups participate in tracing the apparent angular momentum transport toward the equator, as previously reported for all spots in Gilman and Howard.

  6. A Conserved Domain in the Leader Proteinase of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus is Required for Proper Sub-Cellular Localization and Function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leader proteinase (Lpro) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is involved in antagonizing the innate immune response by blocking the expression of interferon (IFN) protein and by reducing the immediate-early induction of IFN beta mRNA and IFN stimulated genes. In addition to its role in shutti...

  7. Public Leadership Education: The Role of Citizen Leaders. Volume VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Suzanne W.; And Others

    This document is devoted to the topic of citizen leaders. The first article, "Defining a Citizen Leader" (Richard A. Couto), provides a pragmatic definition of citizenship by describing citizen leaders with whom Couto has worked. "The Making of the Citizen Leader" (Cheryl Mabey) describes ways to educate for leadership while showing that…

  8. Preparing School Leaders to Serve as Agents for Social Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The major priorities that should guide leadership education in preparing leaders for their work of leading schools in a democratic society are: (1) Teaching leaders to understand the inequities of society; (2) Teaching leaders to serve as agents for social transformation; and (3) Teaching leaders to help each and every student learn and succeed.…

  9. 75 FR 74703 - Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... COMMISSION Leader One Energy, LLC; Notice of Application November 23, 2010 Take notice that on November 15, 2010, Leader One Energy, LLC (Leader One), 4643 South Ulster Street, Suite 1100, Denver, Colorado 80237...) seeking authorization to construct and operate the Leader One Gas Storage Project in Adams...

  10. 29 CFR 780.331 - Crew leaders and labor contractors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crew leaders and labor contractors. 780.331 Section 780.331... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.331 Crew leaders and labor contractors. (a) Whether a crew leader... contractor. A crew leader who merely assembles a crew and brings them to the farm to be supervised and...

  11. Leader to Leader: Enduring Insights on Leadership from the Drucker Foundation's Award-Winning Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselbein, Frances, Ed.; Cohen, Paul M., Ed.

    Amid unprecedented social, demographic, and economic changes, leaders must enhance performance and deliver desired results. The growing importance of managing the explosion in information requires attention to defining organizational missions and visions. The 37 chapters in this work are divided into 7 parts. Part 1, "On Leaders and…

  12. The Impact of Educational Change on School Leaders: Experiences of Pakistani School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razzaq, Jamila; Forde, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The Pakistani education system, like many other countries across the world, is going through a phase of concerted change in the first decade of the 21st century and school leaders are expected to play a crucial role in the management of this change programme. This article considers the impact of educational change on a group of school leaders who…

  13. A Comparison of Student Leader and Non Leader Attitudes Toward Legalizing Marihuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittner, John R.; Cash, William B.

    1971-01-01

    The data tends to imply that campus leaders have attitudes on the issue of marihuana legalization which conform to the norms of a major midwestern university sampling. Drug education programs might include student leaders with local credibility and who may possess attitudes very similar to their peers. (Author/BY)

  14. Twenty-Two Hispanic Leaders Discuss Poverty: Results from the Hispanic Leaders Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This study reports twenty-two Hispanic leaders' responses to interviews assessing their perspectives on the nature, prevalence, and causes of poverty among Hispanics. This report contains six parts. Part 1 is an introduction. Part 2 presents the methodology used in the study. Part 3 gives the leaders' demographic and educational backgrounds. Part…

  15. The Expression of Antibiotic Resistance Methyltransferase Correlates with mRNA Stability Independently of Ribosome Stalling

    PubMed Central

    Dzyubak, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Erm methyltransferase family modify 23S rRNA of the bacterial ribosome and render cross-resistance to macrolides and multiple distantly related antibiotics. Previous studies have shown that the expression of erm is activated when a macrolide-bound ribosome stalls the translation of the leader peptide preceding the cotranscribed erm. Ribosome stalling is thought to destabilize the inhibitory stem-loop mRNA structure and exposes the erm Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence for translational initiation. Paradoxically, mutations that abolish ribosome stalling are routinely found in hyper-resistant clinical isolates; however, the significance of the stalling-dead leader sequence is largely unknown. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus ErmB leader peptide (ErmBL) lead to high basal and induced expression of downstream ErmB in the absence or presence of macrolide concomitantly with elevated ribosome methylation and resistance. The overexpression of ErmB is associated with the reduced turnover of the ermBL-ermB transcript, and the macrolide appears to mitigate mRNA cleavage at a site immediately downstream of the ermBL SD sequence. The stabilizing effect of antibiotics on mRNA is not limited to ermBL-ermB; cationic antibiotics representing a ribosome-stalling inducer and a noninducer increase the half-life of specific transcripts. These data unveil a new layer of ermB regulation and imply that ErmBL translation or ribosome stalling serves as a “tuner” to suppress aberrant production of ErmB because methylated ribosome may impose a fitness cost on the bacterium as a result of misregulated translation. PMID:27645242

  16. When are transgressing leaders punitively judged? An empirical test.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed.

  17. Optimal parameters of leader development in lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrov, N. I.; Petrova, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    The dependences between the different parameters of a leader in lightning are obtained theoretically. The physical mechanism of the instability leading to the formation of the streamer zone is proposed. The instability has the wave nature and is caused by the self-influence effects of the space charge. Using a stability condition of the leader propagation, a dependence is obtained between the current across the leader head and its velocity of motion. The dependence of the streamer zone length on the gap length is also obtained. It is shown that the streamer zone length is saturated with the increasing of the gap length. A comparison between the obtained dependences and the experimental data is presented.

  18. Visual Feedback Leader-following Attitude Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, Tatsuya; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki

    In this paper we investigate visual feedback attitude synchronization in leader-follower type visibility structures on the Special Euclidean group SE(3). We first define visual robotic networks consisting of the dynamics describing rigid body motion, visibility structures among bodies and visual measurements. We then propose a visual feedback attitude synchronization law combining a vision-based observer with the attitude synchronization law presented in our previous works. We then prove that when the leader does not rotate, the visual robotic network with the control law achieves visual feedback attitude synchronization. Moreover, for a rotating leader, we evaluate the tracking performance of the other bodies. In analysis, we employ the notion of input-to-state stability and L2-gain performance regarding the leader’s angular velocity as an external disturbance. Finally, the validity of the proposed control law and the analysis is demonstrated through simulations.

  19. The health care leader as humanist.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Anne Osborne

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of humanism in healthcare management and leadership. Humanism in healthcare management should entail serving 1) patients and their families, 2) organizational members, and 3) the community. The article describes how humanism is largely absent from healthcare organizations as a critical and important value. In the twentieth century, a number of models of healthcare leadership were developed that were humanistic in focus. These models primarily stressed the value of attention by leaders on the needs and values of people working in the organization. However, humanistic, healthcare leadership involves not only motivating and empowering employees, but a primary, essential focus is for leaders to create environments that support and uplift patients and their families. Humanistic care in healthcare organizations can be facilitated by leaders establishing positive, supportive, and empowering environments for clinicians and other employees. Secondly, managers can establish programs to develop and train employees to provide humanistic care.

  20. Transcriptional and Post-Transcriptional Modulation of SPI1 and SPI2 Expression by ppGpp, RpoS and DksA in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Christopher J.; Ramachandran, Vinoy K.; Shearer, Neil; Thompson, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The expression of genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1 and 2 (SPI1, SPI2) is required to facilitate invasion and intracellular replication respectively of S. Typhimurium in host cell lines. Control of their expression is complex and occurs via a variety of factors operating at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in response to the environmental stimuli found within the host. Several of the factors that modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression are involved in the redistribution or modification of RNA polymerase (RNAP) specificity. These factors include the bacterial alarmone, ppGpp, the alternative sigma factor, RpoS, and the RNAP accessory protein, DksA. In this report we show not only how these three factors modulate SPI1 and SPI2 expression but also how they contribute to the ‘phased’ expression of SPI1 and SPI2 during progress through late-log and stationary phase in aerobic rich broth culture conditions. In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of at least one SPI1-encoded protein, SipC is subject to DksA-dependent post-transcriptional control. PMID:26039089

  1. Leader genes in osteogenesis: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Bruno; Giacomelli, Luca; Ricci, Massimiliano; Barone, Antonio; Covani, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    Little is still known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of osteogenesis. In this paper, the leader genes approach, a new bioinformatics method which has already been experimentally validated, is adopted in order to identify the genes involved in human osteogenesis. Interactions among genes are then calculated and genes are ranked according to their relative importance in this process. In total, 167 genes were identified as being involved in osteogenesis. Genes were divided into 4 groups, according to their main function in the osteogenic processes: skeletal development; cell adhesion and proliferation; ossification; and calcium ion binding. Seven genes were consistently identified as leader genes (i.e. the genes with the greatest importance in osteogenesis), while 14 were found to have slightly less importance (class B genes). It was interesting to notice that the larger part of leader and class B genes belonged to the cell adhesion and proliferation or to the ossification sub-groups. This finding suggested that these two particular sub-processes could play a more important role in osteogenesis. Moreover, among the 7 leader genes, it is interesting to notice that RUNX2, BMP2, SPARC, PTH play a direct role in bone formation, while the 3 other leader genes (VEGF, IL6, FGF2) seem to be more connected with an angiogenetic process. Twenty-nine genes have no known interactions (orphan genes). From these results, it may be possible to plan an ad hoc experimentation, for instance by microarray analyses, focused on leader, class B and orphan genes, with the aim to shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying osteogenesis.

  2. The five messages leaders must manage.

    PubMed

    Hamm, John

    2006-05-01

    If you want to know why so many organizations sink into chaos, look no further than their leaders' mouths. Over and over, leaders present grand, overarching-yet fuzzy-notions of where they think the company is going. They assume everyone shares their definitions of"vision;" "accountability," and "results". The result is often sloppy behavior and misalignment that can cost a company dearly. Effective communication is a leader's most critical tool for doing the essential job of leadership: inspiring the organization to take responsibility for creating a better future. Five topics wield extraordinary influence within a company: organizational structure and hierarchy, financial results, the leader's sense of his or her job, time management, and corporate culture. Properly defined, disseminated, and controlled, these topics give the leader opportunities for increased accountability and substantially better performance. For example, one CEO always keeps communications about hierarchy admirably brief and to the point. When he realized he needed to realign internal resources, he told the staff: "I'm changing the structure of resources so that we can execute more effectively." After unveiling a new organization chart, he said, "It's 10:45. You have until noon to be annoyed, should that be your reaction. At noon, pizza will be served. At one o'clock, we go to work in our new positions." The most effective leaders ask themselves, "What needs to happen today to get where we want to go? What vague belief or notion can I clarify or debunk?" A CEO who communicates precisely to ten direct reports, each of whom communicates with equal precision to 40 other employees, aligns the organization's commitment and energy with a well-understood vision of the firm's real goals and opportunities.

  3. Retargeting a Dual-Acting sRNA for Multiple mRNA Transcript Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Ashwin; Stimple, Samuel D; Wood, David W; Lease, Richard A

    2017-01-24

    Multitargeting small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) represent a potentially useful tool for metabolic engineering applications. Natural multitargeting sRNAs govern bacterial gene expression by binding to the translation initiation regions of protein-coding mRNAs through base pairing. We designed an Escherichia coli based genetic system to create and assay dual-acting retargeted-sRNA variants. The variants can be assayed for coordinate translational regulation of two alternate mRNA leaders fused to independent reporter genes. Accordingly, we began with the well-characterized E. coli native DsrA sRNA. The merits of using DsrA include its well-characterized separation of function into two independently folded stem-loop domains, wherein alterations at one stem do not necessarily abolish activity at the other stem. Expression of the sRNA and each reporter mRNA was independently controlled by small inducer molecules, allowing precise quantification of the regulatory effects of each sRNA:mRNA interaction in vivo with a microtiter plate assay. Using this system, we semirationally designed DsrA variants screened in E. coli for their ability to regulate key mRNA leader sequences from the Clostridium acetobutylicum n-butanol synthesis pathway. To coordinate intervention at two points in a metabolic pathway, we created bifunctional sRNA prototypes by combining sequences from two singly retargeted DsrA variants. This approach constitutes a platform for designing sRNAs to specifically target arbitrary mRNA transcript sequences, and thus provides a generalizable tool for retargeting and characterizing multitarget sRNAs for metabolic engineering.

  4. Diagnosis of trypanosomatid infections: targeting the spliced leader RNA.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Pablo; Camara, Mamady; Ilboudo, Hamidou; Bucheton, Bruno; Jamonneau, Vincent; Deborggraeve, Stijn

    2014-07-01

    Trypanosomatids transcribe their genes in large polycistronic clusters that are further processed into mature mRNA molecules by trans-splicing. During this maturation process, a conserved spliced leader RNA (SL-RNA) sequence of 39 bp is physically linked to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA molecules. Trypanosomatid infections cause a series of devastating diseases in man (sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis, Chagas disease) and animals (nagana, surra, dourine). Here, we investigated the SL-RNA molecule for its diagnostic potential using reverse transcription followed by real-time PCR. As a model, we used Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which causes sleeping sickness in west and central Africa. We showed that the copy number of the SL-RNA molecule in one single parasitic cell is at least 8600. We observed a lower detection limit of the SL-RNA assay in spiked blood samples of 100 trypanosomes per milliliter of blood. We also proved that we can detect the trypanosome's SL-RNA in the blood of sleeping sickness patients with a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 78%-97%) and a specificity of 96% (95% CI, 86%-99%). The SL-RNA is thus an attractive new molecular target for next-generation diagnostics in diseases caused by trypanosomatids.

  5. Class Size: Major Implications for School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Gloria J.

    2000-01-01

    Clearly, class-size reduction has become a public-relations issue that educational leaders can use as an opportunity to communicate and gain support for all school reforms. Implications for principals include keeping the school community informed, involving teachers, knowing relevant research, and using creative class-size reduction methods.…

  6. Global Population Trends: Challenges Facing World Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scommegna, Paola, Ed.

    This pamphlet explores the dynamics of world population, highlighting steps world leaders can take to address population problems and improve the lives of people worldwide. With jet-age transportation and electronic communication, economic and social interdependence of nations is greater than ever before and is likely to increase in the future.…

  7. An Elective Course in Leader Development

    PubMed Central

    Sucher, Brandon; Nelson, Michael; Brown, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leader-development elective course. Design. Students discovered, reflected on, and enhanced their leadership skills by participating in leadership quality presentations, selecting and facilitating team-building activities for pharmacy-based scenarios, creating a personal mission statement, maintaining a journal, creating pharmacy performance matrices, facilitating leadership discussions and activities, and completing a variety of leader-development inventories to identify their strengths and opportunities for growth. Assessment. Students successfully completed 98% of the assignments. The most valued topics and assignments involved validated instruments, which promoted self-discovery and development. End-of-course survey results revealed all students agreed the course achieved all learning outcomes except preventing conflict from escalating (9% disagreed) and applying knowledge of core values to achieve greater effectiveness in interpersonal communication (4% disagreed). Conclusions. Students perceived this leader-development elective course was effective in achieving learning outcomes. Assignments guided the creation of personalized leader-development tracks, ultimately promoting lifelong learning. PMID:24371348

  8. How Leaders Can Make a Big Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Time and collaborative learning experiences are key to successful implementation of literacy standards. Leadership is just as important. What do system and school leaders do that teachers value most and identify as most helpful in their efforts to ensure high-quality literacy and standards-based instruction for all students? According survey…

  9. Industry Leader Perceptions of Workplace Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Erik Scott

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of workplace safety held by industry leaders who were near completion of a Master of Business Administration (MBA) degree. This was a qualitative study that utilized interpretivism as the theoretical framework. The study sought to answer four research questions. (1) How do participants conceptualize…

  10. A Framing Primer for Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausieda, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to be a tool for community college leaders, as well as campus members, to positively and effectively utilize framing on their campuses. The fictional case of Maggie Pascal at Midwestern Community College illustrates the process of framing the change of a new partnership with Wind Energy Corporation to internal…

  11. Sustaining Army Civilians: Senior Leaders’ Responsibility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    creates a sort of dangerous illusion . People will think they are building on a solid base, only to find that the bottom of the structure...truism reverberates: “Vision without action is hallucination ". In this constantly changing environment, strategic leaders must effectively lead change

  12. The Academic Librarian as Leader or Manager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Anne F.

    1985-01-01

    Two paradigms of academic librarians are examined: one, "leader" is closely tied to nineteenth-century ideals; two, "manager" reflects democratization and new technology of twentieth century. Highlights include literature of organization (sociology, psychology, political science), patterns of change, Japanese model, and need to…

  13. A Workbook for Training Discussion Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menkin, Paula

    This guide on group discussion leader training provides for a four session course structured to enable each trainee to practice and be evaluated. Session 1 stresses the nature and uses of discussion, and introduces trainees to role playing. Other sessions concentrate on summarizing and decision making; on group satisfaction or problem solving and…

  14. Virtual Mentoring: Developing Global Leaders for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlson, Matthew; Froman, Russell

    2012-01-01

    CAMP (Collegiate Achievement Mentoring Program) Gator is a leadership-mentoring program in which collegiate student leaders serve as mentors to at-risk K-12 students. In addition, partnerships with Cisco and Franklin Covey Education have provided the program with the technology resources to conduct "virtual leadership mentoring" sessions…

  15. Presidential Power and the Modern College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcy, Mary B.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author notes that an academic institution is essentially a political, not a corporate, system, and that its leader is more akin to the president of the United States than to a corporate chief executive. This is in spite of the argument, particularly when defending the compensation of college presidents, that leading an…

  16. Leaders for Learning: A Collaborative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Margaret R.

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri Professors of Educational Administration (MPEA) initiated the Leaders for Learning project to create technology based instructional materials aligned with the standards of the Interstate School Leadership Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). With funding from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE), faculty from…

  17. Leader Challenge: What Would You Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Chris; Self, Nate; Garven, Sena; Allen, Nate

    2011-01-01

    Given the complex environment in which the U.S. military operates, leaders at all levels must be prepared for a force that is more responsive to regional combatant commanders needs, better employs joint capabilities, facilitates force packaging and rapid deployment, and fights self contained units in non-linear, non-contiguous battle space. This…

  18. Connecting Leaders and Learning--"In Conversation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Wendy; Dorgan, Fran

    2012-01-01

    Last September ten Australian educators set out to explore how the Paradise Valley School District in Phoenix Arizona cultivates world class thinkers and leaders. Over the course of a week, study Tour delegates were immersed in K-12 schools where a district-wide approach fosters equity and empowers teachers and students to use technology…

  19. Caesar Chavez: Labor Leader. Hispanic Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedeno, Maria E.

    Written for young people, this book traces the accomplishments of Cesar Chavez, a labor leader who fought to improve the lives of Mexican-American farmworkers in California. Chavez was born in 1927 in the Gila Valley, Arizona. When Chavez was 10, his family lost their farm and was forced to move to California and become migrant workers. Chavez and…

  20. Attributes of Successful Leaders in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willenberg, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    What makes a leader successful? As the Director of Research at the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center's (VICC) Clinical Trials Office, the author had to think of new ways to engage employees when becoming the director nearly 15 years ago. The staff started a GLUE (Greater Loyalty Utilizing Empowerment) Committee. The committee was established to help…

  1. Making Progress as Leaders among University Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quah, Cheng Sim; Sim, Sandra Phek Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the overview of how individuals in their respective teams operated and contributed to their organization. This study also identified the salient characteristics of how the respondents made progress as leaders in their respective faculties or departments towards identifying directions for innovative future practice through…

  2. Leaders as Linchpins for Framing Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Community college leaders serve as linchpins for framing meaning on campus. The current pressures on institutions (given declining financial resources, demands for accountability, changing faculty ranks, and societal need for new knowledge) require presidents to juggle multiple priorities while presenting a cohesive message to campus constituents.…

  3. Leader in a diffusion competition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzhevaikin, V. N.

    2015-03-01

    A one-dimensional Cauchy problem is considered for a system of reaction-diffusion equations that, in the point version, generalizes the Volterra competition model. It is proved that the number of the leader in the propagation velocity of nonvanishing solution values at the periphery is independent of nonnegative finite initial distributions.

  4. The Next Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Michele K.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, Sullivan presented her interpretation of the four generations of community college leaders by describing them as "the founding fathers, the good managers, the collaborators, and the millennium generation" (Sullivan, 2001, p. 559). She predicted a shift to frames utilizing the Four-Frame Model of Leadership by Bolman…

  5. Lost Leaders: Women in the Global Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on data gathered from British Council seminars in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Dubai on "Absent Talent: Women in Research and Academic Leadership" (2012-2013), this paper discusses academic women's experiences and explanations for women's under-representation as knowledge leaders and producers in the global academy. Participants from…

  6. Mexican-American: Movements and Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larralde, Carlos

    Biographical studies of 20 influential Chicano leaders trace Mexican American history from 1848 to the present. The book is organized chronologically by four historical periods: (1) The Cortinista Movement, 1848-1876; (2) The Teresita Movement, 1888-1905; (3) The Magonista Movement, 1904-1919; and (4) The Chicano Activists, 1920 ;o the present.…

  7. The New Leader of the Free World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kevin D.

    2012-01-01

    On January 20, 2009, Dr. Manmohan Singh, the prime minister of India, became the leader of the free world. The free world's attention was focused elsewhere: Senator Barack Obama, who on that day became President Barack Obama, quietly abdicated the role now taken up by Dr. Singh, having run an election campaign premised upon the ever-present but…

  8. Servant Leader Development at Southeastern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohm, Fredric W., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Servant leadership as envisioned by Robert Greenleaf (1970) is a philosophy whereby leaders put the interests and growth of the follower ahead of themselves. Though the concept has been around since antiquity, scholars and practitioners in organizations began to embrace and expand the idea since the early 1990s. There are currently 20 models of…

  9. Emerging Leaders: AED's Open World Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Open World Program, funded and administered by the Library of Congress, with support from private organizations such as the Academy for Educational Development (AED). Open World Program allows community colleges to participate by hosting delegations from other countries. Some themes include: environment, women as leaders, economic…

  10. Suburban District Leaders' Perception of Their Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia France, Roxanne

    2013-01-01

    In the field of district leadership, most studies focus only on the context and conditions existing in large urban districts in need of reform. This study examined whether district leadership practices have applicability to district leaders working within the suburban context. In addition, it determined whether district conditions (i.e., district…

  11. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  12. Developing 21st Century Senior Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    leader must have ambition to succeed, and Julius Caesar had plenty of it. He set Rome on the path to empire, but his success made him believe he was a...after the assassination of Julius Caesar and ruled it for more than forty years; bringing the empire to the height of its power. What made him

  13. Creating the Leaders of Tomorrow Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Students who participated in Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs) have gone on to become leaders in business, education, and public service in the nation. Among former CTSO members are university presidents, governors, U.S. Congressmen and Senators, and a former President of the United States, FFA member Jimmy Carter. The CTSOs…

  14. Deciding (Leader's Guide and Student Booklet).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelatt, H. B.; And Others

    The College Entrance Examination Board's Decision-Making Program is a course of study in the development of decision-making skills, designed for students in junior and senior high schools. It consists of student and leader materials that may serve as a basis for a school guidance program, as a major component for a school-wide decision-making…

  15. Job Satisfaction of Secondary Content Area Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Educational researchers have examined both observed and perceived influences of the job satisfaction levels of secondary teachers and post-secondary department chairs. However, researchers have largely ignored a third group of educators: secondary Content Area Leaders (CALs). The overall satisfaction levels and the potentially influencing factors…

  16. Trip Leaders Guide. Outdoor Expeditions and Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leister, Bob

    Written to help teachers or leaders plan and lead field trips, excursions, or expeditions which stimulate a motivation to positive action, this pamphlet provides assistance in conducting learning experiences outside the classroom. Topics and subtopics discussed include: (1) Campsites: selection; firebuilding; knives, axes, saws; neat campsites;…

  17. Preparing and Developing Community College International Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Rosalind Latiner; Valeau, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership training for future senior United States (US) community college leaders is an ongoing focus of US community college education. Leadership training is also a focus of US university international educators. Community college literature has assumed that full-time positions at community colleges devoted to overseeing and implementing…

  18. The School Leader's Guide to Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald; Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Social media has exploded onto American culture--including our schools--giving educators a unique opportunity to shape this phenomenon into a powerful tool for improving educational leadership practices. With real-world examples and practical tips, this essential guide shows school leaders how to address both the potential benefits and common…

  19. David Ben-Gurion: A Creative Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemarin, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973), the first Prime Minister of Israel, is included in Pasternak's (2001) list of the nine most memorable leaders of the twentieth century. All of them are remembered for the reforms they initiated. Roosevelt (USA), Stalin (Russia), Castro (Cuba), and Thatcher (England) focused on social-economical changes, whereas Gandhi…

  20. College Prep: A Timeline for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard; Williamson, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Everyone acknowledges the importance of leadership in good schools, but sometimes a leader's influence extends into unexpected areas. Getting admitted to and succeeding in college is certainly the result of hard work on the part of individual students and their families, but for many kids, particularly those from impoverished backgrounds or from…

  1. Leaders Go to School on Business Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    Lots of districts like to think they have close-knit leadership teams. But few school leaders can say they've ironed their clothes together, which became a morning ritual for a group from San Francisco that spent a week at the Harvard Business School in Boston. Joined by similar teams from seven other large districts, they camped out in dorm-like…

  2. The isolated leader: extraverted and introverted styles.

    PubMed

    Arond-Thomas, Manya

    2003-01-01

    When an executive moves up the hierarchal ladder in the organization, the promotion is often accompanied by an increasing sense of isolation and loneliness. Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee coined the phrase "CEO disease" to describe the isolation of top executives in their book Primal Leadership. It refers to an information vacuum around leaders, created when people withhold important and sometimes unpleasant information.

  3. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  4. Role Perceptions and Satisfaction with Leader Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creed, Philip J.; Enns, Frederick

    1979-01-01

    Reports on a study of the levels of personal and job satisfaction experienced by employees in the central office of a large urban school system as they responded to the leader behavior of their immediate superiors. The study tests aspects of propositions put forward in Path-Goal Theory. (Author/IRT)

  5. Poison Awareness: A Discussion Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    Because over 40,000 children are annually poisoned by household products, this guide for group leaders emphasizes hazards and preventive actions. Major objectives are defined: (1) to raise the audience's knowledge/awareness level concerning major hazards associated with potentially poisonous household products, (2) to point out primary hazard…

  6. Reflections from One Community College Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Velvie

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender provides a framework for understanding what it means to be a woman working within the community college; however, the voice of experience helps to add meaning to what it means to live as a woman leader of color within these institutions. Dr. Green provides a reflection on her career leading up to her presidency, and she outlines…

  7. Preparing the Next IT Leaders: Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    The next generation of IT leaders must learn to navigate the complexities of higher education financial planning and negotiation. Technology infrastructure, hardware, software, and services are very expensive to provide and will continue to be so for some time to come. Most CIOs have learned about complex IT finances the hard way--they were handed…

  8. My School Principal Is Not a Leader!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal powers…

  9. Lebanese Cherishing a Transformational Educational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattar, Dorine Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to find out if the characteristics, traits and leadership style of an effective university leader in Lebanon match those of a transformational one. Moreover, it is intended to shed light on the possible transferability of the transformational leadership's success to the Middle-Eastern society where norms and…

  10. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  11. The Professional Development of Kosovan Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author provides a discussion around issues related to the professional development of educational leaders in a resource-free, post-conflict environment. Drawing upon the author's ongoing experiences (2001-present) in Kosovo, the author presents a series of vignettes concerning leadership development in the Balkans. Lessons…

  12. Reflections of a Faraday Challenge Day Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira

    2014-01-01

    Keira Sewell has just finished her second year as a Challenge Leader for the Faraday Challenge, a STEM-based scheme run by the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Aimed at 12-13 year-old students, its purpose is to engage students in future careers in engineering. Each year, a new challenge is held in over sixty schools and universities…

  13. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  14. Developing Outdoor Leaders: Paul Petzoldt's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagstaff, Mark; Cashel, Christine

    Paul Petzoldt, an early pioneer in outdoor education, saw the need for trained outdoor leaders. This paper presents material from unpublished papers retrieved after his death that clarify and expand on his philosophy of leadership development. Key ideas such as: judgment, 20-20 vision, and use of wilderness expeditions, are expanded upon and…

  15. Developing the "Leader Attributes Inventory": An Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jerome, Jr.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Leader Attributes Inventory (LAI) to evaluate others were confirmed in testing with college students. As a self-report, however, the LAI was more valid when participants rated themselves after leadership training as they thought they were before training. (SK)

  16. Nursing Education Leaders' Perceived Leadership Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership practices perceived by nursing education leaders as measured by the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI). The framework used was a contemporary transformational leadership model described in "The Leadership Challenge" ("4th ed.") by Dr. James Kouzes and Dr. Barry Posner,…

  17. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  18. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  19. Outreach to Future Hispanic Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper discusses issues related to the recruitment of Hispanic-American educational leaders, focusing on the El Centro de Recursos Educativos outreach center at Northeastern Illinois University in Chicago, which began operation in Fall 1997. It examines the characteristics of successful programs for Hispanic recruitment and retention and the…

  20. Exploring emotional intelligence. Implications for nursing leaders.

    PubMed

    Vitello-Cicciu, Joan M

    2002-04-01

    Emotional intelligence is being touted in the popular literature as an important characteristic for successful leaders. However, caution needs to be exercised regarding the connection between emotional intelligence and workplace success. The author contrasts 2 current models of emotional intelligence, the measurements being used, and the ability of emotional intelligence to predict success. Implications for the workplace are discussed.

  1. Lead on! Motivational Lessons for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Pete

    2012-01-01

    Every school leader will benefit from this must-have book by award-winning educator Pete Hall. In it he shares his wisdom, insights, and lessons lived and learned with educators at all stages of their careers. His lively, readable style makes it easy to follow his practical tips and strategies for taking action, goal-setting, motivating others,…

  2. Emory U. Trains Its Own Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes Emory University's Excellence Through Leadership program. Started in 2006, the yearlong program is designed to help up to 20 administrators and faculty members annually improve their leadership skills, as well as create a pipeline to eventually replace senior leaders at the institution. Emory's leadership program is just one…

  3. Final report: FASEB Summer Research Conference on ''Post-transcriptional control of gene expression: Effectors of mRNA decay'' [agenda and attendees list

    SciTech Connect

    Maquat, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this meeting was to provide an interactive forum for scientists working on prokaryotic and eukaryotic mRNA decay. A special seminar presented by a leader in the field of mRNA decay in S. cerevisiae focused on what is known and what needs to be determined, not only for yeast but for other organisms. The large attendance (110 participants) reflects the awareness that mRNA decay is a key player in gene regulation in a way that is affected by the many steps that precede mRNA formation. Sessions were held on the following topics: mRNA transport and mRNP; multicomponent eukaryotic nucleases; nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and nonsense-associated altered splicing; Cis-acting sequences/Trans-acting factors of mRNA decay; translational accuracy; multicomponent bacterial nucleases; interplay between mRNA polyadenylation, translation and decay in prokaryotes and prokaryotic organelles; and RNA interference and other RNA mediators of gene expression. In addition to the talks and two poster sessions, there were three round tables: (1) Does translation occur in the nucleus? (2) Differences and similarities in the mechanisms of mRNA decay in different eukaryotes, and (3) RNA surveillance in bacteria?

  4. Observations of corona in triggered dart-stepped leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    Corona streamers are a critical component of lightning leader step formation and are postulated to produce the very high electric fields at their tips that produce runaway electrons resulting in the observed X-ray bursts associated with leader stepping. Corona emanating from the vicinity of the leader tip between leader steps was analyzed using three sequential high-speed video sequences of dart-stepped leaders in three different triggered lightning flashes during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in northeast Florida. Images were recorded at 648 kiloframes per second (1.16 µs exposure time, 380 ns dead time) at an altitude of 65 m or less. In each image sequence, the leader propagates downward in consecutive frames, with corona streamers observed to fan outward from the bright leader tip in less than the image frame time of about 1.5 µs. In 21 exposures, corona streamers propagate, on average, 9 m below the bright leader tip.

  5. The Value of Physician Leaders to Nonphysician Coworkers.

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    With few exceptions, physician leaders are perceived as valuable to their organizations, helping to define goals, set priorities, and plan future direction. In some cases, however, physician leaders are misunderstood or devalued by senior business leaders. There could be several reasons for this observation: (1) the roles and responsibilities of physician leaders may be unclear to business leaders; (2) nonmedical leaders may question the business relevance of the activities performed by physician leaders; and (3) some business executives may believe (erroneously) that the activities performed by physician leaders are nonessential, or could be performed equally well by lesser trained healthcare professionals. Under such circumstances, physicians may become demoralized and indignant, but they should never lose sight of their importance to the everyday coworkers who are the most valuable asset of any organization.

  6. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  7. Engaging the next generation of health leaders: perspectives of emerging health leaders.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Jennifer C; Gruenwoldt, Emily; Lyster, Adrienne Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Identifying and engaging the next generation of emerging health leaders (EHLs) is a foremost challenge for the Canadian healthcare system. If intellectual capital is the currency of the 21st century, identifying and developing EHLs must be a strategic objective of innovative and progressive health organizations. We have integrated our experiential knowledge with some relevant findings from the literature and data collected from a cohort of EHLs to assist senior leaders and organizations with this challenge.

  8. Aspiring and Residing IT Leaders: A Legacy for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Many people think there is a quick road to leadership success. Those who want to become IT leaders--that is, "aspiring leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will rise to a leadership position." Those who are already IT leaders--that is, "residing leaders"--often think: "If I just do my job well, I will leave a lasting legacy." Doing…

  9. The Leader/Follower Concept in Systems Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-15

    The objectives of this study were to: assess the experience in DOD with use of the Leader / Follower concept, evaluate views of acquisition and...both directly and indirectly related to the Leader / Follower Concept and ’Leader Company Procurement.’ The researcher also interviewed government and...end research and development. While Leader / Follower has been used at least since World War II, current use appears to center on two related decisions

  10. One member, two leaders: extending leader-member exchange theory to a dual leadership context.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Erdogan, Berrin; Anand, Smriti; Liden, Robert C; Chaudhry, Anjali

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we develop and test a model that extends leader-member exchange (LMX) theory to a dual leadership context. Drawing upon relative deprivation theory, we assert that when employees work for 2 leaders, each relationship exists within the context of the other relationship. Thus, the level of alignment or misalignment between the 2 relationships has implications for employees' job satisfaction and voluntary turnover. Employing polynomial regression on time-lagged data gathered from 159 information technology consultants nested in 26 client projects, we found that employee outcomes are affected by the quality of the relationship with both agency and client leaders, such that the degree of alignment between the 2 LMXs explained variance in outcomes beyond that explained by both LMXs. Results also revealed that a lack of alignment in the 2 LMXs led to asymmetric effects on outcomes, such that the relationship with agency leader mattered more than the relationship with one's client leader. Finally, frequency of communication with the agency leader determined the degree to which agency LMX affected job satisfaction in the low client LMX condition.

  11. Not even the past: The joint influence of former leader and new leader during leader succession in the midst of organizational change.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Helen H; Seibert, Scott E; Taylor, M Susan; Lee, Cynthia; Lam, Wing

    2016-12-01

    Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders' transformational leadership on employees' behavioral resistance to and support for change. On the basis of contrast effect theory, a highly transformational former leader constrains the potential effectiveness of the new leader, but a former leader low in transformational leadership enhances this potential effectiveness. We also propose conditional indirect effects transmitted through commitment to the changing organization. Our research was conducted in a large Chinese hospitality organization that was implementing radical organizational change, during which virtually all aspects of processes and products are changed. We collected a 2-wave multisource data from employees who had recently experienced a leader succession and their newly assigned leaders. On the basis of a final sample of 203 employees from 22 teams, we found empirical support for the proposed interaction effects. The conditional indirect effects were also consistent with our expectations, but the effect on behavioral resistance to change was stronger than the effect on behavioral support for change. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Borbolis, Fivos; Syntichaki, Popi

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover that determines the lifetime of cytoplasmic mRNAs is a means to control gene expression under both normal and stress conditions, whereas its impact on ageing and age-related disorders has just become evident. Gene expression control is achieved at the level of the mRNA clearance as well as mRNA stability and accessibility to other molecules. All these processes are regulated by cis-acting motifs and trans-acting factors that determine the rates of translation and degradation of transcripts. Specific messenger RNA granules that harbor the mRNA decay machinery or various factors, involved in translational repression and transient storage of mRNAs, are also part of the mRNA fate regulation. Their assembly and function can be modulated to promote stress resistance to adverse conditions and over time affect the ageing process and the lifespan of the organism. Here, we provide insights into the complex relationships of ageing modulators and mRNA turnover mechanisms. PMID:26432921

  13. Expertise of Team Leaders in Analysing Team Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupprecht, Maria; Strasser, Josef; Gruber, Hans; Harteis, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Team leaders are expected to adequately analyse team conflicts. Both content and analytical depth of cognitive processes determine team leaders' performance and are assumed to differ with level of expertise. A study is reported in which team leaders at four different levels of expertise (novices, semi-experts, experts, mediators) were compared in…

  14. Teacher Leader Model Standards: Implications for Preparation, Policy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Jill Harrison; Carver, Cynthia L.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher leadership is increasingly recognized as a resource for instructional improvement. Consequently, teacher leader initiatives have expanded rapidly despite limited knowledge about how to prepare and support teacher leaders. In this context, the "Teacher Leader Model Standards" represent an important development in the field. In…

  15. Learn to Lead: Mapping Workplace Learning of School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsbos, Frank Arnoud; Evers, Arnoud Theodoor; Kessels, Joseph Willem Marie

    2016-01-01

    In recent years policy makers' interest in the professional development of school leaders has grown considerably. Although we know some aspect of formal educational programs for school leaders, little is known about school leaders' incidental and non-formal learning in the workplace. This study aims to grasp what workplace learning activities…

  16. What Do Students Experience as Peer Leaders of Learning Teams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik C.; Robbins, Brett A.; Loui, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    In a course for engineering freshmen, peer leaders facilitated optional study sessions, which implemented peer-led team learning workshops. Some leaders were paid teaching assistants, but most were undergraduate volunteers. To understand the experiences of the peer leaders, we asked them to keep weekly reflective journals. By performing a basic…

  17. Healthcare Leaders' Intention to Serve as Organizational Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aggarwal, Sushma Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Today's organizational leaders are expected to actively participate and facilitate learning. A highly engaged and knowledgeable workforce, inspired by leaders, may increase the quality of service, and aid in maintaining and attracting loyal employees and customers. These leaders are now being asked to serve as organizational teachers. However,…

  18. How External Institutions Penetrate Schools through Formal and Informal Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min; Frank, Kenneth A.; Penuel, William R.; Kim, Chong Min

    2013-01-01

    Purposes: This study investigates the role of formal and informal leaders in the diffusion of external reforms into schools and to teachers' practices. Formal leaders are designated by their roles in the formal organization of the school (e.g., principals, department chairs, and instructional coaches) and informal leaders refer to those who do not…

  19. Leader Authenticity: The Development and Test of an Operational Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.; Hoy, Wayne K.

    A definition of leader authentication was developed, focusing on a leader's salience of self over role, non-manipulation of subordinates and accepting of personal and organizational responsibility. The Leader Authenticity Scale (LAS) was constructed to be consistent with this definition. Its validity was checked by specifying and testing…

  20. What School Leaders Need to Know about English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2016-01-01

    School leaders have the unique opportunity and responsibility to play a crucial role in creating a culture of high expectations and an environment of support so that ELLs can succeed and continue to enrich the fabric of our country. "What School Leaders Need to Know About English Learners" offers school leaders the foundation, the ideas,…

  1. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  2. Selection Practices of Group Leaders: A National Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Lippert, Laurel; Tackett, M. Jan

    2000-01-01

    Study surveys the selection practices of group leaders. Explores methods of selection, variables used to make selection decisions, and the types of selection errors that leaders have experienced. Results suggest that group leaders use clinical judgment to make selection decisions and endorse using some specific variables in selection. (Contains 22…

  3. Key Issue: Improving the Preparation of School and District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In many schools and districts, leaders are lacking the necessary skills and preparation for the roles to which they are assigned. Improving the preparation of school and district leaders prior to hiring or promotion can help schools and districts accomplish the following goals: (1) Meet the growing need for highly qualified leaders; (2) Raise…

  4. Christian School Leaders and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Susan; Maldonado, Nancy; Lacey, Candace H.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the spiritual experiences of Christian school leaders who are the spiritual leaders of their schools. A purposeful, nominated sample of 12 Christian school leaders was selected. In-depth, open-ended interviews were conducted, audio taped, and then transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was based on Rudestam and…

  5. Identity Crisis: A Leader's Image Is Worth a Thousand Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Craig; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    2009-01-01

    There is a short supply, yet tacit demand, for creative and effective communication training for educational leaders. A field of literature indicates that a leader's identity is a potent communication tool. A leader's image can frame expectations for followers, symbolically evoking a family of concepts and patterns of meaning (receiving). The…

  6. The Key to Leadership Effectiveness--Leader Authenticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James E.

    When an education leader develops and maintains policies that line up with the imperatives of ethical and authentic behavior, this defines the character of both the leader and the organization. Some of the questions surrounding this assertion are examined in this paper. It looks at what it means when a leader behaves in an authentic fashion, how…

  7. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The... crew leader within the meaning of section 3121(o) and of this section if he does not pay...

  8. Ethical Practice: A Study of Chilean School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar, Carolina; Giles, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to report on a research inquiry that explored the educational praxis of ethical school leaders in Chile. Behaving ethically is an imperative for school leaders. Being an ethical educational leader is something different. It is not only about behaving according to standards, but also rather involves an ethical way of…

  9. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self-employed. However, the crew leader is not deemed the employer of the workers if there is a...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self-employed. However, the crew leader is not deemed the employer of the workers if there is a...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self-employed. However, the crew leader is not deemed the employer of the workers if there is a...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self-employed. However, the crew leader is not deemed the employer of the workers if there is a...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404... leader's or the farm operator's), the crew leader is deemed to be the employer of the workers and is self-employed. However, the crew leader is not deemed the employer of the workers if there is a...

  14. The ribosome binding site of a mini-ORF protects a T3SS mRNA from degradation by RNase E.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Patricia B; Hsieh, Ping-Kun; Belasco, Joel G; Kaper, James B

    2012-12-01

    Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli harbours a pathogenicity island encoding a type 3 secretion system used to translocate effector proteins into the cytosol of intestinal epithelial cells and subvert their function. The structural proteins of the translocon are encoded in a major espADB mRNA processed from a precursor. The translocon mRNA should be highly susceptible to RNase E cleavage because of its AU-rich leader region and monophosphorylated 5'-terminus, yet it manages to avoid rapid degradation. Here, we report that the espADB leader region contains a strong Shine-Dalgarno element (SD2) and a translatable mini-ORF of six codons. Disruption of SD2 so as to weaken ribosome binding significantly reduces the concentration and stability of esp mRNA, whereas codon substitutions that impair translation of the mini-ORF have no such effect. These findings suggest that occupancy of SD2 by ribosomes, but not mini-ORF translation, helps to protect espADB mRNA from degradation, likely by hindering RNase E access to the AU-rich leader region.

  15. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.261 Special wage schedules for leader and...

  16. Why leaders punish: A power perspective.

    PubMed

    Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; Ellemers, Naomi; van Dijk, Eric

    2015-07-01

    We propose that power fundamentally changes why leaders punish and we develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Specifically, we argue that power increases the reliance on deterrence, but not just deserts, as a punishment motive and relate this to power fostering a distrustful mindset. We tested our model in 9 studies using different instantiations of power, different measurements and manipulations of distrust while measuring punishment motives and recommended punishments across a number of different situations. These 9 studies demonstrate that power fosters distrust and hereby increases both the reliance on deterrence as a punishment motive and the implementation of punishments aimed at deterrence (i.e., public punishments, public naming of rule breakers and punishments with a mandatory minimum). We discuss the practical implications for leaders, managers and policymakers and the theoretical implications for scholars interested in power, trust, and punishments.

  17. Moving toward zero: the leader's mandate.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene M

    2008-01-01

    Converting to a culture that strives for perfection and accepts no less than zero defects is the work of leadership in health care today. Some cultures are made up of people who believe that average is good enough. The challenge of the leader is to break up those beliefs and embed new models of "Yes We Can." The leader must communicate four very effective messages that must go along with the passion for the work: (a) evidence and "best practice" data trump local, opinion-based beliefs; (b) morphing from an internal view of best practice to a national/international view of practices within and outside health care; (c) transparency; and (d) KISS: "Keep It Simple, Stupid.''

  18. A System Dynamic Model of Leader Emergence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    group decision making across all cultures. Leader emergence occurs through interaction; it is a collective process by which one individual is selected...questions. Task and affect network each had two questions. Task network questions asked how much time is spent on work related tasks with each...and in-degree centrality, the model focused on betweenness centrality and the contribution of extraversion’s affect on interaction, and self

  19. Emerging leaders 1991. Six who have arrived.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1991-01-01

    "I would quibble with the idea that Cheryl is an 'emerging leader,"' observes a colleague of one of this year's honorees. "I believe she has arrived." In truth, each of the six extraordinary people cited as 1991's Emerging Leaders have had a major impact on their organizations and, by example and design, on the nature and quality of healthcare in their communities. But then, the annual call for nominations demands nothing less. Sponsors Korn/Ferry International and The Healthcare Forum are "looking for...talented people with the proven ability to nurture the growth of the industry. They are dynamic, decisive young leaders who have already made a mark." Five men and one woman, all age 40 or younger, were selected as this year's Emerging Leaders in two separate categories. Three represent large healthcare organizations, three smaller urban or rural institutions--generally hospitals with fewer than 200 beds. Interestingly, nearly all were influenced to pursue careers in healthcare at an early age. Two had physician parents, two were sons of healthcare administrators, two worked in hospitals as teenagers. All, of course, have shown their mettle in difficult times and complex, uncomfortable situations. All have been pivotal in turning around failing--or at least beleaguered--organizations. Yet, while each has labored diligently to further the interests of his or her own organization and constituency, each has also sought to shape a more cooperative system. As honoree Larry Sanders observes, "Competition without conscience will deny our claim to a true community leadership role." Marveling at the accomplishments of honoree Kevin Fickenscher, an awed peer declared: "One of these days we'll all be working for him!"(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Ames Lab Named an Industry Safety Leader

    ScienceCinema

    Wessels, Tom

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory has been named a 2010 Industry Leader Award winner by the National Safety Council. The Ames Laboratory was one of only 81 companies/organizations to receive the award for their safety performance and the only DOE national laboratory on the list. The award represents the top 5 percent of members that have qualified for the National Safety Council 2010 Occupational Excellence Achievement Award, based on 2009 calendar year data.

  1. McNamara as a Transformative Leader

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    civilian officials in military operations. This tendency was a consistent sore point among senior military leaders. General Theodore Parker, Deputy...efforts are critical to developing productive civil-military relations. 50 General Lyman Lemnitzer, CJCS from September of 19 1960 through...Joseph C. Zengerle, March 21, 1969. U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, PA. 14 Parker, Theodore W., 1983. Interview by

  2. LTG Timothy J. Maude: Leader of Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT LTG TIMOTHY J. MAUDE: LEADER OF CHANGE by Lieutenant Colonel Karen Semeraro United States Army Reserve Colonel Elton...R. Manske Project Advisor This SRP is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the Master of Strategic Studies Degree. The U.S. Army ...reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Army , Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. Army War College CARLISLE

  3. Leadership Development: A Senior Leader Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    September–October 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 71 Feature Leadership Development A Senior Leader Case Study Maj Jason M. Newcomer , DBA, USAF...Z39-18 September–October 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 72 Newcomer , Kolberg, & Corey Leadership Development Feature program, a requirement-driven...meet or exceed the DT program’s objectives. September–October 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 73 Newcomer , Kolberg, & Corey Leadership Development

  4. Targeting Terrorist Leaders: A Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    of several Hamas leaders, including Sheik Ahmed Yassin and Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, and how their assassinations by Israel in 2004 affected the...Intifada by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Al-Abdel Azia al-Rantissi, and five others. However, the organization’s roots go back much further. According to...ensued and the Hamas movement was severely shaken . But this only happened momentarily: on each occasion the inevitable outcome was the ascent of a

  5. Creativity and the role of the leader.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Teresa M; Khaire, Mukti

    2008-10-01

    In today's innovation-driven economy, understanding how to generate great ideas has become an urgent managerial priority. Suddenly, the spotlight has turned on the academics who've studied creativity for decades. How relevant is their research to the practical challenges leaders face? To connect theory and practice, Harvard Business School professors Amabile and Khaire convened a two-day colloquium of leading creativity scholars and executives from companies such as Google, IDEO, Novartis, Intuit, and E Ink. In this article, the authors present highlights of the research presented and the discussion of its implications. At the event, a new leadership agenda began to take shape, one rooted in the awareness that you can't manage creativity--you can only manage for creativity. A number of themes emerged: The leader's job is not to be the source of ideas but to encourage and champion ideas. Leaders must tap the imagination of employees at all ranks and ask inspiring questions. They also need to help their organizations incorporate diverse perspectives, which spur creative insights, and facilitate creative collaboration by, for instance, harnessing new technologies. The participants shared tactics for enabling discoveries, as well as thoughts on how to bring process to bear on creativity without straitjacketing it. They pointed out that process management isn't appropriate in all stages of creative work; leaders should apply it thoughtfully and manage the handoff from idea generators to commercializers deftly. The discussion also examined the need to clear paths through bureaucracy, weed out weak ideas, and maximize the organization's learning from failure. Though points of view varied, the theories and frameworks explored advance the understanding of creativity in business and offer executives a playbook for increasing innovation.

  6. The 21st-Century Acquisition Leader

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    articles writ - ten for the magazine. Now we can’t promise you a new job, but many of our authors: • Earn continuous learning points • Gain...data from an unpublished 2007 study by the author of this article.) It is imperative that leaders develop strong communication skills . To com...that focus on improving the communication skills of their leaders—through training, con- necting with them emotionally, providing a focused message

  7. A Leader’s Approach to Training.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-20

    particularly crucial in the leadership role and to the total fitness of our Army. Discipline Standards of conduct and performance must be articulated...creating an environment in which units can plan and conduct training free . of unreasonable changes. The battalion headquarters can perform a vital role in...COVERED A Leader’s Approach to Training mc, y i v -- 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NC40ER 7. AUTSOR e) 0. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) LTC Lucious E. Delk 9

  8. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries. PMID:27886048

  9. Constitutive and allergen-induced expression of eotaxin mRNA in the guinea pig lung

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Eotaxin is a member of the C-C family of chemokines and is related during antigen challenge in a guinea pig model of allergic airway inflammation (asthma). Consistent with its putative role in eosinophilic inflammation, eotaxin induces the selective infiltration of eosinophils when injected into the lung and skin. Using a guinea pig lung cDNA library, we have cloned full-length eotaxin cDNA. The cDNA encodes a protein of 96 amino acids, including a putative 23-amino acid hydrophobic leader sequence, followed by 73 amino acids composing the mature active eotaxin protein. The protein-coding region of this cDNA is 73, 71, 50, and 48% identical in nucleic acid sequence to those of human macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP) 3, MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha, and RANTES, respectively. Analysis of genomic DNA suggested that there is a single eotaxin gene in guinea pig which is apparently conserved in mice. High constitutive levels of eotaxin mRNA expression were observed in the lung, while the intestines, stomach, spleen, liver, heart, thymus, testes, and kidney expressed lower levels. To determine if eotaxin mRNA levels are elevated during allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized antigen. Compared with the lungs from saline-challenged animals, eotaxin mRNA levels increased sixfold within 3 h and returned to baseline by 6 h. Thus, eotaxin mRNA levels are increased in response to allergen challenge during the late phase response. The identification of constitutive eotaxin mRNA expression in multiple tissues suggests that in addition to regulating airway eosinophilia, eotaxin is likely to be involved in eosinophil recruitment into other tissues as well as in baseline tissue homing. PMID:7869037

  10. Self-amplifying mRNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis A; Kommareddy, Sushma; Maione, Domenico; Uematsu, Yasushi; Giovani, Cinzia; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Otten, Gillis R; Yu, Dong; Mandl, Christian W; Mason, Peter W; Dormitzer, Philip R; Ulmer, Jeffrey B; Geall, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief introduction to nucleic acid-based vaccines and recent research in developing self-amplifying mRNA vaccines. These vaccines promise the flexibility of plasmid DNA vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity and safety. The key to realizing the full potential of these vaccines is efficient delivery of nucleic acid to the cytoplasm of a cell, where it can amplify and express the encoded antigenic protein. The hydrophilicity and strong net negative charge of RNA impedes cellular uptake. To overcome this limitation, electrostatic complexation with cationic lipids or polymers and physical delivery using electroporation or ballistic particles to improve cellular uptake has been evaluated. This chapter highlights the rapid progress made in using nonviral delivery systems for RNA-based vaccines. Initial preclinical testing of self-amplifying mRNA vaccines has shown nonviral delivery to be capable of producing potent and robust innate and adaptive immune responses in small animals and nonhuman primates. Historically, the prospect of developing mRNA vaccines was uncertain due to concerns of mRNA instability and the feasibility of large-scale manufacturing. Today, these issues are no longer perceived as barriers in the widespread implementation of the technology. Currently, nonamplifying mRNA vaccines are under investigation in human clinical trials and can be produced at a sufficient quantity and quality to meet regulatory requirements. If the encouraging preclinical data with self-amplifying mRNA vaccines are matched by equivalently positive immunogenicity, potency, and tolerability in human trials, this platform could establish nucleic acid vaccines as a versatile new tool for human immunization.

  11. Leader-follower values congruence: are socialized charismatic leaders better able to achieve it?

    PubMed

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2009-03-01

    In a field study, the authors investigated the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and values congruence between leaders and followers. Socialized charismatic leadership theory holds that charismatic leaders convey a values-based message and bring about values congruence between themselves and their followers. Yet, other research suggests that individuals' values are stable and closely linked to occupational membership and that employees' values are therefore likely to be quite difficult to change. Results of this study suggest that occupations are indeed associated with multiple types of employee values. The results also demonstrate that, for 3 of the 4 values studied, socialized charismatic leadership is associated with values congruence between the specific values leaders say they transmit to their followers and the values their followers say they use in work. The findings shed additional light on the values alignment process. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  12. A Novel Role for Protein Kinase Kin2 in Regulating HAC1 mRNA Translocation, Splicing, and Translation

    PubMed Central

    Anshu, Ashish; Mannan, M. Amin-ul; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat

    2014-01-01

    A signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) resolves the protein-folding defects in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from yeasts to humans. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the UPR activation involves (i) aggregation of the ER-resident kinase/RNase Ire1 to form an Ire1 focus, (ii) targeting HAC1 pre-mRNA toward the Ire1 focus that cleaves out an inhibitory intron from the mRNA, and (iii) translation of Hac1 protein from the spliced mRNA. Targeting HAC1 mRNA to the Ire1 focus requires a cis-acting bipartite element (3′BE) located at the 3′ untranslated leader. Here, we report that the 3′BE plays an additional role in promoting translation from the spliced mRNA. We also report that a high dose of either of two paralogue kinases, Kin1 and Kin2, overcomes the defective UPR caused by a mutation in the 3′BE. These results define a novel role for Kin kinases in the UPR beyond their role in cell polarity and exocytosis. Consistently, targeting, splicing, and translation of HAC1 mRNA are substantially reduced in the kin1Δ kin2Δ strain. Furthermore, we show that Kin2 kinase domain itself is sufficient to activate the UPR, suggesting that Kin2 initiates a signaling cascade to ensure an optimum UPR. PMID:25348718

  13. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, K.; Lokugamage, K.G.; Makino, S.

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5′ capped and 3′ polyadenylated. The 5′-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15–16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3′-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5′ leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells. PMID:27712623

  14. Viral and Cellular mRNA Translation in Coronavirus-Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, K; Lokugamage, K G; Makino, S

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses have large positive-strand RNA genomes that are 5' capped and 3' polyadenylated. The 5'-terminal two-thirds of the genome contain two open reading frames (ORFs), 1a and 1b, that together make up the viral replicase gene and encode two large polyproteins that are processed by viral proteases into 15-16 nonstructural proteins, most of them being involved in viral RNA synthesis. ORFs located in the 3'-terminal one-third of the genome encode structural and accessory proteins and are expressed from a set of 5' leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs that are synthesized by a process called discontinuous transcription. Coronavirus protein synthesis not only involves cap-dependent translation mechanisms but also employs regulatory mechanisms, such as ribosomal frameshifting. Coronavirus replication is known to affect cellular translation, involving activation of stress-induced signaling pathways, and employing viral proteins that affect cellular mRNA translation and RNA stability. This chapter describes our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in coronavirus mRNA translation and changes in host mRNA translation observed in coronavirus-infected cells.

  15. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation.

    PubMed

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-08-04

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5' end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies.

  16. Sensitivity of mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Poker, Gilad; Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

    2015-01-01

    Using the dynamic mean-field approximation of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP), we investigate the effect of small changes in the initiation, elongation, and termination rates along the mRNA strand on the steady-state protein translation rate. We show that the sensitivity of mRNA translation is equal to the sensitivity of the maximal eigenvalue of a symmetric, nonnegative, tridiagonal, and irreducible matrix. This leads to new analytical results as well as efficient numerical schemes that are applicable for large-scale models. Our results show that in the usual endogenous case, when initiation is more rate-limiting than elongation, the sensitivity of the translation rate to small mutations rapidly increases towards the 5′ end of the ORF. When the initiation rate is high, as may be the case for highly expressed and/or heterologous optimized genes, the maximal sensitivity is with respect to the elongation rates at the middle of the mRNA strand. We also show that the maximal possible effect of a small increase/decrease in any of the rates along the mRNA is an increase/decrease of the same magnitude in the translation rate. These results are in agreement with previous molecular evolutionary and synthetic biology experimental studies. PMID:26238363

  17. Shaping future nurse leaders through shared governance.

    PubMed

    Beglinger, Joan Ellis; Hauge, Barbara; Krause, Sheryl; Ziebarth, Laura

    2011-03-01

    The progression of five professional nurses from shared governance council chairs to unit director positions and the progression of three nurses from shared governance council chairs to clinical nurse specialist roles in an 18-year period provide compelling evidence of the impact shared governance has provided in the development of future nurse leaders in our organization. The collective wisdom of those who have lived this experience suggests that the opportunities inherent in these clinical nurse leadership roles make this a logical progression, including getting noticed and nudged, developing an understanding of the big picture, developing a results orientation, and substantial skill acquisition.

  18. Staff engagement: it starts with the leader.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2007-10-01

    Nursing cannot grow stronger unless we can recruit and sustain a cadre of engaged, spirited, and involved leaders. The body is designed to work most effectively in a series of 90-minute increments with a recovery time in between. The science of leadership/management can be seen as a game of chess where the pieces can move in all directions all over the board based on the uniqueness of each player. Creating an optimistic culture where people feel they have hope and freedom to grow and mature will create a sense of engagement.

  19. Information Technology - Information Overload for Strategic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Overload for Strategic Leaders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) Anthony Cotton 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle...PA,17013-5050 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11

  20. Career mapping: developing nurse leaders, reinvigorating careers.

    PubMed

    Shermont, Herminia; Krepcio, Deborah; Murphy, Jane M

    2009-10-01

    Nurse leaders must ensure the continued development and learning of all nurses, including those who postpone participation in existing professional development activities. In this article, the authors describe a career mapping program for nurses who have demonstrated reluctance in establishing and pursuing career advancement goals. The program incorporates a 2-tiered mentoring strategy and guides nurses in assessing their strengths and interests, developing career goals, and mapping out and implementing a career plan to meet personal and professional needs. The 18-month program resulted in career advancement for most participants and offers a model for leadership development.

  1. Leader-Follower Formation Control for Quadrotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Falin; Chen, Jiemin; Liang, Yuan

    2017-03-01

    Quadrotors are gaining an increasing interest in public and extensively explored in recent years. In many situations, a team of quadrotors is desired to operate in a certain shape, which is also called formation. In this paper, a linear PID controller is used to control each single quadrotor and a slide mode controller is adopted to solve the formation flying problem which employs the leader-follower structure. The formation simulations are run in the Matlab/Simulink environment to evaluate the performance of control laws.

  2. Nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change.

    PubMed

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to achieve more profound understanding of nurse leaders' perceptions of an approaching organizational change. We used a three-dimensional hermeneutical method of interpretation to analyze text from 17 interviews. The results suggest that nurse leaders were positive toward and actively engaged in continual change to their units, even though they perceived themselves as mere spectators of the change process. The nurse leaders believed that change might benefit patients and patient care, yet their adaptation lacked deeper engagement. The approaching merger affected the nurse leaders' identities on a deeply personal level. They experienced uneasiness and anxiety with regard to being nurse leaders, the future of nursing care, and their mandate as patient advocates. Nurse leaders are in a critical position to influence the success of organizational change, but the organizations covered in this study were not incorporating their knowledge and experiences into the change.

  3. Leaders and emotional intelligence: a view from those who follow.

    PubMed

    Zakariasen, Ken; Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract-Boyatzis and Goleman state that Emotional Intelligence (EI) "is an important predictor of success." In their book Primal Leadership, they refer to "the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence: how leaders handle themselves and their relationships." The leadership exercises reported here examined the practices of effective and ineffective leaders as identified by individuals who have worked under such leaders (ie, followers/subordinates). We sought to ascertain to what extent these practices are related to EI. The 2-year data from these leadership exercises show the strong relationships between perceived leadership effectiveness and emotionally intelligent leadership practices as observed by leaders' followers. For example, whether considering the practices that made effective leaders effective or the practices that ineffective leaders needed to adopt or significantly improve upon (in the eyes of subordinates), these practices were almost exclusively related to EI. These findings are supported in the EI literature, as is the strength of subordinates' assessments in predicting leadership effectiveness.

  4. A field experiment testing frontline opinion leaders as change agents.

    PubMed

    Lam, S S; Schaubroeck, J

    2000-12-01

    On the basis of previous studies of source credibility and opinion leadership, the authors hypothesized that opinion leaders would serve as effective agents to promote positive attitudes toward a service-quality initiative and increase service-quality effectiveness. The service effectiveness of tellers before and after a service-quality leadership training program was rated by customers, supervisors, and the tellers themselves across 3 matched bank branches. Service effectiveness was rated significantly higher in a branch using opinion leaders as service-quality leaders compared with a branch using randomly selected frontline leaders. Tellers in the latter branch showed greater improvements in service effectiveness than did counterparts in a branch using no frontline service quality leaders. This difference between types of leaders appeared to be mediated by tellers' behavioral beliefs about the service-quality program.

  5. Leaders' use of moral justifications increases policy support.

    PubMed

    Van Zant, Alex B; Moore, Don A

    2015-06-01

    Leaders must choose how to justify their organization's actions to stakeholders. We differentiate moral frames, or justifications based on moral values, from pragmatic frames, or justifications based on practical costs and benefits. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found that moral policy frames elicited more support than pragmatic frames across a variety of scenarios. This effect was mediated by the perception that leaders who offer moral justifications possess relatively greater moral character. In Experiment 2, we found that perceptions of a leader's private motives had a stronger influence on policy support than did the leader's public stance. Experiment 3 demonstrated that, irrespective of how a policy was framed, people were most supportive of a policy championed by a leader high in moral character. In Experiment 4, we documented an additional benefit of moral policy frames: They allow leaders to mitigate the moral outrage generated by reneging on a policy.

  6. hexA of Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora strain Ecc71 negatively regulates production of RpoS and rsmB RNA, a global regulator of extracellular proteins, plant virulence and the quorum-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Cui, Y; Ma, W; Liu, Y; Chatterjee, A K

    2000-04-01

    The soft-rotting bacterium, Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora (E. c. carotovora), produces an array of extracellular enzymes (= exoenzymes), including pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cel) and protease (Prt), as well as HarpinEcc, the elicitor of hypersensitive reaction (HR). The production of these exoenzymes and HarpinEcc responds to plant products and the quorum-sensing signal [N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone; OHL] and is subject to both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. hexA of E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 (hereafter hexA71), like that of another E. c. carotovora strain, negatively controls the production of exoenzymes, OHL and virulence in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71. In addition to exoenzymes, HexA71 negatively regulates the expression of hrpNEcc, the structural gene for HarpinEcc. Exoenzyme overproduction is abolished by OHL deficiency in a HexA- and Ohll- double mutant, indicating that HexA and OHL are components of a common regulatory pathway controlling exoenzyme production. HexA71 negatively affects RpoS, as the levels of this alternative sigma factor are higher in the HexA- mutant than in the HexA+ strain. However, a HexA- and RpoS double mutant produces higher levels of exoenzymes and transcripts of pel-1, peh-1 and celVgenes than the HexA- and RpoS+ parent. Thus, the elevated levels of RpoS protein in the HexA- mutant do not account for exoenzyme overproduction. The following evidence associates for the first time the phenotypic changes in the HexA mutant to overproduction of rsmB RNA, a global regulator of exoenzymes, HarpinEcc, OHL and secondary metabolites. Analyses of rsmB transcripts and expression of an rsmB-lacZoperon fusion in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71 revealed that HexA71 negatively regulates transcription of rsmB. Multiple copies of hexA71+ DNA suppress various phenotypes, including exoenzyme production in E. c. carotovora strain Ecc71, and concomitantly inhibit the production of rsm

  7. The Effect of Teacher Leader Certification Academy (TLCA) on Teacher Leaders: Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative research measuring teacher leadership's impact in education is lacking, specifically at the site level. It has been proven time and again that most successful schools have well-established and strong leaders with a great capacity to lead. While the world of transformational teacher leadership is intensifying on many levels, it…

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the New Jersey Leaders to Leaders Induction Program: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of the groundbreaking 1983 report A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform and the enactment of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in 2001, America's public schools have undergone dramatic changes. These significant changes have required school administrators to be more of an educational leader to students and staff,…

  9. How School Leaders Perceive the Leadership Role of Middle Leaders in Singapore Primary Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Hak Hiang; Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie; Ang, Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Middle leaders are "recognised as a significant source in ensuring that quality education reaches out to pupils" (Low and Lim "1997", p. 77) for they are "the human link between national education policy as manifested in school-level strategic planning...and the teaching staff whose "field tactics" are used to…

  10. Re-Imagining Novice Teachers as Leaders in Building a Community of Educational Leaders and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mthiyane, Siphiwe E.; Grant, Callie

    2013-01-01

    There is much literature to indicate that, in the field of teacher leadership, teachers can enact a reflective practice role as they operate as action researchers in their classrooms and schools. However, novice teachers are seldom considered as leaders or researchers, particularly in the South African schooling context. We report on a qualitative…

  11. Leaders Learning from Leaders as an Emergent Action Learning Strategy Type of Paper: Account of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This account of practice describes what three executive leaders in a professional association have learned about action learning and their own practices of organizational renewal. Data are approached narratively and stories are told from the perspectives of diverse educators' experiences, agency, and expertise. Mature organizations can be…

  12. Education Week Leaders to Learn From, 2013: Lessons from District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.; Klein, Alyson; Samuels, Christina A.; Casey, Diette Courrege; Shah, Nirvi; Sawchuk, Stephen; Molnar, Michele; Zubrzycki, Jaclyn; Adams, Caralee; Davis, Michelle R.; Sparks, Sarah D.; Robelen, Erik W.

    2013-01-01

    In an environment of tight resources, tough academic challenges, and increasingly stiff competition from new education providers, smart leadership may matter more than ever for the success of America's school districts. Against this backdrop, "Education Week" introduces the first of what will be an annual "Leaders To Learn…

  13. Leaders as combat fighter pilots. Research project targets leaders who support money-losing business strategies.

    PubMed

    Mitlyng, J W; Francis, D M; Wenzel, F J

    2001-01-01

    When strategic plans go awry and begin losing money, the smart thing to do is change course. But some leaders get so involved with the plan, they fail to navigate properly and fly right into the target. The organization can lose millions. Examine why this happens and what you can do to prevent it from happening in your organization.

  14. Building Relevant Leaders: Identifying the Development Needs of the Modern Construction Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shands, Mike

    2014-01-01

    "Do senior level construction leaders possess a common set of leadership development needs that can be addressed to better prepare them to lead and retain the Millennial workforce?" As older generations begin to retire in-mass, many organizations are reevaluating their approach to employee recruitment, performance, and retention. This…

  15. Simulations Help School Leaders Hone People Skills: Simulations Help School Leaders Practice "Tough Conversations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a simulation training program for school leaders at Syracuse University. The project is creating a series of parent, teacher, student, and community-member roles to help principals and teachers learn how to handle tricky conversations. Supported by a three-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of…

  16. Leader Development of Cyber Soldiers through Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    develop its cyber warriors and leaders? 2. Can a joint and/or “whole of government” approach be applied in the development of future cyber...2. Can a Joint and/or “Whole of Government” approach in the development of future cyber leaders? 3. How can the current Army and Cyber...the whole of government approach could assist in the development of cyber leaders, though primarily at the flag command level. Organizations like

  17. Leveraging data to transform nursing care: insights from nurse leaders.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Lianne; Nincic, Vera; White, Peggy; Hayes, Laureen; Lo, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to gain insight into how nurse leaders are influencing the use of performance data to improve nursing care in hospitals. Two themes emerged: getting relevant, reliable, and timely data into the hands of nurses, and the leaders' ability to "connect the dots" in working with different stakeholders. Study findings may inform nurse leaders in their efforts to leverage data to transform nursing care.

  18. Information Structures in Nash and Leader-Follower Strategies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    The role of information structures in some Nash and Leader - Follower games is examined. By preserving the information structure of the full order...classes of Leader - Follower games. Decision-dependent information structure is employed in both Nash games and optimal coordination problems and two...the solutions of both the stochastic optimal coordination problem with decision-dependent information structure and the stochastic Leader - Follower team

  19. Designing and implementing the Army Nursing Leader Academy.

    PubMed

    Dunemn, Kathleen; Hopkins-Chadwick, Denise L; Connally, Tina; Bramley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Chief of the Army Nurse Corps directed a thorough review of existing training programs available to and provided for Army Nursing personnel for the development of full-spectrum leaders for Army Nursing. The review provided the gap analysis necessary to restructure courses provided by the Department of Nursing Science at the Army Medical Department Center and School. This new grouping of courses is referred to as the Army Nursing Leader Academy. The Army Nursing Leader Academy is the first of its kind in that it addresses career-long learning of all Army Nursing by focusing on building skills, knowledge, and behaviors to produce sustainable, full-spectrum leaders. The Nursing Leader Academy consists of a series of sequential nurse leader development courses combined with a web based resource center. Grounded in the Patient CaringTouch System, guided by nurse competencies, and gauged by the Leader Capabilities Map, the Nursing Leader Academy provides learning that is relevant and timely designed to reinforce enterprise values and culture to ensure readiness for successive roles and positions. Full implementation of the Nursing Leader Academy will include the evidence-based elements of formal schooling, coaching, self-development, functional/technical (competency attainment), and professional experiences.

  20. Educating Transformational Leaders in Mexico at Universidad De Monterrey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantón, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Mexico faces numerous social, economic, and political challenges. Higher education institutions provide opportunity for change by educating socially responsible leaders to become civically engaged citizens.

  1. Trabecular bone texture classification using wavelet leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zilong; Yang, Jie; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios; Jennane, Rachid; Cheng, Erkang; Ling, Haibin

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we propose to use the Wavelet Leader (WL) transformation for studying trabecular bone patterns. Given an input image, its WL transformation is defined as the cross-channel-layer maximum pooling of an underlying wavelet transformation. WL inherits the advantage of the original wavelet transformation in capturing spatial-frequency statistics of texture images, while being more robust against scale and orientation thanks to the maximum pooling strategy. These properties make WL an attractive alternative to replace wavelet transformations which are used for trabecular analysis in previous studies. In particular, in this paper, after extracting wavelet leader descriptors from a trabecular texture patch, we feed them into two existing statistic texture characterization methods, namely the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and the Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM). The most discriminative features, Energy of GLCM and Gray Level Non-Uniformity of GLRLM, are retained to distinguish two different populations between osteoporotic patients and control subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves are used to measure performance of classification. Experimental results on a recently released benchmark dataset show that WL significantly boosts the performance of baseline wavelet transformations by 5% in average.

  2. When ethical leader behavior breaks bad: How ethical leader behavior can turn abusive via ego depletion and moral licensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Szu-Han Joanna; Ma, Jingjing; Johnson, Russell E

    2016-06-01

    The literature to date has predominantly focused on the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients (e.g., employees and teams). Adopting an actor-centric perspective, in this study we examined whether exhibiting ethical leader behaviors may come at some cost to leaders. Drawing from ego depletion and moral licensing theories, we explored the potential challenges of ethical leader behavior for actors. Across 2 studies which employed multiwave designs that tracked behaviors over consecutive days, we found that leaders' displays of ethical behavior were positively associated with increases in abusive behavior the following day. This association was mediated by increases in depletion and moral credits owing to their earlier displays of ethical behavior. These results suggest that attention is needed to balance the benefits of ethical leader behaviors for recipients against the challenges that such behaviors pose for actors, which include feelings of mental fatigue and psychological license and ultimately abusive interpersonal behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Mechanism of Cytoplasmic mRNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings. PMID:26019692

  4. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

  5. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  6. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide.

  7. Impact of the Supplemental Instruction Experience on Science SI Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockie, Nancy M.; Van Lanen, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the experiences of SI leaders in science courses. Analysis of data using Colaizzi's phenomenological approach has indicated the following advantages of the SI experience for SI leaders: (a) greater appreciation of the diversity of student learning styles, (b) increased understanding of the subject matter, (c)…

  8. Aspiring to leadership--identifying teacher-leaders.

    PubMed

    Rogers, John

    2005-11-01

    Educational institutions need effective leaders at many levels. This paper explores the applicability of the Porter/Mazlow need-priority and Herzberg maintenance-motivation models to the challenge of identifying individuals who aspire to leadership. The review includes literature from teaching, engineering, medicine, astronomy, business, and the military. Autonomy need and achievement motivation consistently distinguished leaders from non-leaders in several studies. Affiliation and esteem needs also characterized leaders in two studies. These empirical data support the use of these theoretical models, which are intuitively appealing and have potential for practical applications. One such application could be the identification and recruitment of education "champions" who would be teacher-leaders at dispersed sites. Through self-reflection faculty members could become aware of their needs and motivations and may realize their leadership aspirations and accept the teacher-leader role. For an education "champions" program to be successful, the department leadership would need to attend to the organizational culture and provide release time for the teacher-leaders. A blueprint for the development of teacher-leaders is outlined.

  9. Taoist Lessons for Educational Leaders: Gentle Pathways to Resolving Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This book explores ways in which educational leaders can apply the wisdom of the Tao in their day-to-day work in schools. It offers an alternative to the standard ways of western thinking to give the leader more possibilities when confronting a situation. We tend to value immediate and decisive action, winning, directing, and getting one's way.…

  10. Career Patterns of Selected Women Leaders: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, L. Sunny; And Others

    For 10 years, the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA) has honored local women for outstanding achievement in their occupational field and in the community at a Leader Lunch. In March of 1987, a 100-item survey was mailed to 73 past recipients of the Leader Lunch Award. Completed surveys were received from 48 women.…

  11. Developing Leaders through Mentoring: A Brief Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Carol C.

    2011-01-01

    Our rapidly-changing, ambiguous, global business arena demands a unique and evolving set of insights and capabilities by which leaders may effectively navigate this new terrain. Mentoring can accomplish exactly that, as its processes orient, train, and advance the skills, knowledge, and experiences of aspiring leaders. Best utilized, mentoring is…

  12. Investing in Leaders and Leadership to Secure a Desirable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    2014-01-01

    Investments in the select few who already are or will become academic leaders are essential but insufficient. Investments also need to be made in collective leadership because leadership is an activity or function, not merely a person. Both good leaders and collective leadership are needed in the never-ending journey toward selective excellence. A…

  13. Practical School Community Partnerships Leading to Successful Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kladifko, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    School leaders must have knowledge and understanding of the various external and internal entities in their school community. Partnerships, with a focus on communication and interaction with diverse community leaders and professionals, are essential for school success. In this article, the author discusses successful practical experiences and…

  14. What's the 411? High School Leaders' Perceptions of Inclusion Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Arnella L.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative, descriptive study explored and described urban and suburban school leaders' perceptions of the definition of "inclusion" and perceptions of their level of involvement in the implementation of inclusion. Additionally, the study determined if there was a significant difference in the urban and suburban school leaders'…

  15. Intergenerational Learning Practices--Digital Leaders in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the management and outcomes of a specific model of intergenerational learning, concerned with student digital leader support in a number of secondary schools in England. A local educational partnership set up a student digital leader project late in 2011, which aimed to develop a range of skills and outcomes for both the…

  16. Thought-Leaders in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The growth of online learning has exposed fundamental gaps in our knowledge, both theoretical and pragmatic. This research investigated some questions of the role of emergent leaders in online leaning and the influence of different behaviors. Firstly are there any common factors that identify thought-leaders? Secondly does the presence of…

  17. How Leaders Communicate Their Vulnerability: Implications for Trust Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Frauke; Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The notion of vulnerability underlies relationships of trust. Trust between leaders and staff is needed to solve concerns that hinder equity and excellence in teaching and learning. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether and how leaders show vulnerability by disclosing own possible contributions to concerns they try to resolve.…

  18. A Death at School: What School Leaders Should Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garran, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    All school leaders at some point will find themselves confronted by the need to shepherd their school communities through emotionally draining experiences. Death requires school leaders to act with compassion, care, and awareness that they are modeling for young people how to grieve. Few better examples of servant leadership exist. Communication…

  19. Job Attainment and Perceived Role Differences of Cyberschool Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Beck, Dennis; LaFrance, Jason; McLeod, Scott

    2016-01-01

    As cyberschooling options expand, it is vital that we understand the nuances of these particular learning opportunities. Because little research exists on leaders of K-12 cyberschools, this exploratory case study had two purposes. We first examined how 18 cyberschool leaders in the United States obtained their position. Second, we explored the…

  20. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor...

  1. Inside-Outside: Finding Future Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Stephen L.; Sanchez, Alex A.; Downey-Schilling, JoAnna

    2011-01-01

    Over the next decade, as the community college's current generation of leaders and administrators begin retiring in large numbers, important steps must be taken to identify and develop future leaders for the institution. A variety of internal opportunities (e.g., internships, leadership development programs, graduate school programs) provide…

  2. Member Disclosure in Personal Growth Groups: Effects of Leader Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Carolyn J.; Harren, Vincent A.

    1978-01-01

    This research explores the impact of leader behavior on individual group members in growth groups. Affect of message was found to be the only predictor of member-disclosure. Effects of leader-disclosure on member self-disclosure is difficult to interpret. (MFD)

  3. Describing an "Effective" Principal: Perceptions of the Central Office Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how district leaders of two school systems in the USA describe an effective principal. Membership categorisation analysis revealed that district leaders believed an effective principal had four major categories of characteristics: (1) documented characteristics (having a track record and being a…

  4. Profile of a 1:1 Technology Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Howard Todd

    2012-01-01

    There is a great amount of emphasis placed on the impact a principal has on a school. Likewise, there is an abundance of research focused on the necessary skills needed to be a successful school leader. The purpose of this study is to develop a profile that includes common characteristics and attributes of successful school leaders in a one-to-one…

  5. Twenty under 30: Emerging Leaders in Indian Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Nicole

    2003-01-01

    Profiles 20 emerging young leaders in Indian Country, Hawaii, and Alaska, who have contributed to their indigenous communities in diverse ways, including educators; college students; tribal leaders and managers; businessmen; and professionals in law, archeology, and public health. Includes descriptions of accomplishments and educational background…

  6. Closing the Teaching Gap: Coaching for Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartalo, Donald B.

    2012-01-01

    Donald B. Bartalo reveals the experiences of school leaders and teachers who have discovered that meaningful school improvement does not necessarily come from the top--it comes from effective teaching and leaders who support it. Based on eight fundamental tenets, the text features a clear how-to process, success stories, and methods for bridging…

  7. External Mandates and Instructional Leadership: School Leaders as Mediating Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Robinson, Viviane M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how US school leaders make sense of external mandates, and the way in which their understanding of state and district accountability policies affects their work. It is posited that school leaders' responses to external accountability are likely to reflect a complex interaction between their…

  8. We Are the Leaders We've Been Waiting for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    As the Latino community in the United States grows and matures, the inevitable question continues to be asked: who is the leader of this community of 50 million? "Leadership" in the Latino community has been hotly debated for many years. Many decry the absence of the "great Brown hope," a single leader who can unite the community of 50 million…

  9. Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.; Martinez, M. Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this article explores how leadership is distributed in districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and…

  10. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  11. Developing a Global Mindset: Learning of Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Davis, Elizabeth B.; Khilji, Shaista E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore the requirements of leading in a global environment as perceived by the leaders participating in this study as well as the way these leaders learn and develop their global mindset. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology informed by social constructivism included…

  12. Strategic Planning: An Imperative Procedure for Educational Leaders to Employ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Strategic planning is a process that educational leaders must utilize to allow the organization to make its vision come into fruition. Bryson asserts that leaders must be masterful in this process to allow the organization to " . . . fulfill (its) mission, meet (its) mandates, and satisfy (its) constituents in the years ahead" (Bryson 1995, pg.…

  13. Fostering Hope: A Leader's First and Last Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Keith D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the article is to call upon educational leaders to consider the forces that hinder hope-giving and to consider viewing their work as inspiring warranted hope among their constituents in situations of well-defined reality. Design/methodological/approach: The author argues that hope is an essential component of leader agency…

  14. Community College and Community Leader Expectations of the "Village"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    A level of consistency between community college leaders and community leaders is necessary to demonstrate behaviors, actions, and beliefs that shape, represent, and support expected community values. Likewise, communities, which are collectives of suborganizations, play an important role in aiding individual development, especially related to…

  15. Poverty and the Multiple Stakeholder Challenge for Global Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reade, Carol; Todd, Anne Marie; Osland, Asbjorn; Osland, Joyce

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a case study in which business leaders deal with challenging problems related to poverty, involving multiple stakeholders. This emphasizes the importance of training prospective global leaders to manage stakeholder relationships and engage in stakeholder dialogue. The authors highlight the stakeholder role played by…

  16. Rethinking Leadership Development: How School Leaders Learn in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Sarah V.; Marnik, George F.

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of evolving school leaders, university professors and others who provide professional development must rethink and expand their roles. Based on experiences as instructors in a leadership development program, the authors had the opportunity to explore and understand more fully how leaders grow. This article describes our…

  17. The Charismatic Leader. Behind the Mystique of Exceptional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Jay A.

    A systematic understanding of how various behavioral components (vision, articulation skills, empowerment, unconventionality, and risk-taking) work together to set apart certain individuals as charismatic leaders is presented. Using illustrations from the careers of charismatic leaders, including Steve Jobs, Lee Iacocca, Mary Kay, John DeLorean,…

  18. Democratic School Leaders: Defining Ethical Leadership in a Standardized Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Aiken, Judith A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to learn from active educational leaders engaged in the practice of democratic, ethical leadership. In this article, we share findings of a qualitative study that used narrative inquiry to examine the stories of eight educational leaders. We discuss three themes arising from the participants' narratives that define…

  19. STEM Leaders Roundtable: Part I--Research and the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Donna; Warshaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the potential of talented students, dedicated educators, and innovative leaders, NCSSSMST and Sigma Xi, the Scientific Research Society, convened a Roundtable for NCSSSMST STEM Leaders at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on April 28-29, 2011. The product of the Roundtable will be a blueprint for STEM research in high schools that…

  20. Wounded Leader: An Archetypal Embodiment of Compassionate Transcendent Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to seek to further the formation of the emerging transcendent leadership model by exploring the archetypal image identified as wounded leader. The wounded leader archetype is introduced as a leadership style of influence that fits well within the framework of the transcendent leadership model. This study…

  1. Guide for Team Leaders in Technical Assistance Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Bureau for Technical Assistance.

    The guide reflects the experience gained in over two decades of work with developers of institutions in less-developed countries and focuses on the leader of a team of experts under contract to an external assistance agency such as the Agency for Inrernational Development (AID). Discussing the role of the team leader as mainly that of technical…

  2. Multi-Unit High School. Learning Community Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Peggy; And Others

    The purpose of this manual is to provide learning community leaders orientation to the leadership role and its responsibilities. This book is a guide through the assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation stages of community growth. Close attention to the manual will allow a learning community leader to: (1) recruit a staff of committed…

  3. As Leaders Learn: Personal Stories of Growth in School Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Gordon A., Jr., Ed.; Marnik, George F., Ed.

    This book presents the stories of a group of Maine educators--teacher leaders, teaching principals, and principals--who met at the Maine Academy for School Leaders (MASL) in 1992 to share their experiences and frustrations and to help each other improve their understanding and practice of educational leadership. They share personal accounts of how…

  4. Managing Polarity, Paradox, and Dilemma during Leader Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manderscheid, Steven V.; Freeman, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review literature relevant to leader transition and the navigation of polarities, paradoxes, and dilemmas that exist in organizations. Furthermore, the researchers aim to critique the literature and provide suggestions for practitioners and researchers interested in leader transition through the lens of…

  5. Advocacy for School Leaders: Becoming a Strong Voice for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In today's political and global world, it's not enough to remain a solid educational leader; leaders must become advocates for education--on Capitol Hill, in state legislatures, and within communities. In this book, Sandra Whitaker examines key issues facing education, demonstrates methods for unpacking the issues, and discusses strategies to…

  6. Importing Leaders for School Turnarounds: Lessons and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowal, Julie; Hassel, Emily Ayscue

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in education today is identifying talented candidates to successfully lead turnarounds of persistently low-achieving schools. Evidence suggests that the traditional principal pool is already stretched to capacity and cannot supply enough leaders to fix failing schools. But potentially thousands of leaders capable of…

  7. Perspectives on the Role of the Teacher Corps Team Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Univ., OH.

    This collection of 10 position papers represents one phase of an effort to design behavioral objectives for training programs for Teacher Corps team leaders. Floyd T. Waterman identifies tasks and needed competencies for the complete range of team leader activities. Richard W. Saxe notes the several meanings of systems approach as they apply to…

  8. Lacking Leaders: The Challenges of Principal Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Daniela; Locke, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Principals are vitally important. But ever-rising accountability standards, limited authority over key decisions, and mediocre pay make the job more and more demanding and less and less attractive to talented leaders. At a time when schools need high-quality leaders more than ever, the grueling nature of the job makes it a tough sell, and…

  9. Using Leadered Groups in Organizational Behavior and Management Survey Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Rae

    2011-01-01

    In organizational behavior and management survey courses, students are likely to maximize certain career-appropriate knowledge when their classroom groups are leadered rather than leaderless. Using leadered groups facilitates the learning of the professional and managerial skills associated with formal leadership while reducing some problematic…

  10. Preparing Educational Leaders to Serve a Democratic Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    What qualifies an educational leader to lead a school (or schools) in and for a democratic society is more than simply a set of skills. One must also consider dispositions, attitudes, and traits that, if they cannot be taught, might yet be identified and nurtured in budding and practicing leaders. One of the most important objectives of an…

  11. Growing Teacher Leaders in a Culture of Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searby, Linda; Shaddix, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Viewing teachers as leaders requires a paradigm shift about the concept of leadership in a school system. The Teachers as Leaders program of the Mountain Brook, Alabama Schools represents that shift and is empowering teachers to utilize their leadership skills and contribute to the system as it fulfills its mission to offer education to its…

  12. Standards for School Leaders Get New Thumbs Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    A coalition of education groups came together in the mid-1990s to draft model standards for school leaders that would refocus the profession on student learning. Since then, the resulting Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium standards have been used or adapted by more than 40 states to guide their own preparation, licensure, and…

  13. New Jersey Professional Standards for Teachers and School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    New Jersey's new professional standards for teachers and school leaders were adopted by the State Board of Education in December 2003 as part of the new licensing regulations. These new professional standards provide a clear vision of the knowledge, performances and dispositions that teachers and school leaders need to support the learning…

  14. A Leader's Top Task Is to Nurture Talent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore

    2016-01-01

    In her full essay exploring the Leadership standard in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Leadership," author Karen Seashore Louis offers keen insights into the question of how leaders affect the learning of other adults in a school. She writes particularly about how "school leaders can create a school culture in…

  15. Characteristics of successful opinion leaders in a bounded confidence model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwei; Glass, David H.; McCartney, Mark

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the impact of competing opinion leaders on attracting followers in a social group based on a bounded confidence model in terms of four characteristics: reputation, stubbornness, appeal and extremeness. In the model, reputation differs among leaders and normal agents based on the weights assigned to them, stubbornness of leaders is reflected by their confidence towards normal agents, appeal of the leaders is represented by the confidence of followers towards them, and extremeness is captured by the opinion values of leaders. Simulations show that increasing reputation, stubbornness or extremeness makes it more difficult for the group to achieve consensus, but increasing the appeal will make it easier. The results demonstrate that successful opinion leaders should generally be less stubborn, have greater appeal and be less extreme in order to attract more followers in a competing environment. Furthermore, the number of followers can be very sensitive to small changes in these characteristics. On the other hand, reputation has a more complicated impact: higher reputation helps the leader to attract more followers when the group bound of confidence is high, but can hinder the leader from attracting followers when the group bound of confidence is low.

  16. Leadership by Consensus at MU: A Look at Two Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem; Kerns, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The researchers are interested in the views and perceptions, about leadership, of two leaders within the University of Missouri at the Columbia campus. Therefore, the aim of this research is to understand and to compare and contrast the leadership styles of these two leaders. In order to reach the aim of this recent study, the researchers have…

  17. The Rising Cost of Higher Education. APPA Thought Leaders 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the topic of the rising cost of higher education. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives, and facilities professionals--participated in a facilitated…

  18. Leveraging Facilities for Institutional Success. APPA Thought Leaders Series 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Thought Leaders Symposium, sponsored in part by DTZ, a UGL company, and Jacobs, focused on the issues and challenges related to leveraging campus facility assets to achieve desired institutional outcomes. More than three dozen higher education leaders--including presidents, provosts, business officers, consultants, association executives,…

  19. Culture of Sharing: North Slope Leaders Forge Trail into Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkotak, Elise Sereni

    2010-01-01

    To create a strong local economy, the community needs a workforce. In Native communities, the workforce should be grounded in the local culture and values. On the North Slope of Alaska, this has long been a goal of leaders. To achieve this goal, North Slope leaders came together February 2010 in Barrow, Alaska, for the "Tumitchiat"…

  20. Black Family Planning: Attitudes of Leaders and a General Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.; And Others

    Attitudes of black leaders and a general black population sample toward birth control and family planning issues were "Pro Birth Control" and "Genocide Fears." The leaders questioned held positions in twenty national black organizations, while the general population samples were taken from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Charlotte, North Carolina.…

  1. The Lived Transitions of Senior Student Affairs Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; King, Margaret; Forrest, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study of student affairs leaders who have left senior roles used an interpretive qualitative approach to explore these lived transitional experiences. The context of the departure, its immediate impact, the ensuing emotions, the change navigation process, and the envisioned future appear to shape the departing leaders' perceptions of the…

  2. Leader Positivity and Follower Creativity: An Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avey, James B.; Richmond, F. Lynn; Nixon, Don R.

    2012-01-01

    Using an experimental research design, 191 working adults were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions in order to test a theoretical model linking leader and follower positive psychological capital (PsyCap). Multiple methods were used to gather information from the participants. We found when leader PsyCap was manipulated experimentally,…

  3. Foundations of Change for the Scholar-Practitioner Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donna R.

    2010-01-01

    Change is a fact of life, and educational reform is replete with change. However, cosmetic changes fail to bring about real improvement. Rather than remodel the existing concept of public education, leaders must create a new one. The schools must be recultured. The change leader must build trust with open communication supporting followers through…

  4. Insights into Action: Successful School Leaders Share What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterrett, William L.

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to be a great school leader? An award-winning former principal poses this question to renowned school leaders and experts in the field to provide you with insight into the actions that lead to success. These giants in the field of educational leadership--including Baruti Kafele, Rick DuFour, Carol Ann Tomlinson, and James…

  5. Overcoming Adversity: Resilience Development Strategies for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2010-01-01

    School leadership has never been easy. However, some experts like Garcia (2005) wrote that current school leaders are facing a variety of difficulties that make sustaining school reform efforts exceedingly difficult. Collectively, these modern day challenges have the capacity to form the perfect storm. School leaders need effective strategies to…

  6. A Dyadic Interactive Approach to the Study of Leader Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    Eighty male college students assigned roles as supervisors and workers performed experimental tasks in a study focused on (1) the degree of leader ... follower compatibility, (2) Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) versus the Average Leadership Style (ALS) analysis of leader behavior, and (3) the general

  7. Leader-Follower Dynamics: Developing a Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agashae, Zoe; Bratton, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 400 workers elicited opinions on the effectiveness of leader behaviors on informal learning. All three of Senge's leader roles (designer, teacher, steward) were present; the designer role was rated the weakest. Levels of agreement varied by occupational group and duration of employment. (Contains 69 references.) (SK)

  8. Leaders' Perceptions of Mobile Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Kristin R.

    2012-01-01

    Leaders have limited understanding regarding mobile technology (Ramo & Edenius, 2008). However, with over 1 billion users (Meeker, Devitt & Wu, 2011), managers are tasked with making leadership decisions regarding technology adoption, management and use. Leaders may find this difficult to undertake given the limited body of knowledge in…

  9. Educating Leaders: Is There Anything to Learn from Business Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Snidvongs, Kamontip

    2008-01-01

    The current focus on school leader preparation reflects the importance societies around the world are placing upon the goal of improving their educational systems. The investment of substantial new resources into leadership preparation and development activities is based upon "the belief that school leaders make a difference" in both the…

  10. Growing nurse leaders: an undergraduate teaching assistant program.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Genevieve E

    2005-12-01

    In today's complex health care system, leader behaviors are critical for all nurses. The undergraduate teaching assistant (TA) program empowers students to develop leadership behaviors through a collaborative mentoring model. This successful program enables undergraduate students to collaborate with faculty and graduate TAs in co-teaching large classes. The collaborative mentoring, structured class, and ongoing support provide fertile ground for growing nurse leaders.

  11. Transformational Leadership Characteristics Necessary for Today's Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Lloyd Moman

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the traits and characteristics of presidents of institutions of higher education who are considered transformational leaders. The study adds current data to the published and perceived characterization of leaders in higher education and their approaches to changing the learning environment at their institutions. This…

  12. Teacher Leaders: The Backbone of Sustained Improvement. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This newsletter defines teacher leadership and offers concrete ways teachers can step forward, sometimes out of their comfort zones, into leadership roles. In most schools, traditional structures are in place that define certain teachers as leaders such as department heads and grade-level team leaders. Many schools also have a leadership team,…

  13. Training the Future Leaders in Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Sweetser, David A.; Lindeman, Neal I.; Morton, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    The era of personalized medicine has arrived, and with it a need for leaders in this discipline. This generation of trainees requires a cadre of new skill sets to lead the implementation of personalized medicine into mainstream healthcare. Traditional training programs no longer provide trainees with all the skills they will need to optimize implementation of this revolution now underway in medicine. Today’s trainees must manage clinical teams, act as clinical and molecular diagnostic consultants, train other healthcare professionals, teach future generations, and be knowledgeable about clinical trials to facilitate genomic-based therapies. To prepare trainees for the transition to junior faculty positions, contemporary genomic training programs must emphasize the development of these management, teaching, and clinical skills. PMID:26751479

  14. Training the Future Leaders in Personalized Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mason-Suares, Heather; Sweetser, David A; Lindeman, Neal I; Morton, Cynthia C

    2016-01-07

    The era of personalized medicine has arrived, and with it a need for leaders in this discipline. This generation of trainees requires a cadre of new skill sets to lead the implementation of personalized medicine into mainstream healthcare. Traditional training programs no longer provide trainees with all the skills they will need to optimize implementation of this revolution now underway in medicine. Today's trainees must manage clinical teams, act as clinical and molecular diagnostic consultants, train other healthcare professionals, teach future generations, and be knowledgeable about clinical trials to facilitate genomic-based therapies. To prepare trainees for the transition to junior faculty positions, contemporary genomic training programs must emphasize the development of these management, teaching, and clinical skills.

  15. Behavioral characteristics of effective crew leaders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginnett, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    The behaviors of effective versus less effective captains as they form and lead their crews in line operations are analyzed. The research examines real work groups in an actual organization with a specific and consequential task to perform and is based on a normative model of work group effectiveness. Selection of captains is outlined, as well as data collection over the course of six months of crew and cockpit observations including over 300 hours of direct crew observations and 110 hours of actual flight time. Common characteristics of the effective leaders as well as the deviations of the less effective are described, and organizational implications are assessed. The concept of 'shells' depicted as a series of concentric circles moving outward from the group's task execution at the center is introduced and discussed.

  16. Ashley W. Oughterson, MD: Surgeon, Soldier, Leader

    PubMed Central

    Kunstman, John W.; Longo, Walter E.

    2015-01-01

    Ashley W. Oughterson, MD, (1895-1956) was a longtime faculty surgeon at Yale University. He performed some of the earliest pancreatic resections in the United States. During World War II, Colonel Oughterson was the primary “Surgical Consultant” in the South Pacific and present at nearly every major battle. His meticulously kept diary is regarded as the foremost source detailing wartime surgical care. Colonel Oughterson led the initial Army team to survey Hiroshima and Nagasaki following the nuclear attacks. Thoughout his academic career at Yale, Oughterson was a key leader in several medical and surgical societies. As scientific director of the American Cancer Society, Oughterson lectured widely and guided research priorities in oncology following World War II. Oughterson also authored numerous benchmark papers in surgical oncology that continue to be cited today. These extensive contributions are examined here and demonstrate the wide-ranging impact Oughterson exerted during a formative period of American surgery. PMID:26029018

  17. Marine Corps Maneuver Squad Leader Mastery Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-17

    Thinking; Character, Initiative, and Command Presence; Train , Mentor, and Develop Marines; Job Knowledge; Administration; Self‐Development; Communication...making skills by increasing the specificity of the desired  measurement.    Requirement    The U.S. Marine Corps  (USMC)  Training  and Education Command...of Task 3‐7 of the Commandant’s Planning Guidance  2010  to  improve  training   and  experience  levels  for  maneuver  unit  squad  leaders  in

  18. Physician leadership. Learning to be a leader.

    PubMed

    Zaher, C A

    1996-09-01

    As the business role of health care delivery expands and complex reform is imposed, physicians must assume leadership roles and imprint medical expertise on business dynamics. Before the end of this century, health care and its delivery will likely become unrecognizable to those who ended their practices only a decade ago. Traditional management will wither away to be replaced by self-managed, self-trained, and self-motivated workers, no longer employed in jobs but working through processes, projects, and assignments in integrative health care delivery systems. Becoming a leader is an active and arduous process that can no longer be approached haphazardly. To be effective, the physician must plot a course with clear and calculated intent and effort, which requires acquiring organizational tools and administrative skills to innovatively alter medical care for the good of all.

  19. Course strategies for clinical nurse leader development.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Sally; Grossman, Sheila; Godfrey, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    The scope of the clinical nurse leader (CNL) is evolving in practice across the country. The preparation of this pivotal role in a complex healthcare environment has prompted the collaboration of nurse academics, nurse administrators, and clinicians to design unique educational experiences to maximize best practice. Knowledge attained regarding healthcare improvement and patient safety must not only be theoretical, but personal and application focused. Utilizing the American Association of Colleges of Nursing's CNL white paper and published resources faculty developed a clinical leadership course focused on active learning and reflection. Students explore concepts of improvement and quality related to business models of high functioning organizations including healthcare. Three key components of the course are described in detail; "quality is personal", executive interviews and the "5P" clinical microsystems assessment. Evaluation outcomes are discussed. Course content and innovative teaching/learning strategies for CNL are shared which may support the growth of CNL program development nationally.

  20. Developing physician leaders in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D J

    1997-01-01

    While physicians have historically held positions of leadership in academic medical centers, there is an increasing trend that physicians will not only guide the clinical, curriculum and scientific direction of the institution, but its business direction as well. Physicians are assuming a greater role in business decision making and are found at the negotiating table with leaders from business, insurance and other integrated health care delivery systems. Physicians who lead "strategic business units" within the academic medical center are expected to acquire and demonstrate enhanced business acumen. There is an increasing demand for formal and informal training programs for physicians in academic medical centers in order to better prepare them for their evolving roles and responsibilities. These may include the pursuit of a second degree in business or health care management; intramurally conducted courses in leadership skill development, management, business and finance; or involvement in extramurally prepared and delivered training programs specifically geared toward physicians as conducted at major universities, often in their schools of business or public health. While part one of this series, which appeared in Volume 43, No. 6 of Medical Group Management Journal addressed, "The changing role of physician leaders at academic medical centers," part 2 will examine as a case study the faculty leadership development program at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. These two articles were prepared by the author from his research into, and the presentation of a thesis entitled. "The importance of leadership training and development for physicians in academic medical centers in an increasingly complex health care environment," prepared for the Credentials Committee of the American College of Healthcare Executives in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Fellowship in this College.*

  1. John Bryant Curtis: neurosurgeon, leader and mentor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon; Kaye, Andrew H; Buckley, Penelope

    2009-10-01

    In every generation of neurosurgeons, there are those whose judgment and professional accomplishments gain distinction among their peers. Such exceptional leaders often exhibit unique talent and inevitably, they exert a lasting influence on their field of endeavour. John Bryant Curtis was one of these. Rising from humble roots, Curtis made his impact in neurosurgery starting at the age of 36. A legendary and a master neurosurgeon for his period, he became the second director of Neurosurgery at The Royal Melbourne Hospital, succeeding R. S. Hooper in 1967. Like Hooper, Curtis had undertaken a three years Fellowship in Oxford at the Radcliffe Infirmary to train under Sir Hugh Cairns in 1947. On his return to Australia in 1950, he was among the pioneers in introducing percutaneous angiography into the country, which earned him the honourable Hunterian Professorship at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1958. This was in recognition for his contribution to the investigation of intracranial aneurysms. Among the many neurosurgeons whom John Bryant Curtis trained at the Royal Melbourne Hospital and at the Prince Henry Hospital, he was considered, by a few, a controversial figure. Others found the experience very positive. He was a distinguished neurosurgeon with expert clinical judgment, but simultaneously a stern and formidable character who demanded only the best from his staff and trainees. He was contrastingly thoughtful and gentle to his patients. Behind every great leader, there is a personal side, often more gentle and vulnerable than the public persona. Curtis was a generous, loving, funny, although at times eccentric human being. Although he died in 1989, ironically from metastatic brain tumours, his dynamic personality and work ethic imprinted a lasting impression on those who had met him.

  2. How leaders create and use networks.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Herman; Hunter, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Most people acknowledge that networking-creating a fabric of personal contacts to provide support, feedback, insight, and resources--is an essential activity for an ambitious manager. Indeed, it's a requirement even for those focused simply on doing their current jobs well. For some, this is a distasteful reality. Working through networks, they believe,means relying on "who you know" rather than "what you know"--a hypocritical, possibly unethical, way to get things done. But even people who understand that networking is a legitimate and necessary part of their jobs can be discouraged by the payoff--because they are doing it in too limited a fashion. On the basis of a close study of 30 emerging leaders, the authors outline three distinct forms of networking. Operational networking is geared toward doing one's assigned tasks more effectively. It involves cultivating stronger relationships with colleagues whose membership in the network is clear; their roles define them as stakeholders. Personal networking engages kindred spirits from outside an organization in an individual's efforts to learn and find opportunities for personal advancement. Strategic networking puts the tools of networking in the service of business goals. At this level, a manager creates the kind of network that will help uncover and capitalize on new opportunities for the company. The ability to move to this level of networking turns out to be a key test of leadership. Companies often recognize that networks are valuable, andthey create explicit programs to support them. But typically these programs facilitate only operational networking. Likewise, industry associations provide formal contexts for personal networking. The unfortunate effect is to give managers the impression that they know how to network and are doing so sufficiently. A sidebar notes the implication for companies' leadership development initiatives: that teaching strategic networking skills will serve their aspiring leaders and

  3. Effects of codon usage versus putative 5'-mRNA structure on the expression of Fusarium solani cutinase in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Griswold, Karl E; Mahmood, Nadir A; Iverson, Brent L; Georgiou, George

    2003-01-01

    Matching the codon usage of recombinant genes to that of the expression host is a common strategy for increasing the expression of heterologous proteins in bacteria. However, while developing a cytoplasmic expression system for Fusarium solani cutinase in Escherichia coli, we found that altering codons to those preferred by E. coli led to significantly lower expression compared to the wild-type fungal gene, despite the presence of several rare E. coli codons in the fungal sequence. On the other hand, expression in the E. coli periplasm using a bacterial PhoA leader sequence resulted in high levels of expression for both the E. coli optimized and wild-type constructs. Sequence swapping experiments as well as calculations of predicted mRNA secondary structure provided support for the hypothesis that differential cytoplasmic expression of the E. coli optimized versus wild-type cutinase genes is due to differences in 5(') mRNA secondary structures. In particular, our results indicate that increased stability of 5(') mRNA secondary structures in the E. coli optimized transcript prevents efficient translation initiation in the absence of the phoA leader sequence. These results underscore the idea that potential 5(') mRNA secondary structures should be considered along with codon usage when designing a synthetic gene for high level expression in E. coli.

  4. Mechanism of generation of runaway electrons in a lightning leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2014-06-01

    A mechanism is analyzed of the electric field enhancement in a lightning leader up to the level permitting runaway of low-energy electrons. The ionization wave propagation in the preionized domain in front of the leader makes it possible to overcome the limitation imposed on the field intensity by transversal expansion of the leader front. By means of numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that, at the final stage of formation of a new leader step, generation of an electric field is possible in the channels of the streamer zone ahead of the new step with intensity sufficient for electron runaway and, consequently, for producing the X-ray and γ-ray pulses observed in correlation with the lightning leader steps.

  5. Powerful women leaders rise in Asia despite gender inequality.

    PubMed

    Over the years, Asia has produced some of the worlds most formidable women leaders, including Indira Ghandi, Madame Mao, Benazir Bhutto, and Corazon Aquino. The list continues with South Asia's leaders, prime ministers, opposition leaders, and vice-presidents, however, such an impressive list does not reflect true equality nor enlightened gender politics. According to Sonny Lo, sociology professor at Hong Kong University, no Asian political system observes true gender equality. It is noted that these Asian leaders rose into prominence after the death or imprisonment of their fathers or husbands. Nevertheless, the elections of Anson Chan and life-long dissident Annette Lu, signal the emergence of a new model for women leaders in Asia. Still, Lo emphasizes that this new trend is merely a reflection of civil service equal opportunity rules. Lo adds that even Taiwan President Chen Sui-Bian's all-women cabinet does not reflect the nation's sentiment, but a wish to project an image.

  6. The intentional development of nurses as leaders: a proposed framework.

    PubMed

    Wilmoth, Margaret C; Shapiro, Susan E

    2014-06-01

    In their 2010 report on The Future of Nursing, the Institute of Medicine called for nurses to be prepared to lead in all areas of healthcare. However, the nursing profession lacks consensus on a framework to guide the development of nurses as leaders and has yet to define essential leader competencies. This article reviews the Army's intentional, sequential, and progressive leader development program that is grounded in essential leader competencies. The applicability of this model to nursing is discussed, and examples of how it could be applied are highlighted. This article proposes the use of the military framework as a successful model for the intentional development of nurses as leaders to meet the triple aims of better care for patients, better health for populations, and reduced costs of care through more efficient use of resources.

  7. Army Leader Development Strategy: Developing Brigade Level Leaders through Balance, Emphasis, and Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    development is achieved through the lifelong synthesis of the knowledge, skills, and experiences gained through the three domains of institutional training...on individuals’ growth as leaders (see figure 1). Each LOE cuts across the developmental domains of institutional , operational, and self...component: 1. Domains a. Institutional –This domain generally includes all organizations and activities in the Army other than deployable units

  8. School Leaders as Participants in Teachers' Professional Development: The Impact on Teachers' and School Leaders' Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2015-01-01

    Over a two-year period, approximately 70 teachers from 18 schools participated in an on-going professional development program as part of a study to promote the teaching and learning of numeracy. Principals and other school leaders were invited to participate in the professional development program alongside their teachers, which 20 leaders from…

  9. On angry leaders and agreeable followers. How leaders' emotions and followers' personalities shape motivation and team performance.

    PubMed

    Van Kleef, Gerben A; Homan, Astrid C; Beersma, Bianca; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2010-12-01

    Do followers perform better when their leader expresses anger or when their leader expresses happiness? We propose that this depends on the follower's level of agreeableness. Anger is associated with hostility and conflict-states that are at odds with agreeable individuals' goals. Happiness facilitates affiliation and positive relations-states that are in line with agreeable individuals' goals. Accordingly, the two studies we conducted showed that agreeableness moderates the effects of a leader's emotional displays. In a scenario study, participants with lower levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to an angry leader, whereas participants with higher levels of agreeableness responded more favorably to a neutral leader. In an experiment involving four-person teams, teams composed of participants with lower average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed anger, whereas teams composed of participants with higher average levels of agreeableness performed better when their leader expressed happiness. Team performance was mediated by experienced workload, which was highest among agreeable followers with an angry leader. Besides having important practical implications, the findings shed new light on the fundamental question of how emotional expressions regulate social behavior.

  10. Empowering Teacher Literacy Leaders: Examining the Profiles and Influence of Five Literacy Leaders within a Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruller, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to: (1) examine the profiles of teacher literacy leaders; (2) explore the empowerment of teacher literacy leaders through professional development and a distributed leadership model at the building level; (3) examine the impact of context on their leadership roles; and, (4) determine their potential…

  11. Leader neurons in leaky integrate and fire neural network simulations.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Cyrille

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we highlight the topological properties of leader neurons whose existence is an experimental fact. Several experimental studies show the existence of leader neurons in population bursts of activity in 2D living neural networks (Eytan and Marom, J Neurosci 26(33):8465-8476, 2006; Eckmann et al., New J Phys 10(015011), 2008). A leader neuron is defined as a neuron which fires at the beginning of a burst (respectively network spike) more often than we expect by chance considering its mean firing rate. This means that leader neurons have some burst triggering power beyond a chance-level statistical effect. In this study, we characterize these leader neuron properties. This naturally leads us to simulate neural 2D networks. To build our simulations, we choose the leaky integrate and fire (lIF) neuron model (Gerstner and Kistler 2002; Cessac, J Math Biol 56(3):311-345, 2008), which allows fast simulations (Izhikevich, IEEE Trans Neural Netw 15(5):1063-1070, 2004; Gerstner and Naud, Science 326:379-380, 2009). The dynamics of our lIF model has got stable leader neurons in the burst population that we simulate. These leader neurons are excitatory neurons and have a low membrane potential firing threshold. Except for these two first properties, the conditions required for a neuron to be a leader neuron are difficult to identify and seem to depend on several parameters involved in the simulations themselves. However, a detailed linear analysis shows a trend of the properties required for a neuron to be a leader neuron. Our main finding is: A leader neuron sends signals to many excitatory neurons as well as to few inhibitory neurons and a leader neuron receives only signals from few other excitatory neurons. Our linear analysis exhibits five essential properties of leader neurons each with different relative importance. This means that considering a given neural network with a fixed mean number of connections per neuron, our analysis gives us a way of

  12. Team-oriented leadership: the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification.

    PubMed

    Giessner, Steffen R; van Knippenberg, Daan; van Ginkel, Wendy; Sleebos, Ed

    2013-07-01

    We examined the interactive effects of leader group prototypicality, accountability, and team identification on team-oriented behavior of leaders, thus extending the social identity perspective on leadership to the study of leader behavior. An experimental study (N = 152) supported our hypothesis that leader accountability relates more strongly to team-oriented behavior for group nonprototypical leaders than for group prototypical leaders. A multisource field study with leaders (N = 64) and their followers (N = 209) indicated that this interactive effect is more pronounced for leaders who identify more strongly with their team. We discuss how these findings further develop the social identity analysis of leadership.

  13. Ribosome reinitiation at leader peptides increases translation of bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Korolev, Semen A; Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2016-04-16

    Short leader genes usually do not encode stable proteins, although their importance in expression control of bacterial genomes is widely accepted. Such genes are often involved in the control of attenuation regulation. However, the abundance of leader genes suggests that their role in bacteria is not limited to regulation. Specifically, we hypothesize that leader genes increase the expression of protein-coding (structural) genes via ribosome reinitiation at the leader peptide in the case of a short distance between the stop codon of the leader gene and the start codon of the structural gene. For instance, in Actinobacteria, the frequency of leader genes at a distance of 10-11 bp is about 70 % higher than the mean frequency within the 1 to 65 bp range; and it gradually decreases as the range grows longer. A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes. In contrast, this peak falls to the distance of 15-16 bp and is not very pronounced in Firmicutes; and no such peak is observed in cyanobacteria and tenericutes. Generally, this peak is typical for many bacteria. Some leader genes located close to a structural gene probably play a regulatory role as well.

  14. Robust leader tracking from an unmanned ground vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnier, Camille S.; German, Stan; Ostapchenko, Andrey

    2013-05-01

    While many leader-follower technologies for robotic mules have been developed in recent years, the problem of reliably tracking and re-acquiring a human leader through cluttered environments continues to pose a challenge to widespread acceptance of these systems. Recent approaches to leader tracking rely on leader-worn equipment that may be damaged, hidden from view, or lost, such as radio transmitters or special clothing, as well as specialized sensing hardware such as high-resolution LIDAR. We present a vision-based approach for robustly tracking a leader using a simple monocular camera. The proposed method requires no modification to the leader's equipment, nor any specialized sensors on board the host platform. The system learns a discriminative model of the leader's appearance to robustly track him or her through long occlusions, changing lighting conditions, and cluttered environments. We demonstrate the system's tracking capabilities on publicly available benchmark datasets, as well as in representative scenarios captured using a small unmanned ground vehicle (SUGV).

  15. Leaders in communities of real-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jingcheng; Wu, Jianliang; Liu, Chuanjian; Xu, Jin

    2016-02-01

    Community structures have important influence on the properties and dynamic characteristics of the complex networks. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not much attention given to investigating the internal structure of communities in the literature. In this paper, we study community structures of more than twenty existing networks using ten commonly used community-detecting methods, and discovery that most communities have several leaders whose degrees are particularly large. We use statistical parameter, variance, to classify the communities as leader communities and self-organized communities. In a leader community, we defined the nodes with largest 10 % degree as its leaders. In our experiences, when removing the leaders, on average community's internal edges are reduced by more than 40 % and inter-communities edges are reduced by more than 20 %. In addition, community's average clustering coefficient decreases. These facts suggest that the leaders play an important role in keeping communities denser and more clustered, and it is the leaders that are more likely to link to other communities. Moreover, similar results for several random networks are obtained, and a theoretical lower bound of the lost internal edges is given. Our study shed the light on the further understanding and application of the internal community structure in complex networks.

  16. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  17. Perspectives From the Field: Bringing Nurse Leaders Into the Classroom.

    PubMed

    Sortedahl, Charlotte K; Imhoff, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is a vital component of nurses' careers and baccalaureate nursing programs are required to include leadership competencies in undergraduate nursing education. To design learning experiences that emphasize professional identity formation, nurse leaders were invited as guest speakers in a senior-level didactic leadership course, but scheduling often interfered with participation. To inspire students and maximize nurse leaders' time, recorded video was investigated as a solution. Following videotaped interviews with nurse leaders, a 10-minute video was produced and shown to students in a nursing leadership course. The video project was evaluated for feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and usefulness as an instructional tool for empowering nursing students.

  18. Maximizing Team Performance: The Critical Role of the Nurse Leader.

    PubMed

    Manges, Kirstin; Scott-Cawiezell, Jill; Ward, Marcia M

    2017-01-01

    Facilitating team development is challenging, yet critical for ongoing improvement across healthcare settings. The purpose of this exemplary case study is to examine the role of nurse leaders in facilitating the development of a high-performing Change Team in implementing a patient safety initiative (TeamSTEPPs) using the Tuckman Model of Group Development as a guiding framework. The case study is the synthesis of 2.5 years of critical access hospital key informant interviews (n = 50). Critical juncture points related to team development and key nurse leader actions are analyzed, suggesting that nurse leaders are essential to maximize clinical teams' performance.

  19. Preparing clinical nurse leaders in a regional Australian teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ann K; Parker, Vicki T; Milson-Hawke, Sally; Cairney, Karen; Peek, Carmel

    2009-12-01

    The need to develop nurses as managers and leaders is crucial to the retention of registered nurses at a time of work force shortages and an increasingly aging work force in most Western industrialized countries. This article describes a creative and collaborative educational initiative developed at a large regional teaching hospital in New South Wales, Australia, designed to address this need. Based on a competency assessment process designed around face-to-face education, resource materials, and individualized mentoring from nurse unit managers, the aim of this multifaceted educational program is to develop effective team leaders in the clinical setting as well as a new generation of nursing leaders.

  20. Today's Leaders for a Sustainable Tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Bryan

    2013-02-27

    Today's Leaders for a Sustainable Tomorrow is a collaboration of five residential environmental learning centers (Audubon Center of the North Woods, Deep Portage Learning Center, Laurentian Environmental Center, Long Lake Conservation Center and Wolf Ridge Environmental Learning Center) that together increased energy efficiency, energy conservation and renewable energy technologies through a number of different means appropriate for each unique center. For energy efficiency upgrades the centers installed envelope improvements to seal air barriers through better insulation in walls, ceilings, windows, doors as well as the installation of more energy efficient windows, doors, lighting and air ventilation systems. Through energy sub-meter monitoring the centers are able to accurately chart the usage of energy at each of their campuses and eliminate unnecessary energy usage. Facilities reduced their dependence on fossil fuel energy sources through the installation of renewable energy technologies including wood gasification, solar domestic hot water, solar photovoltaic, solar air heat, geothermal heating and wind power. Centers also installed energy education displays on the specific renewable energy technologies used at the center.

  1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) nanoparticle tumour vaccination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phua, Kyle K. L.; Nair, Smita K.; Leong, Kam W.

    2014-06-01

    Use of mRNA-based vaccines for tumour immunotherapy has gained increasing attention in recent years. A growing number of studies applying nanomedicine concepts to mRNA tumour vaccination show that the mRNA delivered in nanoparticle format can generate a more robust immune response. Advances in the past decade have deepened our understanding of gene delivery barriers, mRNA's biological stability and immunological properties, and support the notion for engineering innovations tailored towards a more efficient mRNA nanoparticle vaccine delivery system. In this review we will first examine the suitability of mRNA for engineering manipulations, followed by discussion of a model framework that highlights the barriers to a robust anti-tumour immunity mediated by mRNA encapsulated in nanoparticles. Finally, by consolidating existing literature on mRNA nanoparticle tumour vaccination within the context of this framework, we aim to identify bottlenecks that can be addressed by future nanoengineering research.

  2. trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP)-trp leader RNA interactions mediate translational as well as transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis trp operon.

    PubMed

    Merino, E; Babitzke, P; Yanofsky, C

    1995-11-01

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon has been shown to be regulated by transcription attenuation in response to the availability of L-tryptophan. Regulation is mediated by the tryptophan-activated trp RNA-binding attenuation protein, TRAP, the product of mtrB. Formation of mutually exclusive RNA anti-terminator and terminator structures within trp leader RNA determines whether transcription will terminate in the leader region of the operon. Previous studies suggested that transcripts that escape termination are subject to translational regulation via the formation of a secondary structure that blocks ribosome access to the trpE ribosome-binding site. To assess the relative importance of these postulated events in trp operon regulation, we used site-directed mutagenesis to alter the putative elements involved in transcriptional and translational control. Using a trpE'-'lacZ reporter, we measured translational yield and specific mRNA levels with various leader constructs, in both mtrB+ and mtrB strains, during growth in the presence and absence of excess tryptophan. To verify that the altered regulatory regions behaved as expected, we carried out in vitro transcription assays with the wild-type and altered leader region templates and performed oligonucleotide competition assays with an oligonucleotide complementary to a segment of the transcription terminator. Our results establish that binding of TRAP to leader RNA regulates of transcription termination in the trp operon over about an 88-fold range and regulates translation of trpE over about a 13-fold range. The roles played by different trp leader RNA segments in mediating transcriptional and translational regulation are documented by our findings.

  3. The Psychiatrist as Leader-Teacher: Promoting Learning Beyond Residency.

    PubMed

    Waits, Wendi; Brent, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    In today's fast-paced, data-saturated, zero-tolerance practice environment, psychiatrists and other health care providers are expected to maintain clinical, fiscal, and administrative competence. The authors present a unique type of psychiatric leader—the leader-teacher—who incorporates teaching of these elements into day-to-day practice, enhancing lifelong learning for credentialed staff and increasing their confidence in managing complex clinical and administrative issues. Particular emphasis is placed on leader-teachers working in military environments. The article discusses the primary characteristics of this type of leader, including their tendency to (1) seek clarification, (2) distill information, (3) communicate guidance, and (4) catalogue products. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of being a leader-teacher and present several illustrative cases.

  4. The Myers-Briggs Type of College Student Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darst, Kimberly Vess

    2001-01-01

    Determined the Myers-Briggs type for 149 undergraduate students holding leadership positions in student organizations. Found that college student leaders tent to be Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (EV)

  5. Vision-based coaching: optimizing resources for leader development.

    PubMed

    Passarelli, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    Leaders develop in the direction of their dreams, not in the direction of their deficits. Yet many coaching interactions intended to promote a leader's development fail to leverage the benefits of the individual's personal vision. Drawing on intentional change theory, this article postulates that coaching interactions that emphasize a leader's personal vision (future aspirations and core identity) evoke a psychophysiological state characterized by positive emotions, cognitive openness, and optimal neurobiological functioning for complex goal pursuit. Vision-based coaching, via this psychophysiological state, generates a host of relational and motivational resources critical to the developmental process. These resources include: formation of a positive coaching relationship, expansion of the leader's identity, increased vitality, activation of learning goals, and a promotion-orientation. Organizational outcomes as well as limitations to vision-based coaching are discussed.

  6. Constraints and contributors to becoming a science teacher-leader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewthwaite, Brian

    2006-03-01

    This inquiry examines the personal attribute and environmental factors that contribute to and impede science teacher-leader development. Using a narrative approach, the inquiry focuses on the experiences of three teachers in three different New Zealand primary schools (years 1-6) as they develop in their capabilities as science teacher-leaders during sustained schoolwide science delivery improvement projects. Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model and Rutter's views on resiliency are used as a foundation for interpreting the science teacher-leader development process. Teachers identify a variety of personal attribute and environmental factors and the interplay between these factors as risk and supportive factors contributing to and impeding their development as science teacher-leaders. Teachers also identify that their development is influenced by several proximal processes that are context and time dependent. Ramifications of this study in the context of general school curriculum, in particular science development, are also considered.

  7. A Defense of the Test for School Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the School Leaders Licensure Assessment required for administrator certification in several states effectively bridges the gap between theory and practice. Describes scoring training for professors and school administrators. (PKP)

  8. HEALing Higher Education: An Innovative Approach to Preparing HSI Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is a case study of the Higher Education Administration and Leadership (HEAL) program at Adams State University. HEAL focuses on preparing the next generation of leaders at the nation's Hispanic-serving institutions.

  9. The leader's challenge: meetings, spiritual energy, and sneaker ratio.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2004-01-01

    Leaders who inspire are affirming to everyone in the meeting. They create the environment that meets the needs of the people first, not the leaders. People yearn to be heard, and to be engaged with their soul in genuine dialogue and engagement. If that doesn't happen in the meeting, then they search for meaning and support of their soul elsewhere and sneaker time increases. Leaders get from people what they give to them. If people in a meeting are given nothing, they in turn have nothing to give. If they truly feel they are served by the leader, they will give back much more than they receive. As Martin Luther King, Jr. so aptly said: "Everyone can be great because everyone can serve.

  10. What Does Leaders' Character Add to Transformational Leadership?

    PubMed

    Liborius, Patrick

    2017-04-03

    The influence of leaders' character (e.g., integrity, humility/forgiveness) has rarely been examined in leadership research. The current investigation focused on the impact of integrity and humility/forgiveness on both followers' perceptions of leaders' worthiness of being followed (WBF) and stress. Results from a scenario experiment (n = 347) and a field study (n = 110) indicated that these aspects incrementally predict WBF above and beyond the impact of transformational leadership. Similar results were found concerning followers' stress with the exception of leader integrity in the field study. According to relative importance analyses, integrity and transformational leadership predict WBF equally well. The results have conceivable implications for human resources (personnel selection and development). Future research should examine additional outcome variables that are affected by certain leader characteristics as well as potential negative effects of the examined character aspects.

  11. Leader-Constituent Interaction. The Heart of the Matter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the leader-follower relationship, which varies according to a group's situation and environment. Mentions effective two-way communication, trustworthiness, steadiness, and ability to help followers develop initiative as essential leadership qualities. (MLH)

  12. Leaders' Perspectives on Rural Tourism: Case Studies in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Lisa; Luloff, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Data from nearly 50 community leaders in 4 nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania counties show that both positive and negative impacts from tourism development were expected; local support was essential. Some feared that tourism was a threat to the rural atmosphere. (SK)

  13. Mechanisms of the initiation of protein synthesis: in reading frame binding of ribosomes to mRNA.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tokumasa

    2011-02-01

    The various mechanisms proposed to describe the initiation of protein synthesis are reviewed with a focus on their initiation signals. A characteristic feature of the various mechanisms is that each one of them postulates a distinct initiation signal. The signals of the Shine-Dalgarno (SD), the scanning and the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanisms are all located exclusively in the 5' leader sequence, whereas, the signal of the cumulative specificity (CS) mechanism includes the entire initiation site (IS). Computer analysis of known E. coli IS sequences showed signal characteristics in the entire model IS consisting of 47 bases, in segments of the 5' leader and of the protein-coding regions. The proposal that eukaryotic translation actually occurs in two steps is scrutinized. In a first step, initiation factors (eIF4F) interact with the cap of the mRNA, thereby enhancing the accessibility of the IS. In the second step, initiation is by the conserved prokaryotic mechanism in which the ribosomes bind directly to the mRNA without ribosomal scanning. This binding occurs by the proposed process of in reading frame binding of ribosomes to mRNA, which is consistent with the CS mechanism. The basic CS mechanism is able to account for the initiation of translation of leaderless mRNAs, as well as for that of canonical mRNAs. The SD, the scanning and the IRES mechanisms, on the other hand, are inconsistent with the initiation of translation of leaderless mRNAs. Based on these and other observations, it is deemed that the CS mechanism is the universal initiation mechanism.

  14. Assigning Senior Leaders Using Strategic Leadership Competency Matching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    in an increasingly uncertain and complex strategic environment.”8F9 Also, he expects leaders will “build agile, effective, high performing teams ...related to leader effectiveness. For example, Applebaum and Paese describe the nine roles of strategic leadership; they also compare their list to those...identified in others’ leadership models, like Covey, Belbin , Gallup, and Mintzberg.21 Zook proposes a broad, competency-based human capital

  15. Leader Actions to Enhance Soldier Resiliency in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    become involved in recognizing and solving problems. As Den Hartog et al’s. (1999) multicultural study points out, a universally disliked...across cultures is for a leader to be a team-builder (Den Hartog et al., 1999). Team building by its very nature must be inclusive to be effective...Leader-member exchange model of leadership: A critique and further development. Academy of Management Review, 11, 618-634. [14] Den Hartog , D.N

  16. Fund-raising tips for nurse leaders and nurse executives.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2014-01-01

    Fund-raising may be new to most nurse leaders and executives. This article focuses on dispelling the myths and mystery that surrounds nursing philanthropy. Key myths are addressed with supporting information to dispel them. Several practical tips are presented to enhance nurse leaders' involvement in philanthropy. Two recent gifts to hospital nursing departments are described as exemplars of relationship building and of nurses investing in their own future and that of the profession.

  17. Golden Arrows: Leveraging Strategic Leadership Potential of Special Operations Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    2005. 2 Michele Malvesti, To Serve the Nation, Center for New American Security, June 2010, 5. 3 Barack H. Obama , Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership...the U.S. military in support of national interests.7 President Obama characterizes the military strategy as a conceptual framework of a global...development of Army leaders.53 A comparative analysis of the Army Leader Development Strategy and the biographies of the past 25 years of Chiefs of

  18. William J. Donovan: Visionary, Strategic Leader, an Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-03

    boosting British confidence and his Involvement In Yugoslavia. he produced disastrous effects on Hitler’s timetable for his Russian campalgn. He also...their units and soldiers accordingly.3 In other words, the doctrinal view is that effective strategic leaders must have a vision. It also notes that...vision (goal) unless followers have confidence in the leaders’ values, competencies, judgment, and perserverence.8 A third view of vision is presented by

  19. Sequences controlling histone H4 mRNA abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, O; Bleecker, G C; Heintz, N

    1987-01-01

    The post-transcriptional regulation of histone mRNA abundance is manifest both by accumulation of histone mRNA during the S phase, and by the rapid degradation of mature histone mRNA following the inhibition of DNA synthesis. We have constructed a comprehensive series of substitution mutants within a human H4 histone gene, introduced them into the mouse L cell genome, and analyzed their effects on the post-transcriptional control of the H4 mRNA. Our results demonstrate that most of the H4 mRNA is dispensable for proper regulation of histone mRNA abundance. However, recognition of the 3' terminus of the mature H4 mRNA is critically important for regulating its cytoplasmic half-life. Thus, this region of the mRNA functions both in the nucleus as a signal for proper processing of the mRNA terminus, and in the cytoplasm as an essential element in the control of mRNA stability. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3608993

  20. Why good leaders make bad decisions.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Andrew; Whitehead, Jo; Finkelstein, Sydney

    2009-02-01

    Decision making lies at the heart of our personal and professional lives. Yet the daunting reality is that enormously important decisions made by intelligent, responsible people with the best information and intentions are nevertheless hopelessly flawed at times. In part, that's due to the way our brains work. Modern neuroscience teaches us that two hard-wired processes in the brain--pattern recognition and emotional tagging--are critical to decision making. Both are normally reliable; indeed, they provide us with an evolutionary advantage. But in certain circumstances, either one can trip us up and skew our judgment. In this article, Campbell and Whitehead, directors at the Ashridge Strategic Management Centre, together with Finkelstein, of Dartmouth's Tuck School, describe the conditions that promote errors of judgment and explore how organizations can build safeguards against them into the decision-making process. In their analysis, the authors delineate three "red-flag conditions" that are responsible either for distorting emotional tagging or for encouraging people to see false patterns: conflicts of interest; attachments to people, places, or things; and the presence of misleading memories, which seem, but really are not, relevant and comparable to the current situation. Using a global chemical company as an example, the authors describe the steps leaders can take to counteract those biases: inject fresh experience or analysis, introduce further debate and more challenges to their thinking, and impose stronger governance. Rather than rely on the wisdom of experienced chairmen, the humility of CEOs, or the standard organizational checks and balances, the authors urge, everyone involved in important decisions should explicitly consider whether red flags exist and, if they do, lobby for appropriate safeguards.

  1. Cross-cultural comparison of political leaders' operational codes.

    PubMed

    Dirilen-Gumus, Ozlem

    2016-03-04

    This study aims at comparing operational codes (namely, philosophical and instrumental beliefs about the political universe) of political leaders from different cultures. According to Schwartz (2004), cultures can be categorised into 3 dimensions: autonomy-embeddedness, egalitarianism-hierarchy and mastery-harmony. This study draws upon the 1st dimension (akin to the most popular cultural dimension of Hofstede: individualism-collectivism) and focuses on comparing the leaders of autonomous and embedded cultures based on how cooperative/conflictual they are. The main research hypothesis is as follows: the leaders of embedded cultures would be more cooperative than the leaders of autonomous cultures. For this purpose, 3 autonomous cultures (the UK, Canada and Australia) and embedded cultures (Singapore, South Africa and Malaysia) cultures were chosen randomly and the cooperativeness of the correspondent countries' leaders were compared after being profiled by Profiler Plus. The results indicated that the leaders of embedded cultures were significantly more cooperative than autonomous cultures after holding the control variables constant. The findings were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  2. Toward Proper Specification of the Effects of Leader Punitive Behavior: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Thomas S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Tested the impact of leader punitive behavior on employee satisfaction in 457 hospital employees. Controlling for leader reward behavior, there was no direct positive effect of leader punitive behavior, and no moderating impact of role ambiguity. Discusses the importance of considering spuriousness in leader punitive behavior research. (WAS)

  3. Turn Obstacles into Opportunities: Team Leaders Use a Skillful Approach to Move Past Barriers to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Elisa B.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the role of the skillful leader and what practical solutions are needed to overcome hurdles. What distinguishes the skillful team leader from a less-effective leader is his or her approach to overcoming hurdles, and are rooted in the leader's values, mindset, intelligence, and skill. When faced with hurdles to team…

  4. A Logic Model for Coaching Experienced Rural Leaders: Lessons from Year One of a Pilot Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Reese, Kenyae L.; Klar, Hans W.; Knoeppel, Robert Charles; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2017-01-01

    Rural schools dominate the United States, yet scant research exists on rural school leaders' development. Urban districts can transfer leaders to different locations, but rural districts, with few school sites, need leaders who stay and adapt to changing conditions. Mid-career rural leaders require a refreshed set of skills to carry school…

  5. 34 CFR 1100.1 - What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? 1100.1... INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 1100.1 What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? (a) Under the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program, the Director of the National Institute...

  6. 34 CFR 1100.1 - What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? 1100.1... INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 1100.1 What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? (a) Under the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program, the...

  7. 34 CFR 1100.1 - What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? 1100.1... INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 1100.1 What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? (a) Under the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program, the Director of the National Institute...

  8. 34 CFR 1100.1 - What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? 1100.1... INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 1100.1 What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? (a) Under the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program, the...

  9. 34 CFR 1100.1 - What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? 1100.1... INSTITUTE FOR LITERACY: LITERACY LEADER FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM § 1100.1 What is the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program? (a) Under the Literacy Leader Fellowship Program, the Director of the National Institute...

  10. A Dyadic Interactive Approach to the Study of Leader Behavior. Technical Report 506.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Donald S.

    The interactive effects of leader characteristics, follower characteristics, and the task situation on leader behavior were assessed. Focuses of the investigation were the degree of leader-follower compatibility, Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) versus the Average Leadership Style analysis of leader behavior, and the general problem of assessing leader…

  11. Leader-follower exchange quality: the role of personal and interpersonal attributes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A S; Bedeian, A G

    1994-08-01

    A field study of 84 registered nurses and their supervisors revealed that leaders' perceptions of leader-follower attitudinal similarity and follower extraversion were positively related to the quality of leader-follower exchanges. Neither followers' locus of control nor growth need strength was found to be significantly correlated with the quality of the exchange between leaders and followers.

  12. The Accuracy of Perceptions of Education Finance Information: How Well Local Leaders Understand Local Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, Barbara M.; Hinshaw, Steven A.; Ziswiler, Korrin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose for this research was to determine the accuracy of the perceptions of school administrators and community leaders regarding education finance information. School administrators and community leaders in this research project included members of three groups: public school administrators, other public school leaders, and leaders in the…

  13. Creative benefits from well-connected leaders: leader social network ties as facilitators of employee radical creativity.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Vijaya; Richter, Andreas W; Clarke, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Employee radical creativity critically depends on substantive informational resources from others across the wider organization. We propose that the social network ties of employees' immediate leaders assume a central role in garnering these resources, thereby fostering their employees' radical creativity both independent of and interactively with employees' own network ties. Drawing on data from 214 employees working in 30 teams of a public technology and environmental services organization, we find that team leaders' betweenness centrality in the idea network within their teams as well as among their peer leaders provides creative benefits beyond employees' own internal and external ties. Further, employees' and leaders' ties within and external to the team interactively predict employee radical creativity. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  14. Observations of High-altitude Negative Lightning Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edens, H. E.

    2011-12-01

    On 20 August 2010 a high-speed video recording was made of a bolt-from-the-blue (BFB) lightning flash where the negative leader exited the cloud near 9 km altitude and could be observed in clear air along most of its path to ground. The observation was augmented by data from Langmuir Laboratory's 3-D Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) as well as slow and fast Delta-E and broadband (up to 100 MHz) electric field waveform recordings. The various data sets are correlated in time and time-correlated LMA data is overlaid on the video frames, yielding a spectacular animation of a negative leader as it propagates from 9 km altitude down into air of increasingly higher pressure, contacting ground at 1.5 km altitude. At 9 km altitude, the tip of the negative leader exhibits impulsive emissions of light and retrograde luminosity waves that are seen to travel backward along the channel, away from the leader tip. As the leader propagates down in altitude the light emissions from the leader tip become more continuous in nature and the leader starts branching profusely. The leader velocity, on the order of 10^5 m/s, did not appear to change significantly. At the same storm, 30 minutes before the BFB flash occurred, a photograph was obtained of another negative leader from an intracloud (IC) flash that exited the cloud near the top, propagated several kilometers upward along a slanted path and terminated in clear air at 11 km altitude. The photograph was made with a Nikon D700 digital camera set at high sensitivity. The individual leader steps, which are on the order of 200 m length, are resolved as relatively straight segments of channel between sharp bends. At each bend (or kink) in the channel, clusters of 5 to 8 blue streamer filaments occur that are on the order of 100 m length. Small branches occur at most of the channel bends. One bend in the channel is accompanied by a space stem with blue streamers at both ends. The positive streamer emanating from the space stem and reaching

  15. The leader peptide of mutacin 1140 has distinct structural components compared to related class I lantibiotics.

    PubMed

    Escano, Jerome; Stauffer, Byron; Brennan, Jacob; Bullock, Monica; Smith, Leif

    2014-12-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotics composed of an N-terminal leader peptide that promotes the core peptide's interaction with the post translational modification (PTM) enzymes. Following PTMs, mutacin 1140 is transported out of the cell and the leader peptide is cleaved to yield the antibacterial peptide. Mutacin 1140 leader peptide is structurally unique compared to other class I lantibiotic leader peptides. Herein, we further our understanding of the structural differences of mutacin 1140 leader peptide with regard to other class I leader peptides. We have determined that the length of the leader peptide is important for the biosynthesis of mutacin 1140. We have also determined that mutacin 1140 leader peptide contains a novel four amino acid motif compared to related lantibiotics. PTM enzyme recognition of the leader peptide appears to be evolutionarily distinct from related class I lantibiotics. Our study on mutacin 1140 leader peptide provides a basis for future studies aimed at understanding its interaction with the PTM enzymes.

  16. Distributed control design for leader escort of multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Hong, Yiguang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we consider two-group leader escort control for multi-agent systems, where the agents are separated into two groups to escort an active leader with the same distance. To escort the moving leader, we propose different distributed controls for different cases: the bounded-leader case and the schedule-based general leader case (under either known or unknown time-varying parameter rotation-schedule). Because some agents may not get access to the leader directly, we construct the distributed controllers to escort the leader by moving symmetrically around the leader under either fixed or switching topologies, based on a distributed observer for each agent to estimate the leader's state. With the help of graph theory and Lyapunov function technique, we prove that the leader escort can be achieved asymptotically by theoretical analysis. Finally, simulation results demonstrate good performance of the proposed protocols.

  17. Links between mRNA splicing, mRNA quality control, and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Fasken, Milo B.; Corbett, Anita H.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the impairment of RNA binding proteins that play key roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has been linked to numerous neurological diseases. These RNA binding proteins perform critical mRNA processing steps in the nucleus, including splicing, polyadenylation, and export. In many cases, these RNA binding proteins are ubiquitously expressed raising key questions about why only brain function is impaired. Recently, mutations in the ZC3H14 gene, encoding an evolutionarily conserved, polyadenosine RNA binding protein, have been linked to a nonsyndromic form of autosomal recessive intellectual disability. Thus far, research on ZC3H14 and its Nab2 orthologs in budding yeast and Drosophila reveals that ZC3H14/Nab2 is important for mRNA processing and neuronal patterning. Two recent studies now provide evidence that ZC3H14/Nab2 may function in the quality control of mRNA splicing and export and could help to explain the molecular defects that cause neuronal dysfunction and lead to an inherited form of intellectual disability. These studies on ZC3H14/Nab2 reveal new clues to the puzzle of why loss of the ubiquitously expressed ZC3H14 protein specifically affects neurons. PMID:27868086

  18. Flexible knowledge repertoires: communication by leaders in trauma teams

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In emergency situations, it is important for the trauma team to efficiently communicate their observations and assessments. One common communication strategy is “closed-loop communication”, which can be described as a transmission model in which feedback is of great importance. The role of the leader is to create a shared goal in order to achieve consensus in the work for the safety of the patient. The purpose of this study was to analyze how formal leaders communicate knowledge, create consensus, and position themselves in relation to others in the team. Methods Sixteen trauma teams were audio- and video-recorded during high fidelity training in an emergency department. Each team consisted of six members: one surgeon or emergency physician (the designated team leader), one anaesthesiologist, one nurse anaesthetist, one enrolled nurse from the theatre ward, one registered nurse and one enrolled nurse from the emergency department (ED). The communication was transcribed and analyzed, inspired by discourse psychology and Strauss’ concept of “negotiated order”. The data were organized and coded in NVivo 9. Results The findings suggest that leaders use coercive, educational, discussing and negotiating strategies to work things through. The leaders in this study used different repertoires to convey their knowledge to the team, in order to create a common goal of the priorities of the work. Changes in repertoires were dependent on the urgency of the situation and the interaction between team members. When using these repertoires, the leaders positioned themselves in different ways, either on an authoritarian or a more egalitarian level. Conclusion This study indicates that communication in trauma teams is complex and consists of more than just transferring messages quickly. It also concerns what the leaders express, and even more importantly, how they speak to and involve other team members. PMID:22747848

  19. Estimating the electric field at the tip of lightning leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broberg Skeltved, Alexander; Østgaard, Nikolai; Mezentsev, Andrey; Lehtinen, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant

    2016-04-01

    In several studies Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGF) have been associated with radio atmospherics generated by lightning discharges. In particular, a close relationship between TGFs and ^+IC lightning, which develops in a stepped manner transporting electrons from the main negative toward the upper positive charge layer, have been induced. In light of these observations the production of TGFs has been proposed to occur during the stepping of lightning leaders in the intense field ahead of the leader tip. We make a semi-dynamical estimate of the electric field at different stages during the stepping of a negative lightning leader. First we approximate the lightning leader simply by a perfectly conducting wire emersed in an external homogeneous electric field. Then we estimate the effects of the positive and negativly charged regions of the initial corona discharge stage. Finally we attempt to take into account the expanding region of the streamer zone by approximating the expansion as a positive and negatively charged cap that expands in steps in the region immidiately ahead of the lightning leader. The results are investigated in the context of the production of the TGF.

  20. Understanding the role of opinion leaders in improving clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Locock, L; Dopson, S; Chambers, D; Gabbay, J

    2001-09-01

    We present findings from evaluations of two government-funded initiatives exploring the transfer of research evidence into clinical practice--the PACE Programme (Promoting Action on Clinical Effectiveness), and the Welsh Clinical Effectiveness Initiative National Demonstration Projects. We situate the findings within the context of available research evidence from healthcare and other settings on the role of opinion leaders or product champions in innovation and change--evidence which leaves a number of problems and unanswered questions. A major concern is the difficulty of achieving a single replicable description of what opinion leaders are and what they do--subjective understandings of their role differ from one setting to another, and we identify a range of very different types of opinion leadership. What makes someone a credible and influential authority is derived not just from their own personality and skills and the dynamic of their relationship with other individuals, but also from other context-specific factors. We examine the question of expert versus peer opinion leaders, and the potential for these different categories to be more or less influential at different stages in the innovation process. An often neglected area is the impact of opinion leaders who are ambivalent or hostile to an innovation. Finally, we note that the interaction between individual opinion leaders and the collective process of negotiating a change and reorienting professional norms remains poorly understood. This raises a number of methodological concerns which need to be considered in further research in this area.