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Sample records for ru-te binary system

  1. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  2. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  3. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  4. Planets in Evolved Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.

    2011-03-01

    Exo-planets are typically thought to form in protoplanetary disks left over from protostellar disk of their newly formed host star. However, additional planetary formation and evolution routes may exist in old evolved binary systems. Here we discuss the implications of binary stellar evolution on planetary systems in such environments. In these binary systems stellar evolution could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and could be transferred to its binary companion, and may form an accretion disk around it. This raises the possibility that such a disk could provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing first generation planets surviving the post-MS evolution of such systems would be dynamically effected by the mass loss in the systems and may also interact with the newly formed disk. Such planets and/or planetesimals may also serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets, and/or interact with them, possibly forming atypical planetary systems. Second generation planetary systems should be typically found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environment which are inaccessible, or less favorable, for first generation planets. The orbital phase space available for the second generation planets could be forbidden (in terms of the system stability) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. In addition planets could form in metal poor environments such as globular clusters and/or in double compact object binaries. Observations of exo-planets in such forbidden or unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems, including Gl 86, HD 27442 and all of the

  5. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  6. Geochronology of Danube Delta sediments The PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0351 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Csaba, Begy; Andra-Rada, Iurian; (Rusu) Oana Alexandra, Dumitru; Luminita, Preoteasa; Hedvig, Simon; Alida, Timar-Gabor; Szabolcs, Kelemen

    2014-05-01

    fluxes within the Danube Delta and over the associated Danubian continental shelf, using the radiometric method of 210Pb (210Po) and 137Cs. The detailed stratigraphical survey of the deltaic sediments will provide an accurate view of the sedimentation characteristics in the last ~100 years, including the impact of the hydrotechnical works built within the Danube basin on the sedimentation rates and on the deltaic continental shelf evolution. Another important aspect of the present project is featured by the combined application of three complex radiometric and nuclear tools: alpha spectrometry (210Po), gamma-spectrometry (210Pb, 137Cs, and 226Ra) and luminescence absolute method. Acknoledgement: The financial support from the grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research CNCS-UEFISCDI, PN-II-RU-TE-2012-3-0351 (2013-2015) is acknoledged.

  7. Binary Systems Within Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, Ernst; Stütz, Christian; Baumann, Bernhard

    2012-04-01

    WEBDA (http://www.univie.ac.at/webda) is a site devoted to observational data of stellar clusters in the Milky Way and the Small Magellanic Cloud. It is intended to provide a reliable presentation of the available data and knowledge about these objects. The success of WEBDA is documented by its worldwide usage and the related acknowledgements in the literature: more than 650 refereed publications within the last twelve years acknowledged its use. It collects all published data for stars in open clusters that may be useful either to determine membership, or to study the stellar content and properties of the clusters. The database content includes astrometric data in the form of coordinates, rectangular positions, and proper motions, photometric data in the major systems in which star clusters have been observed, but also spectroscopic data like spectral classification, radial velocities, and rotational velocities. It also contains miscellaneous types of supplementary data like membership probabilities, orbital elements of spectroscopic binaries, and periods for different kinds of variable stars as well as an extensive bibliography. Several powerful tools help to plot, query and extract the data, which can be directly retrieved via http. At the time of writing, about four million individual measurements have been included in the database. The Star Clusters Young & Old Newsletter (SCYON), a bi-monthly newsletter devoted to star cluster research with about 600 subscribers, is hosted in parallel with the database. We present the current and upcoming new interface and tools, which are needed to visualize and analyze the increasing amount of data from all-sky surveys, and deeper investigations of binary systems, low mass dwarfs, as well as planet-hosting stars.

  8. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.

    2006-01-01

    Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.

  9. Late type close binary system CM Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalomeni, Belinda

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present new observations of the close binary system CM Dra. We analyzed all the available data of the system and estimated the physical parameters of the system stars highly accurately. Using the newly obtained parameters the distance of the system is determined to be 11.6 pc. A possible giant planet orbiting the close binary system has been detected. This orbital period would likely make it one of the longest known orbital period planet.

  10. Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Chambers, John; Duncan, Martin J.; Adams, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets within binary star systems, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. We show that the late stages of terrestrial planet formation can indeed take place in a wide variety of binary systems and we have begun to delineate the range of parameter space for which this statement is true. Results of our initial simulations of planetary growth around each star in the alpha Centauri system and other 'wide' binary systems, as well as around both stars in very close binary systems, will be presented.

  11. Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given

  12. Planetary nebula progenitors that swallow binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    I propose that some irregular messy planetary nebulae (PNe) owe their morphologies to triple-stellar evolution where tight binary systems evolve inside and/or on the outskirts of the envelope of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. In some cases, the tight binary system can survive, in others, it is destroyed. The tight binary system might break up with one star leaving the system. In an alternative evolution, one of the stars of the broken-up tight binary system falls towards the AGB envelope with low specific angular momentum, and drowns in the envelope. In a different type of destruction process, the drag inside the AGB envelope causes the tight binary system to merge. This releases gravitational energy within the AGB envelope, leading to a very asymmetrical envelope ejection, with an irregular and messy PN as a descendant. The evolution of the triple-stellar system can be in a full common envelope evolution or in a grazing envelope evolution. Both before and after destruction (if destruction takes place), the system might launch pairs of opposite jets. One pronounced signature of triple-stellar evolution might be a large departure from axisymmetrical morphology of the descendant PN. I estimate that about one in eight non-spherical PNe is shaped by one of these triple-stellar evolutionary routes.

  13. Binary star systems and extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew Ward

    For ten years, planets around stars similar to the Sun have been discovered, confirmed, and their properties studied. Planets have been found in a variety of environments previously thought impossible. The results have revolutionized the way in which scientists understand planet and star formation and evolution, and provide context for the roles of the Earth and our own solar system. Over half of star systems contain more than one stellar component. Despite this, binary stars have often been avoided by programs searching for planets. Discovery of giant planets in compact binary systems would indirectly probe the timescales of planet formation, an important quantity in determining by which processes planets form. A new observing method has been developed to perform very high precision differential astrometry on bright binary stars with separations in the range of [approximate] 0.1--1.0 arcseconds. Typical measurement precisions over an hour of integration are on the order of 10 micro-arcseconds (mas), enabling one to look for perturbations to the Keplerian orbit that would indicate the presence of additional components to the system. This method is used as the basis for a new program to find extrasolar planets. The Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES) is a search for giant planets orbiting either star in 50 binary systems. The goal of this search is to detect or rule out planets in the systems observed and thus place limits on any enhancements of planet formation in binaries. It is also used to measure fundamental properties of the stars comprising the binary, such as masses and distances, useful for constraining stellar models at the 10 -3 level. This method of differential astrometry is applied to three star systems. d Equulei is among the most well-studied nearby binary star systems. Results of its observation have been applied to a wide range of fundamental studies of binary systems and stellar astrophysics. PHASES data are

  14. Tidal evolution in close binary systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Mathematical outline of the theory of tidal evolution in close binary systems of secularly constant total momentum. Following a general outline of the problem the basic expressions for the energy and momenta of close binaries consisting of components of arbitrary internal structure are established, and the maximum and minimum values of the energy (kinetic and potential) which such systems can attain for a given amount of total momentum are investigated. These results are compared with the actual facts encountered in binaries with components whose internal structure (and, therefore, rotational momenta) are known from evidence furnished by the observed rates of apsidal advance. The results show that all such systems whether of detached or semidetached type - disclose that more than 99% of their total momenta are stored in the orbital momentum. The sum of the rotational momenta of the constituent components amounts to less than 1% of the total -a situation characteristic of a state close to the minimum energy for given total momentum.

  15. Binary optics at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logue, James; Power, Michael

    1993-01-01

    An overview of binary optics development at Hughes Danbury Optical Systems is presented. Design software used for mask design is presented. A brief discussion of fabrication follows. Two examples of actual projects are used to highlight the discussion: (1) a large aspheric lens; and (2) a set of grating and lenslet arrays.

  16. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  17. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  18. White dwarfs in Be star binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apparao, K. M. V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of possible reasons for the persistent inability to identify white dwarf stars in the Be binary systems. It is noted that many Be stars exhibiting large optical enhancements may be Be + WD and Be + He systems, and that observations of pulsations in the H-alpha emission, as well as observation of time delays between enhancements of optical line and continuum, can identify such systems.

  19. Gravitational wave astrophysics with compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of spacetime that convey information about changing gravitational fields. Large-scale detection projects are currently in operation, and more advanced detectors are being designed and built. Though we have yet to make a direct detection of a gravitational wave signal, upgrades to current detectors are expected to bring the first detections within the next year or two. Gravitational waves will bring us information about astrophysical phenomena that is complementary to the information gained from photon-based observations (e.g., telescopes and radio receivers). One of the primary sources of gravitational waves are binary systems: two massive objects that orbit around each other due to their mutual gravitational attraction. These systems can have very predictable gravitational wave signatures due to their repetitive motions, making them ideal gravitational wave sources. In this dissertation, I present two research projects pertaining to gravitational wave astrophysics and compact binary systems. In the first, I explore interactions between compact binary systems near the center of our galaxy with the supermassive black hole that resides there. I am interested in the final state of the binary as a result of the interaction, ranging from small perturbations to the orbit up to total disruption. In the case of disruption, I characterize the new orbits formed between the binary components and the central black hole, known as extreme mass ratio inspirals. For binaries that survive the encounter, I examine the changes they experience, and find on average, they will merge together as a result of gravitational wave emission faster than before the encounter. In the second project, I propose a new method of measuring the radius of the swirling disc of gas and dust that encircles some stars in compact binary systems, known as the accretion disc. This method relies on the use of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational wave

  20. THE COEVALITY OF YOUNG BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Adam L.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-10-10

    Multiple star systems are commonly assumed to form coevally; they thus provide the anchor for most calibrations of stellar evolutionary models. In this paper, we study the binary population of the Taurus-Auriga association, using the component positions in an HR diagram in order to quantify the frequency and degree of coevality in young binary systems. After identifying and rejecting the systems that are known to be affected by systematic errors (due to further multiplicity or obscuration by circumstellar material), we find that the relative binary ages, |DELTAlog tau|, have an overall dispersion sigma{sub |D}ELTA{sub logt}au{sub |}approx 0.40 dex. Random pairs of Taurus members are coeval only to within sigma{sub |D}ELTA{sub logt}au{sub |}approx 0.58 dex, indicating that Taurus binaries are indeed more coeval than the association as a whole. However, the distribution of |DELTAlog tau| suggests two populations, with approx2/3 of the sample appearing coeval to within the errors (sigma{sub |D}ELTA{sub logt}au{sub |}approx 0.16 dex) and the other approx1/3 distributed in an extended tail reaching |DELTAlog tau|approx 0.4-0.9 dex. To explain the finding of a multipeaked distribution, we suggest that the tail of the differential age distribution includes unrecognized hierarchical multiples, stars seen in scattered light, or stars with disk contamination; additional follow-up is required to rule out or correct for these explanations. The relative coevality of binary systems does not depend significantly on the system mass, mass ratio, or separation. Indeed, any pair of Taurus members wider than approx10' (approx0.7 pc) shows the full age spread of the association.

  1. Acceleration by pulsar winds in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of accretion torques, a pulsar in a binary system will spin down due to electromagnetic dipole radiation and the spin-down power will drive a wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs. Winds from pulsars with short periods will prevent any subsequent accretion but may be confined by the companion star atmosphere, wind, or magnetosphere to form a standing shock. The authors investigate the possibility of particle acceleration at such a pulsar wind shock and the production of very high energy (VHE) and ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays from interactions of accelerated protons in the companion star's wind or atmosphere. They find that in close binaries containing active pulsars, protons will be shock accelerated to a maximum energy dependent on the pulsar spin-down luminosity. If a significant fraction of the spin-down power goes into particle acceleration, these systems should be sources of VHE and possibly UHE gamma rays. The authors discuss the application of the pulsar wind model to binary sources such as Cygnus X-3, as well as the possibility of observing VHE gamma-rays from known binary radio pulsar systems.

  2. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  3. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-07-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  4. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  5. Coalescence of Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ponce, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems calculated with full general relativity and incorporating the global magnetic field structure for the stars evolved with resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Our simulation tools have recently been improved to incorporate the effects of neutrino cooling and have been generalized to allow for tabular equations of state to describe the degenerate matter. Of particular interest are possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational radiation that emerges from these systems. We focus on magnetospheric interactions that ultimately tap into the gravitational potential energy of the binary to power a Poynting flux and deposition of energy through Joule heating and magnetic reconnection. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  6. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system.

  7. Pulsars in binary systems: probing binary stellar evolution and general relativity.

    PubMed

    Stairs, Ingrid H

    2004-04-23

    Radio pulsars in binary orbits often have short millisecond spin periods as a result of mass transfer from their companion stars. They therefore act as very precise, stable, moving clocks that allow us to investigate a large set of otherwise inaccessible astrophysical problems. The orbital parameters derived from high-precision binary pulsar timing provide constraints on binary evolution, characteristics of the binary pulsar population, and the masses of neutron stars with different mass-transfer histories. These binary systems also test gravitational theories, setting strong limits on deviations from general relativity. Surveys for new pulsars yield new binary systems that increase our understanding of all these fields and may open up whole new areas of physics, as most spectacularly evidenced by the recent discovery of an extremely relativistic double-pulsar system. PMID:15105492

  8. Stellivore extraterrestrials? Binary stars as living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Clément

    2016-11-01

    We lack signs of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) despite decades of observation in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Could evidence be buried in existing data? To recognize ETI, we first propose criteria discerning life from non-life based on thermodynamics and living systems theory. Then we extrapolate civilizational development to both external and internal growth. Taken together, these two trends lead to an argument that some existing binary stars might actually be ETI. Since these hypothetical beings feed actively on stars, we call them "stellivores". I present an independent thermodynamic argument for their existence, with a metabolic interpretation of interacting binary stars. The jury is still out, but the hypothesis is empirically testable with existing astrophysical data.

  9. Accretion Disks in Massive Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djurašević, G. R.; Vince, I.; Atanacković, O.

    2010-12-01

    The results of our investigations of some massive close binaries (CB) (RY Sct, V448 Cyg, UU Cas and V455 Cyg), based on the photometric and spectroscopic observations indicate the existance of the accretion disk around the more massive component, located deep inside the Roche lobe. The light curve shapes of some of this systems are similar to the ones of the overcontact systems like W UMa, but the nature of these massive CBs is completely different. Here we present the models of these systems and their basic elements.

  10. Coordinate System Issues in Binary Star Computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, George H.

    2015-08-01

    It has been estimated that half of all stars are components of binary or multiple systems. Yet the number of known orbits for astrometric and spectroscopic binary systems together is less than 7,000 (including redundancies), almost all of them for bright stars. A new generation of deep all-sky surveys such as Pan-STARRS, Gaia, and LSST are expected to lead to the discovery of millions of new systems. Although for many of these systems, the orbits may be undersampled initially, it is to be expected that combinations of new and old data sources will eventually lead to many more orbits being known. As a result, a revolution in the scientific understanding of these systems may be upon us.The current database of visual (astrometric) binary orbits represents them relative to the “plane of the sky”, that is, the plane orthogonal to the line of sight. Although the line of sight to stars constantly changes due to proper motion, aberration, and other effects, there is no agreed upon standard for what line of sight defines the orbital reference plane. Furthermore, the computation of differential coordinates (component B relative to A) for a given date must be based on the binary system’s direction at that date. Thus, a different “plane of the sky” is appropriate for each such date, i.e., each observation. However, projection effects between the reference planes, differential aberration, and the curvature of the sky are generally neglected in such computations. Usually the only correction applied is for the change in the north direction (position angle zero) due to precession (and sometimes also proper motion). This paper will present an algorithm for a more complete model of the geometry involved, and will show that such a model is necessary to avoid errors in the computed observables that are significant at modern astrometric accuracy. The paper will also suggest where conventions need to be established to avoid ambiguities in how quantities related to binary star

  11. Synchronization of magnetic stars in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, F. K.; Aly, J.-J.; Cook, M. C.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1983-01-01

    Asynchronous rotation of magnetic stars in close binary systems drives substantial field-aligned electrical currents between the magnetic star and its companion. The resulting magnetohydrodynamic torque is able to account for the heretofore unexplained synchronous rotation of the strongly magnetic degenerate dwarf component in systems like AM Her, VV Pup, AN UMa, and EF Eri as well as the magnetic A type component in systems like HD 98088 and 41 Tauri. The electric fields produced by even a small asynchronism are large and may accelerate some electrons to high energies, producing radio emission. The total energy dissipation rate in systems with degenerate dwarf spin periods as short as 1 minute may reach 10 to the 33rd ergs/s. Total luminosities of this order may be a characteristic feature of such systems.

  12. RS CV sub n binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to place in context the vast amount of data obtained as a result of X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and microwave observations of RS CVn and similar spectroscopic binary systems. Emphasis is on the RS CVn systems and their long period analogs. The following questions are considered: (1) are the original defining characteristics still valid and still adequate? (2) what is the evidence for discrete active regions? (3) have any meaningful physical properties for the atmospheres of RS CVn systems been derived? (4) what do the flare observations tell about magnetic fields in RS CVn systems? (5) is there evidence for systematic trends in RS CVn systems with spectral type?

  13. Long-Term Stability of Planets in Binary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple question of celestial mechanics is investigated: in what regions of phase space near a binary system can planets persist for long times? The planets are taken to be test particles moving in the field of an eccentric binary system. A range of values of the binary eccentricity and mass ratio is studied, and both the case of planets orbiting close to one of the stars, and that of planets outside the binary orbiting the systems center of mass, are examined. From the results, empirical expressions are developed for both (1) the largest orbit around each of the stars and (2) the smallest orbit around the binary system as a whole, in which test particles survive the length of the integration (10A4 binary periods). The empirical expressions developed, which are roughly linear in both the mass ratio mu and the binary eccentricity e, are determined for the range 0.0=e=0.7-0.8 and 0.1=mu=0.9 in both regions and can be used to guide searches for planets in binary systems. After considering the case of a single low-mass planet in binary systems, the stability of a mutually interacting system of planets orbiting one star of a binary system is examined, though in less detail.

  14. New spectroscopic binary companions of giant stars and updated metallicity distribution for binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluhm, P.; Jones, M. I.; Vanzi, L.; Soto, M. G.; Vos, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Drass, H.; Jenkins, J. S.; Olivares, F.; Mennickent, R. E.; Vučković, M.; Rojo, P.; Melo, C. H. F.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of 24 spectroscopic binary companions to giant stars. We fully constrain the orbital solution for 6 of these systems. We cannot unambiguously derive the orbital elements for the remaining stars because the phase coverage is incomplete. Of these stars, 6 present radial velocity trends that are compatible with long-period brown dwarf companions. The orbital solutions of the 24 binary systems indicate that these giant binary systems have a wide range in orbital periods, eccentricities, and companion masses. For the binaries with restricted orbital solutions, we find a range of orbital periods of between ~97-1600 days and eccentricities of between ~0.1-0.4. In addition, we studied the metallicity distribution of single and binary giant stars. We computed the metallicity of a total of 395 evolved stars, 59 of wich are in binary systems. We find a flat distribution for these binary stars and therefore conclude that stellar binary systems, and potentially brown dwarfs, have a different formation mechanism than planets. This result is confirmed by recent works showing that extrasolar planets orbiting giants are more frequent around metal-rich stars. Finally, we investigate the eccentricity as a function of the orbital period. We analyzed a total of 130 spectroscopic binaries, including those presented here and systems from the literature. We find that most of the binary stars with periods ≲30 days have circular orbits, while at longer orbital periods we observe a wide spread in their eccentricities. Based on observations collected at La Silla - Paranal Observatory under programs IDs IDs 085.C-0557, 087.C.0476, 089.C-0524, 090.C-0345, 096.A-9020 and through the Chilean Telescope Time under programs IDs CN2012A-73, CN2012B-47, CN2013A-111, CN2013B-51, CN2014A-52 and CN2015A-48.

  15. Evolution of close binary systems: Observational aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detached close binary systems define the main sequence band satisfactorily, but very little is known about the masses of giants and supergiants. High dispersion international ultraviolet explorer satellite observations promise an improvement, since blue companions are now frequently found to late type supergiants. Mu Sagittaril and in particular Xi Aurigae are discussed in more detail. The barium star abundance anomaly appears to be due to mass transfer in interacting systems. The symbiotic stars are another type of binary systems containing late type giants; several possible models for the hotter star and for the type of interaction are discussed. The W Serpentis stars appear to be Algols in the rapid phase of mass transfer, but a possible link relating them to the symbiotics is also indicated. Evidence of hot circumstellar plasmas has now been found in several ordinary Algols; there may exist a smooth transition between very quiescent Algols and the W Serpentis stars. Beta Lyrae is discussed in the light of new spectrophotometric results.

  16. Conjugating binary systems for spacecraft thermal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, Philomena G.; Dean, William G.; Sisk, Lori A.; Karu, Zain S.

    1989-01-01

    The materials search was directed to liquid pairs which can form hydrogen bonds of just the right strength, i.e., strong enough to give a high heat of mixing, but weak enough to enable phase change to occur. The cursory studies performed in the area of additive effects indicate that Conjugating Binary (CB) performance can probably be fine-tuned by this means. The Fluid Loop Test Systems (FLTS) tests of candidate CBs indicate that the systems Triethylamine (TEA)/water and propionaldehyde/water show close to the ideal, reversible behavior, at least initially. The Quick Screening Tests QSTs and FLTS tests, however, both suffer from rather severe static due either to inadequate stirring or temperature control. Thus it is not possible to adequately evaluate less than ideal CB performers. Less than ideal performers, it should be noted, may have features that make them better practical CBs than ideal performers. Improvement of the evaluation instrumentation is thus indicated.

  17. Orbit of an Astrometric Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, Pascal

    2005-08-01

    We present a new method to solve the problem of initial orbit determination of any binary system. This method is mainly based on the material available for an observer, for example relative positions at a given time of the couple in the “plane of sky”, namely the tangent plane to the celestial sphere at the position of the primary component. The problem of orbit determination is solved by splitting in successive stages in order to decorrelate the parameters of each other as much as possible. On one hand, the geometric problem is solved using the first Kepler’s law from a single observing run and, on the other hand, dynamical parameters are then inferred from the fit of the Kepler’s equation. At last, the final stage consists in determining the main physical parameters involved in the secular evolution of the system, that is the spin axis and the J2 parameter of the primary if we assume that it is a quasi-spherical body. As a matter of fact there is no need to make too restrictive initial assumptions (such as circular orbit or zero eccentricity) and initial guesses of parameters required by a non-linear least-squares Levenberg Marquardt algorithm are finally obtained after each stage. Such a protocol is very useful to study systems like binary asteroids for which all of the parameters should be considered a priori as unknowns. As an example of application, we used our method to estimate the set of the Pluto Charon system parameters from observations collected in the literature since 1980.

  18. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets. PMID:23292514

  19. Planetary system disruption by Galactic perturbations to wide binary stars.

    PubMed

    Kaib, Nathan A; Raymond, Sean N; Duncan, Martin

    2013-01-17

    Nearly half the exoplanets found within binary star systems reside in very wide binaries with average stellar separations greater than 1,000 astronomical units (one astronomical unit (AU) being the Earth-Sun distance), yet the influence of such distant binary companions on planetary evolution remains largely unstudied. Unlike their tighter counterparts, the stellar orbits of wide binaries continually change under the influence of the Milky Way's tidal field and impulses from other passing stars. Here we report numerical simulations demonstrating that the variable nature of wide binary star orbits dramatically reshapes the planetary systems they host, typically billions of years after formation. Contrary to previous understanding, wide binary companions may often strongly perturb planetary systems, triggering planetary ejections and increasing the orbital eccentricities of surviving planets. Although hitherto not recognized, orbits of giant exoplanets within wide binaries are statistically more eccentric than those around isolated stars. Both eccentricity distributions are well reproduced when we assume that isolated stars and wide binaries host similar planetary systems whose outermost giant planets are scattered beyond about 10 AU from their parent stars by early internal instabilities. Consequently, our results suggest that although wide binaries eventually remove the most distant planets from many planetary systems, most isolated giant exoplanet systems harbour additional distant, still undetected planets.

  20. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. I. S-TYPE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ) of planet-hosting S-type binary star systems. Our approach is general and takes into account the contribution of both stars to the location and extent of the binary HZ with different stellar spectral types. We have studied how the binary eccentricity and stellar energy distribution affect the extent of the HZ. Results indicate that in binaries where the combination of mass-ratio and orbital eccentricity allows planet formation around a star of the system to proceed successfully, the effect of a less luminous secondary on the location of the primary's HZ is generally negligible. However, when the secondary is more luminous, it can influence the extent of the HZ. We present the details of the derivations of our methodology and discuss its application to the binary HZ around the primary and secondary main-sequence stars of an FF, MM, and FM binary, as well as two known planet-hosting binaries α Cen AB and HD 196886.

  1. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margot, J.-L.; Pravec, P.; Taylor, P.; Carry, B.; Jacobson, S.

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main-belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main-belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (≲20 km) binaries form by rotational fission and establishes that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect powers the spin-up process. A unifying paradigm based on rotational fission and post-fission dynamics can explain the formation of small binaries, triples, and pairs. Large (>~20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  2. NONLINEAR TIDES IN CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, Nevin N.; Arras, Phil; Quataert, Eliot; Burkart, Josh

    2012-06-01

    We study the excitation and damping of tides in close binary systems, accounting for the leading-order nonlinear corrections to linear tidal theory. These nonlinear corrections include two distinct physical effects: three-mode nonlinear interactions, i.e., the redistribution of energy among stellar modes of oscillation, and nonlinear excitation of stellar normal modes by the time-varying gravitational potential of the companion. This paper, the first in a series, presents the formalism for studying nonlinear tides and studies the nonlinear stability of the linear tidal flow. Although the formalism we present is applicable to binaries containing stars, planets, and/or compact objects, we focus on non-rotating solar-type stars with stellar or planetary companions. Our primary results include the following: (1) The linear tidal solution almost universally used in studies of binary evolution is unstable over much of the parameter space in which it is employed. More specifically, resonantly excited internal gravity waves in solar-type stars are nonlinearly unstable to parametric resonance for companion masses M' {approx}> 10-100 M{sub Circled-Plus} at orbital periods P Almost-Equal-To 1-10 days. The nearly static 'equilibrium' tidal distortion is, however, stable to parametric resonance except for solar binaries with P {approx}< 2-5 days. (2) For companion masses larger than a few Jupiter masses, the dynamical tide causes short length scale waves to grow so rapidly that they must be treated as traveling waves, rather than standing waves. (3) We show that the global three-wave treatment of parametric instability typically used in the astrophysics literature does not yield the fastest-growing daughter modes or instability threshold in many cases. We find a form of parametric instability in which a single parent wave excites a very large number of daughter waves (N Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 3}[P/10 days] for a solar-type star) and drives them as a single coherent unit with

  3. XZ And a semidetached asynchronous binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzoori, Davood

    2016-05-01

    In this work the light curves (LCs) solutions along with the radial velocity curve of the semidetached binary systemXZ And are presented using the PHOEBE program(ver 0.31a). Absolute parameters of the stellar components were then determined, enabling us to discuss structure and evolutionary status of the system. The analysis indicates that the primary is a non-synchronous (i.e., F1 = 3.50 ± 0.01) Main Sequence (MS) star and the secondary is a bit more evolved, and fills its Roche critical surface. In addition, times of minima data (" O - C curve") were analyzed. Apart from an almost parabolic variation in the general trend of O - C data, which was attributed to a mass transfer from the secondary with the rate ˙2 = (9.52 ± 0.41) × 10-10 M ⊙ yr-1; two cyclic variations with mean periods of 34.8 ± 2.4 and 23.3 ± 3.0 yr, modulating the orbital period, were found, which were attributed to a third body orbiting around the system, and magnetic activity cycle effect, respectively.

  4. Milankovitch Cycles of Terrestrial Planets in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-08-01

    The habitability of planets in binary star systems depends not only on the radiation environment created by the two stars, but also on the perturbations to planetary orbits and rotation produced by the gravitational field of the binary and neighbouring planets. Habitable planets in binaries may therefore experience significant perturbations in orbit and spin. The direct effects of orbital resonances and secular evolution on the climate of binary planets remain largely unconsidered. We present latitudinal energy balance modelling of exoplanet climates with direct coupling to an N Body integrator and an obliquity evolution model. This allows us to simultaneously investigate the thermal and dynamical evolution of planets orbiting binary stars, and discover gravito-climatic oscillations on dynamical and secular timescales. We investigate the Kepler-47 and Alpha Centauri systems as archetypes of P and S type binary systems respectively. In the first case, Earthlike planets would experience rapid Milankovitch cycles (of order 1000 years) in eccentricity, obliquity and precession, inducing temperature oscillations of similar periods (modulated by other planets in the system). These secular temperature variations have amplitudes similar to those induced on the much shorter timescale of the binary period. In the Alpha Centauri system, the influence of the secondary produces eccentricity variations on 15,000 year timescales. This produces climate oscillations of similar strength to the variation on the orbital timescale of the binary. Phase drifts between eccentricity and obliquity oscillations creates further cycles that are of order 100,000 years in duration, which are further modulated by neighbouring planets.

  5. STAR HOPPERS: PLANET INSTABILITY AND CAPTURE IN EVOLVING BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Perets, Hagai B.

    2012-07-01

    Many planets are observed in stellar binary systems, and their frequency may be comparable to that of planetary systems around single stars. Binary stellar evolution in such systems influences the dynamical evolution of the resident planets. Here, we study the evolution of a single planet orbiting one star in an evolving binary system. We find that stellar evolution can trigger dynamical instabilities that drive planets into chaotic orbits. This instability leads to planet-star collisions, exchange of the planet between the binary stars ('star hoppers'), and ejection of the planet from the system. The means by which planets can be recaptured is similar to the pull-down capture mechanism for irregular solar system satellites. Because planets often suffer close encounters with the primary on the asymptotic giant branch, captures during a collision with the stellar envelope are also possible for more massive planets. Such capture could populate the habitable zone around white dwarfs.

  6. Absolute parameters of stars in semidetached eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    1985-06-01

    A number of questions concerning the absolute parameters of stars in semidetached binary systems are addressed. Consideration is given to: similarities between Algol-type binaries and unevolved detached binaries with respect to the mass-luminosity law; and the single-line classical Algol candidates with known mass functions and photometric solutions for mass ratio. It is shown that the validity of the mass luminosity-law cannot be verified for individual Algol-type binaries though it does hold well on average; and (2), the existence of a definite class of sd-binaries not containing a proportion of significantly undersize types is apparent. The conclusions are found to be in general agreement with the observations of Hall and Neff (1979).

  7. KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Ethan; Agol, Eric

    2014-04-18

    Over 40% of Sun-like stars are bound in binary or multistar systems. Stellar remnants in edge-on binary systems can gravitationally magnify their companions, as predicted 40 years ago. By using data from the Kepler spacecraft, we report the detection of such a "self-lensing" system, in which a 5-hour pulse of 0.1% amplitude occurs every orbital period. The white dwarf stellar remnant and its Sun-like companion orbit one another every 88.18 days, a long period for a white dwarf-eclipsing binary. By modeling the pulse as gravitational magnification (microlensing) along with Kepler's laws and stellar models, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf to be ~63% of the mass of our Sun. Further study of this system, and any others discovered like it, will help to constrain the physics of white dwarfs and binary star evolution. PMID:24744369

  8. KOI-3278: a self-lensing binary star system.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Ethan; Agol, Eric

    2014-04-18

    Over 40% of Sun-like stars are bound in binary or multistar systems. Stellar remnants in edge-on binary systems can gravitationally magnify their companions, as predicted 40 years ago. By using data from the Kepler spacecraft, we report the detection of such a "self-lensing" system, in which a 5-hour pulse of 0.1% amplitude occurs every orbital period. The white dwarf stellar remnant and its Sun-like companion orbit one another every 88.18 days, a long period for a white dwarf-eclipsing binary. By modeling the pulse as gravitational magnification (microlensing) along with Kepler's laws and stellar models, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf to be ~63% of the mass of our Sun. Further study of this system, and any others discovered like it, will help to constrain the physics of white dwarfs and binary star evolution.

  9. KOI-3278: A Self-Lensing Binary Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Ethan; Agol, Eric

    2014-04-01

    Over 40% of Sun-like stars are bound in binary or multistar systems. Stellar remnants in edge-on binary systems can gravitationally magnify their companions, as predicted 40 years ago. By using data from the Kepler spacecraft, we report the detection of such a “self-lensing” system, in which a 5-hour pulse of 0.1% amplitude occurs every orbital period. The white dwarf stellar remnant and its Sun-like companion orbit one another every 88.18 days, a long period for a white dwarf-eclipsing binary. By modeling the pulse as gravitational magnification (microlensing) along with Kepler’s laws and stellar models, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf to be ~63% of the mass of our Sun. Further study of this system, and any others discovered like it, will help to constrain the physics of white dwarfs and binary star evolution.

  10. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. V. The Lowest Mass Ratio Binary V857 Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Soonthornthum, B.; Yuan, J.-Z.; Yang, Y.-G.; He, J.-J.

    2005-09-01

    Charge-coupled device (CCD) photometric light curves in the B, V, and R bands of the complete eclipsing binary star V857 Her are presented. It is shown that the light curves of the W UMa-type binary are symmetric and of A type according to Binnendijk's classification. Our four epochs of light minimum along with others compiled from the literature were used to revise the period and study the period change. Weak evidence indicates that the orbital period of V857 Her may show a continuous increase at a rate of dP/dt=+2.90×10-7 days yr-1. The photometric parameters of the system were determined with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. It is shown that V857 Her is a deep overcontact binary system with f=83.8%+/-5.1%. The derived mass ratio of q=0.06532+/-0.0002 suggests that it has the lowest mass ratio among overcontact binary systems. As the orbital period increases, the decrease of the mass ratio will cause it to evolve into a single rapidly rotating star when it meets the more familiar criterion that the orbital angular momentum be less than 3 times the total spin angular momentum. To understand the evolutionary state of the system, long-term photometric monitoring and spectroscopic observations will be required.

  11. KIC 7177553: A Quadruple System of Two Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, H.; Borkovits, T.; Rappaport, S. A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Forgács-Dajka, E.

    2016-03-01

    KIC 7177553 was observed by the Kepler satellite to be an eclipsing eccentric binary star system with an 18-day orbital period. Recently, an eclipse timing study of the Kepler binaries has revealed eclipse timing variations (ETVs) in this object with an amplitude of ˜100 s and an outer period of 529 days. The implied mass of the third body is that of a super-Jupiter, but below the mass of a brown dwarf. We therefore embarked on a radial velocity (RV) study of this binary to determine its system configuration and to check the hypothesis that it hosts a giant planet. From the RV measurements, it became immediately obvious that the same Kepler target contains another eccentric binary, this one with a 16.5-day orbital period. Direct imaging using adaptive optics reveals that the two binaries are separated by 0.″4 (˜167 AU) and have nearly the same magnitude (to within 2%). The close angular proximity of the two binaries and very similar γ velocities strongly suggest that KIC 7177553 is one of the rare SB4 systems consisting of two eccentric binaries where at least one system is eclipsing. Both systems consist of slowly rotating, nonevolved, solar-like stars of comparable masses. From the orbital separation and the small difference in γ velocity, we infer that the period of the outer orbit most likely lies in the range of 1000-3000 yr. New images taken over the next few years, as well as the high-precision astrometry of the Gaia satellite mission, will allow us to set much narrower constraints on the system geometry. Finally, we note that the observed ETVs in the Kepler data cannot be produced by the second binary. Further spectroscopic observations on a longer timescale will be required to prove the existence of the massive planet.

  12. The Evolutionary Outcomes of Expansive Binary Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.

    2016-10-01

    Singly synchronous binary asteroid systems have several evolutionary end-states, which depend heavily on the BYORP effect. In the case of expansive BYORP, the binary system could evolve to become a wide asynchronous binary system (Jacobson, et al 2014), or the system could expand far enough to become disrupted to form a heliocentric pair (Vokrouhlicky et al 2008). Cuk et al (2011) found that upon expanding the secondary will quickly become asynchronous, and will end up re-establishing synchronous rotation with the opposite attitude, causing the binary orbit to subsequently contract. The distinction between these outcomes depends on whether the secondary asteroid stays synchronized, which keeps the BYORP effect active and the orbit expanding. As the orbit expands, the secondary libratation will expand, and the libration will also causes large variations in the binary orbit due to the elongation of the secondary. If the eccentricity and libration are bound to small enough values the system can expand significantly. This work discusses the stability of the libration and orbital motion as a binary expands from a wide variety of simulation runs with various parameters. We investigate how the strength of tides and BYORP change the stability of the librational motion; an important factor is the speed of BYORP expansion as slower expansion allows tides to have a more stabilizing effect. We also investigate the effect of heliocentric orbit semimajor axis and eccentricity. We find that resonances between the coupled orbit-libration frequencies and the heliocentric orbit cause instability in the binary orbit eccentricity which produces a strong preference for wide binary production, especially amongst retrograde binary systems. This instability also becomes stronger with large heliocentric eccentricities. Prograde binaries are more stable and can possible grow to become asteroid pairs. We find that even in the presence of tides, reestablishment of synchronous spin into a

  13. Orbital Architectures of Planet-Hosting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Kraus, Adam; Isaacson, Howard T.; Mann, Andrew; Ireland, Michael; Howard, Andrew; Huber, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    We present the first results from our Keck AO astrometric monitoring of Kepler planet-hosting binary systems. Observational biases in exoplanet discovery have long left the frequency, properties, and provenance of planets in most binary systems largely unconstrained. Recent results from our ongoing survey of a volume-limited sample of Kepler planet hosts indicate that binary companions at solar-system scales of 20-100 AU suppress the occurrence of planetary systems at a rate of 30-100%. However, some planetary systems do survive in binaries, and determining these systems' orbital architectures is key to understanding why. As a demonstration of this new approach to testing ideas of planet formation, we present a detailed analysis of the triple star system Kepler-444 (HIP 94931) that hosts five Ganymede- to Mars-sized planets. By combining our high-precision astrometry with radial velocities from HIRES and computational dynamical modeling, we discover an unexpected orbital architecture for this multi-planet, triple-star system. Finally, we preview results from our full statistical sample, such as tests of coplanarity between binary and planet orbits in single versus multi-planet systems.

  14. Mergers of Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    We present results from fully relativistic simulations of binary neutron star mergers varying the tabular equation of state used to approximate the degenerate material and the mass ratio. The simulations incorporate both magnetic fields and the effects of neutrino cooling. In particular, we examine the amount and properties of material ejected from the merger. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  15. A quintuple star system containing two eclipsing binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, S.; Lehmann, H.; Kalomeni, B.; Borkovits, T.; Latham, D.; Bieryla, A.; Ngo, H.; Mawet, D.; Howell, S.; Horch, E.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Sódor, Á.; Vanderburg, A.; Pavlovski, K.

    2016-10-01

    We present a quintuple star system that contains two eclipsing binaries. The unusual architecture includes two stellar images separated by 11 arcsec on the sky: EPIC 212651213 and EPIC 212651234. The more easterly image (212651213) actually hosts both eclipsing binaries which are resolved within that image at 0.09 arcsec, while the westerly image (212651234) appears to be single in adaptive optics (AO), speckle imaging, and radial velocity (RV) studies. The `A' binary is circular with a 5.1-d period, while the `B' binary is eccentric with a 13.1-d period. The γ velocities of the A and B binaries are different by ˜10 km s-1. That, coupled with their resolved projected separation of 0.09 arcsec, indicates that the orbital period and separation of the `C' binary (consisting of A orbiting B) are ≃65 yr and ≃25 au, respectively, under the simplifying assumption of a circular orbit. Motion within the C orbit should be discernible via future RV, AO, and speckle imaging studies within a couple of years. The C system (i.e. 212651213) has an RV and proper motion that differ from that of 212651234 by only ˜1.4 km s-1 and ˜3 mas yr-1. This set of similar space velocities in three dimensions strongly implies that these two objects are also physically bound, making this at least a quintuple star system.

  16. Near-Contact Binaries (NCB): Close Binary Systems in a Key Evolutionary Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.

    2007-08-01

    Short-period eclipsing binary systems with EB-type light variations are interesting objects for understanding the evolutionary changes undergone by close binaries. As investigated by many authors (Kalużny, J., Yamasaki, A., Zhai, D. S, Zhang, X. B Hilditch, R. W., McFarlane, T. M, King, D. J, Shaw, J. S., Samec, R. G., Niarchos, P. G., Oh, Kyu-Dong. etc ), a majority of them belong to an important subclass of close binaries called near-contact binaries (NCBs). According to the geometric definition of this subclass, NCBs actually comprise semi-detached, marginal-contact, and marginal-detached systems. They can be in the intermediate stage between detached or semi-detached state and contact state. Therefore, NCBs are the important observational targets which may be lying in key evolutionary states. In this paper, we observed and investigated several NCBs (BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi, GSC3658-0076, UU Lyn, AS Ser, IR Cas, EP Aur). Our results show that the orbital periods of BL And, GW Tau, RU UMi and UU Lyn are decreasing while that of IR Cas is decreasing and oscillating. The mechanisms that could explain the period variations are discussed. Combining the photometric solutions with period variations of these systems, we divide them into four types: BL And is a semi-detached system with the lobe filling primary, RU UMi and EP Aur are the semi-detached system with the lobe filling secondary, GW Tau, UU Lyn and AS Ser are the marginal contact system while GSC3658-0076 is the marginal detached system. Finally, the evolutionary stage of each system is discussed and some statistical relations of NCBs are presented.

  17. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L N; Akeson, Rachel

    2014-07-31

    Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process. PMID:25079553

  18. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L N; Akeson, Rachel

    2014-07-31

    Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process.

  19. Planetary Dynamics and Evolution in Evolved Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai; Kratter, K.; Kenyon, S.

    2011-09-01

    Exo-planets typically form in protoplanetary disks left over from the formation of their host star. We discuss additional evolutionary routes which may may exist in old evolved binary systems. Stellar evolution in binaries could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and (partially) transferred to its binary companion, forming an accretion disk. Planetary orbits around the mass losing star can expand and destabilize, and may result in chaotic evolution. Possible outcomes include exchange of the planet to the companion star, ejection, collision, or tidal capture by one of the binary components. We show that the conditions in the newly formed accretion disk could be very similar to protoplanetary disks. Planets around the accreting companion may interact with the disk, leading to (re)growth and (re)migration of the planets. The disk may also provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing planets and/or planetesimals may serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets. Such systems should be found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various unique observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environments which are unfavorable for first generation planets. The phase space available for these planets could be forbidden (unstable) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. Planets may also form in double compact object binaries and in metal poor environments. Observations of exo-planets in such unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems (Gl 86, HD 27442 and observed circumbinary planet candidates). A second generation origin for these systems could explain their unique configurations.

  20. Relating binary-star planetary systems to central configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    Binary-star exoplanetary systems are now known to be common, for both wide and close binaries. However, their orbital evolution is generally unsolvable. Special cases of the N-body problem which are in fact completely solvable include dynamical architectures known as central configurations. Here, I utilize recent advances in our knowledge of central configurations to assess the plausibility of linking them to coplanar exoplanetary binary systems. By simply restricting constituent masses to be within stellar or substellar ranges characteristic of planetary systems, I find that (i) this constraint reduces by over 90 per cent the phase space in which central configurations may occur, (ii) both equal-mass and unequal-mass binary stars admit central configurations, (iii) these configurations effectively represent different geometrical extensions of the Sun-Jupiter-Trojan-like architecture, (iv) deviations from these geometries are no greater than 10°, and (v) the deviation increases as the substellar masses increase. This study may help restrict future stability analyses to architectures which resemble exoplanetary systems, and might hint at where observers may discover dust, asteroids and/or planets in binary-star systems.

  1. VERITAS Observations of Gamma-ray Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, Jamie; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray emitting binary systems constitute a small fraction of the high-energy catalogue, with only five objects confirmed to emit photons above 100 GeV. They comprise a compact object (black hole or neutron star) and a high-mass stellar companion, with gamma-ray emission arising as the result of particle acceleration within the system. The details of how and where this acceleration takes place, and the mechanisms which modulate the subsequent emission, remain unclear. We report here on recent observations of gamma-ray binary systems with the VERITAS observatory.

  2. Orbital Architectures of Planet-Hosting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuy, Trent J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first results from our Keck AO astrometric monitoring of Kepler Prime Mission planet-hosting binary systems. Observational biases in exoplanet discovery have long left the frequency, properties, and provenance of planets in most binary systems largely unconstrained. Recent results from our ongoing survey of a volume-limited sample of Kepler planet hosts indicate that binary companions at solar-system scales of 20-100 AU suppress the occurrence of planetary systems at a rate of 30-100%. However, some planetary systems do survive in binaries, and determining these systems' orbital architectures is key to understanding why. As a demonstration of this new approach to testing ideas of planet formation, we present a detailed analysis of the triple star system Kepler-444 (HIP 94931) that hosts five Ganymede- to Mars-sized planets. By combining our high-precision astrometry with radial velocities from HIRES we discover a highly eccentric stellar orbit that would have made this a seemingly hostile site for planet formation. This either points to an extremely robust and efficient planet formation mechanism or a rare case of favorable initial conditions. Such broader implications will be addressed by determining orbital architectures for our larger statistical sample of Kepler planet-hosting systems that have stellar companions on solar system scales.

  3. Hydrodynamic Simulations of Close and Contact Binary Systems using Bipolytropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    I will present the results of hydrodynamic simulations of close and contact bipolytropic binary systems. This project is motivated by the peculiar case of the red nova, V1309 Sco, which is indeed a merger of a contact binary. Both the stars are believed to have evolved off the main sequence by the time of the merger and possess a small helium core. In order to represent the binary accurately, I need a core-envelope structure for both the stars. I have achieved this using bipolytropes or composite polytropes. For the simulations, I use an explicit 3D Eulerian hydrodynamics code in cylindrical coordinates. I will discuss the evolution and merger scenarios of systems with different mass ratios and core mass fractions as well as the effects due to the treatment of the adiabatic exponent.

  4. Supernovae in Binary Systems: An Application of Classical Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitalas, R.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the supernova explosion in a binary system as an application of classical mechanics. This presentation is intended to illustrate the power of the equivalent one-body problem and provide undergraduate students with a variety of insights into elementary classical mechanics. (HM)

  5. The new Wolf-Rayet binary system WR62a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.

    2013-04-01

    Context. A significant number of the Wolf-Rayet stars seem to be binary or multiple systems, but the nature of many of them is still unknown. Dedicated monitoring of WR stars favours the discovery of new systems. Aims: We explore the possibility that WR62a is a binary system. Methods: We analysed the spectra of WR62a, obtained between 2002 and 2010, to look for radial-velocity and spectral variations that would suggest there is a binary component. We searched for periodicities in the measured radial velocities and determined orbital solutions. A period search was also performed on the "All-Sky Automated Survey" photometry. Results: We find that WR62a is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a WN5 primary star and an O 5.5-6 type secondary component in orbit with a period of 9.1447 d. The minimum masses range between 21 and 23 M⊙ for the WN star and between 39 and 42 M⊙ for the O-type star, thus indicating that the WN star is less massive than the O-type component. We detect a phase shift in the radial-velocity curve of the He ii λ4686 emission line relative to the other emission line curves. The equivalent width of this emission line shows a minimum value when the WN star passes in front of the system. The analysis of the ASAS photometry confirms the spectroscopic periodicity, presenting a minimum at the same phase.

  6. Binary system parameters and the hibernation model of cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Shara, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    The hibernation model, in which nova systems spend most of the time between eruptions in a state of low mass transfer rate, is examined. The binary systems more likely to undergo hibernation are determined. The predictions of the hibernation scenario are shown to be consistent with available observational data. It is shown how the hibernation scenario provides links between classical novae, dwarf novae, and novalike variables, all of which represent different stages in the cyclic evolution of the same systems. 72 references.

  7. Mass transfer in binary X-ray systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccray, R.; Hatchett, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of X-ray heating on gas flows in binary X-ray systems is examined. A simple estimate is obtained for the evaporative wind flux from a stellar atmosphere due to X-ray heating which agrees with numerical calculations by Alme and Wilson (1974) but disagrees with calculations by Arons (1973) and by Basko and Sunyaev (1974) for the Her X-1/HZ Her system. The wind flux is sensitive to the soft X-ray spectrum. The self-excited wind mechanism does not work. Mass transfer in the Hercules system probably occurs by flow of the atmosphere of HZ Her through the gravitational saddle point of the system. The accretion gas stream is probably opaque with atomic density of not less than 10 to the 15th power per cu cm and is confined to a small fraction of 4(pi) steradians. Other binary X-ray systems are briefly discussed.

  8. Orbital Motions in Binary Protostellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L. F.

    2004-08-01

    Using high-resolution ( ˜ 0to z @. hss ''1), multi-epoch Very Large Array observations, we have detected orbital motions in several low-luminosity protobinary systems in the Taurus and ρ Ophiuchus molecular complexes. The masses obtained from Kepler's third law are of the order of 0.5 to 2 M⊙, as expected for such low-mass protostars. The relatively large bolometric luminosities of these young systems corroborates the notion that protostars obtain most of their luminosity from accretion and not from nuclear reactions. In addition, in one of the sources studied (a multiple system in Taurus), a low-mass young star has shown a drastic change in its orbit after a close approach with another component of the system, presumed to be a double star. The large proper motion achieved by this low mass protostar (20 km s-1), suggests an ejection from the system.

  9. Segregation of Fluidized Binary Hard-Sphere Systems Under Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soon-Chul

    We have derived an analytic expression for the contact value of the local density of binary hard-sphere systems under gravity. We have obtained the crossover conditions for the Brazil-nut type segregation of binary hard-sphere mixtures and binary hard-sphere chain mixtures from the segregation criterion, where the segregation occurs when the density (or the pressure) of the small spheres at the bottom is higher than that of the large spheres, or vice versa. For the binary hard-sphere chain mixtures, the crossover condition for the segregation depends on the number of monomers composed of hard-sphere chains as well as the mass and the diameter of each species. The fundamental-measure theories (FMTs) and local density approximation (LDA) are employed to examine the crossover condition for the segregation of the gravity-induced hard-sphere mixtures. The calculated results show that the LDA does not explain the density oscillation near the bottom, whereas the modified fundamental-measure theory (MFMT) compares with molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. The evolution of highly compact binary stellar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, P. C.; Webbink, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A new theoretical treatment of the evolution of highly compact binary systems is presented. The evolution is calculated until almost the entire mass of the secondary has been transferred to the primary or lost from the system. It is assumed that gravitational radiation from the system is the cause of mass transfer. It is found that the structure of the mass-losing star can be approximated by an n = 3/2 polytrope, and as a result a relatively large number of different cases can be explored and some general conclusions drawn. An explanation is found for the existence of a cutoff in the orbital period distribution among the cataclysmic variables and light is shed upon the possible generic relationships among cataclysmic variables, the low-mass X-ray binaries, and the spectrally soft transient X-ray sources.

  11. Formation and Evolution of Hypernova Progenitors in Massive Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joss, P. C.; Becker, J. A.

    If long γ-ray bursts are produced by hypernovae, a problem that must be confronted is how the core of the hypernova progenitor retains or acquires sufficient angular momentum to produce the requisite axisymmetric collapse. Physical processes during the evolution of an isolated massive star will tend to extract any initial angular momentum from the stellar core, rendering it difficult for such a star to become a hypernova. However, a substantial fraction of massive stars are members of binary systems. Tidal locking, mass transfer, or stellar merger in an evolved massive binary may lead to the transfer of orbital angular momentum to the core of one of the stars (or the merged star), sufficient to produce the progenitor of a hypernova. We have developed a new binary stellar-evolution code that includes the effects of mass and angular-momentum transfer between the component stars and the subsequent transport of angular momentum through one of the stars. This transport is affected by dynamical and secular shear instabilities, convective motions, the critical layer instability, and gravity waves. Our code treats in a self-consistent way the dynamical distortion of the star resulting from the induced rapid differential rotation. The results of our numerical computations indicate that late main-sequence or early post-mainsequence accretion from a binary companion onto a star with an initial mass ≥ 20M⊙ may produce a stellar core that is rotating sufficiently rapidly when it collapses to provide the initial conditions necessary for a hypernova event. Our results also indicate that the merger of a late post-main-sequence star with its binary companion, as considered by Ivanova, Podsiadlowski & Spruit (2002), may also lead to a hypernova event in the stellar core but is unlikely to produce an observable γ-ray burst.

  12. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIV. A Statistical Analysis of 46 Sample Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2015-09-01

    A sample of 46 deep, low mass ratio (DLMR) overcontact binaries (i.e., q≤slant 0.25 and f≥slant 50%) is statistically analyzed in this paper. It is found that five relations possibly exist among some physical parameters. The primary components are little-evolved main sequence stars that lie between the zero-age main sequence line and the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) line. Meanwhile, the secondary components may be evolved stars above the TAMS line. The super-luminosities and large radii may result from energy transfer, which causes their volumes to expand. The equations of M-L and M-R for the components are also determined. The relation of P-Mtotal implies that mass may escape from the central system when the orbital period decreases. The minimum mass ratio may preliminarily be {q}{min}=0.044(+/- 0.007) from the relations of q-f and q-Jspin/Jorb. With mass and angular momentum loss, the orbital period decreases, which finally causes this kind of DLMR overcontact binary to merge into a rapid-rotating single star.

  13. Applicability of Dynamic Facilitation Theory to Binary Hard Disk Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Masaharu; Keys, Aaron S.; Chandler, David; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2016-09-01

    We numerically investigate the applicability of dynamic facilitation (DF) theory for glass-forming binary hard disk systems where supercompression is controlled by pressure. By using novel efficient algorithms for hard disks, we are able to generate equilibrium supercompressed states in an additive nonequimolar binary mixture, where microcrystallization and size segregation do not emerge at high average packing fractions. Above an onset pressure where collective heterogeneous relaxation sets in, we find that relaxation times are well described by a "parabolic law" with pressure. We identify excitations, or soft spots, that give rise to structural relaxation and find that they are spatially localized, their average concentration decays exponentially with pressure, and their associated energy scale is logarithmic in the excitation size. These observations are consistent with the predictions of DF generalized to systems controlled by pressure rather than temperature.

  14. Kepler eclipsing binary stars. IV. Precise eclipse times for close binaries and identification of candidate three-body systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Kyle E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Prša, Andrej; Orosz, Jerome A.; Welsh, William F.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-02-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. This study complements J. A. Orosz et al. (in preparation), which focuses on eclipse timing variations of longer period binaries with flat out-of-eclipse regions. Together, these two papers provide comprehensive eclipse timings for all binaries in the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog, as an ongoing resource freely accessible online to the community.

  15. Stability of a planet in the HD 41004 binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyal, S.; Musielak, Z. E.

    2016-03-01

    The Hill stability criterion is applied to analyse the stability of a planet in the binary star system of HD 41004 AB, with the primary and secondary separated by 22 AU, and masses of 0.7 M_⊙ and 0.4 M_⊙, respectively. The primary hosts one planet in an S-type orbit, and the secondary hosts a brown dwarf (18.64 M_J) on a relatively close orbit, 0.0177 AU, thereby forming another binary pair within this binary system. This star-brown dwarf pair (HD 41004 B+Bb) is considered a single body during our numerical calculations, while the dynamics of the planet around the primary, HD 41004 Ab, is studied in different phase-spaces. HD 41004 Ab is a 2.6 M_J planet orbiting at the distance of 1.7 AU with orbital eccentricity 0.39. For the purpose of this study, the system is reduced to a three-body problem and is solved numerically as the elliptic restricted three-body problem (ERTBP). The {Hill stability} function is used as a chaos indicator to configure and analyse the orbital stability of the planet, HD 41004 Ab. The indicator has been effective in measuring the planet's orbital perturbation due to the secondary star during its periastron passage. The calculated Hill stability time series of the planet for the coplanar case shows the stable and quasi-periodic orbits for at least ten million years. For the reduced ERTBP the stability of the system is also studied for different values of planet's orbital inclination with the binary plane. Also, by recording the planet's {ejection time} from the system or {collision time} with a star during the integration period, stability of the system is analysed in a bigger phase-space of the planet's orbital inclination, ≤ 90o, and its semimajor axis, 1.65-1.75 AU. Based on our analysis it is found that the system can maintain a stable configuration for the planet's orbital inclination as high as 65o relative to the binary plane. The results from the Hill stability criterion and the planet's dynamical lifetime map are found to be

  16. On the Nb-Ge Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Utton, Claire; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2015-12-01

    First-principles calculations were used to study intermetallic compounds in the Nb-Ge system, to gain a better understanding of the phase diagram and resolve conflicts reported in the literature. The enthalpy of formation with regard to temperature was calculated for all the intermetallic compounds, to investigate phase stabilities and phase equilibria at low and elevated temperatures. These results, combined with the electronic DOS, suggest that the tI32 (W5Si3-type) Nb5Ge3 and NbGe2 compounds are stable over the whole temperature range. The stoichiometric cP8 Nb3Ge becomes stable close to its melting temperature. Regarding different compositions of the cP8 Nb3Ge, the calculations suggest the (Nb)0.75(Nb,Ge)0.25 model for the Nb3Ge phase instead of the proposed model, (Nb)0.75(Nb,Ge,Va)0.25, where Va represents vacancy. The calculations show that the tI32 (Cr5B3-type) Nb5Ge3, hP16 (Mn5Si3-type) Nb5Ge3 and Nb10Ge7 compounds should be considered metastable. The elastic constants, bulk, shear, and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and Debye temperature of the Nb, Ge, cP8 Nb3Ge, tP32 Nb3Ge, tI32 (Cr5B3-type) Nb5Ge3, tI32 (W5Si3-type) Nb5Ge3, hP16 (Mn5Si3-type) Nb5Ge3, Nb10Ge7 and NbGe2 were calculated. These phases were found to be mechanically stable. Using the Cauchy pressure, Pugh's index of ductility, and the Poisson's ratio as criteria, the calculations suggest that the tI32 (Cr5B3-type) Nb5Ge3 and NbGe2 intermetallics should be brittle (with the latter being the most brittle) and the cP8 Nb3Ge, tP32 Nb3Ge, hP16 Nb5Si3 and Nb10Ge7 ductile (with cP8 Nb3Ge being the most ductile).

  17. Phase equilibrium behavior of the carbon dioxide + benzophenone binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Tarantino, D.E.; Kohn, J.P.; Brennecke, J.F. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Phase equilibrium behavior of various binary CO[sub 2] + hydrocarbon mixtures has been studied by many researchers, providing data which are useful in the design of economically attractive separation processes using carbon dioxide as a solvent. Pressure, liquid-phase composition, and liquid-phase molar volumes are presented for the binary vapor-liquid system CO[sub 2] + benzophenone at 25, 35, and 50 C. Also, pressure, liquid-phase compositions, and liquid-phase molar volumes on the S[sub 1]-L[sub 1]-V curve and L[sub 1]-L[sub 2]-V curve are presented. The termination points of these loci are located and characterized.

  18. Photometric study of the binary system NN Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Forrellad, J. M.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.; Corbera-Subirana, M.; GarcÍa-Melendo, E.; Vidal-Sainz, J.

    We present the results of the differential V light curve analysis of NN Del. We show that NN Del is an EA eclipsing binary system with a period of 99.27 days and a highly eccentric orbit. Photometric solutions obtained using the Russell and the Wilson-Devinney models seem to indicate that both components are very similar in radii and luminosities (assuming a F5 spectral type). Constraints imposed on the V luminosity of the system by the HIPPARCOS data suggest that the components of the system could be subgiants instead of main sequence stars.

  19. CLOSE STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS BY GRAZING ENVELOPE EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Soker, Noam

    2015-02-20

    I suggest a spiral-in process in which a stellar companion grazes the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, forming a close binary system. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of 'just entering a common envelope (CE) phase.' In cases where this process takes place, it can be an alternative to CE evolution where the secondary star is immersed in the giant's envelope. Grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accrete mass at a high rate and launches jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE. The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk launching jets which efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. The orbital decay itself is caused by the gravitational interaction of the secondary star with the envelope inward of its orbit, i.e., dynamical friction (gravitational tide). Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accretion rate, with peaks lasting from months to years, might lead to a bright object referred to as the intermediate luminosity optical transient (Red Novae; Red Transients). A bipolar nebula and/or equatorial ring are formed around the binary remnant.

  20. Searching Planets Around Some Selected Eclipsing Close Binary Stars Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiroglu, Ilham; Slowikowska, Agnieszka; Krzeszowski, Krzysztof; Zejmo, M. Michal; Er, Hüseyin; Goździewski, Krzysztof; Zola, Stanislaw; Koziel-Wierzbowska, Dorota; Debski, Bartholomew; Ogloza, Waldemar; Drozdz, Marek

    2016-07-01

    We present updated O-C diagrams of selected short period eclipsing binaries observed since 2009 with the T100 Telescope at the TUBITAK National Observatory (Antalya, Turkey), the T60 Telescope at the Adiyaman University Observatory (Adiyaman, Turkey), the 60cm at the Mt. Suhora Observatory of the Pedagogical University (Poland) and the 50cm Cassegrain telescope at the Fort Skala Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland. All four telescopes are equipped with sensitive, back-illuminated CCD cameras and sets of wide band filters. One of the targets in our sample is a post-common envelope eclipsing binary NSVS 14256825. We collected more than 50 new eclipses for this system that together with the literature data gives more than 120 eclipse timings over the time span of 8.5 years. The obtained O-C diagram shows quasi-periodic variations that can be well explained by the existence of the third body on Jupiter-like orbit. We also present new results indicating a possible light time travel effect inferred from the O-C diagrams of two other binary systems: HU Aqr and V470 Cam.

  1. Photometric Analysis of the Contact Binary System V829 Hercules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkardeş, B.; Erdem, A.

    2007-05-01

    New BVR light curves and photometric analysis of the contact binary star V829 Her are presented. The light curves were obtained at the çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Observatory in 2005. All the times of minimum light were collected and combined with the new ones presented in this work. The variation of the orbital period of the system was then analysed. Sinusoidal and secular changes were found. These variations were examined in terms of two plausible mechanisms, namely (i) mass transfer, and (ii) a light-time effect due to an unseen component in the system. The instrumental differential magnitudes of the system were converted into standard magnitudes. So, we calculate BVR standard magnitudes of the system and obtain the mean color indices of B-V=0.59±0.01 for V829 Her, which indicates the spectral type of the system to be G0-1. The light curves are generally those of contact binaries, but there are large asymmetries between maxima. New BVR light curves and radial velocity curves available from the literature were analysed, simultaneously. Light curve asymmetries of the system were explained in terms of a large dark starspot on the more massive component. Absolute parameters of the system were also derived.

  2. Observation of asteroids with GRAVITY - Physical characterization of binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Delbo, M.; Carry, B.; Tanga, P.

    2014-12-01

    Density and internal structures are among the most important characteristics of asteroids, yet these properties are also some of the least known. For distant asteroids (in the Main Belt and beyond) these properties were up to now accessible only for the largest (>100 km in size) asteroids. Going to smaller and fainter asteroids can revolutionize our understanding because we will be sampling a new regime in physical properties. Here we discuss how ground-based optical interferometry with the GRAVITY instrument can be used to observe the motion of asteroid satellites to determine the mass of small binary systems. Following the expected sensitivity performances in K-band of GRAVITY, we present a sample of binary targets potentially observable in single-field mode. The feasibility of such observations will strongly be dependent on the ability of the control software of GRAVITY to track objects moving at high rate on the sky (differential motion ˜f 10 mas.s^{-1}). Although the dual-field mode could allow to increase the sample of small binary asteroids observable, it seems to be currently unfeasible given the high differential motion of asteroids.

  3. SELF-REGULATED SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Sim, S. A. E-mail: s.sim@qub.ac.uk

    2013-04-20

    In an early-type, massive star binary system, X-ray bright shocks result from the powerful collision of stellar winds driven by radiation pressure on spectral line transitions. We examine the influence of the X-rays from the wind-wind collision shocks on the radiative driving of the stellar winds using steady-state models that include a parameterized line force with X-ray ionization dependence. Our primary result is that X-ray radiation from the shocks inhibits wind acceleration and can lead to a lower pre-shock velocity, and a correspondingly lower shocked plasma temperature, yet the intrinsic X-ray luminosity of the shocks, L{sub X}, remains largely unaltered, with the exception of a modest increase at small binary separations. Due to the feedback loop between the ionizing X-rays from the shocks and the wind driving, we term this scenario as self-regulated shocks. This effect is found to greatly increase the range of binary separations at which a wind-photosphere collision is likely to occur in systems where the momenta of the two winds are significantly different. Furthermore, the excessive levels of X-ray ionization close to the shocks completely suppress the line force, and we suggest that this may render radiative braking less effective. Comparisons of model results against observations reveal reasonable agreement in terms of log (L{sub X}/L{sub bol}). The inclusion of self-regulated shocks improves the match for kT values in roughly equal wind momenta systems, but there is a systematic offset for systems with unequal wind momenta (if considered to be a wind-photosphere collision).

  4. Production of gamma-ray bursts in massive binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joss, Paul C.

    Long γ-ray bursts may be produced by hypernova events in the rapidly rotating cores of massive stars. A serious problem that must be confronted in this scenario is how the core of the hypernova progenitor retains or acquires sufficient angular momentum to produce the requisite axisymmetric collapse. Physical processes during the evolution of an isolated massive star will tend to extract any initial angular momentum from the stellar core, rendering it difficult for such a star to become a hypernova. However, a substantial fraction of massive stars are members of binary systems. Tidal locking, mass transfer, and/or stellar merger in an evolved massive binary may transfer orbital angular momentum to the core of one of the stars (or the merged star), sufficient to produce the progenitor of a hypernova. To investigate this issue, we have substantially refined a binary stellar evolution code that we had previously developed. The code includes the effects of mass and angular momentum transfer between the component stars and the subsequent transport of angular momentum through one of the stars. This transport is effected by dynamical and secular shear instabilities, convective motions, the critical layer instability, and gravity waves. Our code treats in a self-consistent way the dynamical distortion of the star resulting from the induced rapid differential rotation. The results of numerical computations with our refined code indicate that late main-sequence or early post-main-sequence accretion from a binary companion onto a star with an initial mass greater than ˜ 20 solar masses produces a rapidly rotating core within the accretor. The rotation will often be sufficiently rapid to provide the initial conditions necessary for a hypernova event, and the concomitant emission of a γ-ray burst, when the core collapses. We also find that the merger of a late post-main-sequence star with its binary companion may lead to a hypernova event in the stellar core, but is unlikely

  5. THE AGE AND STELLAR PARAMETERS OF THE PROCYON BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Liebert, James; Arnett, David; Fontaine, Gilles; Young, Patrick A.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: darnett@as.arizona.edu E-mail: pyoung.3@asu.edu

    2013-05-20

    The Procyon AB binary system (orbital period 40.838 yr, a newly refined determination) is near and bright enough that the component radii, effective temperatures, and luminosities are very well determined, although more than one possible solution to the masses has limited the claimed accuracy. Preliminary mass determinations for each component are available from Hubble Space Telescope imaging, supported by ground-based astrometry and an excellent Hipparcos parallax; we use these for our preferred solution for the binary system. Other values for the masses are also considered. We have employed the TYCHO stellar evolution code to match the radius and luminosity of the F5 IV-V primary star to determine the system's most likely age as 1.87 {+-} 0.13 Gyr. Since prior studies of Procyon A found its abundance indistinguishable from solar, the solar composition of Asplund, Grevesse, and Sauval (Z = 0.014) is assumed for the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram fitting. An unsuccessful attempt to fit using the older solar abundance scale of Grevesse and Sauval (Z = 0.019) is also reported. For Procyon B, 11 new sequences for the cooling of non-DA white dwarfs have been calculated to investigate the dependences of the cooling age on (1) the mass, (2) core composition, (3) helium layer mass, and (4) heavy-element opacities in the helium envelope. Our calculations indicate a cooling age of 1.19 {+-} 0.11 Gyr, which implies that the progenitor mass of Procyon B was 2.59{sub -0.26}{sup +0.44} M{sub Sun }. In a plot of initial versus final mass of white dwarfs in astrometric binaries or star clusters (all with age determinations), the Procyon B final mass lies several {sigma} below a straight line fit.

  6. New systemic radial velocities of suspected RR Lyrae binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, E.; Barnes, T. G.; Kolenberg, K.

    2016-05-01

    Among the tens of thousands of known RR Lyrae stars there are only a handful that show indications of possible binarity. The question why this is the case is still unsolved, and has recently sparked several studies dedicated to the search for additional RR Lyraes in binary systems. Such systems are particularly valuable because they might allow to constrain the stellar mass. Most of the recent studies, however, are based on photometry by finding a light time effect in the timings of maximum light. This approach is a very promising and successful one, but it has a major drawback: by itself, it cannot serve as a definite proof of binarity, because other phenomena such as the Blazhko effect or intrinsic period changes could lead to similar results. Spectroscopic radial velocity measurements, on the other hand, can serve as definite proof of binarity. We have therefore started a project to study spectroscopically RR Lyrae stars that are suspected to be binaries. We have obtained radial velocity (RV) curves with the 2.1m telescope at McDonald observatory. From these we derive systemic RVs which we will compare to previous measurements in order to find changes induced by orbital motions. We also construct templates of the RV curves that can facilitate future studies. We also observed the most promising RR Lyrae binary candidate, TU UMa, as no recent spectroscopic measurements were available. We present a densely covered pulsational RV curve, which will be used to test the predictions of the orbit models that are based on the O - C variations.

  7. Colliding winds from early-type stars in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Ian R.; Blondin, John M.; Pollock, A. M. T.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamics of the wind and shock structure formed by the wind collision in early-type binary systems is examined by means of a 2D hydrodynamics code, which self-consistently accounts for radiative cooling, and represents a significant improvement over previous attempts to model these systems. The X-ray luminosity and spectra of the shock-heated region, accounting for wind attenuation and the influence of different abundances on the resultant level and spectra of X-ray emission are calculated. A variety of dynamical instabilities that are found to dominate the intershock region is examined. These instabilities are found to be particularly important when postshock material is able to cool. These instabilities disrupt the postshock flow and add a time variability of order 10 percent to the X-ray luminosity. The X-ray spectrum of these systems is found to vary with the nuclear abundances of winds. These theoretical models are used to study several massive binary systems, in particular V444 Cyg and HD 193793.

  8. The low mass ratio contact binary system V728 Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, N.; Ulaş, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present the orbital period study and the photometric analysis of the contact binary system V728 Her. Our orbital period analysis shows that the period of the system increases (dP / dt = 1.92 ×10-7 dyr-1) and the mass transfer rate from the less massive component to more massive one is 2.51 ×10-8 M⊙y-1 . In addition, an advanced sinusoidal variation in period can be attributed to the light-time effect by a tertiary component or the Applegate mechanism triggered by the secondary component. The simultaneous multicolor BVR light and radial velocity curves solution indicates that the physical parameters of the system are M1 = 1.8M⊙ , M2 = 0.28M⊙ , R1 = 1.87R⊙ , R2 = 0.82R⊙ , L1 = 5.9L⊙ , and L2 = 1.2L⊙ . We discuss the evolutionary status and conclude that V728 Her is a deep (f = 81%), low mass ratio (q = 0.16) contact binary system.

  9. Secular resonances in circumstellar systems in binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazso, A.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Eggl, S.; Funk, B.; Bancelin, D.

    2016-02-01

    Planet formation around single stars is already a complicated matter, but extrasolar planets are also present in binary and multiple star systems. We investigate circumstellar planets in binary star systems with stellar separations below 100 astronomical units. For a selection of 11 systems with at least one detected giant planet we determine the location and extension of the habitable zone (HZ), subject to the incident stellar flux from both stars. We work out the stability of additional hypothetical terrestrial planets in or close to the HZ in these systems. To study the secular dynamics we apply a semi-analytical method. This method employs a first-order perturbation theory to determine the secular frequencies of objects moving under the gravitational influence of two much more massive perturbers. The other part uses a single numerical integration of the equations of motion and a frequency analysis of the obtained time-series to determine the apsidal precession frequencies of the massive bodies. By combining these two parts we are able to find the location of the most important secular resonances and the regions of chaotic motion. We demonstrate that terrestrial planets interior to the giant planet’s orbit may suffer from a linear secular resonance that could prevent the existence of habitable planets. Contrary to this, close-in giant planets are less of a problem, but one has to take into account the general relativistic precession of the pericenter that can also lead to resonances.

  10. Study of the sailboat stable region for binaries systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfair, Rafael; Vieira Neto, Ernesto; Villa Espinoza, Omar Jose; Francisco Lins Leal Pinheiro, Tiago

    2016-10-01

    Before the visit of the New Horizons mission, Giuliatti Winter et al. (2013) through numerical simulations analysed the Pluto-Charon system looking for possible stable regions. Among their results it was found a peculiar stable region located at a = (0.5d, 0.7d) and e = (0.2, 0.9), being a, d and e the values of semimajor axis, Pluto-Charon's distance and the eccentricity, respectively. In this work we explore in details the variation of the size and shape of this region for different binaries systems, considering several parameters for the massive bodies and initial conditions of the test particles. We first created hypothetical systems with different mass ratio (μ) and then we numerically integrated the orbit of test particles for a time span of 104 orbital periods of the binary. Our results show that the existence of the sailboat is limited to μ=(0.05, 0.27) and small changes in the eccentricity of the secondary body are enough to decrease substantially the extend of the stable region. However, the sailboat is robust to changes in the inclination of the particles and the region exists even for retrograde orbits. We also found a larger extend of the sailboat for intervals of pericentre ω around 0° and 180°, but the size of the interval varies with the mass ratio of system.

  11. Properties of the components in young binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitas, Jens

    1999-10-01

    Using near-infrared speckle-interferometry we have obtained resolved JHK-photometry for the components of 58 young binary systems. By placing the components into a color-color diagram we identify some unusual red objects that are candidates for infrared companions or substellar objects. We place a subsample that consists of the components of 14 weak-lined TTS systems (where no significant circumstellar excess emission is expected) into a color-magnitude diagram and show that in all these systems the components are coeval within the uncertainties. Particularly this is the case for the triple system HBC 358. Using the J-magnitude as an indicator for the stellar luminosity, the optical spectral type of the system and the previously justified assumption that all components are coeval we can place the components into the HRD and derive their masses by comparison with theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks. The results are the following: The distribution of mass ratios is neither clustered towards M2 / M1 = 1 nor is it a function of the primary's mass or the components' projected separation. Comparison of these results with predictions of theoretical multiple star formation models suggests that most of the systems have formed by fragmentation during protostellar collapse, and that the components' masses are principally determined by fragmentation and not by the following accretion processes. Furthermore the infrared source HV Tau C is discussed using new observational data. We show that this source is no Herbig-Haro object, but an active T Tauri star. So the HV Tau-system does not impose a problem on current models of T Tauri stars and their environment. From relative positions of the components at different epochs we derive their relative velocities and show that in most close systems orbital motion can be proved. The analysis of this orbital motion leads to an empirical mass estimate for T Tauri-stars which is larger than the masses one would expect from the

  12. Revisiting the O'Connell Effect in Eclipsing Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilsey, Nicholas J.; Beaky, Mathew M.

    2009-05-01

    Many eclipsing binary light curves exhibit a feature known as the O'Connell effect, where the two out-of-eclipse maxima are unequally high. The effect is entirely unexpected, because the two side-by-side configurations of the components should appear equally bright from our line of sight. Several theories have been proposed to explain the effect, including asymmetrically distributed starspots, clouds of circumstellar dust and gas, or a hot spot caused by the impact of a mass-transferring gas stream. Currently, most published models of systems with asymmetric maxima incorporate starspots to rectify their models to fit the observational data. However, the limitations of starspot solutions, as well as other possible explanations for the asymmetry, are rarely discussed. In order to revitalize the study the O'Connell effect, the astronomy program at Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri has initiated a project to construct complete BVRI light curves of poorly studied eclipsing binary systems exhibiting the O'Connell effect, including V573 Lyr and UV Mon. We are also exploring methods of applying Fourier analysis to large, all-sky databases to extract correlations that may help to evaluate competing theories for explaining the effect.

  13. HIGH FILL-OUT, EXTREME MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. X. THE NEWLY DISCOVERED BINARY XY LEONIS MINORIS

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.; Bernasconi, L. E-mail: yygcn@163.com

    2011-05-15

    The newly discovered short-period close binary star, XY LMi, has been monitored photometrically since 2006. Its light curves are typical EW-type light curves and show complete eclipses with durations of about 80 minutes. Photometric solutions were determined through an analysis of the complete B, V, R, and I light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney code. XY LMi is a high fill-out, extreme mass ratio overcontact binary system with a mass ratio of q = 0.148 and a fill-out factor of f = 74.1%, suggesting that it is in the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binary stars. As observed in other overcontact binary stars, evidence for the presence of two dark spots on both components is given. Based on our 19 epochs of eclipse times, we found that the orbital period of the overcontact binary is decreasing continuously at a rate of dP/dt = -1.67 x 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be caused by mass transfer from the primary to the secondary and/or angular momentum loss via magnetic stellar wind. The decrease of the orbital period may result in the increase of the fill-out, and finally, it will evolve into a single rapid-rotation star when the fluid surface reaches the outer critical Roche lobe.

  14. Thermal expansion of solid solutions in apatite binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Knyazev, Alexander V.; Bulanov, Evgeny N. Korokin, Vitaly Zh.

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Thermal dependencies of volume thermal expansion parameter for with thermal expansion diagrams for Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F{sub x}Cl{sub 1−x}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions in three apatitic binary systems were investigated via HT-XRD. • Thermal expansion coefficients of solid solutions in the systems were calculated. • Features of the thermal deformation of the apatites were described. • Termoroentgenography is a sensitive method for the investigation of isomorphism. - Abstract: High-temperature insitu X-ray diffraction was used to investigate isomorphism and the thermal expansion of apatite-structured compounds in three binary systems in the entire temperature range of the existence of its hexagonal modifications. Most of the studied compounds are highly expandable (α{sub l} > 8 × 10{sup 6} (K{sup −1})). In Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F–Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl system, volume thermal expansion coefficient is independence from the composition at 573 K. In Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl–Pb{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl, the compound with equimolar ratio of substituted atoms has constant volume thermal expansion coefficient in temperature range 298–973 K. Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl–Pb{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl system is characterized by the most thermal sensitive composition, in which there is an equal ratio of isomorphic substituted atoms.

  15. Be discs in binary systems - I. Coplanar orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panoglou, Despina; Carciofi, Alex C.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Cyr, Isabelle H.; Jones, Carol E.; Okazaki, Atsuo T.; Rivinius, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Be stars are surrounded by outflowing circumstellar matter structured in the form of decretion discs. They are often members of binary systems, where it is expected that the decretion disc interacts both radiatively and gravitationally with the companion. In this work we study how various orbital (period, mass ratio and eccentricity) and disc (viscosity) parameters affect the disc structure in coplanar binaries. The main effects of the secondary on the disc are its truncation and the accumulation of material inwards of truncation. We find two limiting cases with respect to the effects of eccentricity: in circular or nearly circular prograde orbits, the disc maintains a rotating, constant in shape, configuration, which is locked to the orbital phase. The disc structure appears smaller in size, more elongated and more massive for small viscosity parameter, small orbital separation and/or high mass ratio. In highly eccentric orbits, the effects are more complex, with the disc structure strongly dependent on the orbital phase. We also studied the effects of binarity in the disc continuum emission. Since the infrared and radio SED are sensitive to the disc size and density slope, the truncation and matter accumulation result in considerable modifications in the emergent spectrum. We conclude that binarity can serve as an explanation for the variability exhibited in observations of Be stars, and that our model can be used to detect invisible companions.

  16. Glass transition and mixing thermodynamics of a binary eutectic system.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wenkang; Chen, Zeming; Gao, Yanqin; Li, Zijing; Zhang, Yaqi; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun; Wang, Li-Min

    2014-02-28

    A quantitative evaluation of the contribution of mixing thermodynamics to glass transition is performed for a binary eutectic benzil and m-nitroaniline system. The microcalorimetric measurements of the enthalpy of mixing give small and positive values, typically ~200 J mol(-1) for the equimolar mixture. The composition dependence of the glass transition temperature, T(g), is found to show a large and negative deviation from the ideal mixing rule. The Gordon-Taylor and Couchman-Karasz models are subsequently applied to interpret the T(g) behavior, however, only a small fraction of the deviation is explained. The analyses of the experimental results manifest quantitatively the importance of the mixing thermodynamics in the glass transition in miscible systems.

  17. PG 1346+082 - An interacting binary white dwarf system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.

    1987-01-01

    PG 1346+082 is both a photometric and a spectroscopic variable, spanning the B-magnitude range 13.6-17.2. High-speed photometric data reveal rapid flickering in the low-state light curve. The system also shows spectroscopic variations, displaying broad shallow He I absorption lines at maximum light and a weak emission feature at He I (4471 A) at minimum light. Hydrogen lines are conspicuous by their absence. Is is concluded that PG 1346+082 is an interacting binary white dwarf system. Furthermore, because continuum fits to IUE high-state data suggest temperatures consistent with membership in the DB white dwarf instability strip, it is suggested that some of the photometric variations may arise from pulsations.

  18. Flux distribution in the Algol binary system RW Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobias, Jan J.; Plavec, Mirek J.

    1987-01-01

    IUE low-dispersion spectra and optical TIS scans of the Algol-type binary system RW Persei show that the primary has a spectrral type of B9.6 and that it is a Be star. The cooler component has a spectral type that is less accurately determined to as K2 III-IV, and it is probably a star of very low mass. The system is heavily reddened, with an E(B-V) color excess of 0.40 + or - 0.05 mag. The present results suggest that the hotter component is actually an opticaly thick accretion disk. The expected W Serpentis-type emission lines are not found in the UV spectrum near mideclipse, although two very broad emissions and several weaker ones seem to be present.

  19. Orbital period variation of the eclipsing binary system TT Herculis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selam, S. O.; Albayrak, B.

    2007-02-01

    % New photoelectric U BV observations were obtained for the eclipsing binary TT Her at the Ankara University Observatory (AUO) and three new times of minima were calculated from these observations. The (O-C) diagram constructed for all available times of minima of TT Her exhibits a cyclic character superimposed on a quadratic variation. The quadratic character yields an orbital period decrease with a rate of dP/dt=-8.83×10-8 day yr-1 which can be attributed to the mass exchange/loss mechanism in the system. By assuming the presence of a gravitationally bound third body in the system, the analysis of the cyclic nature in the (O-C) diagram revealed a third body with a mass of 0.21 M\\sun orbiting around the eclipsing pair. The possibility of magnetic activity cycle effect as a cause for the observed cyclic variation in the (O-C) diagram was also discussed.

  20. The Impact of Stellar Multiplicity on Planetary Systems. I. The Ruinous Influence of Close Binary Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Adam L.; Ireland, Michael J.; Huber, Daniel; Mann, Andrew W.; Dupuy, Trent J.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamical influence of binary companions is expected to profoundly influence planetary systems. However, the difficulty of identifying planets in binary systems has left the magnitude of this effect uncertain; despite numerous theoretical hurdles to their formation and survival, at least some binary systems clearly host planets. We present high-resolution imaging of 382 Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) obtained using adaptive-optics imaging and nonredundant aperture-mask interferometry on the Keck II telescope. Among the full sample of 506 candidate binary companions to KOIs, we super-resolve some binary systems to projected separations of <5 au, showing that planets might form in these dynamically active environments. However, the full distribution of projected separations for our planet-host sample more broadly reveals a deep paucity of binary companions at solar-system scales. For a field binary population, we should have found 58 binary companions with projected separation ρ < 50 au and mass ratio q > 0.4 we instead only found 23 companions (a 4.6σ deficit), many of which must be wider pairs that are only close in projection. When the binary population is parametrized with a semimajor axis cutoff a cut and a suppression factor inside that cutoff S bin, we find with correlated uncertainties that inside {a}{cut}={47}-23+59 au, the planet occurrence rate in binary systems is only {S}{bin}={0.34}-0.15+0.14 times that of wider binaries or single stars. Our results demonstrate that a fifth of all solar-type stars in the Milky Way are disallowed from hosting planetary systems due to the influence of a binary companion.

  1. The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit.

    PubMed

    Touma, Jihad R; Sridhar, S

    2015-08-27

    Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S-type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations can be large, perhaps forced gravitationally by the binary companion. Earlier work on single planet systems appealed to the Kozai-Lidov instability wherein a sufficiently inclined binary orbit excites large-amplitude oscillations in the planet's eccentricity and inclination. The instability, however, can be quenched by many agents that induce fast orbital precession, including mutual gravitational forces in a multiplanet system. Here we report that orbital precession, which inhibits Kozai-Lidov cycling in a multiplanet system, can become fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion. Resonant binary forcing results in dramatic outcomes ranging from the excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption. Processes such as planetary migration can bring an initially non-resonant system into resonance. As it does not require special physical or initial conditions, binary resonant driving is generic and may have altered the architecture of many multiplanet systems. It can also weaken the multiplanet occurrence rate in wide binaries, and affect planet formation in close binaries. PMID:26310763

  2. The disruption of multiplanet systems through resonance with a binary orbit.

    PubMed

    Touma, Jihad R; Sridhar, S

    2015-08-27

    Most exoplanetary systems in binary stars are of S-type, and consist of one or more planets orbiting a primary star with a wide binary stellar companion. Planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations can be large, perhaps forced gravitationally by the binary companion. Earlier work on single planet systems appealed to the Kozai-Lidov instability wherein a sufficiently inclined binary orbit excites large-amplitude oscillations in the planet's eccentricity and inclination. The instability, however, can be quenched by many agents that induce fast orbital precession, including mutual gravitational forces in a multiplanet system. Here we report that orbital precession, which inhibits Kozai-Lidov cycling in a multiplanet system, can become fast enough to resonate with the orbital motion of a distant binary companion. Resonant binary forcing results in dramatic outcomes ranging from the excitation of large planetary eccentricities and mutual inclinations to total disruption. Processes such as planetary migration can bring an initially non-resonant system into resonance. As it does not require special physical or initial conditions, binary resonant driving is generic and may have altered the architecture of many multiplanet systems. It can also weaken the multiplanet occurrence rate in wide binaries, and affect planet formation in close binaries.

  3. The binary system containing the classical Cepheid T Mon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Lyons, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    Several new results are presented for the binary system containing the 27(sup d) classical Cepheid T Mon. New radial velocities for the Cepheid have been obtained, which confirm the decreasing orbital motion at the current epoch. The spectral type of the companion (B9.8 V) has been determined from an International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) low resolution spectrum. An IUE high resolution spectrum has been measured to search for the velocity of the companion. A velocity signal at +36 km/s on JD 2,446,105.21 has been tentatively identified as the velocity of the companion, but confirmation of this velocity would be very valuable. Results based on this tentative identification of the velocity are that the companion does not have a high projected rotation velocity, that the companion is unlikely to be a short period binary, and that the gamma velocity of the system is between 20 and 36 km/s. The luminosity and temperature of both the Cepheid and the companion are well determined from the satellite and ground-based observations and the Cepheid PLC relation. However, the companion is above the ZAMS in the H-R diagram, which is inconsistent with the large luminosity difference between the two stars. High rotation for the companion (viewed pole-on) is a possible explanation. The lower limit to the mass function (from the lower limits to the orbital period and amplitude) requires a very high eccentricity for the system for reasonable estimates for the masses of the two stars.

  4. An investigation of the eclipsing binary star system, CK Bootes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershon, Kae Pearson

    Photoelectrically observed light curves of the eclipsing binary star system CK Bootes was obtained using the sixteen inch reflecting telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. The data was gathered during June of 1983. A total of 258, 240, and 240 usable observations were obtained in ultraviolet, blue, and visual light respectively, corresponding to the colors in the (UBV) system of Johnson and Morgan (ApJ.117,313,1953). Computer programs were written to reduce the data to light curves. The primary eclipse was found to be a transit. The light curves were reduced to system parameters using three methods of analysis; the Russell - Merrill Method, the Wood Model, (WINK), and the Wilson-DeVinney Model. The results from these models were then compared. The parameters of the systems were found, and they were compared between the three models. The system was found to be a very close system, only about four stellar radii apart. Mass streaming was indicated by the light curve. The derived parameters suggested that the larger star had filled its Roche Lobe, and it was spilling mass onto the smaller and brighter star. This, combined with a mass ratio about equal one, indicated that the system consists of one unevolved star and one star just beginning to evolve.

  5. Compact Objects In Binary Systems: Formation and Evolution of X-ray Binaries and Tides in Double White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, Francesca

    Binary star systems hosting black holes, neutron stars, and white dwarfs are unique laboratories for investigating both extreme physical conditions, and stellar and binary evolution. Black holes and neutron stars are observed in X-ray binaries, where mass accretion from a stellar companion renders them X-ray bright. Although instruments like Chandra have revolutionized the field of X-ray binaries, our theoretical understanding of their origin and formation lags behind. Progress can be made by unravelling the evolutionary history of observed systems. As part of my thesis work, I have developed an analysis method that uses detailed stellar models and all the observational constraints of a system to reconstruct its evolutionary path. This analysis models the orbital evolution from compact-object formation to the present time, the binary orbital dynamics due to explosive mass loss and a possible kick at core collapse, and the evolution from the progenitor's Zero Age Main Sequence to compact-object formation. This method led to a theoretical model for M33 X-7, one of the most massive X-ray binaries known and originally marked as an evolutionary challenge. Compact objects are also expected gravitational wave (GW) sources. In particular, double white dwarfs are both guaranteed GW sources and observed electromagnetically. Although known systems show evidence of tidal deformation and a successful GW astronomy requires realistic models of the sources, detached double white dwarfs are generally approximated to point masses. For the first time, I used realistic models to study tidally-driven periastron precession in eccentric binaries. I demonstrated that its imprint on the GW signal yields constrains on the components' masses and that the source would be misclassified if tides are neglected. Beyond this adiabatic precession, tidal dissipation creates a sink of orbital angular momentum. Its efficiency is strongest when tides are dynamic and excite the components' free

  6. Energy distribution in the strongly interacting binary system SX Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.; Weiland, J. L.; Koch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    IUE spectra and optical scans covering the 110-680 nm interval were obtained in a search for a source which would resolve the anomalous presence of strong Balmer emission lines in the SX Cas eclipsing binary system, which is inconsistent with the usual spectral classification of the components as A6 III + G6 III. The IUE spectra unexpectedly show such strong emission lines as those of C IV, N V and Si IV, which require higher temperatures that the already anomalously high Balmer lines, and a continuum several magnitudes higher than the extrapolated continuum of an A6 star. A model in which the UV continuum originates in the transition zone between the A6 star and an accretion disk fails to reproduce the observed energy distribution. A revision of component spectral types to B7 + K3 III removes the UV excess.

  7. Hybridizing Gravitationl Waveforms of Inspiralling Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Torrey; LIGO Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves are ripples in space and time and were predicted to be produced by astrophysical systems such as binary neutron stars by Albert Einstein. These are key targets for Laser Interferometer and Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), which uses template waveforms to find weak signals. The simplified template models are known to break down at high frequency, so I wrote code that constructs hybrid waveforms from numerical simulations to accurately cover a large range of frequencies. These hybrid waveforms use Post Newtonian template models at low frequencies and numerical data from simulations at high frequencies. They are constructed by reading in existing Post Newtonian models with the same masses as simulated stars, reading in the numerical data from simulations, and finding the ideal frequency and alignment to ``stitch'' these waveforms together.

  8. Second derivative in the model of classical binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubekerov, M. K.; Gostev, N. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    We have obtained an analytical expression for the second derivatives of the light curve with respect to geometric parameters in the model of eclipsing classical binary systems. These expressions are essentially efficient algorithm to calculate the numerical values of these second derivatives for all physical values of geometric parameters. Knowledge of the values of second derivatives of the light curve at some point provides additional information about asymptotical behaviour of the function near this point and can significantly improve the search for the best-fitting light curve through the use of second-order optimization method. We write the expression for the second derivatives in a form which is most compact and uniform for all values of the geometric parameters and so make it easy to write a computer program to calculate the values of these derivatives.

  9. Precipitation Modeling in Nitriding in Fe-M Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomio, Yusaku; Miyamoto, Goro; Furuhara, Tadashi

    2016-10-01

    Precipitation of fine alloy nitrides near the specimen surface results in significant surface hardening in nitriding of alloyed steels. In this study, a simulation model of alloy nitride precipitation during nitriding is developed for Fe-M binary system based upon the Kampmann-Wagner numerical model in order to predict variations in the distribution of precipitates with depth. The model can predict the number density, average radius, and volume fraction of alloy nitrides as a function of depth from the surface and nitriding time. By a comparison with the experimental observation in a nitrided Fe-Cr alloy, it was found that the model can predict successfully the observed particle distribution from the surface into depth when appropriate solubility of CrN, interfacial energy between CrN and α, and nitrogen flux at the surface are selected.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of binary surfactant/contaminant/water systems.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Zahra; Mousavi-Khoshdel, S Morteza; Gharibi, Hussein; Hashemianzadeh, Seyed Majid; Javadian, Sohaila

    2012-06-01

    Surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER) is an effective approach for the removal of absorbed hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) from contaminated soils. The solubilization of contaminants by mixed surfactants with attractive and repulsive head-head interactions was studied by measuring the micelle-water partition coefficient (K(C)) and molar solubilization ratio (MSR) using the lattice Monte Carlo method. The effect of surfactant mixing on the MSR and K(C) of contaminants displayed the following trend: C₄ > C₃ > C₂. Synergistic binary surfactant mixtures showed greater solubilization capacities for contaminants than the corresponding individual surfactants. Mixed micellization parameters, including the interaction parameter β, and activity coefficient f(i), were evaluated with Rubingh's approach. Synergistic mixed-surfactant systems can improve the performance of surfactant-enhanced remediation of soils and groundwater by decreasing the amount of applied surfactant and the cost of remediation.

  11. The FUSE Survey of Algol-Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Andersson, B.; Ake, T. B.; Sankrit, R.

    2006-12-01

    A survey of Algol binaries at random phases is currently being carried through with the FUSE spacecraft as part of the FUSE survey and supplemental program. A similar program was undertaken in FUSE Cycle 3. Both programs have produced multiple observations of 12 Algol systems with periods ranging from 1.2 37 d and include direct-impact and disk systems. We report on the status of the program. The absence of O VI absorption in the systems observed to date allows us to place an upper limit on the column density and temperature of the High Temperature Accretion Region, HTAR ( 100,000 K) confirmed in some Algols from earlier IUE data. The HTAR plasma component appears to be distinct from an O VI-emitting polar plasma discovered in FUSE totality observations of RY Per, V356 Sgr, and TT Hya. New observations of the direct-impact system U Cep have provided more information on the geometry and mass flow (including a splash plasma) in the vicinity of a hot spot at phase 0.90 that was discovered earlier. The extent of disk asymmetries in the long period ( 33 d) systems SX Cas and RX Cas is discussed. Models for direct-impact and the disk systems will be presented. The authors appreciate support from NASA grants NAG5-12253, NNG04GL17G, and NAS5-32985.

  12. A millisecond pulsar in an extremely wide binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Stappers, B. W.; Tauris, T. M.; Wevers, T.; Jonker, P. G.; Lentati, L.; Verbiest, J. P. W.; Desvignes, G.; Graikou, E.; Guillemot, L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Lazarus, P.; Caballero, R. N.; Champion, D. J.; Cognard, I.; Jessner, A.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Kramer, M.; Lazaridis, K.; Lee, K. J.; Liu, K.; Lyne, A. G.; McKee, J.; Osłowski, S.; Perrodin, D.; Sanidas, S.; Shaifullah, G.; Smits, R.; Theureau, G.; Tiburzi, C.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-08-01

    We report on 22 yr of radio timing observations of the millisecond pulsar J1024-0719 by the telescopes participating in the European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA). These observations reveal a significant second derivative of the pulsar spin frequency and confirm the discrepancy between the parallax and Shklovskii distances that has been reported earlier. We also present optical astrometry, photometry and spectroscopy of 2MASS J10243869-0719190. We find that it is a low-metallicity main-sequence star (K7V spectral type, [M/H] = -1.0, Teff = 4050 ± 50 K) and that its position, proper motion and distance are consistent with those of PSR J1024-0719. We conclude that PSR J1024-0719 and 2MASS J10243869-0719190 form a common proper motion pair and are gravitationally bound. The gravitational interaction between the main-sequence star and the pulsar accounts for the spin frequency derivatives, which in turn resolves the distance discrepancy. Our observations suggest that the pulsar and main-sequence star are in an extremely wide (Pb > 200 yr) orbit. Combining the radial velocity of the companion and proper motion of the pulsar, we find that the binary system has a high spatial velocity of 384 ± 45 km s-1 with respect to the local standard of rest and has a Galactic orbit consistent with halo objects. Since the observed main-sequence companion star cannot have recycled the pulsar to millisecond spin periods, an exotic formation scenario is required. We demonstrate that this extremely wide-orbit binary could have evolved from a triple system that underwent an asymmetric supernova explosion, though find that significant fine-tuning during the explosion is required. Finally, we discuss the implications of the long period orbit on the timing stability of PSR J1024-0719 in light of its inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.

  13. Optical Studies of model binary miscibility gap system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Witherow, W. K.; Facemire, B. R.; Nishioka, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop a better understanding of separation processes in binary miscibility gap metal alloys, model transparent fluid systems were studied. The system selected was diethylene glycol-ethyl salicylate which has convenient working temperatures (288 to 350 K), low toxicity, and is relatively easy to purify. The system is well characterized with respect to its phase diagram, density, surface and interfacial tensions, viscosity and other pertinent physical properties. Studies of migration of the dispersed phase in a thermal gradient were performed using conventional photomicroscopy. Velocities of the droplets of the dispersed phase were measured and compared to calculated rates which included both Stokes and thermal components. A holographic microscopy system was used to study growth, coalescence, and particle motions. Sequential holograms allowed determination of particle size distribution changes with respect to time and temperature. Holographic microscopy is capable of recording particle densities up to 10 to the 7th power particles/cu cm and is able to resolve particles of the order of 2 to 3 microns in diameter throughout the entire volume of the test cell. The reconstructed hologram produces a wavefront that is identical to the original wavefront as it existed when the hologram was made. The reconstructed wavefront is analyzed using a variety of conventional optical methods.

  14. Influence of rotation on BN separation in binary particle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ping; Wang, Shuang; Xie, Ziang; Huang, Yuming; Tong, Lige; Zhang, Peikun; Yin, Shaowu; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Li

    2013-06-01

    Granular particles systems under vertical vibration exhibit Brazilian Nut separation (BN), Reversed BN (RBN) separation or transitional phases at different vibrating conditions. In the present work, we investigate the influence of rotation on the BN separation of a binary granular particle system by changing rotational speed. 13X molecular sieve particles with diameter 6.00 mm and 0.60 mm are used. Vibration frequency f is 30 Hz and dimensionless acceleration Γ is 1.52 or 1.75, in which the particle system mainly exhibits BN separation tendency. Rotational speed ω varies from 0 to 150rpm, while the upper surface of the particle system maintains flat. We took the pictures of the particles distribution and measured the particles mass layer by layer to obtain the 3-D distribution of the particles. The results show that rotation enhances the BN separation tendency at slow rotational speed. The BN separation becomes strongest when ω is approximately 50rpm, then the BN separation tendency reduces as ω continues to increase. A butterfly pattern appears in the middle particles layer under the simultaneous stimulations of vibration and rotation.

  15. Third post-Newtonian gravitational waveforms for compact binary systems in general orbits: Instantaneous terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Chandra Kant; Arun, K. G.; Iyer, Bala R.

    2015-04-01

    We compute the instantaneous contributions to the spherical harmonic modes of gravitational waveforms from compact binary systems in general orbits up to the third post-Newtonian (PN) order. We further extend these results for compact binaries in quasielliptical orbits using the 3PN quasi-Keplerian representation of the conserved dynamics of compact binaries in eccentric orbits. Using the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, starting from the different mass and current-type multipole moments, we compute the spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the instantaneous part of the gravitational waveform. These are terms which are functions of the retarded time and do not depend on the history of the binary evolution. Together with the hereditary part, which depends on the binary's dynamical history, these waveforms form the basis for construction of accurate templates for the detection of gravitational wave signals from binaries moving in quasielliptical orbits.

  16. Properties of the components in close T Tauri binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woitas, Jens; Leinert, Christoph

    Using near-infrared speckle-interferometry we have obtained resolved JHK-photometry for the components of T Tauri binary systems. By placing the components into a color-color diagram we identify some unusually red objects that are candidates for infrared companions or substellar objects. We place a subsample that consists of the components of 17 WTTS systems (where no significant circumstellar excess emission is expected) into a color-magnitude diagram and show that in almost all of these systems the components are coeval within the uncertainties. Particularly this is the case for the triple system HBC 358. We use the J-magnitude as an indicator for the stellar luminosity and assign the optical spectral type of the system to the primary. Together with the previously justified assumption that all components are coeval we can place them independently into the HRD and derive their masses by comparison with theoretical pre-main sequence evolutionary tracks. The results are the following: The distribution of mass ratios is flat and is neither a function of the primary's mass nor the components' projected separation. Comparison of these results with predictions of theoretical multiple star formation models suggests that most of the systems have formed by fragmentation during protostellar collapse. From relative positions of the components in 34 systems at different epochs we derive their relative velocities and show that in most close systems orbital motion can be proved. The analysis of this orbital motion leads to an empirical mass estimate for T Tauri-stars which is larger than the masses one would expect from the HRD.

  17. Phase equilibria in the neodymium–cadmium binary system

    PubMed Central

    Skołyszewska-Kühberger, Barbara; Reichmann, Thomas L.; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The equilibrium phase diagram of the neodymium–cadmium system has been established by thermal, metallographic and X-ray analysis based on a study of 70 alloys. The system contains three congruently melting intermetallic compounds, i.e. NdCd (1040 °C), NdCd2 (995 °C), Nd11Cd45 (855 °C), and four incongruently melting compounds NdCd3 (860 °C), Nd13Cd58 (740 °C), NdCd6 (655 °C) and NdCd11 (520 °C). Four eutectic reactions are found in this binary system, i.e. at ∼25 at.% Cd and 770 °C, at 58 at.% Cd and 955 °C, at 79 at.% Cd and 850 °C, and very close to pure Cd at 318 °C, as well as one eutectoid reaction at ∼15 at.% Cd and 500 °C. The solid solubility of Nd in Cd is negligible. Dilatometric curves were recorded for three Nd–Cd compositions up to 4 at.% Cd, to accurately determine phase transitions between the solid solutions of Cd in the low- and high-temperature modification of Nd. PMID:25197164

  18. Modulated gamma-ray emission from compact millisecond pulsar binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.

    2014-01-01

    Context. A significant number of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been discovered within binary systems. Tens of these MSPs emit γ-rays that are modulated with the pulsar period since this emission is produced in the inner pulsar magnetosphere. In several such binary systems, the masses of the companion stars have been derived allowing two classes of objects to be distinguished, which are called the black widow and the redback binaries. Pulsars in these binary systems are expected to produce winds that create conditions for acceleration of electrons, when colliding with stellar winds. These electrons should interact with the anisotropic radiation from the companion stars producing γ-ray emission modulated with the orbital period of the binary system, similar to what is observed in the massive TeV γ-ray binary systems. Aims: We consider the interaction of a MSP wind with a very inhomogeneous stellar wind from the companion star within binary systems of the black widow and redback types. Our aim is to determine the features of γ-ray emission produced in the collision region of the winds from a few typical MSP binary systems. Methods: It is expected that the pulsar wind should mix efficiently with the inhomogeneous stellar wind. The mixed winds move outside the binary with relatively low velocity. Electrons accelerated in such mixed, turbulent winds can interact with the magnetic field and strong radiation from the companion star, producing not only synchrotron radiation but also γ-rays in the inverse Compton process, fluxes of which are expected to be modulated on the periods of the binary systems. Applying numerical methods, we calculated the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectra and the light curves expected from some MSP binary systems. Results: Gamma-ray emission, produced within the binary systems, is compared with the sensitivities of the present and future gamma-ray telescopes. It is concluded that energetic MSP binary systems create a new class of TeV

  19. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element.

  20. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H P; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068

  1. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068

  2. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H P; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element.

  3. Evolution of the symbiotic binary system AG Dranconis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Kenyon, Scott J; Mikolajewski, Maciej; Garcia, Michael R.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-01-01

    We present an analysis of new and archival photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic star AG Draconis. This binary has undergone several 1 - 3 mag optical and ultraviolet eruptions during the past 15 years. Our combination of optical and ultraviolet spectroscopic data allow a more complete analysis of this system than in previous papers. AG Dra is composed of a K-type bright giant M(sub g) approximately 1.5 solar mass) and a hot, compact star M(sub h approximatelly 0.4 - 0.6 solar mass) embedded in a dense, low metallicity nebula. The hot component undergoes occasional thermonuclear runaways that produce 2 - 3 mag optical/ultraviolet eruptions. During these eruptions, the hot component develops a low velocity wind that quenches x-ray emission from the underlying hot white dwarf. The photoionized nebula changes its volume by a factor of 5 throughout an eruptin cycle. The K bright giant occults low ionization emission lines during superior conjunctions at all outburst phases but does not occult high ionization lines in outburst (and perhaps quiescence). This geometry and the component masses suggest a system inclination of i approximately 30 deg - 45 deg.

  4. Solving integral equations for binary and ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nader Lotfollahi, Mohammad; Modarress, Hamid

    2002-02-01

    Solving integral equations is an effective approach to obtain the radial distribution function (RDF) of multicomponent mixtures. In this work, by extending Gillan's approach [M. J. Gillan, Mol. Phys. 38(6), 1781 (1979)], the integral equation was solved by numerical method and was applied to both binary and ternary mixtures. The Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential function was used to express the pair molecular interactions in calculating the RDF and chemical potential. This allowed a comparison with available simulation data, on the RDF and the chemical potential, since the simulation data have been reported for the LJ potential function. The RDF and the chemical potential results indicated good agreement with the simulation data. The calculations were extended to the ternary system and the RDFs for carbon dioxide-octane-naphthalene were obtained. The numerical method used in solving integral equation was rapidly convergent and not sensitive to the first estimation. The method proposed in this work can be easily extended to more than the three-component systems.

  5. A binary system in the Kuiper Belt: 1998_WW31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian

    2002-07-01

    1998_WW31 is the first Kuiper Belt Object, outside the pair Pluto/Charon, to be discovered as a binary object. Though only preliminary results are available from two orbits of HST DDT observation when this proposal is submitted, the pair exhibits a very high eccentricity {larger than 0.5} and a period of 570 days. The purpose of this proposal is to complete the monitoring of the pair on a full orbit, up to February 2003. Monitoring will then have to cease {Sun too close}. The binarity of an asteroid allows the determination of the total mass of the system and provides important information on the past Kuiper Belt environment {formation/collisions/capture processes}. If size can be obtained from albedo determination, the mass will give the density, a key parameter for any study of the origin and evolution of the Kuiper Belt. Hubble's unparalleled resolution provides the unique way to acquire observations of the pair good enough to access the physical characteristics of this system with a high degree of confidence, as the high eccentricity of the orbit keeps the two components less than 1 arc-second apart for most of the orbit. The observations would be made public immediately to allow the continuation of the education program offering to follow the pair on a regular basis to illustrate the prediction/verification iterative process of science and the direct use of simple laws for the determination of key parameters.

  6. Life and light: exotic photosynthesis in binary and multiple-star systems.

    PubMed

    O'Malley-James, J T; Raven, J A; Cockell, C S; Greaves, J S

    2012-02-01

    The potential for Earth-like planets within binary/multiple-star systems to host photosynthetic life was evaluated by modeling the levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) such planets receive. Combinations of M and G stars in (i) close-binary systems; (ii) wide-binary systems, and (iii) three-star systems were investigated, and a range of stable radiation environments were found to be possible. These environmental conditions allow for the possibility of familiar, but also more exotic, forms of photosynthetic life, such as IR photosynthesizers and organisms that are specialized for specific spectral niches.

  7. MILLIONS OF MULTIPLES: DETECTING AND CHARACTERIZING CLOSE-SEPARATION BINARY SYSTEMS IN SYNOPTIC SKY SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Riddle, Reed; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Kraus, Adam L.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Sullivan, Mark

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to Almost-Equal-To 1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1 Degree-Sign to 4 Degree-Sign (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize {approx}450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than m{sub R} = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  8. Millions of Multiples: Detecting and Characterizing Close-separation Binary Systems in Synoptic Sky Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terziev, Emil; Law, Nicholas M.; Arcavi, Iair; Baranec, Christoph; Bloom, Joshua S.; Bui, Khanh; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chorida, Pravin; Das, H. K.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kraus, Adam L.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, Peter; Ofek, Eran O.; Punnadi, Sujit; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Riddle, Reed; Sullivan, Mark; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.

    2013-06-01

    The direct detection of binary systems in wide-field surveys is limited by the size of the stars' point-spread functions (PSFs). A search for elongated objects can find closer companions, but is limited by the precision to which the PSF shape can be calibrated for individual stars. Based on a technique from weak-lensing analysis, we have developed the BinaryFinder algorithm to search for close binaries by using precision measurements of PSF ellipticity across wide-field survey images. We show that the algorithm is capable of reliably detecting binary systems down to ≈1/5 of the seeing limit, and can directly measure the systems' position angles, separations, and contrast ratios. To verify the algorithm's performance we evaluated 100,000 objects in Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) wide-field-survey data for signs of binarity, and then used the Robo-AO robotic laser adaptive optics system to verify the parameters of 44 high-confidence targets. We show that BinaryFinder correctly predicts the presence of close companions with a <11% false-positive rate, measures the detected binaries' position angles within 1° to 4° (depending on signal-to-noise ratio and separation), and separations within 25%, and weakly constrains their contrast ratios. When applied to the full PTF data set, we estimate that BinaryFinder will discover and characterize ~450,000 physically associated binary systems with separations <2 arcsec and magnitudes brighter than mR = 18. New wide-field synoptic surveys with high sensitivity and sub-arcsecond angular resolution, such as LSST, will allow BinaryFinder to reliably detect millions of very faint binary systems with separations as small as 0.1 arcsec.

  9. The photometric investigation of the newly discovered W UMa type binary system GSC 03122-02426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, B.

    2016-10-01

    The B V Rc Ic bands light curves of the newly discovered binary system GSC 03122-02426 are obtained and analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code. The solutions suggest that the mass ratio of the binary system is q = 2.70 and the less massive component is 422 K hotter than the more massive one. We conclude that GSC 03122-02426 is a W-subtype shallow contact (with a contact degree of f = 15.3 %) binary system. It may be a newly formed contact binary system which is just under geometrical contact and will evolve to be a thermal contact binary system. The high orbital inclination (i = 81 .6∘) implies that GSC 03122-02426 is a total eclipsing binary system and the photometric parameters obtained by us are quite reliable. We also estimate the absolute physical parameters of the two components in GSC 03122-02426, which will provide fundamental information for the research of contact binary systems. The formation and evolutionary scenario of GSC 03122-02426 is discussed.

  10. Magnetised winds in single and binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Colin

    2016-07-01

    Stellar winds are fundamentally important for the stellar magnetic activity evolution and for the immediate environment surrounding their host stars. Ionised winds travel at hundreds of km/s, impacting planets and clearing out large regions around the stars called astropheres. Winds influence planets in many ways: for example, by compressing the magnetosphere and picking up atmospheric particles, they can cause significant erosion of a planetary atmosphere. By removing angular momentum, winds cause the rotation rates of stars to decrease as they age. This causes the star's magnetic dynamo to decay, leading to a significant decay in the star's levels of X-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission. Despite their importance, little is currently known about the winds of other Sun-like stars. Their small mass fluxes have meant that no direct detections have so far been possible. What is currently known has either been learned indirectly or through analogies with the solar wind. In this talk, I will review what is known about the properties and evolution of the winds of other Sun-like stars. I will also review wind dynamics in binary star systems, where the winds from both stars impact each other, leading to shocks and compression regions.

  11. Gravitational Radiation Reaction of Inspiralling Compact Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, Michael E.; Will, Clifford M.

    1998-04-01

    We outline a technique for obtaining the spacetime metric and local equations of motion for compact binary systems to high post-Newtonian (PN) order. Our approach is based upon direct integration of the ``relaxed Einstein equations'' (DIRE) and casts its solution as a retarded flat-spacetime integral involving a non-compact source. Although mathematical ambiguities have accompanied similar approaches in the past, we obtain results manifestly free of divergences to high PN orders using a method first introduced by Will and Wiseman(C.M. Will and A.G. Wiseman, Phys. Rev. D 54), 4813 (1996).. To 3.5 PN ((v/c)^7 beyond Newtonian) order we calculate the radiation reaction terms in the equations of motion and compare our results with other treatments (B.R. Iyer and C.M. Will, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70), 113 (1993); Phys. Rev. D 52, 6882 (1995); L. Blanchet, Phys. Rev. D 47, 4392 (1993); ibid. 55 714 (1997). We discuss the status of obtaining the non-dissipative, 3PN terms in the equations of motion.

  12. Discovery of a Binary System in IRAM 04191+1522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2012-03-01

    We present high angular resolution observations of the Class 0 protostar IRAM 04191+1522 using the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA 1.3 mm continuum images reveal within IRAM 04191+1522 two distinct sources with an angular separation of 7farcs8 ± 0farcs2. The two continuum sources are located in the southeast-northwest direction, with total gas masses of ~0.011 M ⊙ and ~0.005 M ⊙, respectively. The southeastern source, associated with an infrared source seen in the Spitzer images, is the well-known Class 0 protostar with a bolometric luminosity of ~0.08 L ⊙. The newly discovered northwestern continuum source is not visible in the Spitzer images at wavelengths from 3.6 to 70 μm and has an extremely low bolometric luminosity (<0.03 L ⊙). Complementary IRAM N2H+ (1-0) data that probe the dense gas in the common envelope suggest that the two sources were formed through the rotational fragmentation of an elongated dense core. Furthermore, comparisons between IRAM 04191+1522 and other protostars suggest that most cores with binary systems formed therein have ratios of rotational energy to gravitational energy βrot > 1%. This is consistent with theoretical simulations and indicates that the level of rotational energy in a dense core plays an important role in the fragmentation process.

  13. Doubled-lined eclipsing binary system KIC~2306740 with pulsating component discovered from Kepler space photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakut, Kadri

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed study of KIC 2306740, an eccentric double-lined eclipsing binary system with a pulsating component.Archive Kepler satellite data were combined with newly obtained spectroscopic data with 4.2\\,m William Herschel Telescope(WHT). This allowed us to determine rather precise orbital and physical parameters of this long period, slightly eccentric, pulsating binary system. Duplicity effects are extracted from the light curve in order to estimate pulsation frequencies from the residuals.We modelled the detached binary system assuming non-conservative evolution models with the Cambridge STARS(TWIN) code.

  14. Cancer-specific binary expression system activated in mice by bacteriophage HK022 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Amer; Spector, Itay; Sogolovsky-Bard, Ilana; Gritsenko, Natalia; Rask, Lene; Mainbakh, Yuli; Zilberstein, Yael; Yagil, Ezra; Kolot, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Binary systems based on site-specific recombination have been used for tumor specific transcription targeting of suicide genes in animal models. In these binary systems a site specific recombinase or integrase that is expressed from a tumor specific promoter drives tumor specific expression of a cytotoxic gene. In the present study we developed a new cancer specific binary expression system activated by the Integrase (Int) of the lambdoid phage HK022. We demonstrate the validity of this system by the specific expression of a luciferase (luc) reporter in human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells and in a lung cancer mouse model. Due to the absence viral vectors and of cytotoxicity the Int based binary system offers advantages over previously described counterparts and may therefore be developed into a safer cancer cell killing system. PMID:27117628

  15. Gravitational radiation from binary systems in alternative metric theories of gravity - Dipole radiation and the binary pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    The generation of gravitational radiation in several currently viable metric theories of gravitation (Brans-Dicke, Rosen, Ni, and Lightman-Lee) is analyzed, and it is shown that these theories predict the emission of dipole gravitational radiation from systems containing gravitationally bound objects. In the binary system PSR 1913 + 16, this radiation results in a secular change in the orbital period of the system with a nominal magnitude of 3 parts in 100,000 per year. The size of the effect is proportional to the reduced mass of the system, to the square of the difference in (self-gravitational energy)/(mass) between the two components of the system, and to a parameter, xi, whose value varies from theory to theory. In general relativity xi equals 0, in Rosen's (1973) theory xi equals -20/3, and in Ni's (1973) theory xi equals -400/3. The current upper limit on such a secular period change is one part in 1 million per year. It is shown that further observations of the binary system that tighten this limit and that establish the masses of the components and the identity of the companion may provide a crucial test of otherwise viable alternatives to general relativity.

  16. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Treiner, C. ); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. )

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  17. WZ CYGNI: A MARGINAL CONTACT BINARY IN A TRIPLE SYSTEM?

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae Woo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Ho-Il; Park, Jang-Ho; Hinse, Tobias Cornelius E-mail: slkim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: hikim@kasi.re.kr E-mail: tobiash@kasi.re.kr

    2011-07-15

    We present new multiband CCD photometry for WZ Cyg made on 22 nights in two observing seasons of 2007 and 2008. Our light-curve synthesis indicates that the system is in poor thermal contact with a fill-out factor of 4.8% and a temperature difference of 1447 K. Including our 40 timing measurements, a total of 371 times of minimum light spanning more than 112 yr were used for a period study. Detailed analysis of the O-C diagram showed that the orbital period has varied by a combination of an upward parabola and a sinusoid. The upward parabola means continuous period increase and indicates that some stellar masses are thermally transferred to the more massive primary star at a rate of about 5.80 x 10{sup -8} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The sinusoidal variation with a period of 47.9 yr and a semi-amplitude of 0.008 days can most likely be interpreted as the light-travel-time effect due to the existence of a low-mass M-type tertiary companion with a projected mass of M{sub 3}sin i{sub 3} = 0.26 M{sub sun}. We examined the evolutionary status of WZ Cyg from the absolute dimensions of the eclipsing pair. It belongs to the marginal contact binary systems before the broken contact phase, consisting of a massive primary star with spectral type F4 and a secondary star with type K1.

  18. Open cluster evolutions in binary system: How they dissolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, R.; Arifyanto, M. I.; Wulandari, H. R. T.

    2014-03-01

    Binarity among stellar clusters in galaxy is such a reality which has been realized for a long time, but still hides several questions and problems to be solved. Some of binary star clusters are formed by close encounter, but the others are formed together from similar womb. Some of them undergo separation process, while the others are in the middle of merger toward common future. The products of merger binary star cluster have typical characteristics which differ from solo clusters, especially in their spatial distribution and their stellar members kinematics. On the other hand, these merger products still have to face dissolving processes triggered by both internal and external factors. In this study, we performed N-body simulations of merger binary clusters with different initial conditions. After merging, these clusters dissolve with greater mass-loss rate because of their angular momentum. These rotating clusters also experience more deceleration caused by external tidal field.

  19. Doublet 2800 MgII in close binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurzadian, G. A.; Perez, M.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the intercomponent ultraviolet emission from binary radio stars is discussed following an examination of observed emission parameters. Observations are used to consider four arguments which suggest that the Mg emission originates in the space between the components of the binary and not in the chromosphere. Parameters examined include the ratio of Mg emission to that of other binaries, the direct variation of emission with brightness strength, the derivation and nature of the radial velocity, and comparisons of absolute luminosities. Emission (A) and absorption (B) streams or clouds generate the emission, and the observed wavelength distortions are caused by B. An examination of the nature of the emission yields both qualitative and quantitative criteria, including the notion of weak ionization of the hydrogen atoms in B clouds relative to the ionization in A clouds.

  20. Evolution of Intermediate and Low Mass Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P

    2005-10-25

    There are a number of binaries, fairly wide and with one or even two evolved giant components, that do not agree very well with conventional stellar evolution: the secondaries are substantially larger (oversized) than they should be because their masses are quite low compared with the primaries. I discuss the possibility that these binaries are former triples, in which a merger has occurred fairly recently in a short-period binary sub-component. Some mergers are expected, and may follow a phase of contact evolution. I suggest that in contact there is substantial transfer of luminosity between the components due to differential rotation, of the character observed by helioseismology in the Sun's surface convection zone.

  1. Dynamics of Satellites in Binary Near-Earth Asteroid Systems: A Study Based on Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Shantanu

    In the past 15 years, three previously unrecognized sub-populations of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have been discovered. About 15% of NEAs are binaries, at least 10% of NEAs are contact binaries, and dozens of asteroid pairs have been identified. Numerous science questions have arisen about the formation and evolution processes of these systems and about the inter-relationships between these groups. Addressing these questions informs us about a wide range of important solar system processes that shape small bodies and planetesimals. Here I have chosen to focus on providing one of the most complete characterizations of a binary system among all known asteroid binaries, and on studying the spin-orbit interactions in this and 8 additional binary systems. One hypothesis that has not been fully explored is the possibility of chaotic rotation of asteroid satellites and the impact that such a state has on the evolution of the binary systems. I examine this problem as well as the possibility of detecting librational motions in synchronous satellites. Because the Arecibo and Goldstone radar systems enable superb characterizations of binaries and NEAs in general, this dissertation makes abundant use of radar data. Radar observations provide images of asteroids at decameter resolution, and these images can be inverted to determine the 3D shapes of the components, which are essential to properly model the system dynamics. Radar data also enable precise determination of the mutual orbit, which is another crucial ingredient. In the first two chapters of the dissertation, I describe the observations and physical characterizations of asteroid 2000~ET70 and binary asteroid 2000 DP107. The characterization of 2000 DP107 includes size, shape, spin, mass, and density of each component, making this binary one of the best-characterized asteroid binary to date. In the last chapter of the dissertation, I describe a computationally efficient fourth-order numerical integrator that I used to

  2. Formation, Evolution, and Population Synthesis of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Donald (Technical Monitor); Rappaport, Saul

    2004-01-01

    During the period September 1, 2002 through August 31, 2003 we have been supported in part by a small NASA 'bridge" grant NAG5-12522 to continue our theoretical investigations of the "Formation, Evolution, and Population Synthesis of Binary Systems Containing Collapsed Stars". This research includes theoretical studies of the formation and evolution of several different types of interacting binary systems containing collapsed stars. Four papers were completed under the auspices of this grant: 1. Theoretical Consideration on the Properties of Accreting Millisecond Pulsars. 2. Accretion Onto Fast X-Ray Pulsars. 3. The Effects of Binary Evolution on the Dynamics of Core Collapse and Neutron-Star.

  3. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems. PMID:23139326

  4. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems.

  5. Flaring Black Hole Accretion Disk in the Binary System V404 Cygni

    NASA Video Gallery

    On June 15, NASA's Swift caught the onset of a rare X-ray outburst from a stellar-mass black hole in the binary system V404 Cygni. Astronomers around the world are watching the event. In this syste...

  6. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  7. Chandra resolves the T Tauri binary system RW Aur

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Güdel, Manuel E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at

    2014-06-20

    RW Aur is a multiple T Tauri system consisting of an early-K type primary (A) and a K5 companion (B) at a separation of 1.''4. RW Aur A drives a bipolar optical jet that is well characterized optically. We present results of a sensitive Chandra observation whose primary objective was to search for evidence of soft extended X-ray emission along the jet, as has been seen for a few other nearby T Tauri stars. The binary is clearly resolved by Chandra and both stars are detected as X-ray sources. The X-ray spectra of both stars reveal evidence for cool and hot plasma. Surprisingly, the X-ray luminosity of the less-massive secondary is at least twice that of the primary and is variable. The disparity is attributed to the primary whose X-ray luminosity is at the low end of the range for classical T Tauri stars of similar mass based on established correlations. Deconvolved soft-band images show evidence for slight outward elongation of the source structure of RW Aur A along the blueshifted jet axis inside the central arcsecond. In addition, a faint X-ray emission peak is present on the redshifted axis at an offset of 1.''2 ± 0.''2 from the star. Deprojected jet speeds determined from previous optical studies are too low to explain this faint emission peak as shock-heated jet plasma. Thus, unless flow speeds in the redshifted jet have been underestimated, other mechanisms such as magnetic jet heating may be involved.

  8. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems.

    PubMed

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-13

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries. PMID:23222523

  9. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems.

    PubMed

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-13

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries.

  10. Formation of the widest binary stars from dynamical unfolding of triple systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2012-12-01

    The formation of very wide binary systems, such as the α Centauri system with Proxima (also known as α Centauri C) separated from α Centauri (which itself is a close binary A/B) by 15,000 astronomical units (1 AU is the distance from Earth to the Sun), challenges current theories of star formation, because their separation can exceed the typical size of a collapsing cloud core. Various hypotheses have been proposed to overcome this problem, including the suggestion that ultrawide binaries result from the dissolution of a star cluster--when a cluster star gravitationally captures another, distant, cluster star. Recent observations have shown that very wide binaries are frequently members of triple systems and that close binaries often have a distant third companion. Here we report N-body simulations of the dynamical evolution of newborn triple systems still embedded in their nascent cloud cores that match observations of very wide systems. We find that although the triple systems are born very compact--and therefore initially are more protected against disruption by passing stars--they can develop extreme hierarchical architectures on timescales of millions of years as one component is dynamically scattered into a very distant orbit. The energy of ejection comes from shrinking the orbits of the other two stars, often making them look from a distance like a single star. Such loosely bound triple systems will therefore appear to be very wide binaries.

  11. Low Mass Ratio Contact Binary Systems HN UMa and II UMa - III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Woo-Baik; Kim, Ho-Il; Kang, Young Woon; Oh, Kyu-Dong

    2006-09-01

    We present newly observed BVRI CCD light curves for low mass ratio contact binaries, HN UMa and II UMa. The absolute dimensions of these objects were obtained by applying the Wilson-Devinney program to previously published spectroscopic analysis and to our observed photometric data. The evolutionary status of all 21 low mass ratio contact binary system including HN UMa and II UMa was then considered. The secondaries of all low mass ratio contact binaries are located below the zero age main sequence in HR diagram. This phenomenon could be explained by mass loss from the secondary component in the low mass contact binary system because even small mass loss affects luminosity decrease in the low mass stars.

  12. New Magnetically Uniaxial Phases in the Samarium, Iron Binary System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Raj

    1995-01-01

    For the first time, films magnets of binary rm Sm_5Fe_{17}, and SmFe_{12}, magnetically uniaxial phases have been sputter synthesized without any addition of a phase stabilizing third element. Perpendicular to the film plane, the room temperature saturation magnetization for highly (002) aligned film samples of SmFe_ {12} phase were measured to be 14.3 +/- 0.5 kG and the estimated anisotropy field was 130 +/- 10 kOe. X-ray diffraction studies, hysterisis loop measurements, composition measurements, and projection of moment calculations allowed to identify the SmFe_{12} phase as ThMn_{12} type tetragonal structure with a = 8.438 +/- 0.006 A, and c = 4.805 +/- 0.006 A. Film samples of this phase were synthesized by depositing the material on preheated substrates. For rm Sm_5Fe_{17} phase, the material was first deposited in amorphous form and subsequently crystallized. rm Sm_5Fe_{17 } film samples were synthesized with record high room temperature coercivity of 14.1 kOe for the two element Sm, Fe system. On nitriding rm Sm _2Fe_{17}, profound changes in magnetic properties have occurred, room temperature inplane coercivity rose from 0.75 kOe to 23 kOe. The rm Sm_2Fe_{17}N_ {x} compound retained its parent structure with the cell volume increase of ~7%. The room temperature coercivity as a function of the Sm concentration reached a maximum value of ~23 kOe at a slightly richer than stoichiometric Sm composition. High anisotropy (002) textured film samples of rm Pr(Fe_{12-y-z},Co_{y},Mo _{z})N_{x}, where y = 0-2.5, and z = 0.4-1.0 compounds were synthesized with so far the highest coercivity of 9.4 kOe. X-ray diffraction data showed that the ThMn_{12} type tetragonal structure was retained with a saturation increase in the cell volume over the first 15 minutes of nitriding time at 750 K. The coercivity reached a maximum for nitriding time of 25 minutes of nitriding time. For rm Pr_{1.04}Fe_{10.36 }Co_{1.16}Mo_{0.44}N _{x} sample measured at 293 K, perpendicular to the

  13. Solid/liquid interfacial free energies in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nason, D.; Tiller, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Description of a semiquantitative technique for predicting the segregation characteristics of smooth interfaces between binary solid and liquid solutions in terms of readily available thermodynamic parameters of the bulk solutions. A lattice-liquid interfacial model and a pair-bonded regular solution model are employed in the treatment with an accommodation for liquid interfacial entropy. The method is used to calculate the interfacial segregation and the free energy of segregation for solid-liquid interfaces between binary solutions for the (111) boundary of fcc crystals. The zone of compositional transition across the interface is shown to be on the order of a few atomic layers in width, being moderately narrower for ideal solutions. The free energy of the segregated interface depends primarily upon the solid composition and the heats of fusion of the component atoms, the composition difference of the solutions, and the difference of the heats of mixing of the solutions.

  14. Database of candidates for RR Lyrae stars in binary systems - RRLyrBinCan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liska, J.; Skarka, M.

    2016-05-01

    A new on-line database with RR Lyrae stars bound in binary systems is presented. Its purpose is to give a quick overview about known and suspected RR Lyrae stars in binaries on the basis of available literature. The first released version of the catalogue contains information about 61 double-star candidates, their orbital periods, method of detection, comments and active links to published papers.

  15. The Planet in the HR 7162 Binary System Discovered by PHASES Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lane, B. F.; Konacki, M.; Burke, B. F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Boss, A. P.; O'Connell, J.; Fekel, F. C.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    The now-completed Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems (PHASES) used phase-referenced long-baseline interferometry to monitor 51 binary systems with 35 micro-arcsecond measurement precision, resulting in the high-confidence detection of a planet in the HR 7162 system. The 1.5 Jupiter mass planet is in a 2 AU orbit around one of the stars, whereas the binary itself has a separation of only 19 AU. Despite the close stellar companion, this configuration is expected to be stable, based on dynamic simulations. In the context of our solar system, this is analogous to a Jovian planet just outside of Mars' orbit, with a second star at the distance of Uranus. If this configuration were present during the period of planet formation, the complex gravitational environment created by the stars would seem to disrupt planet formation mechanisms that require long times to complete (thousands of years or more). While it is possible the arrangement resulted from the planet being formed in another environment (a single star or wider binary) after which the system reached its current state via dynamic interactions (star-planet exchange with a binary, or the binary orbit shrinking by interacting with a passing star), the frequency of such interactions is very low. Because the PHASES search only had the sensitivity to rule out Jovian mass companions in 11 of our 51 systems, yet one such system was found, the result indicates either extreme luck or that there is a high frequency of 20 AU binaries hosting planets. The latter interpretation is supported by previous detections of planets in 5-6 additional 20 AU binaries in other surveys (though with less control over the statistics for determining frequency of occurrence). Thus, there is observational support suggesting that a mechanism for rapid Jovian planet formation occurs in nature.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE MOTION OF AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET IN A BINARY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Plávalová, Eva; Solovaya, Nina A. E-mail: solov@sai.msu.ru

    2013-11-01

    More than 10% of extra-solar planets (EPs) orbit in a binary or multiple stellar system. We investigated the motion of planets revolving in binary systems in the case of the three-body problem. We carried out an analysis of the motion of an EP revolving in a binary system with the following conditions: (1) a planet in a binary system revolves around one of the components (parent star); (2) the distance between the star's components is greater than that between the parent star and the orbiting planet (ratio of the semi-major axes is a small parameter); and (3) the mass of the planet is smaller than the mass of the stars, but is not negligible. The Hamiltonian of the system without short periodic terms was used. We expanded the Hamiltonian in terms of the Legendre polynomial and truncated after the second-order term, depending on only one angular variable. In this case, the solution of the system was obtained and the qualitative analysis of the motion was produced. We have applied this theory to real EPs and compared to the numerical integration. Analyses of the possible regions of motion are presented. It is shown that stable and unstable motions of EPs are possible. We applied our calculations to two binary systems hosting an EP and calculated the possible values for their unknown orbital elements.

  17. THE OCCURRENCE OF WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.

    2014-08-20

    The occurrence of planets in binary star systems has been investigated via a variety of techniques that sample a wide range of semi-major axes, but with a preponderance of such results applicable to planets with semi-major axes less than a few astronomical units. We utilize a new method—the presence or absence of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarf stars—to elucidate the frequency in main sequence binary star systems of planets with semi-major axes greater than a few astronomical units. We consider only binaries where a putative planetary system orbits one member (no circumbinary planets). For main sequence binaries where the primary star is of spectral type A or F, data in the published literature suggests that the existence of a secondary star with a semi-major axis less than about 1000 AU suppresses the formation and/or long-term stability of an extended planetary system around the primary. For these spectral types and initial semi-major axis ≥1000 AU, extended planetary systems appear to be as common around stars in binary systems as they are around single stars.

  18. THE PHASES DIFFERENTIAL ASTROMETRY DATA ARCHIVE. V. CANDIDATE SUBSTELLAR COMPANIONS TO BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Lane, Benjamin F.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Konacki, Maciej; Burke, Bernard F.; Colavita, M. M.; Shao, M.; Hartkopf, William I.; Boss, Alan P.; Williamson, M. E-mail: blane@draper.co

    2010-12-15

    The Palomar High-precision Astrometric Search for Exoplanet Systems monitored 51 subarcsecond binary systems to evaluate whether tertiary companions as small as Jovian planets orbited either the primary or secondary stars, perturbing their otherwise smooth Keplerian motions. Six binaries are presented that show evidence of substellar companions orbiting either the primary or secondary star. Of these six systems, the likelihoods of two of the detected perturbations to represent real objects are considered to be 'high confidence', while the remaining four systems are less certain and will require continued observations for confirmation.

  19. Photometric observations and analysis of the close binary system DV Aquarii

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, A.; Yamasaki, A.; Nurwendaya, C.

    1985-01-01

    Photoelectric BV light curves of the close binary system DV Aqr are presented. These light curves are analyzed with a synthesis method to determine the photometric elements. Physical properties of the system are briefly discussed. It is found that DV Aqr is a detached system consisting of a late-A and a K subgiant star. 12 references.

  20. Generalized Roche potential for misaligned binary systems - Properties of the critical lobe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avni, Y.; Schiller, N.

    1982-01-01

    The paper considers the Roche potential for binary systems where the stellar rotation axis is not aligned with the orbital revolution axis. It is shown that, as the degree of misalignment varies, internal Lagrangian points and external Lagrangian points may switch their roles. A systematic method to identify the internal Lagrangian point and to calculate the volume of the critical lobe is developed, and numerical results for a wide range of parameters of binary systems with circular orbits are presented. For binary systems with large enough misalignment, discrete changes occur in the topological structure of the equipotential surfaces as the orbital phase varies. The volume of the critical lobe has minima, as a function of orbital phase, at the two instances when the secondary crosses the equatorial plane of the primary. In semidetached systems, mass transfer may be confined to the vicinity of these two instances.

  1. Communication: radial distribution functions in a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere system.

    PubMed

    Thorneywork, Alice L; Roth, Roland; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Dullens, Roel P A

    2014-04-28

    Two-dimensional hard disks are a fundamentally important many-body model system in classical statistical mechanics. Despite their significance, a comprehensive experimental data set for two-dimensional single component and binary hard disks is lacking. Here, we present a direct comparison between the full set of radial distribution functions and the contact values of a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere model system and those calculated using fundamental measure theory. We find excellent quantitative agreement between our experimental data and theoretical predictions for both single component and binary hard disk systems. Our results provide a unique and fully quantitative mapping between experiments and theory, which is crucial in establishing the fundamental link between structure and dynamics in simple liquids and glass forming systems. PMID:24784245

  2. Observational Investigations on Contact Binaries in Multiple-star Systems and Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.

    2013-01-01

    The W UMa-type contact binaries are strongly interacting systems whose components both fill their critical Roche lobes and share a convective common envelope. The models of contact binaries are bottlenecked due to too many uncertain parameters. In the 1960s and 1970s, the common convective envelope model was accepted after several fierce controversies. And then, the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) model, the discontinuity model, and the angular momentum loss (AML) model appeared. However, in the past forty years, there lacked remarkable advance. The coexistence of many unknown parameters blocks the theoretical development of contact binaries. A study on the contact binaries in multiple star systems and star clusters, which could provide lots of information for their formation and evolution, may be a potential growing point for understanding these objects. More and more evidence shows that many of contact binaries are located in multiple star systems and star clusters. In this thesis, we observed and analyzed contact binaries in the forementioned systems. The observational and theoretical studies for contact binary are also summarized briefly. The results obtained are as follows: (1) Three contact binaries V1128 Tau, GZ And, VW Boo which possess visual companions show periodic oscillations. The period ranges from 16.7 years to 46.5 years. These oscillations probably come from the orbital movement of a close third body. (2) Four contact binaries GSC 02393-00680, V396 Mon, FU Dra, SS Ari which do not have visual companions also present periodic oscillations. Whether they are real members of multiple star systems needs further investigations. These oscillations probably result from the orbital movement of a close M-type companion. (3) The periods of three contact binaries EQ Cep, ER Cep and V371 Cep in the old open cluster NGC 188 show a long-term increase. There is a cyclic period oscillation in ER Cep, with a period of 5.4 years. We find that the total mass of

  3. Physical Identification of Binary System of Gliclazide-Hydrophilic Polymers Using X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmawati, H.; Yatinasari, Faizatun, Syarie, S. A.

    2008-03-01

    The formation of binary system in pharmaceutical solid state is aimed to improve the physicochemical characteristics of active compound, such as its solubility. To identify the physical change of the binary system including crystallinity or particle morphology, there are many methods can be applied. In present report, we study the physical interaction of the binary system of gliclazide and hydrophilic polymers. In this binary system, gliclazide was either dispersed or mixed with polyvinyl pirrolidone (PVP K30) or polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000). The dispersion system of gliclazide in the polymeric carriers was prepared by solvation-evaporation method, using dichloromethane/methylene chloride as an organic solvent. The physical characterization of both dispersed and mixed of gliclazide was studied using X-ray diffraction at interval 6-50 °/2θ. As a comparison, the same procedure was performed for pure gliclazide. To confirm the diffractogram of this binary system, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was carried out as well. Both diffarctogram and FT-IR spectra revealed that there was no new compound formed in the solid dispersion system of gliclazide:PEG 6000 and gliclazide:PVP K30. In contrast, the solubility as well as the dissolution rate of gliclazide in the presence of both hydrophilic polymers was increased as compared to pure gliclazide. We conclude therefore that solvatation followed by evaporation of gliclazide in the presence of either PEG 6000 or PVP K30 did not alter its crystalline characteristic. The improved of gliclazide solubility in the binary system might due to other mechanism such as increased in the wettability and the hydrophylicity effect of the polymers.

  4. Black holes in stellar-mass binary systems: expiating original spin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Andrew; Nixon, Chris

    2016-10-01

    We investigate systematically whether accreting black hole systems are likely to reach global alignment of the black hole spin and its accretion disc with the binary plane. In low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), there is only a modest tendency to reach such global alignment, and it is difficult to achieve fully: except for special initial conditions, we expect misalignment of the spin and orbital planes by ˜1 rad for most of the LMXB lifetime. The same is expected in high-mass X-ray binaries. A fairly close approach to global alignment is likely in most stellar-mass ultraluminous X-ray binary systems (ULXs) where the companion star fills its Roche lobe and transfers mass on a thermal or nuclear time-scale to a black hole of lower mass. These systems are unlikely to show orbital eclipses, as their emission cones are close to the hole's spin axis. This offers a potential observational test, as models for ULXs invoking intermediate-mass black holes do predict eclipses for ensembles of ≳ 10 systems. Recent observational work shows that eclipses are either absent or extremely rare in ULXs, supporting the picture that most ULXs are stellar-mass binaries with companion stars more massive than the accretor.

  5. Realization of a Binary-Outcome Projection Measurement of a Three-Level Superconducting Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerger, Markus; Macha, Pascal; Hamann, Andrés Rosario; Reshitnyk, Yarema; Juliusson, Kristinn; Fedorov, Arkady

    2016-07-01

    Binary-outcome measurements allow one to determine whether a multilevel quantum system is in a certain state while preserving quantum coherence between all orthogonal states. In this paper, we explore different regimes of the dispersive readout of a three-level superconducting quantum system coupled to a microwave cavity in order to implement binary-outcome measurements. By designing identical cavity-frequency shifts for the first and second excited states of the system, we realize strong projective binary-outcome measurements onto its ground state with a fidelity of 94.3%. Complemented with standard microwave control and low-noise parametric amplification, this scheme enables the quantum nondemolition detection of leakage errors and can be used to create sets of compatible measurements to reveal the contextual nature of superconducting circuits.

  6. Modeling microstructure evolution of binary systems subjected to irradiation and mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Shchokotova, Olga M.; Lysenko, Irina O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.

    2015-07-01

    We study a change in mechanical properties of binary systems subjected to irradiation influence described by ballistic flux of atomic mixing having regular and stochastic contributions. By using numerical modeling based on the phase field approach we study dynamics of deformation fields in a previously irradiated system and in the binary system deformed during irradiation. An influence of both deterministic and stochastic components of ballistic flux onto both yield strength and ultimate strength is studied. We have found that degradation of mechanical properties relates to the formation of percolating clusters of shear bands. Considering a hardening coefficient we analyze stages of plastic deformation of both initially irradiated alloy and alloy subjected to sustained irradiation. Stability of binary alloy under mechanical loading in the form of shear strain with a constant rate and cyclic deformation is discussed.

  7. DC CIRCUIT POWERED BY ORBITAL MOTION: MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT OBJECT BINARIES AND EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Dong

    2012-09-20

    The unipolar induction DC circuit model, originally developed by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell for the Jupiter-Io system, has been applied to different types of binary systems in recent years. We show that there exists an upper limit to the magnetic interaction torque and energy dissipation rate in such a model. This arises because when the resistance of the circuit is too small, the large current flow severely twists the magnetic flux tube connecting the two binary components, leading to the breakdown of the circuit. Applying this limit, we find that in coalescing neutron star binaries, magnetic interactions produce negligible correction to the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, even for magnetar-like field strengths. However, energy dissipation in the binary magnetosphere may still give rise to electromagnetic radiation prior to the final merger. For ultracompact white dwarf binaries, we find that unipolar induction does not provide adequate energy dissipation to explain the observed X-ray luminosities of several sources. For exoplanetary systems containing close-in Jupiters or super-Earths, the magnetic torque and energy dissipation induced by the orbital motion are negligible, except possibly during the early T Tauri phase, when the stellar magnetic field is stronger than 10{sup 3} G.

  8. Outflows Driven by a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary System IRAS 16253-2429

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the molecular outflows driven by a potential proto-brown dwarf candidate IRAS 16253-2429 (hereafter IRAS 16253) with CO (2—1) using SMA and IRAM 30m telescope and CO (6—5) using APEX. Our SMA observations suggest that IRAS 16253 is hosting a binary system. The low mass of its envelope suggests that the central objects may eventually accrete only ~0.14 Msun of material (assuming the star formation efficiency is at most 0.3), which makes IRAS 16253 a potential proto brown dwarf binary system since the maximum mass of a brown dwarf is 0.08 Msun; one or two brown dwarfs may form depending on the current mass of the protostars and the future accretion process. The Position-Velocity diagrams of the outflows show sinusoidal structures which may be related to the outflow wiggling from the binary rotation. This allowed us to estimate the orbital period of the binary system. On the basis of Kepler's third law, we suggest that IRAS 16253 is very likely to contain at least one proto brown dwarf if the binary separation is less than ~0.5 arcsec. The large-scale outflows are further mapped with IRAM 30m telescope and APEX Champ+. We found that CO (6—5) traces high-excited gas around the precessing H2 jets and CO (2—1) likely probes the cold swept-up gas or entrained gas with cone-like structure.

  9. Time-Dependent Behavior of the O'Connell Effect in Eclipsing Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Koju, V.

    2012-05-01

    The characteristic shape of an eclipsing binary light curve consists of two out-of-eclipse maxima and two mid-eclipse minima. Many eclipsing binary light curves exhibit unequally high maxima, a feature known as the O'Connell effect. So far, this asymmetry has not been convincingly explained aside from a few individual systems. Most theories attribute the O'Connell effect to phenomena such as starspots, clouds of circumstellar gas and dust, or a hot spot caused by the impact of a mass-transferring gas stream. The high precision and nearly continuous temporal coverage of light curves produced by the Kepler Space Mission make it possible to detect variations in the O'Connell effect within individual systems that have not previously been observed via ground-based observations. Our analysis of Kepler light curves of eclipsing binary systems reveals that in most cases the size and even the sign of the O'Connell effect changes significantly over time scales of weeks or months. Moreover, the magnitude difference between the eclipse minima also varies, usually lagging behind the variations in the difference between the out-of-eclipse maxima by several orbital cycles. We have created models of eclipsing binary systems using Binary Maker 3 that include starspots that migrate slowly in longitude, and have analyze the light curves generated by these model systems. Models with constant starspots at fixed latitude and models with starspots that vary in size and latitude both reproduce the qualitative behavior of the time-dependent O'Connell effect in the Kepler light curves very closely. These results provide support for the notion that the O'Connell effect, at least in some cases, is caused by migrating starspots on the surface of one or both components of the binary star system.

  10. The Gibbs Energy Basis and Construction of Boiling Point Diagrams in Binary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Norman O.

    2004-01-01

    An illustration of how excess Gibbs energies of the components in binary systems can be used to construct boiling point diagrams is given. The underlying causes of the various types of behavior of the systems in terms of intermolecular forces and the method of calculating the coexisting liquid and vapor compositions in boiling point diagrams with…

  11. Recognition of binary x-ray systems utilizing the doppler effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of recognizing the duality of a single class of X-ray systems utilizing the Doppler effect is studied. The procedure is based on the presence of a period which coincides with the orbital period at the intensity of the radiation in a fixed energy interval of the X-ray component of a binary system.

  12. MAXI/GSC detection of a possible X-ray flare from an dMe binary system YY Gem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Kanetou, S.; Tsuboi, Y.; Sasaki, R.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Kimura, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Shidatsu, M.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Arimoto, M.; Yoshii, T.; Tachibana, Y.; Ono, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kawakubo, Y.; Ohtsuki, H.; Tsunemi, H.; Imatani, R.; Negoro, H.; Nakajima, M.; Tanaka, K.; Masumitsu, T.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Hori, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Itoh, D.; Yamaoka, K.; Morii, M.

    2015-09-01

    MAXI/GSC observed a possible X-ray flare from a dMe binary system YY Gem. The MAXI/GSC nova alert system triggered on the flare-like event from the position consistent with the active binary system YY Gem during a scan transit at 01:29:00 UT on September 24th 2015.

  13. Experimental determination of systems suitable for study as monotectic binary metallic alloy solidification models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Transparent binary metallic alloy solidification models are important in attempts to understand the processes causing liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase transformations in metallic alloy systems. These models permit visual observation of the phase transformation and the processes proceding solidification. The number of these transparent monotectic binary models needs to be expanded to distinguish between the unique and general phenomena observed. The expansion of the number of accurately determined monotectic phase diagrams of model systems, and contribution to a data base for eventual use with UNIFAC group contribution methods is examined.

  14. Southern RS CVn systems - Candidate list. [spectral catalog of variable binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.; Stencel, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A list of 43 candidate RS CVn binary systems in the far southern hemisphere of the sky (south of -40 deg declination) is presented. The candidate systems were selected from the first two volumes of the Michigan Spectral Catalog (1975, 1978), which provides MK classifications for southern HD stars and identifies any unusual characteristics noted for individual stellar spectra. The selection criteria used were: (1) the occurrence of Ca II H and K emission; (2) known or suspected binary nature; (3) regular light variations of zero to one magnitude; and (4) spectral type between F0 and K2 and luminosity less than bright giant (II).

  15. Photometric and Spectroscopic Analysis for the Determination of Physical Parameters of an Eclipsing Binary Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Piper

    2013-01-01

    A binary star system is a pair of stars that are bound together by gravity. Most of the stars that we see in the night sky are members of multiple star systems. A system of stars where one star passes in front of the other (as observed from Earth) on a periodic basis is called an eclipsing binary. Eclipsing binaries can have very short rotational periods and in all cases these pairs of stars are so far away that they can only be resolved from Earth as a single point of light. The interaction of the two stars serves to produce physical phenomena that can be observed and used to study stellar properties. By careful data collection and analysis is it possible for an amateur astronomer using commercial, low cost equipment (including a home built spectroscope) to gather photometric (brightness versus time) and spectroscopic (brightness versus wavelength) data, analyze the data, and calculate the physical properties of a binary star system? Using a CCD camera, tracking mount and telescope photometric data of BB Pegasi was collected and a light curve produced. 57 Cygni was also studied using a spectroscope, tracking mount and telescope to prove that Doppler shift of Hydrogen Balmer absorption lines can be used to determine radial velocity. The orbital period, orbital velocity, radius of each star, separation of the two stars and mass of each star was calculated for the eclipsing binary BB Pegasi using photometric and spectroscopic data and Kepler’s 3rd Law. These data were then compared to published data. By careful use of consumer grade astronomical equipment it is possible for an amateur astronomer to determine an array of physical parameters of a distant binary star system from a suburban setting.

  16. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  17. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  18. Orbital Evolution of Mass-transferring Eccentric Binary Systems. I. Phase-dependent Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosopoulou, Fani; Kalogera, Vicky

    2016-07-01

    Observations reveal that mass-transferring binary systems may have non-zero orbital eccentricities. The time evolution of the orbital semimajor axis and eccentricity of mass-transferring eccentric binary systems is an important part of binary evolution theory and has been widely studied. However, various different approaches to and assumptions on the subject have made the literature difficult to comprehend and comparisons between different orbital element time evolution equations not easy to make. Consequently, no self-consistent treatment of this phase has ever been included in binary population synthesis codes. In this paper, we present a general formalism to derive the time evolution equations of the binary orbital elements, treating mass loss and mass transfer as perturbations of the general two-body problem. We present the self-consistent form of the perturbing acceleration and phase-dependent time evolution equations for the orbital elements under different mass loss/transfer processes. First, we study the cases of isotropic and anisotropic wind mass loss. Then, we proceed with non-isotropic ejection and accretion in a conservative as well as a non-conservative manner for both point masses and extended bodies. We compare the derived equations with similar work in the literature and explain the existing discrepancies.

  19. Looking for light pseudoscalar bosons in the binary pulsar system J0737-3039.

    PubMed

    Dupays, Arnaud; Rizzo, Carlo; Roncadelli, Marco; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2005-11-18

    We present numerical calculations of the photon-light-pseudoscalar-boson (LPB) production in the recently discovered binary pulsar system J0737-3039. Light pseudoscalar bosons oscillate into photons in the presence of strong magnetic fields. In the context of this binary pulsar system, this phenomenon attenuates the light beam emitted by one of the pulsars, when the light ray goes through the magnetosphere of the companion pulsar. We show that such an effect is observable in the gamma-ray band since the binary pulsar is seen almost edge-on, depending on the values of the LPB mass and on the strength of its two-photon coupling. Our results are surprising in that they show a very sharp and significant (up to 50%) transition probability in the gamma-ray (> tens of MeV) domain. The observations can be performed by the upcoming NASA GLAST mission.

  20. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Foster, Jonathan B.; Pineda, Jaime E. E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and

  1. Photometry of 20 eclipsing and ellipsoidal binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. R.

    2004-12-01

    A total of almost 2000 V observations of 20 eclipsing and ellipsoidal bright binary stars was collected between 1991 and 2001 for the purpose of determining more recent epoch ephemerides for the light curves than are available in the literature. The original purpose was to provide the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) with orbital periods and particularly the accurate times of minimum separation (light curve minima), so that the SUSI observations need not be used to determine them. This paper provides the periods, the times of primary minima and the phases of secondary minima for the 20 stars at an epoch as near as possible to the year 2000. No attempt has been made in this report to determine other parameters such as {apsidal motion} or stellar radii. Since the program was started in 1991, data for these stars taken in the period from late 1989 to early 1993 has also been available from the Hipparcos satellite; the light curves shown here include both sets of observations.

  2. Photometry of 20 eclipsing and ellipsoidal binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. R.

    2005-12-01

    ERRATUM: In the published paper the phase diagrams of pi Sco and AL Scl were ommitted. The version reproduced in JAD11, 7 is the complete version. A total of almost 2000 V observations of 20 eclipsing and ellipsoidal bright binary stars was collected between 1991 and 2001 for the purpose of determining more recent epoch ephemerides for the light curves than are available in the literature. The original purpose was to provide the Sydney University Stellar Interferometer (SUSI) with orbital periods and particularly the accurate times of minimum separation (light curve minima), so that the SUSI observations need not be used to determine them. This paper provides the periods, the times of primary minima and the phases of secondary minima for the 20 stars at an epoch as near as possible to the year 2000. No attempt has been made in this report to determine other parameters such as {apsidal motion} or stellar radii. Since the program was started in 1991, data for these stars taken in the period from late 1989 to early 1993 has also been available from the Hipparcos satellite; the light curves shown here include both sets of observations.

  3. Orbital parameters and variability of the emission spectrum for the massive binary system 103 Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Based on high-resolution spectra taken near the He I 6678 Å line for the massive binary system 103 Tau, we have detected a weak absorption component belonging to the binary's secondary component. We have measured the radial velocities of both components, improved the previously known orbital parameters, and determined the new ones. The binary has an orbital period P orb = 58.305d, an orbital eccentricity e = 0.277, a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the bright component K A = 44.8 km s-1, and a component mass ratio M A / M B = 1.77. The absence of photometric variability and the estimates of physical parameters for the primary component suggest that the binary most likely has a considerable inclination of the orbital plane to the observer, i ≈ 50°-60°. In this case, the secondary component is probably a normal dwarf of spectral type B5-B8. Based on the spectra taken near the H α line, we have studied the variability of the emission profile. It is shown to be formed in the Roche lobe of the secondary component, but no traces of active mass exchange in the binary have been detected.

  4. Near-Infrared Polarimetry of the GG Tauri A Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itoh, Yoichi; Oasa, Yumiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hashimoto, Jun; Abe, Lyu; Brandner, Wolfgang; Brandt, Timothy D.; Carson, Joseph C.; Egner, Sebastian; Feldt, Markus; Grady, Carol A.; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Ishii, Miki; Iye, Masanori; Janson, Markus; Kandori, Ryo; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; Kwon, Jungmi; Matsuo, Taro; McElwain, Michael W.; Miyama, Shoken; Morino, Jun-Ichi; Moro-Martin, Amaya; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Eugene; Suenaga, Takuya; Suto, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A high angular resolution near-infrared image that shows the intensity of polarization for the GG Tau A binary system was obtained with the Subaru Telescope. The image shows a circumbinary disk scattering the light from the central binary. The azimuthal profile of the intensity of polarization for the circumbinary disk is roughly reproduced by a simple disk model with the Henyey-Greenstein phase function and the Rayleigh function, indicating there are small dust grains at the surface of the disk. Combined with a previous observation of the circumbinary disk, our image indicates that the gap structure in the circumbinary disk orbits counterclockwise, but material in the disk orbits clockwise. We propose that there is a shadow caused by material located between the central binary and the circumbinary disk. The separations and position angles of the stellar components of the binary in the past 20 yr are consistent with the binary orbit with a = 33.4 AU and e = 0.34.

  5. Enhancement of dark matter capture by neutron stars in binary systems.

    PubMed

    Brayeur, Lionel; Tinyakov, Peter

    2012-08-10

    We study the capture of dark matter particles by neutron stars in close binary systems. By performing a direct numerical simulation, we find that there is a sizable amplification of the rate of dark matter capture by each of the companions. In the case of the binary pulsar PSR J1906+0746 with the orbital period of 4 hours the amplification factor is approximately equal to 3.5. This amplification can be attributed to the energy loss by dark matter particles resulting from their gravitational scattering off moving companions.

  6. The evolution of highly compact binary stellar systems in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.; Meiksin, A.; Joss, P. C.

    1984-01-01

    A highly compact binary represents a system which is composed of a collapsed object (degenerate dwarf, neutron star, or black hole) in orbit with a low-mass (equal to or less than 0.5 solar mass) secondary star. Matter may be transferred from the secondary to the collapsed star due to the decay of the orbit resulting from the emission of gravitational radiation. The present investigation has the objective to study quantitatively the evolution of highly compact binaries in globular cluster cores, subject to the interplay of gravitational radiation and collisions with field stars. The investigation is exploratory in nature. The numerical methods employed are based on the techniques developed by Rappaport et al. (1982). It is found that occasional close encounters with field stars strongly dominate the evolution of highly compact binaries in dense globular cluster cores. Attention is given to the applicability of the findings to observations of X-ray sources and cataclysmic variables.

  7. Nearest Neighbor Searching in Binary Search Trees: Simulation of a Multiprocessor System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark; Willett, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Describes the simulation of a nearest neighbor searching algorithm for document retrieval using a pool of microprocessors. Three techniques are described which allow parallel searching of a binary search tree as well as a PASCAL-based system, PASSIM, which can simulate these techniques. Fifty-six references are provided. (Author/LRW)

  8. Gamma rays and neutrinos from dense environment of massive binary systems in open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Włodek; Pabich, Jerzy; Sobczak, Tomasz

    2014-11-01

    TeV gamma-ray emission has been recently observed from the direction of a few open clusters containing massive stars. We consider the high energy processes occurring within massive binary systems and in their dense environment by assuming that nuclei, from the stellar winds of massive stars, are accelerated at the collision region of the stellar winds. We calculate the rates of injection of protons and neutrons from fragmentation of these nuclei in collisions with stellar radiation and matter of the winds from the massive companions in a binary system. Protons and neutrons can interact with the matter, within the stellar wind cavity, and within the open cluster, producing pions which decay into γ rays and neutrinos. We discuss the detectability of such γ -ray emission by the present and future Cherenkov telescopes for the case of two binary systems Eta Carinae, within the Carina Nebula, and WR 20a, within the Westerlund 2 open cluster. We also calculate the neutrino fluxes produced by protons around the binary systems and within the open clusters. This neutrino emission is confronted with ANTARES upper limits on the neutrino fluxes from discrete sources and with the sensitivity of IceCube.

  9. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later.

  10. CRTS discovery of an outburst from a short period binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Graham, M. J.; Donalek, C.; Williams, R.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Larson, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the discovery of an outburst from known short period binary system 2MASS_J16211735+4412541. On 2016-06-03.45 UT, 2MASS_J162117 wasdetected by CRTS as a transient event ( CSS160603:162117+441254) with V_CSS=13.3.

  11. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later. PMID:18421348

  12. Activity-Based Introduction to the Binary System: Nim Game Winning Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaninsky, A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper's aim is to demonstrate the utility of the well-known Nim game when it is used as a tool in teaching the binary system. A way to increase student comprehension, it also forms a basis for student projects and extracurricular activities on the topic. The paper offers descriptions of two versions of the game and the underlying mathematical…

  13. A simple estimate of gravitational wave memory in binary black hole systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfinkle, David

    2016-09-01

    A simple estimate is given of gravitational wave memory for the inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. Here the memory is proportional to the total energy radiated and has a simple angular dependence. Estimates of this sort might be helpful as a consistency check for numerical relativity memory waveforms.

  14. Orbital period changes of contact binary systems: direct evidence for thermal relaxation oscillation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shengbang

    2001-12-01

    Orbital period changes of ten contact binary systems (S Ant, ɛ CrA, EF Dra, UZ Leo, XZ Leo, TY Men, V566 Oph, TY Pup, RZ Tau and AG Vir) are studied based on the analysis of their O-C curves. It is discovered that the periods of the six systems, S Ant, ɛ CrA, EF Dra, XZ Leo, TY Men and TY Pup, show secular increases. For UZ Leo, its secular period increase rate is revised. For the three systems, V566 Oph, RZ Tau and AG Vir, weak evidence is presented that a periodic oscillation (with periods of 20.4, 28.5 and 40.9yr respectively) is superimposed on a secular period increase. The cyclic period changes can be explained by the presence of an unseen third body in the three systems. All the sample stars studied are contact binaries with M1>=1.35Msolar. Furthermore, orbital period changes of 27 hot contact binaries have been checked. It is found that, apart from AW UMa with the lowest mass ratio (q=0.072), none shows an orbital period decrease. The relatively weak magnetic activity in the hotter contact binaries means little angular momentum loss (AML) from the systems via magnetic stellar winds. The period increases of these W UMa binaries can be explained by mass transfer from the secondary to the primary components, which is in agreement with the prediction of the thermal relaxation oscillation (TRO) models. This suggests that the evolution of a hotter W UMa star is mainly controlled by TRO. On the other hand, for a cooler W UMa star (M1<=1.35Msolar), its evolution may be TRO plus AML, which coincides with the recent results of Qian.

  15. Binary systems, star clusters and the Galactic-field population. Applied stellar dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    This book contains the results of recent theoretical work on the evolution of primordial binary systems in young star clusters, their effect on the evolution of their host clusters, implications for the distribution of young stars in the Milky Way, and the formation of bound star clusters. This work shows that if the Galactic-field binary population is a dynamically evolved version of the Taurus-Auriga pre-main sequence population, then most stars form in clusters with typically a few hundred binaries within a radius of about 0.5-1 pc. The results also suggest that the population I primordial binary-star orbital-parameter distribution functions may be universal, much like the initial mass function. Most solar-like planetary systems can survive in such clusters. The work presented here also establishes that most observed triple and quadruple systems must be primordial, but that α Cen A/B-Proxima Cen-like systems can form in clusters through dynamical capture. Precise N-body calculations using Aarseth's N-body codes of clusters containing up to 104 stars are used to create an extensive young-cluster library. These data demonstrate that the primordial binary systems are disrupted on a crossing-time scale, and that the truncation of the surviving period distribution measures the maximum concentration the cluster ever experienced. The N-body calculations demonstrate that Galactic star clusters form readily as nuclei of expanding OB associations despite a star-formation efficiency of typically 30 per cent and gas-expulsion over a time-span shorter than the cluster crossing time.

  16. Towards a Fundamental Understanding of Short Period Eclipsing Binary Systems Using Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej

    Kepler's ultra-high precision photometry is revolutionizing stellar astrophysics. We are seeing intrinsic phenomena on an unprecedented scale, and interpreting them is both a challenge and an exciting privilege. Eclipsing binary stars are of particular significance for stellar astrophysics because precise modeling leads to fundamental parameters of the orbiting components: masses, radii, temperatures and luminosities to better than 1-2%. On top of that, eclipsing binaries are ideal physical laboratories for studying other physical phenomena, such as asteroseismic properties, chromospheric activity, proximity effects, mass transfer in close binaries, etc. Because of the eclipses, the basic geometry is well constrained, but a follow-up spectroscopy is required to get the dynamical masses and the absolute scale of the system. A conjunction of Kepler photometry and ground- based spectroscopy is a treasure trove for eclipsing binary star astrophysics. This proposal focuses on a carefully selected set of 100 short period eclipsing binary stars. The fundamental goal of the project is to study the intrinsic astrophysical effects typical of short period binaries in great detail, utilizing Kepler photometry and follow-up spectroscopy to devise a robust and consistent set of modeling results. The complementing spectroscopy is being secured from 3 approved and fully funded programs: the NOAO 4-m echelle spectroscopy at Kitt Peak (30 nights; PI Prsa), the 10- m Hobby-Eberly Telescope high-resolution spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan), and the 2.5-m Sloan Digital Sky Survey III spectroscopy (PI Mahadevan). The targets are prioritized by the projected scientific yield. Short period detached binaries host low-mass (K- and M- type) components for which the mass-radius relationship is sparsely populated and still poorly understood, as the radii appear up to 20% larger than predicted by the population models. We demonstrate the spectroscopic detection viability in the secondary

  17. APSIDAL MOTIONS OF 27 BINARY SYSTEMS IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Kyeongsoo; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lee, Jae Woo; Lee, Chung-Uk; Yushchenko, Alexander V.; Kang, Young-Woon E-mail: kangyw@sejong.ac.kr

    2015-07-15

    We present the periods of apsidal motion for 27 early-type eclipsing binaries with high eccentricity located in the Small Magellanic Cloud. New times of minima were derived from the light curves constructed by the MACHO, Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE)-II, and OGLE-III survey data. The eclipse timing diagrams of the binary systems were analyzed using those timings and the elements of apsidal motions were obtained in detail for the first time. The apsidal motion periods of all systems were estimated by detailed analysis of both eclipse timings and light curves; a strong correlation value between both methods is shown. We confirm that OGLE-SMC-ECL-2194 shows the shortest known apsidal motion period of 7.1 yr in a detached system with main sequence stars. Nineteen systems show intermediate apsidal motion periods between 10 and 100 yr, and seven systems exhibit long apsidal periods of more than 100 yr.

  18. Application of neural network to hybrid systems with binary inputs.

    PubMed

    Holderbaum, William

    2007-07-01

    Boolean input systems are in common used in the electric industry. Power supplies include such systems and the power converter represents these. For instance, in power electronics, the control variable are the switching ON and OFF of components as thyristors or transistors. The purpose of this paper is to use neural network (NN) to control continuous systems with Boolean inputs. This method is based on classification of system variations associated with input configurations. The classical supervised backpropagation algorithm is used to train the networks. The training of the artificial neural network and the control of Boolean input systems are presented. The design procedure of control systems is implemented on a nonlinear system. We apply those results to control an electrical system composed of an induction machine and its power converter.

  19. DEEP MULTI-TELESCOPE PHOTOMETRY OF NGC 5466. I. BLUE STRAGGLERS AND BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Beccari, G.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Sollima, A.; Bellazzini, M.

    2013-10-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the radial distribution of blue straggler star (BSS) and binary populations in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 5466, over the entire extension of the system. We used a combination of data acquired with the Advanced Camera for Survey on board the Hubble Space Telescope, the LBC-blue mounted on the Large Binocular Telescope, and MEGACAM on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. BSSs show a bimodal distribution with a mild central peak and a quite internal minimum. This feature is interpreted in terms of a relatively young dynamical age in the framework of the 'dynamical clock' concept proposed by Ferraro et al. The estimated fraction of binaries is ∼6%-7% in the central region (r < 90'') and slightly lower (∼5.5%) in the outskirts, at r > 200''. Quite interestingly, the comparison with the results of Milone et al. suggests that binary systems may also display a bimodal radial distribution, with the position of the minimum consistent with that of BSSs. If confirmed, this feature would give additional support to the scenario where the radial distribution of objects more massive than the average cluster stars is primarily shaped by the effect of dynamical friction. Moreover, this would also be consistent with the idea that the unperturbed evolution of primordial binaries could be the dominant BSS formation process in low-density environments.

  20. High Fill-Out, Extreme Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. VIII. EM Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; He, J.-J.; Soonthornthum, B.; Liu, L.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Li, L.-J.; Liao, W. P.; Dai, Z.-B.

    2008-11-01

    CCD photometric observations of the newly discovered close binary, EM Piscium, obtained from 2006 December 4 to 2008 January 7, are presented. The light curves are symmetric and show complete eclipses with an eclipse duration of 54 minutes. When comparing the present light curves with those published by González-Rojas et al., it is found that the depths of the two minima of the light curve have been interchanged, and the positive O'Connell effect has disappeared. The symmetric light curves in R and I bands were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It is found that EM Piscium is a high fill-out overcontact binary system (f = 95.3 ± 2.7%) with an extreme mass ratio of q = 0.1487, suggesting that it is on the late evolutionary stage of late-type tidal-locked binaries. Based on the nine instances of light minimum that we determined and those published by previous investigators, it is discovered that the orbital period shows a cyclic period variation with a period of 3.3 years, while it undergoes a continuously rapid increase at a rate of dP/dt = +3.97 × 10-6 days year-1. The cyclic period reveals the presence of a tertiary companion, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the overcontact binary by drawing angular momentum from the central system via Kozai oscillation or a combination of Kozai cycle and tidal friction. The high fill-out, the extreme mass ratio, and the rapid period increase may suggest that the binary system is quickly evolving into a rapid-rotating single star.

  1. Formation, Dynamical Evolution, and Habitability of Planets in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghighipour, Nader

    A survey of currently known planet-hosting stars indicates that approximately 25% of extrasolar planetary systems are within dual-star environments. Several of these systems contain stellar companions on moderately close orbits, implying that studies of the formation and dynamical evolution of giant and terrestrial planets, in and around binary star systems have now found realistic grounds. With the recent launch of the space telescope COROT, and the launch of NASA's Kepler satellite in 2009, the number of such dynamically complex systems will soon increase and many more of their diverse and interesting dynamical characteristics will soon be discovered. It is therefore, both timely and necessary, to obtain a deep understanding of the history and current status of research on planets in binary star systems. This chapter will serve this purpose by reviewing the models of the formation of giant and terrestrial planets in dual-star environments, and by presenting results of the studies of their dynamical evolution and habitability, as well as the mechanisms of delivery of water and other volatiles to their terrestrial-class objects. In this chapter, the reader is presented with a comprehensive, yet relatively less technical approach to the study of planets in and around binary stars, and with discussions on the differences between dynamical characteristics of these systems and planetary systems around single stars.

  2. Performance Enhancement of Radial Distributed System with Distributed Generators by Reconfiguration Using Binary Firefly Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalakshmi, N.; Padma Subramanian, D.; Thamizhavel, K.

    2015-03-01

    The extent of real power loss and voltage deviation associated with overloaded feeders in radial distribution system can be reduced by reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is normally achieved by changing the open/closed state of tie/sectionalizing switches. Finding optimal switch combination is a complicated problem as there are many switching combinations possible in a distribution system. Hence optimization techniques are finding greater importance in reducing the complexity of reconfiguration problem. This paper presents the application of firefly algorithm (FA) for optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution system with distributed generators (DG). The algorithm is tested on IEEE 33 bus system installed with DGs and the results are compared with binary genetic algorithm. It is found that binary FA is more effective than binary genetic algorithm in achieving real power loss reduction and improving voltage profile and hence enhancing the performance of radial distribution system. Results are found to be optimum when DGs are added to the test system, which proved the impact of DGs on distribution system.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the binary In-La system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, M. A.; Ivanov, M. I.; Berezutski, V. V.; Sudavtsova, V. S.

    2016-06-01

    The thermochemical properties of melts of the binary In-La system were studied by the calorimetry method at 1250-1480 K over the whole concentration interval. It was shown that significant negative heat effects of mixing are characteristic features for these melts. Using the ideal associated solution (IAS) model, the activities of components, Gibbs energies and the entropies of mixing in the alloys, and the phase diagram of this system were calculated. They agree with the data from literature.

  4. Thermodynamic properties of alloys of the binary In-Yb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, M. A.; Ivanov, M. I.; Berezutski, V. V.; Sudavtsova, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    The thermochemical properties of melts of the binary In-Yb system were studied by the calorimetry method at 1160-1380 K over the whole concentration interval. It was shown that significant negative heat effects of mixing are characteristic features for these melts. Using the ideal associated solution (IAS) model, the activities of components, Gibbs energies and the entropies of mixing in the alloys, and the phase diagram of this system were calculated. They agree with the data from literature.

  5. A thermodynamic database for tellurium-bearing systems relevant to nuclear technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, G.; Juneja, J. M.

    1993-06-01

    A thermodynamic database for tellurium-bearing condensed phases and gaseous species which are relevant to nuclear technology is presented. It contains phase diagrams of the binary systems, PdTe, RhTe, PuTe, SmTe, CsTe, ZrTe, of the ternary systems, ZrTeO, MoTeO, AgTeO, UTeO, CsTeO, BaTeO as well as thermodynamic data for crystalline and liquid Te, for the solid phases Cs 2Te, Ag 2Te, SnTe, BaTe, CeTe, SmTe, RuTe 2, ZrTe 2, Fe 0.53Te 0.47, Mo 0.43Te 0.57, Cr 0.43Te 0.57, Ni 0.5Te 0.4, Cs 2TeO 3 and for the gaseous species, Te, Te 2, TeO, TeO 2, TeO(OH) 2, H 2Te, TeI, TeI 2, TeI 4, TeOI 2, SnTe, Sn 2Te 2, SnTe 2.

  6. Periodic orbits in the doubly synchronous binary asteroid systems and their applications in space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Pingyuan

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the periodic motion of a particle in the doubly synchronous binary asteroid systems. Two typical doubly synchronous systems, 809 Lundia and 3169 Ostro, are discussed in detail. Under the Roche figure assumption, the two bodies of doubly synchronous system can be modeled as two triaxial ellipsoids. The Ivory's theorem is used to derive the gravitational potential of the system. Then, a global numerical method, which combines grid searching and differential correction, is developed for systematically searching periodic orbits in the doubly synchronous systems. A total of 30 and 28 families of periodic orbits around Lundia and Ostro are found, respectively. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of morphology, stabilities and invariant manifolds, the potential applications of these periodic orbit families are studied. Several quasi-circular orbit families with low instability index are found to be suitable for the observation of the two typical binary systems. The invariant manifolds of some periodic orbits near the equilibrium points can provide the fuel-free trajectories to achieve the ballistic landing to the surface of the asteroids and transfer between the binary asteroids.

  7. The Q System: A Repressible Binary System for Transgene Expression, Lineage Tracing and Mosaic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Christopher J.; Tasic, Bosiljka; Russler, Emilie V.; Liang, Liang; Luo, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    Summary We describe a new repressible binary expression system based on the regulatory genes from the Neurospora qa gene cluster. This ‘Q system’ offers attractive features for transgene expression in Drosophila and mammalian cells: low basal expression in the absence of the transcriptional activator QF, high QF-induced expression, and QF repression by its repressor QS. Additionally, feeding flies quinic acid can relieve QS repression. The Q system offers many applications including: 1) intersectional ‘logic gates’ with the GAL4 system for manipulating transgene expression patterns, 2) GAL4-independent MARCM analysis, 3) coupled MARCM analysis to independently visualize and genetically manipulate siblings from any cell division. We demonstrate the utility of the Q system in determining cell division patterns of a neuronal lineage and gene function in cell growth and proliferation, and in dissecting neurons responsible for olfactory attraction. The Q system can be expanded to other uses in Drosophila, and to any organism conducive to transgenesis. PMID:20434990

  8. An Extremely Fast Halo Hot Subdwarf Star in a Wide Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Németh, Péter; Ziegerer, Eva; Irrgang, Andreas; Geier, Stephan; Fürst, Felix; Kupfer, Thomas; Heber, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    New spectroscopic observations of the halo hyper-velocity star candidate SDSS J121150.27+143716.2 (V = 17.92 mag) revealed a cool companion to the hot subdwarf primary. The components have a very similar radial velocity and their absolute luminosities are consistent with the same distance, confirming the physical nature of the binary, which is the first double-lined hyper-velocity candidate. Our spectral decomposition of the Keck/ESI spectrum provided an sdB+K3V pair, analogous to many long-period subdwarf binaries observed in the Galactic disk. We found the subdwarf atmospheric parameters: {T}{{eff}}=30\\600+/- 500 K, {log}g=5.57+/- 0.06 cm s‑2, and He abundance {log}(n{{He}}/n{{H}})=-3.0+/- 0.2. Oxygen is the most abundant metal in the hot subdwarf atmosphere, and Mg and Na lines are the most prominent spectral features of the cool companion, consistent with a metallicity of [{{Fe}}/{{H}}]=-1.3. The non-detection of radial velocity variations suggest the orbital period to be a few hundred days, in agreement with similar binaries observed in the disk. Using the SDSS-III flux calibrated spectrum we measured the distance to the system d=5.5+/- 0.5 {{kpc}}, which is consistent with ultraviolet, optical, and infrared photometric constraints derived from binary spectral energy distributions. Our kinematic study shows that the Galactic rest-frame velocity of the system is so high that an unbound orbit cannot be ruled out. On the other hand, a bound orbit requires a massive dark matter halo. We conclude that the binary either formed in the halo or was accreted from the tidal debris of a dwarf galaxy by the Milky Way.

  9. Discovery of Triple Star Systems through Dynamical Eclipse Timing Variations with Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Kyle E.

    2016-05-01

    We present a catalog of precise eclipse times and analysis of third-body signals among 1279 close binaries in the latest Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog. For these short-period binaries, Kepler's 30 minute exposure time causes significant smearing of light curves. In addition, common astrophysical phenomena such as chromospheric activity, as well as imperfections in the light curve detrending process, can create systematic artifacts that may produce fictitious signals in the eclipse timings. We present a method to measure precise eclipse times in the presence of distorted light curves, such as in contact and near-contact binaries which exhibit continuously changing light levels in and out of eclipse. We identify 236 systems for which we find a timing variation signal compatible with the presence of a third body. These are modeled for the light travel time effect and the basic properties of the third body are derived. We summarize the overall distribution of mutual orbital inclination angles, which together now provide strong confirmation of the basic predictions of dynamical evolution through Kozai Cycles and Tidal Friction.

  10. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Alemic, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C.; Areeda, J.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Austin, L.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barbet, M.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Bergmann, G.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bloemen, S.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brückner, F.; Buchman, S.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burman, R.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Castiglia, A.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C.; Colombini, M.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corpuz, A.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Donath, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dossa, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edo, T.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Endrőczi, G.; Essick, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S.; Garufi, F.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gordon, N.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Gräf, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gushwa, K.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanke, M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hart, M.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hooper, S.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y.; Huerta, E.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, H.; Jaranowski, P.; Ji, Y.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karlen, J.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Keiser, G. M.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, N. G.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Koehlenbeck, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kremin, A.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Larson, S.; Lasky, P. D.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.-H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Le Roux, A.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Litvine, V.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Loew, K.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lück, H.; Luijten, E.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Mageswaran, M.; Maglione, C.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Manca, G. M.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martinelli, L.; Martynov, D.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McLin, K.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyers, P.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Milde, S.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moesta, P.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oppermann, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C.; Pai, A.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J.; Poggiani, R.; Poteomkin, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Premachandra, S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E.; Quiroga, G.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Ramirez, K.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sannibale, V.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Scheuer, J.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Sperandio, L.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson, S.; Stone, R.; Stops, D.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Verma, S. S.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vincent-Finley, R.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Williams, K.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Williams, T.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yang, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO science run and the second and third Virgo science runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ˜2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent range of frequency modulation depths from 0.277 to 100 mHz. This corresponds to a range of projected semimajor axes of the orbit from ˜0.6×10-3 ls to ˜6,500 ls assuming the orbit of the binary is circular. While no plausible candidate gravitational wave events survive the pipeline, upper limits are set on the analyzed data. The most sensitive 95% confidence upper limit obtained on gravitational wave strain is 2.3×10-24 at 217 Hz, assuming the source waves are circularly polarized. Although this search has been optimized for circular binary orbits, the upper limits obtained remain valid for orbital eccentricities as large as 0.9. In addition, upper limits are placed on continuous gravitational wave emission from the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 between 20 Hz and 57.25 Hz.

  11. Coalescing binary systems of compact objects to (post)5/2-Newtonian order. V. Spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Lawrence E.

    1995-07-01

    We examine the effects of spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings on the inspiral of a coalescing binary system of spinning compact objects and on the gravitational radiation emitted therefrom. Using a formalism developed by Blanchet, Damour, and Iyer we calculate the contributions due to the spins of the bodies to the symmetric trace-free radiative multipole moments which are used to calculate the waveform, energy loss, and angular momentum loss from the inspiraling binary. Using equations of motion which include terms due to spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings we evolve the orbit of a coalescing binary and use the orbit to calculate the emitted gravitational waveform. We find the spins of the bodies affect the waveform in several ways: (1) the spin terms contribute to the orbital decay of the binary, and thus to the accumulated phase of the gravitational waveform; (2) the spins cause the orbital plane to precess, which changes the orientation of the orbital plane with respect to an observer, thus causing the shape of the waveform to be modulated; (3) the spins contribute directly to the amplitude of the waveform. We discuss the size and importance of spin effects for the case of two coalescing neutron stars, and for the case of a neutron star orbiting a rapidly rotating 10Msolar black hole.

  12. The dynamical mass of a classical Cepheid variable star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyński, G; Thompson, I B; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Bono, G; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Minniti, D; Pilecki, B

    2010-11-25

    Stellar pulsation theory provides a means of determining the masses of pulsating classical Cepheid supergiants-it is the pulsation that causes their luminosity to vary. Such pulsational masses are found to be smaller than the masses derived from stellar evolution theory: this is the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem, for which a solution is missing. An independent, accurate dynamical mass determination for a classical Cepheid variable star (as opposed to type-II Cepheids, low-mass stars with a very different evolutionary history) in a binary system is needed in order to determine which is correct. The accuracy of previous efforts to establish a dynamical Cepheid mass from Galactic single-lined non-eclipsing binaries was typically about 15-30% (refs 6, 7), which is not good enough to resolve the mass discrepancy problem. In spite of many observational efforts, no firm detection of a classical Cepheid in an eclipsing double-lined binary has hitherto been reported. Here we report the discovery of a classical Cepheid in a well detached, double-lined eclipsing binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We determine the mass to a precision of 1% and show that it agrees with its pulsation mass, providing strong evidence that pulsation theory correctly and precisely predicts the masses of classical Cepheids.

  13. The dynamical mass of a classical Cepheid variable star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyński, G; Thompson, I B; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Bono, G; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Minniti, D; Pilecki, B

    2010-11-25

    Stellar pulsation theory provides a means of determining the masses of pulsating classical Cepheid supergiants-it is the pulsation that causes their luminosity to vary. Such pulsational masses are found to be smaller than the masses derived from stellar evolution theory: this is the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem, for which a solution is missing. An independent, accurate dynamical mass determination for a classical Cepheid variable star (as opposed to type-II Cepheids, low-mass stars with a very different evolutionary history) in a binary system is needed in order to determine which is correct. The accuracy of previous efforts to establish a dynamical Cepheid mass from Galactic single-lined non-eclipsing binaries was typically about 15-30% (refs 6, 7), which is not good enough to resolve the mass discrepancy problem. In spite of many observational efforts, no firm detection of a classical Cepheid in an eclipsing double-lined binary has hitherto been reported. Here we report the discovery of a classical Cepheid in a well detached, double-lined eclipsing binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We determine the mass to a precision of 1% and show that it agrees with its pulsation mass, providing strong evidence that pulsation theory correctly and precisely predicts the masses of classical Cepheids. PMID:21107425

  14. Close encounters of the third-body kind. [intruding bodies in binary star systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. B.; Benz, W.; Hills, J. G.

    1994-01-01

    We simulated encounters involving binaries of two eccentricities: e = 0 (i.e., circular binaries) and e = 0.5. In both cases the binary contained a point mass of 1.4 solar masses (i.e., a neutron star) and a 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star modeled as a polytrope. The semimajor axes of both binaries were set to 60 solar radii (0.28 AU). We considered intruders of three masses: 1.4 solar masses (a neutron star), 0.8 solar masses (a main-sequence star or a higher mass white dwarf), and 0.64 solar masses (a more typical mass white dwarf). Our strategy was to perform a large number (40,000) of encounters using a three-body code, then to rerun a small number of cases with a three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code to determine the importance of hydrodynamical effects. Using the results of the three-body runs, we computed the exchange across sections, sigma(sub ex). From the results of the SPH runs, we computed the cross sections for clean exchange, denoted by sigma(sub cx); the formation of a triple system, denoted by sigma(sub trp); and the formation of a merged binary with an object formed from the merger of two of the stars left in orbit around the third star, denoted by sigma(sub mb). For encounters between either binary and a 1.4 solar masses neutron star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.7 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 0.3 sigma(sub ex). For encounters between either binary and the 0.8 solar masses main-sequence star, sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.50 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.0 sigma(sub ex). If the main sequence star is replaced by a main-sequence star of the same mass, we have sigma(sub cx) approx. 0.5 sigma(sub ex) and sigma(sub mb) + sigma(sub trp) approx. 1.6 sigma(sub ex). Although the exchange cross section is a sensitive function of intruder mass, we see that the cross section to produce merged binaries is roughly independent of intruder mass. The merged binaries produced have semi

  15. Gravitational radiation by point particle eccentric binary systems in the linearised characteristic formulation of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedeño Montaña, C. E.; de Araujo, J. C. N.

    2016-04-01

    We study a binary system composed of point particles of unequal masses in eccentric orbits in the linear regime of the characteristic formulation of general relativity, generalising a previous study found in the literature in which a system of equal masses in circular orbits is considered. We also show that the boundary conditions on the time-like world tubes generated by the orbits of the particles can be extended beyond circular orbits. Concerning the power lost by the emission of gravitational waves, it is directly obtained from the Bondi's News function. It is worth stressing that our results are completely consistent, because we obtain the same result for the power derived by Peters and Mathews, in a different approach, in their seminal paper of 1963. In addition, the present study constitutes a powerful tool to construct extraction schemes in the characteristic formalism to obtain the gravitational radiation produced by binary systems during the inspiralling phase.

  16. On angular momentum transfer in binary systems. [stellar orbital period change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum limit for the conversion of orbital angular momentum into rotational angular momentum of the mass-gaining component in a close binary system is derived. It is shown that this conversion process does not seriously affect the rate of orbital period change and can be neglected in computing the mass transfer rate. Integration of this limit over the entire accretion process results in a value for the maximum accumulated rotational angular momentum that is 3 to 4 times larger than that implied by the observed underluminosity of stars in such systems as Mu(1) Sco, V Pup, SX Aur, and V356 Sgr. It is suggested that shell stars and emission-line stars in binary systems may be produced when the core angular momentum is transferred into an envelope having a rotational angular momentum close to the maximum limit.-

  17. Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Jin, Liling; Chen, Chuchu; Rao, Weifeng; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-11-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems are presented. The CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method was used for the thermodynamic optimization, the results of which can reproduce all available reliable experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic data. The modified quasi-chemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) was used for modeling the liquid solution. The Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds were described by the compound energy formalism (CEF) model. All reliable experimental data of the U-Pb and U-Sb systems have been reproduced. A self-consistent thermodynamic database has been constructed for these binary systems; this database can be used in liquid-metal fuel reactor (LMFR) research.

  18. MULTIPLE TIDAL DISRUPTIONS AS AN INDICATOR OF BINARY SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Wegg, Christopher; Nate Bode, J.

    2011-09-01

    We find that the majority of systems hosting multiple tidal disruptions (TDs) are likely to contain hard binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) systems, and also show that the rates of these repeated events are high enough to be detected by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) over its lifetime. Therefore, these multiple TD events provide a novel method for identifying SMBH binary systems with parsec to subparsec separations. The rates of TDs are investigated using simulations of non-interacting stars initially orbiting a primary SMBH and the potential of the model stellar cusp. The stars are then evolved forward in time and perturbed by a secondary SMBH inspiraling from the edge of the cusp to its stalling radius. We find with conservative magnitude estimates that the next-generation transient survey LSST should detect multiple TDs in approximately three galaxies over five years of observation, though less conservative estimates could increase this rate by an order of magnitude.

  19. On the Possibility of Habitable Trojan Planets in Binary Star Systems.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Bazsó, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 60% of all stars in the solar neighbourhood (up to 80% in our Milky Way) are members of binary or multiple star systems. This fact led to the speculations that many more planets may exist in binary systems than are currently known. To estimate the habitability of exoplanetary systems, we have to define the so-called habitable zone (HZ). The HZ is defined as a region around a star where a planet would receive enough radiation to maintain liquid water on its surface and to be able to build a stable atmosphere. We search for new dynamical configurations-where planets may stay in stable orbits-to increase the probability to find a planet like the Earth.

  20. Reprocessing the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data of spectroscopic binaries. II. Systems with a giant component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.

    2003-02-01

    By reanalyzing the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data of a large sample of spectroscopic binaries containing a giant, we obtain a sample of 29 systems fulfilling a carefully derived set of constraints and hence for which we can derive an accurate orbital solution. Of these, one is a double-lined spectroscopic binary and six were not listed in the DMSA/O section of the catalogue. Using our solutions, we derive the masses of the components in these systems and statistically analyze them. We also briefly discuss each system individually. Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operated by the European Space Agency (ESA 1997) and on data collected with the Simbad database.

  1. On the Possibility of Habitable Trojan Planets in Binary Star Systems.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Bazsó, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 60% of all stars in the solar neighbourhood (up to 80% in our Milky Way) are members of binary or multiple star systems. This fact led to the speculations that many more planets may exist in binary systems than are currently known. To estimate the habitability of exoplanetary systems, we have to define the so-called habitable zone (HZ). The HZ is defined as a region around a star where a planet would receive enough radiation to maintain liquid water on its surface and to be able to build a stable atmosphere. We search for new dynamical configurations-where planets may stay in stable orbits-to increase the probability to find a planet like the Earth. PMID:26113154

  2. Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-Re binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Khurram; Joubert, Jean-Marc

    2012-12-01

    The phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system has been partially reinvestigated by chemical, structural and thermal characterization of the arc melted alloys. The experimental results obtained during the present investigation were combined with the literature data and a new phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system is proposed. In comparison with the Ni-Re phase diagram proposed by Nash et al. in 1985 [1], significant differences in the homogeneity domains, freezing ranges and peritectic reaction temperature were evidenced. On the other hand, thermodynamic modeling of the studied system by using the new experimental information has also been carried out with the help of the CALPHAD method. The calculated Ni-Re phase diagram showed a good agreement with the selected experimental information.

  3. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  4. Coronal temperatures of unusually active K-dwarf binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of a ROSAT pointed study of 4 BY Dra systems. Good quality pulse-height spectra are available from all four systems. Except for a required interstellar absorption component in HD 319139, the four systems have remarkably similar x-ray spectra; the two systems BD +22deg.669 and BD +23deg.635 look virtually identical in x rays. Analysis of the 4 x-ray spectra reveals that, in all cases, a single-temperature hot plasma (RS or Mewe) spectra is inadequate to fit the data, and two temperatures are required. We present examples of fitted pulse-height spectra and chi squared contours in kT(sub 1)-kT(sub 2) space.

  5. Interspecies stress in momentum equations for dense binary particulate systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D Z; Ma, X; Rauenzahn, R M

    2006-07-28

    For two-species particulate systems, ensemble averaged continuity and momentum equations for each species are derived based on the Liouville equation of the system. The ensemble average used is species specific. It is found that the interaction between species results in not only the interspecies force but also a stress in the momentum equations. In the limit that particles of one of the species can be considered as a continuum, the existence of the interspecies stress enables us to reduce the derived equations to the familiar form for dispersed two-phase flows.

  6. Rotationally driven Fragmentation in the Formation of the Binary Protostellar System L1551 IRS 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeremy; Yeung, Paul K. H.; Hanawa, Tomoyuki; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    Both bulk rotation and local turbulence have been widely suggested to drive the fragmentation in collapsing cores that produces multiple star systems. Even when the two mechanisms predict different alignments for stellar spins and orbits, subsequent internal or external interactions can drive multiple systems toward or away from alignment, thus masking their formation processes. Here, we demonstrate that the geometrical and dynamical relationship between a binary system and its surrounding bulk envelope provide the crucial distinction between fragmentation models. We find that the circumstellar disks of the binary protostellar system L1551 IRS 5 are closely parallel, not just with each other but also with their surrounding flattened envelope. Measurements of the relative proper motion of the binary components spanning nearly 30 years indicate an orbital motion related to that of the envelope rotation. Eliminating orbital solutions whereby the circumstellar disks would be tidally truncated to sizes smaller than observed, the remaining solutions favor a circular or low-eccentricity orbit tilted by up to ˜25° from the circumstellar disks. Turbulence-driven fragmentation can generate local angular momentum to produce a coplanar binary system, but this would have no particular relationship to the system’s surrounding envelope. Instead, the observed properties conform with predictions for rotationally driven fragmentation. If the fragments were produced at different heights or on opposite sides of the mid-plane in the flattened central region of a rotating core, the resulting protostars would then exhibit circumstellar disks parallel with the surrounding envelope but tilted from the orbital plane, as is observed.

  7. Circumbinary Ring, Circumstellar Disks, and Accretion in the Binary System UY Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ya-Wen; Dutrey, Anne; Guilloteau, Stéphane; Piétu, Vincent; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Beck, Tracy; Ho, Paul T. P.; Boehler, Yann; Gueth, Fréderic; Bary, Jeff; Simon, Michal

    2014-09-01

    Recent exo-planetary surveys reveal that planets can orbit and survive around binary stars. This suggests that some fraction of young binary systems which possess massive circumbinary (CB) disks may be in the midst of planet formation. However, there are very few CB disks detected. We revisit one of the known CB disks, the UY Aurigae system, and probe 13CO 2-1, C18O 2-1, SO 5(6)-4(5) and 12CO 3-2 line emission and the thermal dust continuum. Our new results confirm the existence of the CB disk. In addition, the circumstellar (CS) disks are clearly resolved in dust continuum at 1.4 mm. The spectral indices between the wavelengths of 0.85 mm and 6 cm are found to be surprisingly low, being 1.6 for both CS disks. The deprojected separation of the binary is 1.''26 based on our 1.4 mm continuum data. This is 0.''07 (10 AU) larger than in earlier studies. Combining the fact of the variation of UY Aur B in R band, we propose that the CS disk of an undetected companion UY Aur Bb obscures UY Aur Ba. A very complex kinematical pattern inside the CB disk is observed due to a mixing of Keplerian rotation of the CB disk, the infall and outflow gas. The streaming gas accreting from the CB ring toward the CS disks and possible outflows are also identified and resolved. The SO emission is found to be at the bases of the streaming shocks. Our results suggest that the UY Aur system is undergoing an active accretion phase from the CB disk to the CS disks. The UY Aur B might also be a binary system, making the UY Aur a triple system.

  8. Searching for Binary Y Dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, C. G.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sweet, Sarah; Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2016-03-01

    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or equal-mass) binaries with separations larger than ˜0.5-1.9 AU. For equal-mass binaries at an age of 5 Gyr, we find that the binary binding energies ruled out by our observations (i.e., 1042 erg) are consistent with those observed in previous studies of hotter ultra-cool dwarfs.

  9. A state change in the missing link binary pulsar system PSR J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.; Archibald, A. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bassa, C. G.; Janssen, G. H.; Bogdanov, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Patruno, A.; Tendulkar, S.; Hill, A. B.; Glanzman, T.

    2014-07-20

    We present radio and γ-ray observations, which, along with concurrent X-ray observations, reveal that the binary millisecond pulsar (MSP)/low-mass X-ray binary transition system PSR J1023+0038 has undergone a transformation in state. Whereas until recently the system harbored a bright millisecond radio pulsar, the radio pulsations at frequencies between 300 to 5000 MHz have now become undetectable. Concurrent with this radio disappearance, the γ-ray flux of the system has quintupled. We conclude that, though the radio pulsar is currently not detectable, the pulsar mechanism is still active and the pulsar wind, as well as a newly formed accretion disk, are together providing the necessary conditions to create the γ-ray increase. This system is the first example of a compact, low-mass binary which has shown significant state changes accompanied by large changes in γ-ray flux; it will continue to provide an exceptional test bed for better understanding the formation of MSPs as well as accretion onto neutron stars in general.

  10. Trajectory exploration within asynchronous binary asteroid systems using refined Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Haibin; Wu, Xiaoyu; Cui, Pingyuan

    2016-09-01

    Ground observations have found that asynchronous systems constitute most of the population of the near-Earth binary asteroids. This paper concerns the trajectory of a particle in the asynchronous system which is systematically described using periodic ellipsoidal and spherical body models. Due to the non-autonomous characteristics of the asynchronous system, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) are employed to identify the various dynamical behaviors. To enhance the accuracy of LCS, a robust LCS finding algorithm is developed incorporating hierarchical grid refinement, one-dimensional search and variational theory verification. In this way, the intricate dynamical transport boundaries are detected efficiently. These boundaries indicate that a total of 15 types of trajectories exist near asynchronous binary asteroids. According to their Kepler energy variations, these trajectories can be grouped into four basic categories, i.e., transitory, escape, impact and flyby trajectories. Furthermore, the influence of the ellipsoid's spin period on the dynamical behavior is discussed in the context of the change of dynamical regions. We found that the transitory and impact motions occur easily in the synchronous-like binary systems, in which the rotation period of the ellipsoid is nearly equal to that of the mutual orbit. Meanwhile, the results confirm a positive correlation between the spinning rate of the ellipsoid and the probability of the escape and flyby trajectories. The LCS also reveal a marked increase in trajectory diversity after a larger initial energy is selected.

  11. Physical Properties and Evolution of the Eclipsing Binary System XZ Canis Minoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poochaum, R.; Komonjinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Rattanasoon, S.

    2010-07-01

    This research aims to study the eclipse binary system so that its physical properties and evolution can be determined and used as an example to teach high school astronomy. The study of an eclipsing binary system XZ Canis Minoris (XZ CMi) was done at Sirindhorn Observatory, Chiang Mai University using a 0.5-meter reflecting telescope with CCD photometric system (2184×1417 pixel) in B V and R bands of UVB System. The data obtained were used to construct the light curve for each wavelength band and to compute the times of its light minima. New elements were derived using observations with linear to all available minima. As a result, linear ephemeris is HDJmin I = .578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121+2450 515.321 26+/-0.001 07 E, and the new orbital period of XZ CMi is 0.578 808 948+/-0.000 000 121 day. The values obtained were used with the previously published times of minima to get O-C curve of XZ CMi. The result revealed that the orbital period of XZ CMi is continuously decreased at a rate of 0.007 31+/-0.000 57 sec/year. This result indicates that the binary stars are moving closer continuously. From the O-C residuals, there is significant change to indicate the existence of the third body or magnetic activity cycle on the star. However, further analysis of the physical properties of XZ CMi is required.

  12. A possible third component in the eclipsing binary system HS 2231+2441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shliahetskaya, Ya. O.

    2016-05-01

    We used a differential photometry method in which we compared the flow of program star and standard one. Observations of the 21 nights in the period from July 26 to December 2, 2015 are used for processing. The accuracy of determining for each measurement is in the range 0,003...0,009 m for different nights. On the basis of obtained data were created corresponding light curves. Next, we calculate the time difference between the centers of transits. Its time dependence showed the presence of a possible periodic change in the deflection of the middle transit time from the calculated average value. This may indicate the presence of a third object in the eclipsing binary system. It has been found that the periodic variation of the orbital period can be explained by the gravitational influence of a third companion on the central binary system with an orbital period of about 97±10 d.

  13. A Quick Method to Identify Secular Resonances in Multi-planet Systems with a Binary Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Bazsó, A.; Funk, B.

    2016-11-01

    Gravitational perturbations in multi-planet systems caused by an accompanying star are the subject of this investigation. Our dynamical model is based on the binary star HD 41004 AB where a giant planet orbits HD 41004 A. We modify the orbital parameters of this system and analyze the motion of a hypothetical test planet surrounding HD 41004 A on an interior orbit to the detected giant planet. Our numerical computations indicate perturbations due to mean motion and secular resonances (SRs). The locations of these resonances are usually connected to high eccentricity and highly inclined motion depending strongly on the binary-planet architecture. As the positions of mean motion resonances can easily be determined, the main purpose of this study is to present a new semi-analytical method to determine the location of an SR without huge computational effort.

  14. Phase Diagrams of Binary Alkanoate Systems with Common Cation: Potassium Isobutyrate-Propionate, and Sodium Butyrate-Isobutyrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuk, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1996-08-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary mixtures of mesogenic potassium isobutyrate with non-mesogenic potassium propionate and mesogenic sodium butyrate with non-mesogenic sodium isobutyrate have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. Both systems have one eutectic and one metatectic phase equilibriums. Pecularities of liquid crystal formation in binary alkanoate systems with common alkali metal cation are discussed and compared with those of systems with common anion.

  15. Measuring the spin of black holes in binary systems using gravitational waves.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Salvatore; Lynch, Ryan; Veitch, John; Raymond, Vivien; Sturani, Riccardo

    2014-06-27

    Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this Letter, we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientations, and signal-to-noise ratios, as detected by an advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that for moderate or high signal-to-noise ratio the spin magnitudes can be estimated with errors of a few percent (5%-30%) for neutron star-black hole (black hole-black hole) systems. Spins' tilt angle can be estimated with errors of 0.04 rad in the best cases, but typical values will be above 0.1 rad. Errors will be larger for signals barely above the threshold for detection. The difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from angles such that the plane of the orbit can be seen both from above and below during the time the signal is in band. This study suggests that direct measurement of black hole spin by means of GWs can be as precise as what can be obtained from x-ray binaries.

  16. Observing quantum vacuum lensing in a neutron star binary system.

    PubMed

    Dupays, Arnaud; Robilliard, Cécile; Rizzo, Carlo; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2005-04-29

    In this Letter we study the propagation of light in the neighborhood of magnetized neutron stars. Because of the optical properties of quantum vacuum in the presence of a magnetic field, the light emitted by background astronomical objects is deviated, giving rise to a phenomenon of the same kind as the gravitational one. We give a quantitative estimation of this effect, and we discuss the possibility of its observation. We show that this effect could be detected by monitoring the evolution of the recently discovered double neutron star system J0737-3039.

  17. Observing quantum vacuum lensing in a neutron star binary system.

    PubMed

    Dupays, Arnaud; Robilliard, Cécile; Rizzo, Carlo; Bignami, Giovanni F

    2005-04-29

    In this Letter we study the propagation of light in the neighborhood of magnetized neutron stars. Because of the optical properties of quantum vacuum in the presence of a magnetic field, the light emitted by background astronomical objects is deviated, giving rise to a phenomenon of the same kind as the gravitational one. We give a quantitative estimation of this effect, and we discuss the possibility of its observation. We show that this effect could be detected by monitoring the evolution of the recently discovered double neutron star system J0737-3039. PMID:15904205

  18. GRAVITATIONAL CONUNDRUM? DYNAMICAL MASS SEGREGATION VERSUS DISRUPTION OF BINARY STARS IN DENSE STELLAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    De Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Zheng, Yong; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.; Deng, Licai; Hu, Yi; Wicker, James E.

    2013-03-01

    Upon their formation, dynamically cool (collapsing) star clusters will, within only a few million years, achieve stellar mass segregation for stars down to a few solar masses, simply because of gravitational two-body encounters. Since binary systems are, on average, more massive than single stars, one would expect them to also rapidly mass segregate dynamically. Contrary to these expectations and based on high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope observations, we show that the compact, 15-30 Myr old Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1818 exhibits tantalizing hints at the {approx}> 2{sigma} level of significance (>3{sigma} if we assume a power-law secondary-to-primary mass-ratio distribution) of an increasing fraction of F-star binary systems (with combined masses of 1.3-1.6 M {sub Sun }) with increasing distance from the cluster center, specifically between the inner 10''-20'' (approximately equivalent to the cluster's core and half-mass radii) and the outer 60''-80''. If confirmed, then this will offer support for the theoretically predicted but thus far unobserved dynamical disruption processes of the significant population of 'soft' binary systems-with relatively low binding energies compared to the kinetic energy of their stellar members-in star clusters, which we have access to here by virtue of the cluster's unique combination of youth and high stellar density.

  19. Polar Pattern Formation in Driven Filament Systems Require Non-Binary Particle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A.; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    Living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner, which is exemplified throughout nature ranging from the self-organisation of the cytoskeleton to flocks of animals [1–4]. The microscopic dynamics of constituents have been linked to the system’s meso- or macroscopic behaviour in silico via the Boltzmann equation for propelled particles [5–10]. Thereby, simplified binary collision rules between the constituents had to be assumed due to the lack of experimental data. We report here experimentally determined binary collision statistics by studying the recently introduced molecular system, the high density actomyosin motility assay [11–13]. We demonstrate that the alignment effect of the binary collision statistics is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, which indicates that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. The presented findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active matter systems require a description that goes well beyond a gas-like picture developed in the framework of kinetic theories.

  20. Polar Pattern Formation in Driven Filament Systems Require Non-Binary Particle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A.; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    Living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner, which is exemplified throughout nature ranging from the self-organisation of the cytoskeleton to flocks of animals [1–4]. The microscopic dynamics of constituents have been linked to the system’s meso- or macroscopic behaviour in silico via the Boltzmann equation for propelled particles [5–10]. Thereby, simplified binary collision rules between the constituents had to be assumed due to the lack of experimental data. We report here experimentally determined binary collision statistics by studying the recently introduced molecular system, the high density actomyosin motility assay [11–13]. We demonstrate that the alignment effect of the binary collision statistics is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, which indicates that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. The presented findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active matter systems require a description that goes well beyond a gas-like picture developed in the framework of kinetic theories. PMID:27656244

  1. Stability and Fourier-Series Periodic Solution in the Binary Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mia, Rajib; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we use the restricted three body problem in the binary stellar systems, taking photogravitational effects of both the stars. The aim of this study is to investigate the motion of the infinitesimal mass in the vicinity of the Lagrangian points. We have computed semi-analytical expressions for the locations of the collinear points with the help of the perturbation technique. The stability of the triangular points is studied in stellar binary systems Kepler-34, Kepler-35, Kepler-413 and Kepler-16. To investigate the stability of the triangular points, we have obtained the expressions for critical mass which depend on the radiation of both primaries. Fourier-series method is applied to obtain periodic orbits of the infinitesimal mass around triangular points in binary stellar systems. We have obtained Fourier expansions of the periodic orbits around triangular points upto third order terms. A comparison is made between periodic orbits obtained by Fourier-series method and with Runge-Kutta integration of fourth order.

  2. Polar pattern formation in driven filament systems requires non-binary particle collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Weber, Christoph A.; Frey, Erwin; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2015-10-01

    From the self-organization of the cytoskeleton to the synchronous motion of bird flocks, living matter has the extraordinary ability to behave in a concerted manner. The Boltzmann equation for self-propelled particles is frequently used in silico to link a system’s meso- or macroscopic behaviour to the microscopic dynamics of its constituents. But so far such studies have relied on an assumption of simplified binary collisions owing to a lack of experimental data suggesting otherwise. We report here experimentally determined binary-collision statistics by studying a recently introduced molecular system, the high-density actomyosin motility assay. We demonstrate that the alignment induced by binary collisions is too weak to account for the observed ordering transition. The transition density for polar pattern formation decreases quadratically with filament length, indicating that multi-filament collisions drive the observed ordering phenomenon and that a gas-like picture cannot explain the transition of the system to polar order. Our findings demonstrate that the unique properties of biological active-matter systems require a description that goes well beyond that developed in the framework of kinetic theories.

  3. Detection of a white dwarf in a visual binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    The F6 giant HD 160365 was detected to have a white dwarf companion about 8 arcsec south of the star. The UV energy distribution observed with IUE shows that the white dwarf has an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 2000 K. If log g = 8 the Lya profile indicates an effective temperature around 24,500 K. Using the theoretical models by Wesemael et al. (1980) one finds a visual magnitude of m(V) about 16.5. For T(eff) = 24,500 K one expects for a white dwarf a luminosity of log L/L(solar) about 1.3 and M(V) about 10.67. This gives a distance modulus for the system of m(V) - M(V) = 5.83 and an absolute magnitude M(V)= 0.3 for the giant.

  4. Modulator for tone and binary signals. [phase of modulation of tone and binary signals on carrier waves in communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcchesney, J. R.; Lerner, T.; Fitch, E. J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    Tones and binary information are transmitted as phase variations on a carrier wave of constant amplitude and frequency. The carrier and tones are applied to a balanced modulator for deriving an output signal including a pair of sidebands relative to the carrier. The carrier is phase modulated by a digital signal so that it is + or - 90 deg out of phase with the predetermined phase of the carrier. The carrier is combined in an algebraic summing device with the phase modulated signal and the balanced modulator output signal. The output of the algebraic summing device is hard limited to derive a constant amplitude and frequency signal having very narrow bandwidth requirements. At a receiver, the tones and binary data are detected with a phase locked loop having a voltage controlled oscillator driving a pair of orthogonal detection channels.

  5. AL Cassiopeiae: An F-type Contact Binary System with a Cool Stellar Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zola, S.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Leung, K.-C.

    2014-11-01

    According to the general catalog of variable stars, AL Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed-calculated (O - C) curve of AL Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M 3sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M ⊙ when a total mass of 2.14 M ⊙ for AL Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the system by removing angular momentum from the central binary system during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached system to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.

  6. AL Cassiopeiae: An F-type contact binary system with a cool stellar companion

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Zhao, E.-G.; Liao, W.-P.; Zola, S.; Leung, K.-C.

    2014-11-01

    According to the general catalog of variable stars, AL Cas was classified as an EW-type eclipsing binary with a spectral type of B and an orbital period of P = 0.5005555 days. The first photometric light curves of the close binary in the B, V, R, and I bands are presented. New low-resolution spectra indicate that its spectral type is about F7 rather than B-type. A photometric analysis with the Wilson-Devinney method suggests that it is a contact binary (f = 39.3%) with a mass ratio of 0.61. Using 17 newly determined eclipse times together with those collected from the literature, we found that the observed–calculated (O – C) curve of AL Cas shows a cyclic change with a period of 86.6 yr and an amplitude of 0.0181 days. The periodic variation was analyzed for the light-travel time effect via the presence of a third body. The mass of the third body was determined to be M {sub 3}sin i' = 0.29(± 0.05) M {sub ☉} when a total mass of 2.14 M {sub ☉} for AL Cas is adopted. It is expected that the cool companion star may have played an important role in the origin and evolution of the system by removing angular momentum from the central binary system during early dynamical interaction and/or late dynamical evolution. This causes the original detached system to have a low angular momentum and a short initial orbital period. Then it can evolve into the present contact configuration via a case A mass transfer.

  7. Constructing optimized binary masks for reservoir computing with delay systems.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, Lennert; Van der Sande, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Fischer, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Reservoir computing is a novel bio-inspired computing method, capable of solving complex tasks in a computationally efficient way. It has recently been successfully implemented using delayed feedback systems, allowing to reduce the hardware complexity of brain-inspired computers drastically. In this approach, the pre-processing procedure relies on the definition of a temporal mask which serves as a scaled time-mutiplexing of the input. Originally, random masks had been chosen, motivated by the random connectivity in reservoirs. This random generation can sometimes fail. Moreover, for hardware implementations random generation is not ideal due to its complexity and the requirement for trial and error. We outline a procedure to reliably construct an optimal mask pattern in terms of multipurpose performance, derived from the concept of maximum length sequences. Not only does this ensure the creation of the shortest possible mask that leads to maximum variability in the reservoir states for the given reservoir, it also allows for an interpretation of the statistical significance of the provided training samples for the task at hand.

  8. Heterogeneity and subjectivity in binary-state opinion formation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Long; Luo, Zhongjie; Zhu, Yueying

    2013-11-01

    In society, there is heterogeneous interaction and randomness in human decision making. In order to unfold the roles and the competition of the two factors mentioned above in opinion formation, we propose a toy model, which follows a majority rule with a Fermi function, on scale-free networks with degree exponent γ. The heterogeneous interaction is related to the connectivity of a person with the interactive parameter β, and the randomness of human decision making is quantified by the interaction noise T. We find that a system with heterogeneity of network topology and interaction shows robustness perturbed by the interaction noise T according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Then, when T → 0, the homogeneous interaction (β ≃ 0) has a powerful implication for the emergence of a consensus state. Furthermore, the emergence of the two extreme values shows the competition of the heterogeneity of interaction and the subjectivity of human decision making in opinion formation. Our present work provides some perspective on and tools for understanding the diversity of opinion in our society.

  9. Homogeneous bubble nucleation in binary systems of liquid solvent and dissolved gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    A formulation of the classical nucleation theory (CNT) is developed for bubble nucleation in a binary system composed of a liquid solvent and a dissolved gas. The theoretical predictions are compared to the experimental nucleation data of four binary mixtures, i.e. diethylether - nitrogen, propane - carbon dioxide, isobutane - carbon dioxide, and R22 (chlorodifluoromethane) - carbon dioxide. The presented CNT formulation is found to improve the precision of the simpler theoretical method of Ward et al. [J. Basic Eng. 92 (10), 71-80, 1970] based on the weak-solution approximation. By analyzing the available experimental nucleation data, an inconsistency in the data reported by Mori et al. [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 19 (10), 1153-1159, 1976] for propane - carbon dioxide and R22 - carbon dioxide is identified.

  10. Phase Behavior of Nematic-Nonnematic Binary Systems: III. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaba, Kazunori; Igarashi, Atsuko; Kobinata, Shunsuke

    1998-12-01

    For the binary mixtures of nematic 4-pentyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) with some kinds of nonnematic solutes, which showed `unusual' increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature compared with that of pure 5CB, we have measured the temperature dependence of the IR dichroic ratio for several bands of 5CB and of the solutes. The dichroic ratios and their temperature dependence distinctly showed the presence of rather firmly hydrogen-bonded complexes in these binary systems. We found some interesting results, e.g., the dichroic ratios for the OH stretching mode of phenol, which is hydrogen bonded to the CN group of 5CB, and for p-ethyl benzoic acid were larger than the dichroic ratio of the CN band. The temperature dependence of the second-order parameters derived from IR dichroic ratios was analyzed based on a Maier-Saupe-type mean field theory.

  11. Light Curve Analysis for W UMa-Type Eclipsing Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Scott; Peach, N.; Olsen, T.

    2006-12-01

    We report results from summer 2006 in an ongoing study of eclipsing binary stars. Our investigations have focused on the measurement and interpretation of light curves for W UMa-type systems 44i Boötis and VW Cephei. These contact binaries have component stars of spectral type G, and revolve with periods of 6.43 and 6.67 hours. Dome automation and scripting capabilities introduced this summer have significantly reduced experimental uncertainties in our data. In support of previous findings we continue to observe an increase in the orbital period of 44i Boo at a rate of 10.4 µs/epoch or 14.2 ms/yr. Residuals computed after incorporating the increasing period suggest an underlying sinusoidal oscillation with a 61.5 year period and amplitude of 648 seconds. AAPT Member Thomas Olsen is sponsoring the lead presenter, SPS Member Scott Henderson, and the co-presenter, SPS Member Nick Peach.

  12. Thermodynamics of interfacial energy in binary metallic systems: influence of adsorption on dihedral angles

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, I. . E-mail: ichiko@eps.s.u-tiokyo.ac.jp; Takei, Y.

    2005-02-01

    The solid-liquid interfacial energy (or interfacial tension) was investigated by the lattice-liquid statistical calculation and by the Cahn-Hilliard theory of interface. Interfacial energies in binary metallic systems were estimated from a few bulk thermodynamic properties, i.e., melting temperature, entropy of fusion, and the critical temperature of the liquid phase. In eutectic systems, interfacial energy gradually increases with decreasing concentration of the solid species in the liquid. In monotectic systems, interfacial thickening occurs and interfacial energy is reduced around the liquid immiscibility gap. The results of calculation explain the experimental data of dihedral angles fairly well.

  13. Search for pairs of isolated radio pulsars—Components in disrupted binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmyreva, E. G.; Beskin, G. M.; Biryukov, A. V.

    2010-02-01

    We have developed a method for analyzing the kinematic association of isolated relativistic objects-possible remnants of disrupted close binary systems. We investigate pairs of fairly young radio pulsars with known proper motions and estimated distances (dispersion measures) that are spaced no more than 2-3 kpc apart. Using a specified radial velocity distribution for these objects, we have constructed 100-300 thousand trajectories of their possible motion in the Galactic gravitational field on a time scale of several million years. The probabilities of their close encounters at epochs consistent with the age of the younger pulsar in the pair are analyzed. When these probabilities exceed considerably their reference values obtained by assuming a purely random encounter between the pulsars under consideration, we conclude that the objects may have been gravitationally bound in the past. As a result, we have detected six pulsar pairs (J0543+2329/J0528+2200, J1453-6413/J1430-6623, J2354+6155/J2321+6024, J1915+1009/J1909+1102, J1832-0827/J1836-1008, and J1917+1353/J1926+1648) that are companions in disrupted binary systems with a high probability. Estimates of their kinematic ages and velocities at binary disruption and at the present epoch are provided.

  14. X-ray transfer in binary systems - A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertz, P.; Joss, P. C.; Rappaport, S.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for Monte Carlo calculations of X-ray light curves for binary systems surrounded by clouds with simple density distributions, chemical compositions, and ionization structures. Occultation of the X radiation by the companion star is taken into account along with Compton scattering and photoionization within the clouds. The models are used to examine the effect of various cloud geometries and ionization structures on the emergent X-ray flux as a function of orbital phase and X-ray energy. The results demonstrate the sensitivity of observed light curves and phase-dependent spectra with respect to the optical depth, geometry, and ionization structure of a surrounding cloud for the cases of a uniform-density cloud with a radius four times the binary orbital separation, a steady-state constant-velocity stellar wind emanating from the companion star, and a spherically symmetric shell or 'cocoon' of the type proposed for Cyg X-3. It is concluded that X-ray binary systems are unlikely to be surrounded by obscuring clouds.

  15. Observation of binary systems at very-high energies with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, G.; VERITAS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    Non-thermal variable emission from radio to very-high energy gamma rays (VHE; >100 GeV) are the prime characteristics of gamma-ray binaries. The underlying physical processes leading to the observed VHE emission are not well understood, as even the most basic features of these systems are under dispute (microquasar model vs shocked pulsar wind model). VHE binaries can be difficult to observe, some have orbital periods of the order of years (e.g. HESS J0632+057 or PSR B1259-69) or show irregular emission patterns as observed in LS I +61 303. We present here new VERITAS observations of the binary systems LS I +61 303 and HESS J0632+057 carried out with higher sensitivity and more dense temporal coverage than previous observations. The gamma-ray results and their astrophysical implications are discussed in the context of contemporaneous observations with Swift XRT and Fermi LAT at X-ray and gamma-ray energies.

  16. Ultra-Wide Trans-Neptunian Binaries: Tracers of the Outer Solar System's History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Alex Harrison

    Ultra-wide Trans-Neptunian Binaries (TNBs) are extremely sensitive to perturbation, and therefore make excellent probes of the past and present dynamical environment of the outer Solar System. Using data gathered from a host of facilities we have determined the mutual orbits for a sample of seven wide TNBs whose periods exceed one year. This characterized sample provides us with new information about the probable formation scenarios of TNBs, and has significant implications for the early dynamical and collisional history of the Kuiper Belt. We show that these wide binaries have short collisional lifetimes, and use them to produce a new estimate of the number of small (˜1 km) objects in the Kuiper Belt. Additionally, these systems are susceptible to tidal disruption, and we show that it is unlikely that they were ever subjected to a period of close encounters with the giant planets. We find that the current properties of these ultra-wide Trans-Neptunian Binaries suggest that planetesimal growth in the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt did not occur through slow hierarchical accretion, but rather through rapid gravitational collapse.

  17. Binary system and jet precession and expansion in G35.20-0.74N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltrán, M. T.; Cesaroni, R.; Moscadelli, L.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Hirota, T.; Kumar, M. S. N.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the high-mass star-forming region G35.20-0.74N have revealed the presence of a Keplerian disk in core B rotating about a massive object of 18 M⊙, as computed from the velocity field. The luminosity of such a massive star would be comparable to (or higher than) the luminosity of the whole star-forming region. To solve this problem it has been proposed that core B could harbor a binary system. This could also explain the possible precession of the radio jet associated with this core, which has been suggested by its S-shaped morphology. Aims: We establish the origin of the free-free emission from core B and investigate the existence of a binary system at the center of this massive core and the possible precession of the radio jet. Methods: We carried out VLA continuum observations of G35.20-0.74N at 2 cm in the B configuration and at 1.3 cm and 7 mm in the A and B configurations. The bandwidth at 7 mm covers the CH3OH maser line at 44.069 GHz. Continuum images at 6 and 3.6 cm in the A configuration were obtained from the VLA archive. We also carried out VERA observations of the H2O maser line at 22.235 GHz. Results: The observations have revealed the presence of a binary system of UC/HC Hii regions at the geometrical center of the radio jet in G35.20-0.74N. This binary system, which is associated with a Keplerian rotating disk, consists of two B-type stars of 11 and 6 M⊙. The S-shaped morphology of the radio jet has been successfully explained as being due to precession produced by the binary system. The analysis of the precession of the radio jet has allowed us to better interpret the IR emission in the region, which would be not tracing a wide-angle cavity open by a single outflow with a position angle of ~55°, but two different flows: a precessing one in the NE-SW direction associated with the radio jet, and a second one in an almost E-W direction. Comparison of the radio jet images

  18. ASAS J083241+2332.4: A New Extreme Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriram, K.; Malu, S.; Choi, C. S.; Vivekananda Rao, P.

    2016-03-01

    We present the R- and V-band CCD photometry and Hα line studies of an overcontact binary ASAS J083241+2332.4. The light curves exhibit totality along with a trace of the O’Connell effect. The photometric solution indicates that this system falls into the category of extreme low-mass ratio overcontact binaries with a mass ratio, q ˜ 0.06. Although a trace of the O’ Connell effect is observed, constancy of the Hα line along various phases suggest that a relatively higher magnetic activity is needed for it to show a prominent fill-in effect. The study of O-C variations reveals that the period of the binary shows a secular increase at the rate of dP/dt ˜ 0.0765 s years-1, which is superimposed by a low, but significant, sinusoidal modulation with a period of ˜8.25 years. Assuming that the sinusoidal variation is due to the presence of a third body, orbital elements have been derived. There exist three other similar systems, SX Crv, V857 Her, and E53, which have extremely low mass ratios and we conclude that ASAS J083241+2332.4 resembles SX Crv in many respects. Theoretical studies indicate that at a critical mass ratio range, qcritical = 0.07-0.09, overcontact binaries should merge and form a fast rotating star, but it has been suggested that qcritical can continue to fall up to 0.05 depending on the primary's mass and structure. Moreover, the obtained fill-out factors (50%-70%) indicate that mass loss is considerable and hydrodynamical simulations advocate that mass loss from L2 is mandatory for a successful merging process. Comprehensively, the results indicate that ASAS J083241+2332.4 is at a stage of merger. The pivotal role played by the subtle nature of the derived mass ratio in forming a rapidly rotating star has been discussed.

  19. Multiperiodicity of the Pulsating Component in the Algol-type Binary System CT Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampens, Patricia J.; et al.

    2007-08-01

    The primary component of CT Her, a semi-detached eclipsing binary, is a Delta Scuti-type variable star with a period of about 27 min and a peak-to-peak amplitude of at most 0.03 mag. The light curves also show modulation, implying multiperiodicity. During the summer of 2005, a dedicated multi-site campaign was organised for this interesting target among the known mass-accreting pulsating components in Algol-type binary systems (oEA stars, Mkrtichian et al. 2004): it has a short orbital period of 1.7864 days and one of the highest ratios P_orb/P_puls (~95) among the ~20 oEA stars known to-date. We collected more than 1000 photometric data in the (Johnson) V filter and more than 4000 in the (Johnson) B filter using various observatories located in three different continents, mostly in the years 2005 and 2006. Using approximate photometric and absolute elements as starting parameters to describe the system and its two components, we fitted the combined V- and B-light curves with a well-matching semi-detached binary model using the code PHOEBE, following the principles of the Wilson-Devinney method. After subtraction of this improved binary model, the out-of-primary-eclipse V- and B-residual data were subsequently analysed using standard Fourier techniques. The frequency searches revealed four, possibly five significant pulsation frequencies in the frequency range 45-53 c/d with semi-amplitudes of a few mmag, of which three are well-identified (not affected by the aliasing phenomenon). The remaining standard deviation of the B-residuals spread over 3 years is 3.7 mmag, in some cases the residual light curves show clear systematic deviations still too large to be caused by white noise only.

  20. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. IX. V345 Geminorum with a Bright Visual Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhu, L.-Y.; He, J.-J.

    2009-08-01

    CCD photometric observations of the visual binary, V345 Geminorum, obtained from 2007 January 24 to 2009 March 22, are presented. When comparing the light curves in 2007 and 2008, it is found that there appears to be an O'Connell effect in the light curves of 2008. From those observations, two sets of photometric solutions were deduced using the 2003 version of the W-D program. The results indicated that V345 Gem is a low mass ratio overcontact binary with f = 72.9%(±3.1%). The asymmetric light curves in 2008 may be attributed to the activity of starspot, whose area is up to 1.55% of the area of the more massive component. The contributions of the third light to the total light are approximately 20% in the BVR bands. The absolute physical parameters for V345 Gem were obtained first. From the log L-log M diagram of the binary-star evolution, the primary component is an evolved star. From the O-C curve for V345 Gem, it is discovered that there exists a long-term period increase with a cyclic variation. The period and amplitude of the cyclic variation are P 3 = 646.7(±0.7) day and A = 0fd0019(±0fd0002), which may be caused by the light-time effect via the assumed third body. If it is true, the visual binary V345 Gem may be a quadruple star. The kind of additional component may remove angular momentum from the central system, which may play an important role for the formation and evolution of the binary. The secular period increases at a rate of dP/dt = +5.88 × 10-8 d yr-1, indicating that the mass transfers from the less massive component to the more massive component. With mass transferring, the orbital angular momentum decreases while the spin angular momentum increases. When J spin/J orb > 1/3, this kind of deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary with secular period increase may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star.

  1. Water delivery to the Habitable zone and impact probabilities in the early phases of planetary systems in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Eggl, S.; Dvorak, R.

    2014-11-01

    By now, observations of exoplanets have found more than 50 binary star systems hosting 71 planets. We expect these numbers to increase as more than 70Â % of the main sequence stars in the solar neighbourhood are members of binary or multiple systems. The planetary motion in binary star systems depends strongly on both the parameters of the stellar system (stellar separation and eccentricity) and the architecture of the planetary system (number of planets and their orbital behaviour). In case a terrestrial planet moves in the so-called habitable zone (HZ) of its host star, the habitability of such a planet depends on many parameters. A crucial factor is certainly the amount of water. Water is the main ingredient defining an habitable planet. Therefore, the main question we would like to answer in our study is if a dry or almost dry planet can be fed with water by a bombardement of wet small bodies in such binary systems. First simulations of planetary formation in such systems show the stochastic behaviour of the water to mass ratio of planetary embryos (Haghighipour and Raymond 2007). After the embryo formation, a remnent disc of small bodies can be found around the main star. It mainly contains asteroids and comets whose initial water distribution depends on their position relative to the snow-line. After the gas dissipation, the disc is free to move under gravitation. They can interact with embryos located in the habitable zone and thus alter their initial water content. In our study, we consider different binary star configurations of G, K and M for the secondary star (the primary is a G-type), with various ranges of semi-major axis (from 25 AU to 100 AU) and eccentricity (from 0.1 to 0.5), and analyse the dynamics of small bodies moving under the gravitational perturbation of the binary star system, a Jupiter-like planet and an Earth-like planet, where the latter is randomly placed in the habitable zone. We mainly focus on water-rich asteroids with semi

  2. Comparison of binary mask defect printability analysis using virtual stepper system and aerial image microscope system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Khoi A.; Spence, Chris A.; Dakshina-Murthy, S.; Bala, Vidya; Williams, Alvina M.; Strener, Steve; Eandi, Richard D.; Li, Junling; Karklin, Linard

    1999-12-01

    As advanced process technologies in the wafer fabs push the patterning processes toward lower k1 factor for sub-wavelength resolution printing, reticles are required to use optical proximity correction (OPC) and phase-shifted mask (PSM) for resolution enhancement. For OPC/PSM mask technology, defect printability is one of the major concerns. Current reticle inspection tools available on the market sometimes are not capable of consistently differentiating between an OPC feature and a true random defect. Due to the process complexity and high cost associated with the making of OPC/PSM reticles, it is important for both mask shops and lithography engineers to understand the impact of different defect types and sizes to the printability. Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) has been used in the mask shops for a number of years for reticle applications such as aerial image simulation and transmission measurement of repaired defects. The Virtual Stepper System (VSS) provides an alternative method to do defect printability simulation and analysis using reticle images captured by an optical inspection or review system. In this paper, pre- programmed defects and repairs from a Defect Sensitivity Monitor (DSM) reticle with 200 nm minimum features (at 1x) will be studied for printability. The simulated resist lines by AIMS and VSS are both compared to SEM images of resist wafers qualitatively and quantitatively using CD verification.Process window comparison between unrepaired and repaired defects for both good and bad repair cases will be shown. The effect of mask repairs to resist pattern images for the binary mask case will be discussed. AIMS simulation was done at the International Sematech, Virtual stepper simulation at Zygo and resist wafers were processed at AMD-Submicron Development Center using a DUV lithographic process for 0.18 micrometer Logic process technology.

  3. Generation of optical and matter-wave solitons in binary systems with a periodically modulated coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Niederberger, Armand; Malomed, Boris A.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2010-10-15

    We present a systematic study of the generation of the array of optical or matter-wave kinks (dark solitons) in the ground state (GS) of binary systems. We consider quasi-one-dimensional systems described by a pair of nonlinear Schroedinger (NLSE's) or Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE's), which are coupled by the linear mixing, with local strength {Omega}, and by nonlinear interactions. We assume the self-repulsive nonlinearity in both components, and include the effects of a harmonic trapping potential, while the nonlinear interaction between the components may be both repulsive and attractive. The model may be realized in terms of periodically modulated slab waveguides in nonlinear optics and also in Bose-Einstein condensates. Depending on the sign and strengths of the linear and nonlinear couplings between the components, the ground states in such binary systems may be symmetric, antisymmetric, or asymmetric. In this work, we introduce a periodic spatial modulation of the linear coupling, making {Omega} an odd or even function of the coordinate (x). The sign flips of {Omega}(x) strongly modify the structure of the GS in the binary system, as the relative sign of its components tends to lock to the local sign of {Omega}. Using a systematic numerical analysis and an analytic approximation, we demonstrate that the GS of the trapped system contains one or several kinks (dark solitons) in one component, while the other component does not change its sign. The final results are presented in the form of maps showing the number of kinks in the GS as a function of the system's parameters, with the odd (even) modulation function giving rise to the odd (even) number of the kinks. The modulation of {Omega}(x) also produces a strong effect on the transition between states with nearly equal and strongly unequal amplitudes of the two components.

  4. Discovery and Characterization of Wide Binary Systems with a Very Low Mass Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Davison, Cassy L.; Malo, Lison; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Reylé, Céline

    2015-03-01

    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of nine other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: LSPM J1259+1001 (M5) has an L4.5 (2M1259+1001) companion at ˜340 AU. This brown dwarf was previously unknown. Seven other systems have a companion of spectral type L0-L1 at a separation in the 250-7500 AU range. Our sample includes 14 systems with a mass ratio below 0.3.

  5. Subcritical and supercritical fuel injection and mixing in single and binary species systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arnab

    Subcritical and supercritical fluid injection using a single round injector into a quiescent atmosphere comprising single and binary species was investigated using optical diagnostics. Different disintegration and mixing modes are expected for the two cases. In the binary species case, the atmosphere comprised an inert gas of a different composition than that of the injected fluid. In single species case, the atmosphere consisted of the same species as that of the injected fluid. Density values were quantified and density gradient profiles were inferred from the experimental data. A novel method was applied for the detection of detailed structures throughout the entire jet center plane. Various combinations of injectant and chamber conditions were tested and a wide range of density ratios were covered. The subcritical cases demonstrated the importance of surface tension and inertial forces, while the supercritical cases showed no signs of surface tension and, in most situations, resembled the mixing characteristics of a gaseous jet injected into a gaseous environment. A comparison between the single and binary species systems has also been provided. A detailed laser calibration procedure was undertaken to account for the laser absorption through the gas and liquid phases and for fluorescence in the non-linear excitation regime for high laser pulse energy. Core lengths were measured for binary species cases and correlated with visualization results. An eigenvalue approach was taken to determine the location of maximum gradients for determining the core length. Jet divergence angles were also calculated and were found to increase with chamber-to-injectant density ratio for both systems. A model was proposed for the spreading angle dependence on density ratio for both single and binary species systems and was compared to existing theoretical studies and experimental work. Finally, a linear stability analysis was performed for the jet injected into both subcritical and

  6. Bubble-point pressures and liquid densities of binary R-125 + R-143a System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Sato, H.; Watanabe, K.

    1995-05-01

    Bubble-point pressures and saturated-liquid densities of the binary R-135 (pentafuoroethane) + R- 143a ( 1, 1, 1-trifluoroethane) system have been measured for several compositions at temperatures from 280 to 330 K by means of a magnetic densimeter coupled with a variable-volume cell mounted with a metallic bellows. The experimental uncertainties of the temperature, pressure. and density measurements and the composition determination were estimated to be within ±15 mK, ±13 k Pa, ±0.2%, and ±0.1 wt%, respectively. The purities of the samples used throughout the measurements are 99.98 wt% for R-125 and 99.0 mol % for R- 143a. Based on the present data, the thermodynamic behavior of the vapor-liquid equilibria of this binary refrigerant mixture has been evaluated by using the Peng-Robinson equation for the bubble-point pressures, and the modified Hankinson-Brobst-Thomson equation for the saturated-liquid densities. This was done to identify the optimized binary interaction parameters.

  7. Discovery of an X-Ray-emitting Contact Binary System 2MASS J11201034‑2201340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Yi; Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Li, K. L.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Chen, W. P.; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of orbital modulation, a model solution, and the X-ray properties of a newly discovered contact binary, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J11201034‑2201340. We serendipitously found this X-ray point source outside the error ellipse when searching for possible X-ray counterparts of γ-ray millisecond pulsars among the unidentified objects detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The optical counterpart of the X-ray source (unrelated to the γ-ray source) was then identified using archival databases. The long-term Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey detected a precise signal with a period of P=0.28876208(56) days. A follow-up observation made by the Super Light Telescope of Lulin Observatory revealed the binary nature of the object. Utilizing archived photometric data of multi-band surveys, we construct the spectral energy distribution (SED), which is well fit by a K2V spectral template. The fitting result of the orbital profile using the Wilson–Devinney code suggests that 2MASS J11201034-2201340 is a short-period A-type contact binary and the more massive component has a cool spot. The X-ray emission was first noted in observations made by Swift, and then further confirmed and characterized by an XMM-Newton observation. The X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law or thermal Bremsstrahlung. Unfortunately, we could not observe significant X-ray orbital modulation. Finally, according to the SED, this system is estimated to be 690 pc from Earth with a calculated X-ray intensity of (0.7-1.5)× {10}30 erg s‑1, which is in the expected range of an X-ray emitting contact binary.

  8. Discovery of an X-Ray-emitting Contact Binary System 2MASS J11201034-2201340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang; Chou, Yi; Liu, L.; Qian, S.-B.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Li, K. L.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Chen, W. P.; Ip, Wing-Huen

    2016-06-01

    We report the detection of orbital modulation, a model solution, and the X-ray properties of a newly discovered contact binary, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) J11201034-2201340. We serendipitously found this X-ray point source outside the error ellipse when searching for possible X-ray counterparts of γ-ray millisecond pulsars among the unidentified objects detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The optical counterpart of the X-ray source (unrelated to the γ-ray source) was then identified using archival databases. The long-term Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey detected a precise signal with a period of P=0.28876208(56) days. A follow-up observation made by the Super Light Telescope of Lulin Observatory revealed the binary nature of the object. Utilizing archived photometric data of multi-band surveys, we construct the spectral energy distribution (SED), which is well fit by a K2V spectral template. The fitting result of the orbital profile using the Wilson-Devinney code suggests that 2MASS J11201034-2201340 is a short-period A-type contact binary and the more massive component has a cool spot. The X-ray emission was first noted in observations made by Swift, and then further confirmed and characterized by an XMM-Newton observation. The X-ray spectrum can be described by a power law or thermal Bremsstrahlung. Unfortunately, we could not observe significant X-ray orbital modulation. Finally, according to the SED, this system is estimated to be 690 pc from Earth with a calculated X-ray intensity of (0.7-1.5)× {10}30 erg s-1, which is in the expected range of an X-ray emitting contact binary.

  9. The Lagrange Points in a Binary Black Hole System: Applications to Electromagnetic Signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnittman, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We study the stability and evolution of the Lagrange points L_4 and L-5 in a black hole (BH) binary system, including gravitational radiation. We find that gas and stars can be shepherded in with the BH system until the final moments before merger, providing the fuel for a bright electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal. Other astrophysical signatures include the ejection of hyper-velocity stars, gravitational collapse of globular clusters, and the periodic shift of narrow emission lines in AGN.

  10. a Gsa-Svm Hybrid System for Classification of Binary Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarafrazi, Soroor; Nezamabadi-pour, Hossein; Barahman, Mojgan

    2011-06-01

    This paperhybridizesgravitational search algorithm (GSA) with support vector machine (SVM) and made a novel GSA-SVM hybrid system to improve the classification accuracy in binary problems. GSA is an optimization heuristic toolused to optimize the value of SVM kernel parameter (in this paper, radial basis function (RBF) is chosen as the kernel function). The experimental results show that this newapproach can achieve high classification accuracy and is comparable to or better than the particle swarm optimization (PSO)-SVM and genetic algorithm (GA)-SVM, which are two hybrid systems for classification.

  11. Photometric solution and period analysis of the contact binary system AH Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying-Jiang; Luo, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Deng, Li-Cai; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jian-Feng; Yan, Zheng-Zhou; Pan, Yang; Fang, Wei-Jing; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Tang, De-Lin; Liu, Qi-Li; Sun, Jin-Jiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    Photometric observations of AH Cnc, a W UMa-type system in the open cluster M67, were carried out by using the 50BiN telescope. About 100 h of time-series B- and V -band data were taken, based on which eight new times of light minima were determined. By applying the Wilson-Devinney method, the light curves were modeled and a revised photometric solution of the binary system was derived. We confirmed that AH Cnc is a deep contact (f = 51%), low mass-ratio (q = 0.156) system. Adopting the distance modulus derived from study of the host cluster, we have re-calculated the physical parameters of the binary system, namely the masses and radii. The masses and radii of the two components were estimated to be respectively 1.188(±0.061) M ⊙, 1.332(±0.063) R ⊙ for the primary component and 0.185(±0.032) M ⊙, 0.592(±0.051) R ⊙ for the secondary. By adding the newly derived minimum timings to all the available data, the period variations of AH Cnc were studied. This shows that the orbital period of the binary is continuously increasing at a rate of dp/dt = 4.29 × 10‑10 d yr‑1. In addition to the long-term period increase, a cyclic variation with a period of 35.26 yr was determined, which could be attributed to an unresolved tertiary component of the system.

  12. Binary System for MicroRNA-Targeted Imaging in Single Cells and Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ruo-Can; Cao, Yue; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is often associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, and progression. Among them, miRNA-21 is found to be overexpressed in most of the cancer cells. Here, a binary system is designed for miRNA-21 targeted imaging and photothermal treatment in single cells. The binary system is composed by a pair of probes (probe-1 and probe-2), which are encapsulated in liposomes for cell delivery. Both of the two probes adopt gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the core material, and the AuNPs are functionalized with Cy5-marked molecular beacon (MB-1/MB-2 for probe-1/probe-2, respectively). The loop part of MBs are designed to be complementary with miRNA-21. Therefore, after the binary system enters into the cytoplasm, MBs can be opened upon miRNA-21 triggered hybridization, which turns "on" the fluorescence of Cy5 for the localization of miRNA-21. At the same time, a cross-linking between the probes occurs since the far ends of MB-1 and MB-2 are designed to be complementary with each other. The miRNA-induced aggregation shifts the absorption of AuNPs to near-infrared, which can be observed under dark-field microscopy (DFM) and used for the following photothermal therapy. Under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, MCF-7 breast cancer cells are successfully killed. The proposed system can be further applied in tumor-bearing mice and shows significant therapeutic effect. This work provides a new tool for intracellular miRNA analysis and targeted treatment against cancer. PMID:27482754

  13. Binary System for MicroRNA-Targeted Imaging in Single Cells and Photothermal Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ruo-Can; Cao, Yue; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-09-01

    Abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is often associated with tumorigenesis, metastasis, and progression. Among them, miRNA-21 is found to be overexpressed in most of the cancer cells. Here, a binary system is designed for miRNA-21 targeted imaging and photothermal treatment in single cells. The binary system is composed by a pair of probes (probe-1 and probe-2), which are encapsulated in liposomes for cell delivery. Both of the two probes adopt gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as the core material, and the AuNPs are functionalized with Cy5-marked molecular beacon (MB-1/MB-2 for probe-1/probe-2, respectively). The loop part of MBs are designed to be complementary with miRNA-21. Therefore, after the binary system enters into the cytoplasm, MBs can be opened upon miRNA-21 triggered hybridization, which turns "on" the fluorescence of Cy5 for the localization of miRNA-21. At the same time, a cross-linking between the probes occurs since the far ends of MB-1 and MB-2 are designed to be complementary with each other. The miRNA-induced aggregation shifts the absorption of AuNPs to near-infrared, which can be observed under dark-field microscopy (DFM) and used for the following photothermal therapy. Under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, MCF-7 breast cancer cells are successfully killed. The proposed system can be further applied in tumor-bearing mice and shows significant therapeutic effect. This work provides a new tool for intracellular miRNA analysis and targeted treatment against cancer.

  14. New Pleiades Eclipsing Binaries and a Hyades Transiting System Identified by K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Trevor J.; Conroy, Kyle E.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Stauffer, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Cody, Ann Marie; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    We present the discovery in Kepler’s K2 mission observations and our follow-up radial velocity (RV) observations from Keck/HIRES for four eclipsing binary (EB) star systems in the young benchmark Pleiades and Hyades clusters. Based on our modeling results, we announce two new low mass ({M}{tot}\\lt 0.6 {M}⊙ ) EBs among Pleiades members (HCG 76 and MHO 9) and we report on two previously known Pleiades binaries that are also found to be EB systems (HII 2407 and HD 23642). We measured the masses of the binary HCG 76 to ≲2.5% precision, and the radii to ≲4.5% precision, which together with the precise effective temperatures yield an independent Pleiades distance of 132 ± 5 pc. We discuss another EB toward the Pleiades that is a possible but unlikely Pleiades cluster member (AK II 465). The two new confirmed Pleiades systems extend the mass range of Pleiades EB components to 0.2-2 {M}⊙ . Our initial measurements of the fundamental stellar parameters for the Pleiades EBs are discussed in the context of the current stellar models and the nominal cluster isochrone, finding good agreement with the stellar models of Baraffe et al. at the nominal Pleiades age of 120 Myr. Finally, in the Hyades, we report a new low mass eclipsing system (vA 50) that was concurrently discovered and studied by Mann et al. We confirm that the eclipse is likely caused by a Neptune-sized transiting planet, and with the additional RV constraints presented here we improve the constraint on the maximum mass of the planet to be ≲1.2 MJup.

  15. Solidification and thermal behaviour of binary organic eutectic and monotectic; succinonitrile pyrene system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, U. S.; Pandey, Pinky

    2003-02-01

    Transparent binary alloy models are important in metallurgical and materials science, as phase transformations can be observed during solidification. This communication concerns the solidification and thermal studies of succinonitrile (SCN)-pyrene (PY) system, which is an organic analogue of a metal-nonmetal-type system. Phase diagram of the SCN-PY system, determined by the thaw-melt method shows the formation of a monotectic and a eutectic at 143.3°C and 55.3°C with 0.025 and 0.744 mole fractions of SCN, respectively. The critical solution temperature of the system lies 48.7°C above the monotectic temperature. The growth velocity ( v) data at different undercoolings obtained from the capillary method, obey the Hillig-Turnbull equation, v= u(Δ T) n. The heats of fusion of the binary as well as single materials were obtained from the DSC (Mettler DSC-4000 system) from which the entropy of fusion, enthalpy of mixing, Jackson's roughness parameter, excess thermodynamic functions, interfacial energy and radius of the critical nucleus were calculated. The optical microphotographs of the eutectic and monotectic show their characteristic features.

  16. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    PubMed

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments. PMID:24990745

  17. A close-pair binary in a distant triple supermassive black hole system.

    PubMed

    Deane, R P; Paragi, Z; Jarvis, M J; Coriat, M; Bernardi, G; Fender, R P; Frey, S; Heywood, I; Klöckner, H-R; Grainge, K; Rumsey, C

    2014-07-01

    Galaxies are believed to evolve through merging, which should lead to some hosting multiple supermassive black holes. There are four known triple black hole systems, with the closest black hole pair being 2.4 kiloparsecs apart (the third component in this system is at 3 kiloparsecs), which is far from the gravitational sphere of influence (about 100 parsecs for a black hole with mass one billion times that of the Sun). Previous searches for compact black hole systems concluded that they were rare, with the tightest binary system having a separation of 7 parsecs (ref. 10). Here we report observations of a triple black hole system at redshift z = 0.39, with the closest pair separated by about 140 parsecs and significantly more distant from Earth than any other known binary of comparable orbital separation. The effect of the tight pair is to introduce a rotationally symmetric helical modulation on the structure of the large-scale radio jets, which provides a useful way to search for other tight pairs without needing extremely high resolution observations. As we found this tight pair after searching only six galaxies, we conclude that tight pairs are more common than hitherto believed, which is an important observational constraint for low-frequency gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Determination of Systems Suitable for Study as Monotectic Binary Metallic Alloy Solidification Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Succinonitrile-water and diethylene glycol-ethyl salicylate are two transparent systems which have been studied as monotectic binary metallic alloy solidification models. Being transparent, these systems allow for the direct observations of phase transformations and solidification reactions. The objective was to develop a screening technique to find systems of interest and then experimentally measure those systems. The succinonitrile-water system was used to check the procedures. To simulate the phase diagram of the system, two computer programs which determine solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were obtained. These programs use the UNIFAC method to determine activity coefficients and together with several other programs were used to predict the phase diagram. An experimental apparatus was developed and the succinonitrile-water phase diagram measured. The diagram was compared to both the simulation and literature data. Substantial differences were found in the comparisons which serve to demonstrate the need for this procedure.

  19. Non-dissipative tidal synchronization in accreting binary white dwarf systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, Étienne; Phinney, E. Sterl; Arras, Phil

    2007-09-01

    We study a non-dissipative hydrodynamical mechanism that can stabilize the spin of the accretor in an ultracompact double white dwarf (WD) binary. This novel synchronization mechanism relies on a non-linear coupling between tides and the uniform (or rigid) rotation mode, which spins down the background star. The essential physics of the synchronization mechanism is summarized as follows. As the compact binary coalesces due to gravitational wave emission, the largest star eventually fills its Roche lobe and accretion starts. The accretor then spins up due to infalling material and eventually reaches a spin frequency where a normal mode of the star is resonantly driven by the gravitational tidal field of the companion. If the resonating mode satisfies a set of specific criteria, which we elucidate in this paper, it exchanges angular momentum with the background star at a rate such that the spin of the accretor locks at this resonant frequency, even though accretion is ongoing. Some of the accreted angular momentum that would otherwise spin up the accretor is fed back to the orbit through this resonant tidal interaction. In this paper we solve analytically a simple dynamical system that captures the essential features of this mechanism. Our analytical study allows us to identify two candidate Rossby modes that may stabilize the spin of an accreting WD in an ultracompact binary. These two modes are the l = 4,m = 2 and l = 5,m = 3 Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz (CFS) unstable hybrid r modes, which, for an incompressible equation of state, stabilize the spin of the accretor at frequency 2.6ωorb and 1.54ωorb, respectively, where ωorb is the binary's orbital frequency. For an n = 3/2 polytrope, the accretor's spin frequency is stabilized at 2.13ωorb and 1.41ωorb, respectively. Since the stabilization mechanism relies on continuously driving a mode at resonance, its lifetime is limited since eventually the mode amplitude saturates due to non-linear mode-mode coupling

  20. Spectral and timing nature of the symbiotic X-ray binary 4U 1954+319: The slowest rotating neutron star in an X-ray binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Enoto, Teruaki; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-10

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ∼5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (∼7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-Kα line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (∼60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (≳ 10{sup 12} G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ∼10{sup 13} G NS, this scheme can explain the ∼5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (∼10{sup 16} G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (∼50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ∼10{sup 13} G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  1. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  2. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in an X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ~5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (~7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-Kα line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (~60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (gsim 1012 G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (1033-1035 erg s-1), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ~1013 G NS, this scheme can explain the ~5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (~1016 G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (~50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ~1013 G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  3. Decoupling of a giant planet from its disk in an inclined binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picogna, G.; Marzari, F.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We explore the dynamical evolution of a planet that is embedded in a circumstellar disk, as part of a binary system where the orbital plane of the companion star is significantly tilted with respect to the initial disk plane. Aims: Our aim is to test whether the planet remains within the disk and continues to migrate towards the star in a Type I/II mode, in spite of the secular perturbations of the companion star. Our findings, could explain why observed exoplanets have significant inclination in relation to the equatorial plane of their host star. Methods: We used two different smoothed particle hydrodynamic codes, VINE and PHANTOM, to model the evolution of a star+disk+planet system with a companion star over time. Results: After an initial coupled evolution, the inclinations of the disk and the planet begin to differ significantly. The period of oscillation of the disk inclination, in relation to the initial plane, becomes shorter for the planet, which evolves independently after about 104 yr, following a perturbed N-body behaviour. However, the planet continues to migrate towards the star because, during its orbital motion, it crosses the disk plane, and friction with the gas causes angular momentum loss. Conclusions: In a significantly inclined binary system, disks and planets are not dynamically coupled for small binary separations but evolve almost independently. The planet abandons the disk, and because of the onset of a significant mutual inclination, it interacts with the gas only when its orbit intersects the disk plane. The drift of the planet towards the star is not due to Type I/II, where the planet is embedded in the disk, but to the friction with the gas while crossing the disk.

  4. Detached binary system MQ Centauri and its relation with Crux OB1 Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Efecan; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the astrophysical characteristics of eclipsing binary system MQ Cen and its relation with Crux OB1 association has been investigated by means of analysing high resolution (R ˜48000) spectra and light curves in Strömgren bands. Analysis of the available data yielded high precision parameters of the system which allowed us to derive reliable age and distance. The Fourier disentangling method was applied to the composite spectra of MQ Cen for reconstructing the component spectra. The modeling of the high resolution spectra revealed that the secondary component of MQ Cen rotates slower than the synchronous rotation velocity unlike the primary star which is in synchronous rotation. The photometric distance of the binary was found to be consistent with the distance given for Crux OB1 associaton (2.7 kpc) by Kaltcheva and Georgiev (1993). Space velocity of the system also supports the membership of MQ Cen to the Crux OB1 association. Age estimation was made by comparing the positions of components on HR diagram with isochrones. Conclusion shows that MQ Cen is older than the age determined for Crux OB1 association in the literature. This result implies that MQ Cen may belong to one of the older subgroups in the Crux OB1 association complex and the stellar formation in the complex started long ago than previously predicted. The evolutionary status of the component stars suggest that both components have reached the final stage of their Main Sequence lifetime and proceed to the Giant Branch. KEYWORDS: Absolute parameters, Cru OB1, eclipsing binaries, MQ Cen, OB associations, spectral disentangling.

  5. H I OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE SYSTEM IN 0402+379

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.; Taylor, G. B.; Pihlstroem, Y. M.; Zavala, R. T.; Peck, A. B.

    2009-05-20

    We have recently discovered a supermassive binary black hole system with a projected separation between the two black holes of 7.3 pc in the radio galaxy 0402+379 (Rodriguez et al. 2006). This is the most compact supermassive binary black hole pair yet imaged by more than two orders of magnitude. We present Global VLBI observations at 1.3464 GHz of this radio galaxy, taken to improve the quality of the H I data. Two absorption lines are found toward the southern jet of the source, one redshifted by 370 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} and the other blueshifted by 700 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity of the source, which, along with the results obtained for the opacity distribution over the source, suggests the presence of two mass clumps rotating around the central region of the source. We propose a model consisting of a geometrically thick disk, of which we only see a couple of clumps, that reproduces the velocities measured from the H I absorption profiles. These clumps rotate in circular Keplerian orbits around an axis that crosses one of the supermassive black holes of the binary system in 0402+379. We find an upper limit for the inclination angle of the twin jets of the source to the line of sight of {theta} = 66 deg., which, according to the proposed model, implies a lower limit on the central mass of {approx}7 x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} and a lower limit for the scale height of the thick disk of {approx}12 pc.

  6. On a possible additional component in an eclipsing binary system HS 2231 + 2441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shliahetskaya, Ya. O.

    2016-05-01

    Timing method based on the registration period of variations of a periodic process, associated with the star. The study of stellar eclipsing binary system for a long time allows a series of several transits, depending on the orbital period of the satellite smaller. We present a photometric study of system of the type HW Vir HS 2231 + 2441. Photometric data processing was performed using C-MuniWin Version 1.2.30 program. The accuracy of values for each observation point is in the range 0,003...0,009m for different nights. The calculated ephemeris determined from the light curve by fitting of arc of minimums to the nuclei of primary and secondary eclipses. The amplitude of the periodic changes of minimums moments that arise from the orbital motion of a close pair of stars around the barycenter of the triple system, is less than 0.0008 days (1.15 minutes). It was found that the periodic variation of the orbital period can be explained by the gravitational influence of a third companion on the central binary system with an orbital period of about 97±10d. Periodogram analysis of the observational data series indicate also on the periodicity with values of 48±5d and 195±15d, but with substantially less reliably

  7. Experimental determination and thermodynamic modeling of the Ni-Re binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Yaqoob, Khurram; Joubert, Jean-Marc

    2012-12-15

    The phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system has been partially reinvestigated by chemical, structural and thermal characterization of the arc melted alloys. The experimental results obtained during the present investigation were combined with the literature data and a new phase diagram of the Ni-Re binary system is proposed. In comparison with the Ni-Re phase diagram proposed by Nash et al. in 1985 [1], significant differences in the homogeneity domains, freezing ranges and peritectic reaction temperature were evidenced. On the other hand, thermodynamic modeling of the studied system by using the new experimental information has also been carried out with the help of the CALPHAD method. The calculated Ni-Re phase diagram showed a good agreement with the selected experimental information. - Graphical abstract: Ni-Re phase diagram according to the present study. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Re-investigation of the Ni-Re phase diagram. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extended phase field of the hcp phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different freezing ranges and peritectic reaction temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic modeling of the studied system by using the CALPHAD method.

  8. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Jonathan P.; Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca; Hughes, A. Meredith; Bally, John

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  9. Secular dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binaries, with an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure. First applications to multiplanet and multistar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamers, Adrian S.; Portegies Zwart, Simon F.

    2016-07-01

    We present a method for studying the secular gravitational dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems consisting of nested binaries, which is valid for an arbitrary number of bodies and arbitrary hierarchical structure. We derive the Hamiltonian of the system and expand it in terms of the - assumed to be - small ratios xi of binary separations. At the lowest non-trivial expansion order (quadrupole order, second order in xi), the Hamiltonian consists of terms which, individually, depend on binary pairs. At higher orders, in addition to terms depending on binary pairs, we also find terms which, individually, depend on more than two binaries. In general, at order n in xi, individual terms depend on at most n - 1 binaries. We explicitly derive the Hamiltonian including all terms up and including third order in xi (octupole order), and including the binary pairwise terms up and including fifth order in xi. These terms are orbit averaged, and we present a new algorithm for efficiently solving the equations of motion. This algorithm is highly suitable for studying the secular evolution of hierarchical systems with complex hierarchies, making long-term integrations of such systems feasible. We show that accurate results are obtained for multiplanet systems with semimajor axis ratios as large as ≈0.4, provided that high-order terms are included. In addition to multiplanet systems with a single star, we apply our results to multistar systems with multiple planets.

  10. A computer program for modeling non-spherical eclipsing binary star systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, D. B.

    1972-01-01

    The accurate analysis of eclipsing binary light curves is fundamental to obtaining information on the physical properties of stars. The model described accounts for the important geometric and photometric distortions such as rotational and tidal distortion, gravity brightening, and reflection effect. This permits a more accurate analysis of interacting eclipsing star systems. The model is designed to be useful to anyone with moderate computing resources. The programs, written in FORTRAN 4 for the IBM 360, consume about 80k bytes of core. The FORTRAN program listings are provided, and the computational aspects are described in some detail.

  11. Maria Goeppert-Mayer Award Talk: Formation and Evolution of Compact Objects in Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogera, Vicky

    2008-04-01

    Ever since their discovery, first as X-ray sources and later as radio pulsars, binary stellar systems harboring neutron stars or black holes have been pivotal in our efforts to understand the formation and evolution of these most compact objects and the implications for gravitational wave searches. I will review some recent surprising results linking the formation of neutron stars and black holes. I will also discuss how studies of double compact objects can help uncover the origin of short gamma-ray bursts and assess the prospects for gravitational wave detections in the near future.

  12. Magnetic field effect on the liquidus boundary of Bi-Mn binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Koyama, Keiichi; Oikawa, Katsunari; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2014-10-01

    The magnetic field effect (MFE) on liquidus boundary of Bi-Mn binary system was investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and the computer coupling of phase diagram method (CALPHAD). The liquidus boundary for Bi-18at.%Mn and Bi-24at.%Mn rose clearly by the application of the magnetic fields. The MFE for liquidus boundary temperature Tliq changed from ΔTliq∝B2 to ΔTliq∝B because of the large increase of the peritectic temperature from BiMn and BiMn1.08 by the application of magnetic field.

  13. The Nature of the Enigmatic 10-Minute Accreting Binary System ES CET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeghs, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    ES Cet is one of the most compact binary systems known with an orbital period of only 10.3 minutes. Our allocated observations with the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite were performed in January and July 2004, with the data being delivered to the PI in August 2004. Preliminary results were presented by the PI in September 2004 and January 2005. We have also secured supporting optical observations of ES Ceti using the Magellan telescopes (November 2004). The team is currently performing a thorough and final analysis of the X-ray, UV and optical data sets with the latest XMM pipeline software and our own analysis packages.

  14. Keplerian Circumbinary Disk and Accretion Streams around the Protostellar Binary System L1551 NE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takakuwa, S.; Saito, M.; Lim, J.; Saigo, K.; Hanawa, T.; Matsumoto, T.

    2013-10-01

    We show our recent observational results of L1551 NE, an archetypal binary protostellar system, in the 0.9-mm dust continuum emission and the C18O (J=3-2) emission with the SubMillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA results show firm evidence for a Keplerian circumbinary disk, circumstellar disks, and an inner clearing in the circumbinary disk, in L1551 NE. We demonstrate that future observations of L1551 NE with Atacama Large Millimeter and submillimeter Array (ALMA) have the potential to unveil the theoretically-predicted “accretion streams” that channel material from the circumbinary disk to the individual circumstellar disks.

  15. δ Sct-type pulsations in eclipsing binary systems: Y Cam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, E.; García, J. M.; Costa, V.; Lampens, P.; van Cauteren, P.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Olson, E. C.; Amado, P. J.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Turcu, V.; Kim, S.-L.; Zhou, A. Y.; López-González, M. J.; Rolland, A.; Díaz-Fraile, D.; Wood, M. A.; Hintz, E.; Pop, A.; Moldovan, D.; Etzel, P. B.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; Aceituno, F. J.; Lee, D.-J.

    2010-11-01

    We present the results of a three-continent multisite photometric campaign carried out on the Algol-type eclipsing binary system Y Cam, in which the primary component is a multiperiodic δ Sct-type pulsator. The observations consist of 86 nights and more than 450 h of useful data collected mainly during the Northern winter 2002-2003. This means that this is the most extensive time series for such kind of systems obtained so far. These observations were collected mostly in the Johnson V filter, but they also include, for the first time, nearly complete binary light curves in simultaneous Strömgren uvby filters together with a few Crawford Hβ data obtained around the orbital phase of the first quadrature. A detailed photometric analysis is presented for both binarity and pulsation. The results indicate a semidetached system with the secondary filling its Roche lobe. No significant contribution from a third body is found. The residuals from the computed binary solution were then used to investigate the pulsational content of the primary component. The frequency analysis of the out-of-primary-eclipse data leads to a set of eight significant and independent pulsational peaks in a well-defined region of the frequency domain. This means that this is the largest set of excited modes discovered so far in the pulsating component of such kind of systems. The possibility of aliasing problems during the present run or short-term time-scale amplitude variations in some of them was investigated with null results. Indeed the results indicate that f1 and f3 form a frequency doublet with a beat period of Pbeat = 17.065 d. Our results confirm the frequencies already detected by earlier authors and show the presence of some additional significant peaks. The observed amplitudes during the present run are also consistent with those derived from older data sets. We perform a preliminary mode identification for most of the frequencies on the basis of the collected multicolour photometry

  16. Rheology-modulated contact line dynamics of an immiscible binary system under electrical double layer phenomena.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pranab Kumar; DasGupta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the electrically driven contact line dynamics of a binary fluid system constituted by one Newtonian and another non-Newtonian fluid in a narrow fluidic channel with chemically patched walls. We use a power-law model to describe the rheology of the non-Newtonian fluid and a diffuse interface phase-field method to model the dynamics of multiple phases. We bring out the alteration in the interfacial dynamics as attributable to the rheology-driven modifications in the interfacial stress and its interplay with the Maxwell stress originating from electrokinetic effects. PMID:26221770

  17. The photometric search for earth-sized extrasolar planets by occultation in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Chevreton, M.

    1990-06-01

    The feasibility of the detection of small extrasolar planets by the partial occultation they can cause on eclipsing binaries is investigated. This study is applied to the eight most luminous systems; the probability that an occultation can occur is estimated. It is found that the continuous observation of these eight objects would give a high probability of detecting at least one planet if they all have planetary companions. The uncertainty that can be expected on the period of revolution of the planet from a single occultation observation is discussed.

  18. Orbits of 10 interferometric binary systems calculated by using the improved Koval'skij method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olević, D.; Cvetković, Z.

    2004-02-01

    Orbital elements are presented of 10 interferometric binary systems with no previous orbit determination: WDS 07143-2621 (FIN 323), WDS 12064-6543 (FIN 367Aa), WDS 12446-5717 (FIN 65), WDS 13320-6519 (FIN 369), WDS 13574-6229 (FIN 370), WDS 14189+5452 (CHR 137), WDS 14373-4608 (FIN 318 Aa), WDS 16115+0943 (FIN 354), WDS 17018-5108 (I 1306), WDS 17221-7007 (FIN 373). The method used (Koval'skij-Olević) is briefly described. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  19. Red Giants in Eclipsing Binary and Multiple-star Systems: Modeling and Asteroseismic Analysis of 70 Candidates from Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-04-01

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a δ-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many of the

  20. RED GIANTS IN ECLIPSING BINARY AND MULTIPLE-STAR SYSTEMS: MODELING AND ASTEROSEISMIC ANALYSIS OF 70 CANDIDATES FROM KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulme, P.; McKeever, J.; Rawls, M. L.; Jackiewicz, J.; Mosser, B.; Guzik, J. A.

    2013-04-10

    Red giant stars are proving to be an incredible source of information for testing models of stellar evolution, as asteroseismology has opened up a window into their interiors. Such insights are a direct result of the unprecedented data from space missions CoRoT and Kepler as well as recent theoretical advances. Eclipsing binaries are also fundamental astrophysical objects, and when coupled with asteroseismology, binaries provide two independent methods to obtain masses and radii and exciting opportunities to develop highly constrained stellar models. The possibility of discovering pulsating red giants in eclipsing binary systems is therefore an important goal that could potentially offer very robust characterization of these systems. Until recently, only one case has been discovered with Kepler. We cross-correlate the detected red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs from Kepler data to find possible candidate systems. Light-curve modeling and mean properties measured from asteroseismology are combined to yield specific measurements of periods, masses, radii, temperatures, eclipse timing variations, core rotation rates, and red giant evolutionary state. After using three different techniques to eliminate false positives, out of the 70 systems common to the red giant and eclipsing-binary catalogs we find 13 strong candidates (12 previously unknown) to be eclipsing binaries, one to be a non-eclipsing binary with tidally induced oscillations, and 10 more to be hierarchical triple systems, all of which include a pulsating red giant. The systems span a range of orbital eccentricities, periods, and spectral types F, G, K, and M for the companion of the red giant. One case even suggests an eclipsing binary composed of two red giant stars and another of a red giant with a {delta}-Scuti star. The discovery of multiple pulsating red giants in eclipsing binaries provides an exciting test bed for precise astrophysical modeling, and follow-up spectroscopic observations of many

  1. The Formation Mass of a Binary System via Fragmentation of a Rotating Parent Core with Increasing Total Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arreaga-García, G.

    2016-04-01

    We present a set of numerical simulations of the gravitational collapse of a uniform and rotating core, in which azimuthal symmetric mass seeds are initially implemented in order to favor the formation of a dense filament, out of which a binary system may be formed by direct fragmentation. We observe that this binary formation process is diminished when the total mass of the parent core M0 is increased; then we increase the level of the ratio of rotational energy to the gravitational energy, denoted by β, initially supplied to the rotating core, in order to achieve the desired direct fragmentation of the filament. We measure the binary mass Mf obtained from an initial M0 and then show a schematic diagram M0 vs β, where the desired binary configurations are located. We also report some basic physical data of the fragments.

  2. Highly ordered and highly aligned two-dimensional binary superlattice of a SWNT/cylindrical-micellar system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jang, Hyung-Sik; Ha, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwasniewski, Pawel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Choi, Sung-Min

    2014-11-10

    We report a highly ordered intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice of hydrophilically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (p-SWNTs) and surfactant (C12 E5 ) cylindrical micelles. When p-SWNTs (with a diameter slightly larger than that of the C12 E5 cylinders) were added to the hexagonally packed C12 E5 cylindrical-micellar system, p-SWNTs positioned themselves in such a way that the free-volume entropies for both p-SWNTs and C12 E5 cylinders were maximized, thus resulting in the intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice. In this binary superlattice, a hexagonal array of p-SWNTs is embedded in a honeycomb lattice of C12 E5 cylinders. The intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice can be highly aligned in one direction by an oscillatory shear field and remains aligned after the shear is removed. PMID:25244635

  3. Basic parameter estimation of binary neutron star systems by the advanced LIGO/Vigro network

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Carl L.; Farr, Benjamin; Raymond, Vivien; Farr, Will M.; Littenberg, Tyson B.; Fazi, Diego; Kalogera, Vicky

    2014-04-01

    Within the next five years, it is expected that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will have reached a sensitivity sufficient to enable the routine detection of gravitational waves. Beyond the initial detection, the scientific promise of these instruments relies on the effectiveness of our physical parameter estimation capabilities. A major part of this effort has been toward the detection and characterization of gravitational waves from compact binary coalescence, e.g., the coalescence of binary neutron stars. While several previous studies have investigated the accuracy of parameter estimation with advanced detectors, the majority have relied on approximation techniques such as the Fisher Matrix which are insensitive to the non-Gaussian nature of the gravitational wave posterior distribution function. Here we report average statistical uncertainties that will be achievable for strong detection candidates (S/N = 20) over a comprehensive sample of source parameters. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo based parameter estimation software developed by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration with the goal of updating the previously quoted Fisher Matrix bounds. We find the recovery of the individual masses to be fractionally within 9% (15%) at the 68% (95%) credible intervals for equal-mass systems, and within 1.9% (3.7%) for unequal-mass systems. We also find that the Advanced LIGO/Virgo network will constrain the locations of binary neutron star mergers to a median uncertainty of 5.1 deg{sup 2} (13.5 deg{sup 2}) on the sky. This region is improved to 2.3 deg{sup 2} (6 deg{sup 2}) with the addition of the proposed LIGO India detector to the network. We also report the average uncertainties on the luminosity distances and orbital inclinations of strong detections that can be achieved by different network configurations.

  4. Imaging Disk Distortion of Be Binary System δ Scorpii near Periastron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, X.; Monnier, J. D.; Tycner, C.; Kraus, S.; Zavala, R. T.; Baron, F.; Pedretti, E.; ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Ridgway, S. T.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.

    2012-09-01

    The highly eccentric Be binary system δ Sco reached periastron during early 2011 July, when the distance between the primary and secondary was a few times the size of the primary disk in the H band. This opened a window of opportunity to study how the gaseous disks around Be stars respond to gravitational disturbance. We first refine the binary parameters with the best orbital phase coverage data from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Then we present the first imaging results of the disk after the periastron, based on seven nights of five telescope observations with the MIRC combiner at the CHARA array. We found that the disk was inclined 27fdg6 ± 6fdg0 from the plane of the sky, had a half-light radius of 0.49 mas (2.2 stellar radii), and consistently contributed 71.4% ± 2.7% of the total flux in the H band from night to night, suggesting no ongoing transfer of material into the disk during the periastron. The new estimation of the periastron passage is UT 2011 July 3 07:00 ± 4:30. Re-analysis of archival VLTI-AMBER interferometry data allowed us to determine the rotation direction of the primary disk, constraining it to be inclined either ~119° or ~171° relative to the orbital plane of the binary system. We also detect inner disk asymmetries that could be explained by spot-like emission with a few percent of the disk total flux moving in Keplerian orbits, although we lack sufficient angular resolution to be sure of this interpretation and cannot yet rule out spiral density waves or other more complicated geometries.

  5. The symbiotic binary system RX Puppis: a possible recurrent nova with a Mira companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajewska, Joanna; Brandi, Estela; Hack, Warren; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Barba, Rodolfo; Garcia, Lia; Marang, Freddy

    1999-05-01

    We present an analysis of photometric and spectroscopic observations of the symbiotic binary system RX Pup with the aim of developing a reliable binary model for the system and identifying mechanisms responsible for its spectacular activity. The binary is composed of a long-period Mira variable surrounded by a thick dust shell and a hot ~ 0.8 M_sun white dwarf companion. The hot component produces practically all activity observed in the UV, optical and radio range, while variable obscuration of the Mira by circumstellar dust is responsible for long-term changes in the near-infrared magnitudes. The observations show that RX Pup underwent a nova-like eruption during the last three decades. The hot component contracted in radius at roughly constant luminosity from 1975 to 1986, and was the source of a strong stellar wind, which prevented it from accreting material lost in the Mira wind. Around 1988/9 the hot component turned over in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram and by 1991 its luminosity had faded by a factor of ~ 30 with respect to the maximum plateau value and the hot wind had practically ceased. By 1995 the nova remnant started to accrete material from the Mira wind, as indicated by a general increase in intensity of the optical continuum and H I emission. The quiescent spectrum resembles the quiescent spectra of symbiotic recurrent novae, and its intensity indicates that the hot component must accrete as much as ~ 1 per cent of the Mira wind, which is more or less the amount predicted by Bondi-Hoyle theory. The earliest observational records from the 1890s suggest that another nova-like eruption of RX Pup occurred around 1894.

  6. IMAGING DISK DISTORTION OF BE BINARY SYSTEM {delta} SCORPII NEAR PERIASTRON

    SciTech Connect

    Che, X.; Monnier, J. D.; Kraus, S.; Baron, F.; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Pedretti, E.; Ten Brummelaar, T.; McAlister, H.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Ridgway, S. T.

    2012-09-20

    The highly eccentric Be binary system {delta} Sco reached periastron during early 2011 July, when the distance between the primary and secondary was a few times the size of the primary disk in the H band. This opened a window of opportunity to study how the gaseous disks around Be stars respond to gravitational disturbance. We first refine the binary parameters with the best orbital phase coverage data from the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer. Then we present the first imaging results of the disk after the periastron, based on seven nights of five telescope observations with the MIRC combiner at the CHARA array. We found that the disk was inclined 27.{sup 0}6 {+-} 6.{sup 0}0 from the plane of the sky, had a half-light radius of 0.49 mas (2.2 stellar radii), and consistently contributed 71.4% {+-} 2.7% of the total flux in the H band from night to night, suggesting no ongoing transfer of material into the disk during the periastron. The new estimation of the periastron passage is UT 2011 July 3 07:00 {+-} 4:30. Re-analysis of archival VLTI-AMBER interferometry data allowed us to determine the rotation direction of the primary disk, constraining it to be inclined either {approx}119 Degree-Sign or {approx}171 Degree-Sign relative to the orbital plane of the binary system. We also detect inner disk asymmetries that could be explained by spot-like emission with a few percent of the disk total flux moving in Keplerian orbits, although we lack sufficient angular resolution to be sure of this interpretation and cannot yet rule out spiral density waves or other more complicated geometries.

  7. KIC 10080943: An eccentric binary system containing two pressure- and gravity-mode hybrid pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, V. S.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Degroote, P.; Bloemen, S.; Murphy, S. J.; Van Reeth, T.; Pápics, P. I.; Bedding, T. R.; Keen, M. A.; Prša, A.; Menu, J.; Debosscher, J.; Hrudková, M.; De Smedt, K.; Lombaert, R.; Németh, P.

    2015-12-01

    Context. γ Doradus and δ Scuti pulsators cover the transition region between low mass and massive main-sequence stars, and as such, are critical for testing stellar models. When they reside in binary systems, we can combine two independent methods to derive critical information, such as precise fundamental parameters to aid asteroseismic modelling. In the Kepler light curve of KIC 10080943, clear signatures of gravity- and pressure-mode pulsations have been found. Ground-based spectroscopy revealed this target to be a double-lined binary system. Aims: We present the analysis of four years of Kepler photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to derive observational constraints with which to evaluate theoretical predictions of the stellar structure and evolution for intermediate-mass stars. Methods: We used the method of spectral disentangling to determine atmospheric parameters for both components and derive the orbital elements. With phoebe, we modelled the ellipsoidal variation and reflection signal of the binary in the light curve and used classical Fourier techniques to analyse the pulsation modes. Results: We show that the eccentric binary system KIC 10080943 contains two hybrid pulsators with masses M1 = 2.0 ± 0.1 M⊙ and M2 = 1.9 ± 0.1 M⊙, with radii R1 = 2.9 ± 0.1 R⊙ and R2 = 2.1 ± 0.2 R⊙. We detect rotational splitting in the g and p modes for both stars and use them to determine a first rough estimate of the core-to-surface rotation rates for the two components, which will be improved by future detailed seismic modelling. Based on the data gathered with NASA's Discovery mission, Kepler, and with the HERMES spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the

  8. Dynamical model of binary asteroid systems through patched three-body problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Fabio; Lavagna, Michèle; Howell, Kathleen C.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a strategy for trajectory design in the proximity of a binary asteroid pair. A novel patched approach has been used to design trajectories in the binary system, which is modeled by means of two different three-body systems. The model introduces some degrees of freedom with respect to a classical two-body approach and it is intended to model to higher accuracy the peculiar dynamical properties of such irregular and low gravity field bodies, while keeping the advantages of having a full analytical formulation and low computational cost required. The neighborhood of the asteroid couple is split into two regions of influence where two different three-body problems describe the dynamics of the spacecraft. These regions have been identified by introducing the concept of surface of equivalence (SOE), a three-dimensional surface that serves as boundary between the regions of influence of each dynamical model. A case of study is presented, in terms of potential scenario that may benefit of such an approach in solving its mission analysis. Cost-effective solutions to land a vehicle on the surface of a low gravity body are selected by generating Poincaré maps on the SOE, seeking intersections between stable and unstable manifolds of the two patched three-body systems.

  9. GJ 3236: A NEW BRIGHT, VERY LOW MASS ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM DISCOVERED BY THE MEARTH OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Latham, David W.; Torres, Guillermo; Blake, Cullen H.; Burke, Christopher J.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Fueresz, Gabor; Mink, Douglas J.; Nutzman, Philip; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew H.; Calkins, Michael L.; Falco, Emilio E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Starr, Dan L.

    2009-08-20

    We report the detection of eclipses in GJ 3236, a bright (I = 11.6), very low mass binary system with an orbital period of 0.77 days. Analysis of light and radial velocity curves of the system yielded component masses of 0.38 {+-} 0.02 M{sub sun} and 0.28 {+-} 0.02 M{sub sun}. The central values for the stellar radii are larger than the theoretical models predict for these masses, in agreement with the results for existing eclipsing binaries, although the present 5% observational uncertainties limit the significance of the larger radii to approximately 1{sigma}. Degeneracies in the light curve models resulting from the unknown configuration of surface spots on the components of GJ 3236 currently dominate the uncertainties in the radii, and could be reduced by obtaining precise, multiband photometry covering the full orbital period. The system appears to be tidally synchronized and shows signs of high activity levels as expected for such a short orbital period, evidenced by strong H{alpha} emission lines in the spectra of both components. These observations probe an important region of mass-radius parameter space around the predicted transition to fully convective stellar interiors, where there are a limited number of precise measurements available in the literature.

  10. Morphology of Organically-Modified Layered Silicates (ols) in Binary Solvents: Model System for Polymer Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaia, Richard; Farmer, Barry; Lui, Weidong; Bharadwaj, Rishi

    2001-03-01

    Critical to forwarding nanocomposite technology is development of a detailed understanding of the spatial distribution of the various constituents (inorganic, polymeric and additives) and associated influence on thermodynamic and kinetic (rheological) aspects of the system. With regard to these issues, in-situ small angle x-ray scattering, associated scattering models, coarse grain simulations, and rheology have been used to examine the phase behavior of organically modified layered silicates (OLS) suspended in pure and binary solvent mixtures. These serve as model systems for examining aspects of morphology development and phase behavior in thermoset and thermoplastic nanocomposites. The phase structure of solvent - OLS system is qualitatively described by Onsager arguments modified to include a crystal-solvate (intercalated phase) and a gelation point. Ternary behavior (binary solvent mixtures) provides evidence for preferential segregation of the polar component to the inorganic surface. The chemical structure of the organic surfactant modifier has a negligible influence on the structure of the intercalated phase, but has a marked effect on the extent and concentration of the dispersed phase. These studies provide insight into the use of polar activators for organosilicate rheolgical control agents and additives to enhance nanocomposite formation (e.g. H20 addition for optimal exfoliated PDMS nanocomposites and incorporation of malic anhydride to produce polypropylene nanocomposites).

  11. Separation patterns between Brazilian nut and reversed Brazilian nut of a binary granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zi-Ang; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Shi-Ping; Chen, Sen; Jia, Chao; Liu, Chuan-Ping; Wang, Li

    2012-06-01

    This paper studies the segregation behavior of binary granular particles with diameters at approximately 10:1 in a vertically vibrated container. An array of transitional separation patterns between reversed Brazilian nut (RBN) and Brazilian nut (BN) separations are observed, with their geometrical features carefully measured. The binary particle system develops into either a stable separation pattern when f and Γ are relatively low or an oscillating pattern when f and Γ are relatively high. We regard these patterns as different phases, in which the stable patterns can be divided into phases of RBN, RBN transitional (RBNT), BNT, and BN. A phase parameter λ between-1 and 1 is defined to describe the separation patterns based on the mass center height difference in large and small particles. By drawing f-Γ-λ phase diagrams, the system's tendency toward BN separation was found to increase with f and decrease with Γ. Furthermore, the range of the tendency toward BN separation expands when the size of small particles rises. As the total mass of the small particles increases, the system's tendency toward RBN separation is enhanced. Abnormal points are also observed in the stable phase regions, and the oscillating phase shifts among the four stable phases with time. These stable phases can be explained via an analysis of the distribution of the dissipation energy, whereas the mechanism of the oscillating phase remains to be discovered.

  12. MAMA: an algebraic map for the secular dynamics of planetesimals in tight binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiva, A. M.; Correa-Otto, J. A.; Beaugé, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present an algebraic map (MAMA) for the dynamical and collisional evolution of a planetesimal swarm orbiting the main star of a tight binary system. The orbital evolution of each planetesimal is dictated by the secular perturbations of the secondary star and gas drag due to interactions with a protoplanetary disc. The gas disc is assumed eccentric with a constant precession rate. Gravitational interactions between the planetesimals are ignored. All bodies are assumed coplanar. A comparison with full N-body simulations shows that the map is of the order of 102 times faster, while preserving all the main characteristics of the full system. In a second part of the work, we apply multiparticle algebraic map for accretion (MAMA) to the γ-Cephei, searching for friendly scenarios that may explain the formation of the giant planet detected in this system. For low-mass protoplanetary discs, we find that a low-eccentricity static disc aligned with the binary yields impact velocities between planetesimals below the disruption threshold. All other scenarios appear hostile to planetary formation.

  13. The very massive X-ray bright binary system Wack2134 (= WR21a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemela, V. S.; Gamen, R. C.; Barbá, R. H.; Fernández Lajús, E.; Benaglia, P.; Solivella, G. R.; Reig, P.; Coe, M. J.

    2008-09-01

    From the radial velocities of the NIV λ4058 and HeII λ4686 emission lines, and the NV λ4604-20 absorption lines, determined in digital spectra, we report the discovery that the X-ray bright emission line star Wack2134 (= WR21a) is a spectroscopic binary system with an orbital period of 31.673 +/- 0.002d. With this period, the NIV and HeII emission and NV absorption lines, which originate in the atmosphere of the primary component, define a rather eccentric binary orbit (e = 0.64 +/- 0.03). The radial velocity variations of the NV absorptions have a lower amplitude than those of the HeII emission. Such a behaviour of the emission line radial velocities could be due to distortions produced by a superimposed absorption component from the companion. High-resolution echelle spectra observed during the quadrature phases of the binary show H and HeII absorptions of both components with a radial velocity difference of about 541kms-1. From this difference, we infer quite high values of the minimum masses, of about 87 and 53Msolar for the primary and secondary components, respectively, if the radial velocity variations of the HeII emission represent the true orbit of the primary. No HeI absorption lines are observed in our spectra. Thus, the secondary component in the Wack2134 binary system appears to be an early O-type star. From the presence of H, HeII and NV absorptions, and NIV and CIV emissions, in the spectrum of the primary component, it most clearly resembles those of Of/WNLha-type stars. Based partially on data collected at SAAO, CASLEO, LCO, CTIO and La Silla (under programme ID 68.D-0073) Observatories. In memoriam (1936-2006). ‡ E-mail: rgamen@casleo.gov.ar § Member of Carrera del Investigador CONICET, Argentina. Visiting Astronomer, Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, and CASLEO, Argentina. ¶ Member of Carrera del Investigador CONICET, Argentina. Visiting Astronomer, Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter

  14. DISCOVERY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF WIDE BINARY SYSTEMS WITH A VERY LOW MASS COMPONENT

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Gagné, Jonathan; Robert, Jasmin; Nadeau, Daniel; Davison, Cassy L.; Malo, Lison; Reylé, Céline

    2015-03-20

    We report the discovery of 14 low-mass binary systems containing mid-M to mid-L dwarf companions with separations larger than 250 AU. We also report the independent discovery of nine other systems with similar characteristics that were recently discovered in other studies. We have identified these systems by searching for common proper motion sources in the vicinity of known high proper motion stars, based on a cross-correlation of wide area near-infrared surveys (2MASS, SDSS, and SIMP). An astrometric follow-up, for common proper motion confirmation, was made with SIMON and/or CPAPIR at the Observatoire du Mont Mégantic 1.6 m and CTIO 1.5 m telescopes for all the candidates identified. A spectroscopic follow-up was also made with GMOS or GNIRS at Gemini to determine the spectral types of 11 of our newly identified companions and 10 of our primaries. Statistical arguments are provided to show that all of the systems we report here are very likely to be physical binaries. One of the new systems reported features a brown dwarf companion: LSPM J1259+1001 (M5) has an L4.5 (2M1259+1001) companion at ∼340 AU. This brown dwarf was previously unknown. Seven other systems have a companion of spectral type L0–L1 at a separation in the 250–7500 AU range. Our sample includes 14 systems with a mass ratio below 0.3.

  15. Chromospheric Activity and Orbital Solution of Six New Late-type Spectroscopic Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, M. C.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; López-Santiago, J.

    2006-08-01

    We present here the results of our high resolution echelle spectroscopic observations of six recently identified spectroscopic binary systems with late-type stellar components (HD 82159 (BD + 11 2052 A); HIP 63322 (BD + 39 2587); HD 160934 (RE J1738 + 611); HD 89959 (BD + 41 2078); HD 143705 (BD + 29 2752); HD 138157 (OX Ser)). The orbital solution has been obtained using precise radial velocities determined by cross-correlation with radial velocity standard stars as well as previous values reported by other authors. These multiwavelength optical observations allow us to study the chromosphere of these active binary systems using the information provided by several optical spectroscopic features (from Ca II H & K to Ca II IRT lines) that are formed at different heights in the chromosphere. The chromospheric contribution in these lines has been determined using the spectral subtraction technique. In addition, we have determined rotational velocities (vsin i), lithium (Li I λ 6707.8 Å) abundance, and kinematic properties (membership in representative young disk stellar kinematic groups).

  16. CONSTRAINING MASS RATIO AND EXTINCTION IN THE FU ORIONIS BINARY SYSTEM WITH INFRARED INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Pueyo, Laurent; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Hinkley, Sasha; Dekany, Richard; Roberts, Jenny; Vasisht, Gautam; Roberts, Lewis C. Jr.; Shao, Mike; Burruss, Rick; Cady, Eric; Oppenheimer, Ben R.; Brenner, Douglas; Zimmerman, Neil; Monnier, John D.; Crepp, Justin; Parry, Ian; Beichman, Charles; Soummer, Remi

    2012-09-20

    We report low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the eruptive star FU Orionis using the Integral Field Spectrograph (IFS) Project 1640 installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. This work focuses on elucidating the nature of the faint source, located 0.''5 south of FU Ori, and identified in 2003 as FU Ori S. We first use our observations in conjunction with published data to demonstrate that the two stars are indeed physically associated and form a true binary pair. We then proceed to extract J- and H-band spectro-photometry using the damped LOCI algorithm, a reduction method tailored for high contrast science with IFS. This is the first communication reporting the high accuracy of this technique, pioneered by the Project 1640 team, on a faint astronomical source. We use our low-resolution near-infrared spectrum in conjunction with 10.2 {mu}m interferometric data to constrain the infrared excess of FU Ori S. We then focus on estimating the bulk physical properties of FU Ori S. Our models lead to estimates of an object heavily reddened, A{sub V} = 8-12, with an effective temperature of {approx}4000-6500 K. Finally, we put these results in the context of the FU Ori N-S system and argue that our analysis provides evidence that FU Ori S might be the more massive component of this binary system.

  17. The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used. PMID:15776808

  18. An autocorrelation method to detect periodic gravitational waves from neutron stars in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viceré, Andrea; Yvert, Michel

    2016-08-01

    Rotating, non-axisymmetric neutron stars are expected to emit continuous gravitational waves at a nearly stable frequency. Nowadays about 2500 pulsars have been detected, thanks to their beamed electromagnetic emission, and many more of these objects should exist, whose electromagnetic beam does not include Earth and cannot be detected. The gravitational emission is not beamed, and could be accessible to gravitational observatories, even though no detection as been claimed yet. About half of the pulsars predicted to possibly emit gravitational waves in the frequency range accessible to ground-based interferometers belongs to binary systems; this is an additional complication, because the frequencies of these pulsars are Doppler-shifted due to their orbital motion, and an optimal detection strategy would require a computing power far beyond the present capabilities. We present here an approach which allows searching all-sky for such sources, over a broad range of frequencies, orbital periods and binary system eccentricities, reaching sensitivities potentially good enough to provide candidates for more sophisticated hierarchical detection methods. We test this new technique using real data taken during the first science run of Virgo, and estimating the sensitivity to a set of simulated pulsar signals.

  19. Orbital Evolution of Mass-transferring Eccentric Binary Systems. II. Secular Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosopoulou, Fani; Kalogera, Vicky

    2016-07-01

    Finite eccentricities in mass-transferring eccentric binary systems can be explained by taking into account the mass loss and mass transfer processes that often occur in these systems. These processes can be treated as perturbations of the general two-body problem. The time-evolution equations for the semimajor axis and the eccentricity derived from perturbative methods are generally phase-dependent. The osculating semimajor axis and eccentricity change over the orbital timescale and are not easy to implement in binary evolution codes like MESA. However, the secular orbital element evolution equations can be simplified by averaging over the rapidly varying true anomalies. In this paper, we derive the secular time-evolution equations for the semimajor axis and the eccentricity for various mass loss/transfer processes using either the adiabatic approximation or the assumption of delta-function mass loss/transfer at periastron. We begin with the cases of isotropic and anisotropic wind mass loss. We continue with conservative and non-conservative non-isotropic mass ejection/accretion (including Roche-Lobe-Overflow) for both point-masses and extended bodies. We conclude with the case of phase-dependent mass accretion. Comparison of the derived equations with similar work in the literature is included and an explanation of the existing discrepancies is provided.

  20. The binary eutectic of NSAIDS and two-phase liquid system for enhanced membrane permeation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xudong; Capomacchia, A C

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic properties of binary mixtures of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with ibuprofen were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and phase equilibrium diagrams. The melting points of selected NSAIDs were significantly depressed due to binary eutectic formation with ibuprofen. Ketoprofen and ibuprofen were selected to study the effect of eutectic formation on membrane permeation using Franz diffusion cells and snake skin as the model membrane. The presence of aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was necessary to completely transform the solid drugs into an oily state at ambient temperature. As much as the 99.6% of ibuprofen and the 88.8% of ketoprofen added were found in the oily phase of the two-phase liquid system formed when aqueous IPA was added to the eutectic mixture. Due to the high drug concentration in the oily phase, and maximum thermodynamic activity, the two-phase liquid system showed enhanced membrane permeation rates of ibuprofen (37.5 microg/cm2/hr) and ketoprofen (33.4 microg/cm2/hr) compared to other reference preparations used.

  1. Period analysis of three close binary systems: TW And, TT Her and W UMi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreiner, J. M.; Pribulla, T.; Tremko, J.; Stachowski, G. S.; Zakrzewski, B.

    2008-02-01

    Orbital period changes of three close binaries, TW And, TT Her and W UMi, were studied using the Kraków data base of minima of eclipsing binaries, and new photoelectric observations obtained by the authors. The interval of the observations spans roughly a century. The major orbital period change in TW And is explained by the presence of a third body with P3 = 49.6 yr and a continuous secular period increase. A third body, with P3 = 41.0 yr, was also found in the system TT Her. The (O-C) diagram of W UMi can be interpreted as either an abrupt orbital period decrease which occurred around the end of 1973 or as a secular orbital period decrease combined with cyclic change. In this case, the orbital period of the third body is 62.2 yr and the sum of squares of residuals is lower than for a broken-line fit, therefore cyclic variations should be preferred. In all three systems, the third body is a low-mass companion.

  2. ROSAT x ray survey observations of active chromospheric binary systems and other selected sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    The connection between processes that produce optical chromospheric activity indicators and those that produce x-rays in RS CVn binary systems by taking advantage of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) results and our unique ground-based data set was investigated. In RS CVn systems, excess emission in the Ca 2 resonance (K & H) and infrared triplet (IRT) lines and in the Balmer lines of hydrogen is generally cited as evidence for chromospheric activity, which is usually modeled as scaled up solar-type activity. X-ray emission in RS CVn systems is believed to arise from coronal loop structures. Results from spectra data obtained from RASS observations are discussed and presented.

  3. Effect of concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient on homogenization kinetics in multiphase binary alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Unnam, J.

    1978-01-01

    Diffusion calculations were performed to establish the conditions under which concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient was important in single, two, and three phase binary alloy systems. Finite-difference solutions were obtained for each type of system using diffusion coefficient variations typical of those observed in real alloy systems. Solutions were also obtained using average diffusion coefficients determined by taking a logarithmic average of each diffusion coefficient variation considered. The constant diffusion coefficient solutions were used as reference in assessing diffusion coefficient variation effects. Calculations were performed for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries in order to compare the effect of diffusion coefficient variations with the effect of interface geometries. In most of the cases considered, the diffusion coefficient of the major-alloy phase was the key parameter that controlled the kinetics of interdiffusion.

  4. Double Pulsar: A magnetopause in the double-pulsar binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham-Smith, Francis; McLaughlin, Maura Ann

    2005-02-01

    One of the holy grails of pulsar astronomy was realized last year with the discovery of a double neutron-star binary system in which both stars are visible as radio pulsars. The stars in this highly relativistic system are in a 2.4-hour, mildly eccentric orbit and are separated by only 2.9 light seconds. The wind from one distorts the magnetosphere of the other, forming a comet-like shape similar to the terrestrial magnetosheath. In this article we describe the radio observations of this system, which illuminate the remarkable interactions between the two pulsars. We show how studying these interactions will greatly increase our understanding of pulsar energy budgets, winds and magnetospheric physics.

  5. Highly Ordered and Highly Aligned Two-Dimensional Binary Superlattice of a SWNT/Cylindrical-Micellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jang, Hyung-Sik; Ha, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwasniewski, Pawel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Choi, Sung-Min

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of binary nanoparticle superlattice, which may provide new properties through synergetic coupling between different types of nanoparticles, are of great interest for various potential applications as well as its own scientific merit. While exciting progress has been made in the fabrication of binary spherical-nanoparticle superlattices with various symmetries by using an interplay of entropic and enthalpic interactions, systematic experimental studies on the formation of binary 1D nanoparticle superlattices have been very rare. Here, we report a highly ordered intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice of hydrophilically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (p-SWNTs) and surfactant (C12E5) cylindrical micelles. When p-SWNTs (with a diameter slightly larger than that of the C12E5 cylinders) were added to the hexagonally packed C12E5 cylindrical-micellar system, p-SWNTs positioned themselves in such a way that the free-volume entropies for both p-SWNTs and C12E5 cylinders were maximized, thus resulting in the intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice. The binary superlattice can be highly aligned in one direction by an oscillatory shear field and remains aligned after the shear is removed. This research was supported by NRF grants funded by the MEST of the Korean government (No. 2014R1A2A1A05007109 and 2011-0031931) and the BK21.

  6. Phase Diagrams of Binary Systems of Non-Mesogenic Components:Caesium-Sodium and Caesium - Lithium Iso-Butyrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuck, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1995-10-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary systems given in the title have been studied by differential thermal analyses and hot stage polarization microscopy. Smectic liquid crystals are found in some composition ranges of the binary with sodium iso-butyrate. The liquid crystal appearance in this system is explained by latent mesomorphism of both components and by the additional electrostatic stabilization of the ionic mesophase because of dissimilar cation interactions. The unlike conditions for the exhibition of latent mesomorphism of caesium isobutyrate in the two systems is discussed.

  7. Confronting Numerical Relativity With Nature: A model-independent characterization of binary black-hole systems in LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, Karan; Clark, James; Shoemaker, Deirdre; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar and Intermediate mass binary black hole systems (10-1000 solar masses) are likely to be among the strongest sources of gravitational wave detection in Advanced LIGO. In this talk we discuss the prospects for the detection and characterization of these extreme astrophysical system using robust, morphology-independent analysis techniques. In particular, we demonstrate how numerical relativity simulations of black hole collisions may be combined with waveform reconstructions to constrain properties of a binary black-hole system using only exact solutions from general relativity and any potential gravitational wave signal in the data.

  8. Short-period near-contact binary systems at the beginning of the overcontact phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shengbang

    2002-11-01

    A detailed analysis of orbital period changes of seven near-contact binary stars (NCBs) (BL And, V473 Cas, XZ CMi, BV Eri, RU Eri, UU Lyn and GR Tau) with period less than 1 d has been performed and their respective O-C diagrams are formed and discussed. It is found that all systems analysed show secular period decreasing. For V473 Cas, the analysis of the period change was performed based on data collected by Moschner, Frank & Bastian. For XZ CMi, its period shows some complex changes, a possible cyclic oscillation is discovered to superpose on the secular decrease that can be explained either by the presence of a third body or by magnetic activity cycles of the components. Since the third-body assumption is consistent with the photometric solution of Rafert, XZ CMi may be a truly triple system. For BV Eri, the period decrease is only supported by weak evidence. All the seven systems are short-period NCBs with AF-type primary components where both components are filling or nearly filling the critical Roche lobe. As the period decreases, the separation between both components will be reducing and thus these systems will evolve into A-type overcontact binaries. The period decrease may be caused by mass transfer or/and by angular momentum loss via magnetic braking. Combined with the published data on the other systems of the same type, a possible statistical connection between orbital period P and its rate of decrease dP/dt is obtained: dP/dt=-5.3 × 10-7×P+ 1.3 × 10-7 d yr-1. This correlation indicates that the smaller the orbital period P is, the smaller its rate of change dP/dt will be. The correlation found in this paper indicates that there may be a smooth transition from A- and F-type NCBs with period decreases to the A- and F-type overcontact binaries that have period increases, and in that sense one may postulate that the NCBs may be the progenitors of the A-type W UMa systems and will be oscillating around a marginal-contact state as predicted by thermal

  9. Stability of binaries. Part 1: Rigid binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2015-09-01

    We consider the stability of binary asteroids whose members are possibly granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever each member is orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability test for rotating granular aggregates introduced by Sharma (Sharma, I. [2012]. J. Fluid Mech., 708, 71-99; Sharma, I. [2013]. Icarus, 223, 367-382; Sharma, I. [2014]. Icarus, 229, 278-294) to the case of binary systems comprised of rubble members. In part I, we specialize to the case of a binary with rigid members subjected to full three-dimensional perturbations. Finally, we employ the stability test to critically appraise shape models of four suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 25143 Itokawa, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope.

  10. THE REFLECTION EFFECT IN INTERACTING BINARIES OR IN PLANET-STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Budaj, J.

    2011-02-15

    There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and stars with a close-in giant extrasolar planet. The reflection effect is a well-known example. Although the generally accepted treatment of this effect in interacting binaries is successful in fitting light curves of eclipsing binaries, it is not very suitable for studying cold objects irradiated by hot objects or extrasolar planets. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of the reflection effect which could be easily incorporated into the present codes for modeling of interacting binaries so that these can be used to study the aforementioned objects. Our model of the reflection effect takes into account the reflection (scattering), heating, and heat redistribution over the surface of the irradiated object. The shape of the object is described by the non-spherical Roche potential expected for close objects. Limb and gravity darkening are included in the calculations of the light output from the system. The model also accounts for the orbital revolution and rotation of the exoplanet with appropriate Doppler shifts for the scattered and thermal radiation. Subsequently, light curves and/or spectra of several exoplanets have been modeled and the effects of the heat redistribution, limb darkening/brightening, (non-)gray albedo, and non-spherical shape have been studied. Recent observations of planet-to-star flux ratio of HD189733b, WASP12b, and WASP-19b at various phases were reproduced with very good accuracy. It was found that HD189733b has a low Bond albedo and intense heat redistribution, while WASP-19b has a low Bond albedo and low heat redistribution. The exact Roche geometries and temperature distributions over the surface of all 78 transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. Departures from the spherical shape may vary considerably but departures of about 1% in the radius are common within the sample. In some cases, these departures can reach 8%, 12%, or 14%, for WASP-33b, WASP-19b, and

  11. Tracing the young massive high-eccentricity binary system θ^1Orionis C through periastron passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, S.; Weigelt, G.; Balega, Y. Y.; Docobo, J. A.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Preibisch, T.; Schertl, D.; Tamazian, V. S.; Driebe, T.; Ohnaka, K.; Petrov, R.; Schöller, M.; Smith, M.

    2009-04-01

    Context: The nearby high-mass star binary system θ^1Ori C is the brightest and most massive of the Trapezium OB stars at the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster, and it represents a perfect laboratory to determine the fundamental parameters of young hot stars and to constrain the distance of the Orion Trapezium Cluster. Aims: By tracing the orbital motion of the θ^1Ori C components, we aim to refine the dynamical orbit of this important binary system. Methods: Between January 2007 and March 2008, we observed θ^1Ori C with VLTI/AMBER near-infrared (H- and K-band) long-baseline interferometry, as well as with bispectrum speckle interferometry with the ESO 3.6 m and the BTA 6 m telescopes (B'- and V'-band). Combining AMBER data taken with three different 3-telescope array configurations, we reconstructed the first VLTI/AMBER closure-phase aperture synthesis image, showing the θ^1Ori C system with a resolution of ˜ 2 mas. To extract the astrometric data from our spectrally dispersed AMBER data, we employed a new algorithm, which fits the wavelength-differential visibility and closure phase modulations along the H- and K-band and is insensitive to calibration errors induced, for instance, by changing atmospheric conditions. Results: Our new astrometric measurements show that the companion has nearly completed one orbital revolution since its discovery in 1997. The derived orbital elements imply a short-period (P ≈ 11.3 yr) and high-eccentricity orbit (e ≈ 0.6) with periastron passage around 2002.6. The new orbit is consistent with recently published radial velocity measurements, from which we can also derive the first direct constraints on the mass ratio of the binary components. We employ various methods to derive the system mass (M_system = 44 ± 7 M⊙) and the dynamical distance (d = 410 ± 20 pc), which is in remarkably good agreement with recently published trigonometric parallax measurements obtained with radio interferometry. Based on observations made

  12. A radio map of the colliding winds in the very massive binary system HD 93129A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaglia, P.; Marcote, B.; Moldón, J.; Nelan, E.; De Becker, M.; Dougherty, S. M.; Koribalski, B. S.

    2015-07-01

    Context. Radio observations are an effective tool for discovering particle acceleration regions in colliding-wind binaries through detection of synchrotron radiation. Wind-collision region (WCR) models can reproduce the radio continuum spectra of massive binaries. However, key constraints for models come from high-resolution imaging. Only five WCRs have been resolved to date at radio frequencies on milliarcsec (mas) angular scales. The source HD 93129A, a prototype of the very few known O2 I stars, is a promising target for study. Recently, a second massive, early-type star about 50 mas away was discovered, and a non-thermal radio source was detected in the region. Preliminary long-baseline array data suggest that a significant fraction of the radio emission from the system comes from a putative WCR. Aims: We seek evidence that HD 93129A is a massive binary system with colliding stellar winds that produce non-thermal radiation through spatially resolved images of the radio emitting regions. Methods: We completed observations with the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) to resolve the system at mas angular resolutions and reduced archival Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) data to derive the total radio emission. We also compiled optical astrometric data of the system in a homogeneous way. We reduced historical Hubble Space Telescope data and obtained absolute and relative astrometry with milliarcsec accuracy. Results: The astrometric analysis leads us to conclude that the two stars in HD 93129A form a gravitationally bound system. The LBA data reveal an extended arc-shaped non-thermal source between the two stars, which is indicative of a WCR. The wind momentum-rate ratio of the two stellar winds is estimated. The ATCA data show a point source with a change in flux level between 2003-4 and 2008-9, which is modeled with a non-thermal power-law spectrum with spectral indices of -1.03 ± 0.09 and -1.21 ± 0.03, respectively. The mass-loss rates derived from the

  13. Asteroid flux towards circumprimary habitable zones in binary star systems. II. Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Bazsó, Á.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Secular and mean motion resonances (MMR) are effective perturbations for shaping planetary systems. In binary star systems, they play a key role during the early and late phases of planetary formation, as well as for the dynamical stability of a planetary system. Aims: In this study, we aim to correlate the presence of orbital resonances with the rate of icy asteroids crossing the habitable zone (HZ) from a circumprimary disk of planetesimals in various binary star systems. Methods: We modelled a belt of small bodies in the inner and outer regions, interior and exterior to the orbit of a gas giant planet, respectively. The planetesimals are equally placed around a primary G-type star and move under the gravitational influence of the two stars and the gas giant. We numerically integrated the system for 50 Myr, considering various parameters for the secondary star. Its stellar type varies from a M- to F-type; its semimajor axis is either 50 au or 100 au, and its eccentricity is either 0.1 or 0.3. For comparison, we also varied the gas giant's orbital and physical parameters. Results: Our simulations highlight that a disk of planetesimals will suffer from perturbations owing to a perturbed gas giant, mean motion, and secular resonances. We show that a secular resonance - with location and width varying according to the secondary star's characteristics - can exist in the icy asteroid belt region and overlap with MMRs, which have an impact on the dynamical lifetime of the disk. In addition, we point out that, in any case, the 2:1 MMR, the 5:3 MMR, and the secular resonance are powerful perturbations for the flux of icy asteroids towards the HZ and the transport of water therein.

  14. First light curve analyses of binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulaş, B.; Ulusoy, C.

    2015-11-01

    Using the data from the public database of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) we performed the very first light curve analyses of the three eclipsing binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7. The physical parameters of the systems were determined by the PHOEBE (Prša and Zwitter, 2005) software. From an analysis of the ASAS data it was concluded that AO Aqr was found to be a contact binary system while CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7 were found to be near-contact and detached binaries, respectively. Finally, the locations of the components, corresponding to the estimated physical parameters, in the HR diagram were also discussed.

  15. Semicoherent search strategy for known continuous wave sources in binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Messenger, C.

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for detection of weak continuous signals from sources in binary systems via the incoherent combination of many short coherently analyzed segments. The main focus of the work is on the construction of a metric on the parameter space for such signals for use in matched-filter based searches. The metric is defined using a maximum likelihood detection statistic applied to a binary orbit phase model including eccentricity. We find that this metric can be accurately approximated by its diagonal form in the regime where the segment length is << the orbital period. Hence, correlations between parameters are effectively removed by the combination of many independent observations. We find that the ability to distinguish signal parameters is independent of the total semicoherent observation span (for the semicoherent span >> the segment length) for all but the orbital angular frequency. Increased template density for this parameter scales linearly with the observation span. We also present two example search schemes. The first use a reparametrized phase model upon which we compute the metric on individual short coherently analyzed segments. The second assumes long >> the orbital period segment lengths from which we again compute the coherent metric and find it to be approximately diagonal. In this latter case we also show that the semicoherent metric is equal to the coherent metric.

  16. Multi-periodic pulsations of a stripped red-giant star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Pierre F L; Serenelli, Aldo M; Miglio, Andrea; Marsh, Thomas R; Heber, Ulrich; Dhillon, Vikram S; Littlefair, Stuart; Copperwheat, Chris; Smalley, Barry; Breedt, Elmé; Schaffenroth, Veronika

    2013-06-27

    Low-mass white-dwarf stars are the remnants of disrupted red-giant stars in binary millisecond pulsars and other exotic binary star systems. Some low-mass white dwarfs cool rapidly, whereas others stay bright for millions of years because of stable fusion in thick surface hydrogen layers. This dichotomy is not well understood, so the potential use of low-mass white dwarfs as independent clocks with which to test the spin-down ages of pulsars or as probes of the extreme environments in which low-mass white dwarfs form cannot fully be exploited. Here we report precise mass and radius measurements for the precursor to a low-mass white dwarf. We find that only models in which this disrupted red-giant star has a thick hydrogen envelope can match the strong constraints provided by our data. Very cool low-mass white dwarfs must therefore have lost their thick hydrogen envelopes by irradiation from pulsar companions or by episodes of unstable hydrogen fusion (shell flashes). We also find that this low-mass white-dwarf precursor is a type of pulsating star not hitherto seen. The observed pulsation frequencies are sensitive to internal processes that determine whether this star will undergo shell flashes. PMID:23803845

  17. Multi-periodic pulsations of a stripped red-giant star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Pierre F L; Serenelli, Aldo M; Miglio, Andrea; Marsh, Thomas R; Heber, Ulrich; Dhillon, Vikram S; Littlefair, Stuart; Copperwheat, Chris; Smalley, Barry; Breedt, Elmé; Schaffenroth, Veronika

    2013-06-27

    Low-mass white-dwarf stars are the remnants of disrupted red-giant stars in binary millisecond pulsars and other exotic binary star systems. Some low-mass white dwarfs cool rapidly, whereas others stay bright for millions of years because of stable fusion in thick surface hydrogen layers. This dichotomy is not well understood, so the potential use of low-mass white dwarfs as independent clocks with which to test the spin-down ages of pulsars or as probes of the extreme environments in which low-mass white dwarfs form cannot fully be exploited. Here we report precise mass and radius measurements for the precursor to a low-mass white dwarf. We find that only models in which this disrupted red-giant star has a thick hydrogen envelope can match the strong constraints provided by our data. Very cool low-mass white dwarfs must therefore have lost their thick hydrogen envelopes by irradiation from pulsar companions or by episodes of unstable hydrogen fusion (shell flashes). We also find that this low-mass white-dwarf precursor is a type of pulsating star not hitherto seen. The observed pulsation frequencies are sensitive to internal processes that determine whether this star will undergo shell flashes.

  18. Relative velocities among accreting planetesimals in binary systems: The circumprimary case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, P.; Marzari, F.; Scholl, H.

    2006-07-01

    We investigate classical planetesimal accretion in a binary star system of separation a⩽50 AU by numerical simulations, with particular focus on the region at a distance of 1 AU from the primary. The planetesimals orbit the primary, are perturbed by the companion and are in addition subjected to a gas drag force. We concentrate on the problem of relative velocities Δ v among planetesimals of different sizes. For various stellar mass ratios and binary orbital parameters we determine regions where Δ v exceed planetesimal escape velocities v (thus preventing runaway accretion) or even the threshold velocity v for which erosion dominates accretion. Gaseous friction has two crucial effects on the velocity distribution: it damps secular perturbations by forcing periastron alignment of orbits, but at the same time the size-dependence of this orbital alignment induces a significant Δ v increase between bodies of different sizes. This differential phasing effect proves very efficient and almost always increases Δ v to values preventing runaway accretion, except in a narrow e≃0 domain. The erosion threshold Δv>v is reached in a wide ( a,e) space for small <10-km planetesimals, but in a much more limited region for bigger ≃50-km objects. In the intermediate v<Δv

  19. Position and rotation-invariant pattern recognition system by binary rings masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solorza, S.; Álvarez-Borrego, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, algorithms invariant to position, rotation, noise and non-homogeneous illumination are presented. Here, several manners are studied to generate binary rings mask filters and the corresponding signatures associated to each image. Also, in this work it is shown that digital systems, which are based on the ?-law non-linear correlation, are ?-invariant for ?. The methodologies are tested using greyscale fossil diatoms digital images (real images), and considering the great similarity between those images the results obtained are excellent. The box plot statistical analysis and the computational cost times yield that the Bessel rings masks are the best option when the images contain a homogeneous illumination and the Fourier masks digital system is the right selection when the non-homogeneous illumination and noise is presented in the images.

  20. Indanedione based binary chromophore supramolecular systems as a NLO active polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutkis, M.; Tokmakovs, A.; Jecs, E.; Kreicberga, J.; Kampars, V.; Kokars, V.

    2010-06-01

    Novel route to obtain EO material is proposed by supramolecular assembly of neutral-ground-state (NGS) and zwitterionic (ZWI) NLO chromophores in binary chromophore organic glass (BCOG) host-guest system. On a basis of our Langeven Dynamics (LD) molecular modeling combined with quantum chemical calculations, we have shown that anticipated enhancement NLO efficiency of BCOG material is possible via electrostatic supramolecular assembly of NGS with ZWI chromophore in antiparallel manner. Binding energy of such complex could be more dependent on molecular compatibility of components and local (atomic) charge distribution, then overall molecular dipole moments. According to our LD simulations these supramolecular bind structures of NGS and ZWI chromophores can sustain thermally assisted electrical field poling. For the one of experimentally investigated systems, build from dimethylaminobenzylidene 1,3-indanedione containing host and zwitterionic indanedione-1,3 pyridinium betaine as a guest, almost twofold enhancement of NLO efficiency was observed.

  1. Modelling of acid-base equilibria in binary-solvent systems: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Bogusław; Dobkowska, Agnieszka; Foks, Henryk; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2010-01-15

    A new approach to modelling of some binary (hydro-organic, HL/H(2)O+B) acid-base systems with organic co-solvent B fully miscible with water, is suggested and applied for the determination of acidity parameters pK for some weak acids HL. The models are designed to get the pK=pK(x) relationships (x-mole fraction of B in H(2)O+B) from results of pH titrations made in such systems and for the determination of pK(B)=pK(1) for HL in pure B. The Redlich-Kister equation, together with its asymmetric extensions, and the Legendre functions with orthogonal polynomials, appeared to be suitable for such purposes.

  2. The binary system K2SO4CaSO4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowe, J.J.; Morey, G.W.; Hansen, I.D.

    1965-01-01

    The binary system K2SO4CaSO4 was studied by means of heating-cooling curves, differential thermal analysis, high-temperature quenching technique and by means of a heating stage mounted on an X-ray diffractometer. Compositions and quench products were identified optically and by X-ray. Limited solid solution of CaSO4 in K2SO4 was found. There is a eutectic at 875??C and 34 wt. per cent CaSO4. Calcium langbeinite melts incongruently at 1011??C. The melting-point of CaSO4 (1462??C) was determined by the quenching technique using sealed platinum tubes. The only intermediate crystalline phase found in the system is K2SO4??2CaSO4 (calcium langbeinite). ?? 1965.

  3. The chemical evolution of the secondary stars in close binary systems during nova outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, P. B.; Sarna, M. J.; Prialnik, D.

    1997-09-01

    We present stellar evolutionary calculations of secondary stars in close binary systems. We include the effect of re-accretion of material ejected during the nova outbursts of the semi-detached phase of evolution. Our models give us the detailed composition of the secondary star throughout its whole evolution, since we use an extended nuclear reaction network. Using the data concerning the isotopic and element abundances of the surface of the secondary star, we show how the ratios of ^12C/^13C, ^14N/^15N and ^16O/^17O and the abundances of C and N are affected by re-accretion of ejecta material. We suggest observational tests which, when compared with our results, will allow us to make predictions concerning the evolutionary state of the systems observed.

  4. Solutal Convection and Its Effects on Crystal Growth and Segregation in Binary and Pseudo-Binary System with Large Liquidus-Solidus Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. A.; Witt, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    This research program is composed of theoretical and experimental studies of solutal convection and its effects on crystal growth and segregation in binary and pseudo-binary systems with large liquidus-solidus separation. The theoretical program has resulted in the development of a transient simulation of the growth of concentrated alloys in microgravity and has been used to study the dynamics of GeSi, PbSnTe, HgCdTe growth. Finite element analysis has also been developed for studying the interactions of buoyancy-driven convection in the melt caused by temperature and concentration variations with melt-solid interface morphology and alloy segregation in the grown crystal. These calculations are being compared directly to experimental measurements of segregation and interface shape for GeSi growth and GaGe growth. The results for SiGe indicate that careful design of the thermal system can result in almost diffusion-controlled growth on Earth because of the stablizing influence of the concentration gradient ahead of the solidification front.

  5. Search for contact systems among EB-type binaries. IV - V375 Cas, UW Ori, DO Cas, RU ERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; di Fiore, L.; Milano, L.; Pirozzi, L.; Russo, G.

    1992-12-01

    We present the analysis of the data of four EB-type eclipsing binaries, continuing our search for contact or almost contact systems. The Price algorithm has been used in conjunction to the Wilson-Devinney model to try to obtain, where possible, unambiguous solutions for all the systems.

  6. Impact of the orbital uncertainties on the timing of pulsars in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliandro, G. A.; Torres, D. F.; Rea, N.

    2012-12-01

    The detection of pulsations from an X-ray binary is an unambiguous signature of the presence of a neutron star in the system. When the pulsations are missed in the radio band, their detection at other wavelengths, such as X-ray or gamma-rays, requires orbital demodulation, since the length of the observations is often comparable to, or longer than, the system orbital period. A detailed knowledge of the orbital parameters of binary systems plays a crucial role in the detection of the spin period of pulsars since any uncertainty in their determination translates into a loss in the coherence of a signal during the demodulation process. In this paper, we present an analytical study aimed at unveiling how the uncertainties in the orbital parameters might impact on periodicity searches. We find a correlation between the power of the signal in the demodulated arrival time series and the uncertainty in each of the orbital parameters. This correlation is also a function of the pulsar frequency. We test our analytical results with numerical simulations, finding good agreement between them. Finally, we apply our study to the cases of LS 5039 and LS I +61 303 and consider the current level of uncertainties in the orbital parameters of these systems and their impact on a possible detection of a hosted pulsar. We also discuss the possible appearance of a sideband ambiguity in real data. The latter can occur when, due to the use of uncertain orbital parameters, the power of a putative pulsar is distributed in frequencies lying near the pulsar period. Even if the appearance of a sideband is already a signature of a pulsar component, it may introduce an ambiguity in the determination of its period. We present here a method to solve the sideband issue.

  7. ν Octantis: a conjectured S-type retrograde planet in a spectroscopic binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Benjamin E.; Ramm, David; Endl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ν Octantis is a single-lined spectroscopic binary system consisting of a K-giant primary and a secondary orbiting near 1050 days. Radial velocity observations reveal an additional ~400 day periodicity with a semi-amplitude of 40 m/s. If this signal is planetary in nature, the ν Octantis system would be unique amongst all known exoplanet systems in that long-term stability can only be achieved if the orbit is retrograde with respect to the stellar companions (i.e. mutual inclination ~ 180°).Spectral line analyses suggest this signal is unlikely to be due to surface activity or pulsations (Ramm 2015). We also rule out an exotic scenario where the secondary itself is a binary.We report an analysis of 1437 radial velocity measurements taken with HERCULES at the Mt. John Observatory spanning nearly 13 years, 1180 being new iodine iodine-cell velocities (2009-2013). The sensitive orbital dynamics of the two-companion model allow us to constrain the three-dimensional orbital architecture directly from the observations. Posterior samples obtained from an n-body Markov chain Monte Carlo (Nelson et al. 2014) yields a mutual inclination of 158.4 ± 1.2°. None of these are dynamically stable beyond 106 years. However, a grid search around the posterior sample suggests that they are in close proximity to a region of parameter space that is stable for at least 106 years.If real, the tight orbital architecture here imposes a considerable challenge for formation of this dynamically extreme system.

  8. Multiwavelength Optical Observations of Two Chromospherically Active Binary Systems: V789 Mon and GZ Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, M. C.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a multiwavelength optical study of chromospheres in two X-ray/EUV-selected active binary stars with strong Hα emission, V789 Mon (2RE J0725 - 002) and GZ Leo (2RE J1101+223). The goal of the study is to determine radial velocities and fundamental stellar parameters in chromospherically active binary systems in order to include them in the activity-rotation and activity-age relations. We carried out high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations and applied spectral-subtraction technique in order to measure emission excesses due to chromosphere. The detailed study of activity indicators allowed us to characterize the presence of different chromospheric features in these systems and enabled to include them in a larger activity-rotation survey. We computed radial velocities of the systems using cross-correlation with the radial velocity standards. The double-line spectral binarity was confirmed and the orbital solutions improved for both systems. In addition, other stellar parameters such as spectral types, projected rotational velocities (vsin i) and the equivalent width of the lithium Li I λ6707.8 Å absorption line were determined. Based on observations collected with the 2.2 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) and with the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (USA).

  9. THE QUASI-ROCHE LOBE OVERFLOW STATE IN THE EVOLUTION OF CLOSE BINARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING A RADIO PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as ''redbacks''. Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition.

  10. The Quasi-Roche Lobe Overflow State in the Evolution of Close Binary Systems Containing a Radio Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.; Horvath, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    We study the evolution of close binary systems formed by a normal (solar composition), intermediate-mass-donor star together with a neutron star. We consider models including irradiation feedback and evaporation. These nonstandard ingredients deeply modify the mass-transfer stages of these binaries. While models that neglect irradiation feedback undergo continuous, long-standing mass-transfer episodes, models including these effects suffer a number of cycles of mass transfer and detachment. During mass transfer, the systems should reveal themselves as low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), whereas when they are detached they behave as binary radio pulsars. We show that at these stages irradiated models are in a Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) state or in a quasi-RLOF state. Quasi-RLOF stars have radii slightly smaller than their Roche lobes. Remarkably, these conditions are attained for an orbital period as well as donor mass values in the range corresponding to a family of binary radio pulsars known as "redbacks." Thus, redback companions should be quasi-RLOF stars. We show that the characteristics of the redback system PSR J1723-2837 are accounted for by these models. In each mass-transfer cycle these systems should switch from LMXB to binary radio pulsar states with a timescale of approximately one million years. However, there is recent and fast growing evidence of systems switching on far shorter, human timescales. This should be related to instabilities in the accretion disk surrounding the neutron star and/or radio ejection, still to be included in the model having the quasi-RLOF state as a general condition.

  11. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XI. V1191 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Qian, S. B.; Soonthornthum, B.; He, J. J.; Liu, L.

    2011-10-01

    Complete CCD photometric light curves in BV(RI) c bands obtained on one night in 2009 for the short-period close-binary system V1191 Cygni are presented. A new photometric analysis with the 2003 version of the Wilson-Van Hamme code shows that V1191 Cyg is a W-type overcontact binary system and suggests that it has a high degree of overcontact (f = 68.6%) with very low mass ratio, implying that it is at the late stage of overcontact evolution. The absolute parameters of V1191 Cyg are derived using spectroscopic and photometric solutions. Combining new determined times of light minimum with others published in the literature, the period change of the binary star is investigated. A periodic variation, with a period of 26.7 years and an amplitude of 0.023 days, was discovered to be superimposed on a long-term period increase (dP/dt = +4.5(± 0.1) × 10-7 days yr-1). The cyclic period oscillation may be caused by the magnetic activity cycles of either of the components or the light-time effect due to the presence of a third body with a mass of m 3 = 0.77 M sun and an orbital radius of a 3 = 7.6 AU, when this body is coplanar to the orbit of the eclipsing pair. The secular orbital period increase can be interpreted as a mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With the period increases, V1191 Cyg will evolve from its present low mass ratio, high filled overcontact state to a rapidly rotating single star when its orbital angular momentum is less than three times the total spin angular momentum. V1191 Cyg is too blue for its orbital period and it is an unusual W-type overcontact system with such a low mass ratio and high fill-out overcontact configuration, which is worth monitoring continuously in the future.

  12. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos E-mail: elke.pilat-lohinger@univie.ac.at

    2012-06-10

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  13. Temperature condensation trend in the debris-disk binary system ζ2 Reticuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Flores, M.; Jaque Arancibia, M.; Buccino, A.; Jofré, E.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Detailed abundance studies have reported different trends between samples of stars with and without planets, possibly related to the planet formation process. Whether these differences are still present between samples of stars with and without debris disk is still unclear. Aims: We explore condensation temperature Tc trends in the unique binary system ζ1 Ret -ζ2 Ret to determine whether there is a depletion of refractories that could be related to the planet formation process. The star ζ2 Ret hosts a debris disk which was detected by an IR excess and confirmed by direct imaging and numerical simulations, while ζ1 Ret does not present IR excess or planets. These characteristics convert ζ2 Ret in a remarkable system where their binary nature together with the strong similarity of both components allow us, for the first time, to achieve the highest possible abundance precision in this system. Methods: We carried out a high-precision abundance determination in both components of the binary system via a line-by-line, strictly differential approach. First we used the Sun as a reference and then we used ζ2 Ret. The stellar parameters Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and vturb were determined by imposing differential ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines, with an updated version of the program FUNDPAR, together with plane-parallel local thermodynamic equilibrium ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the MOOG code. We then derived detailed abundances of 24 different species with equivalent widths and spectral synthesis with the MOOG program. The chemical patterns were compared with a recently calculated solar-twins Tc trend, and then mutually between both stars of the binary system. The rocky mass of depleted refractory material was estimated according to recent data. Results: The star ζ1 Ret is found to be slightly more metal rich than ζ2 Ret by ~0.02 dex. In the differential calculation of ζ1 Ret using ζ2 Ret as reference, the abundances of the

  14. A new massive double-lined spectroscopic binary system: The Wolf-Rayet star WR 68a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collado, A.; Gamen, R.; Barbá, R. H.; Morrell, N.

    2015-09-01

    Double-lined spectroscopic binary systems, containing a Wolf-Rayet and a massive O-type star, are key objects for the study of massive star evolution because these kinds of systems allow the determination of fundamental astrophysical parameters of their components. We have performed spectroscopic observations of the star WR 68a as part of a dedicated monitoring program of WR stars to discover new binary systems. We identified spectral lines of the two components of the system and disentangled the spectra. We measured the radial velocities in the separated spectra and determined the orbital solution. We discovered that WR 68a is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of 5.2207 days, very small or null eccentricity, and inclination ranging between 75 and 85 deg. We classified the binary components as WN6 and O5.5-6. The WN star is less massive than the O-type star with minimum masses of 15 ± 5 M⊙ and 30 ± 4 M⊙, respectively. The equivalent width of the He ii λ4686 emission line shows variations with the orbital phase, presenting a minimum when the WN star is in front of the system. The light curve constructed from available photometric data presents minima in both conjunctions of the system. Table 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Stellar scattering and the formation of hot Jupiters in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, J. G.; Beaugé, C.

    2015-04-01

    Hot Jupiters (HJs) are usually defined as giant Jovian-size planets with orbital periods P<=10 days. Although they lie close to the star, several have finite eccentricities and significant misalignment angle with respect to the stellar equator, leading to ~20% of HJs in retrograde orbits. More than half, however, seem consistent with near-circular and planar orbits. In recent years, two mechanisms have been proposed to explain the excited and misaligned subpopulation of HJs: Lidov-Kozai migration and planet-planet scattering. Although both are based on completely different dynamical phenomena, at first hand they appear to be equally effective in generating hot planets. Nevertheless, there has been no detailed analysis comparing the predictions of both mechanisms, especially with respect to the final distribution of orbital characteristics. In this paper, we present a series of numerical simulations of Lidov-Kozai trapping of single planets in compact binary systems that suffered a close fly-by of a background star. Both the planet and the binary component are initially placed in coplanar orbits, although the inclination of the impactor is assumed random. After the passage of the third star, we follow the orbital and spin evolution of the planet using analytical models based on the octupole expansion of the secular Hamiltonian. We also include tidal effects, stellar oblateness and post-Newtonian perturbations. The present work aims at the comparison of the two mechanisms (Lidov-Kozai and planet-planet scattering) as an explanation for the excited and inclined HJs in binary systems. We compare the results obtained through this paper with results in Beaugé & Nesvorný (2012), where the authors analyse how the planet-planet scattering mechanisms works in order to form this hot Jovian-size planets. We find that several of the orbital characteristics of the simulated HJs are caused by tidal trapping from quasi-parabolic orbits, independent of the driving mechanism

  16. Interfacial geometry and D-variation effects in two-phase systems. [binary alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.; Unnam, J.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the governing diffusion equation for two-phase concentration dependent diffusion coefficients are examined. Solutions were also calculated for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries to compare the effect of interface geometries with those caused by concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients, and two methods of averaging D were considered to determine the best averaging method for different types of D-variations. The effects of interface-location criteria on mass conservation and convergence of interface location, diffusion coefficient variation in the alpha and beta-phases of a two-phase binary alloy system, effect of D(alpha) variation in a cylindrical couple on beta-phase thickness, and geometry and D-variation effects on the degree of homogenization were determined. It is concluded that typical D(alpha)-variations can have a greater influence on the kinetics of interdiffusion than the geometry.

  17. The Kepler DB, a Database Management System for Arrays, Sparse Arrays and Binary Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Middour, Christopher; Klaus, Todd C.; Wohler, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center stores pixel values on approximately six million pixels collected every 30-minutes, as well as data products that are generated as a result of running the Kepler science processing pipeline. The Kepler Database (Kepler DB) management system was created to act as the repository of this information. After one year of ight usage, Kepler DB is managing 3 TiB of data and is expected to grow to over 10 TiB over the course of the mission. Kepler DB is a non-relational, transactional database where data are represented as one dimensional arrays, sparse arrays or binary large objects. We will discuss Kepler DB's APIs, implementation, usage and deployment at the Kepler Science Operations Center.

  18. Spatially Resolved H2 Emission In The GG Tau A Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bary, Jeffrey S.; Beck, T. L.; Dutrey, A.; Guilloteau, S.; Pietu, V.

    2012-01-01

    We present a high-resolution image of molecular hydrogen emission from the GG Tau A binary system. Using NIFS+AO on Gemini North to achieve 0.1" resolution, we clearly resolve the emitting gas to be located within the unstable region between the stellar cores and the circumbinary ring. The brightest arc of H2 emission observed to the northeast of the companions closely aligns with the location of a accretion "streamer" suggested by the high resolution millimeter observations presented in Pietu et al. 2011. The proximity of the H2 emission to the infalling streamer strongly suggests that the H2 emission is the result of a shocked gas residing in the orbital environment of the stellar companions. Near-infrared H2 line ratios predict an excitation temperature on the order of 1700 K and are compared to standard shock models.

  19. Compensation behavior of a ferrimagnetic nanoparticle system with binary alloy shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, N.; Zaim, A.; Kerouad, M.

    2016-11-01

    The phase diagrams and the magnetic properties of a spherical ferrimagnetic nanoparticle, consisting of a ferromagnetic core of atoms A with spin-1/2 (SA = 1 / 2) surrounded by a disordered ferrimagnetic binary alloy shell of two kinds of atoms (A and B) with different spins (SA = 1 / 2 and SB = 3 / 2) are studied by using Monte Carlo simulation based on the Metropolis algorithm. Depending on the values of the Hamiltonian parameters, the system presents a number of outstanding phenomena, such as the possibility of one, two or even three compensation point(s). The existence of a compensation temperature is an interesting phenomenon with important technological applications in the field of thermomagnetic recording.

  20. A survey study of energy distribution in component stars of Algol-type binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobias, Jan Joseph

    A study survey of Algol-type binary systems was undertaken in order to investigate radiative flux distributions of their component stars. For hot primaries low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra, made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUD) satellite, are combined at comparable phases with optical spectrophotometric scans, made at Lick Observatory, and then matched with a least-square method to Kurucz model atmospheres. Cooler secondaries are classified by matching their optical flux distributions, observed at totality, to standard stars. Results show that the U Sagittae system consists of a B7.5V-IV star while the secondary is matched by a G4III IV standard. The RW Tauri system consists of a B8V primary, while the secondary is matched by a KOIII standard. The UV spectrum of the primary in RY Geminorum matches that of an AOV standard. The secondary in RY GEM is KOIV. The system of RS Cephei consists of B9.7Ve and G8III-IV stars. The system of RW Persei consists of B9.6e and K2(+ or - 2)IV-III stars. The system of RX Geminorum consists of AOV or AOIII and K2(+ or - 2) stars. Finally, in Beta Lyrae the primary appears to be a B8.5-B9II-Ib object.

  1. Cross-sections for planetary systems interacting with passing stars and binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongjie; Adams, Fred

    2015-08-01

    Most planetary systems are formed within stellar clusters, and these environments can shape their properties. This paper considers scattering encounters between solar systems and passing cluster members, and calculates the corresponding interaction cross-sections. The target solar systems are generally assumed to have four giant planets, with a variety of starting states, including circular orbits with the semimajor axes of our planets, a more compact configuration, an ultracompact state with multiple mean motion resonances, and systems with massive planets. We then consider the effects of varying the cluster velocity dispersion, the relative importance of binaries versus single stars, different stellar host masses, and finite starting eccentricities of the planetary orbits. For each state of the initial system, we perform an ensemble of numerical scattering experiments and determine the cross-sections for eccentricity increase, inclination angle increase, planet ejection, and capture. This paper reports results from over 2 million individual scattering simulations. Using supporting analytic considerations, and fitting functions to the numerical results, we find a universal formula that gives the crosssections as a function of stellar host mass, cluster velocity dispersion, starting planetary orbital radius, and final eccentricity. The resulting cross-sections can be used in a wide variety of applications. As one example, we revisit constraints on the birth aggregate of our Solar system due to dynamical scattering and find N ≤104 (consistent with previous estimates).

  2. Lamellar miscibility gap in a binary catanionic surfactant-water system.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno F B; Marques, Eduardo F; Olsson, Ulf

    2007-12-01

    The coexistence of two lamellar liquid-crystalline phases in equilibrium for binary surfactant-water systems is a rare and still puzzling phenomenon. In the few binary systems where it has been demonstrated experimentally, the surfactant is invariably ionic and the miscibility gap is thought to stem from a subtle balance between attractive and repulsive interbilayer forces. In this paper, we report for the first time a miscibility gap for a catanionic lamellar phase formed by the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium octylsulfonate (TASo) in water. Synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering, polarizing light microscopy, and 2H NMR unequivocally show the coexistence of a dilute (or swollen) lamellar phase, Lalpha', and a concentrated (or collapsed) lamellar phase, Lalpha' '. Furthermore, linear swelling is observed for each of the phases, with the immiscibility region occurring for 15-54 wt % surfactant. In the dilute region, the swollen lamellar phase is in equilibrium with an isotropic micellar region. Vesicles can be observed in this two-phase region as a dispersion of Lalpha' in the solution phase. A theoretical cell model based on combined DLVO and short-range repulsive potentials is presented in order to provide physical insight into the miscibility gap. The surfactant TASo is net uncharged, but it undergoes partial dissociation owing to the higher aqueous solubility of the short octylsulfonate chain. Thus, a residual positive charge in the bilayer is originated and, consequently, an electrostatic repulsive force, whose magnitude is dependent on surfactant concentration. For physically reasonable values of the solubility of the octyl chain, assumed to be constant with surfactant volume fraction, a fairly good agreement is observed between the experimental miscibility gap and the theoretical one. PMID:17994726

  3. IP Eridani: A surprising long-period binary system hosting a He white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merle, T.; Jorissen, A.; Masseron, T.; Van Eck, S.; Siess, L.; Van Winckel, H.

    2014-07-01

    We determine the orbital elements for the K0 IV + white dwarf (WD) system IP Eri, which appears to have a surprisingly long period of 1071 d and a significant eccentricity of 0.25. Previous spectroscopic analyses of the WD, based on a distance of 101 pc inferred from its Hipparcos parallax, yielded a mass of only 0.43 M⊙, implying it to be a helium-core WD. The orbital properties of IP Eri are similar to those of the newly discovered long-period subdwarf B star (sdB) binaries, which involve stars with He-burning cores surrounded by extremely thin H envelopes, and are therefore close relatives to He WDs. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of high-resolution spectra from the HERMES/Mercator spectrograph and concluded that the atmospheric parameters of the K0 component are Teff = 4960 K, log g = 3.3, [Fe/H] = 0.09 and ξ = 1.5 km s-1. The detailed abundance analysis focuses on C, N, O abundances, carbon isotopic ratio, light (Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti) and s-process (Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd) elements. We conclude that IP Eri abundances agree with those of normal field stars of the same metallicity. The long period and non-null eccentricity indicate that this system cannot be the end product of a common-envelope phase; it calls instead for another less catastrophic binary-evolution channel presented in detail in a companion paper. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgHERMES spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A30

  4. Radar-Derived Shape Model of Near-Earth Binary Asteroid System (285263) 1998 QE2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springmann, Alessondra; Taylor, Patrick A.; Nolan, Michael C.; Howell, Ellen S.; Brozovi?, Marina; Benner, Lance A.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Busch, Michael W.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Lee, Clement; Jao, Joseph S.; Lauretta, Dante S.

    2014-11-01

    We report on shape modeling of binary asteroid 1998 QE2, a 3.2-km asteroid with a 800-m moon. We observed this asteroid with both Arecibo Observatory planetary radar (2380 MHz, 12.6 cm) and Goldstone Solar System Radar (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) between May 31-Jun 9, 2013. The close approach on May 31, 2013 (0.039 au) presented an outstanding opportunity for radar delay-Doppler imaging with resolutions as fine as 7.5 m of both objects. The extensive radar dataset was used for shape modeling of both components. Our SHAPE 3D modeling software (Hudson, 1993 and Magri et al., 2007) uses a constrained, weighted least-squares minimization procedure to invert radar delay-Doppler images.The rotation rate of the primary, 4.749 ± 0.002 h, was well constrained from optical lightcurves (P. Pravec, pers. comm.) and rotates prograde as determined from radar data. The primary is roughly spheroidal, showing prominent concavities and surface features, with effective diameter 3.2 ± 0.3 km.The secondary is irregularly shaped, with an effective diameter of 800 ± 80 m and significant elongation. The radar data suggest it is tidally locked, with an orbital period of 31.31 ± 0.01 h hours and a semi-major orbital axis of 6.2 ± 0.1 km. The orbit is approximately circular (e < 0.01), which is typical of most near-Earth asteroid binary system orbits. We estimate a preliminary density for the primary of 0.7 ± 0.2 g/cm^3. The low density is consistent with a "rubble pile" structure.

  5. Effects of Alloying on Nanoscale Grain Growth in Substitutional Binary Alloy System: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haoran; Chen, Yuzeng; Liu, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Applying the regular solution model, the Gibbs free energy of mixing for substitutional binary alloy system was constructed. Then, thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, e.g., driving force and solute drag force, controlling nanoscale grain growth of substitutional binary alloy systems were derived and compared to their generally accepted definitions and interpretations. It is suggested that for an actual grain growth process, the classical driving force P = γ/D ( γ the grain boundary (GB) energy, D the grain size) should be replaced by a new expression, i.e., P^' = γ /D - Δ P . Δ P represents the energy required to adjust nonequilibrium solute distribution to equilibrium solute distribution, which is equivalent to the generally accepted solute drag force impeding GB migration. By incorporating the derived new driving force for grain growth into the classical grain growth model, the reported grain growth behaviors of nanocrystalline Fe-4at. pct Zr and Pd-19at. pct Zr alloys were analyzed. On this basis, the effect of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters ( i.e., P, Δ P and the GB mobility ( M GB)) on nanoscale grain growth, were investigated. Upon grain growth, the decrease of P is caused by the reduction of γ as a result of solute segregation in GBs; the decrease of Δ P is, however, due to the decrease of grain growth velocity; whereas the decrease of M GB is attributed to the enhanced difference of solute molar fractions between the bulk and the GBs as well as the increased activation energy for GB diffusion.

  6. S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems: A comprehensive approach. I. Method and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cuntz, M.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive approach is provided for the study of both S-type and P-type habitability in stellar binary systems, which in principle can also be expanded to systems of higher order. P-type orbits occur when the planet orbits both binary components, whereas in the case of S-type orbits, the planet orbits only one of the binary components with the second component considered a perturbator. The selected approach encapsulates a variety of different aspects, which include: (1) the consideration of a joint constraint, including orbital stability and a habitable region for a putative system planet through the stellar radiative energy fluxes ({sup r}adiative habitable zone{sup ;} RHZ), needs to be met; (2) the treatment of conservative, general, and extended zones of habitability for the various systems as defined for the solar system and beyond; (3) the provision of a combined formalism for the assessment of both S-type and P-type habitability; in particular, mathematical criteria are presented for the kind of system in which S-type and P-type habitability is realized; (4) applications of the attained theoretical approach to standard (theoretical) main-sequence stars. In principle, five different cases of habitability are identified, which are S-type and P-type habitability provided by the full extent of the RHZs; habitability, where the RHZs are truncated by the additional constraint of planetary orbital stability (referred to as ST- and PT-type, respectively); and cases of no habitability at all. Regarding the treatment of planetary orbital stability, we utilize the formulae of Holman and Wiegert as also used in previous studies. In this work, we focus on binary systems in circular orbits. Future applications will also consider binary systems in elliptical orbits and provide thorough comparisons to other methods and results given in the literature.

  7. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-02-20

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

  8. Discovery of Pulsating Components in the Southern Eclipsing Binary Systems AW Velorum, HM Puppis, and TT Horologii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, D. J. W.; Bohlsen, T.; Heathcote, B.; Richards, T.; Streamer, M.

    2013-09-01

    Eclipsing binary stars with pulsating components are especially valuable for studies of stellar evolution. We have discovered that three eclipsing binary stars in the southern sky have a pulsating component with oscillations similar to those of delta Scuti stars. The systems are: AW Velorum, HM Puppis, and TT Horologii. Their spectral types were determined as A7 for AW Vel and HM Pup and F0-F2 for TT Hor. The dominant pulsation frequencies are 15-38 cycles per day with amplitudes of 10-60 millimagnitudes.

  9. Application of the Double-Tangent Construction of Coexisting Phases to Any Type of Phase Equilibrium for Binary Systems Modeled with the Gamma-Phi Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Privat, Romain

    2014-01-01

    The double-tangent construction of coexisting phases is an elegant approach to visualize all the multiphase binary systems that satisfy the equality of chemical potentials and to select the stable state. In this paper, we show how to perform the double-tangent construction of coexisting phases for binary systems modeled with the gamma-phi…

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSES FOR TREATING DIFFUSION IN SINGLE-, TWO-, AND THREE-PHASE BINARY ALLOY SYSTEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package consists of a series of three computer programs for treating one-dimensional transient diffusion problems in single and multiple phase binary alloy systems. An accurate understanding of the diffusion process is important in the development and production of binary alloys. Previous solutions of the diffusion equations were highly restricted in their scope and application. The finite-difference solutions developed for this package are applicable for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries with any diffusion-zone size and any continuous variation of the diffusion coefficient with concentration. Special techniques were included to account for differences in modal volumes, initiation and growth of an intermediate phase, disappearance of a phase, and the presence of an initial composition profile in the specimen. In each analysis, an effort was made to achieve good accuracy while minimizing computation time. The solutions to the diffusion equations for single-, two-, and threephase binary alloy systems are numerically calculated by the three programs NAD1, NAD2, and NAD3. NAD1 treats the diffusion between pure metals which belong to a single-phase system. Diffusion in this system is described by a one-dimensional Fick's second law and will result in a continuous composition variation. For computational purposes, Fick's second law is expressed as an explicit second-order finite difference equation. Finite difference calculations are made by choosing the grid spacing small enough to give convergent solutions of acceptable accuracy. NAD2 treats diffusion between pure metals which form a two-phase system. Diffusion in the twophase system is described by two partial differential equations (a Fick's second law for each phase) and an interface-flux-balance equation which describes the location of the interface. Actual interface motion is obtained by a mass conservation procedure. To account for changes in the thicknesses of the two phases as diffusion

  11. The Context Changes but the Divisions Remain: The Binary Higher Education System in Flanders: The Case of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wit, Kurt; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated whether Flanders' higher education system was predominantly unitary or binary. Surveys of students in informatics provided an account of the training, vocational, and student profiles of college and university courses. Results indicated that the profiles of college and university courses in Flanders were different. (SM)

  12. Observations on the Re-Emergence of a Binary System in UK Universities for Economics Degree Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Steve; Reeves, Alan; Johnston, James

    2014-01-01

    An audit of economics provision shows that over the past decade economics has disappeared from large parts of the UK's higher education landscape, especially the post-1992 universities. In the north of Britain the binary system has effectively re-emerged leaving many potential students unable to study key subjects such as economics. Post-1992…

  13. Liquid Crystals and Glasses in Binary Systems from Sodium and Alkali-Earth Metal Butyrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Bereznitski, Y. V.; Volkov, S. V.

    1996-07-01

    The temperature and composition ranges of liquid crystal and glass formation have been established for the binary mixtures of mesogenic sodium butyrate with non-mesogenic magnesium, calcium and strontium butyrates by means of differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The formation of a vitreous optically anisotropic mesophase has been found for binaries of sodium butyrate with calcium and strontium butyrates.

  14. A new eclipsing binary system with a pulsating component detected by CoRoT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovsky, K.; Maceroni, C.; Hareter, M.; Damiani, C.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Ribas, I.

    2010-06-01

    We report the discovery of CoRoT 102980178 (α = 06h 50m12.10s , δ = -02°41' 21.8'', J2000) an Algol-type eclipsing binary system with a pulsating component (oEA). It was identified using a publicly available 55 day long monochromatic lightcurve from the CoRoT initial run dataset (exoplanet field). Eleven consecutive 1.26m deep total primary and the equal number of 0.25m deep secondary eclipses (at phase 0.50) were observed. The following light elements for the primary eclipse were derived: HJDMinI = 2454139.0680 + 5.0548d × E. The lightcurve modeling leads to a semidetached configuration with the photometric mass ratio q = 0.2 and orbital inclination i = 85°. The out-of-eclipse lightcurve shows ellipsoidal variability and positive O'Connell effect as well as clear 0.01m pulsations with the dominating frequency of 2.75 c/d. The pulsations disappear during the primary eclipses, which indicates the primary (more massive) component to be the pulsating star. Careful frequency analysis reveals the second independent pulsation frequency of 0.21 c/d and numerous combinations of these frequencies with the binary orbital frequency and its harmonics. On the basis of the CoRoT lightcurve and ground based multicolor photometry, we favor classification of the pulsating component as a γ Doradus type variable, however, classification as an SPB star cannot be excluded.

  15. PLANETESIMAL DYNAMICS IN INCLINED BINARY SYSTEMS: THE ROLE OF GAS-DISK GRAVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Gang; Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin; Lin, Douglas N. C. E-mail: zhoujl@nju.edu.cn

    2012-04-20

    We investigate the effects of gas-disk gravity on planetesimal dynamics in inclined binary systems, where the circumprimary disk plane is tilted by a significant angle (i{sub B} ) with respect to the binary disk plane. Our focus is on the Lidov-Kozai mechanism and the evolution of planetesimal eccentricity and inclination. Using both analytical and numerical methods, we find that, on one hand, disk gravity generally narrows down the Kozai-on region, i.e., the Lidov-Kozai effect can be suppressed in certain parts of (or even the whole of) the disk depending on various parameters. In the Kozai-off region, planetesimals would move to orbits close to the midplane of the gas-disk, with the relative angle (i') following a small amplitude periodical oscillation. On the other hand, when we include the effects of disk gravity, we find that the Lidov-Kozai effect can operate even at arbitrarily low inclinations (i{sub B} ), although a lower i{sub B} leads to a smaller Kozai-on region. Furthermore, in the Kozai-on region, most planetesimals' eccentricities can be excited to extremely high values ({approx}1), and such extreme high eccentricities usually accompany orbital flipping, i.e., the planetesimal orbit flips back and forth between anterograde and retrograde. Once a planetesimal reaches very high orbital eccentricity, gas drag damping will shrink the planetesimal orbit, forming a 'hot planetesimal' on a near circular orbit very close to the primary star. Such a mechanism, if replacing the planetesimals and gas drag damping with Jupiters and tidal damping respectively, may lead to a frequent production of hot Jupiters.

  16. A Candidate Binary Black Hole System at z=1.175

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Robert S.; Stern, D.; Madsen, K. K.; Harrison, F. A.; Cushing, M. C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Griffith, R. L.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Lagattuta, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss properties of the X-ray source CXOXBJ142607.6+353351 (CXOJ1426+35) which shows double rest-frame optical/UV emission lines, separated spatially by 0.68 arcseconds and in velocity-space by 700 km/s. Emission line ratios in both systems indicate ionization by an AGN continuum, and the double-peaked profile resembles the optical spectrum of many candidate binary AGN. However, other physical processes involving complex gas kinematics may produce the double peaks. To better understand the source, we have also acquired near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) imaging and NIR slit spectroscopy and have analyzed available archival data. The AO image reveals only a single nucleus, implying that either there is only a single AGN present, or the second AGN is highly obscured. Interestingly, significant obscuration is consistent with the high level of extinction inferred from the X-ray data. CXOJ1426+35 may also represent the case of two narrow line regions (NLRs) present as the result of a recent merger, with each illuminated by a single AGN, or NLR clouds driven by an outflow from an accretion disk. Furthermore, that the source is radio-quiet argues strongly against any sort of jet-cloud interaction. Developing a clear understanding of the physical process producing the complex emission line profiles seen in CXOJ1426+35 and other sources is important to both the search for dual/binary SMBHs and the study of quasar/AGN emission line regions.

  17. Demodulation of acoustic telemetry binary phase shift keying signal based on high-order Duffing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bing-Nan; Liu, Chong-Xin; Ni, Jun-Kang; Zhao, Liang

    2016-10-01

    In order to grasp the downhole situation immediately, logging while drilling (LWD) technology is adopted. One of the LWD technologies, called acoustic telemetry, can be successfully applied to modern drilling. It is critical for acoustic telemetry technology that the signal is successfully transmitted to the ground. In this paper, binary phase shift keying (BPSK) is used to modulate carrier waves for the transmission and a new BPSK demodulation scheme based on Duffing chaos is investigated. Firstly, a high-order system is given in order to enhance the signal detection capability and it is realized through building a virtual circuit using an electronic workbench (EWB). Secondly, a new BPSK demodulation scheme is proposed based on the intermittent chaos phenomena of the new Duffing system. Finally, a system variable crossing zero-point equidistance method is proposed to obtain the phase difference between the system and the BPSK signal. Then it is determined that the digital signal transmitted from the bottom of the well is ‘0’ or ‘1’. The simulation results show that the demodulation method is feasible. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51177117) and the National Key Science & Technology Special Projects, China (Grant No. 2011ZX05021-005).

  18. Controlling the physics and chemistry of binary and ternary praseodymium and cerium oxide systems.

    PubMed

    Niu, Gang; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Schroeder, Thomas; Schaefer, Andreas; Jhang, Jin-Hao; Zielasek, Volkmar; Bäumer, Marcus; Wilkens, Henrik; Wollschläger, Joachim; Olbrich, Reinhard; Lammers, Christian; Reichling, Michael

    2015-10-14

    Rare earth praseodymium and cerium oxides have attracted intense research interest in the last few decades, due to their intriguing chemical and physical characteristics. An understanding of the correlation between structure and properties, in particular the surface chemistry, is urgently required for their application in microelectronics, catalysis, optics and other fields. Such an understanding is, however, hampered by the complexity of rare earth oxide materials and experimental methods for their characterisation. Here, we report recent progress in studying high-quality, single crystalline, praseodymium and cerium oxide films as well as ternary alloys grown on Si(111) substrates. Using these well-defined systems and based on a systematic multi-technique surface science approach, the corresponding physical and chemical properties, such as the surface structure, the surface morphology, the bulk-surface interaction and the oxygen storage/release capability, are explored in detail. We show that specifically the crystalline structure and the oxygen stoichiometry of the oxide thin films can be well controlled by the film preparation method. This work leads to a comprehensive understanding of the properties of rare earth oxides and highlights the applications of these versatile materials. Furthermore, methanol adsorption studies are performed on binary and ternary rare earth oxide thin films, demonstrating the feasibility of employing such systems for model catalytic studies. Specifically for ceria systems, we find considerable stability against normal environmental conditions so that they can be considered as a "materials bridge" between surface science models and real catalysts.

  19. Connectivity in the potential energy landscape for binary Lennard-Jones systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Vanessa K.; Wales, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Connectivity in the potential energy landscape of a binary Lennard-Jones system can be characterized at the level of cage-breaking. We calculate the number of cage-breaking routes from a given local minimum and determine the branching probabilities at different temperatures, along with correlation factors that represent the repeated reversals of cage-breaking events. The number of reversals increases at lower temperatures and for more fragile systems, while the number of accessible connections decreases. We therefore associate changes in connectivity with super-Arrhenius behavior. Reversals in minimum-to-minimum transitions are common, but often correspond to "non-cage-breaking" processes. We demonstrate that the average waiting time within a minimum shows simple exponential behavior with decreasing temperature. To describe the long-term behavior of the system, we consider reversals and connectivity in terms of the "cage-breaking" processes that are pertinent to diffusion [V. K. de Souza and D. J. Wales, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 164507 (2008)]. These cage-breaking events can be modeled by a correlated random walk. Thus, a full correlation factor can be calculated using short simulations that extend up to two cage-breaking events.

  20. Controlling the physics and chemistry of binary and ternary praseodymium and cerium oxide systems.

    PubMed

    Niu, Gang; Zoellner, Marvin Hartwig; Schroeder, Thomas; Schaefer, Andreas; Jhang, Jin-Hao; Zielasek, Volkmar; Bäumer, Marcus; Wilkens, Henrik; Wollschläger, Joachim; Olbrich, Reinhard; Lammers, Christian; Reichling, Michael

    2015-10-14

    Rare earth praseodymium and cerium oxides have attracted intense research interest in the last few decades, due to their intriguing chemical and physical characteristics. An understanding of the correlation between structure and properties, in particular the surface chemistry, is urgently required for their application in microelectronics, catalysis, optics and other fields. Such an understanding is, however, hampered by the complexity of rare earth oxide materials and experimental methods for their characterisation. Here, we report recent progress in studying high-quality, single crystalline, praseodymium and cerium oxide films as well as ternary alloys grown on Si(111) substrates. Using these well-defined systems and based on a systematic multi-technique surface science approach, the corresponding physical and chemical properties, such as the surface structure, the surface morphology, the bulk-surface interaction and the oxygen storage/release capability, are explored in detail. We show that specifically the crystalline structure and the oxygen stoichiometry of the oxide thin films can be well controlled by the film preparation method. This work leads to a comprehensive understanding of the properties of rare earth oxides and highlights the applications of these versatile materials. Furthermore, methanol adsorption studies are performed on binary and ternary rare earth oxide thin films, demonstrating the feasibility of employing such systems for model catalytic studies. Specifically for ceria systems, we find considerable stability against normal environmental conditions so that they can be considered as a "materials bridge" between surface science models and real catalysts. PMID:26355535

  1. A statistical test on the reliability of the non-coevality of stars in binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: We develop a statistical test on the expected difference in age estimates of two coeval stars in detached double-lined eclipsing binary systems that are only caused by observational uncertainties. We focus on stars in the mass range [0.8; 1.6] M⊙, with an initial metallicity [Fe/H] from -0.55 to 0.55 dex, and on stars in the main-sequence phase. Methods: The ages were obtained by means of the SCEPtER technique, a maximum-likelihood procedure relying on a pre-computed grid of stellar models. The observational constraints used in the recovery procedure are stellar mass, radius, effective temperature, and metallicity [Fe/H]. To check the effect of the uncertainties affecting observations on the (non-)coevality assessment, the chosen observational constraints were subjected to a Gaussian perturbation before applying the SCEPtER code. We defined the statistic W computed as the ratio of the absolute difference of estimated ages for the two stars over the age of the older one. We determined the critical values of this statistics above which coevality can be rejected in dependence on the mass of the two stars, on the initial metallicity [Fe/H], and on the evolutionary stage of the primary star. Results: The median expected difference in the reconstructed age between the coeval stars of a binary system - caused alone by the observational uncertainties - shows a strong dependence on the evolutionary stage. This ranges from about 20% for an evolved primary star to about 75% for a near ZAMS primary. The median difference also shows an increase with the mass of the primary star from 20% for 0.8 M⊙ stars to about 50% for 1.6 M⊙ stars. The reliability of these results was checked by repeating the process with a grid of stellar models computed by a different evolutionary code; the median difference in the critical values was only 0.01. We show that the W test is much more sensible to age differences in the binary system components than the alternative approach of

  2. The Binary Fission Model for the Formation of the Pluto system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    The ratio F of the mass of Pluto (P) to Charon (C), viz. F ≈ 8:1, is the largest ratio of any planet-satellite pair in the solar system. Another measure of the PC binary is its normalized angular momentum density J (see McKinnon 1989). Analysis of astrometric data (Brozovic et al 2015) acquired before the New Horizons (NH) arrival at Pluto and new measurements made by NH (Stern et al 2015) show that J = 0.39. Yet these F & J values are ones expected if the PC binary had formed by the rotational fission of a single liquid mass (Darwin 1902; Lyttleton 1953). At first glance, therefore, the fission model seems to be a viable model for the formation of the Pluto system. In fact, Prentice (1993 Aust J Astron 5 111) had used this model to successfully predict the existence of several moons orbiting beyond Charon, before their discovery in 2005-2012. The main problem with the fission model is that the observed mean density of Charon, namely 1.70 g/cm3, greatly exceeds that of water ice. Charon thus could not have once been a globe of pure water. Here I review the fission model within the framework of the modern Laplacian theory of solar system origin (Prentice 1978 Moon Planets 19 341; 2006 PASA 23 1) and the NH results. I assume that Pluto and Charon were initially a single object (proto-Pluto [p-P]) which had condensed within the same gas ring shed by the proto-solar cloud at orbital distance ~43 AU, where the Kuiper belt was born. The temperature of this gas ring is 26 K and the mean orbit pressure is 1.3 × 10-9 bar. After the gas ring is shed, chemical condensation takes place. The bulk chemical composition of the condensate is anhydrous rock (mass fraction 0.5255), graphite (0.0163), water ice (0.1858), CO2 ice (0.2211) and methane ice (0.0513). Next I assume that melting of the ices in p-P takes place through the decay of short-lived radioactive nuclides, thus causing internal segregation of the rock & graphite. Settling of heavy grains to the centre lowers the

  3. The OB binary HD152219: a detached, double-lined, eclipsing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Gosset, E.; Rauw, G.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic campaign on the massive binary HD152219 located near the core of the NGC6231 cluster. Though the primary to secondary optical brightness ratio is probably about 10, we clearly detect the secondary spectral signature and we derive the first reliable SB2 orbital solution for the system. The orbital period is close to 4.2403d and the orbit is slightly eccentric (e = 0.08 +/- 0.01). The system is most probably formed by an O9.5 giant and a B1-2 V-III star. We derive minimal masses of 18.6 +/- 0.3 and 7.3 +/- 0.1Msolar for the primary and secondary, respectively, and we constrain the stellar radius at values about 11 and 5Rsolar. INTEGRAL-Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) data reveal that HD152219 is the third O-type eclipsing binary known in NGC6231. In the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram, the primary component lies on the blue edge of the β Cep-type instability strip and its spectral lines display clear profile variations that are reminiscent of those expected from non-radial pulsations. Finally, we report the analysis of XMM-Newton observations of the system. The X-ray spectrum is relatively soft and is well reproduced by a two-temperature mekal model with kT1 = 0.26keV and kT2 = 0.67keV. The X-ray flux is most probably variable on a time-scale of days. The average X-ray luminosity during our campaign is log(LX) ~ 31.8 (ergs-1), but shows fluctuations of about 10 per cent around this value. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) and with the XMM-Newton satellite, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA); also based on data from the Optical Monitoring Camera (OMC) Archive at LAEFF, processed by ISDC. E-mail: hsana@eso.org ‡ FNRS Research Associate (Belgium).

  4. The magnetic field of the double-lined spectroscopic binary system HD 5550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alecian, E.; Tkachenko, A.; Neiner, C.; Folsom, C. P.; Leroy, B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of fossil fields in intermediate- and high-mass stars is poorly understood, as is the interplay between binarity and magnetism during stellar evolution. Thus we have begun a study of the magnetic properties of a sample of intermediate-mass and massive short-period binary systems as a function of binarity properties. Aims: This paper specifically aims to characterise the magnetic field of HD 5550, a double-lined spectroscopic binary system of intermediate mass. Methods: We gathered 25 high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of HD 5550 using the instrument Narval. We first fitted the intensity spectra using Zeeman/ATLAS9 LTE synthetic spectra to estimate the effective temperatures, microturbulent velocities, and the abundances of some elements of both components, as well as the light ratio of the system. We then applied the multi-line least-square deconvolution (LSD) technique to the intensity and circularly polarised spectra, which provided us with mean LSD I and V line profiles. We fitted the Stokes I line profiles to determine the radial and projected rotational velocities of both stars. We then analysed the shape and evolution of the V profiles using the oblique rotator model to characterise the magnetic fields of both stars. Results: We confirm the Ap nature of the primary, which has previously been reported, and find that the secondary displays spectral characteristics typical of an Am star. While a magnetic field is clearly detected in the lines of the primary, no magnetic field is detected in the secondary in any of our observations. If a dipolar field were present at the surface of the Am star, its polar strength must be below 40 G. The faint variability observed in the Stokes V profiles of the Ap star allowed us to propose a rotation period of 6.84-0.39+0.61 d, which is close to the orbital period (~6.82 d), suggesting that the star is synchronised with its orbit. By fitting the variability of the V profiles, we propose that the

  5. An Analysis of Light Variations of RS Canum Venaticorum Binary Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel Bruce

    Photoelectric data for fourteen RS Canum Venaticorum binary systems were obtained by the author from 1978 through 1981, at Rosemary Hill Observatory. These data are presented in the form of light curves and tabulated magnitudes and heliocentric Julian Dates. The outside-of-eclipse points for eight systems were Fourier analyzed for measurement of any distortion wave in the light curve. The wave in RS Canum Venaticorum itself was found to have moved half a phase unit in only two years. A wave was discovered in the light curve of RZ Eridani, and was found to have changed in a manner consistent with the starspot model for RS CVn systems. The light curve for UX Comae Bernices was found to have a large amount of intrinsic scatter, and the system was found to be anomalously bright on one night. These characteristics suggest that some type of flare activity may be present in that system. The other five systems analyzed were found to have waves consistent with other published results, or to have no definite wave at all. The possibility of detecting spots and deriving spot sizes from secondary eclipse observations was also explored. For this purpose the Wilson-Devinney computer program for light curve synthesis was modified to allow spots on the secondary star. Comparison of computer synthesized secondary eclipses of spotted stars to actual observations showed that there is little chance of detecting fluctuations due to individual spots. It was found that there is even less chance for discriminating between a few large spots and a large number of smaller spots. However, the program did produce good fits to RS CVn light curves, using reasonable spot parameters.

  6. Complex Analysis of the Stellar Binary HD25811: A Subgiant System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Wardat, Mashhoor A.; Widyan, Hatem S.; Al-thyabat, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The visually close binary system HD25811 is analysed to estimate its physical and geometrical parameters in addition to its spectral type and luminosity class. The method depends on obtaining the best fit between the entire observational spectral energy distribution (SED) of the system and synthetic SEDs created by atmospheric modelling of the individual components, consistent with the system's modified orbital elements. The parameters of the individual components of the system are derived as: T a eff = 6850 ± 50 K, T b eff = 7000 ± 50 K, log g a = 4.04 ± 0.10, log g b = 4.15 ± 0.10, R a = 1.96 ± 0.20 R⊙, R b = 1.69 ± 0.20 R⊙, M a v = 1.m97 ± 0.20, M b v = 2.m19 ± 0.20, La = 7.59 ± 0.70L ⊙, Lb = 6.16 ± 0.70L ⊙ with dynamical parallax π (textrm {mas})=5.095± 0.095 . The analysis shows that the system consists of a 1.55M ⊙ F2 subgiant star and a less evolved 1.50M ⊙ F1 secondary subgiant star with ages around 2 Gy formed by fragmentation. Synthetic magnitudes of both components were calculated under Johnson-Cousins, Strömgren, and Tycho photometrical systems.

  7. Numerical analysis of orbital motion around a contact binary asteroid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinglang; Noomen, Ron; Visser, Pieter; Yuan, Jianping

    2016-08-01

    The general orbital motion around a contact binary asteroid system is investigated in this study. System 1996 HW1 is explored in detail, as it is the mostly bifurcated asteroid known to date. The location of its equilibrium points (EPs) is obtained and their linear stability is studied. Families of Lyapunov, Halo and vertical periodic orbits (POs) in the vicinity of these EPs as well as their stability are found and examined, respectively. The influence of the relative size of each lobe and the shape of the ellipsoidal lobe and the rotation rate of the asteroid on the location and stability of the EPs are studied. Additionally, two families of equatorial orbits are obtained at a wide range of distances: from far away to nearby. Their stability is examined against the distance to the asteroid and the rotation rate of the asteroid, to uncover the influence of highly non-spherical gravitational field and the rotation of the asteroid on the orbital motion. Finally, resonant orbits in N commensurability with the rotation of the asteroid are found and their stability is discussed. The fast rotation of the asteroid has a stabilizing effect on the equatorial orbital motion.

  8. Gex-Model Using Local Area Fraction for Binary Electrolyte Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghtalab, Ali; Joda, Marzieh

    2007-06-01

    The correlation and prediction of phase equilibria of electrolyte systems are essential in the design and operation of many industrial processes such as downstream processing in biotechnology, desalination, hydrometallurgy, etc. In this research, the local composition non-random two liquid-nonrandom factor (NRTL-NRF) model of Haghtalab and Vera was extended for uni-univalent aqueous electrolyte solutions. Based on the assumptions of the NRTL-NRF model, excess Gibbs free energy ( g E) functions were derived for binary electrolyte systems. In this work, the local area fraction was applied and the modified model of NRTL-NRF was developed with either an equal or unequal surface area of an anion to the surface area of a cation. The modified NRTL-NRF models consist of two contributions, one due to long-range forces represented by the Debye-Hückel theory, and the other due to short-range forces, represented by local area fractions of species through nonrandom factors. Each model contains only two adjustable parameters per electrolyte. In addition, the model with unequal surface area of ionic species gives better results in comparison with the second new model with equal surface area of ions. The results for the mean activity coefficients for aqueous solutions of uni-univalent electrolytes at 298.15 K showed that the present model is more accurate than the original NRTL-NRF model.

  9. BINARITY AND PULSATION IN ALGOL-TYPE BINARY SYSTEM SX DRACONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Soydugan, E.; Kacar, Y.

    2013-04-15

    Photometric observations of SX Dra were carried out to determine the properties of the components and pulsational characteristics of the more massive pulsational component. Physical parameters of the component stars were obtained by modeling B and V light curves using the Wilson-Devinney code. Results indicate that SX Dra is a semi-detached system with the secondary component filling its Roche lobe. The O-C data showed parabolic and sinusoidal variation. Cyclic variation in the O-C diagram could be the result of the possible magnetic activity of the secondary component instead of the third body. The secular increase in the orbital period of the system can be interpreted as being the result of mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Results of a time-series analysis performed after removing binary effects indicated that the hot component shows {delta} Scuti light variations with pulsational periods of 63 and 73 minutes. Spherical harmonic degrees (l) were determined to be 3 for the first frequency and 1-2 for the second frequency.

  10. Binarity and Pulsation in Algol-type Binary System SX Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soydugan, E.; Kaçar, Y.

    2013-04-01

    Photometric observations of SX Dra were carried out to determine the properties of the components and pulsational characteristics of the more massive pulsational component. Physical parameters of the component stars were obtained by modeling B and V light curves using the Wilson-Devinney code. Results indicate that SX Dra is a semi-detached system with the secondary component filling its Roche lobe. The O-C data showed parabolic and sinusoidal variation. Cyclic variation in the O-C diagram could be the result of the possible magnetic activity of the secondary component instead of the third body. The secular increase in the orbital period of the system can be interpreted as being the result of mass transfer from the secondary component to the primary one at a rate of 2.1 × 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1. Results of a time-series analysis performed after removing binary effects indicated that the hot component shows δ Scuti light variations with pulsational periods of 63 and 73 minutes. Spherical harmonic degrees (l) were determined to be 3 for the first frequency and 1-2 for the second frequency.

  11. Does the Corona Borealis Supercluster form a giant binary-like system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiesi Pillastrini, Giovanni C.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution of local gravitational potentials generated by a complete volume-limited sample of galaxy groups and clusters filling the Corona Borealis region has been derived to search for new gravitational hints in the context of clustering analysis unrevealed by alternative methodologies. Mapping such a distribution as a function of spatial positions, the deepest potential wells in the sample trace unambiguously the locations of the densest galaxy cluster clumps providing the physical keys to bring out gravitational features connected to the formation, composition and evolution of the major clustered structures filling that region. As expected, the three deepest potential wells found at Equatorial coordinates: (˜230°, ˜28°, z ˜ 0.075), (˜240°, ˜27°, z ˜ 0.09) and, (227°, 5.8°, z ˜ 0.0788) correspond to massive superclusters of galaxy groups and clusters identified as the Corona Borealis, A2142 and Virgo-Serpent, respectively. However, the deepest isopotential contours around the Corona Borealis and A2142 superclusters seem to suggest a gravitational feature similar to a giant binary-like system connected by a filamentary structure. To a first approximation, it seems unlikely that this hypothesized system could be gravitationally bound.

  12. Nanofilamentary resistive switching in binary oxide system; a review on the present status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Jeong, Doo Seok; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2011-06-01

    This review article summarized the recent understanding of resistance switching (RS) behavior in several binary oxide thin film systems. Among the various RS materials and mechanisms, TiO2 and NiO thin films in unipolar thermo-chemical switching mode are primarily dealt with. To facilitate the discussions, the RS was divided into three parts; electroforming, set and reset steps. After short discussions on the electrochemistry of 'electrolytic' oxide materials, the general and peculiar aspects of these RS systems and mechanism are elaborated. Although the RS behaviors and characteristics of these materials are primarily dependent on the repeated formation and rupture of the conducting filaments (CFs) at the nanoscale at a localized position, this mechanism appears to offer a basis for the understanding of other RS mechanisms which were originally considered to be irrelevant to the localized events. The electroforming and set switching phenomena were understood as the process of CF formation and rejuvenation, respectively, which are mainly driven by the thermally assisted electromigration and percolation (or even local phase transition) of defects, while the reset process was understood as the process of CF rupture where the thermal energy plays a more crucial role. This review also contains several remarks on the outlook of these resistance change devices as a semiconductor memory.

  13. OBSERVATIONS AND ORBITAL ANALYSIS OF THE GIANT WHITE DWARF BINARY SYSTEM HR 5692

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanik, Robert P.; Torres, Guillermo; Latham, David W.; Landsman, Wayne; Craig, Nathaniel; Murrett, James

    2011-05-15

    We report spectroscopic observations of the red giant star HR 5692, previously known to be a binary system both from other spectroscopic work and from deviations in the astrometric motion detected by the Hipparcos satellite. Earlier International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations had shown the presence of a hot white dwarf companion to the giant primary. We have combined our radial velocity observations with other existing measurements and with the Hipparcos intermediate astrometric data to determine a complete astrometric-spectroscopic orbital solution, providing the inclination angle for the first time. We also determine an improved parallax for the system of 10.12 {+-} 0.67 mas. We derive the physical properties of the primary, and with an estimate of its mass from stellar evolution models (1.84 {+-} 0.40 M{sub sun}), we infer the mass of the white dwarf companion to be M{sub WD} = 0.59 {+-} 0.12 M{sub sun}. An analysis of an IUE white dwarf spectrum, using our parallax, yields T{sub eff} = 30, 400 {+-} 780 K, log g = 8.25 {+-} 0.15, and a mass M{sub WD} = 0.79 {+-} 0.09 M{sub sun}, in marginal agreement with the dynamical mass.

  14. Southern Very Low Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Wide Binary and Multiple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, José Antonio

    2007-09-01

    The results of the Königstuhl survey in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. I have searched for common proper motion companions to 173 field very low mass stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types >M5.0 V and magnitudes J<~14.5 mag. I have measured for the first time the common proper motion of two new wide systems containing very low mass components, Königstuhl 2 AB and 3 A-BC. Together with Königstuhl 1 AB and 2M 0126-50 AB, they are among the widest systems in their respective classes (r=450-11,900 AU). I have determined the minimum frequency of field wide multiples (r>100 AU) with late-type components at 5.0%+/-1.8% and the frequency of field wide late-type binaries with mass ratios q>0.5 at 1.2%+/-0.9%. These values represent a key diagnostic of evolution history and low-mass star and brown dwarf formation scenarios. In addition, the proper motions of 62 field very low mass dwarfs are measured here for the first time.

  15. Geodynamic stability of the primary in the binary asteroid system 65803 Didymos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnouin, Olivier S.; Maurel, Clara; Richardson, Derek C.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Schwartz, Stephen; Michel, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    The moon of the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos is the target of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission. This mission is a joint concept between NASA and ESA to investigate the effectiveness of a kinetic impactor in deflecting an asteroid. The mission is composed of two components: the NASA-led Double Asteroid Redirect Test (DART) that will impact the Didymos moon, and the ESA-led Asteroid Impact Monitoring (AIM) mission that will characterize the Didymos system. In order to provide AIDA constraints on the physical character of the both objects in this binary system, we undertook preliminary numerical investigations to evaluate the stability of the shape of the primary using its rapid 2.26 h rotation. We modeled the primary as a rubble pile. Each model consisted of thousands of uniform rigid spheres collapsed together under their own gravity to form a spherical pile that was then carved to match the current radar-derived shape model of the primary, as well as other comparable shapes (e.g. asteroid 1999 KW4, spheres) that were scaled to match best estimates of the size of Didymos. Each model was given a starting rotation period of 6 h with the spin axis aligned to the pole. At each timestep the spin rate was increased by a small amount so that after about 1 million timesteps the spin would match the observed rotation of 2.26 h. We tested a range of bulk densities spanning the current observational uncertainty (mean 2.4 g/cc) using "gravel"-like material parameters that provide significant resistance to sliding and rolling. We find that at the upper range of the density uncertainty it is possible for Didymos to hold its shape and not lose mass at its nominal rotation period, without the need for cohesive forces. At lower densities or with smoother particles, significant shape change occurs and mass loss is possible. We conclude that based on the radar shape available at the time of this writing, Didymos is marginally stable as a rubble

  16. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  17. Self-homodyne free-space optical communication system based on orthogonally polarized binary phase shift keying.

    PubMed

    Cai, Guangyu; Sun, Jianfeng; Li, Guangyuan; Zhang, Guo; Xu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Bo; Yue, Chaolei; Liu, Liren

    2016-06-10

    A self-homodyne laser communication system based on orthogonally polarized binary phase shift keying is demonstrated. The working principles of this method and the structure of a transceiver are described using theoretical calculations. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, and bit error rate are analyzed for the amplifier-noise-limited case. The reported experiment validates the feasibility of the proposed method and demonstrates its advantageous sensitivity as a self-homodyne communication system.

  18. Formation of Black Hole Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Hierarchical Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoz, Smadar; Fragos, Tassos; Geller, Aaron; Stephan, Alexander P.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of black hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) poses a theoretical challenge, as low-mass companions are not expected to survive the common-envelope scenario with the BH progenitor. Here we propose a formation mechanism that skips the common-envelope scenario and relies on triple-body dynamics. We study the evolution of hierarchical triples following the secular dynamical evolution up to the octupole-level of approximation, including general relativity, tidal effects, and post-main-sequence evolution such as mass loss, changes to stellar radii, and supernovae. During the dynamical evolution of the triple system the “eccentric Kozai-Lidov” mechanism can cause large eccentricity excitations in the LMXB progenitor, resulting in three main BH-LMXB formation channels. Here we define BH-LMXB candidates as systems where the inner BH-companion star crosses its Roche limit. In the “eccentric” channel (˜81% of the LMXBs in our simulations) the donor star crosses its Roche limit during an extreme eccentricity excitation while still on a wide orbit. Second, we find a “giant” LMXB channel (˜11%), where a system undergoes only moderate eccentricity excitations but the donor star fills its Roche-lobe after evolving toward the giant branch. Third, we identify a “classical” channel (˜8%), where tidal forces and magnetic braking shrink and circularize the orbit to short periods, triggering mass-transfer. Finally, for the giant channel we predict an eccentric (˜0.3-0.6) preferably inclined (˜40°, ˜140°) tertiary, typically on a wide enough orbit (˜104 au) to potentially become unbound later in the triple evolution. While this initial study considers only one representative system and neglects BH natal kicks, we expect our scenario to apply across a broad region of parameter space for triple-star systems.

  19. Proof of a Conjecture on Contextuality in Cyclic Systems with Binary Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujala, Janne V.; Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.

    2016-03-01

    We present a proof for a conjecture previously formulated by Dzhafarov et al. (Found Phys 7:762-782, 2015). The conjecture specifies a measure for the degree of contextuality and a criterion (necessary and sufficient condition) for contextuality in a broad class of quantum systems. This class includes Leggett-Garg, EPR/Bell, and Klyachko-Can-Binicioglu-Shumovsky type systems as special cases. In a system of this class certain physical properties q1,ldots ,qn are measured in pairs ( qi,qj) ; every property enters in precisely two such pairs; and each measurement outcome is a binary random variable. Denoting the measurement outcomes for a property qi in the two pairs it enters by Vi and Wi, the pair of measurement outcomes for ( qi,qj) is ( Vi,Wj) . Contextuality is defined as follows: one computes the minimal possible value Δ 0 for the sum of Pr [ Vinot =Wi] (over i=1,ldots ,n) that is allowed by the individual distributions of Vi and Wi; one computes the minimal possible value Δ _{min } for the sum of Pr [ Vinot =Wi] across all possible couplings of (i.e., joint distributions imposed on) the entire set of random variables V1,W1,ldots ,Vn,Wn in the system; and the system is considered contextual if Δ _{min }>Δ 0 (otherwise Δ _{min }=Δ 0). This definition has its justification in the general approach dubbed Contextuality-by-Default, and it allows for measurement errors and signaling among the measured properties. The conjecture proved in this paper specifies the value of Δ _{min }-Δ 0 in terms of the distributions of the measurement outcomes ( Vi,Wj).

  20. ORDER AND CHAOS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BINARY SYSTEM OF INTERACTING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2012-05-01

    We present a galactic gravitational model of three degrees of freedom in order to investigate and reveal the behavior of orbits in a binary quasar system. The two quasars are hosted in a pair of interacting disk galaxies. We study in detail the regular or chaotic character of motion in two different cases: the time-independent model in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D dynamical systems, and the evolving 3D model. Our numerical calculations indicate that a large fraction of orbits in the 2D system are chaotic in the time-independent case. A careful analysis suggests that several Lindblad resonances are also responsible for the chaotic motion of stars in both host galaxies. In the time-dependent system, we follow the evolution of 3D orbits in our dynamical model, as the two interacting host galaxies develop dense and massive quasars in their cores by mass transportation from the disks to their nuclei. In this interesting case, there are orbits that change their orbital character from regular to chaotic and vice versa; there are also orbits that maintain their characters during the galactic evolution. These results strongly indicate that the ordered or chaotic nature of 3D orbits depends not only on the galactic interaction but also on the presence of quasars in the galactic cores of the host galaxies. The outcomes derived from our dynamical model are compared with observational data. Some theoretical arguments to support the numerically derived outcomes are presented, both in 2D and 3D systems, and a comparison with similar earlier work is also made.

  1. Binary star systems with asymmetrically heated disks: Thermal phase curves for the disk in epsilon Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Richard L., III

    Epsilon Aurigae is a long-period eclipsing binary that contains a warm F-star (~7750 K) and a circumstellar disk enshrouding a hidden companion, likely to be a hot B-star (≥15,000 K). The eclipse itself lasts just over two years---thanks, in part, to the size of the disk---and occurs every 27.1-years. Its evolutionary status is still debated, along with the true nature of each stellar component, due to the high uncertainty in its parallax. The disk is similarly debated from the near absence of solid state infrared spectral features indicating its composition, particle size distribution, and density. An investigation of a wide parameter space by means of analytic, Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT), and thermal inertia-dependent methods are presented here in order to minimize the current parameter space. The first MCRT models including all of the epsilon Aurigae components (F-star, B-star, and disk) are included here. Additional parameter constraints are found by melding MCRT outputs (e.g. dust temperatures) with a thermal inertia-based extrapolation. The so-called MCRT-TI models investigate the effects of various parameters on the disk-edge temperatures; these include two distances, three particle size distributions, three compositions, and two disk masses, resulting in thirty-six independent models. Adding in the MCRT temperatures as possible solutions doubles the number of models to seventy-two. Additionally, infrared observations at 7 epochs, spanning nearly 1/3 of the orbit of epsilon Aurigae, are evaluated in order to extract phase-dependent disk temperatures. The resulting temperatures create a thermal phase curve, or TPC, for the system. The TPC correlates the observed disk temperature with orbital phase or date of observation. Then, the best-case MCRT and MCRT-TI models are compared against two different mid-eclipse temperatures. If one considers the evolutionary constraints on the models---where a smaller distance denotes an older system with a disk

  2. A Mechanistic Understanding of a Binary Additive System to Synergistically Boost Efficiency in All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Ahn, Sunyong; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-12-11

    All-polymer solar cells are herein presented utilizing the PBDTTT-CT donor and the P(NDI2OD-T2) acceptor with 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) binary solvent additives. A systematic study of the polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells processed from the binary additives revealed that the microstructures and photophysics were quite different from those of a pristine system. The combination of DIO and CN with a DIO/CN ratio of 3:1 (3 vol% DIO, 1 vol% CN and 96 vol% o-DCB) led to suitable penetrating polymer networks, efficient charge generation and balanced charge transport, which were all beneficial to improving the efficiency. This improvement is attributed to increase in power conversion efficiency from 2.81% for a device without additives to 4.39% for a device with the binary processing additives. A detailed investigation indicates that the changes in the polymer:polymer interactions resulted in the formation of a percolating nasnoscale morphology upon processing with the binary additives. Depth profile measurements with a two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirm this optimum phase feature. Furthermore impedance spectroscopy also finds evidence for synergistically boosting the device performance.

  3. A Mechanistic Understanding of a Binary Additive System to Synergistically Boost Efficiency in All-Polymer Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu Jin; Ahn, Sunyong; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-01-01

    All-polymer solar cells are herein presented utilizing the PBDTTT-CT donor and the P(NDI2OD-T2) acceptor with 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) binary solvent additives. A systematic study of the polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells processed from the binary additives revealed that the microstructures and photophysics were quite different from those of a pristine system. The combination of DIO and CN with a DIO/CN ratio of 3:1 (3 vol% DIO, 1 vol% CN and 96 vol% o-DCB) led to suitable penetrating polymer networks, efficient charge generation and balanced charge transport, which were all beneficial to improving the efficiency. This improvement is attributed to increase in power conversion efficiency from 2.81% for a device without additives to 4.39% for a device with the binary processing additives. A detailed investigation indicates that the changes in the polymer:polymer interactions resulted in the formation of a percolating nasnoscale morphology upon processing with the binary additives. Depth profile measurements with a two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirm this optimum phase feature. Furthermore impedance spectroscopy also finds evidence for synergistically boosting the device performance. PMID:26658472

  4. A Mechanistic Understanding of a Binary Additive System to Synergistically Boost Efficiency in All-Polymer Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Ahn, Sunyong; Wang, Dong Hwan; Park, Chan Eon

    2015-01-01

    All-polymer solar cells are herein presented utilizing the PBDTTT-CT donor and the P(NDI2OD-T2) acceptor with 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) and 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) binary solvent additives. A systematic study of the polymer/polymer bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells processed from the binary additives revealed that the microstructures and photophysics were quite different from those of a pristine system. The combination of DIO and CN with a DIO/CN ratio of 3:1 (3 vol% DIO, 1 vol% CN and 96 vol% o-DCB) led to suitable penetrating polymer networks, efficient charge generation and balanced charge transport, which were all beneficial to improving the efficiency. This improvement is attributed to increase in power conversion efficiency from 2.81% for a device without additives to 4.39% for a device with the binary processing additives. A detailed investigation indicates that the changes in the polymer:polymer interactions resulted in the formation of a percolating nasnoscale morphology upon processing with the binary additives. Depth profile measurements with a two-dimensional grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering confirm this optimum phase feature. Furthermore impedance spectroscopy also finds evidence for synergistically boosting the device performance. PMID:26658472

  5. MS 1603.6 + 2600, an unusual X-ray selected binary system at high Galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Simon L.; Liebert, James; Stocke, John T.; Gioia, Isabella M.; Schild, Rudy E.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of an eclipsing binary system at Galactic latitude 47 deg, found as a serendipitous X-ray source in the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey, is described. The object has X-ray flux 1.1 x 10 to the -12th ergs/sq cm s (0.3-3.5 keV) and mean magnitude R = 19.4. An orbital period of 111 minutes is found. The problem discussed is whether the system has a white dwarf or neutron star primary, in the end preferring the neutron star primary model. If the system has either optical or X-ray luminosities typical of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB), it must be at a very large distance (30-80 kpc). Blueshifted He I absorption is seen, indicating cool outflowing material, similar to that seen in the LMXB AC 211 in the globular cluster M15.

  6. Thermal phase diagram of acetamide-benzoic acid and benzoic acid-phthalimide binary systems for solar thermal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohitash; Kumar, Ravindra; Dixit, Ambesh

    2016-05-01

    Thermal properties of Acetamide (AM) - Benzoic acid (BA) and Benzoic acid (BA) - Phthalimide (PM) binary eutectic systems are theoretically calculated using thermodynamic principles. We found that the binary systems of AM-BA at 67.6 : 32.4 molar ratio, BA-PM at 89.7 : 10.3 molar ratio form eutectic mixtures with melting temperatures ~ 54.5 °C and 114.3 °C respectively. Calculated latent heat of fusion for these eutectic mixtures are 191 kJ/kg and 146.5 kJ/kg respectively. These melting temperatures and heat of fusions of these eutectic mixtures make them suitable for thermal energy storage applications in solar water heating and solar cooking systems.

  7. A High-Resolution Spectrophotometric Study of the WR Binary System V444 Cygni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Anne B.

    1984-07-01

    The binary system V444 Cygni (P = 4.212424 day) is an important object for determining the sizes and masses of 0 and WR stars. However, no spectrographic studies of its orbit have been made since 1950. The orbital elements given by Munch (1950) require confirmation, especially the elements describing the motion of the WR star. Spectrophotometric observations from the ground by Kuhi (1968) indicate that the system is enveloped in high-temperature gas which may be streaming between the stars. Review of the four (3 SWP, I LWR) high-resolution spectrograms of this system taken previously by others indicates that absorption lines attributable to the O star occur in the wavelength range from 1700 to 1900A, and that rather sharp absorption components associated with the C II resonance lines and with N IV 1718 occur on some of the spectrograms, but not on others. It is planned to follow V444 Cygni through one orbital cycle obtaining spectra throughout both eclipses and at the elongations. Observations will be made with the SWP camera using the spectrograph in the highresolution mode and with the large aperture. The resulting series of spectra will permit us to confirm and improve the orbital elements of Munch, and to track what, if any, streams of gas occur in the system. Improved orbital elements will allow us to deduce improved sizes and masses for the two stars. Analysis of the blended spectra and comparisons with the spectra of single stars having equivalent spectral types to those of the components of V444 Cygni will allow us to infer information about the physical state of the atmosphere of each star. Appropriate comparison spectra of single stars exist in NSSDC. The P.I. has copies of some of them.

  8. Highly efficient SO₂ absorption and its subsequent utilization by weak base/polyethylene glycol binary system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; He, Liang-Nian; Zhao, Ya-Nan; Yu, Bing

    2013-02-01

    A binary system consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG, proton donor)/PEG-functionalized base with suitable basicity was developed for efficient gas desulfurization (GDS) and can be regarded as an alternative approach to circumvent the energy penalty problem in the GDS process. High capacity for SO(2) capture up to 4.88 mol of SO(2)/mol of base was achieved even under low partial pressure of SO(2). Furthermore, SO(2) desorption runs smoothly under mild conditions (N(2), 25 °C) and no significant drop in SO(2) absorption was observed after five-successive absorption-desorption cycles. On the other hand, the absorbed SO(2) by PEG(150)MeIm/PEG(150), being considered as the activated form of SO(2), can be directly transformed into value-added chemicals under mild conditions, thus eliminating the energy penalty for SO(2) desorption and simultaneously realizing recycle of the absorbents. Thus, this SO(2) capture and utilization (SCU) process offers an alternative way for GDS and potentially enables the SO(2) conversion from flue gas to useful chemicals as a value-added process.

  9. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation. PMID:26346223

  10. On the Mass and Inclination of the PSR J2019+2425 Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, David J.; Splaver, Eric M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.

    2001-03-01

    We report on 9 years of timing observations of PSR J2019+2425, a millisecond pulsar in a wide 76.5 day orbit with a white dwarf. We measure a significant change over time of the projected semimajor axis of the orbit, x/x=(1.3+/-0.2)×10-15 s-1, where x≡(a1sini)/c. We attribute this to the proper motion of the binary. This constrains the inclination angle to i<72deg, with a median likelihood value of 63°. A similar limit on the inclination angle arises from the lack of a detectable Shapiro delay signal. These limits on inclination angle, combined with a model of the evolution of the system, imply that the neutron star mass is at most 1.51 Msolar the median likelihood value is 1.33 Msolar. In addition to these timing results, we present a polarization profile of this source. Fits of the linear polarization position angle to the rotating vector model indicate that the magnetic axis is close to alignment with the rotation axis, α<30deg.

  11. Discovery of two young brown dwarfs in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Stassun, Keivan G; Mathieu, Robert D; Valenti, Jeff A

    2006-03-16

    Brown dwarfs are considered to be 'failed stars' in the sense that they are born with masses between the least massive stars (0.072 solar masses, M(o)) and the most massive planets (approximately 0.013M(o)); they therefore serve as a critical link in our understanding of the formation of both stars and planets. Even the most fundamental physical properties of brown dwarfs remain, however, largely unconstrained by direct measurement. Here we report the discovery of a brown-dwarf eclipsing binary system, in the Orion Nebula star-forming region, from which we obtain direct measurements of mass and radius for these newly formed brown dwarfs. Our mass measurements establish both objects as brown dwarfs, with masses of 0.054 +/- 0.005M(o) and 0.034 +/- 0.003M(o). At the same time, with radii relative to the Sun's of 0.669 +/- 0.034R(o) and 0.511 +/- 0.026R(o), these brown dwarfs are more akin to low-mass stars in size. Such large radii are generally consistent with theoretical predictions for young brown dwarfs in the earliest stages of gravitational contraction. Surprisingly, however, we find that the less-massive brown dwarf is the hotter of the pair; this result is contrary to the predictions of all current theoretical models of coeval brown dwarfs.

  12. Quadruple-junction lattice coherency and phase separation in a binary-phase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Sung-Yoon; Choi, Si-Young; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Young-Min

    2015-09-01

    If each phase has an identical crystal structure and small misfit in the lattice parameters in a binary-phase crystalline system, coherent phase boundaries usually form during separation. Although there have been numerous studies on the effect of coherency elastic energy, no attempt has been made to demonstrate how the phase-separation behaviour varies when multiple interfaces meet at a junction. Here we show that a comprehensively different phase-separation morphology is induced, to release the high coherency strain confined to quadruple junctions. High-temperature in-situ transmission electron microscopy reveals that phase boundaries with a new crystallographic orientation emerge over twinned crystals to provide strain relaxation at quadruple junctions. The high coherency strain and the formation of different phase boundaries can be understood in terms of the force equilibrium between interface tensions at a junction point. Visualizing the quadruple points at atomic resolution, our observations emphasize the impact of multiple junctions on the morphology evolution during phase separation.

  13. THE mm-COLORS OF A YOUNG BINARY DISK SYSTEM IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Testi, L.; Williams, J. P.; Mann, R. K.; Birnstiel, T.

    2011-09-20

    We present new Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) continuum observations at 7 mm of the 253-1536 binary disk system in the Orion Nebula Cluster. The measured fluxes were combined with data in the submillimeter to derive the millimeter spectral index of each individual disk component. We show how these observations can be used to test the models of dust evolution and early growth of solids in protoplanetary disks. Our analysis indicates that the disk with lower density and higher temperature hosts larger grains than the companion disk. This result is the opposite of what is predicted by the dust evolution models. The models and observational results can be reconciled if the viscosity {alpha}-parameter differs by more than a factor of 10 in the two disks, or if the distribution of solids in the disks is strongly affected by radial motions. This analysis can be applied to future high angular resolution observations of young disks with EVLA and ALMA to provide even stronger observational constraints to the models of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks.

  14. Role of inflammation in oral carcinogenesis (Part I): Histological grading of malignancy using a binary system

    PubMed Central

    PIVA, MARTA RABELLO; DE SOUZA, LÉLIA BATISTA; MARTINS-FILHO, PAULO RICARDO SAQUETE; SOARES, ROSILENE CALAZANS; DE SANTANA SANTOS, THIAGO; DE SOUZA ANDRADE, EMANUEL SÁVIO

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the suppressant role of the inflammatory infiltrate in oral carcinogenesis through the immunohistochemical expression of CD8 and FOXP3 and to discuss how representative this expression proved, as well as other parameters considered to be of prognostic value. A total of 20 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma were selected. The criteria suggested by the World Health Organization were used for the histological grading of dysplasia. For carcinoma, a binary method was developed for the present study using parameters such as type of invasion, maturity, presence of epithelial masses and dysmorphism of the masses. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for assessment of the expression of anti-CD8 and anti-FOXP3 in cases of dysplasia and carcinoma. Although the inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the majority of carcinomas, it exercised a protective role in the dysplasia cases, as CD8 expression was significantly greater. Although a correlation was found between CD8 and the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in the carcinoma cases, CD8 demonstrated >5% expression in only 32.5% of the cases, compared to 80% of the dysplasia cases. Thus, we suggest that the inflammatory infiltrate should not be used as a parameter in routine examinations, as it plays different roles in the various stages of carcinogenesis. The histological grading system for malignancy employed in the present study is indicated for the assessment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22848292

  15. A Model for Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Heated Neutron Stars in Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, J.D.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-12-17

    In this paper we present a model for the short (< second) population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this model heated neutron stars in a close binary system near their last stable orbit emit neutrinos at large luminosities ({approx} 10{sup 53} ergs/sec). A fraction of these neutrinos will annihilate to form an e{sup +}e{sup -} pair plasma wind which will, in turn, expand and recombine to photons which make the gamma-ray burst. We study neutrino annihilation and show that a substantial fraction ({approx}1/2) of energy deposited comes from inter-star neutrinos, where each member of the neutrino pair originates from each neutron star. Thus, in addition to the annihilation of neutrinos blowing off of a single star, we have a new source of baryon free energy that is deposited between the stars. To model the e{sup +}e{sup -} pair plasma wind between stars, we do three-dimensional relativistic numerical hydrodynamic calculations. Preliminary results are also presented of new, fully general relativistic calculations of gravitationally attracting stars falling from infinity with no angular momentum. These simulations exhibit a compression effect.

  16. On the orbital and physical parameters of the HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2008-06-01

    In this paper we explore the consequences of the recent determination of the mass m=(8.7±0.8) M ⊙ of Cygnus X-1, obtained from the Quasi-Periodic Oscillation (QPO)-photon index correlation scaling, on the orbital and physical properties of the binary system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1. By using such a result and the latest spectroscopic optical data of the HDE 226868 supergiant star we get M=(24±5) M ⊙ for its mass. It turns out that deviations from the third Kepler law significant at more than 1-sigma level would occur if the inclination i of the system’s orbital plane to the plane of the sky falls outside the range ≈41 56 deg: such deviations cannot be due to the first post-Newtonian (1PN) correction to the orbital period because of its smallness; interpreted in the framework of the Newtonian theory of gravitation as due to the stellar quadrupole mass moment Q, they are unphysical because Q would take unreasonably large values. By conservatively assuming that the third Kepler law is an adequate model for the orbital period we obtain i=(48±7) deg which yields for the relative semimajor axis a=(42±9) R ⊙ (≈0.2 AU).

  17. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  18. Detection of a very low mass star in an eclipsing binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Anandarao, B. G.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2016-10-01

    We report the detection of a very low mass star (VLMS) companion to the primary star 1SWASP J234318.41+295556.5A (J2343+29A), using radial velocity (RV) measurements from the PARAS (PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search) high-resolution echelle spectrograph. The periodicity of the single-lined eclipsing binary (SB1) system, as determined from 20 sets of RV observations from PARAS and 6 supporting sets of observations from SOPHIE data, is found to be 16.953 d as against the 4.24 d period reported from SuperWASP photometry. It is likely that inadequate phase coverage of the transit with SuperWASP photometry led to the incorrect determination of the period for this system. We derive the spectral properties of the primary star from the observed stellar spectra: Teff = 5125 ± 67 K, [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.14 and logg = 4.6 ± 0.14, indicating a K1V primary. Applying the Torres relation to the derived stellar parameters, we estimate a primary mass 0.864_{-0.098}^{+0.097} M⊙ and a radius of 0.854_{-0.060}^{+0.050} R⊙. We combine RV data with SuperWASP photometry to estimate the mass of the secondary, MB = 0.098 ± 0.007 M⊙, and its radius, RB = 0.127 ± 0.007 R⊙, with an accuracy of ˜7 per cent. Although the observed radius is found to be consistent with the Baraffe's theoretical models, the uncertainties on the mass and radius of the secondary reported here are model dependent and should be used with discretion. Here, we establish this system as a potential benchmark for the study of VLMS objects, worthy of both photometric follow-up and the investment of time on high-resolution spectrographs paired with large-aperture telescopes.

  19. Anomalous accretion activity and the spotted nature of the DQ Tau binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Bary, Jeffrey S.; Petersen, Michael S.

    2014-09-01

    We report the detection of an anomalous accretion flare in the tight eccentric pre-main-sequence binary system DQ Tau. In a multi-epoch survey consisting of randomly acquired low- to moderate-resolution near-infrared spectra obtained over a period of almost 10 yr, we detect a significant and simultaneous brightening of four standard accretion indicators (Ca II infrared triplet, the Paschen and Brackett series H I lines, and He I 1.083 μm), on back-to-back nights (φ = 0.372 and 0.433) with the flare increasing in strength as the system approached apastron (φ = 0.5). The mass accretion rate measured for the anomalous flare is nearly an order of magnitude stronger than the average quiescent rate. While previous observations established that frequent, periodic accretion flares phased with periastron passages occur in this system, these data provide evidence that orbitally modulated accretion flares occur near apastron, when the stars make their closest approach to the circumbinary disk. The timing of the flare suggests that this outburst is due to interactions of the stellar cores (or the highly truncated circumstellar disks) with material in non-axisymmetric structures located at the inner edge of the circumbinary disk. We also explore the optical/infrared spectral type mismatch previously observed for T Tauri stars (TTSs) and successfully model the shape of the spectra from 0.8 to 1.0 μm and the strengths of the TiO and FeH bands as manifestations of large cool spots on the surfaces of the stellar companions in DQ Tau. These findings illustrate that a complete model of near-infrared spectra of many TTSs must include parameters for spot filling factors and temperatures.

  20. Planet Formation in Stellar Binaries. II. Overcoming the Fragmentation Barrier in α Centauri and γ Cephei-like Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-01

    Planet formation in small-separation (~20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the "fragmentation barrier" for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ~20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (gsim 10-2 M ⊙) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity <~ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several MJ ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  1. PLANET FORMATION IN STELLAR BINARIES. II. OVERCOMING THE FRAGMENTATION BARRIER IN α CENTAURI AND γ CEPHEI-LIKE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rafikov, Roman R.; Silsbee, Kedron

    2015-01-10

    Planet formation in small-separation (∼20 AU) eccentric binaries such as γ Cephei or α Centauri is believed to be adversely affected by the presence of the stellar companion. Strong dynamical excitation of planetesimals by the eccentric companion can result in collisional destruction (rather than growth) of 1-100 km objects, giving rise to the ''fragmentation barrier'' for planet formation. We revise this issue using a novel description of secular dynamics of planetesimals in binaries, which accounts for the gravity of the eccentric, coplanar protoplanetary disk, as well as gas drag. By studying planetesimal collision outcomes, we show, in contrast to many previous studies, that planetesimal growth and subsequent formation of planets (including gas giants) in AU-scale orbits within ∼20 AU separation binaries may be possible, provided that the protoplanetary disks are massive (≳ 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉}) and only weakly eccentric (disk eccentricity ≲ 0.01). These requirements are compatible with both the existence of massive (several M{sub J} ) planets in γ Cep-like systems and the results of recent simulations of gaseous disks in eccentric binaries. Terrestrial and Neptune-like planets can also form in lower-mass disks at small (sub-AU) radii. We find that the fragmentation barrier is less of a problem in eccentric disks that are apsidally aligned with the binary orbit. Alignment gives rise to special locations, where (1) relative planetesimal velocities are low and (2) the timescale of their drag-induced radial drift is long. This causes planetesimal pileup at such locations in the disk and promotes their growth locally, helping to alleviate the timescale problem for core formation.

  2. RR-Lyrae-type pulsations from a 0.26-solar-mass star in a binary system.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyński, G; Thompson, I B; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Stępień, K; Bono, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Pilecki, B; Udalski, A; Soszyński, I; Preston, G W; Nardetto, N; McWilliam, A; Roederer, I U; Górski, M; Konorski, P; Storm, J

    2012-04-01

    RR Lyrae pulsating stars have been extensively used as tracers of old stellar populations for the purpose of determining the ages of galaxies, and as tools to measure distances to nearby galaxies. There was accordingly considerable interest when the RR Lyrae star OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792 (referred to here as RRLYR-02792) was found to be a member of an eclipsing binary system, because the mass of the pulsator (hitherto constrained only by models) could be unambiguously determined. Here we report that RRLYR-02792 has a mass of 0.26 solar masses M[symbol see text] and therefore cannot be a classical RR Lyrae star. Using models, we find that its properties are best explained by the evolution of a close binary system that started with M[symbol see text] and 0.8M[symbol see text]stars orbiting each other with an initial period of 2.9 days. Mass exchange over 5.4 billion years produced the observed system, which is now in a very short-lived phase where the physical properties of the pulsator happen to place it in the same instability strip of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram as that occupied by RR Lyrae stars. We estimate that only 0.2 per cent of RR Lyrae stars may be contaminated by systems similar to this one, which implies that distances measured with RR Lyrae stars should not be significantly affected by these binary interlopers. PMID:22481359

  3. Assessment of stakeholder perceptions in water infrastructure projects using system-of-systems and binary probit analyses: a case study.

    PubMed

    Faust, Kasey; Abraham, Dulcy M; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2013-10-15

    Globally, water management is evolving toward integrating participatory processes for decision-making to increase the sustainability of the decision outcome. Information about the perceptions and concerns of stakeholders needs to be readily available to those involved in the decision-making process early in the planning stage to assist in developing viable alternatives that may be implementable with limited public opposition and engender general consensus among stakeholders. The current literature does not identify an appropriate means to incorporate stakeholder views early in the preliminary planning stages without requiring relatively large time commitments or the physical presence of the key stakeholders for meetings and discussions. This study develops and demonstrates a decision-support framework that incorporates the system-of-systems school of thought with binary probit analysis to aid in efficient participatory processes by providing insight regarding the stakeholders' demographics and select behavioral characteristics in a decision-making process. The methodology first frames the water system as a system-of-systems, an approach that inherently pinpoints the necessity for diverse stakeholder involvement and maps the stakeholders in the system's hierarchy. Then, binary probit analyses are used to quantify the effect of stakeholder characteristics on the likelihood that (1) they perceive or do not perceive a need for new capital-intensive water infrastructure, and (2) they support or oppose new capital-intensive water infrastructure. A water system decision in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta serves as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. Data regarding stakeholder beliefs and perceptions were collected via a web-based survey deployed throughout Southern and Central California The study results indicate that individuals between 18 and 25 years, persons living solely with their spouse, persons associated with environmental stakeholder groups, and

  4. Assessment of stakeholder perceptions in water infrastructure projects using system-of-systems and binary probit analyses: a case study.

    PubMed

    Faust, Kasey; Abraham, Dulcy M; DeLaurentis, Dan

    2013-10-15

    Globally, water management is evolving toward integrating participatory processes for decision-making to increase the sustainability of the decision outcome. Information about the perceptions and concerns of stakeholders needs to be readily available to those involved in the decision-making process early in the planning stage to assist in developing viable alternatives that may be implementable with limited public opposition and engender general consensus among stakeholders. The current literature does not identify an appropriate means to incorporate stakeholder views early in the preliminary planning stages without requiring relatively large time commitments or the physical presence of the key stakeholders for meetings and discussions. This study develops and demonstrates a decision-support framework that incorporates the system-of-systems school of thought with binary probit analysis to aid in efficient participatory processes by providing insight regarding the stakeholders' demographics and select behavioral characteristics in a decision-making process. The methodology first frames the water system as a system-of-systems, an approach that inherently pinpoints the necessity for diverse stakeholder involvement and maps the stakeholders in the system's hierarchy. Then, binary probit analyses are used to quantify the effect of stakeholder characteristics on the likelihood that (1) they perceive or do not perceive a need for new capital-intensive water infrastructure, and (2) they support or oppose new capital-intensive water infrastructure. A water system decision in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta serves as a case study to demonstrate the methodology. Data regarding stakeholder beliefs and perceptions were collected via a web-based survey deployed throughout Southern and Central California The study results indicate that individuals between 18 and 25 years, persons living solely with their spouse, persons associated with environmental stakeholder groups, and

  5. Sometimes binary is better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprows, David

    2015-04-01

    This note uses material involving perfect numbers and Zeno's paradoxes to show that although most students prefer to use base 10 when working with mathematical concepts there are times when the binary system is best.

  6. Binary Mutual Diffusion Coefficients of Polymer/Solvent Systems Using Compressible Regular Solutions Theory and Free Volume Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farajnezhad, Arsalan; Asef Afshar, Orang; Asgarpour Khansary, Milad; Shirazian, Saeed

    2016-07-01

    The free volume theory has found practical application for prediction of diffusional behavior of polymer/solvent systems. In this paper, reviewing free volume theory, binary mutual diffusion coefficients in some polymer/solvent systems have been systematically presented through chemical thermodynamic modeling in terms of both activity coefficients and fugacity coefficients models. Here chemical thermodynamic model of compressible regular solution (CRS) was used for evaluation of diffusion coefficients calculations as the pure component properties would be required only. Four binary polymeric solutions of cyclohexane/polyisobutylene, n-pentane/polyisobutylene, toluene/polyisobutylene and chloroform/polyisobutylene were considered. The agreement between calculated data and the experimentally collected data was desirable and no considerable error propagation in approximating mutual diffusion coefficients has been observed.

  7. Three-phase liquid-liquid-vapor equilibria behavior of certain binary CO/sub 2/-n-paraffin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hottovy, J.D.; Kohn, J.P.; Luks, K.D.

    1981-07-01

    The 3-phase liquid-liquid-vapor loci of 4 binary CO/sub 2/-n-paraffin systems (n-dodecane, n-tridecane, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane) are studied, and temperature, pressure, and molar volumes and composition of both liquid phases are reported. It is within this group of n-paraffins that the nature of the upper critical end point for the CO/sub 2/-containing binary systems changes with increasing carbon number from an upper critical solution (temperature) point where L/sub 1/ and L/sub 2/ phases become critical in presence of vapor phase to a K point, where L/sub 2/ and vapor phases become critical in the presence of L/sub 1/ phase. These 4 loci are compared with earlier obtained loci on CO/sub 2/-n-decane and CO/sub 2/-n-elcosane.

  8. Wide Low-Mass Tertiary Companions of Binary Star Systems as a Test of Star Formation Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, Stephanie; Allen, P.

    2012-01-01

    We will present the status of a common proper motion search for wide low-mass stellar and sub-stellar companions to known white dwarf-M dwarf binary systems. I-band observations were made using the 31" NURO telescope at Lowell Observatory. Candidate companions are selected using astrometry from our own data and 2MASS photometry. We have begun to spectroscopically confirm candidates that pass our selection criteria. The ultimate goal of the search is to test star formation theories which predict that close binary systems form by transferring angular momentum to a third companion. To this end, we will model the physical companion population and perform Bayesian statistical analysis to determine the best-fit population model to our data. Here we will present our spectroscopically confirmed companions as well as the preliminary results of our population models and statistical analysis.

  9. Homologous series of layered structures in binary and ternary Bi-Sb-Te-Se systems: Ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, K.; Sluiter, M. H. F.; Partoens, B.; Lamoen, D.

    2014-02-01

    In order to account explicitly for the existence of long-periodic layered structures and the strong structural relaxations in the most common binary and ternary alloys of the Bi-Sb-Te-Se system, we have developed a one-dimensional cluster expansion (CE) based on first-principles electronic structure calculations, which accounts for the Bi and Sb bilayer formation. Excellent interlayer distances are obtained with a van der Waals density functional. It is shown that a CE solely based on pair interactions is sufficient to provide an accurate description of the ground-state energies of Bi-Sb-Te-Se binary and ternary systems without making the data set of ab initio calculated structures unreasonably large. For the binary alloys A1-xQx (A =Sb, Bi; Q =Te, Se), a ternary CE yields an almost continuous series of (meta)stable structures consisting of consecutive A bilayers next to consecutive A2Q3 for 00.6, the binary alloy segregates into pure Q and A2Q3. The Bi-Sb system is described by a quaternary CE and is found to be an ideal solid solution stabilized by entropic effects at T ≠0 K but with an ordered structure of alternating Bi and Sb layers for x =0.5 at T =0 K. A quintuple CE is used for the ternary Bi-Sb-Te system, where stable ternary layered compounds with an arbitrary stacking of Sb2Te3,Bi2Te3, and Te-Bi-Te-Sb-Te quintuple units are found, optionally separated by mixed Bi/Sb bilayers. Electronic properties of the stable compounds were studied taking spin-orbit coupling into account.

  10. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the binary systems of chlorine with difluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, and dichlorodifluoromethane at 10 C

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Cho, S.Y.; Nah, I.W.

    1998-07-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for difluoromethane + chlorine, chlorodifluoromethane + chlorine, and dichlorodifluoromethane + chlorine have been measured. The experimental data are correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state, and the relevant parameters are presented. All of the binary systems form minimum boiling homogeneous azeotropes at the experimental conditions. The correlation of the vapor-liquid equilibria was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Searches for Periodic Neutrino Emission from Binary Systems with 22 and 40 Strings of IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abassi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of GeV /TeV photon emission from several X-ray binaries have sparked a renewed interest in these objects as galactic particle accelerators. In spite of the available multi-wavelength data, their acceleration mechanisms are not determined, and the nature of the accelerated particles (hadrons or leptons) is unknown. While much evidence favors leptonic emission, it is very likely that a hadronic component is also accelerated in the jets of these binary systems. The observation of neutrino emission would be clear evidence for the presence of a hadronic component in the outflow of these sources. In this paper we look for periodic neutrino emission from binary systems. Such modulation, observed in the photon flux, would be caused by the geometry of these systems. The results of two searches are presented that differ in the treatment of the spectral shape and phase of the emission. The 'generic' search allows parameters to vary freely and best fit values, in a 'model-dependent' search, predictions are used to constrain these parameters. We use the IceCube data taken from May 31, 2007 to April 5, 2008 with its 22-string configuration, and from April 5, 2008 and May 20, 2009 with its 40-string configuration. For the generic search and the 40 string sample, we find that the most significant source in the catalog of 7 binary stars is Cygnus X-3 with a 1.8% probability after trials (2.10" sigma one-sided) of being produced by statistical fluctuations of the background. The model-dependent method tested a range of system geometries - the inclination and the massive star's disk size - for LS I+61 deg 303, no significant excess was found.

  12. Variable accretion processes in the young binary-star system UY Aur

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jordan M.; Eisner, J. A.; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Don; Salyk, Colette E-mail: jeisner@as.arizona.edu E-mail: dmccarthy@as.arizona.edu

    2014-09-01

    We present new K-band spectroscopy of the UY Aur binary star system. Our data are the first to show H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of UY Aur A and the first to spectrally resolve the Brγ line in the spectrum of UY Aur B. We see an increase in the strength of the Brγ line in UY Aur A and a decrease in Brγ and H{sub 2} line luminosity for UY Aur B compared to previous studies. Converting Brγ line luminosity to accretion rate, we infer that the accretion rate onto UY Aur A has increased by 2 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} per year since a rate of zero was observed in 1994. The Brγ line strength for UY Aur B has decreased by a factor of 0.54 since 1994, but the K-band flux has increased by 0.9 mag since 1998. The veiling of UY Aur B has also increased significantly. These data evince a much more luminous disk around UY Aur B. If the lower Brγ luminosity observed in the spectrum of UY Aur B indicates an intrinsically smaller accretion rate onto the star, then UY Aur A now accretes at a higher rate than UY Aur B. However, extinction at small radii or mass pile-up in the circumstellar disk could explain decreased Brγ emission around UY Aur B even when the disk luminosity implies an increased accretion rate. In addition to our scientific results for the UY Aur system, we discuss a dedicated pipeline we have developed for the reduction of echelle-mode data from the ARIES spectrograph.

  13. Photometry and hydrogen alpha observations of the binary system FF Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marilli, E.; Frasca, A.; Bellina Terra, M.; Catalano, S.

    1995-03-01

    We report on UBV photometry and moderate resolution hydrogen alpha spectrophotometry of the evolved binary system FF Aqr (sdOB + G8 III), performed at the Catania Astrophysical Observatory. The spectrophotometric data were collected in 1990 and 1991, while the photometric light curve is based essentially on observations obtained in 1990. The hydrogen alpha emission line which is associated with the cool star of the system shows a clear modulation with the orbital phase, a definite maximum occurring near the secondary eclipse. The net emission profile of all 1990 spectra, obtained by subtracting the absorption profile of a standard star, displays a very broad emission component (approximately equal to 10 A) and a narrow one (approximately equal to 3 A). The intensity of the latter is modulated with the orbital phase and seems to disappear near the primary eclipse. In the 1991 spectra the broad component is not always visible, while the narrow one is clearly present with the same behavior as the 1990 curve. The Doppler shifts of the narrow hydrogen alpha emission, measured with respect to the photospheric lines of the cool secondary star are consistent with an emission region placed on the G8 III star hemisphere facing the hotter subdwarf. The photometric light variations outside the eclipses show some difference with respect to that observed by Dworetsky et al. (1977a) and by Dorren et al. (1983). Our V light curve is more symmetric, the maximum light occurring at phase approximately equal to 0.5, and the variation amplitude is significantly smaller. A simple model in which the radiation from the subdwarf reaching the cool companion is completely thermalized in the atmosphere of the latter accounts for both the narrow hydrogen alpha emission component and UBV out-of eclipse light variation.

  14. The spectroscopic binary system Gl 375. I. Orbital parameters and chromospheric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; González, J. F.; Cincunegui, C.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We study the spectroscopic binary system Gl 375 to characterise its orbit and the spectral types and chromospheric activity levels of the components. Methods: We employed medium-resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. Results: We have separated the composite spectra into those corresponding to both components. The separated spectra allow us to confirm that the spectral types of both components are similar (dMe3.5) and to obtain precise measurements of the orbital period (P = 1.87844 days), minimum masses (M_1 sin3 i = 0.35 {M}_⊙ and M_2 sin3 i =0.33 {M}_⊙), and other orbital parameters. The photometric observations exhibit a sinusoidal variation with the same period as the orbital period. We interpreted this as signs of active regions carried along with rotation in a tidally synchronised system, and studied the evolution of the amplitude of the modulation on longer timescales. Together with the mean magnitude, the modulation exhibits a roughly cyclic variation with a period of around 800 days. This periodicity is also found in the flux of the Ca II K lines of both components, which seem to be in phase. Conclusions: The periodic changes in the three observables are interpreted as a sign of a stellar activity cycle. Both components appear to be in phase, which implies that they are magnetically connected. The measured cycle of ≈2.2 years (≈800 days) is consistent with previous determinations of activity cycles in similar stars. The authors are visiting astronomers of the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  15. Spectroscopic Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

  16. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for binary systems α-phenylethylamine + toluene and α-phenylethylamine + cyclohexane at 100 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoru; Gao, Yingyu; Ban, Chunlan; Huang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the results of the vapor-liquid equilibria study at 100 kPa are presented for two binary systems: α-phenylethylamine(1) + toluene (2) and (α-phenylethylamine(1) + cyclohexane(2)). The binary VLE data of the two systems were correlated by the Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC models. For each binary system the deviations between the results of the correlations and the experimental data have been calculated. For the both binary systems the average relative deviations in temperature for the three models were lower than 0.99%. The average absolute deviations in vapour phase composition (mole fractions) and in temperature T were lower than 0.0271 and 1.93 K, respectively. Thermodynamic consistency has been tested for all vapor-liquid equilibrium data by the Herrington method. The values calculated by Wilson and NRTL equations satisfied the thermodynamics consistency test for the both two systems, while the values calculated by UNIQUAC equation didn't.

  17. Syntheses and structural characterization of zirconium-tin and zirconium-lead binary and ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Y.U.

    1991-01-28

    The binary zirconium-tin system was reinvestigated. The A15 phase appears to be a line phase with a Zr{sub 4}Sn composition. The Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) compounds are line phases below 1000{degree}C, the latter being a self-interstitial phase of the former. ZrSn{sub 2} is the tin-richest phase. There is an one-phase region between these phases with partial self-interstitials at high temperatures. The zirconium-lead system behaves similarly: there are an A15 phase with a Zr{sub {approximately}5.8}Pb composition, Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} (Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4-type}) compounds, and a high temperature solid solution between Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub >3.5} and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 4} from below 1000{degree}C; however, the ZrSn{sub 2} analogue is not formed. The Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type phases in these systems can accommodate third elements interstitially to form stoichiometric compounds Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}Z (Z = B, C, N, O, Al, Si, P, S, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, and As and Se) and Zr{sub 5}Pb{sub 3}Z (Z = Al, Si, P, S, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb and Te) as well as their self-interstitial derivatives. The systems Zr-Sn-T, T = Fe, Co and Ni, did not produce stoichiometric interstitial phases Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 3}T. Instead, the interstitial phases for these elements are formed only with excess tin that partially occupies the interstitial site together with a T element. Reducing the amount of tin in these systems yields two new phases; Zr{sub 5}Sn{sub 2+x}Fe{sub 1-x} (0 {le} {times} {le} 0.28) (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 6}Sn{sub 2}Fe (Zr{sub 6}Al{sub 2}Co-type) as characterized by X-ray single crystal analyses. A cobalt analogue for the latter was also synthesized.

  18. RY Scuti: Infrared and radio observations of the mass-loss wind of a massive binary star system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrz, R. D.; Hayward, T. L.; Houck, J. R.; Miles, J. W.; Hjellming, R. M.; Jones, T. J.; Woodward, Charles E.; Prentice, Ricarda; Forrest, W. J.; Libonate, S.

    1995-01-01

    We report infrared (IR) imaging, IR photometry, IR spectroscopy, optical/IR photopolarimetry, and Very Large Array (VLA) radio observations of the peculiar binary star RY Scuti. These observations provide an unprecedented view of the detailed spatial structure of the equatorial mass-loss wind of a massive, luminous, 'overcontact' binary system. The binary star (0.43 AU separation) is surrounded by a flattened equatorial disk with an outer radius of approximately = 3 x 10(exp 16) cm (2000 AU) that emits strongly in the IR and radio. The inside of the disk is ionized and emits free-free radiation from hydrogen and 12.8 micrometers forbidden-line emission from (Ne II); the outside of the disk emits thermal radiation from silicate dust. Radio continuum emission is also produced in a compact H II region surrounding the binary. The dust may have a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) component. We use a rudimentary geometric model in which the thermal IR and radio emission from the disk are assumed to arise in a pair of concentric toroidal rings to estimate the physical properties of the disk. The mean radius of the ionized gas toroid is approximately = 1.3 x 10(exp 16) cm (870 AU), and the mean radius of the dust toroid is approximately = 2.2 x 10(exp 16) cm (1470 AU). RY Scuti has a small intrinsic polarization, with the electric vector perpendicular to the equatorial disk, that is probably caused by electron scattering from hot gas close to the central binary. We conclude that neon in the nebula is overabundant with respect to hydrogen and helium by a factor of between 1.6 and 10. Our IR/radio image data suggest that the circumstellar disk is part of an extensive radiation driven mass-loss outflow that is strongly confined to the equatorial plane of the binary system. The sharp spatial separation of the outer dust torous from the inner ionized gas torus confirms earlier suggestions that dust formation in the circumstellar ejecta of very hot stars must occur in

  19. The quest for collapsed/frozen stars in single-line spectroscopic binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia

    2016-10-01

    Black holes are now commonplace, among the stars, in Galactic centers, and perhaps other places. But within living memory, their very existence was doubted by many, and few chose to look for them. Zeldovich and Guseinov were first, followed by Trimble and Thorne, using a method that would have identified HDE 226868 as a plausible candidate, if it had been in the 1968 catalogue of spectroscopic binaries. That it was not arose from an unhappy accident in the observing program of Daniel M. Popper long before the discovery of X-ray binaries and the identification of Cygnus X-1 with that hot, massive star and its collapsed companion.

  20. Investigation of Interdiffusion Behavior in the Mo-Zr Binary System via Diffusion Couple Studies

    SciTech Connect

    A. Paz y Puente; J. Dickson; D.D. Keiser, Jr.; Y.H. Sohn

    2014-03-01

    Zirconium has recently garnered attention for use as a diffusion barrier between U–Mo metallic nuclear fuels and Al alloy cladding. In order to gain a fundamental understanding of the diffusional interactions, the interdiffusion behavior in the binary Mo–Zr system was investigated via solid-to-solid diffusion couples annealed in the temperature range of 750 to 1050 degrees C. A combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis were used to examine the microstructure and concentration profiles across the interdiffusion zone. A large __-Zr (cI2) solid solution layer and a thin (approximately 1–2 um) layer of Mo2Zr (cF24) developed in all couples. Parabolic growth constants and concentration dependent interdiffusion coefficients were calculated for the Mo2Zr and Zr solid solution phases, respectively. The pre-exponential factor and activation energy for growth of the Mo2Zr phase were determined to be approximately 6.5 × 10- 15 m2/s and 90 kJ/mol, respectively. The interdiffusion coefficient in ___-Zr solid solution decreased with an increase in Mo concentration. Both the pre-exponential factors (2 × 10- 8 m2/s at 2 at.% Mo to near 5 × 10- 8 m2/s at 9 at.% Mo) and activation energies (140 kJ/mol at 2 at.% Mo to approximately 155 kJ/mol at 9 at.% Mo) of interdiffusion coefficients were determined to increase with an increase in Mo concentration.

  1. Diffusion in liquid state and solidification of binary system (M-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dan, T.

    1993-01-01

    Diffusion is one of the most fundamental physical phenomena. It relates to the manufacturing of almost all materials. Therefore, the precise knowledge of diffusivities of relevant materials is necessary for the optimization of these processes. On the other hand, such knowledge is indispensable to understanding the diffusion mechanism and structure of liquid metal in the field of physical metallurgy. Many diffusion experiments on solid metal were undertaken and a lot of data were accumulated. But on liquid metals there are few measurements because of experimental difficulties, such as thermal convection, induced by very slight temperature gradients in the specimen. Under microgravity conditions, the movement of liquid metal due to density differences and thermal convection must be suppressed markedly. Therefore, the transportation process will be controlled only by the diffusion of constituent atoms. These conditions offer the optimum environments for the diffusion experiment. The experiments are briefly described. Diffusion couples are prepared by attaching end to end two rods of different pure metals using hot press equipment. These couples are inserted into a graphite crucible and then doubly enclosed by two silica ampoules, respectively. The specimen is inserted into a tantalum cartridge, which is welded in a vacuum using an electron-beam apparatus. These cartridges are charged in the continuous heating furnace in space and held at a given temperature for a predetermined time and then solidified. The concentration distribution of elements in these specimens will be measured along the rod axis by means of an electron probe microanalyzer. The counterdiffusivity of the liquid metal binary system is determined on the basis of the compensated concentration distribution profile for thermal contraction.

  2. Stable Orbits in the Didymos Binary Asteroid System - Useful Platforms for Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damme, Friedrich; Hussmann, Hauke; Wickhusen, Kai; Enrico, Mai; Oberst, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We have analyzed particle motion in binary asteroid systems to search for stable orbits. In particular, we studied the motion of particles near the asteroid 1996 GT (Didymos), proposed as a target for the AIDA mission. The combined gravity fields of the odd-shaped rotating objects moving about each other are complex. In addition, orbiting spacecraft or dust particles are affected by radiation pressure, possibly exceeding the faint gravitational forces. For the numerical integrations, we adopt parameters for size, shape, and rotation from telescopic observations. To simulate the effect of radiation pressure during a spacecraft mission, we apply a spacecraft wing-box shape model. Integrations were carried out beginning in near-circular orbits over 11 days, during which the motion of the particles were examined. Most orbits are unstable with particles escaping quickly or colliding with the asteroid bodies. However, with carefully chosen initial positions, we found stable motion (in the orbiting plane of the secondary) associated with the Lagrangian points (L4 and L5), in addition to horseshoe orbits, where particles move from one of the Lagrangian point to the other. Finally, we examined orbits in 1:2 resonances with the motion of the orbital period of the secondary. Stable conditions depend strongly on season caused by the inclination of the mutual orbit plane with respect to Didymos solar orbit. At larger distance from the asteroid pair, we find the well-known terminator orbits where gravitational attraction is balanced against radiation pressure. Stable orbits and long motion arcs are useful for long tracking runs by radio or Laser instruments and are well-suited for modelling of the ephemerides of the asteroid pair and gravity field mapping. Furthermore, these orbits may be useful as observing posts or as platforms for approach. These orbits may also represent traps for dust particles, an opportunity for dust collection - or possibly a hazard to spacecraft

  3. ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCE DIFFERENCES IN THE 16 CYGNI BINARY SYSTEM: A SIGNATURE OF GAS GIANT PLANET FORMATION?

    SciTech Connect

    RamIrez, I.; Roederer, I. U.; Fish, J. R.; Melendez, J.

    2011-10-20

    The atmospheric parameters of the components of the 16 Cygni binary system, in which the secondary has a gas giant planet detected, are measured accurately using high-quality observational data. Abundances relative to solar are obtained for 25 elements with a mean error of {sigma}([X/H]) = 0.023 dex. The fact that 16 Cyg A has about four times more lithium than 16 Cyg B is normal considering the slightly different masses of the stars. The abundance patterns of 16 Cyg A and B, relative to iron, are typical of that observed in most of the so-called solar twin stars, with the exception of the heavy elements (Z > 30), which can, however, be explained by Galactic chemical evolution. Differential (A-B) abundances are measured with even higher precision ({sigma}({Delta}[X/H]) = 0.018 dex, on average). We find that 16 Cyg A is more metal-rich than 16 Cyg B by {Delta}[M/H] = +0.041 {+-} 0.007 dex. On an element-to-element basis, no correlation between the A-B abundance differences and dust condensation temperature (T{sub C}) is detected. Based on these results, we conclude that if the process of planet formation around 16 Cyg B is responsible for the observed abundance pattern, the formation of gas giants produces a constant downward shift in the photospheric abundance of metals, without a T{sub C} correlation. The latter would be produced by the formation of terrestrial planets instead, as suggested by other recent works on precise elemental abundances. Nevertheless, a scenario consistent with these observations requires the convective envelopes of {approx_equal} 1 M{sub sun} stars to reach their present-day sizes about three times quicker than predicted by standard stellar evolution models.

  4. Functional profile of the binary brain corticosteroid receptor system: mediating, multitasking, coordinating, integrating.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, E R

    2013-11-01

    This contribution is focused on the action of the naturally occurring corticosteroids, cortisol and corticosterone, which are secreted from the adrenals in hourly pulses and after stress with the goal to maintain resilience and health. To achieve this goal the action of the corticosteroids displays an impressive diversity, because it is cell-specific and context-dependent in coordinating the individual's response to changing environments. These diverse actions of corticosterone are mediated by mineralocorticoid- and glucocorticoid-receptors that operate as a binary system in concert with neurotransmitter and neuropeptide signals to activate and inhibit stress reactions, respectively. Classically MR and GR are gene transcription factors, but recently these receptors appear to mediate also rapid non-genomic actions on excitatory neurotransmission suggesting that they integrate functions over time. Hence the balance of receptor-mediated actions is crucial for homeostasis. This balanced function of mineralo- and glucocorticoid-receptors can be altered epigenetically by a history of traumatic (early) life events and the experience of repeated stressors as well as by predisposing genetic variants in signaling pathways of these receptors. One of these variants, mineralocorticoid receptor haplotype 2, is associated with dispositional optimism in appraisal of environmental challenges. Imbalance in receptor-mediated corticosterone actions was found to leave a genomic signature highlighting the role of master switches such as cAMP response element-binding protein and mammalian target of rapamycin to compromise health, and to promote vulnerability to disease. Diabetic encephalopathy is a pathology of imbalanced corticosterone action, which can be corrected in its pre-stage by a brief treatment with the antiglucocorticoid mifepristone.

  5. Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Wilson, R. E.; Vaccaro, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a phenomenon in the light curves of short-period Algol-type eclipsing binaries that has never been reported from ground-based photometry. These systems display unequal brightness at their quadrature phases that numerically reverses over a time scale of about 100-400 days. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Twenty-one such systems have so far been identified in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. The prototype is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. The Kepler light curves are being analyzed with the 2013 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 T_phot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Echelle spectra were recently secured with the KPNO 4-m telescope to determine the mass ratios of the L/T systems and their spectral types. This information will allow us to assess whether the hot or cool spot model explains the L/T activity. Progress toward this goal will be presented. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  6. Two new young, wide, magnetic + non-magnetic double-degenerate binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Baxter, R.; Külebi, B.; Parker, Q. A.; Koester, D.; Jordan, S.; Lodieu, N.; Euchner, F.

    2012-03-01

    We report the discovery of two, new, rare, wide, double-degenerate binaries that each contain a magnetic and a non-magnetic star. The components of SDSS J092646.88+132134.5 + J092647.00+132138.4 and of SDSS J150746.48+521002.1 + J150746.80+520958.0 have angular separations of only 4.6 arcsec (a˜ 650 au) and 5.1 arcsec (a˜ 750 au), respectively. They also appear to share common proper motions. Follow-up optical spectroscopy has revealed each system to consist of a DA and a H-rich high-field magnetic white dwarf (HFMWD). Our measurements of the effective temperatures and the surface gravities of the DA components reveal both to have larger masses than is typical of field white dwarfs. By assuming that these degenerates have evolved essentially as single stars, owing to their wide orbital separations, we can use them to place limits on the total ages of the stellar systems. These suggest that in each case the HFMWD is probably associated with an early-type progenitor (Minit > 2 M⊙). We find that the cooling time of SDSS J150746.80+520958.0 (DAH) is lower than might be expected had it followed the evolutionary path of a typical single star. This mild discord is in the same sense as that observed for two of the small number of other HFMWDs for which progenitor mass estimates have been made, RE J0317-853 and EG 59. The mass of the other DAH, SDSS J092646.88+132134.5, appears to be smaller than expected on the basis of single-star evolution. If this object was/is a member of a hierarchical triple system it may have experienced greater mass loss during an earlier phase of its life as a result of its having a close companion. The large uncertainties on our estimates of the parameters of the HFMWDs suggest that a larger sample of these objects is required to firmly identify any trends in their inferred cooling times and progenitor masses. This should shed further light on their formation and on the impact magnetic fields have on the late stages of stellar evolution. To

  7. Long-term observations of the pulsars in 47 Tucanae - I. A study of four elusive binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Torne, P.; Heinke, C. O.; van den Berg, M.; Jordan, C.; Kramer, M.; Bassa, C. G.; Sarkissian, J.; D'Amico, N.; Lorimer, D.; Camilo, F.; Manchester, R. N.; Lyne, A.

    2016-11-01

    For the past couple of decades, the Parkes radio telescope has been regularly observing the millisecond pulsars in 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). This long-term timing programme was designed to address a wide range of scientific issues related to these pulsars and the globular cluster where they are located. In this paper, the first of a series, we address one of these objectives: the characterization of four previously known binary pulsars for which no precise orbital parameters were known, namely 47 Tuc P, V, W and X (pulsars 47 Tuc R and Y are discussed elsewhere). We determined the previously unknown orbital parameters of 47 Tuc V and X and greatly improved those of 47 Tuc P and W. For pulsars W and X we obtained, for the first time, full coherent timing solutions across the whole data span, which allowed a much more detailed characterization of these systems. 47 Tuc W, a well-known tight eclipsing binary pulsar, exhibits a large orbital period variability, as expected for a system of its class. 47 Tuc X turns out to be in a wide, extremely circular, 10.9-d long binary orbit and its position is ˜3.8 arcmin away from the cluster centre, more than three times the distance of any other pulsar in 47 Tuc. These characteristics make 47 Tuc X a very different object with respect to the other pulsars of the cluster.

  8. Copper-based alloys, crystallographic and crystallochemical parameters of alloys in binary systems Cu-Me (Me=Co, Rh, Ir, Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porobova, Svetlana; Markova, Tat'jana; Klopotov, Vladimir; Klopotov, Anatoliy; Loskutov, Oleg; Vlasov, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of the analysis of phase equilibrium of ordered phases in binary systems based on copper Cu- Me (where Me - Co, Rh, Ir, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt) to find correlations of crystallochemical and crystallographic factors. It is established that the packing index in disordered solid solutions in binary systems based on copper is close to the value of 0.74 against the background of an insignificant deviation of atomic volumes from the Zen's law.

  9. Analysis of Pulsating Components in the Eclipsing Binary Systems LT Herculis, RZ Microscopii, LY Puppis, V632 Scorpii, and V638 Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streamer, M.; Bohlsen, T.; Ogmen, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Eclipsing binary stars are especially valuable for studies of stellar evolution. If pulsating components are also present then the stellar interior can be studied using asteroseismology techniques. We present photometric data and the analysis of the delta Scuti pulsations that we have discovered in five eclipsing binary systems. The systems are: LT Herculis, RZ Microscopii, LY Puppis, V632 Scorpii and V638 Scorpii. The dominant pulsation frequencies range between 13 - 29 cycles per day with semi-amplitudes of 4 - 20 millimagnitudes.

  10. Curriculum Viewed as a Binary System: An Approach to the Determination of Sequence. A Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renckly, Thomas R.; Orwig, Gary

    A description of the development and application of a hierarchical/binary model by which a curriculum may be analyzed to determine alternative instructional sequences given particular instructional objectives and limiting constraints forms the body of this report. The background of the project as part of an effort by the U.S. Navy Recruiting…

  11. Phase Diagrams of Binary Systems of Some Alkali Iso-Butyrates with One Mesogenic Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuk, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1995-09-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary mixtures of mesogenic potassium iso-butyrate with non-mesogenic lithium-, sodium-, and caesium iso-butyrate have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The temperature and concentration ranges of liquid crystal formation have been established. Sodium and caesium iso-butyrate have been found to possess latent mesogenic properties.

  12. A Binary System of Tertiary Education: Past Ideas, Contemporary Policy and Future Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddie, Francesca M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on a project examining the binary policy of higher education formulated in Australia in the mid-1960s. Its purpose is to discuss history as a policy tool and research impact. The historical analysis identified several enduring problems--beyond the central matter of funding--in tertiary education: insufficient diversity; obstacles…

  13. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  14. Binary-Symmetry Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Hiram

    1987-01-01

    Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.

  15. δ Sct-type pulsations in eclipsing binary systems: RZ Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, E.; García, J. M.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Costa, V.; Kim, S.-L.; López-González, M. J.; Hintz, E.; Kusakin, A. V.; Gamarova, A. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Youn, J.-H.; Janiashvili, E. B.; Garrido, R.; Moya, A.; Kang, Y. W.

    2004-02-01

    We present the results of a three-continent multisite photometric campaign carried out on the Algol-type eclipsing binary system RZ Cas, in which the primary component has recently been discovered to be a δ Sct-type pulsator. The present observations include, for the first time, complete simultaneous Strömgren uvby light curves together with a few Crawford Hβ data collected around the orbital phase of the first quadrature. The new observations confirm the pulsational behaviour of the primary component. A detailed photometric analysis, based on these observations, is presented for both binarity and pulsation. The results indicate a semidetached system where the secondary fills its Roche lobe. The appearance of the light curves reveals the presence of the mass stream from the secondary component and a hotspot where this stream impacts on the surface of the primary star. There are also some indications of chromospheric activity in the secondary. On the other hand, the pulsational behaviour out-of-primary eclipse can be well described with only one frequency at 64.1935 cd-1 similar to the main peak found by Ohshima et al. The existence of multiperiodicity is not confirmed in our data. Concerning the mode identification, our results indicate non-radial pulsation in a high radial order (n= 6), with l= 2, |m|= 1, 2 as the most suitable. However, additional effects must be taken into account in the predictions. Moreover, the pulsation amplitude in the u band is larger than in b and v, which is unusual among the δ Sct-type variables. This can be explained as due to pulsation in a high n value and close to the blue edge of the δ Sct region. On the other hand, the early data of Ohshima et al. have also been analysed and similar results are found concerning the frequency content and pulsational amplitude. Finally, a revision of all the photometric out-of-primary-eclipse data sets available in the literature is made together with some additional unpublished data leading to

  16. Deep, Low-mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XII. CK Bootis with Possible Cyclic Magnetic Activity and Additional Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2012-05-01

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7(± 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67(± 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days(± 0.0009 days) and P 3 = 24.16(± 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 (±0.80) × 10-8 days yr-1, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J spin > (1/3)J orb.

  17. Photometric Properties for Selected Algol-type Binaries. VIII. The Triple Systems DI Peg and AF Gem Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Yang, Ying; Li, Shu-Zheng

    2014-06-01

    New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are fp = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and fp = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O-C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P 3 = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P 4 = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M in = 0.095 M ⊙ and M out = 0.170 M ⊙, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary.

  18. Photometric properties for selected algol-type binaries. VIII. The triple systems DI Peg and AF Gem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan-Gui; Li, Shu-Zheng; Yang, Ying E-mail: yangyg@chnu.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    New extensive photometry for two triple binary stars, DI Peg and AF Gem, was performed from 2012 October to 2013 January, with two small telescopes at Xinglong station (XLs) of NAOC. From new multi-color observations and previously published ones in literature, the photometric models were (re)deduced using the updated Wilson-Devinney code. The results indicated that the low third lights exist in two classic Algol-type binaries, whose fill-out factors for the more massive components are f{sub p} = 78.2(± 0.4)% for DI Peg, and f{sub p} = 69.0(± 0.3)% for AF Gem, respectively. Through analyzing the O–C curves, the orbital periods for two binaries change in the complicated mode. The period of DI Peg possibly appears to show two light-time orbits, whose modulated periods are P {sub 3} = 54.6(± 0.5) yr and P {sub 4} = 23.0(± 0.6) yr, respectively. The inferred minimum masses for the inner and outer sub-stellar companions are M {sub in} = 0.095 M {sub ☉} and M {sub out} = 0.170 M {sub ☉}, respectively. Therefore, DI Peg may be a quadruple star. The orbital period of AF Gem appears to show a continuous period decrease or a cyclic variation; the latter may be preferable. The cyclic oscillation, with a period of 120.3(± 2.5) yr, may be attributed to the light-time effect due to the third body. This kind of additional companion may extract angular momentum from the central system, which may play a key role in the evolution of the binary.

  19. The self-organization and functional activity of binary system based on erucyl amidopropyl betaine - alkylated polyethyleneimine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaynanova, Gulnara A.; Valiakhmetova, Alsu R.; Kuryashov, Dmitry A.; Kudryashova, Yuliana R.; Lukashenko, Svetlana S.; Syakaev, Victor V.; Latypov, Shamil K.; Bukharov, Sergey V.; Bashkirtseva, Natalia Yu.; Zakharova, Lucia Ya.

    2013-11-01

    The self-organization in individual and binary aqueous solutions of a zwitterionic surfactant erucyl amidopropyl betaine and alkylated polyethyleneimine is carried out with a wide range of physical and chemical methods, including tensiometry, conductometry, dynamic light scattering, pH-metry, spectrophotometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The data obtained strongly support the formation of nanosized aggregates in the systems and provide information on their structure and probable morphological transitions. High solubilization capacity and data on the contact angle showed a possibility of the application of these systems as nanocontainers or oil wetting agents in the oil recovery.

  20. Physicochemical study of drug binary systems. Part 3: Tolbutamide-urea and tolbutamide-mannitol systems.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, H M; Daabis, N A; Mortada, L M; Abd-Elfattah, S

    1975-12-01

    The phase diagram of the tolbutamide-urea system, constructed by data obtained from the microheating table apparatus, was a peritectic type. It showed the possibility of the formation of two molecular compounds with incongruent m. p. at 112 degrees C and 123 degrees C. Metastable and stable eutectic points were observed at 63 degrees C and 92 degrees C respectively. The phase diagram of tolbutamide-mannitol system revealed that in addition to eutectic liquefaction at 102 degrees C and 6% (w/w) mannitol, there was a region [40--80% (w/w) mannitol] in which the two components were not completely miscible in the liquid state. Solubility studies showed an increase of about 2.5 fold in the solubility of tolbutamide with 0.5 g% urea and suggested the possibility of the formation of a low-solubility complex in addition to a soluble higher complex of the two components. No obvious increase in the solubility of tolbutamide was detected in the presence of mannitol. A full description of the nature and composition of the final solidified melts of the two present systems could prove to be helpful in the explanation of the dissolution behaviour of the different studied samples and their corresponding physical mixtures. The fused 90% urea and mannitol solid dispersions showed a fast rate of dissolution in the order of 15 and 10 times (respectively) greater than pure tolbutamide. PMID:1219797

  1. Eclipsing and density effects on the spectral behavior of Beta Lyrae binary system in the UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanad, M. R.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze both long and short high resolution ultraviolet spectrum of Beta Lyrae eclipsing binary system observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) between 1980 and 1989. The main spectral features are P Cygni profiles originating from different environments of Beta Lyrae. A set of 23 Mg II k&h spectral lines at 2800 Å, originating from the extended envelope [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H], have been identified and measured to determine their fluxes and widths. We found that there is spectral variability for these physical parameters with phase, similar to that found for the light curve [Kondo, Y., McCluskey, G.E., Jeffery, M.M.S., Ronald, S.P., Carolina, P.S. McCluskey, Joel, A.E., 1994. ApJ, 421, 787], which we attribute to the eclipse effects [Ak, H., Chadima, P., Harmanec, P., Demircan, O., Yang, S., Koubský, P., Škoda, P., Šlechta, M., Wolf, M., Božić, H., 2007. A&A, 463, 233], in addition to the changes of density and temperature of the region from which these lines are coming, as a result of the variability of mass loss from the primary star to the secondary [Hoffman, J.L., Nordsieck, K.H., Fox, G.K., 1998. AJ, 115, 1576; Linnell, A.P., Hubeny, I., Harmanec, P., 1998. ApJ, 509, 379]. Also we present a study of Fe II spectral line at 2600 Å, originating from the atmosphere of the primary star [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H]. We found spectral variability of line fluxes and line widths with phase similar to that found for Mg II k&h lines. Finally we present a study of Si IV spectral line at 1394 Å, originating from the extended envelope [Hack, M., 1980. IAUS, 88, 271H]. A set of 52 Si IV spectral line at 1394 Å have been identified and measured to determine their fluxes and widths. Also we found spectral variability of these physical parameters with phase similar to that found for Mg II k&h and Fe II spectral lines.

  2. Eutectic interactions in binary systems containing cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Dorset, D L

    1990-11-12

    Binary phase behavior of saturated cholesterol esters with trilaurin or cholesterol, and cholesterol with trilaurin, is studied. The existence of specific molecular interactions is detected by comparing the liquidus curve of the eutectic with ideal theory of freezing point depression and correcting the theoretical curve with the Bragg-Williams model when necessary. X-ray data indicate that all eutectic solids are nearly totally fractionated. The phase diagrams are sometimes well-explained by ideal solution theory indicating that polar interactions (e.g., the hydrogen bonding of cholesterol) are much less important than van der Waals interactions between neighboring molecules. However, the hydrogen bonding networks of cholesterol can lead to nonideal solution behavior with other lipids, a phenomenon consistent with previous observations on simpler molecular binaries. An observed nonideal solution behavior of triacylglycerol with cholesterol esters, on the other hand, is unexpected since significant polar interactions are expected to be 'buried' in the predominant nonpolar volume of the molecules involved.

  3. Diagnostics of the nucleosynthesis processes in the mass transfer binary systems: Cases u Herculis and delta Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervisoglu, Ahmet; Pavlovski, Kresimir; Kolbas, Vladimir; Southworth, John

    2016-07-01

    In the course of evolution of stars in close binary systems, mass transfer could happen due to limited space allowed for the expansion. An Algol type binary system would eventually be formed. As the consequence of the mass transfer, the layers which were originally deep in the star and have been altered by thermonuclear fusion during the star's main sequence evolution, are now exposed at the surfaces of the components. Thus, photospheric abundances give a precious way of diagnosing the nucleosynthesis processes that occurred deep in the stars. In this study, we present our previous results for u Her and ongoing analysis of δ Lib. A new set of high-resolution echelle spectra of u Her and δ Lib were obtained at CAHA, Spain. Spectral disentangling allows us to isolate the individual spectrum of the components for both systems. For both u Her and δ Lib systems, the detailed spectroscopic analysis of the primary component indicates a clear abundance pattern expected from the CNO process. Evolutionary scenario of the stars based on CAMBRIDGE version of STARS code in this systems and the effects of thermohaline mixing in the envelope of mass gainer stars will be discussed in the framework of this finding.

  4. FUV Spectroscopy of the sdOB Primary of the Eclipsing Binary System AA Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleig, J.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.

    AADor is an eclipsing, close, post common-envelope binary (PCEB). We present a detailed spectral analysis of its sdOB primary based on observations obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Due to a strong contamination by interstellar absorption, we had to model both, the stellar spectrum as well as the interstellar line absorption in order to reproduce the FUV observation well and to determine the photospheric parameters precisely.

  5. MINING PLANET SEARCH DATA FOR BINARY STARS: THE ψ{sup 1} DRACONIS SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2015-12-10

    Several planet-search groups have acquired a great deal of data in the form of time-series spectra of several hundred nearby stars with time baselines of over a decade. While binary star detections are generally not the goal of these long-term monitoring efforts, the binary stars hiding in existing planet search data are precisely the type that are too close to the primary star to detect with imaging or interferometry techniques. We use a cross-correlation analysis to detect the spectral lines of a new low-mass companion to ψ{sup 1} Draconis A, which has a known roughly equal-mass companion at ∼680 AU. We measure the mass of ψ{sup 1} Draconis C as M{sub 2} = 0.70 ± 0.07M{sub ⊙}, with an orbital period of ∼20 years. This technique could be used to characterize binary companions to many stars that show large-amplitude modulation or linear trends in radial velocity data.

  6. Mining Planet Search Data for Binary Stars: The ψ1 Draconis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullikson, Kevin; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2015-12-01

    Several planet-search groups have acquired a great deal of data in the form of time-series spectra of several hundred nearby stars with time baselines of over a decade. While binary star detections are generally not the goal of these long-term monitoring efforts, the binary stars hiding in existing planet search data are precisely the type that are too close to the primary star to detect with imaging or interferometry techniques. We use a cross-correlation analysis to detect the spectral lines of a new low-mass companion to ψ1 Draconis A, which has a known roughly equal-mass companion at ∼680 AU. We measure the mass of ψ1 Draconis C as M2 = 0.70 ± 0.07M⊙, with an orbital period of ∼20 years. This technique could be used to characterize binary companions to many stars that show large-amplitude modulation or linear trends in radial velocity data.

  7. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Milosavljević, Milos

    2005-11-01

    Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers) are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, "diffusive" refilling of the binary's loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the "damage" inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  8. Determining the Age of the Kepler Open Cluster NGC 6819 With a New Triple System and Other Eclipsing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Lauren N.; Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Milliman, Katelyn; Geller, Aaron M.; Jeffries, Mark W., Jr.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Brogaard, Karsten; Platais, Imants; Bruntt, Hans; Grundahl, Frank; Stello, Dennis; Frandsen, Søren

    2016-03-01

    As part of our study of the old (˜2.5 Gyr) open cluster NGC 6819 in the Kepler field, we present photometric (Kepler and ground-based BVRCIC) and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binary WOCS 24009 (Auner 665; KIC 5023948) with a short orbital period of 3.6 days. WOCS 24009 is a triple-lined system, and we verify that the brightest star is physically orbiting the eclipsing binary using radial velocities and eclipse timing variations. The eclipsing binary components have masses MB = 1.090 ± 0.010 M⊙ and MC = 1.075 ± 0.013 M⊙, and radii RB = 1.099 ± 0.006 ± 0.005 R⊙ and RC = 1.069 ± 0.006 ± 0.013 R⊙. The bright non-eclipsing star resides at the cluster turnoff, and ultimately its mass will directly constrain the turnoff mass: our preliminary determination is MA = 1.251 ± 0.057 M⊙. A careful examination of the light curves indicates that the fainter star in the eclipsing binary undergoes a very brief period of total eclipse, which enables us to precisely decompose the light of the three stars and place them in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD). We also present improved analysis of two previously discussed detached eclipsing stars in NGC 6819 (WOCS 40007 and WOCS 23009) en route to a combined determination of the cluster’s distance modulus (m - M)V = 12.38 ± 0.04. Because this paper significantly increases the number of measured stars in the cluster, we can better constrain the age of the CMD to be 2.21 ± 0.10 ± 0.20 Gyr. Additionally, using all measured eclipsing binary star masses and radii, we constrain the age to 2.38 ± 0.05 ± 0.22 Gyr. The quoted uncertainties are estimates of measurement and systematic uncertainties (due to model physics differences and metal content), respectively. This is paper 57 of the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS).

  9. The Spot Variability and Related Brightness variations of the Solar Type PreContact W UMa Binary System V1001 Cas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, Ronald George; Koenke, Sam S.; Faulkner, Danny R.

    2015-08-01

    A new classification of eclipsing binary has emerged, Pre Contact WUMa Binaries (PCWB’s, Samec et al. 2012). These solar-type systems are usually detached or semidetached with one or both components under filling their critical Roche lobes. They usually have EA or EB-type light curves (unequal eclipse depths, indicating components with substantially different temperatures). The accepted scenario for these W UMa binaries is that they are undergoing steady but slow angular momentum losses due to magnetic braking as stellar winds blow radially away on stiff bipolar field lines. These binaries are believed to come into stable contact and eventually coalesce into blue straggler type, single, fast rotating A-type stars (Guinan and Bradstreet,1988). High precision 2012 and 2009 light curves are compared for the very short period (~0.43d) Precontact W UMa Binary (PCWB), V1001 Cassiopeia. This is the shortest period PCWB found so far. Its short period, similar to the majority of W UMa’s, in contrast to its distinct Algol-type light curve, make it a very rare and interesting system. Our solutions of light curves separated by some three years give approximately the same physical parameters. However the spots radically change, in temperature, area and position causing a distinctive variation in the shape of the light curves. We conclude that spots are very active on this solar type dwarf system and that it may mimic its larger cousins, the RS CVn binaries.

  10. Analysis of the Motion of the Extrasolar Planet HD 120136 Ab in a Binary System: Calculating Unknown Angular Orbital Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plávalová, E.; Solovay, N. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have carried out an analysis of the motion of an extrasolar planet orbiting in a binary system, as a particular case of the three-body problem. The following assumptions have been made: a) the planet orbits around one of the binary components (the parent star); b) the distance between the stellar components is greater than that between the parent star and the orbiting planet (the ratio of the semi-major axes is a small parameter); c) the mass of the planet is smaller than the mass of the star, but is not negligible. We employed the Hamiltonian of the system without short-period terms, and we expanded it in terms of Legendre polynomials and truncated the expansion after the second-order terms. Such form of the Hamiltonian enables us to solve the differential equations of motion of our system and analyze of the motion of the extrasolar planet. We have applied this theory to the system HD 120136, and described the possible regions in which the planet can move. The theory permits us to calculate an unknown angular orbital element for the planet HD 120136 Ab, the ascending node: Ω1=134°±14°. The motion of the planet is expected to be stable over long time scales.

  11. Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes observed in chalcogenide glasses of binary As-S system

    SciTech Connect

    Shpotyuk, M.; Shpotyuk, O.; Golovchak, Roman; McCloy, John S.; Riley, Brian J.

    2014-01-23

    Compositional trends of γ-induced optical changes in chalcogenide glasses are studied with the binary As-S system. Effects of γ-irradiation and annealing are compared using the changes measured in the fundamental optical absorption edge region. It is shown that annealing near the glass transition temperature leads to bleaching of As-S glasses, while γ-irradiation leads to darkening; both depend on the glass composition and thermal history of the specimens. These results are explained in terms of competitive destruction–polymerization transformations and physical aging occurring in As-S chalcogenide glasses under the influence of γ-irradiation.

  12. Discovery of variable VHE γ-ray emission from the binary system 1FGL J1018.6-5856

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H. E. S. S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadasch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Lui, R.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Arribas, M. Paz; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seyffert, A. S.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van der Walt, J.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Żywucka, N.

    2015-05-01

    Re-observations with the HESS telescope array of the very high-energy (VHE) source HESS J1018-589 A that is coincident with the Fermi-LAT γ-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6-5856 have resulted in a source detection significance of more than 9σ and the detection of variability (χ2/ν of 238.3/155) in the emitted γ-ray flux. This variability confirms the association of HESS J1018-589 A with the high-energy γ-ray binary detected by Fermi-LAT and also confirms the point-like source as a new VHE binary system. The spectrum of HESS J1018-589 A is best fit with a power-law function with photon index Γ = 2.20 ± 0.14stat ± 0.2sys. Emission is detected up to ~20 TeV. The mean differential flux level is (2.9 ± 0.4) × 10-13 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1 at 1 TeV, equivalent to ~1% of the flux from the Crab Nebula at the same energy. Variability is clearly detected in the night-by-night light curve. When folded on the orbital period of 16.58 days, the rebinned light curve peaks in phase with the observed X-ray and high-energy phaseograms. The fit of the HESS phaseogram to a constant flux provides evidence of periodicity at the level of Nσ> 3σ. The shape of the VHE phaseogram and measured spectrum suggest a low-inclination, low-eccentricity system with amodest impact from VHE γ-ray absorption due to pair production (τ ≲ 1 at 300 GeV).

  13. The triple system HIP 96515: a low-mass eclipsing binary with a DB white dwarf companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huélamo, N.; Vaz, L. P. R.; Torres, C. A. O.; Bergeron, P.; Melo, C. H. F.; Quast, G. R.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Sterzik, M. F.; Chauvin, G.; Bouy, H.; Landin, N. R.

    2009-09-01

    Context: HIP 96515 A is a double-lined spectroscopic binary included in the SACY catalog as a potential young star. It has a visual companion (CCDM 19371-5134 B, HIP 96515 B) at 8.6 arcsec. If bound to the primary, the optical and infrared colors of this wide companion are consistent with those of a white dwarf. Aims: We attempt to characterize the system HIP 96515 A&B by studying each of its components. Methods: We analyzed spectroscopic and photometric observations of HIP 96515 A and its visual companion, HIP 96515 B. To confirm the system as a common proper-motion pair, we analyzed the astrometry of the components using high-angular resolution infrared observations obtained within a time span of two years, and archival astrometry. Results: The high-resolution optical spectrum of HIP 96515 A was used to derive a mass ratio, M_2/M_1, close to 0.9. The optical lightcurve of HIP 96515 A shows periodic variations with P_orbital = 2.3456 days, revealing that HIP 96515 A is an eclipsing binary with preliminary orbital parameters of i = 89.0° ± 0.2°, and M1 = 0.59 ± 0.03 M⊙ and M2 = 0.54 ± 0.03 M⊙, for the primary and secondary, respectively, at an estimated distance of 42 ± 3 pc. This is a new eclipsing binary with component masses below 0.6 M⊙. Multi-epoch observations of HIP 96515 A&B show that the system is a common proper-motion pair. The optical spectrum of HIP 96515 B is consistent with a pure helium atmosphere (DB) white dwarf. The comparison with evolutionary cooling sequence models provides Teff,WD = 19 126 ± 195 K, log gWD = 8.08, MWD/M⊙ = 0.6, and a distance of ~46 pc. The estimated WD cooling age is ~100 Myr and the total age of the object (including the main-sequence phase) is ~400 Myr. Finally, if HIP 96515 A&B are coeval, and assuming a common age of ~400 Myr, the comparison of the masses of the eclipsing binary members with evolutionary tracks shows that they are underestimated by ~15% and 10%, for the primary and secondary, respectively

  14. Is the central binary system of the planetary nebula Henize 2-428 a type Ia supernova progenitor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berro, Enrique; Soker, Noam; Althaus, Leandro G.; Ribas, Ignasi; Morales, Juan C.

    2016-05-01

    We critically discuss the recent observations of the binary system at the center of the bipolar planetary nebula Henize 2-428. We find that the proposed explanation of two equal-mass degenerate objects with a total mass larger than the Chandrasekhar limiting mass that supposedly will merge in less than a Hubble time, possibly leading to a SN Ia, is controversial. This hypothesis relies on the assumption that the variability of the He II 5412 Å spectral line is due to two absorption components. Instead, we propose that it can be accounted for by a broad absorption line from the central system on top of which there is a narrow emission line from the nebula. This prompted us to study if the binary system can be made of a degenerate star and a low-mass main sequence companion, or of two degenerate objects of smaller mass. We find that although both scenarios can account for the existence of two symmetric broad minima in the light curve, the second one agrees better with observations. We thus argue that the claim that Henize 2-428 provides observational evidence supporting the double-degenerate scenario for SN Ia is premature.

  15. Binary and Ternary Catalytic Systems for Olefin Metathesis Based on MoCl5/SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Victor I.; Belyaev, Boris A.; Butenko, Tamara A.; Finkelshtein, Eugene Sh.

    Kinetics of α-olefin metathesis in the presence of binary (MoCl5/ SiO2-Me4Sn) and ternary catalytic systems (MoCl5/SiO2-Me4Sn-ECl4, E = Si or Ge) was studied. Specifically, kinetics and reactivity of 1-decene, 1-octene, and 1-hexene in the metathesis reaction at 27°C and 50°C in the presence of MoCl5/ SiO2-SnMe4 were examined and evaluated in detail. It was shown that experimental data comply well with the simple kinetic equation for the rate of formation of symmetrical olefins with allowance for the reverse reaction and catalyst deactivation: r = left( {k_1 \\cdot c_α - k_{ - 1} \\cdot c_s } right) \\cdot e^{ - k_d \\cdot tilde n_{tot} } . The coefficients for this equation were determined, and it was shown that these α-olefins had practically the same reactivity. It was found that reactivation in the course of metathesis took place due to the addition of a third component (silicon tetrachloride or germanium tetrachloride in combination with tetramethyltin) to a partially deactivated catalyst. The number of active centers was determined (5-6% of the amount of Mo) and the mechanisms of formation, deactivation, and reactivation were proposed for the binary and ternary catalytic systems. The role of individual components of the catalytic systems was revealed.

  16. Optimal Performance of a Nonlinear Gantry Crane System via Priority-based Fitness Scheme in Binary PSO Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzuan Jaafar, Hazriq; Mohd Ali, Nursabillilah; Mohamed, Z.; Asmiza Selamat, Nur; Faiz Zainal Abidin, Amar; Jamian, J. J.; Kassim, Anuar Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents development of an optimal PID and PD controllers for controlling the nonlinear gantry crane system. The proposed Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) algorithm that uses Priority-based Fitness Scheme is adopted in obtaining five optimal controller gains. The optimal gains are tested on a control structure that combines PID and PD controllers to examine system responses including trolley displacement and payload oscillation. The dynamic model of gantry crane system is derived using Lagrange equation. Simulation is conducted within Matlab environment to verify the performance of system in terms of settling time (Ts), steady state error (SSE) and overshoot (OS). This proposed technique demonstrates that implementation of Priority-based Fitness Scheme in BPSO is effective and able to move the trolley as fast as possible to the various desired position.

  17. HD 43246 and HD 127208 - Two unusual F-G + B binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Parsons, Sidney B.; Fekel, Francis C.

    1990-01-01

    New optical spectroscopic observations along with ultraviolet IUE observations have been obtained for the two interacting F or G III + B V binaries: HD 43246 and HD 127208. Photometric observations indicate random changes superimposed on regular ellipsoidal light variations, the latter probably the result of tidal distortion of the giant primaries. Mass transfer and loss is apparent in inverted mass ratios derived from orbital analysis, strong wind features present in the spectra, and the presence of circumsystem shells. Regular and irregular changes in the spectral features are discussed in this context.

  18. HD 43246 and HD 127208 - Two unusual F-G + B binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, R.C.; Bopp, B.W.; Parsons, S.B.; Fekel, F.C. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dyer Observatory, Nashville, TN )

    1990-03-01

    New optical spectroscopic observations along with ultraviolet IUE observations have been obtained for the two interacting F or G III + B V binaries: HD 43246 and HD 127208. Photometric observations indicate random changes superimposed on regular ellipsoidal light variations, the latter probably the result of tidal distortion of the giant primaries. Mass transfer and loss is apparent in inverted mass ratios derived from orbital analysis, strong wind features present in the spectra, and the presence of circumsystem shells. Regular and irregular changes in the spectral features are discussed in this context. 43 refs.

  19. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  20. HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.

    2013-09-01

    We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

  1. Comparison of adsorption and photo-Fenton processes for phenol and paracetamol removing from aqueous solutions: single and binary systems.

    PubMed

    Rad, Leila Roshanfekr; Haririan, Ismaeil; Divsar, Faten

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, adsorption and photo-Fenton processes have been compared for the removal of phenol and paracetamol from aqueous solutions in a single and binary systems. NaX nanozeolites and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were used during adsorption and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. Both nanoparticles were synthesized using microwave heating method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) analysis. Based on results, more than 99% removing percentages of phenol and paracetamol were obtained during photo-Fenton process at initial concentrations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 mg/L of phenol and paracetamol. Moreover, the complete removing of phenol and paracetamol was only achieved at lower initial concentrations than 10 mg/L for phenol and paracetamol during adsorption process. The results showed a significant dependence of the phenol and paracetamol removing on the initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol for selection of process. The photo-Fenton process could be considered an alternative method in higher initial concentrations of phenol and paracetamol. However, the adsorption process due to economical issue was preferred for phenol and paracetamol removing at lower initial concentrations. The kinetic data of photo-Fenton and adsorption processes were well described using first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The results of phenol and paracetamol removing in a binary system confirmed the obtained results of single removing of phenol and paracetamol in selection of process.

  2. GAMMA-RAY SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR WIND IN THE BINARY PULSAR SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    SciTech Connect

    Khangulyan, Dmitry; Bogovalov, Sergey V.; Ribo, Marc E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es

    2011-12-01

    Binary pulsar systems emit potentially detectable components of gamma-ray emission due to Comptonization of the optical radiation of the companion star by relativistic electrons of the pulsar wind, both before and after termination of the wind. The recent optical observations of binary pulsar system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 revealed radiation properties of the companion star which differ significantly from previous measurements. In this paper, we study the implications of these observations for the interaction rate of the unshocked pulsar wind with the stellar photons and the related consequences for fluxes of high energy and very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. We show that the signal should be strong enough to be detected with Fermi close to the periastron passage, unless the pulsar wind is strongly anisotropic or the Lorentz factor of the wind is smaller than 10{sup 3} or larger than 10{sup 5}. The higher luminosity of the optical star also has two important implications: (1) attenuation of gamma rays due to photon-photon pair production and (2) Compton drag of the unshocked wind. While the first effect has an impact on the light curve of VHE gamma rays, the second effect may significantly decrease the energy available for particle acceleration after termination of the wind.

  3. Deep, Low Mass Ratio Overcontact Binary Systems. XIII. DZ Piscium with Intrinsic Light Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Zhang, L.-Y.; Dai, H.-F.; Soonthornthum, B.

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7(± 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC2 in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P mod = 11.89(± 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064(± 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43(+/- 0.17)\\times 10^{-7}{\\,days\\, yr^{-1}}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J spin/J orb > 1/3.

  4. Development of Cryocooled Binary Current Lead in Low Temperature Superconducting Magnet System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Kim, D. L.; Yang, H. S.

    2010-04-01

    The binary current lead cooled by a two-stage cryocooler for an NbTi superconducting magnet was designed, fabricated and tested. A binary current lead comprises a resistive element, conducting the current from a room temperature to an intermediate temperature, and an HTS element, conducting the current down to a liquid helium temperature. The temperatures at the joints between resistive and HTS element as well as HTS element and NbTi coil were measured during cool-down process and in the steady state. Thermal loads at each stage were derived from the measured temperatures and cooling capacity curve of a cryocooler. Since a commercial HTS lead was bolt-jointed to the resistive element and NbTi coil at both ends, contact resistance was unavoidable. When the magnet was charged, the temperature at each joint increased with supplied current depending on the amount of heat generation resulting from the contact resistance. The critical current was observed in our lead due to heat generation, and temperature rising decreased after modifying the shape of joint between HTS element and NbTi coil. The current leads supplied 194 A to generate central magnetic field of 3 T and performed reliably over two weeks.

  5. The electrical conductivity of binary disordered systems, percolation clusters, fractals and related models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerc, J. P.; Giraud, G.; Laugier, J. M.; Luck, J. M.

    1990-05-01

    We review theoretical and experimental studies of the AC dielectric response of inhomogeneous materials, modelled as bond percolation networks, with a binary (conductor-dielectric) distribution of bond conductances. We first summarize the key results of percolation theory, concerning mostly geometrical and static (DC) transport properties, with emphasis on the scaling properties of the critical region around the percolation threshold. The frequency-dependent (AC) response of a general binary model is then studied by means of various approaches, including the effective-medium approximation, a scaling theory of the critical region, numerical computations using the transfer-matrix algorithm, and several exactly solvable deterministic fractal models. Transient regimes, related to singularities in the complex-frequency plane, are also investigated. Theoretical predictions are made more explicit in two specific cases, namely R-C and RL-C networks, and compared with a broad variety of experimental results, concerning, for example, granular composites, thin films, powders, microemulsions, cermets, porous ceramics and the viscoelastic properties of gels.

  6. PLANET FORMATION IN HIGHLY INCLINED BINARY SYSTEMS. I. PLANETESIMALS JUMP INWARD AND PILE UP

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Jiwei; Zhou Jilin; Payne, Matthew J.; Ge Jian; Thebault, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Most detected planet-bearing binaries are in wide orbits, for which a high inclination, i{sub B} , between the binary orbital plane and the plane of the planetary disk around the primary is likely to be common. In this paper, we investigate the intermediate stages-from planetesimals to planetary embryos/cores-of planet formation in such highly inclined cases. Our focus is on the effects of gas drag on the planetesimals' orbital evolution, in particular on the evolution of the planetesimals' semimajor axis distribution and their mutual relative velocities. We first demonstrate that a non-evolving axisymmetric disk model is a good approximation for studying the effects of gas drag on a planetesimal in the highly inclined case (30 deg. < i{sub B} < 150 deg.). We then find that gas drag plays a crucial role, and the results can be generally divided into two categories, i.e., the Kozai-on regime and the Kozai-off regime, depending on the specific value of i{sub B} . For both regimes, a robust outcome over a wide range of parameters is that planetesimals migrate/jump inward and pile up, leading to a severely truncated and dense planetesimal disk around the primary. In this compact and dense disk, collision rates are high but relative velocities are low, providing conditions that are favorable for planetesimal growth and potentially allow for the subsequent formation of planets.

  7. Unmodeled search for black hole binary systems in the NINJA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, Laura; Chatterji, Shourov; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Sturani, Riccardo; Viceré, Andrea

    2009-10-01

    The gravitational-wave signature from binary black hole coalescences is an important target for ground-based interferometric detectors such as LIGO and Virgo. The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project brought together the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities, with the goal to optimize the detectability of these events. In its first instantiation, the NINJA project produced a simulated data set with numerical waveforms from binary black hole coalescences of various morphologies (spin, mass ratio, initial conditions), superimposed to Gaussian colored noise at the design sensitivity for initial LIGO and Virgo. We analyzed the NINJA simulated data set with the Q-pipeline algorithm, designed for the all-sky detection of gravitational-wave bursts with minimal assumptions on the shape of the waveform. The algorithm filters the data with a bank of sine-Gaussians, sinusoids with Gaussian envelope, to identify significant excess power in the time-frequency domain. We compared the performance of this burst search algorithm with lalapps_ring, which match-filters data with a bank of ring-down templates to specifically target the final stage of a coalescence of black holes. A comparison of the output of the two algorithms on NINJA data in a single detector analysis yielded qualitatively consistent results; however, due to the low simulation statistics in the first NINJA project, it is premature to draw quantitative conclusions at this stage, and further studies with higher statistics and real detector noise will be needed.

  8. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  9. X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE DOUBLE-BINARY OB-STAR SYSTEM QZ CAR (HD 93206)

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, E. R.; Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Broos, P. S.; Townsley, L. K.; Pittard, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Waldron, W. L.

    2011-05-01

    X-ray observations of the double-binary OB-star system QZ Car (HD 93206) obtained with the Chandra X-ray Observatory over a period of roughly 2 years are presented. The respective orbits of systems A (O9.7 I+b2 v, P{sub A} = 21 days) and B (O8 III+o9 v, P{sub B} = 6 days) are reasonably well sampled by the observations, allowing the origin of the X-ray emission to be examined in detail. The X-ray spectra can be well fitted by an attenuated three-temperature thermal plasma model, characterized by cool, moderate, and hot plasma components at kT {approx_equal} 0.2, 0.7, and 2 keV, respectively, and a circumstellar absorption of {approx_equal}0.2 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. Although the hot plasma component could be indicating the presence of wind-wind collision shocks in the system, the model fluxes calculated from spectral fits, with an average value of {approx_equal}7 x 10{sup -13} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, do not show a clear correlation with the orbits of the two constituent binaries. A semi-analytical model of QZ Car reveals that a stable momentum balance may not be established in either system A or B. Yet, despite this, system B is expected to produce an observed X-ray flux well in excess of the observations. If one considers the wind of the O8 III star to be disrupted by mass transfer, the model and observations are in far better agreement, which lends support to the previous suggestion of mass transfer in the O8 III + o9 v binary. We conclude that the X-ray emission from QZ Car can be reasonably well accounted for by a combination of contributions mainly from the single stars and the mutual wind-wind collision between systems A and B.

  10. Single crystal studies of binary compounds Ta/Ga - A system with experimental and crystallographic peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Agbelenko; Ade, Martin; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We report on single crystal growth and characterisation of binary intermetallics TaxGay. Single crystals were obtained from mixtures of the elements which were handled under various conditions. Several new compounds were identified. The highest Ga-content is found for the new binary phases Ta6Ga31 and Ta8Ga41. Both compounds evolve as intergrown crystals. Ta8Ga41 belongs to the V8Ga41 type (R 3 bar , Z=3, a=14.311 Å, c=15.344 Å), Ta6Ga31 to the triclinic Mo6Ga31-type (P 1 bar , Z=2, a=9.697 Å, b=9.698 Å, c=14.879 Å, α=87.18°, β=80.83°, γ=85.18°). TaGa3 bases on the tetragonal TiAl3-type (I4/mmm, Z=2, a=3.769 Å, c=8.718 Å) but shows stacking faults leading to an increased Ta content Ta1+xGa3-x. This interpretation is supported by the structure model of an orthorhombic superstructure with an idealized composition Ta2Ga5 (Cmcm, Z=4, a=3.769, b=31.37, c=3.770 Å). Ta2-xGa5+x (x≈0.38) is a representative of the Mn2Hg5-type (P4/mbm, Z=2, a=9.3213(13), c=2.7572(6) Å). Ta4Ga5 represents a new compound with a novel crystal structure (P4/mbm, Z=16, a=11.793(2), c=16.967(3) Å). The complex structure contains polyhedra with coordination numbers between 11 and 14. Ta3Ga2 (P42/mnm, Z=2, a=6.8382(4), c=3.4963(2) Å) belongs to the U3Si2 type. For the composition Ta5Ga3 three different structure types were confirmed but with some differences. The tetragonal W5Si3 type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=10.2199(7), c=5.1121(4) Å) is a stoichiometric binary compound, the hexagonal Mn5Si3-type (P63/mcm, Z=2, a=7.7023(4), c=5.3062(3) Å) contains a small amount of oxygen (Ta5Ga3O0.4) and in the tetragonal Cr5B3-type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=6.5986(9), c=11.931(2)Å) one of the Ga-sites shows a significant underoccupation of 40% ("Ta2.2Ga"). Compositions were confirmed by EDX measurements.

  11. Directed searches for continuous gravitational waves from binary systems: Parameter-space metrics and optimal Scorpius X-1 sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaci, Paola; Prix, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    We derive simple analytic expressions for the (coherent and semicoherent) phase metrics of continuous-wave sources in low-eccentricity binary systems for the two regimes of long and short segments compared to the orbital period. The resulting expressions correct and extend previous results found in the literature. We present results of extensive Monte Carlo studies comparing metric mismatch predictions against the measured loss of detection statistics for binary parameter offsets. The agreement is generally found to be within ˜10 %- 30 % . For an application of the metric template expressions, we estimate the optimal achievable sensitivity of an Einstein@Home directed search for Scorpius X-1, under the assumption of sufficiently small spin wandering. We find that such a search, using data from the upcoming advanced detectors, would be able to beat the torque-balance level [R. V. Wagoner, Astrophys. J. 278, 345 (1984); L. Bildsten, Astrophys. J. 501, L89 (1998).] up to a frequency of ˜500 - 600 Hz , if orbital eccentricity is well constrained, and up to a frequency of ˜160 - 200 Hz for more conservative assumptions about the uncertainty on orbital eccentricity.

  12. Tuning into Scorpius X-1: adapting a continuous gravitational-wave search for a known binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadors, Grant David; Goetz, Evan; Riles, Keith

    2016-05-01

    We describe how the TwoSpect data analysis method for continuous gravitational waves (GWs) has been tuned for directed sources such as the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1). A comparison of five search algorithms generated simulations of the orbital and GW parameters of Sco X-1. Whereas that comparison focused on relative performance, here the simulations help quantify the sensitivity enhancement and parameter estimation abilities of this directed method, derived from an all-sky search for unknown sources, using doubly Fourier-transformed data. Sensitivity is shown to be enhanced when the source sky location and period are known, because we can run a fully templated search, bypassing the all-sky hierarchical stage using an incoherent harmonic sum. The GW strain and frequency, as well as the projected semi-major axis of the binary system, are recovered and uncertainty estimated, for simulated signals that are detected. Upper limits for GW strain are set for undetected signals. Applications to future GW observatory data are discussed. Robust against spin-wandering and computationally tractable despite an unknown frequency, this directed search is an important new tool for finding gravitational signals from LMXBs.

  13. Hot subdwarfs in detached binary systems and thick-disk cataclysmic vari