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Sample records for ru3oac6 py2 dicnpy

  1. Mercury Reduction and Methyl Mercury Degradation by the Soil Bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2

    PubMed Central

    Petrus, Amanda K.; Rutner, Colin; Liu, Songnian; Wang, Yingjiao

    2015-01-01

    Two previously uncharacterized potential broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance operons (mer) are present on the chromosome of the soil Alphaproteobacteria Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. These operons, mer1 and mer2, contain two features which are commonly found in mer operons in the genomes of soil and marine Alphaproteobacteria, but are not present in previously characterized mer operons: a gene for the mercuric reductase (MerA) that encodes an alkylmercury lyase domain typical of those found on the MerB protein, and the presence of an additional gene, which we are calling merK, with homology to glutathione reductase. Here, we demonstrate that Py2 is resistant to 0.2 μM inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and 0.05 μM methylmercury (MeHg). Py2 is capable of converting MeHg and Hg(II) to elemental mercury [Hg(0)], and reduction of Hg(II) is induced by incubation in sub toxic concentrations of Hg(II). Transcription of the merA genes increased with Hg(II) treatment, and in both operons merK resides on the same polycistronic mRNA as merA. We propose the use of Py2 as a model system for studying the contribution of mer to Hg mobility in soil and marine ecosystems. PMID:26341208

  2. Aliphatic and chlorinated alkenes and epoxides as inducers of alkene monooxygenase and epoxidase activities in Xanthobacter strain Py2

    SciTech Connect

    Ensign, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Xanthobacter strain Py2 is one of a number of bacteria capable of aerobic growth using aliphatic alkenes as the sole carbon and energy source. The oxidation of alkenes in initiated by an alkene monooxygenase which catalyzes the CO{sub 2} and reductant-dependent oxidation of the alkenes to their corresponding epoxides. In this study, the induction of the alkene-oxidizing enzymes of Xantheobacter strain Py2 by the physiological substrates propylene and proplyene oxide is characterized. A variety of aliphatic and chlorinated alkenes and epoxides are shown to serve as effective inducers of the system. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions.

  4. Dinuclear cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes with a Py2N4S2 macrocyclic ligand.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Lezama, Luis; Macías, Alejandro; Pérez-Lourido, Paulo; Valencia, Laura

    2011-06-20

    The interaction between Co(II) and Cu(II) ions with a Py(2)N(4)S(2)-coordinating octadentate macrocyclic ligand (L) to afford dinuclear compounds has been investigated. The complexes were characterized by microanalysis, conductivity measurements, IR spectroscopy and liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry. The crystal structure of the compounds [H(4)L](NO(3))(4), [Cu(2)LCl(2)](NO(3))(2) (5), [Cu(2)L(NO(3))(2)](NO(3))(2) (6), and [Cu(2)L(μ-OH)](ClO(4))(3)·H(2)O (7) was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The [H(4)L](4+) cation crystal structure presents two different conformations, planar and step, with intermolecular face-to-face π,π-stacking interactions between the pyridinic rings. Complexes 5 and 6 show the metal ions in a slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. In the case of complex 7, the crystal structure presents the two metal ions joined by a μ-hydroxo bridge and the Cu(II) centers in a slightly distorted square plane or a tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry, taking into account weak interactions in axial positions. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy is in accordance with the dinuclear nature of the complexes, with an octahedral environment for the cobalt(II) compounds and square-pyramidal or tetragonally elongated octahedral geometries for the copper(II) compounds. The magnetic behavior is consistent with the existence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the ions for cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes, while for the Co(II) ones, this behavior could also be explained by spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Comprehensive Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2], a Pt(IV) Diazido Anticancer Prodrug Candidate

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed study of a promising photoactivatable metal-based anticancer prodrug candidate, trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2] (C1; py = pyridine), using vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), Raman, and synchrotron radiation far-IR (SR-FIR) spectroscopies were applied to obtain highly resolved ligand and Pt-ligand vibrations for C1 and its precursors (trans-[Pt(N3)2(py)2] (C2) and trans-[PtCl2(py)2] (C3)). Distinct IR- and Raman-active vibrational modes were assigned with the aid of density functional theory calculations, and trends in the frequency shifts as a function of changing Pt coordination environment were determined and detailed for the first time. The data provide the ligand and Pt-ligand (azide, hydroxide, pyridine) vibrational signatures for C1 in the mid- and far-IR region, which will provide a basis for the better understanding of the interaction of C1 with biomolecules. PMID:27257848

  6. Comprehensive Vibrational Spectroscopic Investigation of trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2], a Pt(IV) Diazido Anticancer Prodrug Candidate.

    PubMed

    Vernooij, Robbin R; Joshi, Tanmaya; Shaili, Evyenia; Kubeil, Manja; Appadoo, Dominique R T; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I; Graham, Bim; Sadler, Peter J; Wood, Bayden R; Spiccia, Leone

    2016-06-20

    We report a detailed study of a promising photoactivatable metal-based anticancer prodrug candidate, trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2] (C1; py = pyridine), using vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), Raman, and synchrotron radiation far-IR (SR-FIR) spectroscopies were applied to obtain highly resolved ligand and Pt-ligand vibrations for C1 and its precursors (trans-[Pt(N3)2(py)2] (C2) and trans-[PtCl2(py)2] (C3)). Distinct IR- and Raman-active vibrational modes were assigned with the aid of density functional theory calculations, and trends in the frequency shifts as a function of changing Pt coordination environment were determined and detailed for the first time. The data provide the ligand and Pt-ligand (azide, hydroxide, pyridine) vibrational signatures for C1 in the mid- and far-IR region, which will provide a basis for the better understanding of the interaction of C1 with biomolecules.

  7. Involvement of an ATP-dependent carboxylase in a CO2-dependent pathway of acetone metabolism by Xanthobacter strain Py2.

    PubMed Central

    Sluis, M K; Small, F J; Allen, J R; Ensign, S A

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism of acetone by the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2 was investigated. Cell suspensions of Xanthobacter strain Py2 grown with propylene or glucose as carbon sources were unable to metabolize acetone. The addition of acetone to cultures grown with propylene or glucose resulted in a time-dependent increase in acetone-degrading activity. The degradation of acetone by these cultures was prevented by the addition of rifampin and chloramphenicol, demonstrating that new protein synthesis was required for the induction of acetone-degrading activity. In vivo and in vitro studies of acetone-grown Xanthobacter strain Py2 revealed a CO2-dependent pathway of acetone metabolism for this bacterium. The depletion of CO2 from cultures grown with acetone, but not glucose or n-propanol, prevented bacterial growth. The degradation of acetone by whole-cell suspensions of acetone-grown cells was stimulated by the addition of CO2 and was prevented by the depletion of CO2. The degradation of acetone by acetone-grown cell suspensions supported the fixation of 14CO2 into acid-stable products, while the degradation of glucose or beta-hydroxybutyrate did not. Cultures grown with acetone in a nitrogen-deficient medium supplemented with NaH13CO3 specifically incorporated 13C-label into the C-1 (major labeled position) and C-3 (minor labeled position) carbon atoms of the endogenous storage compound poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. Cell extracts prepared from acetone-grown cells catalyzed the CO2- and ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetone to form acetoacetate as a stoichiometric product. ADP or AMP were incapable of supporting acetone carboxylation in cell extracts. The sustained carboxylation of acetone in cell extracts required the addition of an ATP-regenerating system consisting of phosphocreatine and creatine kinase, suggesting that the carboxylation of acetone is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Together, these studies provide the first demonstration of a CO2-dependent pathway of

  8. The alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 is closely related to aromatic monooxygenases and catalyzes aromatic monohydroxylation of benzene, toluene, and phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, N.Y.; Jenkins, A.; Chan Kwo Chion, C.K.N.; Leak, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    The genes encoding the six polypeptide components of the alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 (Xamo) have been located on a 4.9-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA previously cloned in cosmid pNY2. Sequencing and analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences indicate that the components of Xamo are homologous to those of the aromatic monooxygenases, toluene 2-, 3-, and 4-monooxygenase and benzene monooxygenase, and that the gene order is identical. The genes and predicted polypeptides are aamA, encoding the 497-residue oxygenase {alpha}-subunit (XamoA); aamB, encoding the 88-residue oxygenase {gamma}-subunit (XamoB); aamC, encoding the 122-residue ferredoxin (XamoC); aamD, encoding the 101-residue coupling or effector protein (XamoD); aamE, encoding the 341-residue oxygenase {beta}-subunit (XamoE); and aamF, encoding the 327-residue reductase (XamoF). A sequence with > 60% concurrence with the consensus sequence of {sigma}{sup 5.4} (RpoN)-dependent promoters was identified upstream of the aamA gene. Detailed comparison of XamoA with the oxygenase {alpha}-subunits from aromatic monooxygenases, phenol hydroxylases, methane monooxygenase, and the alkene monooxygenase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous B276 showed that, despite the overall similarity to the aromatic monooxygenases, XamoA has some distinctive characteristics of the oxygenases which oxidize aliphatic, and particularly alkene, substrates. On the basis of the similarity between Xamo and the aromatic monooxygenases, Xanthobacter strain Py2 was tested and shown to oxidize benzene, toluene, and phenol, while the alkene monooxygenase-negative mutants NZ1 and NZ2 did not.

  9. Cap for copper(I) ions! Metallosupramolecular solid and solution state structures on the basis of the dynamic tetrahedral [Cu(phenAr2)(py)2]+ motif.

    PubMed

    Schmittel, Michael; He, Bice; Fan, Jian; Bats, Jan W; Engeser, Marianne; Schlosser, Marc; Deiseroth, Hans-Jörg

    2009-09-07

    The tetrahedral [Cu(phenAr(2))(py)(2)](+) coordination motif (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; py = pyridine) conceived on the basis of the HETPYP concept (heteroleptic pyridyl and phenanthroline metal complexes) is a versatile dynamic unit for constructing various heteroleptic metallosupramolecular pseudo-1D, 2D, and 3D structures, both in solution and the solid state. The 2,9-diaryl substituted phenanthroline (phenAr(2)) serves as a capping ligand for copper(I) ions, as its bulky nature prevents formation of the homoleptic complex [Cu(phenAr(2))(2)](+). Combination of the dynamic and concave metal ligand building block [Cu(phenAr(2))](+) with various pyridine (py) ligands, such as bi-, tri-, and tetra-pyridines, opened the way to infinite 1D helicates, 2D networks, and discrete 3D hexanuclear cages, whereas spatial integration of both phenAr(2) and py units into a single ligand resulted in the formation of a Borromean-ring-type hexanuclear cage.

  10. Oxygen binding and activation by the complexes of PY2- and TPA-appended diphenylglycoluril receptors with copper and other metals.

    PubMed

    Sprakel, Vera S I; Feiters, Martin C; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Klopstra, Marten; Brinksma, Jelle; Feringa, Ben L; Karlin, Kenneth D; Nolte, Roeland J M

    2005-11-07

    The copper(I) complexes of diphenylglycoluril basket receptors and , appended with bis(2-ethylpyridine)amine (PY2) and tris(2-methylpyridine)amine (TPA), respectively, and their dioxygen adducts were studied with low-temperature UV-vis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The copper(I) complex of, [.Cu(I)2] or, forms a micro-eta2:eta2 dioxygen complex, whereas the copper(I) complex of, [.Cu(I)2] or, does not form a well defined dioxygen complex, but is oxidized to Cu(II). Dioxygen is bound irreversibly to and the formed complex is stable over time. The coordination geometries of the above complexes were determined by XAS, which revealed that pyridyl groups and amine N-donors participate in the coordination to Cu(I) ions in the complexes of both receptors. The catalytic activities of various metal complexes of and , that were designed as mimics of dinuclear copper enzymes that can activate dioxygen, were investigated. Phenolic substrates that were expected to undergo aromatic hydroxylation, showed oxidative polymerization without insertion of oxygen. The mechanism of this polymerization turns out to be a radical coupling reaction as was established by experiments with the model substrate 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. In addition to Cu(II), the Mn(III) complex of and the Fe(II) complex of were tested as oxidation catalysts. Oxidation of catechol was observed for the Cu(II) complex of receptor but the other metal complexes did not lead to oxidation.

  11. Anisotropic magnetic interactions and spin dynamics in the spin-chain compound Cu (py) 2Br2 : An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeisner, J.; Brockmann, M.; Zimmermann, S.; Weiße, A.; Thede, M.; Ressouche, E.; Povarov, K. Yu.; Zheludev, A.; Klümper, A.; Büchner, B.; Kataev, V.; Göhmann, F.

    2017-07-01

    We compare theoretical results for electron spin resonance (ESR) properties of the Heisenberg-Ising Hamiltonian with ESR experiments on the quasi-one-dimensional magnet Cu (py) 2Br2 (CPB). Our measurements were performed over a wide frequency and temperature range giving insight into the spin dynamics, spin structure, and magnetic anisotropy of this compound. By analyzing the angular dependence of ESR parameters (resonance shift and linewidth) at room temperature, we show that the two weakly coupled inequivalent spin-chain types inside the compound are well described by Heisenberg-Ising chains with their magnetic anisotropy axes perpendicular to the chain direction and almost perpendicular to each other. We further determine the full g tensor from these data. In addition, the angular dependence of the linewidth at high temperatures gives us access to the exponent of the algebraic decay of a dynamical correlation function of the isotropic Heisenberg chain. From the temperature dependence of static susceptibilities, we extract the strength of the exchange coupling (J /kB=52.0 K ) and the anisotropy parameter (δ ≈-0.02 ) of the model Hamiltonian. An independent compatible value of δ is obtained by comparing the exact prediction for the resonance shift at low temperatures with high-frequency ESR data recorded at 4 K . The spin structure in the ordered state implied by the two (almost) perpendicular anisotropy axes is in accordance with the propagation vector determined from neutron scattering experiments. In addition to undoped samples, we study the impact of partial substitution of Br by Cl ions on spin dynamics. From the dependence of the ESR linewidth on the doping level, we infer an effective decoupling of the anisotropic component J δ from the isotropic exchange J in these systems.

  12. Synthesis, Single Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of 3-D Cu(NITpPy)2[Cu(CN)3].2CH3OH.2H2O Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasna, I. W.; Golhen, S.; Ouahab, L.; Subakti

    2017-05-01

    A new Cu(II) complexes containing nitroxide radicals Cu(NITpPy)2[Cu(CN)3]. 2CH3OH.2H2O has been successfully synthesized. The single crystal X-ray analysis revealed that the compound belongs to monoclinic crystal system (C2/c (#15)). The existence of the C≡N radical and water molecules are observed by using infra-red within the range of 4000-500 cm-1 and 3500-3000 cm-1, respectively. The Cu(NITpPy)2 2+ units are connected through N(CN)2- bridging ligands in 2 coordination developing, respectively, into one-dimensional and two-dimensional polymeric networks. Paramagnetic interactions in the compound appear in the vicinity of room temperature. As the temperature decreased, low dimensional antiferromagnetic interactions established and Cu(II)-radicals antiferromagnetic interactions dominates down to 2 K with μeff = 0.8129 μB

  13. Biochemical, Molecular, and Genetic Analyses of the Acetone Carboxylases from Xanthobacter autotrophicus Strain Py2 and Rhodobacter capsulatus Strain B10

    PubMed Central

    Sluis, Miriam K.; Larsen, Rachel A.; Krum, Jonathan G.; Anderson, Ruth; Metcalf, William W.; Ensign, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Acetone carboxylase is the key enzyme of bacterial acetone metabolism, catalyzing the condensation of acetone and CO2 to form acetoacetate. In this study, the acetone carboxylase of the purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus was purified to homogeneity and compared to that of Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2, the only other organism from which an acetone carboxylase has been purified. The biochemical properties of the enzymes were virtually indistinguishable, with identical subunit compositions (α2β2γ2 multimers of 85-, 78-, and 20-kDa subunits), reaction stoichiometries (CH3COCH3 + CO2 + ATP→CH3COCH2COO− + H+ + AMP + 2Pi), and kinetic properties (Km for acetone, 8 μM; kcat = 45 min−1). Both enzymes were expressed to high levels (17 to 25% of soluble protein) in cells grown with acetone as the carbon source but were not present at detectable levels in cells grown with other carbon sources. The genes encoding the acetone carboxylase subunits were identified by transposon mutagenesis of X. autotrophicus and sequence analysis of the R. capsulatus genome and were found to be clustered in similar operons consisting of the genes acxA (β subunit), acxB (α subunit), and acxC (γ subunit). Transposon mutagenesis of X. autotrophicus revealed a requirement of σ54 and a σ54-dependent transcriptional activator (AcxR) for acetone-dependent growth and acetone carboxylase gene expression. A potential σ54-dependent promoter 122 bp upstream of X. autotrophicus acxABC was identified. An AcxR gene homolog was identified 127 bp upstream of acxA in R. capsulatus, but this activator lacked key features of σ54-dependent activators, and the associated acxABC lacked an apparent σ54-dependent promoter, suggesting that σ54 is not required for expression of acxABC in R. capsulatus. These studies reveal a conserved strategy of ATP-dependent acetone carboxylation and the involvement of transcriptional enhancers in acetone carboxylase gene

  14. Thermal- and light-induced spin crossover in novel 2D Fe(II) metalorganic frameworks {Fe(4-PhPy)(2)[M(II)(CN)(x)](y)}.sH(2)O: spectroscopic, structural, and magnetic studies.

    PubMed

    Seredyuk, M; Gaspar, A B; Ksenofontov, V; Verdaguer, M; Villain, F; Gütlich, P

    2009-07-06

    Five novel two-dimensional coordination polymers {Fe(4PhPy)(2)[M(II)(CN)(4)]}.sH(2)O (4PhyPy = 4-phenylpyridine; 1: M(II) = Pd, s = 0; 2: M(II) = Ni, s = 0; 3: M(II) = Pt, s = 1) and {Fe(4PhPy)(2)[M(I)(CN)(2)](2)}.sH(2)O (4: M(I) = Ag, s = 1; 5: M(I) = Au, s = 0.5) exhibiting spin-crossover properties have been synthesized. They were characterized at various temperatures using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The occurrence of a cooperative thermal spin transition detected by the magnetic method is located at critical temperatures T(c)( downward arrow)/T(c)( upward arrow) = 163 K/203 K (1), 135 K/158 K (2), and 172 K/221 K (3), and a less cooperative one is located at T(c) = 188 K (4) and 225 K (5). Compounds 1-5 show an abrupt color change from yellow (high-spin (HS) state) to red (low-spin (LS) state) upon spin-state conversion. The dehydration of the compounds changes the type of the spin transition, making it more abrupt and shifting the critical temperature to higher temperatures. For 1 and 2, XAS provides local structural information on the contraction of the FeN(6) coordination sphere upon the HS-to-LS transition, in line with the magnetic results. Variable-temperature characterization of 1 by X-ray diffraction evidences the very abrupt phase transition with a large hysteresis. A light-induced spin conversion (LIESST effect) is detected by magnetic measurements in 1-5 below 70 K.

  15. Speciation study of the anti-inflammatory drug tenoxicam (Htenox) with Cu(II): X-ray crystal structure of [Cu(tenox)(2)(py)(2)].EtOH.

    PubMed

    Moya-Hernández, M R; Mederos, A; Domínguez, S; Orlandini, A; Ghilardi, C A; Cecconi, F; González-Vergara, E; Rojas-Hernández, A

    2003-06-01

    A speciation study was carried out in aqueous solution of the anti-inflammatory drug tenoxicam (Htenox), under quasi-physiological conditions (temperature of 37 degrees C and ionic strength 0.15 M NaCl) in order to determine the acidity constants from spectrophotometric studies, the pK(a) values found being pK(1)=1.143+/-0.008 and pK(2)=4.970+/-0.004. Subsequently, the spectrophotometrical speciation of the different complexes of Cu(II) with the drug was performed under the same conditions of temperature and ionic strength, observing the formation of Cu(Htenox)(2)(2+) with log beta(212)=20.05+/-0.01, Cu(tenox)(2) with log beta(012)=13.6+/-0.1, Cu(Htenox)(2+) with log beta(111)=10.52+/-0.08, as well as Cu(tenox)(+) with log beta(011)=7.0+/-0.2, all of them in solution, and solid species Cu(tenox)(2)(s) with an estimated value of log beta(012)(s) approximately 18.7. The crystalline structure of the complex [Cu(tenox)(2)(py)(2)]. EtOH, was also determined, and it was observed that tenoxicam employs the oxygen of the amide group and the pyridyl nitrogen to bond to the cation.

  16. Two-step thermal spin transition and LIESST relaxation of the polymeric spin-crossover compounds Fe(X-py)2[Ag(CN)2]2 (X=H, 3-methyl, 4-methyl, 3,4-dimethyl, 3-Cl).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Carbonera, Chiara; Castro, Miguel; Palacios, Elías; Kitazawa, Takafumi; Létard, Jean-François; Burriel, Ramón

    2010-08-02

    In the series of polymeric spin-crossover compounds Fe(X-py)(2)[Ag(CN)(2))](2) (py=pyridine, X=H, 3-Cl, 3-methyl, 4-methyl, 3,4-dimethyl), magnetic and calorimetric measurements have revealed that the conversion from the high-spin (HS) to the low-spin (LS) state occurs by two-step transitions for three out of five members of the family (X=H, 4-methyl, and X=3,4-dimethyl). The two other compounds (X=3-Cl and 3-methyl) show respectively an incomplete spin transition and no transition at all, the latter remaining in the HS state in the whole temperature range. The spin-crossover behaviour of the compound undergoing two-step transitions is well described by a thermodynamic model that considers both steps. Calculations with this model show low cooperativity in this type of systems. Reflectivity and photomagnetic experiments reveal that all of the compounds except that with X=3-methyl undergo light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) at low temperatures. Isothermal HS-to-LS relaxation curves at different temperatures support the low-cooperativity character by following an exponential decay law, although in the thermally activated regime and for aX=H and X=3,4-dimethyl the behaviour is well described by a double exponential function in accordance with the two-step thermal spin transition. The thermodynamic parameters determined from this isothermal analysis were used for simulation of thermal relaxation curves, which nicely reproduce the experimental data.

  17. A study of solid [{l{underscore}brace}Cu(MePY2){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} using resonance Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopies: An intermediate Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2} core structure or a solid solution?

    SciTech Connect

    Pidcock, E.; DeBeer, S.; Obias, H.V.; Hedman, B.; Hodgson, K.O.; Karlin, K.D.; Solomon, E.I.

    1999-03-10

    Solid [{l{underscore}brace}Cu(MePY2){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} is spectroscopically characterized using resonance Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, for which the former technique probes the nature of the O-O bond and the latter defines the Cu-Cu interaction. In contrast to the crystal structure obtained for [{l{underscore}brace}Cu(MePY2){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, which shows an intermediate Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2} core (Cu-Cu = 3.4 {angstrom} and O-O = 1.6 {angstrom}), resonance Raman peaks characteristic of both a side-on peroxide-bridged dicopper(II) core and bis-{mu}-oxo dicopper(III) core are observed. The bis-{mu}-oxo isomer is estimated to be present at approximately 5--20%. A good fit is obtained for EXAFS data for solid [{l{underscore}brace}Cu(MePY2){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} using an 80:20 ratio of Cu-Cu separations of 3.6 {angstrom} (characteristic of a side-on peroxide-bridged copper core) and 2.8 {angstrom} (associated with a bis-{mu}-oxo dicopper core). Analysis of the edge region places an upper limit on the amount of bis-{mu}-oxo isomer present in the solid at 40%. The factors governing the presence of bis-{mu}-oxo and/or side-on peroxide cores in solution for differing ligand systems are considered, and the contribution of the bite angle of the equatorial nitrogen atom donors is explored. The reactivity of [{l{underscore}brace}Cu(MePY2){r{underscore}brace}{sub 2}O{sub 2}]{sup 2+} in solution is correlated with the presence of the bis-{mu}-oxo core, using frontier molecular orbital theory.

  18. Luminescent Copper(I) Halide Butterfly Dimers Coordinated to [Au(CH3imCH2py)2]BF4 and [Au(CH3imCH2quin)2]BF4

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, V.; Moore, A; Shearer, J; Kim, J

    2009-01-01

    The coordination chemistry of copper(I) halides to the homoleptic, N-heterocyclic carbene Au(I) complexes [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} and [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} was explored. The reaction of CuX (X = Cl, Br, I) with either [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} or [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} produces trimetallic complexes containing Cu{sub 2}X{sub 2}-butterfly copper clusters coordinated to the two imine moieties. The triangular arrangement of the metals places the gold(I) center in close proximity ({approx}2.5-2.6 {angstrom}) to the centroid of the Cu-Cu vector. The Cu-Cu separations vary as a function of bridging halide with the shortest Cu-Cu separations of {approx}2.5 {angstrom} found in the iodo-complexes and the longest separations of 2.9 {angstrom} found in the bridging chloride complexes. In all six complexes the Au-Cu separations range from {approx}2.8 to 3.0 {angstrom}. In the absence of halides, the dimetallic complex [AuCu(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}py){sub 2}(NCCH{sub 3}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, containing a long Au-Cu distance of {approx}4.72 {angstrom} is formed. Additionally, as the byproduct of the reaction of CuBr with [Au(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} the deep-red, dimetallic compound, AuCuBr{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}imCH{sub 2}quin){sub 2}, was isolated in very low yield. All of these complexes were studied by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and the copper containing species were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. In solution the copper centers dissociate from the gold complexes, but as shown by XANES and EXAFS spectroscopy, at low temperature the Cu-Cu linkage is broken, and the individual copper(I) halides reposition themselves to opposite sides of the gold complex while remaining coordinated to one imine moiety. In the solid state all of the complexes are photoluminescent, though the nature of the excited state was not determined.

  19. Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Silver(I) Complexes of Pyridine and (Benz)Imidazole Derivatives. X-ray Crystal Structure of [Ag(2,6-di(CH2OH)py)2]NO3.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska-Lis, Urszula; Felczak, Aleksandra; Chęcińska, Lilianna; Szabłowska-Gadomska, Ilona; Patyna, Emila; Małecki, Maciej; Lisowska, Katarzyna; Ochocki, Justyn

    2016-01-28

    Selected aspects of the biological activity of a series of six nitrate silver(I) complexes with pyridine and (benz)imidazole derivatives were investigated. The present study evaluated the antibacterial activities of the complexes against three Gram-negative strains: Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15442, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Proteus hauseri ATCC 13315. The results were compared with those of silver nitrate, a silver sulfadiazine drug and appropriate ligands. The most significant antibacterial properties were exerted by silver(I) complexes containing benzimidazole derivatives. The cytotoxic activity of the complexes was examined against B16 (murine melanoma) and 10T1/2 (murine fibroblasts) cells. All of the tested silver(I) compounds were not toxic to fibroblast cells in concentration inhibited cancer cell (B16) viability by 50%, which ranged between 2.44-28.65 µM. The molecular and crystal structure of silver(I) complex of 2,6-di(hydroxymethyl)pyridine was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The most important features of the crystal packing and intermolecular non-covalent interactions in the Ag(I) complex were quantified via Hirshfeld surface analysis.

  20. 78 FR 17997 - Actions Taken Pursuant to Executive Order 13382

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    .... FOREIGN TRADE BANK OF THE DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF KOREA (a.k.a. NORTH KOREA'S FOREIGN TRADE BANK), FTB Building, Jungsong-dong, Central District, Pyongyang, Korea, North; SWIFT/BIC FTBD KP PY . 2. PAEK...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of conjugated Dawson-type polyoxometalate-porphyrin copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Iban; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Farha, Rana; Goldmann, Michel; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xu, Hualong; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Lacôte, Emmanuel; Ruhlmann, Laurent

    2013-09-21

    Hybrid polyoxometalate-porphyrin copolymeric films were obtained by the electro-oxidation of zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) in the presence of a Dawson type polyoxophosphovanadotungstate bearing two pyridyl groups (POM(py)2). The synthesis of a series of POM(py)2 consisting of [P2W15V3O62](9-) functionalized with diol-amide or triol moieties, as well as the characterization of the copolymers are presented.

  2. An Effective Route to Dinuclear Niobium and Tantalum Imido Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Manuel; Hernández-Prieto, Cristina; Martín, Avelino; Mena, Miguel; Santamaría, Cristina

    2017-10-02

    Thermal treatment of the trichloro complexes [MCl3(NR)py2] (R = tBu, Xyl; M = Nb, Ta) (Xyl = 2,6-Me2C6H3) under vacuum affords the dinuclear imido species [MCl2(μ-Cl)(NR)py]2 (R = tBu, Xyl; M = Nb 1, 3; Ta 2, 4) with loss of pyridine. Complexes 1-4 can be easily transformed to the mononuclear starting materials [MCl3(NR)py2] (R = tBu, Xyl; M = Nb, Ta) upon reaction with pyridine. While reactions of compounds 1 and 2 with a series of alkylating reagents render the mononuclear peralkylated imido complexes [MR3(NtBu)] (R = Me, CH2Ph, CH2CMe3, CH2CMePh, CH2SiMe3), the analogous treatment with allylmagnesium chloride results in the formation of the dinuclear niobium(IV) derivative [(NtBu)(η(3)-C3H5)M(μ-C3H5)(μ-Cl)2M(NtBu)py2] (5). Additionally, the treatment of the starting materials 1 and 2 with the organosilicon reductant 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-1,4-diaza-2,5-cyclohexadiene yields the pyridyl-bridged dinuclear derivatives [M2Cl2(μ-Cl)2(NtBu)2py2]2(μ-NC4H4N)2 (M = Nb 6, Ta 7). Controlled hydrolysis reaction of 1 and 2 affords the oxo chlorido-bridged products [MCl(μ-Cl)(NtBu)py]2(μ-O) (M = Nb 8, Ta 9) in a quantitative way, while the treatment of these latter with one more equivalent of pyridine led to complexes [MCl2(NtBu)py2]2(μ-O) (M = Nb 10, Ta 11). Structural study of these dinuclear imido derivatives has been also performed by X-ray crystallography.

  3. Subtle role of polyatomic anions in molecular construction: structures and properties of AgX bearing 2,4'-thiobis(pyridine) (X(-) = NO(3)(-), BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), PF(6)(-), CF(3)CO(2)(-), and CF(3)SO(3)(-)).

    PubMed

    Jung, Ok-Sang; Kim, Yun Ju; Lee, Young-A; Park, Ki-Min; Lee, Shim Sung

    2003-02-10

    Studies on the subtle effects and roles of polyatomic anions in the self-assembly of a series of AgX complexes with 2,4'-Py(2)S (X(-) = NO(3)(-), BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), PF(6)(-), CF(3)CO(2)(-), and CF(3)SO(3)(-); 2,4'-Py(2)S = 2,4'-thiobis(pyridine)) have been carried out. The formation of products appears to be primarily associated with a suitable combination of the skewed conformers of 2,4'-Py(2)S and a variety of coordination geometries of Ag(I) ions. The molecular construction via self-assembly is delicately dependent upon the nature of the anions. Coordinating anions afford the 1:1 adducts [Ag(2,4'-Py(2)S)X] (X(-) = NO(3)(-) and CF(3)CO(2)(-)), whereas noncoordinating anions form the 3:4 adducts [Ag(3)(2,4'-Py(2)S)(4)]X(3) (X(-) = ClO(4)(-) and PF(6)(-)). Each structure seems to be constructed by competition between pi-pi interactions of 2,4'-Py(2)S spacers vs Ag.X interactions. For ClO(4)(-) and PF(6)(-), an anion-free network consisting of linear Ag(I) and trigonal Ag(I) in a 1:2 ratio has been obtained whereas, for the coordinating anions NO(3)(-) and CF(3)CO(2)(-), an anion-bridged helix sheet and an anion-bridged cyclic dimer chain, respectively, have been assembled. For a moderately coordinating anion, CF(3)SO(3)(-), the 3:4 adduct [Ag(3)(2,4'-Py(2)S)(4)](CF(3)SO(3))(3) has been obtained similarly to the noncoordinating anions, but its structure is a double strand via both face-to-face (pi-pi) stackings and Ag.Ag interactions, in contrast to the noncoordinating anions. The anion exchanges of [Ag(3)(2,4'-Py(2)S)(4)]X(3) (X(-) = BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), and PF(6)(-)) with BF(4)(-), ClO(4)(-), and PF(6)(-) in aqueous media indicate that a [BF(4)(-)] analogue is isostructural with [Ag(3)(2,4'-Py(2)S)(4)]X(3) (X(-) = ClO(4)(-) and PF(6)(-)). Furthermore, the anion exchangeability for the noncoordinating anion compounds and the X-ray data for the coordinating anion compounds establish the coordinating order to be NO(3)(-) > CF(3)CO(2)(-) > CF(3)SO(3)(-) > PF(6

  4. p-Tolylimido rhenium(V) complexes - synthesis, X-ray studies, spectroscopic characterization, DFT calculations and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Machura, Barbara; Gryca, Izabela; Małecki, Jan Grzegorz; Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina

    2014-02-14

    Novel p-tolylimido rhenium(V) complexes trans-(Cl,Cl)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)]·MeCN (1a), trans-(Cl,Cl)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)] (1b), trans-(Br,Br)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Br2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)] (2), cis-(Cl,Cl)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)] (3), cis-(Br,Br)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Br2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)]·H2O (4), trans-(Cl,Cl)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(OMe)] (5) and trans-(Br,Br)-[Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Br2(OMe)(PPh3)2]·1/2H2O (6) were synthesized. The compounds were identified by elemental analysis, IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (31)P), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Calculations at the DFT level were undertaken in order to elucidate the structural, spectroscopic and bonding properties of the trans-(Cl,Cl) and cis-(Cl,Cl) isomers of [Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)]. In the first step, extended tests of the ability of different DFT methods (B3LYP, BP86, and PBE1PBE) were performed to find the best overall performer in describing the geometry of the imido Re(v) complexes; then, the electronic spectra of the trans and cis isomers of [Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)] were investigated at the TDDFT level employing the PBE1PBE functional. Additional information about bonding in the compounds [Re(p-NC6H4CH3)Cl2(py-2-COO)(PPh3)] was obtained by NBO analysis. The catalytic activity of the complexes incorporating the picolinate ligand was studied and compared in the synthesis of N-substituted ethyl glycine esters from ethyl diazoacetate and amines.

  5. Unexpected formal insertion of CO2 into the C-Si bonds of a zinc compound

    DOE PAGES

    Kemp, Richard A.; McGrew, Genette I.; Khatri, Pathik A.; ...

    2015-09-08

    Reaction of [κ2-PR2C(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 2a; iPr, 2b) with CO2 affords the products of formal insertion at the C–Si bond, [κ2-PR2CC(O)O(SiMe3)Py]2Zn (R = Ph, 3a; iPr, 3b). Insertion product 3b was structurally characterized. As a result, the reaction appears to be a stepwise insertion and rearrangement of CO2 based on kinetic data.

  6. Actes du colloque sur le bilinguisme, Universite de Neuchatel, 14/15 Septembre, 1981 (Proceedings of the Colloquium on Bilingualism, University of Neuchatel, September 14-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRANEL, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains proceedings of a colloquium on linguistics at the University of Neuchatel: (1) "Propositions epistemologiques pour une etude du bilinguisme (Epistemological Propositions for a Study of Bilingualism)," by B. Py; (2) "Comment on di ca? Prolegomenes a une etude de la composante semantique du langage des migrants (How Do You Say…

  7. Actes du colloque sur le bilinguisme, Universite de Neuchatel, 14/15 Septembre, 1981 (Proceedings of the Colloquium on Bilingualism, University of Neuchatel, September 14-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TRANEL, 1982

    1982-01-01

    This issue contains proceedings of a colloquium on linguistics at the University of Neuchatel: (1) "Propositions epistemologiques pour une etude du bilinguisme (Epistemological Propositions for a Study of Bilingualism)," by B. Py; (2) "Comment on di ca? Prolegomenes a une etude de la composante semantique du langage des migrants (How Do You Say…

  8. Synthesis and structure of a stable pentavalent-uranyl coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Natrajan, Louise; Burdet, Fabien; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2006-06-07

    The polymeric complex {[UO2Py5][KI2Py2]}n was isolated by controlled oxidation of uranium tris-iodide in pyridine and structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction. The described synthetic method allows us to isolate a stable derivative of the elusive pentavalent UO2+ species providing a potential starting material for the development of anhydrous UO2+ coordination chemistry.

  9. An AIE-based fluorescent test strip for the portable detection of gaseous phosgene.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiting; Wu, Yinglong; Zeng, Fang; Chen, Junjie; Wu, Shuizhu

    2017-08-29

    An AIE-based fluorescent test strip (OPD-TPE-Py-2CN) for rapid and sensitive detection of gaseous phosgene was designed. The fluorescence changes from blue to green upon exposure to phosgene. And the detection limit (1.87 ppm) is lower than the "harmless" level of human response to acute phosgene exposure.

  10. A hydrogen-bond facilitated cycle for oxygen reduction by an acid- and base-compatible iron platform.

    PubMed

    Soo, Han Sen; Komor, Alexis C; Iavarone, Anthony T; Chang, Christopher J

    2009-11-02

    We report a hydrogen-bond functionalized N4Py ligand platform (N,N-bis(2-R-6-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine; R = neopentyl-NH, N4Py(2NpNH), 9; R = phenyl-NH, N4Py(2PhNH), 10) and the ability of its iron(II)-triflate [N4Py(2R)Fe(II)(OTf)][OTf] complexes (R = NpNH, 11; R = PhNH, 12) to activate and reduce dioxygen in a synthetic cycle by coupled proton and electron transfer. A pair of iron(III)-hydroxide [N4Py(2R)Fe(III)(OH)][OTf](2) complexes (R = NpNH, 13; R = PhNH, 14) are isolated and structurally and spectroscopically characterized after exposure of the iron(II)-triflate precursors to 1 atm of O(2) at ambient temperature. The stability of this system to acids and bases allows regeneration of the labile iron(II)-triflate starting materials by sequential electron and proton transfer with cobaltocene and triflic acid, respectively, or through direct proton-coupled reduction with ascorbic acid. In the stepwise process, reduction of the iron(III)-hydroxide complexes with cobaltocene gives structurally homologous iron(II)-hydroxide [N4Py(2R)Fe(II)(OH)][OTf] congeners (R = NpNH, 15; R = PhNH, 16) that can be prepared independently from 11 and 12 with 20% aq. NaOH. Additions of triflic acid to complexes 15 and 16 furnish the starting compounds 11 and 12, respectively, to complete the synthetic cycle. The combined data establish a synthetic cycle for O(2) reduction by an iron platform that manages proton and electron transfer through its first and second coordination spheres.

  11. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  12. High-Valent Oxo, Methoxorhenium Complexes: Models for Intermediates and Transition States in Proton-Coupled Multi-Electron Transfer Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-30

    50:50 CHsCN:water at pH" = 8.0. 5. Pourjaix diagram for t-(O) 2Re(MeOpy)4’ in 50:50 CH 3CN:water. 6. Pourbaix diagrams for t-(O)(MeO)Re(py) 2 (dmap)2 2...top), t- (OXMeO)Re(MeOpy) 42 ÷ (middle) and t-(O)(MeO)Re(Me2py) 422 (bottom) in 50:50 CHsCN:water. 7. Pourbaix diagrams for t-(O)(MeO)Re(pyrrpy)4 2...top) and t- (O’XMeO)Re(dmap) 42÷ (bottom) in 50:50 CHCN:water. 8. Pourbaix diagrams for t-(O)2Re(Me2py)4÷ (top), t-(O)2Re(py)2(dmap)2 ÷ (middle) and

  13. Design and synthesis of new 1D and 2D R-isophthalic acid-based coordination polymers (R = hydrogen or bromine).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ren; Gong, Qihan; Emge, Thomas J; Banerjee, Debasis; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Three new R-isophthalic acid-based (R = H or Br) coordination polymers have been designed and synthesized. By changing the N-containing ligand in the system, we are able to tune the dimensionality of coordination polymers from one-dimension (1D) to two-dimensions (2D) with the same basic building unit. Also, different metal ions can be incorporated into the same structures. Compound 1 [Cu(bipa)(py)2]·0.5(H2O) (H2bipa = 5-bromoisophthalic acid; py = pyridine) and compound 2 [Co(bipa)(py)2] are 1D chain structures. Compound 3 [Cu8(ipa)8(bpe)8]·2(bpe)·4(H2O) (bpe=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) is a 2D layered structure.

  14. A Stochastic Approach to Solving the 2 1/2 Dimensional Weighted Region Problem.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    return))) (if ( oddp cross-count) region nil))) ; accepts radian measure (defun draw-ranges (point current) (let ((p-xl) (p-yl) (p-x2) (p-y2) (r-xl) (r-yl...inside-rb cb cr dr) (setf cb dr) (setf db dl)) (cond (( oddp ecount) ;set point at frontier endpoint (setf exit-t (first edge-t))) ((evenp ecount) (setf

  15. Excited State Investigation of a New Ru(II) Complex for Dual Reactivity with Low Energy Light

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, J. D.; Albani, B. A.; Turro, C.

    2015-01-01

    The new complex [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ efficiently photodissociates py in CH3CN with Φ500 = 0.053(1) induced by steric bulk from methyl substituents and produces 1O2 with ΦΔ = 0.69(9) from its long-lived 3ππ* excited state. The unique excited state processes that result in dual reactivity were investigated using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy. PMID:25912170

  16. Acetate/di-2-pyridyl ketone oximate "blend" as a source of high-nuclearity nickel(II) clusters: dependence of the nuclearity on the nature of the inorganic anion present.

    PubMed

    Stamatatos, Theocharis C; Diamantopoulou, Eleanna; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Escuer, Albert; Perlepes, Spyros P

    2007-04-02

    The use of di-2-pyridyl ketone oxime [(py)2CNOH] in reactions with Ni(O2CMe)2.4H2O, in the presence or absence of extra inorganic anions (N3- and SCN-) has led to Ni4, Ni5, and Ni7 clusters; the magnetic study of the heptanuclear nickel(II) complex reveals an S = 3 ground state.

  17. Steric Effects on the Structures, Reactivity, and Coordination Chemistry of Tris(2-pyridyl)aluminates.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Raúl; Wright, Dominic S

    2015-10-12

    Introducing substituents in the 6-position of the 2-pyridyl rings of tris(pyridyl)aluminate anions, of the type [EtAl(2-py')3 ](-) (py'=a substituted 2-pyridyl group), has a large impact on their metal coordination characteristics. This is seen most remarkably in the desolvation of the THF solvate [EtAl(6-Me-2-py)3 Li⋅THF] to give the monomer [EtAl(6-Me-2-py)3 Li] (1), containing a pyramidal, three-coordinate Li(+) cation. Similar monomeric complexes are observed for [EtAl(6-CF3 -2-py)3 Li] (2) and [EtAl(6-Br-2-py)3 Li] (3), which contain CF3 and Br substituents (R). This steric influence can be exploited in the synthesis of a new class of terminal Al-OH complexes, as is seen in the controlled hydrolysis of 2 and 3 to give [EtAl(OH)(6-R-2-py)2 ](-) anions, as in the dimer [EtAl(OH)(6-Br-2-py)2 Li]2 (5). Attempts to deprotonate the Al-OH group of 5 using Et2 Zn led only to the formation of the zincate complex [LiZn(6-Br-py)3 ]2 (6), while reactions of the 6-Br substituted 3 and the unsubstituted complex [EtAl(2-py)3 Li] with MeOH give [EtAl(OMe)(6-Br-2-py)2 Li]2 (7) and [EtAl(OMe)(2-py)2 Li]2 (8), respectively, having similar dimeric arrangements to 5. The combined studies presented provide key synthetic methods for the functionalization and elaboration of tris(pyridyl)aluminate ligands.

  18. Reactivity of cyclopentadienyl transition metal(ii) complexes with borate ligands: structural characterization of the toluene-activated molybdenum complex [Cp*Mo(CO)2(η(3)-CH2C6H5)].

    PubMed

    Ramalakshmi, Rongala; Maheswari, K; Sharmila, Dudekula; Paul, Anamika; Roisnel, Thierry; Halet, Jean-François; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2016-10-18

    Reactions of cyclopentadienyl transition-metal halide complexes [Cp*Mo(CO)3Cl], 1, and [CpFe(CO)2I], 2, (Cp = C5H5; Cp* = η(5)-C5Me5) with borate ligands are reported. Treatment of 1 with [NaBt2] (Bt2 = dihydrobis(2-mercapto-benzothiazolyl)borate) in toluene yielded [Cp*Mo(CO)2(C7H4S2N)], 3, and [Cp*Mo(CO)2(η(3)-CH2C6H5)], 4, with a selective binding of toluene through C-H activation followed by orthometallation. Note that compound 4 is a structurally characterized toluene-activated molecule in which the metal is in η(3)-coordination mode. Under similar reaction conditions, [NaPy2] (Py2 = dihydrobis(2-mercaptopyridyl)borate) produced only the mercaptopyridyl molybdenum complex [Cp*Mo(CO)2(C5H4SN)], 5, in good yield. On the other hand, when compound 2 was treated individually with [NaBt] (Bt = trihydro(2-mercapto-benzothiazolyl)borate) and [NaPy2] in THF, formation of the η(1)-coordinated complexes [CpFe(CO)2(C7H4S2N)], 6, and [CpFe(CO)2(C5H4SN)], 7, was observed. The solid-state molecular structures of compounds 3, 4, 6, and 7 have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses.

  19. A Photoactivatable Platinum(IV) Anticancer Complex Conjugated to the RNA Ligand Guanidinoneomycin.

    PubMed

    Shaili, Evyenia; Fernández-Giménez, Marta; Rodríguez-Astor, Savina; Gandioso, Albert; Sandín, Lluís; García-Vélez, Carlos; Massaguer, Anna; Clarkson, Guy J; Woods, Julie A; Sadler, Peter J; Marchán, Vicente

    2015-12-07

    A photoactivatable platinum(IV) complex, trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3 )2 (OH)(succ)(py)2 ] (succ=succinylate, py=pyridine), has been conjugated to guanidinoneomycin to study the effect of this guanidinum-rich compound on the photoactivation, intracellular accumulation and phototoxicity of the pro-drug. Surprisingly, trifluoroacetic acid treatment causes the replacement of an azido ligand and the axial hydroxide ligand by trifluoroacetate, as shown by NMR spectroscopy, MS and X-ray crystallography. Photoactivation of the platinum-guanidinoneomycin conjugate in the presence of 5'-guanosine monophosphate (5'-GMP) led to the formation of trans-[Pt(N3 )(py)2 (5'-GMP)](+) , as does the parent platinum(IV) complex. Binding of the platinum(II) photoproduct {PtN3 (py)2 }(+) to guanine nucleobases in a short single-stranded oligonucleotide was also observed. Finally, cellular uptake studies showed that guanidinoneomycin conjugation improved the intracellular accumulation of the platinum(IV) pro-drug in two cancer cell lines, particularly in SK-MEL-28 cells. Notably, the higher phototoxicity of the conjugate in SK-MEL-28 cells than in DU-145 cells suggests a degree of selectivity towards the malignant melanoma cell line.

  20. New Ru(II) Complex for Dual Activity: Photoinduced Ligand Release and (1)O2 Production.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Lauren M; White, Jessica K; Albani, Bryan A; Kohler, Lars; Kodanko, Jeremy J; Thummel, Randolph P; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2016-03-07

    The new complex [Ru(pydppn)(biq)(py)](2+) (1) undergoes both py photodissociation in CH3CN with Φ500 =0.0070(4) and (1)O2 production with ΦΔ =0.75(7) in CH3 OH from a long-lived (3) ππ* state centered on the pydppn ligand (pydppn=3-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine; biq = 2,2'-biquinoline; py=pyridine). This represents an order of magnitude decrease in the Φ500 compared to the previously reported model compound [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)](2+) (3) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) that undergoes only ligand exchange. The effect on the quantum yields by the addition of a second deactivation pathway through the low-lying (3) ππ* state necessary for dual reactivity was investigated using ultrafast and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, revealing a significantly shorter (3) MLCT lifetime in 1 relative to that of the model complex 3. Due to the structural similarities between the two compounds, the lower values of Φ500 and ΦΔ compared to that of [Ru(pydppn)(bpy)(py)](2+) (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are attributed to a competitive excited state population between the (3) LF states involved in ligand dissociation and the long-lived (3) ππ* state in 1. Complex 1 represents a model compound for dual activity that may be applied to photochemotherapy.

  1. a New Digital Image Correlation Software for Displacements Field Measurement in Structural Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanelli, R.; Nascetti, A.; Di Rita, M.; Belloni, V.; Mattei, D.; Nisticó, N.; Crespi, M.

    2017-07-01

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in studying non-contact techniques for strain and displacement measurement. Within photogrammetry, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) has received particular attention thanks to the recent advances in the field of lowcost, high resolution digital cameras, computer power and memory storage. DIC is indeed an optical technique able to measure full field displacements and strain by comparing digital images of the surface of a material sample at different stages of deformation and thus can play a major role in structural monitoring applications. For all these reasons, a free and open source 2D DIC software, named py2DIC, was developed at the Geodesy and Geomatics Division of DICEA, University of Rome La Sapienza. Completely written in python, the software is based on the template matching method and computes the displacement and strain fields. The potentialities of Py2DIC were evaluated by processing the images captured during a tensile test performed in the Lab of Structural Engineering, where three different Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer samples were subjected to a controlled tension by means of a universal testing machine. The results, compared with the values independently measured by several strain gauges fixed on the samples, demonstrate the possibility to successfully characterize the deformation mechanism of the investigated material. Py2DIC is indeed able to highlight displacements at few microns level, in reasonable agreement with the reference, both in terms of displacements (again, at few microns in the average) and Poisson's module.

  2. Isolation of a Star-Shaped Uranium(V/VI) Cluster from the Anaerobic Photochemical Reduction of Uranyl(VI).

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Lucile; White, Sarah; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2016-11-07

    Actinide oxo clusters are an important class of compounds due to their impact on actinide migration in the environment. The photolytic reduction of uranyl(VI) has potential application in catalysis and spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, but the intermediate species involved in this reduction have not yet been elucidated. Here we show that the photolysis of partially hydrated uranyl(VI) in anaerobic conditions leads to the reduction of uranyl(VI), and to the incorporation of the resulting U(V) species into the stable mixed-valent star-shaped U(VI) /U(V) oxo cluster [U(UO2 )5 (μ3 -O)5 (PhCOO)5 (Py)7 ] (1). This cluster is only the second example of a U(VI) /U(V) cluster and the first one associating uranyl groups to a non-uranyl(V) center. The U(V) center in 1 is stable, while the reaction of uranyl(V) iodide with potassium benzoate leads to immediate disproportionation and formation of the U12(IV) U4(V) O24 cluster {[K(Py)2 ]2 [K(Py)]2 [U16 O24 (PhCOO)24 (Py)2 ]} (5).

  3. Isolation of proximity-induced triplet pairing channel in a superconductor/ferromagnet spin valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Validov, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V.; Thomas, J.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the proximity-induced superconducting triplet pairing in CoOx/Py1/Cu/Py2/Cu/Pb spin-valve structure (where Py = Ni0.81Fe0.19 ). By optimizing the parameters of this structure we found a triplet channel assisted full switching between the normal and superconducting states. To observe an "isolated" triplet spin-valve effect we exploited the oscillatory feature of the magnitude of the ordinary spin-valve effect Δ Tc in the dependence of the Py2-layer thickness dP y 2. We determined the value of dP y 2 at which Δ Tc caused by the ordinary spin-valve effect (the difference in the superconducting transition temperature Tc between the antiparallel and parallel mutual orientation of magnetizations of the Py1 and Py2 layers) is suppressed. For such a sample a "pure" triplet spin-valve effect which causes the minimum in Tc at the orthogonal configuration of magnetizations has been observed.

  4. Metal-organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln4(OH)4] building units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S. M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-01

    Lanthanide-organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pYb), [Y4(OH)4(25p)4(H2O)3]·H2O (25pY-1) and [Y6(OH)8(25p)5(H2O)2] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P21/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y4(OH)4]8+ clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y6(OH)8]10+ clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu3+ and Tb3+ doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG-SDTA-MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C-H-N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction.

  5. Cu(I) dinuclear complexes with tripodal ligands vs monodentate donors: triphenylphosphine, thiourea, and pyridine. A 1H NMR titration study.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Marcello; Lanfranchi, Maurizio; Marchiò, Luciano; Pellinghelli, Maria Angela; Tegoni, Matteo; Cammi, Roberto

    2006-04-17

    Complexes [PPh3Cu(Tr(Mes,Me))] (1), [PPh3Cu(Tr(Me,o-Py))] (2), and [PPh3Cu(Br(Mes)pz(o-Py))] (3) (Tr(Mes,Me) = hydrotris[1,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-mesityl-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolyl]borate; Tr(Me,o-Py) = hydrotris[1,4-dihydro-4-methyl-3-(2-pyridyl)-5-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolyl]borate; Br(Mes)pz(o-Py) = hydro[bis(thioxotriazolyl)-3-(2-pyridyl)pyrazolyl]borate; PPh3 = triphenylphosphine) were synthesized by the reaction of dinuclear complexes [Cu(Tr(Mes,Me))]2, [Cu(Tr(Me,o-Py))]2, [Cu(Br(Mes)pz(o-Py))]2, and PPh3. 1-3 were characterized by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy and ESI-mass spectrometry. Crystal structure analyses were performed for 1 and 2. Both complexes crystallize in the triclinic P space group with the metal in a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry (S3P coordination) bound by a kappa3-S3 ligand and a PPh3 molecule. The solution molecular structures were investigated by means of variable-temperature (210-310 K, CDCl3, 1-2; 200-310 K, CD2Cl2, 3) and NOESY NMR spectroscopy. The solution structures of 1-2 are in accordance with the X-ray structures, and the complexes do not exhibit fluxional behavior. On the other hand, 3 is subject to an equilibrium between two species with a coalescing temperature of approximately 260 K. DFT geometry optimizations suggest that the major species of 3 consists of the Br(Mes)pz(o-Py) ligand bound to Cu(I) in the kappa3-S2H fashion with two C=S groups and a [Cu...H-B] interaction. A PPh3 completes the copper coordination (S2HP coordination). The complex [TuCu(Tr(Mes,Me))] (4) (Tu = thiourea) was crystallized using an excess of Tu with respect to [Cu(Tr(Me,2-Py))]2 (approximately a 6:1 ratio). The metal adopts a distorted tetrahedral geometry with an overall S3H coordination determined by the bound kappa3-S2H ligand (two C=S groups and a [B-H...Cu] interaction) and by a Tu. The reactivity of dinuclear complexes [Cu(Tr(Mes,Me))]2, [Cu(Tr(Me,o-Py))]2, and [Cu(Br(Mes)pz(o-Py))]2 with monodentate ligands was investigated by means of

  6. Triggering the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo compound and its reactivity toward sulfides by Ru(II) photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; González-Béjar, María; Gómez, Laura; Clémancey, Martin; Blondin, Geneviève; Jasniewski, Andrew J; Puri, Mayank; Browne, Wesley R; Latour, Jean-Marc; Que, Lawrence; Costas, Miquel; Pérez-Prieto, Julia; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2014-03-26

    The preparation of [Fe(IV)(O)(MePy2tacn)](2+) (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [Fe(II)(MePy2tacn)(solvent)](2+) (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 toward sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation, and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence, the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [Ru(II)(bpy)3](2+) are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible explanation for the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in-situ-generated [Ru(III)(bpy)3](3+) oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide.

  7. The effect of pressure on the Raman spectra of solids. VII. The internal Raman bands in solid and coordinated pyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyns, A. M.; Venter, M. W.

    1990-12-01

    The pressure dependences of the internal Raman-active modes of solid pyridine and pyridine-d5 in both the crystalline and glassy modifications as well as of the complexes Zn(py)2Cl2, Ni(py)2Cl2, and Ni(py)4Cl2 are reported. When pyridine is frozen by the application of pressure, some ring modes as well as those involving the hydrogen atoms reflect this transformation. Upon the coordination of pyridine to metal ions, the ring vibrations show appreciable blue shifts. The pressure dependences of ν1, the C-C stretching mode, and ν12, the in-plane ring bending mode of the pyridine rings, are discussed in detail. The unusually high d5-h5 isotopic ratio of ν12 and its contrasting pressure dependences in the liquid and condensed phases of pyridine-d5 are explained. The association of pyridine molecules in the condensed phase does not occur through hydrogen bonds and the C-H stretching modes, in particular, show that repulsive intermolecular forces become very significant at higher pressures. The ratio of the intensities Iν12/Iν1 varies linearly with the strength of the M-N bonds in a series of pyridine complexes and a correlation also exists between Iν12/Iν1 and ∂ν12/∂p. The vibrations ν1 and ν2 are coupled through Fermi resonance in pyridine and its complexes and the pressure dependence of the Fermi resonance constant W is calculated for Zn(py)2Cl2. The C-H stretching modes reflect the presence of more than one distinct pyridine group in the lattice and are of much lower intensity than in complexes where only one distinct pyridine group is found.

  8. Combined MCD/DFT/TDDFT Study of the Electronic Structure of Axially Pyridine Coordinated Metallocorroles.

    PubMed

    Rhoda, Hannah M; Crandall, Laura A; Geier, G Richard; Ziegler, Christopher J; Nemykin, Victor N

    2015-05-18

    A series of metallocorroles were investigated by UV-vis and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. The diamagnetic distorted square-pyramidal main-group corrole Ga(tpfc)py (2), the diamagnetic distorted octahedral transition-metal adduct Co(tpfc)(py)2 (3), and paramagnetic distorted octahedral transition-metal complex Fe(tpfc)(py)2 (4) [H3tpfc = tris(perfluorophenyl)corrole] were studied to investigate similarities and differences in the electronic structure and spectroscopy of the closed- and open-shell metallocorroles. Similar to the free-base H3tpfc (1), inspection of the MCD Faraday B-terms for all of the macrocycles presented in this report revealed that a ΔHOMO < ΔLUMO [ΔHOMO is the energy difference between two highest energy corrole-centered π-orbitals and ΔLUMO is the energy difference between two lowest energy corrole-centered π*-orbitals originating from ML ± 4 and ML ± 5 pairs of perimeter] condition is present for each complex, which results in an unusual sign-reversed sequence for π-π* transitions in their MCD spectra. In addition, the MCD spectra of the cobalt and the iron complexes were also complicated by a number of charge-transfer states in the visible region. Iron complex 4 also exhibits a low-energy absorption in the NIR region (1023 nm). DFT and TDDFT calculations were used to elaborate the electronic structures and provide band assignments in UV-vis and MCD spectra of the metallocorroles. DFT and TDDFT calculations predict that the orientation of the axial pyridine ligand(s) has a very minor influence on the calculated electronic structures and absorption spectra in the target systems.

  9. Diamondoid Structure in a Metal-Organic Framework of Fe4 Single-Molecule Magnets.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, Luca; Cotton, Carri; Nava, Andrea; Lang, Heinrich; Rüffer, Tobias; Perfetti, Mauro; Sorace, Lorenzo; Barra, Anne-Laure; Lan, Yanhua; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Sessoli, Roberta; Cornia, Andrea

    2016-09-12

    A 3D metal-organic framework (MOF) having single-molecule magnet (SMM) linkers was prepared in crystalline form by using a tetrairon(III) complex functionalised with two divergent pyridyl groups, namely [Fe4 (pPy)2 (dpm)6 ] (1; H3 pPy=2-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)propane-1,3-diol, Hdpm=dipivaloylmethane). Reaction of 1 with silver(I) perchlorate afforded {[Fe4 (pPy)2 (dpm)6 ]2 Ag}ClO4 (2), which crystallises in a cubic face-centred lattice and exhibits two interlocked diamondoid networks. In 2, the SMMs act as linear ditopic synthons, and silver(I) ions as tetrahedral nodes coordinated by four pyridyl nitrogen atoms. The magnetic properties of 1 (S=5 and D≈-0.4 cm(-1) in the ground spin state) are largely preserved in 2, which shows slow magnetic relaxation with an anisotropy barrier of Ueff /kB =11.46(10) K in zero field and 14.25(8) K in an applied field of 1 kOe. However, crystal symmetry triggers highly noncollinear magnetic anisotropy contributions oriented at 109.47° from each other along the threefold axes of AgN4 tetrahedra, a unique scenario fully confirmed by a single-crystal cantilever torque magnetometry investigation. Magnetisation curves down to 0.03 K demonstrated the occurrence of a wide hysteresis loop when the magnetic field was swept along one of the four Ag-N bonds. By symmetry, the crystalline compound can then be persistently magnetised parallel or antiparallel to the four main diagonals of the unit cell, although the crystals have no overall second-order anisotropy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Triggering the Generation of an Iron(IV)-Oxo Compound and Its Reactivity toward Sulfides by RuII Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of [FeIV(O)(MePy2tacn)]2+ (2, MePy2tacn = N-methyl-N,N-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) by reaction of [FeII(MePy2tacn)(solvent)]2+ (1) and PhIO in CH3CN and its full characterization are described. This compound can also be prepared photochemically from its iron(II) precursor by irradiation at 447 nm in the presence of catalytic amounts of [RuII(bpy)3]2+ as photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor (Na2S2O8). Remarkably, the rate of the reaction of the photochemically prepared compound 2 toward sulfides increases 150-fold under irradiation, and 2 is partially regenerated after the sulfide has been consumed; hence, the process can be repeated several times. The origin of this rate enhancement has been established by studying the reaction of chemically generated compound 2 with sulfides under different conditions, which demonstrated that both light and [RuII(bpy)3]2+ are necessary for the observed increase in the reaction rate. A combination of nanosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy with laser pulse excitation and other mechanistic studies has led to the conclusion that an electron transfer mechanism is the most plausible explanation for the observed rate enhancement. According to this mechanism, the in-situ-generated [RuIII(bpy)3]3+ oxidizes the sulfide to form the corresponding radical cation, which is eventually oxidized by 2 to the corresponding sulfoxide. PMID:24568126

  11. New RuII Complex for Dual Activity: Photoinduced Ligand Release and 1O2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Lauren M.; White, Jessica K.; Albani, Bryan A.; Kohler, Lars; Kodanko, Jeremy J.; Thummel, Randolph P.

    2016-01-01

    The new complex [Ru(pydppn)(biq)(py)]2+ (1) undergoes both py photodissociation in CH3CN with Φ500=0.0070(4) and 1O2 production with ΦΔ=0.75(7) in CH3OH from a long-lived 3ππ* state centered on the pydppn ligand (pydppn=3-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine; biq = 2,2′-biquinoline; py= pyridine). This represents an order of magnitude decrease in the Φ500 compared to the previously reported model compound [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)]2+ (3) (tpy=2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) that undergoes only ligand exchange. The effect on the quantum yields by the addition of a second deactivation pathway through the low-lying 3ππ* state necessary for dual reactivity was investigated using ultrafast and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, revealing a significantly shorter 3MLCT lifetime in 1 relative to that of the model complex 3. Due to the structural similarities between the two compounds, the lower values of Φ500 and ΦΔ compared to that of [Ru(pydppn)(bpy)(py)]2+ (2) (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) are attributed to a competitive excited state population between the 3LF states involved in ligand dissociation and the long-lived 3ππ* state in 1. Complex 1 represents a model compound for dual activity that may be applied to photochemotherapy. PMID:26715085

  12. Ethyne-bridged (porphinato)zinc(II)-(porphinato)iron(III) complexes: phenomenological dependence of excited-state dynamics upon (porphinato)iron electronic structure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Timothy V; Wu, Sophia P; Therien, Michael J

    2006-08-16

    We report the synthesis, spectroscopy, potentiometric properties, and excited-state dynamical studies of 5-[(10,20-di-((4-ethyl ester)methylene-oxy)phenyl)porphinato]zinc(II)-[5'-[(10',20'- di-((4-ethyl ester)methylene-oxy)phenyl)porphinato]iron(III)-chloride]ethyne (PZn-PFe-Cl), along with a series of related supermolecules ([PZn-PFe-(L)1,2]+ species) that possess a range of metal axial ligation environments (L = pyridine, 4-cyanopyridine, 2,4,6-trimethylpyridine (collidine), and 2,6-dimethylpyridine (2,6-lutidine)). Relevant monomeric [(porphinato)iron-(ligand)1,2]+ ([PFe(L)1,2]+) benchmarks have also been synthesized and fully characterized. Ultrafast pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopic experiments that interrogate the initially prepared electronically excited states of [PFe(L)1,2]+ species bearing nonhindered axial ligands demonstrated subpicosecond-to-picosecond relaxation dynamics to the ground electronic state. Comparative pump-probe transient absorption experiments that interrogate the initially prepared excited states of PZn-PFe-Cl, [PZn-PFe-(py)2]+, [PZn-PFe-(4-CN-py)2]+, [PZn-PFe-(collidine)]+, and [PZn-PFe-(2,6-lutidine)]+ demonstrate that the spectra of all these species are dominated by a broad, intense NIR S1 --> Sn transient absorption manifold. While PZn-PFe-Cl, [PZn-PFe-(py)2]+, and [PZn-PFe-(4-CN-py)2]+ evince subpicosecond and picosecond time-scale relaxation of their respective initially prepared electronically excited states to the ground state, the excited-state dynamics observed for [PZn-PFe-(2,6-lutidine)]+ and [PZn-PFe-(collidine)]+ show fast relaxation to a [PZn+-PFe(II)] charge-separated state having a lifetime of nearly 1 ns. Potentiometric data indicate that while DeltaGCS for [PZn-PFe-(L)1,2]+ species is strongly influenced by the PFe+ ligation state [ligand (DeltaGCS): 4-cyanopyridine (-0.79 eV) < pyridine (-1.04 eV) < collidine (-1.35 eV) < chloride (-1.40 eV); solvent = CH2Cl2], the pump-probe transient absorption

  13. Pyridine substituted N-heterocyclic carbene ligands as supports for Au(I)-Ag(I) interactions: formation of a chiral coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Vincent J; Malwitz, Mark A; Etogo, Anthony O

    2004-09-06

    Reaction of 1,3-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1H-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [H(pyCH(2))(2)im]BF(4), with silver oxide in dichloromethane readily yields [Ag((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 1.BF(4)(). 1.BF(4) is converted to the analogous Au(I)-containing species, [Au((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 3, by a simple carbene transfer reaction in dichloromethane. Further treatment with two equivalents of AgBF(4) produces the trimetallic species [AuAg(2)((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)(NCCH(3))(2)](BF(4))(3), 4, which contains two silver ions each coordinated to the pyridine moieties on one carbene ligand and to an acetonitrile molecule in a T-shaped fashion. Monometallic [Ag((py)(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 5, and [Au((py)(2)im)(2)]BF(4), 6, are made analogously to 1.BF(4) and 3 starting from 1,3-bis(2-pyridyl)-imidazol-2-ylidene tetrafluoroborate, [H(py)(2)im]BF(4). Addition of excess AgBF(4) to 6 yields the helical mixed-metal polymer, ([AuAg((py)(2)im)(2)(NCCH(3))](BF(4))(2))(n), 7 which contains an extended Au(I)-Ag(I) chain with short metal-metal separations of 2.8359(4) and 2.9042(4) A. Colorless, monometallic [Hg((pyCH(2))(2)im)(2)](BF(4))(2), 8, is easily produced by refluxing [H(pyCH(2))(2)im)]BF(4) with Hg(OAc)(2) in acetonitrile. The related quinolyl-substituted imidazole, [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6), is produced analogously to [H(pyCH(2))(2)im]BF(4). [Hg((quinCH(2))(2)im)(2)](PF(6))(2), 9, is isolated in good yield as a white solid from the reaction of Hg(OAc)(2) and [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6). The reaction of [H(quinCH(2))(2)im]PF(6) with excess Ag(2)O produces the triangulo-cluster [Ag(3)((quinCH(2))(2)im)(3)](PF(6))(3), 11. All of these complexes were studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and complexes 3-9 were additionally characterized by X-ray crystallography. These complexes are photoluminescent in the solid state and in solution with spectra that closely resemble those of the ligand precursor.

  14. Room temperature and low-temperature absorption and emission spectra of some polypyridylruthenium(II) 3.2.1 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. I.; Burrows, H. D.; Formosinho, S. J.; Miguel, M. da G.

    2001-05-01

    Electronic absorption and luminescence spectra are reported for a series of complexes of type [Ru(tpy)(L-L)(py)] 2+, where tpy and py are 2,2',2″-terpyridine and pyridine, and L-L represents the bidentate ligands bipyridyl, 4,4'-dimethylbipyridyl, 4-nitrobipyridyl, oxalate and acetylacetonate. The effect of solvent polarity and temperature on their spectral and light emission properties is studied. Energies are reported for the lowest-energy 3MLCT ∗ excited state, and on the basis of these it is suggested that the complexes may make good triplet energy acceptors for use in organic and polymeric light emitting devices.

  15. Electrical Microengineering of Redox Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-31

    The reduced phenazine . NMPH is reoxidized by molecular oxygen to NMP’ in the H202 generating reaction: NMPH - 0 ---- > NMP ’- H202 The sum of these...and Molecular Oxygen. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.. 694-5. 38) Ottawav, J.H. (1966). Some Rate Constants for the Phenazine Methosulfate- Catalysed...phenoxazine-derivative and Kulys’ phenazine -bssed [0o(py)2f- 2 oft jsr m Theso yofttw ringhe electrodes are examples,"-’ 6 utilize electrode-bound, elec- HA

  16. Total synthesis of (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin (MM 47755).

    PubMed

    Kesenheimer, Christian; Groth, Ulrich

    2006-06-08

    A stereoselective total synthesis of the natural antibiotic (-)-8-O-methyltetrangomycin 1 is reported. The essential steps for this convergent synthesis are the transformation of a geraniol epoxide into a chiral octadiyne derivative, which was converted into a triyne. The cobalt-mediated [2+2+2] cycloaddition of the triyne led to a benz[a]anthracene system, which was oxidized with Ag(Py)(2)MnO(4) to a benz[a]anthraquinone. Deprotection with aqueous HF in acetonitrile and photooxidation afforded the desired product (-)-1. [reaction: see text

  17. Spectroscopic and Computational Investigations of a Mononuclear Manganese(IV)-Oxo Complex Reveal Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity

    DOE PAGES

    Leto, Domenick F.; Massie, Allyssa A.; Rice, Derek B.; ...

    2016-11-01

    The mononuclear Mn(IV)-oxo complex [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+, where N4py is the pentadentate ligand N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine, we propose to attack C–H bonds by an excited-state reactivity pattern [Cho, K.-B.; Shaik, S.; Nam, W. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 2851-2856 (DOI: 10.1021/jz301241z)]. In this model, a 4E excited state is utilized to provide a lower-energy barrier for hydrogen-atom transfer. This proposal is intriguing, as it offers both a rationale for the relatively high hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity of [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+ and a guideline for creating more reactive complexes through ligand modification. Here we employ a combination of electronic absorption and variable-temperature magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy tomore » experimentally evaluate this excited-state reactivity model. Using these spectroscopic methods, in conjunction with time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and complete-active space self-consistent-field calculations (CASSCF), we define the ligand-field and charge-transfer excited states of [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+. Through a graphical analysis of the signs of the experimental C-term MCD signals, we unambiguously assign a low-energy MCD feature of [MnIV(O)(N4py)]2+ as the 4E excited state predicted to be involved in hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity. The CASSCF calculations predict enhanced MnIII-oxyl character on the excited-state 4E surface, consistent with previous DFT calculations. Potential-energy surfaces, developed using the CASSCF methods, are used to determine how the energies and wave functions of the ground and excited states evolved as a function of Mn=O distance. Furthermore, the unique insights into ground- and excited-state electronic structure offered by these spectroscopic and computational studies are harmonized with a thermodynamic model of hydrogen-atom-transfer reactivity, which predicts a correlation between transition-state barriers and driving force« less

  18. Target Localization in an Inhomogeneous Medium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (if aplicable ) Sc. ADDRESS (City; Slate. end ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT...a2sin 2P( VR ) ] . (2.51) Divide both sides of equation 2.51 by nrfa2 to get 24 ’I * ( MD(f 0 )x~y = -X2 + 2 sin P(YR)x -sin 2 Py) (2.52) Rewriting...p. 2321 w(y) Therefore, S = tan’i[u( vR )’W(YR)I (2.95) where u(YR) and w(yR) are available from the frequency domain adaptive beamfbriner. From

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy of pyrene anion clusters: Autodetachment via excited states of anion and intermolecular interactions in anion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Sang Hak; Song, Jae Kyu

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the anion clusters of pyrene (Py) by mass spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy, and theoretical calculations. The photoelectron spectra of Pyn- (n =1-4) were obtained at various photon energies. A change in photodetachment wavelength resulted in a large change in the relative intensities of vibrational progression in the photoelectron spectra. It is proposed that the observed modulation of the Franck-Condon factors by the different photon energies reflects autodetachment via the excited states of anion. The photoelectron spectra of Pyn- at 355 nm showed a broad band structure between the S0 and T1 states, which is also due to the autodetachment via a Feshbach resonance state. The photoelectron spectra of Py2- suggest the presence of a unique dimeric interaction between the two pyrene moieties, whereas the spectral features of Py3- are similar to those of Py1-. The stable structures of Py2- and Py3- obtained by density functional theory calculations support the experimental findings, where different intermolecular interactions govern the stabilization of these two species.

  20. Donor-driven conformational flexibility in a real-life catalytic dicopper(ii) peroxo complex.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, A; Herres-Pawlis, S

    2016-03-07

    The conformers of the real-life tyrosinase model [Cu2O2{HC(3-tBuPz)2(Py)}2](2+) which displays catalytic hydroxylation reactivity were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) studies including second-order perturbation theory and charge decomposition analysis (CDA). We elucidated the donor competition between pyrazolyl and pyridinyl moieties and found that pyrazolyl units are the stronger donors in bis(pyrazolyl)pyridinylmethane copper complexes. Geometry optimisations and TD-DFT calculations on all conformers proved to be robust in the prediction of the experimental data: the XAS distances and both charge-transfer bands are well reproduced. The CDA analyses gave insights into the electronic structure of the real-life peroxo dicopper species. The donor interplay as well as the multitude of interactions within two prototypical conformers have now been dissected in detail for the first time for a catalytic real-life system without simplifications. We find that the N donor interactions to the core are extremely stabilising and that in the conformer with both pyrazolyl units in equatorial position, these interactions are more stabilising than the axial ones. In the conformer with pyridinyl/pyrazolyl equator, the picture is more mixed but the general trend keeps consistent. We relate the extraordinary catalytic activity of the [Cu2O2{HC(3-tBuPz)2(Py)}2](2+) system to the subtle interplay of the different donor moieties.

  1. Membrane bioreactor with a porous hydrophobic membrane as a gas-liquid contactor for waste gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Reij, M.W.; Gooijer, K.D. de; Bont, J.A.M. de; Hartmans, S. )

    1995-01-20

    A novel type of bioreactor for waste gas treatment has been designed. The reactor contains a microporous hydrophobic membrane to create a large interface between the waste gas and the aqueous phase. To test the new reactor, propene was chosen because of its high air/water partition coefficient, which causes a low water concentration and hampers its removal from air. Propene transfer from air to a suspension of propene-utilizing Xanthobacter Py2 cells in the membrane bioreactor proved to be controlled by mass transfer in the liquid phase. The resistance of the membrane was negligible. Simulated propene transfer rates agreed well with the experimental data. A stable biofilm of Xanthobacter Py2 developed on the membrane during prolonged operation. The propene flux into the biofilm was 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] at a propene concentration of 9.3 [times] 10[sup [minus]2] mol m[sup [minus]3] in the gas phase.

  2. Synthesis and cytotoxicity of dinuclear complexes containing ruthenium(II) bipyridyl units linked by a bis(pyridylimine) ligand.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Ursula; Kerchoffs, Jessica M C A; Castineiras, Rosa P M; Hicks, Matthew R; Hotze, Anna C G; Hannon, Michael J; Rodger, Alison

    2008-02-07

    Enantiopure dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes of the form [Ru(2)(LL)(4)L(1)](PF(6))(4) (LL = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); L(1)= C(25)H(20)N(4) a bis(pyridylimine) ligand containing a diphenylmethane spacer) have been synthesized using the chiral building blocks cis-[Ru(bpy)(2)(py)(2)](2+) and cis-[Ru(phen)(2)(py)(2)](2+). These dinuclear ruthenium complexes have been characterised using NMR, mass spectrometry, UV-visible absorbance, circular dichroism and linear dichroism. The compounds exhibit good photo and thermal stability. The extinction coefficient for the bpy complex at 478 nm is epsilon(478) = 15,700 mol(-1) cm(-1) dm(3) and for the phen complex is epsilon(478) = 24,900 mol(-1) cm(-1) dm(3). Both complexes have their longest wavelength (metal to ligand charge transfer) transition predominantly x/y (short axis)-polarised while the transitions at shorter wavelength are a mixture of x/y and z-polarisations, similar to both the copper helicate and iron triple helicate studied previously. Cytotoxicity studies reveal that the compounds are dramatically less active against cancer cell lines than the recently reported supramolecular cylinders prepared from the same bis(pyridylimine) ligand.

  3. Volatile imido-hydrazido compounds of the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten.

    PubMed

    Gaess, Daniel; Harms, Klaus; Pokoj, Michael; Stolz, Wolfgang; Sundermeyer, Jörg

    2007-08-06

    Volatile 1,1-dimethyl-2-(trimethylsilyl)hydrazido(1-) complexes of niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten have been synthesized and fully characterized for use as precursors in their chemical vapor deposition to metal nitrides. Different reaction patterns were observed in the hydrazinolysis of imido complexes of those four metals with (trimethylsilyl)dimethylhydrazine HN(SiMe3)NMe2 (H-TDMH). [Ta(NtBu)Cl3Py2] gave [Ta(TDMH)2Cl3] (1) with loss of the imido functionality, and [M(NtBu)2Cl2Py2] gave [M(NtBu)2(TDMH)Cl] (M = W, 8a; Mo, 8b). Reactions of both types of metal imido complexes with magnesium hydrazides produced [M(NtBu)(TDMH)2X] (M = Ta, X = Cl, 2a; X = Br, 3a; M = Nb, X = Cl, 2b; X = Br, 3b) and [M(NtBu)2(TDMH)X] (M = W, X = Cl, 8a; X = Br, 9a; M = Mo, X = Cl, 8b; X = Br, 9b). Halogen substitution reactions at 2 and 3 by -NMe2, -NHtBu, and CH2Ph groups as well as imido ligand replacement reactions have been investigated. The results of crystal structure determinations of 1, 4a, 5a, 6a, 7b, and 9b are presented.

  4. Iridium Cyclooctene Complex That Forms a Hyperpolarization Transfer Catalyst before Converting to a Binuclear C–H Bond Activation Product Responsible for Hydrogen Isotope Exchange

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    [IrCl(COE)2]2 (1) reacts with pyridine (py) and H2 to form crystallographically characterized IrCl(H)2(COE)(py)2 (2). 2 undergoes py loss to form 16-electron IrCl(H)2(COE)(py) (3), with equivalent hydride ligands. When this reaction is studied with parahydrogen, 1 efficiently achieves hyperpolarization of free py (and nicotinamide, nicotine, 5-aminopyrimidine, and 3,5-lutudine) via signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) and hence reflects a simple and readily available precatayst for this process. 2 reacts further over 48 h at 298 K to form crystallographically characterized (Cl)(H)(py)(μ-Cl)(μ-H)(κ-μ-NC5H4)Ir(H)(py)2 (4). This dimer is active in the hydrogen isotope exchange process that is used in radiopharmaceutical preparations. Furthermore, while [Ir(H)2(COE)(py)3]PF6 (6) forms upon the addition of AgPF6 to 2, its stability precludes its efficient involvement in SABRE. PMID:27934314

  5. Electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry of heterobimetallic porphyrin-corrole dyads. Influence of the spacer, metal ion, and oxidation state on the pyridine binding ability.

    PubMed

    Kadish, Karl M; Shao, Jianguo; Ou, Zhongping; Zhan, Riqiang; Burdet, Fabien; Barbe, Jean-Michel; Gros, Claude P; Guilard, Roger

    2005-11-28

    Combined electrochemical and UV-visible spectroelectrochemical methods were utilized to elucidate the prevailing mechanisms for electroreduction of previously synthesized porphyrin-corrole dyads of the form (PCY)H2Co and (PCY)MClCoCl where M = Fe(III) or Mn(III), PC = porphyrin-corrole, and Y is a bridging group, either biphenylenyl (B), 9,9-dimethylxanthenyl (X), anthracenyl (A), or dibenzofuranyl (O). These studies were carried out in pyridine, conditions under which the cobalt(IV) corrole in (PCY)MClCoCl is immediately reduced to its Co(III) form, thus enabling direct comparisons with the free-base porphyrin dyad, (PCY)H2Co(III) under the same solution conditions. The compounds are all reduced in multiple one-electron-transfer steps, the first of which involves the M(III)/M(II) process of the porphyrin in the case of (PCY)MClCoCl and the Co(III)/Co(II) process of the corrole in the case of (PCY)H2Co. Each metal-centered redox reaction may be accompanied by the gain or loss of pyridine axial ligands, with the exact stoichiometry of the exchange process depending upon the specific combination of metal ions in the dyad, their oxidation states, and the particular spacer in the complex. Before this study was started, it was expected that the porphyrin-corrole dyads with the largest spacers, namely, O and A, would readily accommodate the formation of cobalt(III) bis-pyridine adducts because of the larger size of the cavity while dyads with the smallest B spacer would seem to have insufficient room to add even a single pyridine within the cavity, as was structurally seen in the case of (PCB)H2Co(py). This is clearly not the case, as shown in the present study. A reversible Co(III)/Co(II) reaction is seen for (PCB)MnClCoCl at -0.62 V, which when combined with spectroscopic data, leads to the assignment of (PCB)Mn(III)(py)2Co(III)(py) as the species in pyridine. The reduction of (PCB)Mn(III)(py)2Co(III)(py) to (PCB)Mn(II)(py)Co(III)(py) is accompanied on the slower

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure of pentavalent uranyl complexes. The remarkable stability of U O2X (X = I, SO3CF3) in non-aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Jean-Claude; Siffredi, Gérald; Thuéry, Pierre; Ephritikhine, Michel

    2009-05-14

    The reaction of [UO(2)I(2)(THF)3] with KC(5)R(5) (R = H, Me) or K(2)C(8)H(8) in pyridine gave crystals of [{UO(2)(py)(5)}{KI2(py)2}]. (1), which were desolvated under vacuum into pulverulent [UO(2)(py)2.2KI2] (2).Similar reactions with [UO2(OTf)2] afforded [UO2(py)2.3K(OTf)2] (3) as a powder and crystals of [{UO(2)(py)(5)}2{K(3)(OTf)(5)}. py]. (4.py), which were also obtained together with crystals of [{UO2(py)5}2{K(OTf)2(py)2}][OTf] py (5. py) by treating [UO2(OTf)2] with KC(4)Me(4)P. Crystals of 6. py, the thallium analogue of 5. py, were isolated from the reaction of [UO2(OTf)2] and TlC5H5. Treatment of[UO2I2(THF)3] with LiCH2SiMe3 in pyridine afforded crystals of [{UO(2)(py)5}{LiI(py)2}][I] (7) while[UO(2)(OTf)2] reacted with the alkyllithium reagent in acetonitrile to give crystals of [{UO2(py)5}{Li2(OTf)3}]. (8) in pyridine. The crystal structures of 1, 4. py, 5. py, 6. py, 7 and 8 revealed the presence of U=O-->M interactions (M = Li, K, Tl), and the rich diversity of these structures, from dinuclear (7) to 3D polymeric (4), is related to the distinct coordination numbers of the M+ ion and ligation modes of the bridging iodide and triflate ligands as well as the presence of U=O-->M interactions. The mononuclear complexes [UO2(OTf)(THF)n] (9) and [UO2(OTf)(Et2O)0.5] (10) were respectively obtained by reaction of [UO2(OTf)2] with KC5R5 in THF or LiCH2SiMe3 in Et2O, and were transformed into [UO(2)(OTf)(py)2] (11) in pyridine. Treatment of [UO(2)I(2)(THF)3] with TlC5H5 inpyridine afforded crystals of [UO2(py)5][I]. py (12. py) which were desolvated under vacuum into the powder of [UO(2)I(py)2.5] (14). The same reaction in THF gave [UO2I(THF)2.7] (13) in powder form.Crystals of [UO(2)(CyMe4BTBP)(py)][OTf]. 1.5py (15. 1.5py) and the powder of [UO2I(CyMe4BTBP)](16) were obtained by treating [UO(2)(CyMeBTBP)X2] (X= OTf, I) with KC5Me5 or TlC5H5,respectively. The uranyl(V) chloride and nitrate compounds [UO(2)Cl(py)3] (17) and [UO2(NO3)(py)3] (18)were prepared by

  7. Platinum-group element concentrations in pyrite from the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Oberthür, T.; Lunar, R.

    2016-10-01

    The Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ) of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe hosts the world's second largest resource of platinum-group elements (PGE) after the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The sulfide assemblage of the MSZ comprises pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrite. Recently, several studies have observed in a number of Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposits that pyrite may host significant amounts of PGE, particularly Pt and Rh. In this study, we have determined PGE and other trace element contents in pyrite from the Hartley, Ngezi, Unki, and Mimosa mines of the Great Dyke by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Based on the textures and PGE contents, two types of pyrite can be differentiated. Py1 occurs as individual euhedral or subhedral grains or clusters of crystals mostly within chalcopyrite and pentlandite, in some cases in the form of symplectitic intergrowths, and is PGE rich (up to 99 ppm Pt and 61 ppm Rh; 1.7 to 47.1 ppm Ru, 0.1 to 7.8 ppm Os, and 1.2 to 20.2 ppm Ir). Py2 occurs as small individual euhedral or subhedral crystals within pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and less frequently within chalcopyrite and silicates and has low PGE contents (<0.11 ppm Pt, <0.34 ppm Rh, <2.5 ppm Ru, <0.37 ppm Ir, and <0.40 ppm Os). Py1 contains higher Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt contents than the associated pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, whereas Py2 has similar PGE contents as coexisting pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Based on the textural relationships, two different origins are attributed for each pyrite type. Py1 intergrowth with pentlandite and chalcopyrite is inferred to have formed by late, low temperature (<300 °C) decomposition of residual Ni-rich monosulfide solid solution, whereas Py2 is suggested to have formed by replacement of pyrrhotite and pentlandite caused by late magmatic/hydrothermal fluids.

  8. Unusually efficient pyridine photodissociation from Ru(II) complexes with sterically bulky bidentate ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Durr, Christopher B; Turro, Claudia

    2014-11-13

    The introduction of steric bulk to the bidentate ligand in [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(py)](2+) (1; tpy = 2,2':2',6″-terpyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; py = pyridine) to provide [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)(py)](2+) (2; Me2bpy = 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)](2+) (3; biq = 2,2'-biquinoline) facilitates photoinduced dissociation of pyridine with visible light. Upon irradiation of 2 and 3 in CH3CN (λirr = 500 nm), ligand exchange occurs to produce the corresponding [Ru(tpy)(NN)(NCCH3)](2+) (NN = Me2bpy, biq) complex with quantum yields, Φ500, of 0.16(1) and 0.033(1) for 2 and 3, respectively. These values represent an increase in efficiency of the reaction by 2-3 orders of magnitude as compared to that of 1, Φ500 < 0.0001, under similar experimental conditions. The photolysis of 2 and 3 in H2O with low energy light to produce [Ru(tpy)(NN)(OH2)](2+) (NN = Me2bpy, biq) also proceeds rapidly (λirr > 590 nm). Complexes 1-3 are stable in the dark in both CH3CN and H2O under similar experimental conditions. X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations highlight significant distortion of the planes of the bidentate ligands in 2 and 3 relative to that of 1. The crystallographic dihedral angles defined by the bidentate ligand, Me2bpy in 2 and biq in 3, and the tpy ligand were determined to be 67.87° and 61.89°, respectively, whereas only a small distortion from the octahedral geometry is observed between bpy and tpy in 1, 83.34°. The steric bulk afforded by Me2bpy and biq also result in major distortions of the pyridine ligand in 2 and 3, respectively, relative to 1, which are believed to weaken its σ-bonding and π-back-bonding to the metal and play a crucial role in the efficiency of the photoinduced ligand exchange. The ability of 2 and 3 to undergo ligand exchange with λirr > 590 nm makes them potential candidates to build photochemotherapeutic agents for the delivery of drugs with pyridine binding groups.

  9. Unusually Efficient Pyridine Photodissociation from Ru(II) Complexes with Sterically Bulky Bidentate Ancillary Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of steric bulk to the bidentate ligand in [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(py)]2+ (1; tpy = 2,2′:2′,6″-terpyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; py = pyridine) to provide [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)(py)]2+ (2; Me2bpy = 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) and [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)]2+ (3; biq = 2,2′-biquinoline) facilitates photoinduced dissociation of pyridine with visible light. Upon irradiation of 2 and 3 in CH3CN (λirr = 500 nm), ligand exchange occurs to produce the corresponding [Ru(tpy)(NN)(NCCH3)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) complex with quantum yields, Φ500, of 0.16(1) and 0.033(1) for 2 and 3, respectively. These values represent an increase in efficiency of the reaction by 2–3 orders of magnitude as compared to that of 1, Φ500 < 0.0001, under similar experimental conditions. The photolysis of 2 and 3 in H2O with low energy light to produce [Ru(tpy)(NN)(OH2)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) also proceeds rapidly (λirr > 590 nm). Complexes 1–3 are stable in the dark in both CH3CN and H2O under similar experimental conditions. X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations highlight significant distortion of the planes of the bidentate ligands in 2 and 3 relative to that of 1. The crystallographic dihedral angles defined by the bidentate ligand, Me2bpy in 2 and biq in 3, and the tpy ligand were determined to be 67.87° and 61.89°, respectively, whereas only a small distortion from the octahedral geometry is observed between bpy and tpy in 1, 83.34°. The steric bulk afforded by Me2bpy and biq also result in major distortions of the pyridine ligand in 2 and 3, respectively, relative to 1, which are believed to weaken its σ-bonding and π-back-bonding to the metal and play a crucial role in the efficiency of the photoinduced ligand exchange. The ability of 2 and 3 to undergo ligand exchange with λirr > 590 nm makes them potential candidates to build photochemotherapeutic agents for the delivery of drugs with pyridine binding groups. PMID:25027458

  10. Steric protection of a photosensitizer in a N,N-bis[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]-2-phenylethylamine-copper(II) bowl that enhances red light-induced DNA cleavage activity.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Shanta; Nethaji, Munirathinam; Chakravarty, Akhil R

    2005-11-28

    Ternary copper(II) complexes [Cu(py2phe)B](ClO4)2 (1-3), where py2phe is a tripodal ligand N,N-bis[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]-2-phenylethylamine and B is a heterocyclic base (viz., 1,10-phenanthroline (phen, 1), dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (dpq, 2), or dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine (dppz, 3)), are prepared and their DNA-binding and photoinduced DNA-cleavage activities are studied. Complex 1 has been structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The molecular structure shows an axially elongated square-pyramidal (4 + 1) coordination geometry in which the phen ligand binds at the basal plane. The tripodal ligand py2phe displays an axial-equatorial binding mode with the amine nitrogen bonded at the axial site. A chemically significant CH-pi interaction involving the CH moiety of the phenyl group of the tripodal ligand and the aromatic ring of phen is observed. The complexes display good binding propensity to calf thymus DNA giving a relative order of 3 (dppz) > 2 (dpq) > 1 (phen). The DNA binding constants (K(b)) for 1-3, determined from absorption spectral studies, are 6.2 x 10(3), 1.0 x 10(4), and 5.7 x 10(4) M(-1), respectively. The complexes show chemical nuclease activity in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a reducing agent forming hydroxyl radicals as the cleavage active species. The photoinduced DNA-cleavage activity of the complexes has been studied using UV radiation of 365 nm and red light of 632.8 and 694 nm. The phen complex in absence of any photosensitizing moiety does not show any DNA cleavage upon photoirradiation. The dpq and dppz ligands with their photoactive quinoxaline and phenazine moieties display significant photoinduced DNA-cleavage activity. The dppz complex is more active than its dpq analogue because of the better steric protection of the DNA-bound photosensitizing dppz ligand from the solvent molecules. Control experiments reveal the formation of singlet oxygen in the light-induced DNA-cleavage reactions

  11. Low-valence triruthenium compounds via substitution of a bridging acetate in the parent Ru(3)O(OAc)(6) cluster core by 2,2'-azobispyridine (abpy) or 2,2'-azobis(5-chloropyrimidine) (abcp).

    PubMed

    Ye, Heng-Yun; Dai, Feng-Rong; Zhang, Li-Yi; Chen, Zhong-Ning

    2007-07-23

    Reaction of oxo-centered Ru(3)(III,III,III) precursor [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)(py)(2)(CH(3)OH)](PF(6)) (1) with 1 equiv of 2,2'-azobispyridine (abpy) or 2,2'-azobis(5-chloropyrimidine) (abcp) induced the formation of stable Ru(3)(III,III,II) derivatives [Ru(3)O(OAc)(5){mu-eta(1)(N),eta(2)(N,N)-L}(py)(2)](PF(6)) (L = abpy (2), abcp (3)). As established in the structure of 3 by X-ray crystallography, 2 or 3 is derived from 1 by substitution of the axial methanol and one of the bridging acetates in the parent Ru(3)O(OAc)(6) cluster core with abpy or abcp in an mu-eta(1)(N),eta(2)(N,N) bonding mode. Reduction of 3 by hydrazine induces isolation of one-electron reduced neutral Ru(3)(III,II,II) product Ru(3)O(OAc)(5){mu-eta(1)(N),eta(2)(N,N)-abcp}(py)(2) (3a). As revealed by electrochemical and spectroscopic studies, substituting one of the bridging acetates in the parent Ru(3)O(OAc)(6) cluster core by abcp or abpy modifies dramatically the electronic and redox characteristics in the triruthenium derivatives. Relative to that for the parent compound [Ru(3)O(OAc)(6)(py)(3)](PF(6)) (E(1/2) = -0.46 V), triruthenium-based redox potential in the redox process Ru(3)O(III,III,III)/Ru(3)O(III,III,II) is significantly anodic-shifted to E(1/2) = +0.36 V for 2 and E(1/2) = +0.53 V for 3. Furthermore, the anodic shifts of redox potentials are progressively enhanced with a decrease of the formal oxidation states in the triruthenium cluster cores. As a consequence of remarkable positive shifts for redox potentials, the low-valence Ru(3)(III,III,II) and Ru(3)(III,II,II) species are stabilized and accessible.

  12. Structurally characterized luminescent lanthanide zinc carboxylate precursors for Ln-Zn-O nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Timothy J; Raymond, Rebecca; Boye, Daniel M; Ottley, Leigh Anna M; Lu, Ping

    2010-09-14

    A novel family of lanthanide zinc carboxylate compounds was synthesized, characterized (structural determination and luminescent behavior), and investigated for utility as single-source precursors to Ln-Zn-O nanoparticles. Carboxylic acids [H-ORc = H-OPc (H-O(2)CCH(CH(3))(2), H-OBc (H-O(2)CC(CH(3))(3), H-ONc (H-O(2)CCH(2)C(CH(3))(3))] were individually reacted with diethyl zinc (ZnEt(2)) to yield a set of previously unidentified zinc carboxylates: (i) [Zn(mu-ORc)(3)Zn(mu-ORc)](n) [ORc = OPc (1), ONc (2)], (ii) [(py)Zn](2)(mu-ORc)(4) [ORc = OBc (3), ONc (4), and py = pyridine], or (iii) Zn(ORc)(2)(solv)(2) [ORc/solv = OPc/py (5), O(c)Nc/H(2)O (6) (O(c)Rc = chelating)]. Introduction of lanthanide cation [Ln[N(SiMe(3))(2)](3), ZnEt(2), and HOBc in py] yielded the mixed cationic species structurally characterized as: (i) (O(c)Bc)Ln[(mu-OBc)(3)Zn(py)](2) [Ln = Pr (7), Nd (8), Sm (9)] or (ii) (py)(2)Zn(mu-OBc)(3)Ln(O(c)Bc)(2)(py) [Ln = Tb (10), Dy (11), Er (12), Y (13), Yb (14)]. Exploration of alternative starting materials [Ln(NO(3))(3).nH(2)O, Zn(O(2)CCH(3))(2), HOBc in py] led to the isolation of (NO(3)(c))Ln[(mu-OBc)(3)Zn(py)](2) [Ln = La (15), Ce (16), Pr (17), Nd (18), Sm (19), Eu (20), Gd (21), Tb (22) Dy (23), and Er (24); NO(3)(c) = chelating]. The UV-vis spectra of 7-24 revealed standard absorption spectra for the Ln cations. Representative compounds were used to generate nanoparticles from an established 1,4-butanediol-based solution precipitation route. The nanoproducts isolated adopted either a mixed zincite/lanthanum oxide (18n or 22n) or pure zincite (8n or 10n) phase dependent on NO(3) or OBc moiety. Fluorescence was not observed for any of these nanomaterials possibly due to phase separation, low crystallinity, surface traps, and/or quenching based on elevated Ln cation content.

  13. Oxygen Atom Exchange between H2O and Non-Heme Oxoiron(IV) Complexes: Ligand Dependence and Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mayank; Company, Anna; Sabenya, Gerard; Costas, Miquel; Que, Lawrence

    2016-06-20

    Detailed studies of oxygen atom exchange (OAE) between H2(18)O and synthetic non-heme oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by tetradentate and pentadentate ligands provide evidence that they proceed by a common mechanism but within two different kinetic regimes, with OAE rates that span 2 orders of magnitude. The first kinetic regime involves initial reversible water association to the Fe(IV) complex, which is evidenced by OAE rates that are linearly dependent on [H2(18)O] and H2O/D2O KIEs of 1.6, while the second kinetic regime involves a subsequent rate determining proton-transfer step between the bound aqua and oxo ligands that is associated with saturation behavior with [H2(18)O] and much larger H2O/D2O KIEs of 5-6. [Fe(IV)(O)(TMC)(MeCN)](2+) (1) and [Fe(IV)(O)(MePy2TACN)](2+) (9) are examples of complexes that exhibit kinetic behavior in the first regime, while [Fe(IV)(O)(N4Py)](2+) (3), [Fe(IV)(O)(BnTPEN)](2+) (4), [Fe(IV)(O)(1Py-BnTPEN)](2+) (5), [Fe(IV)(O)(3Py-BnTPEN)](2+) (6), and [Fe(IV)(O)(Me2Py2TACN)](2+) (8) represent complexes that fall in the second kinetic regime. Interestingly, [Fe(IV)(O)(PyTACN)(MeCN)](2+) (7) exhibits a linear [H2(18)O] dependence below 0.6 M and saturation above 0.6 M. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the OAE rates shows that most of these complexes exhibit large and negative activation entropies, consistent with the proposed mechanism. One exception is complex 9, which has a near-zero activation entropy and is proposed to undergo ligand-arm dissociation during the RDS to accommodate H2(18)O binding. These results show that the observed OAE kinetic behavior is highly dependent on the nature of the supporting ligand and are of relevance to studies of non-heme oxoiron(IV) complexes in water or acetonitrile/water mixtures for applications in photocatalysis and water oxidation chemistry.

  14. Asymmetric and symmetric triazenido cyclopalladated complexes: Synthesis, structural analysis and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härter Vaniel, Ana Paula; Mauro, Antonio Eduardo; de Godoy Netto, Adelino Vieira; de Almeida, Eduardo Tonon; Piquini, Paulo Cesar; Zambiazi, Priscilla; Back, Davi Fernando; Hörner, Manfredo

    2015-03-01

    The reaction of [Pd{dmba}(μ-N3)]2 (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine) with 1-(2-fluorophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)triazenido (L1) or 1,3-bis(4-nitrophenyl)triazenido (L2) anions, in methanol, and subsequent treatment with pyridine (py) allows the preparation of the corresponding cyclopalladated compounds [Pd(dmba)(L1)(py)] (1) and [Pd(dmba)(L2)(py)]ṡpy (2). The acentric mononuclear entities of (1) and (2) are connected by weak intermolecular non-classical Csbnd H⋯C hydrogen bonds, which results in 2-D arrangements by translation, along the [1 0 0] and [0 0 1] crystallographic directions, respectively.

  15. Point sensitive NMR imaging system using a magnetic field configuration with a spatial minimum

    DOEpatents

    Eberhard, Philippe H.

    1985-01-01

    A point-sensitive NMR imaging system (10) in which a main solenoid coil (11) produces a relatively strong and substantially uniform magnetic field and a pair of perturbing coils (PZ1 and PZ2) powered by current in the same direction superimposes a pair of relatively weak perturbing fields on the main field to produce a resultant point of minimum field strength at a desired location in a direction along the Z-axis. Two other pairs of perturbing coils (PX1, PX2; PY1, PY2) superimpose relatively weak field gradients on the main field in directions along the X- and Y-axes to locate the minimum field point at a desired location in a plane normal to the Z-axes. An RF generator (22) irradiates a tissue specimen in the field with radio frequency energy so that desired nuclei in a small volume at the point of minimum field strength will resonate.

  16. Mechanistic implications of the active species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons by iron complexes of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Stefania; Marques-Gallego, Patricia; Browne, Wesley R; Hage, Ronald; Bouwman, Elisabeth; Feringa, Ben L; Reedijk, Jan

    2008-04-21

    The reactivity towards H(2)O(2) of the complexes [Fe(pca)(2)(py)(2)].py (1) and Na(2){[Fe(pca(3))](2)O}.2H(2)O.CH(3)CN (2) (where pca(-) is pyrazine-2-carboxylate) and their catalytic activity in the oxidation of hydrocarbons is reported. Addition of H(2)O(2) to 1 results in the formation of a dinuclear Fe(III)-(mu-O)-Fe(III) species characterized spectroscopically and by cyclic voltammetry. By contrast, treatment of 2 with H(2)O(2) results in the formation of mononuclear iron(II) complexes, [Fe(pca)(2)(solvent)(2)]. The experimental results indicate that the catalytic activity of the starting complexes 1 and 2 is strongly dependent on the species formed in solution.

  17. Halogen contacts-induced unusual coloring in Bi(III) bromide complex: anion-to-cation charge transfer via Br···Br interactions.

    PubMed

    Adonin, Sergey A; Gorokh, Igor D; Novikov, Alexander S; Abramov, Pavel A; Sokolov, Maxim N; Fedin, Vladimir P

    2017-09-21

    A yellow bromobismuthate {(2-BrPy)2H}[BiBr4] (1) transforms into unusually deeply colored cherry-red (2-BrPyH)2[BiBr5] (2). Combination of structural studies and theoretical calculations confirms that appearance of short non-covalent Br···Br interactions (≈ 3.3 Å) in 2 is responsible for the anion-to-cation charge transfer (LP(Brligand) → σ*(Br-C)), yielding in dramatic changes in optical behavior. This effect opens the way towards novel halogen bonding-templated halometalate-based hybrid materials with enhanced optical properties. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. On the structural and electronic considerations concerning the reactivity of metal-metal multiple bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Katherine Campbell

    2000-10-01

    The previously known compound W2(OCH2tBu) 6(py)2 is crystallographically characterized. Its solid state structure is described and compared with other M2(OR)6L 2 complexes. Upon treatment with isoprene, the complex W2(OCH 2tBu)6(py)(mu-isoprene) forms. The solid state structure is disordered with respect to the orientation of the diene; two different configurations are seen in the crystal structure. These two isomers are in equilibrium in solution and are visible by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Multidimensional NMR experiments are used to assign the structures of the two isomers in solution. Through the use of spin magnetization transfer, it has been determined that the two isomers interconvert through the loss of isoprene. The DeltaH° and DeltaS° values for the equilibrium are determined. The starting material W2(OCH2tBu) 6(py)2 had been previously determined to be an olefin hydrogenation catalyst. It has been determined that cyclic olefins are hydrogenated in a cis manner, and a kinetic isotope effect of 1.7 has been measured. It has been determined that olefins which form isolable adducts with W 2(OCH2tBu)6(py)2, such as isoprene, undergo hydrogenation at approximately the same rate as olefins which do not show evidence of adduct formation. The complex W2(OCH2tBu)6(py) 2had been found to couple aldehydes and ketones stoichiometrically to give olefins. The reaction was found to proceed in a stepwise manner through the alkylidene intermediate W2(OCH2tBu) 6(py)(O)(mu-CHR), allowing the selective cross coupling of aldehydes and ketones. More studies have been undertaken to help determine the scope of the reaction. Competition experiments have been performed to determine reaction preferences. Unsaturated and functionalized aldehydes have been studied to determine the tolerance of the reaction to certain chemical groups. The role of pyridine in this reaction has been studied, especially concerning its reactivity with the alkylidene intermediate. The dimetal tetracarboxylate

  19. Synthesis and structural features of U VI and V IV chelate complexes with (hhmmbH)Cl·H 2O [hhmmb = {3-hydroxyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine-4-yl-methylene}benzohydrazide], a new Schiff base ligand derived from vitamin B6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Davi Fernando; Ballin, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Gelson Manzoni

    2009-10-01

    The Schiff base ligand {3-hydroxyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine-4-yl-methylene}benzohydrazide hydrochloride monohydrated {(hhmmbH)Cl·H 2O} ( 1) was prepared by reaction of pyridoxine hydrochloride with benzoic acid hydrazide. The reaction of 1 with [VO(acac) 2] and triethylamine yields the neutral vanadium IV complex [VO 2(hhmmb)]·Py ( 2), with a distorted quadratic pyramidal configuration. The Schiff base 1 reacts also with UO 2(NO 3) 2·6H 2O and triethylamine under deprotonation giving the uranium VI cationic complexes [UO 2(hhmmb)(H 2O)Cl] + ( 3) and [UO 2(hhmmb)(CH 3OH)Cl] + ( 4), both showing the classical pentagonal bipyrimidal geometry of UO22+ complexes. The structural features of all compounds are discussed.

  20. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of bipyrimidine bridged triruthenium complexes.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Kitazume, Jun; Yamaguchi, Tadashi

    2011-08-07

    A new μ(4)-bpym-bridged dimer of an oxoacetao-triruthenium complex with carbonyl, [{Ru(3)O(CH(3)COO)(5)(CO)(py)}(2)(μ(4)-bpym)], was synthesized. The complex possesses two stable mixed-valence states associated with Ru(3)(III,III,II)/Ru(3)(III,II,II) and Ru(3)(III,III,III)/Ru(3)(III,III,II). The IR-spectroelectrochemistry reveals ν(CO) spectra in five oxidation states, Ru(3)(III,III,III)-Ru(3)(III,III,III) to Ru(3)(III,II,II)-Ru(3)(III,II,II) and both the mixed-valence states show a spectrum indicating medium interaction between the Ru(3) units.

  1. Generation of photocurrent by visible-light irradiation of conjugated dawson polyoxophosphovanadotungstate-porphyrin copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Iban; Huo, Zhaohui; Farha, Rana; Goldmann, Michel; Xu, Hualong; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Lacôte, Emmanuel; Ruhlmann, Laurent

    2015-05-26

    Four hybrid polyoxometalate-porphyrin copolymer films were obtained by the electrooxidation of zinc octaethylporphyrin in the presence of four different Dawson-type polyoxometalates bearing two pyridyl groups (POM(py)2) with various spacers. The POM monomers were designed around 1,3,5-trisubstituted benzene rings. Two of the substituents of the benzene ring are linked to the pyridyl groups, and the third is connected to the POM subunit. The four monomers vary in the relative positions of the nitrogen atoms of the pyridine rings or in the distance from the carbonyl group. The monomers were fully characterized by (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. The copolymers were characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and AFM. Their photovoltaic performance under visible light irradiation was investigated by photocurrent transient measurements under visible illumination.

  2. New Ru(II) complexes for dual photoreactivity: ligand exchange and (1)O2 generation.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Turro, Claudia

    2015-08-18

    Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and (1)O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field ((3)LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) state; however, temperature-dependent emission spectroscopy provides varied activation energies using the emission and ligand exchange quantum yields for [Ru(bpy)2(L)2](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; L = CH3CN or py). This suggests that population of the (3)LF state proceeds from the vibrationally excited (3)MLCT state. Because the quantum yield of ligand dissociation for nitriles is much more efficient than that for py, steric bulk was introduced into the ligand set to distort the pseudo-octahedral geometry and lower the energy of the (3)LF state. The py dissociation quantum yield with 500 nm irradiation in a series of [Ru(tpy)(NN)(py)](2+) complexes (tpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine; NN = bpy, 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Me2bpy), 2,2'-biquinoline (biq)) increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude with the sterically bulky Me2bpy and biq ligands relative to bpy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals population of the (3)LF state within 3-7 ps when NN is bulky, and density functional theory calculations support stabilized (3)LF states. Dual activity via ligand dissociation and (1)O2 production can be achieved by careful selection of the ligand set to tune the excited-state dynamics. Incorporation of an extended π system in Ru(II) complexes such as [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2](2+) (dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) and [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)](2+) (Me2dppn = 3,6-dimethylbenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) introduces

  3. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of 5-(4-Sulfophenylazo) salicylate-bridged 1D coordination polymers containing linear trinuclear metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Song, Li-jun; Ju, Zhan-feng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jie

    2008-03-01

    Three new trinuclear metal complexes with an azobenzene-containing ligand [M 3(Sasa) 2(Py) 2(H 2O) 8] (Na 2HSasa = 5-(4-Sulfophenylazo) salicylic acid disodium salt; Py = pyridine; M = Cu, Co, Zn), are synthesized through the interface diffusion and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, XRPD analysis and spectral methods. The metal ions in distorted octahedral coordination environments are connected by Sasa ligands to form 1D coordination polymer chain containing the linear trinuclear units with single syn-anti carboxylate bridges. The extensive hydrogen bonding interactions hold these chains together into 3D supramolecular network. Weak antiferromagnetic interactions between adjacent metal ions with J = -1.85 cm -1 and J = -2.81 cm -1 dominate the magnetic properties of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes, separately.

  4. Oxidation of a P-C Bond under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ilić, Gordana; Gaguly, Rakesh; Petković, Milena; Vidović, Dragoslav

    2015-12-14

    The reactivity of phosphenium dication [(Ph3P)2C-P-NiPr2](2+), 1(2+), towards pyridine N-oxide (O-py) has been investigated. The resulting oxophosphonium dication [(Ph3P)2C(NiPr2)P(O)(O-py)](2+), 2(2+), was surprisingly stabilized by a less nucleophilic O-py ligand instead of pyridine (py). This compound was then identified as an analogue of the elusive Criegee intermediate as it underwent oxygen insertion into the P-C bond through a mechanism usually observed for Baeyer-Villiger oxidations. This oxygen insertion appears to be the first example of a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation involving O-py.

  5. The design of synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetics: seven-coordinate water soluble manganese(ii) and iron(ii) complexes and their superoxide dismutase-like activity studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ovender; Tyagi, Nidhi; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Ghosh, Kaushik

    2017-10-06

    Bio-inspired manganese [Mn(N5Py)(H2O)(CH3OH)](ClO4)2 (1) and iron [Fe(N5Py)(H2O)(ClO4)]ClO4 (2) complexes derived from a pentadentate ligand (N5Py = 2,6-bis((E)-1-phenyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylmethylene)hydrazinyl)pyridine) framework containing a N5 binding motif were synthesized and characterized using different spectroscopic methods. The molecular structures of complexes 1 and 2 were determined by X-ray crystallography. These complexes were found to be stable under physiological conditions and exhibited an excellent superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The SOD activity was determined by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase-nitro blue tetrazolium assay and the IC50 values were determined to be 1.53 and 2.09 μM, respectively.

  6. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)–polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and 1O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field (3LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) state; however, temperature-dependent emission spectroscopy provides varied activation energies using the emission and ligand exchange quantum yields for [Ru(bpy)2(L)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; L = CH3CN or py). This suggests that population of the 3LF state proceeds from the vibrationally excited 3MLCT state. Because the quantum yield of ligand dissociation for nitriles is much more efficient than that for py, steric bulk was introduced into the ligand set to distort the pseudo-octahedral geometry and lower the energy of the 3LF state. The py dissociation quantum yield with 500 nm irradiation in a series of [Ru(tpy)(NN)(py)]2+ complexes (tpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; NN = bpy, 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (Me2bpy), 2,2′-biquinoline (biq)) increases by 2–3 orders of magnitude with the sterically bulky Me2bpy and biq ligands relative to bpy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals population of the 3LF state within 3–7 ps when NN is bulky, and density functional theory calculations support stabilized 3LF states. Dual activity via ligand dissociation and 1O2 production can be achieved by careful selection of the ligand set to tune the excited-state dynamics. Incorporation of an extended π system in Ru(II) complexes such as [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2]2+ (dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine) and [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ (Me2dppn = 3,6-dimethylbenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric azido Zn(II) and Ni(II) complexes based on 3-hydroxypyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautner, Franz A.; Berger, Christian; Domian, Elisabeth; Fischer, Roland C.; Massoud, Salah S.

    2016-10-01

    The synthesis and structural characterization of two new complexes catena-[Ni(3-O-py)(3-HO-py)2(μ1,3-N3)(H2O)] (1) and catena-[Zn(μ-3-O-py)(μ1,1-N3)] (2), where 3-HO-py = 3-hydroxypyridine, are reported. The complexes were characterized by the elemental microanalyses, IR, and X-ray crystallography and by UV-Vis spectroscopy for complex 1. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed the polymeric nature of the complexes: 1 as 1D with a single EE azide bridging, and 2 as 2D with μ(O,O‧,N) bridging of the deprotonated 3-O-py anions and di-EO azide groups, respectively. In 1 the neutral and deprotonated 3-hydroxypyridine molecules act only as N-terminal ligands. The emission spectral properties of the Zn(II) complex were investigated.

  8. Spin Pumping in Ferromagnetic Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Imamura, Hiroshi

    We present a brief review of our recent study on spin pumping in ferromagnetic multilayers. First, we present theoretical models describing spin pumping induced by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Then we apply the spin-pumping theory to FMR in ferromagnetic multilayers and show that the line width of the FMR spectrum depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic metal layer which is not in resonance. We also show that the penetration depths of transverse spin current in ferromagnetic metals can be determined by analyzing the line width of the FMR spectrum. The obtained penetration depths of the transverse spin current were 3.7 nm for Py, 2.5 nm for CoFe, 12.0 nm for CoFeB, and 1.7 nm for Co, respectively.

  9. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-09-08

    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  10. Experimental investigation of the role of the triplet pairing in the superconducting spin-valve effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leksin, P. V.; Kamashev, A. A.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Validov, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Kataev, V. E.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    An important role of the morphology of a superconducting layer in the superconducting spin-valve effect has been established. The triplet pairing induced by the superconductor/ferromagnet proximity effect has been experimentally investigated for samples CoO x /Py1/Cu/Py2/Cu/Pb (where Py = Ni0.81Fe0.19) with a smooth superconducting layer. The optimization of the parameters of this structure has demonstrated a complete switching between the normal and superconducting states with a change in the relative orientation of magnetizations of the ferromagnetic layers from the antiparallel to orthogonal orientation. A pure triplet contribution has been observed for the sample with a permalloy layer thickness at which the superconducting spin-valve effect vanishes. A direct comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical calculation of the temperature of the transition to the superconducting state has been performed for the first time.

  11. Genesis of the Permian karstic Pingguo bauxite deposit, western Guangxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Yang, Shujuan; Liang, Yayun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yan; Guan, Tao

    2017-04-01

    More than 0.5 billion tons of late Permian bauxite overlies the karstic topography of the Maokou Formation of western Guangxi in China. Here, we provide new mineralogical, geochemical, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, and pyrite S isotope and trace element compositional data for the Pingguo bauxite deposit, aiming to further our understanding of the genesis of Permian bauxite. The Pingguo bauxite contains three distinct layers: a lower layer dominated by ferric clay or weathered iron ore, a middle layer of cryptocrystalline and oolitic bauxite ore, and an upper layer dominated by argillaceous bauxite. The bauxite ore is mainly diaspore, pyrite, chamosite, and anatase, whereas the argillaceous bauxite contains diaspore, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, pyrite, and anatase. Two types of pyrite have been identified within the bauxite: fine-grained and framboidal pyrite (Py1) occurring in aggregates and coarse-grained and euhedral pyrite (Py2). Py1 is enriched in trace elements and is thought to have a diagenetic origin, whereas Py2 is deficient in trace elements and is considered to have formed by later recrystallization. The S isotopic composition of pyrite (-34.11 to -18.91‰) and visible ovoid microorganisms within the bauxite provide evidences of microbial activity during bauxite formation. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the bauxite indicates that these ores were generated by the weathering of basalts belonging to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP) and limestones of the Maokou Formation. Microorganisms were likely to have enhanced the dissolution and weathering of the parent rock and facilitated the precipitation of diaspore under near-surface conditions.

  12. Intramolecular Proton Transfer Boosts Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Ru Complex.

    PubMed

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-08-26

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Ru(n)(tda)(py)2](m+) (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2(+); n = 4, m = 2, 3(2+)), with tda(2-) being [2,2':6',2″-terpyridine]-6,6″-dicarboxylate, including complex [Ru(IV)(OH)(tda-κ-N(3)O)(py)2](+), 4H(+), which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 3(2+) under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV-vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H(+) can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 3(2+), and both coexist in solution. While complex 3(2+) is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H(+) is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s(-1) at pH 7.0 and 50 000 s(-1) at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H(+), manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O-O bond formation.

  13. A Mn₁₅ single-molecule magnet consisting of a supertetrahedron incorporated in a loop.

    PubMed

    Moushi, Eleni E; Masello, Antonio; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Nastopoulos, Vassilios; Christou, George; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J

    2010-05-28

    Two new Mn(15) clusters consisting of a supertetrahedron which is incorporated in a loop are reported. The reactions of [Mn(O(2)CEt)(2)]·2H(2)O with the diols 1,3-propanediol (H(2)pd) or 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (H(2)mpd) in the presence of KX (X = CN(-), Cl(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), ClO(4)(-), OCN(-), SCN(-)) afforded compounds [Mn(15)K(mu(4)-O)(4)(O(2)CEt)(11)(pd)(12)(py)(2)] (1) and [Mn(15)K(mu(4)-O)(4)(O(2)CEt)(11)(mpd)(12)(py)(2)] (2). The structural core of 1 and 2 consists of a Mn(11) loop and a Mn(9)K supertetrahedron sharing a Mn(5) triangle. To the best of our knowledge, the structural motif of a supertetrahedron incorporated in a loop appears for the first time in metal cluster chemistry. Variable-temperature, solid-state direct current (dc) magnetic susceptibility studies in the 300-5 K range showed that the chi(M)T value increases with decreasing T suggesting the existence of predominant ferromagnetic exchange interactions and a relatively large ground state spin. This was confirmed by field-variable temperature magnetization measurements which were fitted using a matrix diagonalization method to give S approximately 23/2, g = 1.92(1) and D = -0.071(2) cm(-1). In addition, compound 1 displays frequency-dependent alternating current (ac) signals suggesting single-molecule magnetism (SMM) behaviour. This was proven by magnetization vs. dc field sweeps on single-crystals of 1·0.7py·1.3MeCN, which displayed sweep rate- and temperature-dependent hysteresis loops.

  14. A two-step spin transition with a disordered intermediate state in a new two-dimensional coordination polymer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J Alberto; Castro, Miguel; Palacios, Elías; Burriel, Ramón; Kitazawa, Takafumi; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    2007-02-15

    The two-dimensional (2D) polymeric spin crossover (SCO) compound Fe(py)2[Ag(CN)2]2 has been synthesized. The compound shows a two-step spin transition detected by magnetic, heat capacity, and X-ray diffraction measurements. The magnetic moment shows a high-temperature step (step 1) occurring at 146.3 K without hysteresis, while the low-temperature step (step 2) happens at 84 K on cooling and 98.2 K on heating. These measurements reveal a large amount of residual high spin (HS) species (23%) and that HS state trapping occurs at cooling rates of around 1 K min(-1) or higher. The two-step behavior has been confirmed by heat capacity, which gives, for steps 1 and 2, respectively, DeltaH1 = 3.33 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS1 = 22.6 J mol(-1) K(-1), and DeltaH2 = 1.51 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS2 = 15.7 J mol(-1) K(-1). For step 2 a hysteresis of 10 K has been determined with dynamic measurements. Powder X-ray diffraction at room temperature shows that the compound is isostructural to Cd(py)2[Ag(CN)2]2 previously reported. Powder X-ray diffraction indicates that there is only one crystallographic site for iron(II) in the whole temperature range, confirmed by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction study at different temperatures do not show any superstructure in the region between the transitions, discarding a crystallographic phase transition as the origin of the two-step behavior. However, an unexpected increase of the thermal factor is detected on lowering the temperature and considered as a manifestation of a disordered state between the two steps, consisting of a mixing of HS and LS species without long-range order.

  15. Silver-pyrazole complexes as hybrid multifunctional materials with metallomesogenic and photoluminescent behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ovejero, Paloma; Asensio, Eduardo; Heras, José Vicente; Campo, José Antonio; Cano, Mercedes; Torres, M Rosario; Núñez, Cristina; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-02-14

    New pyridine-functionalised pyrazole compounds [Hpz(R(n)py)] (R(n) = C(6)H(4)OC(n)H(2n+1); n = 12, 14, 16, 18; 1-4) and their corresponding silver complexes [Ag(Hpz(R(n)py))(2)][A] ([A] = NO(3)(-), BF(4)(-); ) have been synthesised and characterised. All of them, with the exception of 1, are liquid crystal materials exhibiting monotropic or enantiotropic SmA mesophases, in contrast to the non-mesomorphic related R(n)-monosubstituted compounds. Because the molecular shape is a factor determinant in the organisation of molecules in the liquid crystal phase, we were interested in solving the crystal structure of representative examples of the mentioned compounds, such as 1 and 6. So, the X-ray crystal structure of [Hpz(R(12)py)] 1 shows the presence of dimeric units through N-H···N hydrogen bonds, which conform to an elongated molecular shape containing a double chain length. On the other hand, the structure of [Ag(Hpz(R(14)py))(2)][NO(3)] 6 also evidenced Ag-Ag bonded dimers from 'U'-shaped cationic entities. These dimers exhibit four chains, two by two alternated, so giving rise to a longer molecular length. Of particular interest was to observe that in both structures, the dimers are layer-like packed, their lamellar structures being related to that of the mesophases found in both kinds of compounds. Furthermore, the analysis of the optical data of the compounds 2 and 4 and the silver compounds 5, 6, 9 and 10 as representative examples pointed out their luminescent behaviour as well as their good ability to act as fluorescent probes for Zn(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+). An increase in the fluorescence quantum yields is observed in the final complexes produced in the titrations, this fact being specially notable when 9 was used as the starting compound.

  16. Structure of salts of lithium chloride and lithium hexafluorophosphate as solvates with pyridine and vinylpyridine and structural comparisons: (C5H5N)LiPF6, [p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]LiPF6, [(C5H5N)LiCl]n, and [p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]2Li(μ-Cl)2Li[p-(CH2=CH)C5H4N]2.

    PubMed

    Jalil, AbdelAziz; Clymer, Rebecca N; Hamilton, Clifton R; Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Gau, Michael R; Zdilla, Michael J

    2017-03-01

    Due to the flammability of liquid electrolytes used in lithium ion batteries, solid lithium ion conductors are of interest to reduce danger and increase safety. The two dominating general classes of electrolytes under exploration as alternatives are ceramic and polymer electrolytes. Our group has been exploring the preparation of molecular solvates of lithium salts as alternatives. Dissolution of LiCl or LiPF6 in pyridine (py) or vinylpyridine (VnPy) and slow vapor diffusion with diethyl ether gives solvates of the lithium salts coordinated by pyridine ligands. For LiPF6, the solvates formed in pyridine and vinylpyridine, namely tetrakis(pyridine-κN)lithium(I) hexafluorophosphate, [Li(C5H5N)4]PF6, and tetrakis(4-ethenylpyridine-κN)lithium(I) hexafluorophosphate, [Li(C7H7N)4]PF6, exhibit analogous structures involving tetracoordinated lithium ions with neighboring PF6(-) anions in the I-4 and Aea2 space groups, respectively. For LiCl solvates, two very different structures form. catena-Poly[[(pyridine-κN)lithium]-μ3-chlorido], [LiCl(C5H5N)]n, crystalizes in the P212121 space group and contains channels of edge-fused LiCl rhombs templated by rows of π-stacked pyridine ligands, while the structure of the LiCl-VnPy solvate, namely di-μ-chlorido-bis[bis(4-ethenylpyridine-κN)lithium], [Li2Cl2(C7H7N)4], is described in the P21/n space group as dinuclear (VnPy)2Li(μ-Cl)2Li(VnPy)2 units packed with neighbors via a dense array of π-π interactions.

  17. Site preferences in hetero-metallic [Fe9-xNix] clusters: a combined crystallographic, spectroscopic and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Georgopoulou, Anastasia N; Al-Ameed, Karrar; Boudalis, Athanassios K; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios F; Psycharis, Vassilis; McGrady, John E; Sanakis, Yiannis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P

    2017-09-18

    The reaction of mixtures of Fe(O2CMe)2·2H2O and Ni(O2CMe)2·4H2O of various compositions with di-2-pyridyl ketone (py2CO, dpk) in MeCN under an inert atmosphere afforded a family of hetero-metallic enneanuclear clusters with general formula [Fe9-xNix(μ4-OH)2(O2CMe)8(py2CO2)4] (2, x = 1.00; 3: x = 6.02; 4, x = 7.46; 5, x = 7.81). Clusters 2-5 are isomorphous to the homo-metallic [Fe9] cluster (1) previously reported by some of us, and also isostructural to the known homo-metallic [Ni9] cluster. All four clusters contain a central M(II) ion in an unusual 8-coordinate site and eight peripheral M(II) ions in distorted octahedral environments. The distribution of Fe(II) and Ni(II) ions over these two distinct coordination sites in 2-5 can be established through a combination of X-ray fluorescence and Mössbauer spectroscopies, which show that Fe(II) preferentially occupies the unique 8-coordinate metal site while Ni(II) accumulates in the octahedral holes. Density functional theory indicates that the distribution of ions across the two sites arises not from any intrinsic preference of the Fe(II) ions for the 8-coordinate sites, but rather because of the large ligand field stabilization energy available to Ni(II) in octahedral coordination.

  18. Systematic Approach for the Construction of Niobium and Tantalum Sulfide Clusters.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Manuel; Hernández-Prieto, Cristina; Martín, Avelino; Mena, Miguel; Santamaría, Cristina

    2016-04-18

    Treatment of the imido complexes [MCl3(NR)py2] (R = (t)Bu, 2,6-Me2C6H3; M = Nb 1, 3; Ta 2, 4) (Xyl = 2,6-Me2C6H3) with (Me3Si)2S in a 1:1 ratio afforded the new cube-type sulfide clusters [MCl(NR)py(μ3-S)]4 (R = (t)Bu, 2,6-Me2C6H3; M = Nb 5, 7; Ta 6, 8) with loss of Me3SiCl. Reactions of 5 and 6 with cyclopentadienyllithium in 1:4 ratio resulted in the rupture of the coordinative M-S bonds and the replacement of a pyridine molecule and a chlorine atom by an η(5)-cyclopentadienyl group in each metal center, affording the compounds [M(η(5)-C5H5)(N(t)Bu)(μ-S)]4 (M = Nb 9, Ta 10). These processes may develop through formation of the complexes [M4(η(5)-C5H5)2(μ-Cl)(N(t)Bu)4py2(μ3-S)2(μ-S)2](C5H5) (M = Nb 11, Ta 12), also obtained by reaction of 5 and 6 with cyclopentadienyllithium in 1:3 ratio. As further evidence, 11 and 12 led to complexes 9 and 10 by treatment with one more equivalent of the lithium reagent. The structural study of these metal sulfide clusters has been also performed by X-ray crystallography.

  19. Intramolecular Proton Transfer Boosts Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Ru Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, Jordi; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S.; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-08-26

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Run(tda)(py)2]m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2+; n = 4, m = 2, 32+), with tda2– being [2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-6,6''-dicarboxylate, including complex [RuIV(OH)(tda-κ-N3O)(py)2]+, 4H+, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 32+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H+ can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 32+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 32+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H+ is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s–1 at pH 7.0 and 50 000 s–1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H+, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O–O bond formation.

  20. A Tertiary Carbon–Iron Bond as an Fe I Cl Synthon and the Reductive Alkylation of Diphosphine-Supported Iron(II) Chloride Complexes to Low-Valent Iron

    DOE PAGES

    Tondreau, Aaron M.; Scott, Brian L.; Boncella, James M.

    2016-05-23

    We explored ligand-induced reduction of ferrous alkyl complexes via homolytic cleavage of the alkyl fragment with simple chelating diphosphines. The reactivities of the sodium salts of diphenylmethane, phenyl(trimethylsilyl)methane, or diphenyl(trimethylsilyl)methane were explored in their reactivity with (py)4FeCl2. Furthermore, we prepared a series of monoalkylated salts of the type (py)2FeRCl and characterized from the addition of 1 equiv of the corresponding alkyl sodium species. These complexes are isostructural and have similar magnetic properties. The double alkylation of (py)4FeCl2 resulted in the formation of tetrahedral high-spin iron complexes with the sodium salts of diphenylmethane and phenyl(trimethylsilyl)methane that readily decomposed. A bis(cyclohexadienyl) sandwichmore » complex was formed with the addition of 2 equiv of the tertiary alkyl species sodium diphenyl(trimethylsilyl)methane. The addition of chelating phosphines to (py)2FeRCl resulted in the overall transfer of Fe(I) chloride concurrent with loss of pyridine and alkyl radical. (dmpe)2FeCl was synthesized via addition of 1 equiv of sodium diphenyl(trimethylsilyl)methane, whereas the addition of 2 equiv of the sodium compound to (dmpe)2FeCl2 gave the reduced Fe(0) nitrogen complex (dmpe)2Fe(N2). Our results demonstrate that iron–alkyl homolysis can be used to afford clean, low-valent iron complexes without the use of alkali metals.« less

  1. Ring opening metathesis polymerization-derived block copolymers bearing chelating ligands: synthesis, metal immobilization and use in hydroformylation under micellar conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Gajanan M; Weckesser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Summary Norborn-5-ene-(N,N-dipyrid-2-yl)carbamide (M1) was copolymerized with exo,exo-[2-(3-ethoxycarbonyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carbonyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (M2) using the Schrock catalyst Mo(N-2,6-Me2-C6H3)(CHCMe2Ph)(OCMe(CF3)2)2 [Mo] to yield poly(M1-b-M2). In water, poly(M1-b-M2) forms micelles with a critical micelle-forming concentration (cmc) of 2.8 × 10−6 mol L−1; Reaction of poly(M1-b-M2) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = cycloocta-1,5-diene) yields the Rh(I)-loaded block copolymer poly(M1-b-M2)-Rh containing 18 mg of Rh(I)/g of block copolymer with a cmc of 2.2 × 10−6 mol L−1. The Rh-loaded polymer was used for the hydroformylation of 1-octene under micellar conditions. The data obtained were compared to those obtained with a monomeric analogue, i.e. CH3CON(Py)2RhCl(COD) (C1, Py = 2-pyridyl). Using the polymer-supported catalyst under micellar conditions, a significant increase in selectivity, i.e. an increase in the n:iso ratio was accomplished, which could be further enhanced by the addition of excess ligand, e.g., triphenylphosphite. Special features of the micellar catalytic set up are discussed. PMID:20502652

  2. C-C bond formation and related reactions at the CNC backbone in (smif)FeX (smif = 1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl): dimerizations, 3 + 2 cyclization, and nucleophilic attack; transfer hydrogenations and alkyne trimerization (X = N(TMS)2, dpma = (di-(2-pyridyl-methyl)-amide)).

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brenda A; Williams, Valerie A; Wolczanski, Peter T; Bart, Suzanne C; Meyer, Karsten; Cundari, Thomas R; Lobkovsky, Emil B

    2013-03-18

    Molecular orbital analysis depicts the CNC(nb) backbone of the smif (1,3-di-(2-pyridyl)-2-azaallyl) ligand as having singlet diradical and/or ionic character where electrophilic or nucleophilic attack is plausible. Reversible dimerization of (smif)Fe{N(SiMe3)2} (1) to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(3),κ(3)-N,py2-smif,smif) (2) may be construed as diradical coupling. A proton transfer within the backbone-methylated, and o-pyridine-methylated smif of putative ((b)Me2(o)Me2smif)FeN(SiMe3)2 (8) provides a route to [{(Me3Si)2N}Fe]2(μ-κ(4),κ(4)-N,py2,C-((b)Me,(b)CH2,(o)Me2(smif)H))2 (9). A 3 + 2 cyclization of ditolyl-acetylene occurs with 1, leading to the dimer [{2,5-di(pyridin-2-yl)-3,4-di-(p-tolyl-2,5-dihydropyrrol-1-ide)}FeN(SiMe3)2]2 (11), and the collateral discovery of alkyne cyclotrimerization led to a brief study that identified Fe(N(SiMe3)2(THF) as an effective catalyst. Nucleophilic attack by (smif)2Fe (13) on (t)BuNCO and (2,6-(i)Pr2C6H3)NCO afforded (RNHCO-smif)2Fe (14a, R = (t)Bu; 14b, 2,6-(i)PrC6H3). Calculations suggested that (dpma)2Fe (15) would favorably lose dihydrogen to afford (smif)2Fe (13). H2-transfer to alkynes, olefins, imines, PhN═NPh, and ketones was explored, but only stoichiometric reactions were affected. Some physical properties of the compounds were examined, and X-ray structural studies on several dinuclear species were conducted.

  3. Intramolecular proton transfer boosts water oxidation catalyzed by a Ru complex

    DOE PAGES

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, J.; ...

    2015-07-30

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Run(tda)(py)2]m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2+; n = 4, m = 2, 32+), with tda2– being [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate, including complex [RuIV(OH)(tda-κ-N3O)(py)2]+, 4H+, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 32+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Rumore » center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H+ can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 32+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 32+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H+ is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s–1 at pH 7.0 and 50,000 s–1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H+, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering the activation free energies that lead to O–O bond formation.« less

  4. Metal–organic frameworks assembled from lanthanide and 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate with cubane-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}] building units

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelbaky, Mohammed S.M.; Amghouz, Zakariae; Fernández-Zapico, Eva; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R.

    2015-09-15

    Lanthanide–organic frameworks based on 2,5-pyridinedicaboxylate (25p) ligand, formulated as [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pYb), [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (25pY-1) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] (25pY-2), have been obtained as single phases under hydrothermal conditions. 25pYb and 25pY-1 are isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic space group, P-1, with a=8.6075(5) Å, b=14.8478(7) Å, c=15.9164(9) Å, α=86.277(4)°, β=80.196(5)°, γ=81.785(4)°, and a=8.7166(6) Å, b=14.966(1) Å, c=15.966(1) Å, α=86.260(6)°, β=80.036(6)°, γ=81.599(6)°, respectively. 25pY-2 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group, P2{sub 1}/c, with a=24.9117(17) Å, b=13.7340(8) Å, c=14.3385(10) Å, β=100.551(7)°. 25pYb and 25pY-2 have been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 25pYb structure is based on tetranuclear cubane-like [Yb{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are interconnected to eight neighbouring clusters through teen surrounding 25p ligands leading to neutral 3D framework, while the structure of 25pY-2 is based on two independent cuban-like [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters, which are joined together through Y1 cation leading to the formation of hexanuclear [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}]{sup 10+} clusters, which in turn are joined via Y2 cation resulting in infinite inorganic chain extending along c-axis, and each chain is interconnected to six adjacent chains through 25p ligands leading finally to 3D framework. The luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped 25pY-1 and 25pY-2 compounds have also been investigated. All materials has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG–SDTA–MS), FTIR spectroscopy, C–H–N elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), and powder X-ray thermodiffraction. - Graphical abstract: Nowadays, lanthanide–organic frameworks (LOFs) attract tremendous attention due to the unique characteristic of lanthanide cations, such as variable coordination numbers and geometries which often lead to novel complex structures, and also to their magnetic and photoluminescence properties. Herein, three LOFs formulated as [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(25p){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·H{sub 2}O (Ln=Y, Yb) and [Y{sub 6}(OH){sub 8}(25p){sub 5}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] have been obtained by hydrothermal method and characterized, and the photoluminescence properties of the Eu and Tb doped compounds are discussed. - Highlights: • Three novel LnOFs has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal structures are based on tetranuclear cuban-like [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters. • 25pYb and 25pY-1 are based on isolated [Ln{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters. • 25pY-2 is based on infinite inorganic chains built up from [Y{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}]{sup 8+} clusters. • Photoluminescence studies show strong red and green light emissions.

  5. Dioxygen-binding kinetics and thermodynamics of a series of dicopper(I) complexes with bis[2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine tridendate chelators forming side-on peroxo-bridged dicopper(II) adducts.

    PubMed

    Liang, H C; Karlin, K D; Dyson, R; Kaderli, S; Jung, B; Zuberbühler, A D

    2000-12-25

    Copper-dioxygen interactions are of interest due to their importance in biological systems as reversible O2- carriers, oxygenases, or oxidases and also because of their role in industrial and laboratory oxidation processes. Here we report on the kinetics (stopped-flow, -90 to 10 degrees C) of O2-binding to a series of dicopper(I) complexes, [Cu2(Nn)(MeCN)2]2+ (1Nn) (-(CH2)n- (n = 3-5) linked bis[(2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl]amine, PY2) and their close mononuclear analogue, [(MePY2)Cu(MeCN)]+ (3), which form mu-eta 2:eta 2-peroxodicopper(II) complexes [Cu2(Nn)-(O2)]2+ (2Nn) and [(MePY2)Cu]2(O2)]2+ (4), respectively. The overall kinetic mechanism involves initial reversible (k+,open/k-,open) formation of a nondetectable intermediate O2-adduct [Cu2(Nn)(O2)]2+ (open), suggested to be a CuI...CuII-O2- species, followed by its reversible closure (k+,closed/k-,closed) to form 2Nn. At higher temperatures (253 to 283 K), the first equilibrium lies far to the left and the observed rate law involves a simple reversible binding equilibrium process (kon,high = (k+,open/k-,open)(k+,closed)). From 213 to 233 K, the slow step in the oxygenation is the first reaction (kon,low = k+,open), and first-order behavior (in 1Nn and O2) is observed. For either temperature regime, the delta H++ for formation of 2Nn are low (delta H++ = -11 to 10 kJ/mol; kon,low = 1.1 x 10(3) to 4.1 x 10(3) M-1 s-1, kon,high = 2.2 x 10(3) to 2.8 x 10(4) M-1 s-1), reflecting the likely occurrence of preequilibria. The delta H degree ranges between -81 and -84 kJ mol-1 for the formation of 2Nn, and the corresponding equilibrium constant (K1) increases (3 x 10(8) to 5 x 10(10) M-1; 183 K) going from n = 3 to 5. Below 213 K, the half-life for formation of 2Nn increases with, rather than being independent of, the concentration of 1Nn, probably due to the oligomerization of 1Nn at these temperatures. The O2 reaction chemistry of 3 in CH2Cl2 is complicated, including the presence of induction periods, and could not be fully

  6. Paragenesis and geochemistry of ore minerals in the epizonal gold deposits of the Yangshan gold belt, West Qinling, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nan; Deng, Jun; Yang, Li-Qiang; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Zhang, Chuang; Marsh, Erin; Lei, Shi-Bin; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Six epizonal gold deposits in the 30-km-long Yangshan gold belt, Gansu Province are estimated to contain more than 300 t of gold at an average grade of 4.76 g/t and thus define one of China's largest gold resources. Detailed paragenetic studies have recognized five stages of sulfide mineral precipitation in the deposits of the belt. Syngenetic/diagenetic pyrite (Py0) has a framboidal or colloform texture and is disseminated in the metasedimentary host rocks. Early hydrothermal pyrite (Py1) in quartz veins is disseminated in metasedimentary rocks and dikes and also occurs as semi-massive pyrite aggregates or bedding-parallel pyrite bands in phyllite. The main ore stage pyrite (Py2) commonly overgrows Py1 and is typically associated with main ore stage arsenopyrite (Apy2). Late ore stage pyrite (Py3), arsenopyrite (Apy3), and stibnite occur in quartz ± calcite veins or are disseminated in country rocks. Post-ore stage pyrite (Py4) occurs in quartz ± calcite veins that cut all earlier formed mineralization. Electron probe microanalyses and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses reveal that different generations of sulfides have characteristic of major and trace element patterns, which can be used as a proxy for the distinct hydrothermal events. Syngenetic/diagenetic pyrite has high concentrations of As, Au, Bi, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn. The Py0 also retains a sedimentary Co/Ni ratio, which is distinct from hydrothermal ore-related pyrite. Early hydrothermal Py1 has high contents of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cu, Fe, Sb, and V, and it reflects elevated levels of these elements in the earliest mineralizing metamorphic fluids. The main ore stage Py2 has a very high content of As (median value of 2.96 wt%) and Au (median value of 47.5 ppm) and slightly elevated Cu, but relatively low values for other trace elements. Arsenic in the main ore stage Py2 occurs in solid solution. Late ore stage Py3, formed coevally with stibnite, contains relatively

  7. Synthesis, structures, and DFT bonding analysis of new titanium hydrazido(2-) complexes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas B; Hazari, Nilay; Cowley, Andrew R; Green, Jennifer C; Mountford, Philip

    2005-11-14

    The reaction of 1,1-diphenylhydrazine with Ti(NMe2)2Cl2 produced the monomeric terminal titanium hydrazido(2-) species Ti(NNPh2)Cl2(HNMe2)2 (1) in near-quantitative yield. The reaction of Ti(NMe2)2Cl2 with the less sterically demanding ligand precursors 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or N-aminopiperidine gave the dimeric mu-eta2,eta1-bridged compounds Ti2(mu-eta2,eta1-NNMe2)2Cl4(HNMe2)2 (2) and Ti2[mu-eta2,eta1-NN(CH2)5]2Cl4(HNMe2)3 (3). The X-ray structures of 2 and 3 showed the formation of N-H...Cl hydrogen bonded dimers or chains, respectively. The reaction of 1 with an excess of pyridine formed [Ti(NNPh2)Cl2(py)2]n (4, n = 1 or 2). The reaction of the tert-butyl imido complex Ti(N(t)Bu)Cl2(py)3 with either 1,1-dimethylhydrazine or N-aminopiperidine again resulted in the formation of hydrazido-bridged dimeric complexes, namely Ti2(mu-eta2,eta1-NNMe2)2Cl4(py)2 (5, structurally characterized) and Ti2[mu-eta2,eta1-NN(CH2)5]2Cl4(py)2 (6). Compounds 1 and 4 are potential new entry points into terminal hydrazido(2-) chemistry of titanium. Compound 1 reacted with neutral fac-N3 donor ligands to form Ti(NNPh2)Cl2(Me3[9]aneN3) (7), Ti(NNPh2)Cl2(Me3[6]aneN3) (8), Ti(NNPh2)Cl2[HC(Me2pz)3] (9, structurally characterized), and Ti(NNPh2)Cl2[HC(n)Bupz)3] (10) in good yields (Me3[9]aneN3 = trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, Me3[6]aneN3 = trimethyl-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane, HC(Me2pz)3 = tris(3,5-dimethylpyrazolyl)methane, and HC((n)Bupz)3 = tris(4-(n)butylpyrazolyl)methane). DFT calculations were performed on both the model terminal hydrazido compound Ti(NNPh2)Cl2[HC(pz)3] (I) and the corresponding imido compounds Ti(NMe)Cl2[HC(pz)3] (II) and Ti(NPh)Cl2[HC(pz)3] (III). The NNPh2 ligand binds to the metal center in an analogous manner to that of terminal imido ligands (metalligand triple bond), but with one of the Ti=N(alpha) pi components significantly destabilized by a pi interaction with the lone pair of the N(beta) atom. The NR ligand sigma donor ability was found to be NMe > NPh

  8. Enantioselective syntheses of sulfoxides in octahedral ruthenium(II) complexes via a chiral-at-metal strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Zheng; Wen, A-Hao; Yao, Su-Yang; Ye, Bao-Hui

    2015-03-16

    The preparation of chiral 2-(alkylsulfinyl)phenol compounds by enantioselective coordination-oxidation of the thioether ruthenium complexes with a chiral-at-metal strategy has been developed. The enantiomerically pure sulfoxide complexes Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-LO-R}](PF6) (bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, HLO-R is 2-(alkylsulfinyl)phenol, R = Me (Δ-1a), Et (Δ-2a), iPr (Δ-3a), Bn (Δ-4a), and Nap (Δ-5a)) and Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-LO-R}](PF6) (R = Me (Λ-1a), Et (Λ-2a), iPr (Λ-3a), Bn (Λ-4a), and Nap (Λ-5a)) have been synthesized by the reaction of Δ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) or Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(py)2](2+) with the prochiral thioether ligands 2-(alkylthio)phenol (HL-R), followed by enantioselective oxidation with m-CPBA as oxidant. The X-ray crystallography was used to verify the stereochemistry of ruthenium complexes and sulfur atoms. The configurations of the ruthenium complexes are stable during the coordination and oxidation reactions. Moreover, the chiral sulfoxide ligands are enantioselectively generated by controlling of the configuration of ruthenium centers in the course of oxidation reaction. That is, the Λ configuration at the ruthenium center generates the S sulfoxide ligand; on the contrary, the Δ configuration of the ruthenium complex originates the R sulfoxide ligand. Acidolysis of Λ-[Ru(bpy)2{(R)-LO-R}](PF6) and Δ-[Ru(bpy)2{(S)-LO-R}](PF6) complexes in the presence of TFA-MeCN afforded the chiral ligands (R)-HLO-R and (S)-HLO-R in 96-99% ee values, respectively. Importantly, the chiral ruthenium complexes can be recycled as Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(MeCN)2](PF6)2 and reused in a next reaction cycle with complete retention of the configurations at ruthenium centers.

  9. Ferromagnetic nanoscale electron correlation promoted by organic spin-dependent delocalization.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Martin L; Shultz, David A; Schmidt, Robert D; Habel-Rodriguez, Diana; Lee, Hyoyoung; Lee, Junghyun

    2009-12-30

    We describe the electronic structure and the origin of ferromagnetic exchange coupling in two new metal complexes, NN-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-NN (1) and NN-Ph-SQ-Co(III)(py)(2)Cat-Ph-NN (2) (NN = nitronylnitroxide radical, Ph = 1,4-phenylene, SQ = S = (1)/(2) semiquinone radical, Cat = S = 0 catecholate, and py = pyridine). Near-IR electronic absorption spectroscopy for 1 and 2 reveals a low-energy optical band that has been assigned as a Psi(u) --> Psi(g) transition involving bonding and antibonding linear combinations of delocalized dioxolene (SQ/Cat) valence frontier molecular orbitals. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction in 1 is so strong that only the high-spin quartet state (S(T) = (3)/(2)) is thermally populated at temperatures up to 300 K. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for 2 reveals that an excited state spin doublet (S(T) = (1)/(2)) is populated at higher temperatures, indicating that the phenylene spacer modulates the magnitude of the magnetic exchange. The valence delocalization within the dioxolene dyad of 2 results in ferromagnetic alignment of two localized NN radicals separated by over 22 A. The ferromagnetic exchange in 1 and 2 results from a spin-dependent delocalization (double exchange type) process and the origin of this strong electron correlation has been understood in terms of a valence bond configuration interaction (VBCI) model. We show that ferromagnetic coupling promoted by organic mixed-valency provides keen insight into the ability of single molecules to communicate spin information over nanoscale distances. Furthermore, the strong interaction between the itinerant dioxolene electron and localized NN electron spins impacts our ability to understand the exchange interaction between delocalized electrons and pinned magnetic impurities in technologically important dilute magnetic semiconductor materials. The long correlation length (22 A) of the itinerant electron that mediates this coupling indicates that high

  10. Electronic Structure and Reactivity of a Well-Defined Mononuclear Complex of Ti(II).

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Gayan B; Zolnhofer, Eva M; Fortier, Skye; Grant, Lauren N; Carroll, Patrick J; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Meyer, Karsten; Krzystek, J; Ozarowski, Andrew; Jackson, Timothy A; Mindiola, Daniel J; Telser, Joshua

    2015-11-02

    A facile and high-yielding protocol to the known Ti(II) complex trans-[(py)4TiCl2] (py = pyridine) has been developed. Its electronic structure has been probed experimentally using magnetic susceptibility, magnetic circular dichroism, and high-frequency and high-field electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies in conjunction with ligand-field theory and computational methods (density functional theory and ab initio methods). These studies demonstrated that trans-[(py)4TiCl2] has a (3)Eg ground state (dxy(1)dxz,yz(1) orbital occupancy), which, as a result of spin–orbit coupling, yields a ground-state spinor doublet that is EPR active, a first excited-state doublet at ∼60 cm(–1), and two next excited states at ∼120 cm(–1). Reactivity studies with various unsaturated substrates are also presented in this study, which show that the Ti(II) center allows oxidative addition likely via formation of [Ti(η(2)-R2E2)Cl2(py)n] E = C, N intermediates. A new Ti(IV) compound, mer-[(py)3(η(2)-Ph2C2)TiCl2], was prepared by reaction with Ph2C2, along with the previously reported complex trans-(py)3Ti═NPh(Cl)2, from reaction with Ph2N2. Reaction with Ph2CN2 also yielded a new dinuclear Ti(IV) complex, [(py)2(Cl)2Ti(μ2:η(2)-N2CPh2)2Ti(Cl)2], in which the two Ti(IV) ions are inequivalently coordinated. Reaction with cyclooctatetraene (COT) yielded a new Ti(III) complex, [(py)2Ti(η(8)-COT)Cl], which is a rare example of a mononuclear “piano-stool” titanium complex. The complex trans-[(py)4TiCl2] has thus been shown to be synthetically accessible, have an interesting electronic structure, and be reactive toward oxidation chemistry.

  11. Two unprecedented decanuclear heterometallic [MnMnLn] (Ln = Dy, Tb) complexes displaying relaxation of magnetization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Sheng; Yang, Feng-Jun; Long, Qiao-Qiao; Huang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zhi-Quan; Song, You

    2016-11-15

    We report the syntheses, crystal structures, and magnetic properties of two 3d-4f heterometallic compounds; namely, [Mn8Ln2O2(OH)2{(py)2CO2}4(teaH)4(CH3COO)6]·6CH3CN·2H2O (Ln(III) = Dy (1), Tb (2); (py)2CO2H2 = the gem-diol form of di-2-pyridyl ketone, teaH3 = triethanolamine). Both compounds were prepared by the reaction of Mn(OAc)2·4H2O, Ln(NO3)3·5H2O (Ln = Dy and Tb) with the ligands di-2-pyridyl ketone and triethanolamine in MeCN, and they crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/c. [Mn8Ln2] complexes have not been reported before, and the metallic cores of both complexes were unprecedented. In these cores, two Dy or Tb and two Mn ions comprised a well-known butterfly topology, with three of the remaining six Mn atoms each being situated on either side of the butterfly, linked through two μ3-O(2-) ions. Six Mn(III) and two Mn(II) were in six-coordinated distorted octahedrons and two Ln(III) ions were in nine-coordinated distorted muffins. Interestingly, the coordination sites of Ln(III) ions are occupied by six O and two N atoms from two teaH(2-) ligands and one μ3-O(2-) atom, without the presence of coordinated solvent molecules such as H2O and small anions such as NO3(-) ions, which is rare in 3d-4f complexes. Remarkably, alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed that both complexes displayed dynamic anisotropic magnetic behaviour. The effective energy barrier (Ueff) of complex 2 was estimated to be 18.97 K through high frequency (111-9111 Hz) ac susceptibility measurements. The low symmetry of the coordination configuration of Ln(3+) in 1 and 2 may be responsible for the small energy barriers of these two compounds.

  12. Diverse Levels of Sequence Selectivity and Catalytic Efficiency of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Selner, Nicholas G.; Luechapanichkul, Rinrada; Chen, Xianwen; Neel, Benjamin G.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Knapp, Stefan; Bell, Charles E.; Pei, Dehua

    2014-01-01

    The sequence selectivity of 14 classical protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) (PTPRA, PTPRB, PTPRC, PTPRD, PTPRO, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, HePTP, PTP-PEST, TCPTP, PTPH1, PTPD1, and PTPD2) was systematically profiled by screening their catalytic domains against combinatorial peptide libraries. All of the PTPs exhibit similar preference for pY peptides rich in acidic amino acids and disfavor positively charged sequences, but differ vastly in their degrees of preference/disfavor. Some PTPs (PTP-PEST, SHP-1, and SHP-2) are highly selective for acidic over basic (or neutral) peptides (by >105-fold), whereas others (PTPRA and PTPRD) show no to little sequence selectivity. PTPs also have diverse intrinsic catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM values against optimal substrates), which differ by >105-fold due to different kcat and/or KM values. Moreover, PTPs show little positional preference for the acidic residues relative to the pY residue. Mutation of Arg47 of PTP1B, which is located near the pY-1 and pY-2 residues of a bound substrate, decreased the enzymatic activity by 3–18-fold toward all pY substrates containing acidic residues anywhere within the pY-6 to pY+5 region. Similarly, mutation of Arg24, which is situated near the C-terminus of a bound substrate, adversely affected the kinetic activity of all acidic substrates. A co-crystal structure of PTP1B bound with a nephrin pY1193 peptide suggests that Arg24 engages in electrostatic interactions with acidic residues at the pY+1, pY+2, and likely other positions. These results suggest that long-range electrostatic interactions between positively charged residues near the PTP active site and acidic residues on pY substrates allow a PTP to bind acidic substrates with similar affinities and the varying levels of preference for acidic sequences by different PTPs are likely caused by the different electrostatic potentials near their active sites. The implications of the varying sequence selectivity and intrinsic catalytic activities with respect to PTP in vivo substrate specificity and biological functions are discussed. PMID:24359314

  13. Vibrational quenching of excitonic splittings in H-bonded molecular dimers: The electronic Davydov splittings cannot match experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottiger, Philipp; Leutwyler, Samuel; Köppel, Horst

    2012-05-01

    The S1/S2 state exciton splittings of symmetric doubly hydrogen-bonded gas-phase dimers provide spectroscopic benchmarks for the excited-state electronic couplings between UV chromophores. These have important implications for electronic energy transfer in multichromophoric systems ranging from photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae to photosynthetic reaction centers, conjugated polymers, molecular crystals, and nucleic acids. We provide laser spectroscopic data on the S1/S2 excitonic splitting Δexp of the doubly H-bonded o-cyanophenol (oCP) dimer and compare to the splittings of the dimers of (2-aminopyridine)2, [(2AP)2], (2-pyridone)2, [(2PY)2], (benzoic acid)2, [(BZA)2], and (benzonitrile)2, [(BN)2]. The experimental S1/S2 excitonic splittings are Δexp = 16.4 cm-1 for (oCP)2, 11.5 cm-1 for (2AP)2, 43.5 cm-1 for (2PY)2, and <1 cm-1 for (BZA)2. In contrast, the vertical S1/S2 energy gaps Δcalc calculated by the approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) method for the same dimers are 10-40 times larger than the Δexp values. The qualitative failure of this and other ab initio methods to reproduce the exciton splitting Δexp arises from the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation, which implicitly assumes the strong-coupling case and cannot be employed to evaluate excitonic splittings of systems that are in the weak-coupling limit. Given typical H-bond distances and oscillator strengths, the majority of H-bonded dimers lie in the weak-coupling limit. In this case, the monomer electronic-vibrational coupling upon electronic excitation must be accounted for; the excitonic splittings arise between the vibronic (and not the electronic) transitions. The discrepancy between the BO-based splittings Δcalc and the much smaller experimental Δexp values is resolved by taking into account the quenching of the BO splitting by the intramolecular vibronic coupling in the monomer S1 ← S0 excitation. The vibrational quenching factors Γ for the five dimers (oCP)2, (2AP)2

  14. Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes based on terpyridyl-imidazole ligand rigidly linked to pyrene: synthesis, structure, photophysics, electrochemistry, and anion-sensing studies.

    PubMed

    Maity, Dinesh; Bhaumik, Chanchal; Mondal, Debiprasad; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2013-12-16

    We report in this work a new family of bis-tridentate ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes bearing a terpyridyl ligand rigidly link to pyrenyl-benzimidazole moiety (tpy-HImzPy = 10-(4-[2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]terpyridin-4'-yl-phenyl)-9H-9,11-diaza-cyclopenta[e]pyrene) along with other tridentate ligands such as 4'-(2-naphthyl)-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine (tpy-NaPh) and 2,6-bis(benzimidazole-2-yl)pyridine (H2pbbzim). All the complexes are thoroughly characterized by their elemental analysis, ESI mass spectrometry, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The molecular structures of two complexes [Ru(tpy-HImzPy)2](ClO4)2 (3) and [(pbbzim)Ru(tpy-HImzPy)] (2a) in the solid state were determined by X-ray crystallography. The absorption, steady-state, and time-resolved luminescence and electrochemical properties of all the four compounds have been studied. On excitation at their MLCT bands, all four compounds exhibit moderately strong room-temperature luminescence with lifetimes ranging between 3.8 and 161.1 ns in aerated condition, whereas in the deaerated (N2 purged) condition, the lifetimes vary between 8.2 and 199.1 ns, depending upon the nature of the solvents. The presence of imidazole N-H protons in all the complexes motivates us to study anion sensing properties of the complexes in solution through different channels. Spectrophotometeric, fluorometric, (1)H NMR spectroscopic, and cyclic voltammetric studies of the complexes in presence of anions reveal that the complexes sense principally F(-), CN(-), and to a lesser extent for AcO(-). Multichannel anion sensing studies also indicate that anion-induced deprotonation of the imidazole N-H protons occur in all four compounds. The equilibrium constant of this deprotonation steps have been estimated from UV-vis absorption and emission titration data. Anion-induced modulation of lifetimes makes all the four complexes suitable for lifetime-based sensors for selective anions.

  15. Unraveling σ and π Effects on Magnetic Anisotropy in cis-NiA4 B2 Complexes: Magnetization, HF-HFEPR Studies, First-Principles Calculations, and Orbital Modeling.

    PubMed

    Charron, Gaëlle; Malkin, Elena; Rogez, Guillaume; Batchelor, Luke J; Mazerat, Sandra; Guillot, Régis; Guihéry, Nathalie; Barra, Anne-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Bolvin, Hélène

    2016-11-14

    By using complementary experimental techniques and first-principles theoretical calculations, magnetic anisotropy in a series of five hexacoordinated nickel(II) complexes possessing a symmetry close to C2v , has been investigated. Four complexes have the general formula [Ni(bpy)X2 ](n+) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; X2 =bpy (1), (NCS(-) )2 (2), C2 O4(2-) (3), NO3(-) (4)). In the fifth complex, [Ni(HIM2 -py)2 (NO3 )](+) (5; HIM2 -py=2-(2-pyridyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazolyl-1-hydroxy), which was reported previously, the two bpy bidentate ligands were replaced by HIM2 -py. Analysis of the high-field, high-frequency electronic paramagnetic resonance (HF-HFEPR) spectra and magnetization data leads to the determination of the spin Hamiltonian parameters. The D parameter, corresponding to the axial magnetic anisotropy, was negative (Ising type) for the five compounds and ranged from -1 to -10 cm(-1) . First-principles SO-CASPT2 calculations have been performed to estimate these parameters and rationalize the experimental values. From calculations, the easy axis of magnetization is in two different directions for complexes 2 and 3, on one hand, and 4 and 5, on the other hand. A new method is proposed to calculate the g tensor for systems with S=1. The spin Hamiltonian parameters (D (axial), E (rhombic), and gi ) are rationalized in terms of ordering of the 3 d orbitals. According to this orbital model, it can be shown that 1) the large magnetic anisotropy of 4 and 5 arises from splitting of the eg -like orbitals and is due to the difference in the σ-donor strength of NO3(-) and bpy or HIM2 -py, whereas the difference in anisotropy between the two compounds is due to splitting of the t2g -like orbitals; and 2) the anisotropy of complexes 1-3 arises from the small splitting of the t2g -like orbitals. The direction of the anisotropy axis can be rationalized by the proposed orbital model. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis, characterisation and photochemistry of PtIV pyridyl azido acetato complexes†

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Fiona S.; Farrer, Nicola J.; Salassa, Luca; Tai, Hui-Chung; Deeth, Robert J.; Moggach, Stephen A.; Wood, Peter A.; Parsons, Simon; Sadler, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    PtII azido complexes [Pt(bpy)(N3)2] (1), [Pt(phen)(N3)2] (2) and trans-[Pt(N3)2(py)2] (3) incorporating the bidentate diimine ligands 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or the monodentate pyridine (py) respectively, have been synthesised from their chlorido precursors and characterised by x-ray crystallography; complex 3 shows significant deviation from square-planar geometry (N3–Pt–N3 angle 146.7°) as a result of steric congestion at the Pt centre. The novel PtIV complexes trans, cis-[Pt(bpy)(OAc)2(N3)2] (4), trans, cis-[Pt(phen)(OAc)2(N3)2] (5), trans, trans, trans-[Pt(OAc)2(N3)2(py)2] (6), were obtained from 1–3 via oxidation with H2O2 in acetic acid followed by reaction of the intermediate with acetic anhydride. Complexes 4–6 exhibit interesting structural and photochemical properties that were studied by x-ray, NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy and TDDFT. These PtIV complexes exhibit greater absorption at longer wavelengths (ε = 9756 M−1cm−1 at 315 nm for 4; ε = 796 M−1cm−1 at 352 nm for 5; ε = 16900 M−1cm−1 at 307 nm for 6, in aqueous solution) than previously reported PtIV azide complexes, due to the presence of aromatic amines, and 4–6 undergo photoactivation with both UVA (365 nm) and visible green light (514 nm). The UV-vis spectra of complexes 4–6 were calculated using TD-DFT; the nature of the transitions contributing to the UV-vis bands provide insight into the mechanism of production of the observed photoproducts. The UV-vis spectra of 1–3 were also simulated by computational methods and comparison between PtII and PtIV electronic and structural properties allowed further elucidation of the photochemistry of 4–6. PMID:19290364

  17. Development of an efficient and durable photocatalytic system for hydride reduction of an NAD(P)+ model compound using a ruthenium(II) complex based on mechanistic studies.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Yasuo; Koga, Kichitaro; Kobayashi, Atsuo; Konno, Hideo; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Tatsuki; Ishitani, Osamu

    2010-08-04

    The mechanism of photocatalytic reduction of 1-benzylnicotinamidium cation (BNA(+)) to the 1,4-dihydro form (1,4-BNAH) using [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(L)](2+) (Ru-L(2+), where tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, and L = pyridine and MeCN) as a photocatalyst and NEt(3) as a reductant has been clarified. On the basis of this mechanistic study, an efficient and durable photocatalytic system for selective hydride reduction of an NAD(P)(+) model compound has been developed. The photocatalytic reaction is initiated by the formation of [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(NEt(3))](2+) (Ru-NEt(3)(2+)) via the photochemical ligand substitution of Ru-L(2+). For this reason, the production rate of 1,4-BNAH using [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(MeCN)](2+) (Ru-MeCN(2+)) as a photocatalyst, from which the quantum yield of photoelimination of the MeCN ligand is greater than that of the pyridine ligand from [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(pyridine)](2+) (Ru-py(2+)), was faster than that using Ru-py(2+), especially in the first stage of the photocatalytic reduction. The photoexcitation of Ru-NEt(3)(2+) yields [Ru(tpy)(bpy)H](+) (Ru-H(+)), which reacts with BNA(+) to give 1:1 adduct [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(1,4-BNAH)](2+) (Ru-BNAH(2+)). In the presence of excess NEt(3) in the reaction solution, a deprotonation of the carbamoyl group in Ru-BNAH(2+) proceeds rapidly, mainly forming [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(1,4-BNAH-H(+))](+) (Ru-(BNAH-H(+))(+)). Although photocleavage of the adduct yields 1,4-BNAH and the cycle is completed by the re-coordination of a NEt(3) molecule to the Ru(II) center, this process competes with hydride abstraction from Ru-(BNAH-H(+))(+) by BNA(+) giving 1,4-BNAH and [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(BNA(+)-H(+))](2+). This adduct was observed as the major complex in the reaction solution after the photocatalysis was depressed and is a dead-end product because of its stability. Based on the information about the reaction mechanism and the deactivation process, we have successfully developed a new photocatalytic system using Ru-MeCN(2+) with 2 M of NEt(3) as

  18. Systematic differences in electrochemical reduction of the structurally characterized anti-cancer platinum(IV) complexes [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}-(pyridine)2Cl2], [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)2], and [Pt{((p-HC6F4)NCH2)2}(pyridine)2(OH)Cl].

    PubMed

    Guo, Si-Xuan; Mason, Dayna N; Turland, Susan A; Lawrenz, Eric T; Kelly, Lance C; Fallon, Gary D; Gatehouse, Bryan M; Bond, Alan M; Deacon, Glen B; Battle, Andrew R; Hambley, Trevor W; Rainone, Silvina; Webster, Lorraine K; Cullinane, Carleen

    2012-10-01

    The putative platinum(IV) anticancer drugs, [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)XY] (X,Y=Cl, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (1a), C(6)F(5) (1b); X,Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (2); X=Cl, Y=OH, R=p-HC(6)F(4) (3), py = pyridine) have been prepared by oxidation of the Pt(II) anticancer drugs [Pt{((R)NCH(2))(2)}(py)(2)] (R=p-HC(6)F(4) (4a) or C(6)F(5) (4b)) with PhICl(2) (1a,b), H(2)O(2) (2) and PhICl(2)/Bu(4)NOH (3). NMR spectroscopy and the X-ray crystal structures of 1b, 2 and 3 show that they have octahedral stereochemistry with the X,Y ligands in the trans-position. The net two electron electrochemical reduction of 1a, 2 and 3 has been studied by voltammetric, spectroelectrochemical and bulk electrolysis techniques in acetonitrile. NMR and other data reveal that reduction of 1a gives pure 4a via the elimination of both axial chloride ligands. In the case of 2, one end of the diamide ligand is protonated and the resulting -NH(p-HC(6)F(4)) group dissociated giving a [Pt{N(p-HC(6)F(4))CH(2)CH(2)NH(p-HC(6)F(4))}] arrangement, one pyridine ligand is lost and a hydroxide ion retained in the coordination sphere. Intriguingly, in the case of reduction of 3, a 50% mixture of the reduction products of pure 1a and 2 is formed. The relative ease of reduction is 1>3>2. Testing of 1a, 2 and 3 against L1210 and L1210(DDP) (DDP = cis-diamine-dichloroplatinum(II)) mouse leukaemia cells shows all to be cytotoxic with IC(50) values of 1.0-3.5 μM. 2 and 3 are active in vivo against AHDJ/PC6 tumor line when delivered in peanut oil despite being hard to reduce electrochemically, and notably are more active than 4a delivered in this medium whilst comparable with 4a delivered in saline/Tween. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ferromagnetic Nanoscale Electron Correlation Promoted by Organic Spin-Dependent Delocalization

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Robert D.; Habel-Rodriguez, Diana; Lee, Junghyun

    2012-01-01

    We describe the electronic structure and the origin of ferromagnetic exchange coupling in two new metal complexes, NN-SQ-CoIII(py)2Cat-NN (1) and NN-Ph-SQ-CoIII(py)2Cat-Ph-NN (2) (NN = nitronylnitroxide radical, Ph = 1,4-phenylene, SQ = S = 1/2 semiquinone radical, Cat = S = 0 catecholate, and py = pyridine). Near-IR electronic absorption spectroscopy for 1 and 2 reveals a low energy optical band that has been assigned as a Ψu → Ψg transition involving bonding and antibonding linear combinations of delocalized dioxolene (SQ/Cat) valence frontier molecular orbitals. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction in 1 is so strong that only the high-spin quartet state (ST = 3/2) is thermally populated at temperatures up to 300 K. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data for 2 reveals that an excited state spin doublet (ST = 1/2) is populated at higher temperatures, indicating that the phenylene spacer modulates the magnitude of the magnetic exchange. The valence delocalization within the dioxolene dyad of 2 results in ferromagnetic alignment of two localized NN radicals separated by over 22 Å. The ferromagnetic exchange in 1 and 2 results from a spin-dependent delocalization (double exchange type) process and the origin of this strong electron correlation has been understood in terms of a valence bond configuration interaction (VBCI) model. We show that ferromagnetic coupling promoted by organic mixed-valency provides keen insight into the ability of single molecules to communicate spin information over nanoscale distances. Furthermore, the strong interaction between the itinerant dioxolene electron and localized NN electron spins impacts our ability to understand the exchange interaction between delocalized electrons and pinned magnetic impurities in technologically important dilute magnetic semiconductor materials. The long correlation length (22 Å) of the itinerant electron that mediates this coupling indicates that high-spin π-delocalized organic

  20. Neutral (bis-beta-diketonato) iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) metallocycles: structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction studies.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Jack K; Bray, David J; Gloe, Kerstin; Gloe, Karsten; Hayter, Michael J; Jolliffe, Katrina A; Lawrance, Geoffrey A; Meehan, George V; McMurtrie, John C; Lindoy, Leonard F; Wenzel, Marco

    2007-05-07

    Neutral dimeric metallocyclic complexes of type [M(2)(L(1))(2)B(n)] (where M = cobalt(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II), L(1) is the doubly deprotonated form of a 1,3-aryl linked bis-beta-diketone ligand of type 1,3-bis(RC(O)CH(2)C(O))C(6)H(4) (R=Me, n-Pr, t-Bu) and B is pyridine (Py) or 4-ethylpyridine (EtPy)) have been synthesised, adding to similar complexes already reported for copper(II). New lipophilic ligand derivatives with R = octyl or nonyl were also prepared for use in solvent extraction experiments. Structural, electrochemical and solvent extraction investigations of selected metal complex systems from the above series are reported, with the X-ray structures of [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)] x 2.25CHCl(3) x 0.5H(2)O (R=Pr), [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu), [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(2)] (R=Me) and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(EtPy)(4)] (R=t-Bu) being presented. The electrochemistry of H(2)L(1) (R=t-Bu) and of [Fe(2)(L(1))(3)], [Co(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Ni(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(4)], [Cu(2)(L(1))(2)] and [Zn(2)(L(1))(2)(Py)(2)] has been examined. Oxidative processes for the complexes are dominantly irreversible, but several examples of quasireversible behaviour were observed and support the assignment of an anodic process, seen between +1.0 and +1.6 V, as a metal-centred oxidation. The reduction processes for the respective metal complexes are not simple, and irreversible in most cases. Solvent extraction studies (water/chloroform) involving variable concentrations of metal, bis-beta-diketone and heterocyclic base have been performed for cobalt(II) and zinc(II) using a radiotracer technique to probe the stoichiometries of the extracted species in each case. Synergism was observed when 4-ethylpyridine was added to the bis-beta-diketone ligand in the chloroform phase. Competitive extraction studies show a clear uptake preference for copper(II) over cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II).

  1. Photo- and electrocatalytic H2 production by new first-row transition-metal complexes based on an aminopyridine pentadentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Call, Arnau; Codolà, Zoel; Acuña-Parés, Ferran; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2014-05-12

    The synthesis and characterisation of the pentadentate ligand 1,4-di(picolyl)-7-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (Py2(Ts)tacn) and their metal complexes of general formula [M(CF3SO3)(Py2(Ts)tacn)][CF3SO3], (M = Fe (1Fe), Co (1Co) and Ni (1Ni)) are reported. Complex 1Co presents excellent H2 photoproduction catalytic activity when using [Ir(ppy)2(bpy)]PF6 (PSIr) as photosensitiser (PS) and Et3N as electron donor, but 1Ni and 1Fe result in a low activity and a complete lack of it, respectively. On the other hand, all three complexes have excellent electrocatalytic proton reduction activity in acetonitrile, when using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a proton source with moderate overpotentials for 1Co (0.59 V vs. SCE) and 1Ni (0.56 V vs. SCE) and higher for 1Fe (0.87 V vs. SCE). Under conditions of CH3CN/H2O/Et3N (3:7:0.2), 1Co (5 μM), with PSIr (100 μM) and irradiating at 447 nm gives a turnover number (TON) of 690 (n H2/n1Co) and initial turnover frequency (TOF) (TON×t(-1)) of 703 h(-1) for H2 production. It should be noted that 1Co retains 25 % of the catalytic activity for photoproduction of H2 in the presence of O2. The inexistence of a lag time for H2 evolution and the absence of nanoparticles during the first 30 min of the reaction suggest that the main catalytic activity observed is derived from a molecular system. Kinetic studies show that the reaction is -0.7 order in catalyst, and time-dependent diffraction light scattering (DLS) experiments indicate formation of metal aggregates and then nanoparticles, leading to catalyst deactivation. By a combination of experimental and computational studies we found that the lack of activity in photochemical water reduction by 1Fe can be attributed to the 1Fe (II/I) redox couple, which is significantly lower than the PSIr (III/II) , while for 1Ni the pKa value (-0.4) is too small in comparison with the pH (11.9) imposed by the use of Et3N as electron donor.

  2. Intramolecular Oxyl Radical Coupling Promotes O-O Bond Formation in a Homogeneous Mononuclear Mn-based Water Oxidation Catalyst: A Computational Mechanistic Investigation.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Douglas W; Xu, Song; Smith, Jeremy M; Baik, Mu-Hyun

    2017-04-04

    The mechanism of water oxidation performed by a recently discovered manganese pyridinophane catalyst [Mn(Py2N(t)Bu2)(H2O)2](2+) is studied using density functional theory methods. A complete catalytic cycle is constructed and the catalytically active species is identified to consist of a Mn(V)-bis(oxo) moiety that is generated from the resting state by a series of proton-coupled electron transfer reactions. Whereas the electronic ground state of this key intermediate is found to be a triplet, the most favorable pathway for O-O bond formation is found on the quintet potential energy surface and involves an intramolecular coupling of two oxyl radicals with opposite spins bound to the Mn-center that adopts an electronic structure most consistent formally with a high-spin Mn(III) ion. Therefore, the thermally accessible high-spin quintet state that constitutes a typical and innate property of a first-row transition metal center plays a critical role for catalysis. It enables facile electron transfer between the oxo moieties and the Mn-center and promotes O-O bond formation via a radical coupling reaction with a calculated reaction barrier of only 14.7 kcal mol(-1). This mechanism of O-O coupling is unprecedented and provides a novel possible pathway to coupling two oxygen atoms bound to a single metal site.

  3. Polymer complexes. LIV. Structural and spectral studies of supramolecular coordination polymers built from Ni(II), Fe(II) and Pd(II) with sulphadrug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sonbati, A. Z.; Belal, A. A. M.; Diab, M. A.; Mohamed, R. H.

    2011-03-01

    Polymer complexes of p-acrylamidyl sulphaguanidine (HL) with Ni(II), Fe(II) and Pd(II) salts have been prepared. The structures of the polymer complexes were elucidated using elemental analysis, 1H NMR, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopies, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The polymer complexes were isolated in 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) ratios. The solid monocomplexes (1:1) (M:L) were isolated in the general formula [Fe(HL)O 2SO 2(OH 2) 2]. The biscomplexes (1:2) (M:L) solid chelates found to have the general formula [Ni(HL) 2X 2] n (X = Cl -, Br -, I -, NO3-, NCS -), [Fe(HL)(en)(OSO 3)(OH 2)] n and [Ni(HL) 2(Py) 2] nX 2, while {[Pd(L)X] 2} n (1:1) (X = Cl - or Br -). In all the polymer complexes the ligand and anions were found to be coordinated to the Ni(II) and Fe(II) ions. The bidentate nature of the ligand is evident from IR spectra. The magnetic and spectroscopic data indicate a octahedral geometry for complexes. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furić, Krešimir; Kodrin, Ivan; Kukovec, Boris-Marko; Mihalić, Zlatko; Popović, Zora

    2013-01-01

    Two cobalt(II) complexes with 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid, 3-OHpicH), trans-[Co(3-OHpic)2(py)2] (2) and cis-[Co(3-OHpic)2(4-pic)2] (3) (py = pyridine; 4-pic = 4-picoline or 4-methylpyridine), previously synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, are here studied by Raman and mid-infrared spectroscopy with the help from the corresponding DFT vibrational calculations using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) computational model. Intramolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond appears in both complexes 2 and 3, while weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds assemble molecules of 2 or 3 into 3D architecture. A complete presentation of all Raman, infrared and theoretical results is given for complex 3. The measured spectra are shown, relative intensities and bandwidths are discussed and the assignment of vibrational bands is given on the basis of the DFT calculations. The calculated spectra agree very well with the presented experimental findings, thanks to the suitable grouping of modes. The same vibrational calculations also reveal insignificant influence of H → CH3 substitution for the spectroscopic characterization of the complex. A careful study of differences between calculated and observed wavenumbers suggests that modified single-factor scaling is actually better than the classic multi-factor scaling approach.

  5. Equilibrium thermodynamics to form a rhodium formyl complex from reactions of CO and H2: metal σ donor activation of CO.

    PubMed

    Imler, Gregory H; Zdilla, Michael J; Wayland, Bradford B

    2014-04-23

    A rhodium(II) dibenzotetramethylaza[14]annulene dimer ([(tmtaa)Rh]2) (1) reacts with CO and H2 in toluene and pyridine to form equilibrium distributions with hydride and formyl complexes ((tmtaa)Rh-H (2); (tmtaa)Rh-C(O)H (3)). The rhodium formyl complex ((tmtaa)Rh-C(O)H) was isolated under a CO/H2 atmosphere, and the molecular structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium constants were evaluated for reactions of (tmtaa)Rh-H with CO to produce formyl complexes in toluene (K2(298 K)(tol) = 10.8 (1.0) × 10(3)) and pyridine (K2(298 K)(py) = 2.2 (0.2) × 10(3)). Reactions of 1 and 2 in toluene and pyridine are discussed in the context of alternative radical and ionic pathways. The five-coordinate 18-electron Rh(I) complex ([(py)(tmtaa)Rh(I)](-)) is proposed to function as a nucleophile toward CO to give a two-electron activated bent Rh-CO unit. Results from DFT calculations on the (tmtaa)Rh system correlate well with experimental observations. Reactions of 1 with CO and H2 suggest metal catalyst design features to reduce the activation barriers for homogeneous CO hydrogenation.

  6. Insertion reactions of carbon dioxide into Zn-N bonds: syntheses and structures of tetrameric and dimeric alkylzinc carbamato complexes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongjun; Kassel, W Scott; Zakharov, Lev N; Rheingold, Arnold L; Kemp, Richard A

    2005-01-24

    The formal insertions of carbon dioxide into a series of methylzinc dialkylamide complexes (MeZnNR(2)) initially form solvent-free, tetrameric zinc carbamato complexes [Me(4)Zn(4)(O(2)CNR(2))(4)] (NR(2) = N(i-Pr)(2) (1), N(i-Bu)(2) (2), and piperidinyl (3)). These compounds have been characterized by traditional techniques as well as by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The tetrameric backbones seen in the solid state for 1-3 were structurally similar to each other. Addition of excess pyridine (py) to 1-3 breaks apart the tetramers and converts them into solvated dimeric species [Me(2)Zn(2)(O(2)CNR(2))(2)(py)(2)] (NR(2) = N(i-Pr)(2) (4), N(i-Bu)(2) (5), and piperidinyl (6)). X-ray crystallographic analyses of 4 and 5 confirmed the dimeric structure in the solid state. This study significantly increases the number of well-characterized zinc carbamates prepared via CO(2) insertion into zinc amides.

  7. Mechanism of Water Oxidation Catalyzed by a Mononuclear Manganese Complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Ying; Ye, Ke; Siegbahn, Per E M; Liao, Rong-Zhen

    2016-12-07

    The design and synthesis of biomimetic Mn complexes to catalyze oxygen evolution is a very appealing goal because water oxidation in nature employs a Mn complex. Recently, the mononuclear Mn complex [LMn(II) (H2 O)2 ](2+) [1, L=Py2 N(tBu)2 , Py=pyridyl] was reported to catalyze water oxidation electrochemically at an applied potential of 1.23 V at pH 12.2 in aqueous solution. Density functional calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of water oxidation promoted by this catalyst. The calculations showed that 1 can lose two protons and one electron readily to produce [LMn(III) (OH)2 ](+) (2), which then undergoes two sequential proton-coupled electron-transfer processes to afford [LMn(V) OO](+) (4). The O-O bond formation can occur through direct coupling of the two oxido ligands or through nucleophilic attack of water. These two mechanisms have similar barriers of approximately 17 kcal mol(-1) . The further oxidation of 4 to generate [LMn(VI) OO](2+) (5), which enables O-O bond formation, has a much higher barrier. In addition, ligand degradation by C-H activation has a similar barrier to that for the O-O bond formation, and this explains the relatively low turnover number of this catalyst.

  8. Preparation of Co3O4 Nanostructures via a Hydrothermal- Assisted Thermal Treatment Method by Using of New Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholamrezaei, Sousan; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Behnamfar, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-02-01

    Co3O4 nanostructures have been synthesized via a hydrothermal-assisted thermal treatment process. A new complex formulated as [Co(py)2(H2O)2(NO3)2] was synthesized, and then used to prepare Co3O4 nanostructures. Cubic phase of spinel Co3O4 nanostructures with particle size of about 39 nm could be produced after calcination of the Co(OH)2 materials prepared with hydrothermal method at 160 °C for 15 h. Using of inorganic precursors decreased the time and temperature of Co3O4 preparation. The effect of pH on the morphology of the product s synthesized by hydrothermal reactions was investigated. It was found that the best morphology was achieved on pH=8, where was not prepared any precipitation. In this method, we could decrease the reaction temperature in synthetic rout to fabricate Co3O4 nanostructures. Nanostructures were characterized by SEM, TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR).

  9. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the Lyn Src Homology 2 (SH2) Domain Modulates Its Binding Affinity and Specificity*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lily L.; Wybenga-Groot, Leanne E.; Tong, Jiefei; Taylor, Paul; Minden, Mark D.; Trudel, Suzanne; McGlade, C. Jane; Moran, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are modular protein structures that bind phosphotyrosine (pY)-containing polypeptides and regulate cellular functions through protein-protein interactions. Proteomics analysis showed that the SH2 domains of Src family kinases are themselves tyrosine phosphorylated in blood system cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and multiple myeloma. Using the Src family kinase Lyn SH2 domain as a model, we found that phosphorylation at the conserved SH2 domain residue Y194 impacts the affinity and specificity of SH2 domain binding to pY-containing peptides and proteins. Analysis of the Lyn SH2 domain crystal structure supports a model wherein phosphorylation of Y194 on the EF loop modulates the binding pocket that engages amino acid side chains at the pY+2/+3 position. These data indicate another level of regulation wherein SH2-mediated protein-protein interactions are modulated by SH2 kinases and phosphatases. PMID:25587033

  10. Effect of particle pinch on the fusion performance and profile features of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor-like fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shijia Wang, Shaojie

    2015-04-15

    The evolution of the plasma temperature and density in an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device has been studied by numerically solving the energy transport equation coupled with the particle transport equation. The effect of particle pinch, which depends on the magnetic curvature and the safety factor, has been taken into account. The plasma is primarily heated by the alpha particles which are produced by the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions. A semi-empirical method, which adopts the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law, has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. The fusion performances (the fusion energy gain factor, Q) similar to the ITER inductive scenario and non-inductive scenario (with reversed magnetic shear) are obtained. It is shown that the particle pinch has significant effects on the fusion performance and profiles of a fusion reactor. When the volume-averaged density is fixed, particle pinch can lower the pedestal density by ∼30%, with the Q value and the central pressure almost unchanged. When the particle source or the pedestal density is fixed, the particle pinch can significantly enhance the Q value by  60%, with the central pressure also significantly raised.

  11. Toward equatorial planarity about uranyl: synthesis and structure of tridentate nitrogen-donor {UO2}2+ complexes.

    PubMed

    Copping, Roy; Jeon, Byoungseon; Pemmaraju, C Das; Wang, Shuao; Teat, Simon J; Janousch, Markus; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Canning, Andrew; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Prendergast, David; Shuh, David K

    2014-03-03

    The reaction of UO2Cl2·3THF with the tridentate nitrogen donor ligand 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine (H2BBP) in pyridine leads to the formation of three different complexes: [(UO2)(H2BBP)Cl2] (1), [(UO)2(HBBP)(Py)Cl] (2), and [(UO2)(BBP)(Py)2] (3) after successive deprotonation of H2BBP with a strong base. Crystallographic determination of 1-3 reveals that increased charge through ligand deprotonation and displacement of chloride leads to equatorial planarity about uranyl as well as a more compact overall coordination geometry. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectra of 1-3 at the U-4d edges have been recorded using a soft X-ray Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) and reveal the uranium 4d5/2 and 4d3/2 transitions at energies associated with uranium in the hexavalent oxidation state. First-principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations for the complexes have been performed to determine and validate the coordination characteristics, which correspond well to the experimental results.

  12. The reaction of [Fe(pic)3] with hydrogen peroxide: a UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic study (Hpic = picolinic acid).

    PubMed

    Jain, Sneh L; Bhattacharyya, Pravat

    2005-08-21

    The Gif family of catalysts, based on an iron salt and O2 or H2O2 in pyridine, allows the oxygenation of cyclic saturated hydrocarbons to ketones and alcohols under mild conditions. The reaction between [Fe(pic)3] and hydrogen peroxide in pyridine under GoAgg(III)(Fe(III)/Hpic catalyst) conditions was investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry. Reactions were monitored at 430 and 520 nm over periods ranging from a few minutes to several hours at 20 degrees C. A number of kinetically stable intermediates were detected, and their relevance to the processes involved in the assembly of the active GoAgg(III) catalyst was determined by measuring the kinetics in the presence and absence of cyclohexane. EPR measurements at 110 K using hydrogen peroxide and t-BuOOH as oxidants were used to further probe these intermediates. Our results indicate that in wet pyridine [Fe(pic)3] undergoes reversible dissociation of one picolinate ligand, establishing an equilibrium with [Fe(pic)2(py)(OH)]. Addition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide rapidly generates the high-spin complex [Fe(pic)2(py)(eta1-OOH)] from the labilised hydroxy species. Subsequently the hydroperoxy species undergoes homolysis of the Fe-O bond, generating HOO. and [Fe(pic)2(py)2], the active oxygenation catalyst.

  13. Synthesis and Single-Molecule Conductance Study of Redox-Active Ruthenium Complexes with Pyridyl and Dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene Anchoring Groups.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroaki; Baghernejad, Masoud; Al-Owaedi, Oday A; Kaliginedi, Veerabhadrarao; Nagashima, Takumi; Ferrer, Jaime; Wandlowski, Thomas; García-Suárez, Víctor M; Broekmann, Peter; Lambert, Colin J; Haga, Masa-Aki

    2016-08-26

    The ancillary ligands 4'-(4-pyridyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 4'-(2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene)-2,2'-6',2"-terpyridine were used to synthesize two series of mono- and dinuclear ruthenium complexes differing in their lengths and anchoring groups. The electrochemical and single-molecular conductance properties of these two series of ruthenium complexes were studied experimentally by means of cyclic voltammetry and the scanning tunneling microscopy-break junction technique (STM-BJ) and theoretically by means of density functional theory (DFT). Cyclic voltammetry data showed clear redox peaks corresponding to both the metal- and ligand-related redox reactions. Single-molecular conductance demonstrated an exponential decay of the molecular conductance with the increase in molecular length for both the series of ruthenium complexes, with decay constants of βPY =2.07±0.1 nm(-1) and βBT =2.16±0.1 nm(-1) , respectively. The contact resistance of complexes with 2,3-dihydrobenzo[b]thiophene (BT) anchoring groups is found to be smaller than the contact resistance of ruthenium complexes with pyridine (PY) anchors. DFT calculations support the experimental results and provided additional information on the electronic structure and charge transport properties in those metal|ruthenium complex|metal junctions. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial studies on bis(N-furfuryl-N-(2-phenylethyl)dithiocarbamato-S,S')zinc(II) and its nitrogen donor adducts.

    PubMed

    Rani, Palanisamy Jamuna; Thirumaran, Subbiah

    2013-04-01

    [Zn(fpedtc)2] (1), [Zn(fpedtc)2(py)] (2), [Zn(fpedtc)2(1,10-phen)] (3) and [Zn(fpedtc)2(2,2'-bipy)] (4) (where fpedtc = N-furfuryl-N-(2-phenylethyl)dithiocarbamate, py = pyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized. Characterization of the complexes were achieved by IR and NMR ((1)H and (13)C) spectra and in addition, for 2 and 3, by X-ray crystallography. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 2 and 3 showed that complex 2 is almost half way between trigonal bipyramidal and square pyramidal and complex 3 has a distorted octahedral geometry. Zn-N distances in 2 is shorter than that found in a six coordinate complex 3 due to the change in coordination number. These complexes were also screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities and significant activities have been found. In vitro cytotoxic activity of all the synthesized complexes was evaluated on HeLa cell line. Complex 1 exhibits maximum inhibitory effect at a concentration of 40 μg mL(-1) on HeLa cell line.

  15. Metallo-porphyrazines with eight [5-thiopentyl 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoate] groups: Synthesis, characterization, aggregation, and solubility behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonca, Ergün

    2017-02-01

    Metal-free and metallo-porphyrazines having eight 5-hydroxypentylthio units at the peripheral positions have been prepared from 2,3-bis(5-hydroxypentylthio)maleonitrile. By the esterification reaction of magnesium hydroxy-porphyrazine with 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoic acid in dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and toluene-p-sulfonic acid, the reactivity of the hydroxypentyl units was indicated. On the other hand, iron porphyrazine derivatives with eight [5-thiopentyl 3,4,5-tris(benzyloxy)benzoate] groups attached to the periphery positions were synthesized. By the reaction of metal-free porphyrazine with iron (II) acetate and further processing with HCl solution, FePzCl was obtained. Finally, by reacting FePzCl with pyridine or pyrazine, [FePz(py)2] and [FePz(pyz)]n complexes were prepared, respectively. The characterizations of target complexes were carried out by utilizing different spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV-vis, mass, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR together with elemental analysis.

  16. Longterm Safety of Rituximab: Final Report of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Global Clinical Trial Program over 11 Years.

    PubMed

    van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Fleischmann, Roy M; Furst, Daniel E; Lacey, Stuart; Lehane, Patricia B

    2015-10-01

    Final evaluation of the longterm safety of rituximab (RTX) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) up to 11 years. Pooled observed case analysis of data from patients with moderate to severe, active RA in a global clinical trial program. As of September 2012, 3595 patients received a mean of 4 courses (range 1-20) of RTX over 11 years [14,816 patient-years (PY)]. Of these, 1246 patients had > 5 years of followup (8970 PY). A pooled placebo population (n = 818) was included in the analysis. The overall serious infection event (SIE) rate was 3.76/100 PY (2.71/100 PY in patients observed for > 5 yrs) and comparable with rates reported previously at 9.5 years (3.94/100 PY and 3.26/100 PY, respectively). SIE rates continued to be similar before and during/after development of low immunoglobulin levels, and serious opportunistic infections remained rare. Rates of cardiac events remained consistent with previous analysis and with rates in the general RA population. No increased risk of malignancy over time was observed. This final report demonstrates that RTX remains well tolerated over time and multiple courses. No new safety risks were identified and there was no increase in the rate of any types of adverse events with prolonged exposure to RTX during 11 years of observation.

  17. Magnetic vortex nucleation/annihilation in artificial-ferrimagnet microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Phatak, Charudatta; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. S.; Hoffmann, Axel; Novosad, Valentine

    2017-08-01

    The topological nature of the magnetic-vortex state gives rise to peculiar magnetization reversal observed in magnetic microdisks. Interestingly, magnetostatic and exchange, energies which, drive this reversal can be effectively controlled in artificial ferrimagnet heterostructures composed of rare-earth and transition metals. [Py(t)/Gd(t)]25 (t = 1 or 2 nm) superlattices demonstrate a pronounced change of the magnetization and exchange stiffness in a 10-300 K temperature range as well as very small magnetic anisotropy. Due to these properties, the magnetization of cylindrical microdisks composed of these artificial ferrimagnets can be transformed from the vortex to uniformly magnetized states in a permanent magnetic field by changing the temperature. We explored the behavior of magnetization in 1.5-μm [Py(t)/Gd(t)]25 (t = 1 or 2 nm) disks at different temperatures and magnetic fields and observed that due to the energy barrier separating vortex and uniformly magnetized states, the vortex nucleation and annihilation occur at different temperatures. This causes the temperature dependences of the magnetization in these Py/Gd disks to demonstrate a unique hysteretic behavior in a narrow temperature range. It was discovered that for the [Py(2 nm)/Gd(2 nm)]25 microdisks, the vortex can be metastable within a certain temperature range.

  18. Magnetization reversal in Py/Gd heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentine; Jiang, J. S.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2017-07-01

    Using a combination of magnetometry and magnetotransport techniques, we studied temperature and magnetic-field behavior of magnetization in Py/Gd heterostructures. It was shown quantitatively that proximity with Py enhances magnetic order of Gd. Micromagnetic simulations demonstrate that a spin-flop transition observed in a Py/Gd bilayer is due to exchange-spring rotation of magnetization in the Gd layer. Transport measurements show that the magnetoresistance of a [Py(2 nm ) /Gd (2 nm ) ] 25 multilayer changes sign at the compensation temperature and below 20 K. The positive magnetoresistance above the compensation temperature can be attributed to an in-plane domain wall, which appears because of the structural inhomogeneity of the film over its thickness. By measuring the angular dependence of resistance, we are able to determine the angle between magnetizations in the multilayer and the magnetic field at different temperatures. The measurements reveal that, due to a change in the chemical thickness profile, a noncollinear magnetization configuration is only stable in magnetic fields above 10 kOe.

  19. Long-lifetime and long-wavelength osmium (II) metal complexes containing polypyridine ligands: excellent red fluorescent dyes for biophysics and for sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Zakir; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    1999-05-01

    Several luminescent complexes of osmium (II) containing polypyridine ligands have been prepared. The syntheses, photophysical and fluorescence polarization properties of [Os(phen)2(aphen)]2+, [Os(tpy)(mcbpy)(py)]2+, [Os(ttpy)2]2+, [Os(tpy)(triphos)]2+ and [Os(tppz)2]2+ are reported. Where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, aphen is 5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline, tpy is 2,2':6,2'-terpyridine, mcbpy is 4-methyl-2,2'- bipyridine-4'-carboxylic, py is pyridine, triphos is bis(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)-phenyl phosphine, ttpy is 4- tolyl,2,2':6,2'-terpyridine, and tppz is 2,3,5,6- tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine. The complexes absorb light at above 550 nm, emit above 700 nm, and have emission lifetimes longer than 50 ns in water. The emission of all the complexes is polarized, so they can have applications as red light excitable dyes for biophysical studies of macromolecules and for polarization immunoassays. The complexes can also be used for lifetime-based oxygen sensing using low-cost phase fluorometry and a LED light source.

  20. Nontrivial anomalous Hall effect in ultrathin Pt/permalloy bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanqing; Shan, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Anomalous Hall effect of Pt (2.5 nm)/permalloy bilayers with the thickness tPy = 0.6 ~10 nm; Pt/permalloy (2.2 nm) bilayers with the thickness tPt = 1.5 ~10 nm and Pt (2.5 nm)/permalloy (2.2 nm) bilayers with the post-annealing temperature 100 ~500° grown on MgO (001) substrates are investigated. The Pt/permalloy bilayer shows distinguished performance from the single permalloy layer due to the interfacial influence. Effective magnetic anisotropy of the bilayer with tPy <2.2 nm turns to be perpendicular to the film plane and it increases with decreasing measured temperature. More interestingly, the anomalous Hall effect is also greatly enhanced in these Pt/permalloy bilayers, comparing with that in bulk permalloy. The parameters presenting skew scattering, side jump and intrinsic contribution become extremely large, indicating a strong influence of spin orbit coupling coming from Pt/permalloy interface on the anomalous Hall effect.

  1. Solid-state synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten porphyrins and aerial oxidation of coordinated benzenethiolate to benzenesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Goutam; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-06-04

    A new route is developed for the synthesis of molybdenum and tungsten porphyrins using [M(NO)(2)py(2)Cl(2)] (M = Mo, W) as the metal source and TPP (dianion of 5,10,15,20-meso-tetraphenylporphyrin) in the benzoic acid melt. Complexes [Mo(V)O(TPP)(OOCPh)] (1) and [W(V)O(TPP)(OOCPh)] (2) are isolated in almost quantitative yield. These are characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, electronic and IR spectroscopy, and magnetic moment measurements. Benzenethiol substitutes for PhCOO(-) in 1, forming an intermediate thiolato complex that responds to the intramolecular redox reaction across the Mo(V)-SPh bond to yield [Mo(IV)O(TPP)] (3). Under an excess of benzenethiol, PhS(-) is coordinated to the vacant site in 3, which under aerial oxidation is oxidized to benzenesulfonate to form [Mo(V)O(TPP)(O(3)SPh)] (4). 2 undergoes similar aerial oxidation chemistry albeit slowly.

  2. Combined analysis of chemical bonding in a Cu(II) dimer using QTAIM, Voronoi tessellation and Hirshfeld surface approaches.

    PubMed

    Vologzhanina, Anna V; Kats, Svitlana V; Penkova, Larisa V; Pavlenko, Vadim A; Efimov, Nikolay N; Minin, Vadim V; Eremenko, Igor L

    2015-10-01

    Interaction of 1-(1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ethanone oxime (H2PzOx) with copper(II) chloride in the presence of pyridine afforded a binuclear discrete [Cu2(HPzOx)2Cl2py2] complex, which was characterized by Fourier transform-IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra, magnetochemistry and high-resolution X-ray diffraction experiments. Multipole refinement of X-ray diffraction data and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of an isolated molecule allowed charge and spin distributions to be obtained for this compound. Magnetochemistry data, EPR spectra and DFT calculations of an isolated molecule show antiferromagnetic coupling between copper(II) ions. The spin distribution suggests an exchange pathway via the bridging pyrazole ring in the equatorial plane of the CuN4Cl coordination polyhedron, thus providing support for the classical superexchange mechanism; the calculated value of the magnetic coupling constant -2J is equal to 220 cm(-1), which compares well with the experimental value of 203 ± 2 cm(-1). Chemical connectivity was derived by Bader's 'quantum theory of atoms in molecules' and compared with Voronoi tessellation and Hirshfeld surface representations of crystal space. All methodologies gave a similar qualitative and semi-quantitative description of intra- and intermolecular connectivity.

  3. Periodic motion in perturbed elliptic oscillators revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbera, M.; Llibre, J.; Valls, C.

    2016-10-01

    We analytically study the Hamiltonian system in R4 with Hamiltonian H= 1/2 bigl(px2+py2 bigr)+1/2 bigl(ω12 x 2+ω22 y2 bigr)- ɛ V(x,y) being V(x,y)=-(x2y+ax3) with ain{R}, where ɛ is a small parameter and ω1 and ω2 are the unperturbed frequencies of the oscillations along the x and y axis, respectively. Using averaging theory of first and second order we analytically find seven families of periodic solutions in every positive energy level of H when the frequencies are not equal. Four of these seven families are defined for all ain{R} whereas the other three are defined for all a≠0. Moreover, we provide the shape of all these families of periodic solutions. These Hamiltonians may represent the central parts of deformed galaxies and thus have been extensively used and studied mainly numerically in order to describe local motion in galaxies near an equilibrium point.

  4. Structural, MALDI-TOF-MS, magnetic and spectroscopic studies of new dinuclear copper(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes containing a biomimicking μ-OH bridge.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Macías, Alejandro; Valencia, Laura; Neuman, Nicolás I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D; González, Pablo J; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2010-12-28

    The Py(2)N(4)S(2) octadentate coordinating ligand afforded dinuclear cobalt, copper and zinc complexes and the corresponding mixed metal compounds. The overall geometry and bonding modes have been deduced on the basis of elemental analysis data, MALDI-TOF-MS, IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies, single-crystal X-Ray diffraction, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In the copper and zinc complexes, a μ-hydroxo bridge links the two metal ions. In both cases, the coordination geometry is distorted octahedral. Magnetic and EPR data reveal weakly antiferromagnetic high spin Co(II) ions, compatible with a dinuclear structure. The magnetic characterization of the dinuclear Cu(II) compound indicates a ferromagnetically coupled dimer with weak antiferromagnetic intermolecular interactions. The intra-dimer ferromagnetic behaviour was unexpected for a Cu(II) dimer with such μ-hydroxo bridging topology. We discuss the influence on the magnetic properties of non-covalent interactions between the bridging moiety and the lattice free water molecules.

  5. Measurement of the exclusive Υ production cross-section in pp collisions at √{s}=7 TeV and 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-09-01

    A study is presented of central exclusive production of Υ( nS) states, where the Υ( nS) resonances decay to the μ + μ - final state, using pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment. The cross-section is measured in the rapidity range 2 < y(Υ) < 4 .5 where the muons are reconstructed in the pseudorapidity range 2 < η( μ ±) < 4 .5. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 fb-1 and was collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV. The measured Υ(1 S) and Υ(2 S) production cross-sections are σ ( ppto pY(1S)p)=9.0± 2.1± 1.7 pb and σ ( ppto pY(2S)p)=1.3± 0.8± 0.3 pb, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic. The Υ(1 S) crosssection is also measured as a function of rapidity and is found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions. An upper limit is set at 3.4 pb at the 95% confidence level for the exclusive Υ(3 S) production cross-section, including possible contamination from χ b (3 P ) → Υ(3 S)γ decays. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Influence of synthesis conditions on complexation of Cu (II) with O,N,O tridentate hydrazone ligand. X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repich, H. H.; Orysyk, S. I.; Orysyk, V. V.; Zborovskii, Yu. L.; Melnyk, A. K.; Trachevskyi, V. V.; Pekhnyo, V. I.; Vovk, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    Four novel Cu2+ coordination compounds with a (E)-N‧-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-phenylacetohydrazide (HBPAH, H2L) have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction method, IR, UV-Vis and EPR spectroscopy. In all obtained compounds the ligand is coordinated in typical O,N,O-tridentate chelate manner. It has been shown that synthesis conditions have a great influence on a structure of resulting complex compounds. Depending on starting Cu2+ compounds, concentration of reagents, pH and the presence of secondary ligands the HBPAH coordinates as a neutral molecule, mono- or dianion with formation of four different complexes: [Cu(HL)(H2L)]NO3 (I), [Cu(HL)Cl] (II), [Cu2(HL)2Cl2] (III) and [Cu2(L)2Py2] (IV). Complex I is interesting by the presence of two differently coordinated ligand molecules. Mononuclear complex compound II and its dimeric analogue III were obtained from the same reagents: CuCl2 and HBPAH but in different reaction conditions. In dimeric complex IV the HBPAH molecules are coordinated as dianions in imidol tautomeric form, the pyridine molecules act as secondary ligands complementing the coordination polyhedra of Cu2+ ions. Study of UV-Vis and EPR spectra of complex compounds I-IV in solutions showed that all the complexes undergo partial solvolysis upon dissolution.

  7. Mechanistic Studies of Wacker-Type Intramolecular Aerobic Oxidative Amination of Alkenes Catalyzed by Pd(OAc)2/Pyridine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xuan; Liu, Guosheng; Popp, Brian V.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2011-01-01

    Wacker-type oxidative cyclization reactions have been the subject of extensive research for several decades, but few systematic mechanistic studies of these reactions have been reported. The present study features experimental and DFT computational studies of Pd(OAc)2/pyridine-catalyzed intramolecular aerobic oxidative amination of alkenes. The data support a stepwise catalytic mechanism that consists of (1) steady-state formation of a PdII-amidate-alkene chelate with release of one equivalent of pyridine and AcOH from the catalyst center, (2) alkene insertion into a Pd–N bond, (3) reversible β-hydride elimination, (4) irreversible reductive elimination of AcOH, and (5) aerobic oxidation of palladium(0) to regenerate the active trans-Pd(OAc)2(py)2 catalyst. Evidence is obtained for two energetically viable pathways for the key C–N bond-forming step, featuring a pyridine-ligated and a pyridine-dissociated PdII species. Analysis of natural charges and bond lengths of the alkene-insertion transition state suggest that this reaction is best described as an intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the amidate ligand on the coordinated alkene. PMID:21250706

  8. Trace elements in pyrite from the Petropavlovsk gold-porphyry deposit (Polar Urals): Results of LA-ICP-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentiev, I. V.; Abramova, V. D.; Ivanova, Yu. N.; Tyukova, E. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-09-01

    The first study of the pyrite composition from gold deposit in the Urals by the LA-ICP-MS method has been carried out. In the pyrite high contents of Au (up to 49 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), and other micronutrients (As (417 ppm), Ag (105 ppm), Co (2825 ppm), Ni (75 ppm), Cu (1442 ppm), and Zn (19 ppm)) were detected. Furthermore, an increase in the concentrations of trace elements from early to later generations of pyrite (from Py-1 to Py-3) Au, Ag, Te, Sn, Te, and Bi and depletion of Co, As, and Ni have been revealed. Gold is mainly concentrated in the pyrite of the second generation (Py-2) and occurs mostly as an "invisible" form with prevalence of nano-sized particles of native Au, similar in composition to electrum AuAg, as well as Au- and Au-Ag tellurides. The presence in the pyrite of admixtures of Cu, Co, Ni, Pb, As, and Te, possibly favors the entrance of Au into it (up to 5-50 ppm), while in common pyrite, poor in the mentioned impurities, the gold content is <1 ppm.

  9. Hard X-ray-Induced Valence Tautomeric Interconversion in Cobalt-o-Dioxolene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Thiago M; Gee, William J; Shepherd, Helena J; Warren, Mark R; Shultz, David A; Raithby, Paul R; Pinheiro, Carlos B

    2017-10-05

    Valence tautomeric interconversion (VTI) is a reversible process occurring in metal complexes in which an intramolecular metal-ligand electron transfer is accompanied by a change of metal ion spin state, creating two switchable electronic states (redox isomers). Herein, we describe the low-temperature, 30-100 K, single-crystal study of the [Co(diox)2(4-CN-py)2]·benzene complex (1) (diox = 3,5-di-t-butylsemiquinonate (SQ(•-)) and/or 3,5-di-t-butylcatecholate (Cat(2-)) radical; 4-CN-py = 4-cyano-pyridine) using hard synchrotron X-ray radiation with different intensities. We demonstrate for the first time that hard X-rays can induce VTI, and that the interconversion molar fraction is dependent on both intensity and exposure time. This in turn shows that X-rays, as a probe, might be altering the very nature of many structures under investigation at low temperatures, and consequently their properties. Our findings add new perspectives to VTI studies and might be of significant interest to the entire community investigating photoresponsive complexes.

  10. Redox mediator effect on water oxidation in a ruthenium-based chromophore-catalyst assembly.

    PubMed

    Norris, Michael R; Concepcion, Javier J; Harrison, Daniel P; Binstead, Robert A; Ashford, Dennis L; Fang, Zhen; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-02-13

    The synthesis, characterization, and redox properties are described for a new ruthenium-based chromophore-catalyst assembly, [(bpy)(2)Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-bimpy)Ru(tpy)(OH(2))](4+) (1, [Ru(a)(II)-Ru(b)(II)-OH(2)](4+); bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 4-Mebpy-4'-bimpy = 4-(methylbipyridin-4'-yl)-N-benzimid-N'-pyridine; tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine), as its chloride salt. The assembly incorporates both a visible light absorber and a catalyst for water oxidation. With added ceric ammonium nitrate (Ce(IV), or CAN), both 1 and 2, [Ru(tpy)(Mebim-py)(OH(2))](2+) (Mebim-py = 2-pyridyl-N-methylbenzimidazole), catalyze water oxidation. Time-dependent UV/vis spectral monitoring following addition of 30 equiv of Ce(IV) reveals that the rate of Ce(IV) consumption is first order both in Ce(IV) and in an oxidized form of the assembly. The rate-limiting step appears to arise from slow oxidation of this intermediate followed by rapid release of O(2). This is similar to isolated catalyst 2, with redox potentials comparable to the [-Ru(b)-OH(2)](2+) site in 1, but 1 is more reactive than 2 by a factor of 8 due to a redox mediator effect.

  11. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Margaret E.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2016-07-12

    In this paper, we report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis. Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls and was able to grow on isopropanol as a sole carbon source. Finally, in the process, reconstitution of this large ACX complex (370 kDa) in a system naïve to its structural and mechanistic requirements allowed us to study this otherwise cryptic enzyme in more detail than would have been possible in the less genetically tractable native Xanthobacter system.

  12. Alkali-metalated forms of thiacalix[4]arenes.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Jürgen; Radius, Udo

    2006-11-13

    The alkali metal salts [TCALi4] (1), [TCANa4] (2), and [TCALK4] (3) of fully deprotonated p-tert-butyltetrathiacalix[4]arene (H(4)TCA) are readily available from the reactions of thiacalix[4]arene and n-BuLi, NaH, or KH as deprotonating reagents. Crystals of the sodium salts 2 and the potassium salt 3 suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained in the form of the pyridine solvates [(TCA)2Na8.8py] (2.8py) and [(TCA)2K(8).8py] (3.8py). These molecules are dimers in the solid state but are structurally not related. In addition, the reaction of H(4)TCA and lithium hydroxide afforded the structurally characterized complex [(TCA)Li5(OH).4THF] (4). The molecular structure of 4 as well as the structures of 2.8py and 3.8py reveal a close relationship to the corresponding alkali metal salts of the calix[4]arenes.

  13. Crystalline coordination framework endowed with dynamic gate-opening behaviour by being downsized to a thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaida, Shun; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sakata, Osami; Song, Chulho; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Takata, Masaki; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication of porous coordination frameworks in thin-film forms has been investigated intensively with a view to using their structural response to external stimuli and guests for potential nanotechnological applications, for example as membranes for gas separation. Here we report a coordination framework that exhibits a dynamic guest-sorption behaviour in a nanometre-sized thin-film form (16 nm thick), yet shows no guest uptake in the bulk. Highly oriented crystalline thin films of this coordination framework—which consists of interdigitated two-dimensional layers of {Fe(py)2[Pt(CN)4]} (py, pyridine)—were fabricated through liquid-phase layer-by-layer synthesis. The resulting thin film exhibited a clear guest uptake with a structural transformation of the gate-opening type as characterized by in situ X-ray diffraction. Increasing the film's thickness markedly suppressed this behaviour. We envisage that such a crystal-downsizing effect may be observed with other coordination frameworks, and may be of use to develop functional materials, for example, for switching or sensing devices.

  14. Molecular [(Fe3)–(Fe3)] and [(Fe4)–(Fe4)] coordination cluster pairs as single or composite arrays.

    PubMed

    Sañudo, E Carolina; Uber, Jorge Salinas; Pons Balagué, Alba; Roubeau, Olivier; Aromí, Guillem

    2012-08-06

    The synthesis of molecular cluster pairs is a challenge for coordination chemists due to the potential applications of these species in molecular spintronics or quantum computing. The ligand H(4)L, 1,3-bis-(3-oxo-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-propionyl)-2-methoxybenzene, has been successfully used to obtain a series of such complexes using the basic Fe(III) trinuclear carboxylates as starting materials. Synthetic control has allowed the isolation of the two molecular cluster pairs that form the composite [Fe(4)O(2)(PhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2)[Fe(3)O(PhCO(2))(5)(py)(H(2)L)](2) (1). The dimers of trinuclear units, [Fe(3)O(PhCO(2))(5)(H(2)O)(H(2)L)](2) (2) and [Fe(3)O(o-MePhCO(2))(5)(H(2)L)(py)](2) (3), and the dimers of tetranuclear units, [Fe(4)O(2)(PhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2) (4) and [Fe(4)O(2)(o-MePhCO(2))(6)(H(2)L)(pz)](2) (5), are presented here. The magnetic properties of the reported aggregates show that they are pairs of semi-independent clusters weakly interacting magnetically as required for two-qubit quantum gates.

  15. Protonation effect on the electronic properties of 2-pyridone monomer, dimer and its water clusters: A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Saed, Behnaz; Omidyan, Reza E-mail: reza.omidyan@u-psud.fr

    2014-01-14

    The CC2 (second order approximate coupled cluster method) has been applied to investigate protonation effect on electronic transition energies of 2-pyridone (2PY), 2-pyridone dimer, and micro-solvated 2-pyridone (0-2 water molecules). The PE profiles of protonated 2-pyridone (2PYH{sup +}) as well as monohydrated 2PYH{sup +} at the different electronic states have been investigated. The {sup 1}πσ* state in protonated species (2PYH{sup +}) is a barrier free and dissociative state along the O-H stretching coordinate. In this reaction coordinate, the lowest lying {sup 1}πσ* predissociates the bound S{sub 1}({sup 1}ππ*) state, connecting the latter to a conical intersection with the S{sub 0} state. These conical intersections lead the {sup 1}ππ* state to proceed as predissociative state and finally direct the excited system to the ground state. Furthermore, in presence of water molecule, the {sup 1}πσ* state still remains dissociative but the conical intersection between {sup 1}πσ* and ground state disappears. In addition, according to the CC2 calculation results, it has been predicted that protonation significantly blue shifts the S{sub 1}-S{sub 0} electronic transition of monomer, dimer, and microhydrated 2-pyridone.

  16. Magnetic vortex nucleation/annihilation in artificial-ferrimagnet microdisks

    DOE PAGES

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Phatak, Charudatta; ...

    2017-08-28

    The topological nature of magnetic-vortex state gives rise to peculiar magnetization reversal observed in magnetic microdisks. Interestingly, magnetostatic and exchange energies which drive this reversal can be effectively controlled in artificial ferrimagnet heterostructures composed of rare-earth and transition metals. [Py(t)/Gd(t)]25 (t=1 or 2 nm) superlattices demonstrate a pronounced change of the magnetization and exchange stiffness in a 10–300 K temperature range as well as very small magnetic anisotropy. Due to these properties, the magnetization of cylindrical microdisks composed of these artificial ferrimagnets can be transformed from the vortex to uniformly-magnetized states in a permanent magnetic field by changing the temperature.more » We explored the behavior of magnetization in 1.5-µm [Py(t)/Gd(t)]25 (t=1 or 2 nm) disks at different temperatures and magnetic fields and observed that due to the energy barrier separating vortex and uniformly-magnetized states, the vortex nucleation and annihilation occur at different temperatures. This causes the temperature dependences of the Py/Gd disks magnetization to demonstrate unique hysteretic behavior in a narrow temperature range. It was discovered that for the [Py(2 nm)/Gd(2 nm)]25 microdisks the vortex can be metastable at a certain temperature range.« less

  17. Magnetization reversal in Py/Gd heterostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Lapa, Pavel N.; Ding, Junjia; Pearson, John E.; ...

    2017-07-13

    Here, using a combination of magnetometry and magnetotransport techniques, we studied temperature and magnetic-field behavior of magnetization in Py/Gd heterostructures. It was shown quantitatively that proximity with Py enhances magnetic order of Gd. Micromagnetic simulations demonstrate that a spin-flop transition observed in a Py/Gd bilayer is due to exchange-spring rotation of magnetization in the Gd layer. Transport measurements show that the magnetoresistance of a [Py(2nm)/Gd(2nm)]25 multilayer changes sign at the compensation temperature and below 20 K. The positive magnetoresistance above the compensation temperature can be attributed to an in-plane domain wall, which appears because of the structural inhomogeneity of themore » film over its thickness. By measuring the angular dependence of resistance, we are able to determine the angle between magnetizations in the multilayer and the magnetic field at different temperatures. The measurements reveal that, due to a change in the chemical thickness profile, a noncollinear magnetization configuration is only stable in magnetic fields above 10 kOe.« less

  18. A role for coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) in a bacterial pathway of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Daniel D.; Krum, Jonathan G.; Ensign, Scott A.

    1999-01-01

    The bacterial metabolism of short-chain aliphatic alkenes occurs via oxidation to epoxyalkanes followed by carboxylation to β-ketoacids. Epoxyalkane carboxylation requires four enzymes (components I–IV), NADPH, NAD+, and a previously unidentified nucleophilic thiol. In the present work, coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), a compound previously found only in the methanogenic Archaea where it serves as a methyl group carrier and activator, has been identified as the thiol and central cofactor of aliphatic epoxide carboxylation in the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2. Component I catalyzed the addition of coenzyme M to epoxypropane to form a β-hydroxythioether, 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Components III and IV catalyzed the NAD+-dependent stereoselective dehydrogenation of R- and S-enantiomers of 2-(2-hydroxypropylthio)ethanesulfonate to form 2-(2-ketopropylthio)ethanesulfonate. Component II catalyzed the NADPH-dependent cleavage and carboxylation of the β-ketothioether to form acetoacetate and coenzyme M. These findings evince a newfound versatility for coenzyme M as a carrier and activator of alkyl groups longer in chain-length than methane, a function for coenzyme M in a catabolic pathway of hydrocarbon oxidation, and the presence of coenzyme M in the bacterial domain of the phylogenetic tree. These results serve to unify bacterial and Archaeal metabolism further and showcase diverse biological functions for an elegantly simple organic molecule. PMID:10411892

  19. Ultrafast electronic and vibrational dynamics in brominated aluminum corroles: Energy relaxation and triplet formation

    PubMed Central

    Stensitzki, T.; Yang, Y.; Berg, A.; Mahammed, A.; Gross, Z.; Heyne, K.

    2016-01-01

    We combined femtosecond (fs) VIS pump–IR probe spectroscopy with fs VIS pump–supercontinuum probe spectroscopy to characterize the photoreaction of the hexacoordinated Al(tpfc-Br8)(py)2 in a comprehensive way. Upon fs excitation at ∼400 nm in the Soret band, the excitation energy relaxes with a time constant of (250 ± 80) fs to the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. This is evident from the rise time of the stimulated emission signal in the visible spectral range. On the same time scale, narrowing of broad infrared signals in the C=C stretching region around 1500 cm−1 is observed. Energy redistribution processes are visible in the vibrational and electronic dynamics with time constants between ∼2 ps and ∼20 ps. Triplet formation is detected with a time constant of (95 ± 3) ps. This is tracked by the complete loss of stimulated emission. Electronic transition of the emerging triplet absorption band overlaps considerably with the singlet excited state absorption. In contrast, two well separated vibrational marker bands for triplet formation were identified at 1477 cm−1 and at 1508 cm−1. These marker bands allow a precise identification of triplet dynamics in corrole systems. PMID:27226980

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic, DFT calculations and biological activity studies of ruthenium carbonyl complexes with 2-picolinic acid and a secondary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shohayeb, Shahera M.; Mohamed, Rania G.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2016-09-01

    Thermal reaction of [Ru3(CO)12] with 2-picolinic acid (Hpic) in the absence and presence of a secondary ligand (pyridine, Py, bipyridine, Bipy, or thiourea, Tu) was investigated. Four complexes with molecular formulae: [Ru(CO)3(Hpic)], 1, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Py)], 2, [Ru2(CO)5(Hpic)(Tu)], 3 and [Ru2(CO)4(Hpic)(Bipy)], 4, were isolated. All complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic studies, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. The ligand and its complexes have been screened for antibacterial activities. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligands. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using B3LYP method and LANL2DZ basis set. The extent of natural charge population (core, valence and rydberg), exact electronic configuration, total Lewis and total non-Lewis are estimated and discussed in terms of natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis.

  1. Consistent Estimates of Very Low HIV Incidence Among People Who Inject Drugs: New York City, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Campbell, Aimée N C; Tross, Susan; Smith, Lou; Cooper, Hannah L F; Hagan, Holly; Perlman, David

    2016-03-01

    To compare methods for estimating low HIV incidence among persons who inject drugs. We examined 4 methods in New York City, 2005 to 2014: (1) HIV seroconversions among repeat participants, (2) increase of HIV prevalence by additional years of injection among new injectors, (3) the New York State and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stratified extrapolation algorithm, and (4) newly diagnosed HIV cases reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The 4 estimates were consistent: (1) repeat participants: 0.37 per 100 person-years (PY; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05/100 PY, 1.33/100 PY); (2) regression of prevalence by years injecting: 0.61 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.36/100 PY, 0.87/100 PY); (3) stratified extrapolation algorithm: 0.32 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.18/100 PY, 0.46/100 PY); and (4) newly diagnosed cases of HIV: 0.14 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.11/100 PY, 0.16/100 PY). All methods appear to capture the same phenomenon of very low and decreasing HIV transmission among persons who inject drugs. Public Health Implications. If resources are available, the use of multiple methods would provide better information for public health purposes.

  2. Getting a Handle on the Role of Coenzyme M in Alkene Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnakumar, A.M.; Sliwa, D.; Endrizzi, J.A.; Boyd, E.S.; Ensign, S.A.; Peters, J.W.

    2009-05-20

    Coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonate; CoM) is one of several atypical cofactors discovered in methanogenic archaea which participate in the biological reduction of CO{sub 2} to methane. Elegantly simple, CoM, so named for its role as a methyl carrier in all methanogenic archaea, is the smallest known organic cofactor. It was thought that this cofactor was used exclusively in methanogenesis until it was recently discovered that CoM is a key cofactor in the pathway of propylene metabolism in the gram-negative soil microorganism Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. A four-step pathway requiring CoM converts propylene and CO{sub 2} to acetoacetate, which feeds into central metabolism. In this process, CoM is used to activate and convert highly electrophilic epoxypropane, formed from propylene epoxidation, into a nucleophilic species that undergoes carboxylation. The unique properties of CoM provide a chemical handle for orienting compounds for site-specific redox chemistry and stereospecific catalysis. The three-dimensional structures of several of the enzymes in the pathway of propylene metabolism in defined states have been determined, providing significant insights into both the enzyme mechanisms and the role of CoM in this pathway. These studies provide the structural basis for understanding the efficacy of CoM as a handle to direct organic substrate transformations at the active sites of enzymes.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and Oxygenation Studies of Carboxylate-Bridged Diiron(II) Complexes with Aromatic Substrates Tethered to Pyridine Ligands and the Formation of a Unique Trinuclear Complex

    PubMed Central

    Friedle, Simone; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, diiron(II) complexes were synthesized as small molecule mimics of the reduced active sites in the hydroxylase components of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases (BMMs). Tethered aromatic substrates were introduced in the form of 2-phenoxypyridines, incorporating hydroxy and methoxy functionalities into windmill-type diiron(II) compounds [Fe2(μ-O2CArR)2-(O2CArR)2(L)2] (1–4), where –O2CArR is a sterically encumbering carboxylate, 2,6-di(4-fluorophenyl)- or 2,6-di(p-tolyl)benzoate (R = 4-FPh or Tol, respectively). The inability of 1–4 to hydroxylate the aromatic substrates was ascertained. Upon reaction with dioxygen, compounds 2 and 3 (L = 2-(m-MeOPhO)Py, 2-(p-MeOPhO)Py, respectively) decompose by a known bimolecular pathway to form mixed-valent diiron(II,III) species at low temperature. Use of 2-(pyridin-2-yloxy)phenol as the ligand L resulted in a doubly-bridged diiron complex (4) and an unprecedented phenoxide-bridged triiron(II) complex (5) under slightly modified reaction conditions. PMID:20376288

  4. Crystal structure of bis-[1-(naphthalen-1-ylmeth-yl)pyridinium] bis-(2,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,1-di-thiol-ato-κ(2) S,S')nickelate(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Xiong, Xu-Jie

    2014-08-01

    A new ion-pair complex, (C16H14N)2[Ni(C4N2S2)2] or (1-NaMePy)2[Ni(imnt)2], where 1-NaMePy is 1-(4-naphthyl-methyl-ene)pyridinium and imnt is 2,2-di-cyano-ethene-1,1-di-thiol-ate, was obtained by the direct reaction of NiCl2, K2imnt and (1-NaMePy)(+)Br(-) in H2O. The asymmetric unit contains a [1-NaMePy](+) cation and one half of an Ni(imnt)2 (2-) anion. The Ni(II) ion lies on an inversion centre and adopts a square-planar configuration with Ni-S bond lengths of 2.200 (1) and 2.216 (1) Å. In the [1-NaMePy](+) cation, the naphthyl ringsystem and the pyridinium ring make a dihedral angle of 90.0 (2)°. In the crystal, C-H⋯N and C-H⋯Ni hydrogen bonds, as well as π-π inter-actions between the chelate ring and the pyridinium ring [centroid-centroid distance = 3.675 (2) Å] link the ions into a three-dimensional network.

  5. Multidentate 2-pyridyl-phosphine ligands - towards ligand tuning and chirality.

    PubMed

    Hanf, S; García-Rodríguez, R; Feldmann, S; Bond, A D; Hey-Hawkins, E; Wright, D S

    2017-01-17

    In the current work a range of multidentate pyridyl-phosphine ligands are synthesised with tuneable electronic and steric character, through the incorporation of a variety of alcohols into (amino)pyridyl-phosphine frameworks. The stoichiometric reactions of compounds of the type (R2N)xP(2-py)3-x (2-py = 2-pyridyl) with alkyl as well as aryl alcohols result in the formation of (alkoxy)pyridyl-phosphines (RO)xP(2-py)3-x (R = Me, 2-Bu, Ph). This synthetic procedure also allows the introduction of enantiomerically pure alcohols, like (R)-(-)-2-BuOH and (S)-(+)-2-BuOH, and as such provides a very convenient two-step route to chiral multidentate pyridyl-phosphine ligand sets. Using the bis-amino-phosphine (Et2N)2P(2-py), the stepwise introduction of alcohols enables the synthesis of racemic alkoxy-amino-phosphines (R2N)(RO)P(2-py), as well as alkoxy-phosphines (RO)2P(2-py) and therefore offers easy access to a library of different pyridyl-phosphine ligands. Coordination studies of the (amino)pyridyl-phosphines and (alkoxy)pyridyl-phosphines with copper(i) reveal that ligands with two N donor atoms form dimeric arrangements, while (PhO)2P(2-py), in-corporating only one N donor atom, shows completely different coordination behaviour.

  6. Engineering Bacteria to Catabolize the Carbonaceous Component of Sarin: Teaching E. coli to Eat Isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Brown, Margaret E; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D

    2016-12-16

    We report an engineered strain of Escherichia coli that catabolizes the carbonaceous component of the extremely toxic chemical warfare agent sarin. Enzymatic decomposition of sarin generates isopropanol waste that, with this engineered strain, is then transformed into acetyl-CoA by enzymatic conversion with a key reaction performed by the acetone carboxylase complex (ACX). We engineered the heterologous expression of the ACX complex from Xanthobacter autotrophicus PY2 to match the naturally occurring subunit stoichiometry and purified the recombinant complex from E. coli for biochemical analysis. Incorporating this ACX complex and enzymes from diverse organisms, we introduced an isopropanol degradation pathway in E. coli, optimized induction conditions, and decoupled enzyme expression to probe pathway bottlenecks. Our engineered E. coli consumed 65% of isopropanol compared to no-cell controls and was able to grow on isopropanol as a sole carbon source. In the process, reconstitution of this large ACX complex (370 kDa) in a system naïve to its structural and mechanistic requirements allowed us to study this otherwise cryptic enzyme in more detail than would have been possible in the less genetically tractable native Xanthobacter system.

  7. Molecular recognition and self-assembly special feature: Self-assembled biomimetic [2Fe2S]-hydrogenase-based photocatalyst for molecular hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Kluwer, A M; Kapre, R; Hartl, F; Lutz, M; Spek, A L; Brouwer, A M; van Leeuwen, P W N M; Reek, J N H

    2009-06-30

    The large-scale production of clean energy is one of the major challenges society is currently facing. Molecular hydrogen is envisaged as a key green fuel for the future, but it becomes a sustainable alternative for classical fuels only if it is also produced in a clean fashion. Here, we report a supramolecular biomimetic approach to form a catalyst that produces molecular hydrogen using light as the energy source. It is composed of an assembly of chromophores to a bis(thiolate)-bridged diiron ([2Fe2S]) based hydrogenase catalyst. The supramolecular building block approach introduced in this article enabled the easy formation of a series of complexes, which are all thoroughly characterized, revealing that the photoactivity of the catalyst assembly strongly depends on its nature. The active species, formed from different complexes, appears to be the [Fe(2)(micro-pdt)(CO)(4){PPh(2)(4-py)}(2)] (3) with 2 different types of porphyrins (5a and 5b) coordinated to it. The modular supramolecular approach was important in this study as with a limited number of building blocks several different complexes were generated.

  8. Consistent Estimates of Very Low HIV Incidence Among People Who Inject Drugs: New York City, 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Arasteh, Kamyar; McKnight, Courtney; Feelemyer, Jonathan; Campbell, Aimée N. C.; Tross, Susan; Smith, Lou; Cooper, Hannah L. F.; Hagan, Holly; Perlman, David

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare methods for estimating low HIV incidence among persons who inject drugs. Methods. We examined 4 methods in New York City, 2005 to 2014: (1) HIV seroconversions among repeat participants, (2) increase of HIV prevalence by additional years of injection among new injectors, (3) the New York State and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stratified extrapolation algorithm, and (4) newly diagnosed HIV cases reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Results. The 4 estimates were consistent: (1) repeat participants: 0.37 per 100 person-years (PY; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05/100 PY, 1.33/100 PY); (2) regression of prevalence by years injecting: 0.61 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.36/100 PY, 0.87/100 PY); (3) stratified extrapolation algorithm: 0.32 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.18/100 PY, 0.46/100 PY); and (4) newly diagnosed cases of HIV: 0.14 per 100 PY (95% CI = 0.11/100 PY, 0.16/100 PY). Conclusions. All methods appear to capture the same phenomenon of very low and decreasing HIV transmission among persons who inject drugs. Public Health Implications. If resources are available, the use of multiple methods would provide better information for public health purposes. PMID:26794160

  9. Mixed Ligand Complexes of N-Methyl-N-phenyl Dithiocarbamate: Synthesis, Characterisation, Antifungal Activity, and Solvent Extraction Studies of the Ligand

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Ume, Cyril; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    A series of mixed ligand dithiocarbamate complexes with a general formula [ML2(py)2], where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), py = pyridine, and L = N-methyl-N-phenyl dithiocarbamate have been prepared and characterised by elemental analysis, FTIR and Uv spectroscopy, magnetic moment, and thermogravimetric and conductance analysis. The infrared spectra showed that symmetrical bidentate coordination occurred with the dithiocarbamate moiety through the sulfur atoms, while neutral monodentate coordination occurred through the nitrogen atom for the pyridine molecule in the complexes. The electronic spectra, elemental analysis, and magnetic moment results proved that the complexes adopted octahedral geometry. The conductance measurement showed that the complexes are nonelectrolytes proving their nonionic nature. The compounds were screened for three human pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The cobalt complex showed the best antifungal activity among the test compounds. Liquid-liquid extractive abilities of the ligand towards copper and nickel ions in different solvent media were investigated. The ligand showed a strong binding affinity towards the metals ions with an extractive efficiency of about 99%. PMID:26543441

  10. The Planar Cyclooctatetraene Bridge in Bis-Metallic Macrocycles: Isolating or Conjugating?

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, Susovan; Kosa, Monica; Mizrahi, Amir; Fridman, Natalia; Saphier, Magal; Stanger, Amnon; Gross, Zeev

    2017-02-20

    A minor modification of the reported procedure for the synthesis of a corrole dimer that is fused by the cyclooctatetraene (COT) unit, (H3tpfc)2COT, allowed for its isolation in 18% yield. Of the two redox isomers that this interesting macrocycle does form, the current focus is on the reduced form, in which each subunit resembles that of monomeric corroles with a trianionic N4 coordination core. The corresponding bis-gallium(III) complex was prepared as an entry into the potentially rich coordination chemistry of (H3tpfc)2COT. Both X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations disclosed that the COT moiety is essentially planar with very unusual nonalternating C-C bonds. The same holds true for the bis-gallium(III) complexes [(Ga-tpfc)2]COT(py)2 and [(Ga-tpfc)2]COT(py)4, obtained with one and two pyridine molecules coordinated to each metal ion, respectively. The electronic spectra of both the free base and the gallium(III) complexes display an extremely low energy band (λmax at 720-724 nm), which points toward extensive π delocalization through the COT bridge. This aspect was fully addressed by examining the interactions between the two corrole subunits in terms of electrochemistry and DFT calculations of the oxidized and reduced macrocycle. The new near-IR bands that appear upon both oxidation (λmax 1250 nm) and reduction (λmax 1780 nm) serve as additional supporting evidence for this conclusion.

  11. Effect of Fuelling Depth on the Fusion Performance and Particle Confinement of a Fusion Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-12-01

    The fusion performance and particle confinement of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device have been modeled by numerically solving the energy transport equation and the particle transport equation. The effect of fuelling depth has been investigated. The plasma is primarily heated by the fusion produced alpha particles and the loss process of particles and energy in the scrape-off layer has been taken into account. To study the effect of fuelling depth on fusion performance, the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. It is shown that the particle confinement and fusion performance are significantly dependent on the fuelling depth. Deviation of 10% of the minor radius on fuelling depth can make the particle confinement change by ∼ 61% and the fusion performance change by ∼ 108%. The enhancement of fusion performance is due to the better particle confinement induced by deeper particle fuelling. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175178 and 11375196) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB113000)

  12. 9-Triptycenecarboxylate-bridged diiron(II) complexes: Capture of the paddlewheel geometric isomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedle, Simone; Kodanko, Jeremy J.; Fornace, Kyrstin L.; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2008-11-01

    The synthesis and characterization of diiron(II) complexes supported by 9-triptycenecarboxylate ligands ( -O 2CTrp) is described. The interlocking nature of the triptycenecarboxylates facilitates formation of quadruply bridged diiron(II) complexes of the type [Fe 2(μ-O 2CTrp) 4(L) 2] (L = THF, pyridine or imidazole) with a paddlewheel geometry. A systematic lengthening of the Fe-Fe distance occurs with the increase in steric bulk of the neutral donor L, resulting in values of up to 3 Å without disassembly of the paddlewheel structure. Reactions with an excess of water do not lead to decomposition of the diiron(II) core, indicating that these quadruply bridged complexes are of exceptional stability. The red-colored complexes [Fe 2(μ-O 2CTrp) 4(4-AcPy) 2] ( 10) and [Fe 2(μ-O 2CTrp) 4(4-CNPy) 2] ( 11) exhibit solvent-dependent thermochromism in coordinating solvents that was studied by variable temperature UV-vis spectroscopy. Reaction of [Fe 2(μ-O 2CTrp) 4(THF) 2] with N, N, N', N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA), tetra- n-butyl ammonium thiocyanate, or excess 2-methylimidazole resulted in the formation of mononuclear complexes [Fe(O 2CTrp) 2(TMEDA)] ( 13), ( n-Bu 4N) 2[Fe(O 2CTrp) 2(SCN) 2] ( 14), and [Fe(O 2CTrp) 2(2-MeIm) 2] ( 15) having an O 4/N 2 coordination sphere composition.

  13. Evidence for single-chain magnet behavior in a Mn(III)-Ni(II) chain designed with high spin magnetic units: a route to high temperature metastable magnets.

    PubMed

    Clérac, Rodolphe; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Masahiro; Coulon, Claude

    2002-10-30

    We herein present the synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of a new heterometallic chain of MnIII and NiII ions, [Mn2(saltmen)2Ni(pao)2(py)2](ClO4)2 (1) (saltmen2- = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(salicylideneiminate) and pao- = pyridine-2-aldoximate). The crystal structure of 1 was investigated by X-ray crystallographic analysis: compound 1 crystallized in monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 21.140(3) A, b = 15.975(1) A, c = 18.6212(4) A, beta = 98.0586(4) degrees , V = 6226.5(7) A3, and Z = 4. This compound consists of two fragments, the out-of-plane dimer [Mn2(saltmen)2]2+ as a coordination acceptor building block and the neutral mononuclear unit [Ni(pao)2(py)2] as a coordination donor building block, forming an alternating chain having the repeating unit [-Mn-(O)2-Mn-ON-Ni-NO-]n. In the crystal structure, each chain is well separated with a minimum intermetallic distance between Mn and Ni ions of 10.39 A and with the absence of interchain pi overlaps between organic ligands. These features ensure a good magnetic isolation of the chains. The dc and ac magnetic measurements were performed on both the polycrystalline sample and the aligned single crystals of 1. Above 30 K, the magnetic susceptibility of this one-dimensional compound was successfully described in a mean field approximation as an assembly of trimers (Mn...Ni...Mn) with a NiII...MnIII antiferromagnetic interaction (J = -21 K) connected through a ferromagnetic MnIII...MnIII interaction (J'). However, the mean field theory fails to describe the magnetic behavior below 30 K emphasizing the one-dimensional magnetic character of the title compound. Between 5 and 15 K, the susceptibility in the chain direction was fitted to a one-dimensional Ising model leading to the same value of J'. Hysteresis loops are observed below 3.5 K, indicating a magnet-type behavior. In the same range of temperature, combined ac and dc measurements show a slow relaxation of the magnetization

  14. Multimetallic complexes based on a diphosphine-dithiocarbamate "Janus" ligand.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Rebecca; Gonzàlez de Rivera, Ferran; Wan, Jane Hui; Zhang, Qi; White, Andrew J P; Rossell, Oriol; Hogarth, Graeme; Wilton-Ely, James D E T

    2015-05-04

    The HCl salt of the aminodiphosphine ligand HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 reacts with [M(CO)4(pip)2] (M = Mo, W; pip = piperidine) to yield [M{κ(2)-HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)4]. The molybdenum analogue readily loses a carbonyl ligand to form [Mo{κ(3)-HN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)3], which was structurally characterized. The same ligand backbone is used to form the new bifunctional ligand, KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2, which reacts with nickel and cobalt precursors to yield [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] and [Co{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}3]. Addition of [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) to [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] leads to formation of the pentametallic complex, [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2AuCl)2}2]. In contrast, addition of [PdCl2(py)2] (py = pyridine) to [Ni{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}2] does not lead to a trimetallic complex but instead yields the transmetalated cyclic compound [Pd{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}]2, which was structurally characterized. The same product is obtained directly from [PdCl2(py)2] and KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2. In contrast, the same reaction with [PtCl2(NCPh)2] yields the oligomer, [Pt{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}]n. Reaction of KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 with cis-[RuCl2(dppm)2] provides [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(dppm)2](+), which reacts with [AuCl(tht)] to yield [Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2AuCl)2}(dppm)2](+). Addition of [M(CO)4(pip)2] (M = Mo, W) to the same precursor leads to formation of the bimetallic compounds [(dppm)2Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}M(CO)4](+), while treatment with [ReCl(CO)5] yields [(dppm)2Ru{S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}ReCl(CO)3](+). Reaction of KS2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2 with [Os(CH═CHC6H4Me-4)Cl(CO)(BTD)(PPh3)2] (BTD = 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) provides [Os(CH═CHC6H4Me-4){S2CN(CH2CH2PPh2)2}(CO)(PPh3)2], but reaction with the analogous ruthenium precursor fails to yield a clean product.

  15. New dinuclear nickel(II) and iron(II) complexes with a macrocyclic ligand containing a N6S2 donor-set: synthesis, structural, MALDI-TOF-MS, magnetic and spectroscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Macías, Alejandro; Valencia, Laura; Ribas, Joan; Capelo, José Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2010-09-07

    A series of dinuclear Ni(II) and Fe(II) complexes with a Py(2)N(4)S(2) coordinating octadentate macrocyclic ligand L prepared by direct reactions have been studied. The overall geometry and bonding mode have been deduced on the basis of elemental analysis data, infrared, MALDI-TOF-MS, UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In general both M(2+) centres are sited into the macrocyclic cavity coordinated to a pyridinic nitrogen atom, one sulfur atom, two secondary amine groups from the macrocyclic backbone and completing the coordination spheres with two solvent or anionic molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry, except in the case of [Ni(2)L(mu-Cl)(H(2)O)(2)](BF(4))(3).2H(2)O, where the metal ions are sited in the macrocyclic cavity coordinated to a pyridinic nitrogen atom, one sulfur atom, two secondary amine groups from the macrocyclic backbone, one water molecule and one chloride ion acting as a bridge between the two centres in a distorted octahedral geometry. The magnetic properties of the nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(2)L(CH(3)CN)(4)](BF(4))(4).3.5CH(3)CN (11) and [Ni(2)L(mu-Cl)(H(2)O)(2)](BF(4))(3).2H(2)O (12) has been recorded in the solid state and indicates an unexpected ferromagnetic exchange in both cases, especially in compound 11 because no similar systems are previously reported in the literature presenting this magnetic behaviour. Further complexes with similar ligands are in progress to corroborate this unexpected ferromagnetic behaviour.

  16. Changes of biomarkers with oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, phenanthrene and pyrene in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Myung Haing; Cho, Joon Hyoung

    2007-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in air and food. Among PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP), phenanthrene (PH) and pyrene (PY) are considered to be important for their toxicity or abundance. To investigate the changes of biomarkers after PAH exposure, rats were treated with BaP (150 microg/kg) alone or with PH (4,300 microg/kg) and PY (2,700 microg/kg) (BPP group) by oral gavage once per day for 30 days. 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity in liver microsomal fraction was increased in only BaP groups. The highest concentration (34.5 ng/g) of BaP, was found in muscle of rats treated with BaP alone at 20 days of treatment; it was 23.6 ng/g in BPP treated rats at 30 days of treatment. The highest PH concentration was 47.1 ng/g in muscle and 118.8 ng/g in fat, and for PY it was 29.7 ng/g in muscle and 219.9 ng/g in fat, in BPP groups. In urine, 114-161 ng/ml 3-OH-PH was found, while PH was 41-69 ng/ml during treatment. 201-263 ng/ml 1-OH-PY was found, while PH was 9-17 ng/ml in urine. The level of PY, PH and their metabolites in urine was rapidly decreased after withdrawal of treatment. This study suggest that 1-OH-PY in urine is a sensitive biomarker for PAHs; it was the most highly detected marker among the three PAHs and their metabolites evaluated during the exposure period and for 14 days after withdrawal.

  17. Novel metal-organic and supramolecular 3D frameworks constructed from flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate blocks: Synthesis, structural features and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Ao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Ze-Min; Zou, Xun-Zhong; Gu, Jin-Zhong; Kirillov, Alexander M.; Chen, Jin-Wei; Chen, Yun-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylic acid (H3L) was selected as an unexplored tricarboxylate building block and applied for the hydrothermal synthesis of three novel coordination compounds, namely a 0D tetramer [Co4(HL)2(μ3-HL)2(phen)6(H2O)2]·3H2O (1) and two 3D metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Cd3(μ5-L)(μ6-L)(py)(μ-H2O)2(H2O)]n·H2O (2) and [Zn3(μ4-L)2(2,2‧-bpy)(μ-4,4‧-bpy)]n·2H2O (3). These products were easily generated in aqueous medium from the corresponding metal(II) chlorides, H3L, and various N-donor ancillary ligands, selected from 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), pyridine (py), 2,2‧-bipyridine (2,2‧-bpy), and 4,4‧-bipyridine (4,4‧-bpy). Compounds 1-3 were isolated as stable crystalline solids and were fully characterized by IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, elemental, thermogravimetric (TGA), powder (PXRD) and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Compound 1 possesses a discrete tetracobalt(II) structure, which is extended into a 3D H-bonded network with the pcu topology. In contrast, MOF 2 discloses a very complex trinodal 4,5,12-connected net with an undocumented topology, while MOF 3 features the nce/I topological framework. The magnetic (for 1) and luminescence (for 2 and 3) properties were also studied and discussed. The present study thus widens a still very limited family of metal-organic and supramolecular frameworks driven by flexible biphenyl-2,5,3‧-tricarboxylate building blocks.

  18. Strategies for the Hyperpolarization of Acetonitrile and Related Ligands by SABRE

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report on a strategy for using SABRE (signal amplification by reversible exchange) for polarizing 1H and 13C nuclei of weakly interacting ligands which possess biologically relevant and nonaromatic motifs. We first demonstrate this via the polarization of acetonitrile, using Ir(IMes)(COD)Cl as the catalyst precursor, and confirm that the route to hyperpolarization transfer is via the J-coupling network. We extend this work to the polarization of propionitrile, benzylnitrile, benzonitrile, and trans-3-hexenedinitrile in order to assess its generality. In the 1H NMR spectrum, the signal for acetonitrile is enhanced 8-fold over its thermal counterpart when [Ir(H)2(IMes)(MeCN)3]+ is the catalyst. Upon addition of pyridine or pyridine-d5, the active catalyst changes to [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)2(MeCN)]+ and the resulting acetonitrile 1H signal enhancement increases to 20- and 60-fold, respectively. In 13C NMR studies, polarization transfers optimally to the quaternary 13C nucleus of MeCN while the methyl 13C is hardly polarized. Transfer to 13C is shown to occur first via the 1H–1H coupling between the hydrides and the methyl protons and then via either the 2J or 1J couplings to the respective 13Cs, of which the 2J route is more efficient. These experimental results are rationalized through a theoretical treatment which shows excellent agreement with experiment. In the case of MeCN, longitudinal two-spin orders between pairs of 1H nuclei in the three-spin methyl group are created. Two-spin order states, between the 1H and 13C nuclei, are also created, and their existence is confirmed for Me13CN in both the 1H and 13C NMR spectra using the Only Parahydrogen Spectroscopy protocol. PMID:25539423

  19. The complete genomic sequence of pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV) and its implications for our understanding of evolution dynamics in the genus polerovirus.

    PubMed

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Glanz, Eyal; Lachman, Oded; Sela, Noa; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Antignus, Yehezkel

    2013-01-01

    We determined the complete sequence and organization of the genome of a putative member of the genus Polerovirus tentatively named Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PYLCV). PYLCV has a wider host range than Tobacco vein-distorting virus (TVDV) and has a close serological relationship with Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) (both poleroviruses). The extracted viral RNA was subjected to SOLiD next-generation sequence analysis and used as a template for reverse transcription synthesis, which was followed by PCR amplification. The ssRNA genome of PYLCV includes 6,028 nucleotides encoding six open reading frames (ORFs), which is typical of the genus Polerovirus. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the PYLCV ORFs 2-4 and ORF5, indicate that there are high levels of similarity between these sequences to ORFs 2-4 of TVDV (84-93%) and to ORF5 of CABYV (87%). Both PYLCV and Pepper vein yellowing virus (PeVYV) contain sequences that point to a common ancestral polerovirus. The recombination breakpoint which is located at CABYV ORF3, which encodes the viral coat protein (CP), may explain the CABYV-like sequences found in the genomes of the pepper infecting viruses PYLCV and PeVYV. Two additional regions unique to PYLCV (PY1 and PY2) were identified between nucleotides 4,962 and 5,061 (ORF 5) and between positions 5,866 and 6,028 in the 3' NCR. Sequence analysis of the pepper-infecting PeVYV revealed three unique regions (Pe1-Pe3) with no similarity to other members of the genus Polerovirus. Genomic analyses of PYLCV and PeVYV suggest that the speciation of these viruses occurred through putative recombination event(s) between poleroviruses co-infecting a common host(s), resulting in the emergence of PYLCV, a novel pathogen with a wider host range.

  20. Tuning the Reactivity of Chromium(III)-Superoxo Species by Coordinating Axial Ligands.

    PubMed

    Goo, Yi Re; Maity, Annada C; Cho, Kyung-Bin; Lee, Yong-Min; Seo, Mi Sook; Park, Young Jun; Cho, Jaeheung; Nam, Wonwoo

    2015-11-02

    Metal-superoxo species have attracted much attention recently as key intermediates in enzymatic and biomimetic oxidation reactions. The effect(s) of axial ligands on the chemical properties of metal-superoxo complexes has never been explored previously. In this study, we synthesized and characterized chromium(III)-superoxo complexes bearing TMC derivatives with pendant pyridine and imidazole donors, such as [Cr(III)(O2)(TMC-Py)](2+) (1, TMC-Py = 4,8,11-trimethyl-1-(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) and [Cr(III)(O2)(TMC-Im)](2+) (2, TMC-Im = 4,8,11-trimethyl-1-(2-methylimidazolmethyl)-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). The reactivity of chromium(III)-superoxo complexes binding different axial ligands, such as 1, 2, and [Cr(III)(O2)(TMC)(Cl)](+) (3, TMC = 1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane), was then investigated in C-H bond activation and oxygen atom transfer reactions. Kinetic studies revealed that the reactivity of the Cr(III)-superoxo complexes depends on the axial ligands, showing the reactivity order of 1 > 2 > 3 in those electrophilic oxidation reactions. It was also shown that there is a good correlation between the reactivity of the chromium(III)-superoxo complexes and their redox potentials, in which the redox potentials of the chromium(III)-superoxo complexes are in the order 1 > 2 > 3. DFT calculations reproduced the reactivity order between 1 and 3 in both C-H bond activation and oxygen atom transfer reactions, and the latter reaction is described using orbital interactions. The calculations are also in agreement with the experimentally obtained redox potentials. The present results provide the first example showing that the reactivity of metal-superoxo species can be tuned by the electron-donating ability of axial ligands bound trans to the metal-superoxo moiety.

  1. 3-center-4-electron bonding in [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) controls reactivity while frontier orbitals permit a dimolybdenum pi-bond energy estimate.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Devon C; Wolczanski, Peter T; Barakat, Khaldoon A; Buda, Corneliu; Cundari, Thomas R

    2005-06-15

    Na/Hg reduction of (silox)2Cl2Mo=NtBu (3) afforded C2h [(silox)2Mo=NtBu]2(mu-Hg) (12-Hg), which consists of two distorted trigonal monoprisms with Hg at the each apex (d(MoHg) = 2.6810(5) A). Calculations reveal 3c4e bonding in the linear MoHgMo linkage that renders 12-Hg susceptible to nucleophilic cleavage. Exposure to PMe3 and pyridine rapidly (<5 min) affords (silox)2(tBuN)MoLn (L = PMe3, n = 1 (1-PMe3); py, n = 2 (1-py2)), while poorer nucleophiles (L = C2H4, 2-butyne) yield adducts (e.g., 1-C2H4 and 1-C2Me2) after prolonged heating. The HOMO and LUMO of 12-Hg are "stretched" pi and pi* orbitals from which four states arise: 1Ag (GS), 3Bu, 1Bu, and 1Ag. DeltaE = E(1Bu) - E(3Bu) = 2K, where K is the exchange energy. Magnetic studies indicate E(3Bu) - E(1Ag) approximately 550 cm-1 (calcd 1744 cm-1), and a UV-vis absorption at 10 000 cm-1 is assigned to 1Ag --> 1Bu, permitting K to be evaluated as 4725 cm-1. With the pi --> pi* transition in Schrock's [Mo(NAr)(CH2tBu)(OC6F5)]2 (4) assigned at 528 nm, this estimation places its pi-bond energy as {E(pi2 --> pi1pi*1 in 4) - E(1Ag --> 1Bu in 12-Hg)} + E(1Ag --> 3Bu in 12-Hg) = 27 kcal/mol.

  2. Elastic Frustration Triggering Photoinduced Hidden Hysteresis and Multistability in a Two-Dimensional Photoswitchable Hofmann-Like Spin-Crossover Metal-Organic Framework.

    PubMed

    Milin, Eric; Patinec, Véronique; Triki, Smail; Bendeif, El-Eulmi; Pillet, Sébastien; Marchivie, Mathieu; Chastanet, Guillaume; Boukheddaden, Kamel

    2016-11-21

    We report a two-dimensional Hofmann-like spin-crossover (SCO) material, [Fe(trz-py)2{Pt(CN)4}]·3H2O, built from [FePt(CN)4] layers separated by interdigitated 4-(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,4H-triazole (trz-py) ligands with two symmetrically inequivalent Fe(II) sites. This compound exhibits an incomplete first-order spin transition at 153 K between fully high-spin (HS-HS) and intermediate high-spin low-spin (HS-LS) ordered states. At low temperature, it undergoes a bidirectional photoswitching to HS-HS and fully low-spin (LS-LS) states with green and near-IR light irradiation, respectively, with associated T(LIESST = Light-Induced Excited Spin-State Trapping) and T(reverse-LIESST) values of 52 and 85 K, respectively. Photomagnetic investigations show that the reverse-LIESST process, performed from either HS-HS or HS-LS states, enables access to a hidden stable LS-LS state, revealing the existence of a hidden thermal hysteresis. Crystallographic investigations allowed to identify that the strong metastability of the HS-LS state originates from the existence of a strong elastic frustration causing antiferroelastic interactions within the [FePt(CN)4] layers, through the rigid NC-Pt-CN bridges connecting the inequivalent Fe(II) sites. The existence of the stable LS-LS state paves the way for a multidirectional photoswitching and allows potential applications for electronic devices based on ternary digits.

  3. Rational Synthesis and Investigation of Porous Metal-Organic Framework Materials from a Preorganized Heterometallic Carboxylate Building Block.

    PubMed

    Sapianik, Aleksandr A; Zorina-Tikhonova, Ekaterina N; Kiskin, Mikhail A; Samsonenko, Denis G; Kovalenko, Konstantin A; Sidorov, Alexey A; Eremenko, Igor L; Dybtsev, Danil N; Blake, Alexander J; Argent, Stephen P; Schröder, Martin; Fedin, Vladimir P

    2017-02-06

    The tetranuclear heterometallic complex [Li2Zn2(piv)6(py)2] (1, where piv(-) = pivalate and py = pyridine) has been successfully employed as a presynthesized node for the construction of four porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [Li2Zn2(R-bdc)3(bpy)]·solv (2-R, R-bdc(2-); R = H, Br, NH2, NO2) by reaction with 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy) and terephthalate anionic linkers. The [Li2Zn2] node is retained in the products, representing a rare example of the rational step-by-step design of isoreticular MOFs based on complex heterometallic building units. The permanent porosity of the activated frameworks was confirmed by gas adsorption isotherm measurements (N2, CO2, CH4). Three compounds, 2-H, 2-Br, and 2-NH2 (but not 2-NO2), feature extensive hysteresis between the adsorption and desorption curves in the N2 isotherms at low pressures. The substituents R decorate the inner surface and also control the aperture of the channels, the volume of the micropores, and the overall surface area, thus affecting both the gas uptake and adsorption selectivity. The highest CO2 absorption at ambient conditions (105 cm(3)·g(-1) or 21 wt % at 273 K and 1 bar for 2-NO2) is above the average values for microporous MOFs. The photoluminescent properties of the prototypic 2-H as well as the corresponding host-guest compounds with various aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, anisole, and nitrobenzene) were systematically investigated. We discovered a rather complex pattern in the emission response of this material depending on the wavelength of excitation as well as the nature of the guest molecules. On the basis of the crystal structure of 2-H, a mechanism for these luminescent properties is proposed and discussed.

  4. Iron coordination chemistry with new ligands containing triazole and pyridine moieties. Comparison of the coordination ability of the N-donors.

    PubMed

    Ségaud, Nathalie; Rebilly, Jean-Noël; Sénéchal-David, Katell; Guillot, Régis; Billon, Laurianne; Baltaze, Jean-Pierre; Farjon, Jonathan; Reinaud, Olivia; Banse, Frédéric

    2013-01-18

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and solution chemistry of a series of new Fe(II) complexes based on the tetradentate ligand N-methyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridyl-methyl)-1,2-diaminoethane or the pentadentate ones N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridyl-methyl)-1,2-diaminoethane and N,N',N'-tris(2-pyridyl-methyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, modified by propynyl or methoxyphenyltriazolyl groups on the amino functions. Six of these complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography. In particular, two of them exhibit an hexadentate coordination environment around Fe(II) with two amino, three pyridyl, and one triazolyl groups. UV-visible and cyclic voltammetry experiments of acetonitrile solutions of the complexes allow to deduce accurately the structure of all Fe(II) species in equilibrium. The stability of the complexes could be ranked as follows: [L(5)Fe(II)-py](2+) > [L(5)Fe(II)-Cl](+) > [L(5)Fe(II)-triazolyl](2+) > [L(5)Fe(II)-(NCMe)](2+), where L(5) designates a pentadentate coordination sphere composed of the two amines of ethanediamine and three pyridines. For complexes based on propanediamine, the hierarchy determined is [L(5)Fe(II)-Cl](+) > [L(5)Fe(II)(OTf)](+) > [L(5)Fe(II)-(NCMe)](2+), and no ligand exchange could be evidenced for [L(5)Fe(II)-triazolyl](2+). Reactivity of the [L(5)Fe(II)-triazolyl](2+) complexes with hydrogen peroxide and PhIO is similar to the one of the parent complexes that lack this peculiar group, that is, generation of Fe(III)(OOH) and Fe(IV)(O), respectively. Accordingly, the ability of these complexes at catalyzing the oxidation of small organic molecules by these oxidants follows the tendencies of their previously reported counterparts. Noteworthy is the remarkable cyclooctene epoxidation activity by these complexes in the presence of PhIO.

  5. Characterization of 2-Bromoethanesulfonate as a Selective Inhibitor of the Coenzyme M-Dependent Pathway and Enzymes of Bacterial Aliphatic Epoxide Metabolism▿

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jeffrey M.; Ellsworth, Ashley; Ensign, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial growth with short-chain aliphatic alkenes requires coenzyme M (CoM) (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid), which serves as the nucleophile for activation and conversion of epoxide products formed from alkene oxidation to central metabolites. In the present work the CoM analog 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) was shown to be a specific inhibitor of propylene-dependent growth of and epoxypropane metabolism by Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2. BES (at low [millimolar] concentrations) completely prevented growth with propylene but had no effect on growth with acetone or n-propanol. Propylene consumption by cells was largely unaffected by the presence of BES, but epoxypropane accumulated in the medium in a time-dependent fashion with BES present. The addition of BES to cells resulted in time-dependent loss of epoxypropane degradation activity that was restored upon removal of BES and addition of CoM. Exposure of cells to BES resulted in a loss of epoxypropane-dependent CO2 fixation activity that was restored only upon synthesis of new protein. Addition of BES to cell extracts resulted in an irreversible loss of epoxide carboxylase activity that was restored by addition of purified 2-ketopropyl-CoM carboxylase/oxidoreductase (2-KPCC), the terminal enzyme of epoxide carboxylation, but not by addition of epoxyalkane:CoM transferase or 2-hydroxypropyl-CoM dehydrogenase, the enzymes which catalyze the first two reactions of epoxide carboxylation. Comparative studies of the propylene-oxidizing actinomycete Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain B276 showed that BES is an inhibitor of propylene-dependent growth in this organism as well but is not an inhibitor of CoM-independent growth with propane. These results suggest that BES inhibits propylene-dependent growth and epoxide metabolism via irreversible inactivation of the key CO2-fixing enzyme 2-KPCC. PMID:16997966

  6. Sequential Synthesis of 3 d-3 d, 3 d-4 d, and 3 d-5 d Hybrid Polyoxometalates and Application to the Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Reactions.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Guillaume; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Oms, Olivier; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Liu, Rongji; Shang, Xinke; Zhang, Guangjin; Keita, Bineta; Mialane, Pierre

    2015-08-17

    The Co7 (AlePy)2 polyoxometalate, which encloses a {(PW9 )2 Co(II) 7 } core covalently bound to two free aminopyridine groups through bisphosphonate ligands (AlePy), has been isolated. It can be used as a precursor, allowing the synthesis of heterometallic hybrid compounds, as illustrated by the characterization of cobalt/zinc (Co7 (AlePyZn)2 ), cobalt/palladium (Co7 (AlePyPd)2 ), and cobalt/platinum (Co7 (AlePyPt)2 ) species. A composite based on the water-insoluble precious metal-free Co7 (AlePyZn)2 compound and the low-cost carbon material Vulcan XC-72 has been selected as a cathode material (Co7 Zn/C) for oxygen reduction reaction studies. The electrocatalytic performances of the Co7 Zn/C hybrids were assessed at neutral and basic pH, showing that Co7 Zn/C exhibits high selectivity for the four-electron reduction of O2 . Moreover, its durability is superior to that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst with 20 % loading. Also, comparative studies performed in the presence of methanol have indicated that Co7 Zn/C has a much better tolerance to the crossover effect than Pt/C. Altogether, these results indicate for the first time that, even in neutral media, polyoxometalate/carbon composites can represent low-cost oxygen reduction catalysts that can function stably, for a long time, and with high performance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-05

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA.

  8. Strong intramolecular calcium-π interactions with aryl substituents--requirements and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loh, Claas; Seupel, Susanne; Koch, Alexander; Görls, Helmar; Krieck, Sven; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-10-14

    The amidines Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-Qu (1a) (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, Qu = 8-quinolyl) and Dipp-N=C(tBu)-N(H)-Py (1b) (Py = 2-pyridyl) are deprotonated with KN(SiMe3)2, yielding potassium N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(8-quinolyl)pivalamidinate (2a) and potassium N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridyl)pivalamidinate (2b). Metalation of 1a with [(thf)2Ca{N(SiMe3)2}2] in tetrahydrofuran (thf) leads to the formation of ether-free calcium bis[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(8-quinolyl)pivalamidinate] (3a) with a strong intramolecular calcium-π interaction with one Dipp group. Furthermore, agostic bonds to one tert-butyl substituent complete the coordination sphere of the metal center and stabilize this bonding situation. The metathesis reaction of 2b with [(thf)4CaI2] yields the thf adduct of calcium bis[N-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-N'-(2-pyridyl)pivalamidinate] (3b). In addition to the bonds between calcium and the hard Lewis bases (oxygen of thf, nitrogen atoms of the pyridylamido moieties), anagostic Ca-H bonds to the tert-butyl substituents complete the coordination sphere. The intramolecular calcium-π interaction with an aryl group as observed in 3a requires steric shielding of the alkaline earth metal center, safely excluding the formation of a complex with more than one thf ligand.

  9. Strategies for the hyperpolarization of acetonitrile and related ligands by SABRE.

    PubMed

    Mewis, Ryan E; Green, Richard A; Cockett, Martin C R; Cowley, Michael J; Duckett, Simon B; Green, Gary G R; John, Richard O; Rayner, Peter J; Williamson, David C

    2015-01-29

    We report on a strategy for using SABRE (signal amplification by reversible exchange) for polarizing (1)H and (13)C nuclei of weakly interacting ligands which possess biologically relevant and nonaromatic motifs. We first demonstrate this via the polarization of acetonitrile, using Ir(IMes)(COD)Cl as the catalyst precursor, and confirm that the route to hyperpolarization transfer is via the J-coupling network. We extend this work to the polarization of propionitrile, benzylnitrile, benzonitrile, and trans-3-hexenedinitrile in order to assess its generality. In the (1)H NMR spectrum, the signal for acetonitrile is enhanced 8-fold over its thermal counterpart when [Ir(H)2(IMes)(MeCN)3](+) is the catalyst. Upon addition of pyridine or pyridine-d5, the active catalyst changes to [Ir(H)2(IMes)(py)2(MeCN)](+) and the resulting acetonitrile (1)H signal enhancement increases to 20- and 60-fold, respectively. In (13)C NMR studies, polarization transfers optimally to the quaternary (13)C nucleus of MeCN while the methyl (13)C is hardly polarized. Transfer to (13)C is shown to occur first via the (1)H-(1)H coupling between the hydrides and the methyl protons and then via either the (2)J or (1)J couplings to the respective (13)Cs, of which the (2)J route is more efficient. These experimental results are rationalized through a theoretical treatment which shows excellent agreement with experiment. In the case of MeCN, longitudinal two-spin orders between pairs of (1)H nuclei in the three-spin methyl group are created. Two-spin order states, between the (1)H and (13)C nuclei, are also created, and their existence is confirmed for Me(13)CN in both the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra using the Only Parahydrogen Spectroscopy protocol.

  10. Separate domains of the insulin receptor contain sites of autophosphorylation and tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, H.J.; White, M.F.; Khan, C.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors have studied the structure and function of the solubilized insulin receptor before and after partial proteolytic digestion to define domains in the ..beta..-subunit that undergo autophosphorylation and contain the tyrosine kinase activity. Wheat germ agglutinin purified insulin receptor from Fao cells was digested briefly at 22/sup 0/C with low concentrations of trypsin, staphylococcal V8 protease, or elastase. Autophosphorylation of the ..beta..-subunit was carried out before and after digestion, and the (/sup 32/P)phosphoproteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detected by autoradiography, and analyzed by tryptic peptide mapping by use of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 85-kDa fragment was not immunoprecipitated by an antibody directed against the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit (..cap alpha..Pep-1), indicating that this region of the receptor was lost. The 85-kDa fragment contained about half of the (/sup 32/P)phosphate originally found in the ..beta..-subunit, and tryptic peptide mapping showed that two major tryptic phosphopeptides (previously called pY2 and pY3) were removed. Three other tryptic phosphopeptides (pY1, pY1a, and pY4) were found in the 85- and 70-kDa fragments. To determined the structural requirements for kinase activity, the insulin receptor was subjected to tryptic digestion for 30 s-30 min, such that the receptor was composed exclusively of 85- and 70-kDa fragments of the ..beta..-subunit. The 85-kDa fragment exhibited autophosphorylation at pY1, pY1a, and pY4. Both the 85- and 70-kDa fragments phosphorylated tyrosine residues in a synthetic decapeptide that has the sequence of the C-terminal domain of the ..beta..-subunit of human insulin rare in the receptor.

  11. Increase in the coordination number of a cobalt porphyrin after photo-induced interfacial electron transfer into nanocrystalline TiO2.

    PubMed

    Achey, Darren; Ardo, Shane; Meyer, Gerald J

    2012-09-17

    Spectroscopic, electrochemical, and kinetic data provide compelling evidence for a coordination number increase initiated by interfacial electron transfer. Light excitation of Co(I)(meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin) anchored to a nanocrystalline TiO(2) thin film, abbreviated Co(I)P/TiO(2), immersed in an acetonitrile:pyridine electrolyte resulted in rapid excited state injection, k(inj) > 10(8) s(-1), to yield Co(II)P/TiO(2)(e(-)), followed by axial coordination of pyridine to the Co(II)P and hence an increase in coordination number from four to five. The formal oxidation state and coordination environment of the Co metalloporphyrin on TiO(2) were assigned through comparative studies in fluid solution as well as by comparisons to previously reported data. The kinetics for pyridine coordination were successfully modeled with a pseudo-first order kinetic model that yielded a second-order rate constant of k(+py) = 2 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). Spectro-electrochemical measurements showed that pyridine coordination resulted in a ∼200 mV negative shift in the Co(II/I) reduction potential, E°(Co(II/I)/TiO(2)) = -0.72 V and E°(Co(II/I)(py)/TiO(2)) = -0.85 V vs NHE. With some assumptions, this indicated an equilibrium formation constant K(f) = 400 M(-1) for the Co(II)P(py)/TiO(2) compound. The kinetics for charge recombination were non-exponential under all conditions studied, but were successfully modeled by the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function with observed rate constants that decreased by about a factor of 100 when pyridine was present. The possible mechanisms for charge recombination are discussed.

  12. Isolation of a Rhizobium phaseoli cytochrome mutant with enhanced respiration and symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Soberón, M; Williams, H D; Poole, R K; Escamilla, E

    1989-01-01

    Cultured cells of a Rhizobium phaseoli wild-type strain (CE2) possess b-type and c-type cytochromes and two terminal oxidases: cytochromes o and aa3. Cytochrome aa3 was partially expressed when CE2 cells were grown on minimal medium, during symbiosis, and in well-aerated liquid cultures in a complex medium (PY2). Two cytochrome mutants of R. phaseoli were obtained and characterized. A Tn5-mob-induced mutant, CFN4201, expressed diminished amounts of b-type and c-type cytochromes, showed an enhanced expression of cytochrome oxidases, and had reduced levels of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, succinate, and NADH oxidase activities. Nodules formed by this strain had no N2 fixation activity. The other mutant, CFN4205, which was isolated by nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis, had reduced levels of cytochrome o and higher succinate oxidase activity but similar NADH and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine oxidase activities when compared with the wild-type strain. Strain CFN4205 expressed a fourfold-higher cytochrome aa3 content when cultured on minimal and complex media and had twofold-higher cytochrome aa3 levels during symbiosis when compared with the wild-type strain. Nodules formed by strain CFN4205 fixed 33% more N2 than did nodules formed by the wild-type strain, as judged by the total nitrogen content found in plants nodulated by these strains. Finally, low-temperature photodissociation spectra of whole cells from strains CE2 and CFN4205 reveal cytochromes o and aa3. Both cytochromes react with O2 at -180 degrees C to give a light-insensitive compound. These experiments identify cytochromes o and aa3 as functional terminal oxidases in R. phaseoli. PMID:2644201

  13. Copper(II) interacting with the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug flufenamic acid: structure, antioxidant activity and binding to DNA and albumins.

    PubMed

    Tolia, Charikleia; Papadopoulos, Athanassios N; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Psycharis, Vassilis; Garino, Claudio; Salassa, Luca; Psomas, George

    2013-06-01

    Copper(II) complexes with the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug flufenamic acid (Hfluf) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or nitrogen donor heterocyclic ligands (2,2'-bipyridylamine (bipyam), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy) or pyridine (py)) have been synthesized and characterized. The crystal structures of [Cu2(fluf)4(DMF)2], 1, and [Cu(fluf)(bipyam)Cl], 2, have been determined by X-ray crystallography. Density functional theory (DFT) (CAM-B3LYP/LANL2DZ/6-31G**) was employed to determine the structure of complex 2 and its analogues (complexes [Cu(fluf)(phen)Cl], 3, [Cu(fluf)(bipy)Cl], 4 and [Cu(fluf)2(py)2], 5). Time-dependent DFT calculations of doublet-doublet transitions show that the lowest-energy band in the absorption spectrum of 2-5 has a mixed d-d/LMCT character. UV study of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) has shown that the complexes can bind to CT DNA with [Cu(fluf)(bipy)Cl] exhibiting the highest binding constant to CT DNA. The complexes can bind to CT DNA via intercalation as concluded by studying the cyclic voltammograms of the complexes in the presence of CT DNA solution and by DNA solution viscosity measurements. Competitive studies with ethidium bromide (EB) have shown that the complexes can displace the DNA-bound EB suggesting strong competition with EB. Flufenamic acid and its Cu(II) complexes exhibit good binding affinity to human or bovine serum albumin protein with high binding constant values. All compounds have been tested for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as well as for their in vitro inhibitory activity against soybean lipoxygenase showing significant activity with [Cu(fluf)(phen)Cl] being the most active.

  14. Nitrate-Dependent Degradation of Acetone by Alicycliphilus and Paracoccus Strains and Comparison of Acetone Carboxylase Enzymes ▿

    PubMed Central

    Dullius, Carlos Henrique; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Schink, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    A novel acetone-degrading, nitrate-reducing bacterium, strain KN Bun08, was isolated from an enrichment culture with butanone and nitrate as the sole sources of carbon and energy. The cells were motile short rods, 0.5 to 1 by 1 to 2 μm in size, which gave Gram-positive staining results in the exponential growth phase and Gram-negative staining results in the stationary-growth phase. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was assigned to the genus Alicycliphilus. Besides butanone and acetone, the strain used numerous fatty acids as substrates. An ATP-dependent acetone-carboxylating enzyme was enriched from cell extracts of this bacterium and of Alicycliphilus denitrificans K601T by two subsequent DEAE Sepharose column procedures. For comparison, acetone carboxylases were enriched from two additional nitrate-reducing bacterial species, Paracoccus denitrificans and P. pantotrophus. The products of the carboxylase reaction were acetoacetate and AMP rather than ADP. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of cell extracts and of the various enzyme preparations revealed bands corresponding to molecular masses of 85, 78, and 20 kDa, suggesting similarities to the acetone carboxylase enzymes described in detail for the aerobic bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 (85.3, 78.3, and 19.6 kDa) and the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Protein bands were excised and compared by mass spectrometry with those of acetone carboxylases of aerobic bacteria. The results document the finding that the nitrate-reducing bacteria studied here use acetone-carboxylating enzymes similar to those of aerobic and phototrophic bacteria. PMID:21841031

  15. Electrochemical, spectroscopic and theoretical studies of a simple bifunctional cobalt corrole catalyst for oxygen evolution and hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Lei, Haitao; Han, Ali; Li, Fengwang; Zhang, Meining; Han, Yongzhen; Du, Pingwu; Lai, Wenzhen; Cao, Rui

    2014-02-07

    Six cobalt and manganese corrole complexes were synthesized and examined as single-site catalysts for water splitting. The simple cobalt corrole [Co(tpfc)(py)2] (1, tpfc = 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole, py = pyridine) catalyzed both water oxidation and proton reduction efficiently. By coating complex 1 onto indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, the turnover frequency for electrocatalytic water oxidation was 0.20 s(−1) at 1.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH = 7), and it was 1010 s(−1) for proton reduction at −1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl, pH = 0.5). The stability of 1 for catalytic oxygen evolution and hydrogen production was evaluated by electrochemical, UV-vis and mass measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which confirmed that 1 was the real molecular catalyst. Titration and UV-vis experiments showed that the pyridine group on Co dissociated at the beginning of catalysis, which was critical to subsequent activation of water. A proton-coupled electron transfer process was involved based on the pH dependence of the water oxidation reaction catalyzed by 1. As for manganese corroles 2–6, although their oxidizing powers were comparable to that of 1, they were not as stable as 1 and underwent decomposition at the electrode. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that water oxidation by 1 was feasible through a proposed catalytic cycle. The formation of an O–O bond was suggested to be the rate-determining step, and the calculated activation barrier of 18.1 kcal mol(−1) was in good agreement with that obtained from experiments.

  16. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of rhodium and iridium complexes of the chelating bis-sulfoxide tBuSOC2H4SOtBu. Selective O-H activation of 2-hydroxy-isopropyl-pyridine.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Thomas; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Radius, Udo; Milstein, David

    2008-07-21

    The chloro-bridged rhodium and iridium complexes [M2(BTSE)2Cl2] (M = Rh 1, Ir 2) bearing the chelating bis-sulfoxide tBuSOC2H4SOtBu (BTSE) were prepared by the reaction of [M2(COE)4Cl2] (M = Rh, Ir; COE = cyclooctene) with an excess of a racemic mixture of the ligand. The cationic compounds [M(BTSE)2][PF6] (M = Rh 3, Ir 4), bearing one S- and one O-bonded sulfoxide, were also obtained in good yields. The chloro-bridges in 2 can be cleaved with 2-methyl-6-pyridinemethanol and 2-aminomethyl pyridine, resulting in the iridium(I) complexes [Ir(BTSE)(Py)(Cl)] (Py = 2-methyl-6-pyridinemethanol 5, 2-aminomethyl-pyridine 6). In case of the bulky 2-hydroxy- isopropyl-pyridine, selective OH oxidative addition took place, forming the Ir(III)-hydride [Ir(BTSE)(2-isopropoxy-pyridine)(H)(Cl)] 7, with no competition from the six properly oriented C-H bonds. The cationic rhodium(I) and iridium(I) compounds [M(BTSE)(2-aminomethyl-pyridine)][X] (M = Rh 8, Ir 10), [Rh(BTSE)(2-hydroxy- isopropyl-pyridine)][X] 9(stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonding), [Ir(BTSE)(pyridine)2][PF6] 12, [Ir(BTSE)(alpha-picoline)2][PF6] 13, and [Rh(BTSE)(1,10-phenanthroline)][PF6] 14 were prepared either by chloride abstraction from the dimeric precursors or by replacement of the labile oxygen bonded sulfoxide in 3 or 4. Complex 14 exhibits a dimeric structure in the solid state by pi-pi stacking of the phenanthroline ligands.

  17. Trialkyl imido niobium and tantalum compounds: synthesis, structural study and migratory insertion reactions.

    PubMed

    Galajov, Miguel; García, Carlos; Gómez, Manuel; Gómez-Sal, Pilar

    2011-03-28

    Trialkyl imido niobium and tantalum complexes [MR(3)(NtBu)] (M = Nb, R = Me 2, CH(2)CMe(3)3, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 4, CH(2)SiMe(3)5; M = Ta, R = Me 6, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 7, CH(2)SiMe(3)8) have been prepared by treatment of solutions containing [MCl(3)(NtBu)py(2)] (M = Nb 1a, Ta 1b) with three equivalents of magnesium reagent. By an unexpected hydrolysis reaction of the tris-trimethylsilylmethyl imido tantalum compound 8a, a μ-oxo derivative [(Me(3)SiCH(2)O)(Me(3)SiCH(2))(3)Ta(μ-O)Ta(CH(2)SiMe(3))(2)(NtBu)] (8a) was formed and its structure was studied by X-ray diffraction methods. Reactions of trialkyl imido compounds with two equivalents of isocyanide 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)NC result in the migration of two alkyl groups, leading to the formation of a series of alkyl imido bisiminoacyl derivatives [MR(NtBu){C(R)NAr}(2)] (Ar = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3); M = Nb, R = Me 9, CH(2)CMe(3)10, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 11, CH(2)SiMe(3)12, CH(2)Ph 13; M = Ta, R = CH(2)CMe(3)14, CH(2)CMe(2)Ph 15, CH(2)SiMe(3)16). All compounds were studied by IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C and (15)N) spectroscopy.

  18. Tri-chlorido, 2-methylallyl and 2-butenyl tert-butylimido niobium and tantalum complexes: synthesis, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Galajov, Miguel; García, Carlos; Gómez, Manuel

    2011-01-14

    Pseudooctahedral complexes [MCl(3)(NtBu)L(2)] (M = Nb, L = py 1, ½ tmeda 3; M = Ta, L = py 2, ½ tmeda 4) have been studied by spectroscopic methods. By a VT (1)H NMR experiment a mutual exchange process between the py(ax) and py(free) in the complexes 1-2 was observed, whereas (13)C and (15)N NMR studies showed in the complexes 3-4 a tmeda ligand with an axial/equatorial coordination mode. The reaction of 2 with 3 equiv of Grignard reagent produces the methathesis products [TaR(3)(NtBu)] (R = CH(2)CMeCH(2)5, CH(2)CHCHCH(3)6) in which 2-methylallyl and 2-butenyl groups appear with a η(3)- and σ-coordination mode, respectively. When, toluene solutions of the compounds 5-6 were treated with 2 equiv of 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide the imido bisiminoacyl compounds [TaR(NtBu){C(R)NAr-κ(1)C}(2)] (Ar = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3); R = CH(2)CMeCH(2)7, CH(2)CHCHCH(3)8) can be isolated, via an imido iminoacyl intermediate [TaR(2)(NtBu){C(R)NAr-κ(1)C}] (Ar = 2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3); R = CH(2)CMeCH(2)9) as we have observed in the treatment of 5 with 1 equiv of isocyanide; however, the analogous reaction between 5 and COPh(2) leads to the formation of the trisalkoxo imido compound [Ta(OCPh(2)R)(3)(NtBu)] (R = CH(2)CMeCH(2)10). All new complexes were studied by IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Bonding and charge transfer in nitrogen-donor uranyl complexes: insights from NEXAFS spectra.

    PubMed

    Pemmaraju, C D; Copping, Roy; Wang, Shuao; Janousch, Markus; Teat, Simon J; Tyliszcak, Tolek; Canning, Andrew; Shuh, David K; Prendergast, David

    2014-11-03

    We investigate the electronic structure of three newly synthesized nitrogen-donor uranyl complexes [(UO2)(H2bbp)Cl2], [(UO)2(Hbbp)(Py)Cl], and [(UO2)(bbp)(Py)2] using a combination of near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy experiments and simulations. The complexes studied feature derivatives of the tunable tridentate N-donor ligand 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazyl)pyridine (bbp) and exhibit discrete chemical differences in uranyl coordination. The sensitivity of the N K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum to local bonding and charge transfer is exploited to systematically investigate the evolution of structural as well as electronic properties across the three complexes. A thorough interpretation of the measured experimental spectra is achieved via ab initio NEXAFS simulations based on the eXcited electron and Core-Hole (XCH) approach and enables the assignment of spectral features to electronic transitions on specific absorbing sites. We find that ligand-uranyl bonding leads to a signature blue shift in the N K-edge absorption onset, resulting from charge displacement toward the uranyl, while changes in the equatorial coordination shell of the uranyl lead to more subtle modulations in the spectral features. Theoretical simulations show that the flexible local chemistry at the nonbinding imidazole-N sites of the bbp ligand is also reflected in the NEXAFS spectra and highlights potential synthesis strategies to improve selectivity. In particular, we find that interactions of the bbp ligand with solvent molecules can lead to changes in ligand-uranyl binding geometry while also modulating the K-edge absorption. Our results suggest that NEXAFS spectroscopy combined with first-principles interpretation can offer insights into the coordination chemistry of analogous functionalized conjugated ligands.

  20. Solvent extraction of thorium(IV), uranium(VI), and europium(III) with lipophilic alkyl-substituted pyridinium salts. Final report for subcontract 9-XZ2-1123E-1, June 1, 1992--December 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ensor, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    In the treatment of high level nuclear wastes, aromatic pyridinium salts which are radiation-resistant are desired for the extraction of actinides and lanthanides. The solvent extraction of Th{sup +4}, UO{sub 2}{sup +2}, and Eu{sup +3} by three aromatic extractants, 3,5-didodecylpyridinium nitrate (35PY), 2,6-didodecylpyridinium nitrate (26PY), and 1-methyl-3,5-didodecyl-pyridinium iodide (1M35PY) has been studied in nitric acid media. The general order of extractability of the three extractants in toluene was 1M35PY>> 26PY > 35PY. The overall extraction efficiency of the metal ions was Th{sup +4} >UO{sub 2}{sup +2} > Eu{sup +3}. The extraction of HNO{sub 3}, which was competitive with the extraction of metal ions, was quantitatively investigated by NaOH titration and UV spectrometry. The loading capacity suggested that the extracted species in the organic phase for thorium was (R{sub 4}N{sup +}){sub 2}Th(NO{sub 3}{sup -}){sub 6}, where R{sub 4}N{sup +} denotes 1M35PY. A comparison of 1M35PY to the well-characterized extractant, Aliquat-336, an aliphatic ammonium salt was made. At the same extractant concentration, 1M35PY extracted thorium more efficiently than Aliquat-336 at high acidity. Thorium could be readily stripped with dilute nitric acid from 1M35PY. After irradiation of 0.1M 1M35PY with {sup 60}Co at 40R/min for 48 hours, no change in the extraction efficiency of thorium was observed.

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopy (IR, multinuclear NMR, ESI-MS), diffraction, density functional study and in vitro antiproliferative activity of pyrazole-beta-diketone dihalotin(IV) compounds on 5 melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pettinari, Claudio; Caruso, Francesco; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Villa, Raffaella; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Phillips, Christine; Tanski, Joseph; Rossi, Miriam

    2006-01-01

    Novel 4-acylpyrazolon-5-ato-dihalotin(IV) complexes, [Q2SnX2], (X = F, Cl, Br or I); HQ = HQ(CHPh2) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2,2-diphenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one), HQ(Bn) (1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(2-phenylacetyl)pyrazol-5-one) or HQ(CF3,py) (4-(2,2,2-trifluoroacetyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-methyl-1-(pyridin-2-yl)pyrazol-5-one) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn NMR, electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)), analytical and structural methods (X-ray and density functional theory). 119Sn chemical shifts depend on the nature of the halides bonded to tin. Isomer conversion, detected in solution by NMR spectroscopy, is related to the acyl moiety bulkiness while the cis(Cl)-cis(acyl)-trans(pyrazolonato) scheme is found in the solid state. The in vitro antiproliferative tests of three derivatives on three human melanoma cell lines (JR8, SK-MEL-5, MEL501) and two melanoma cell clones (2/21 and 2/60) show dose-dependent decrease of cell proliferation in all cell lines. The activity correlates with the nature of the substituent on position 1 of pyrazole, decreasing in the order pyridyl>Ph>methyl. The activity for (Q(CF3,py))2SnCl2 on the SK-MEL-5 cell line is IC50 = 50 microM.

  2. Anionic cyclometallated Pt(ii) square-planar complexes: new sets of highly luminescent compounds.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Loredana; La Deda, Massimo; Ionescu, Andreea; Godbert, Nicolas; Aiello, Iolinda; Ghedini, Mauro

    2017-09-26

    Two series of novel NBu4(+) salts of anionic cyclometallated Pt(ii) complexes were synthesized and fully characterized. These highly luminescent compounds (NBu4[(C^N)Pt(O^N)] and NBu4[(C^N)Pt(O^O)]) are incorporated as testing examples of cyclometallating ligands 2-phenylpyridine (PhPy), 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-pyridine (F2PhPy) and 2-thienylpyridine (ThPy), and a benzo[h]quinoline (Bzq) fragment. All complexes display a square-planar coordination sphere, wherein the "(C^N)Pt" fragment is completed either by an O^N orotate (Ort) or an O^O tetrabromocatecholate (Cat) ligand. The HOMO and LUMO levels of all complexes were estimated by cyclic voltammetry and a comprehensive electrochemical and photophysical study was performed. The new complexes are emissive in solution at 298 K and the NBu4[(ThPy)Pt(Ort)] complex displays good photosensitizing properties (Φ = 28% in deaerated solution vs. Φ = 1.4% in the presence of O2). Both series of NBu4[(C^N)Pt(Ort)] and NBu4[(C^N)Pt(Cat)] complexes are highly luminescent in the solid state (emission quantum yields from 10 to 85%). Remarkably, the square-planar Pt(ii) anionic complexes showed an important increase in luminescence quantum yields on changing from the dilute solution to the solid state (the most significant from 0.13% to 85% for the NBu4[(PhPy)Pt(Ort)] complex, an ideal candidate as an active species for LEECs).

  3. Ancillary ligand-assisted assembly of C3-symmetric 4,4‧,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid with divalent Zn2+ ions: Syntheses, topological structures, and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Li-Ting; Niu, Yan-Fei; Han, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Li

    2015-07-01

    4,4‧,4″-nitrilotribenzoic acid (H3L), a C3-symmetric ligand, was found to self-assemble into two polymorphs driven by intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. Reactions of this ligand with Zn2+ under solvothermal conditions resulted in four new coordination polymers bearing interesting structural motifs: [Zn2(L)2(py)2]·2(H2NMe2)+·DMF·2H2O (1), [Zn2(L)(H2L)(bipy)]·1.5H2O·Guest (2), [Zn2(L)2(bipy)]·2(H2NMe2)+·2DMF (3), and [Zn3(L)2(bpa)]·2H2O·Guest (4) (H3L=4,4‧,4‧‧-nitrilotribenzoic acid, DMF=dimethylformamide, py=pyridine, bipy=4,4‧-bipyridine, bpa=1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)diazene). Single-crystal structural analysis revealed that compound 1 exhibits a rare example of twofold interpenetrating anionic 3D (3,3)-net framework containing helical channels, whereas in 2, the 3D pillar-layer structure generated from bipy-pillared Zn2(L)(H2L) layer is further reinforced by intermolecular hydrogen bonding among pairs of free -COOH units. Compound 3 shows an interesting entangled architecture of 2D→3D parallel polycatenation consisting five-coordinated Zn2+ ions. Compound 4 displays a 3D pillar-layer framework with trimeric Zn3(CO2)6 serving as secondary building unit (SBU). The syntheses, structures, thermal stabilities, powder X-ray diffractions and solid-state photoluminescence properties for these crystalline materials have been carried out. In addition, supramolecular assembly of H3L under solvothermal conditions will also be addressed.

  4. Cometabolic degradation of chlorinated alkenes by alkene monooxygenase in a propylene-grown Xanthobacter strain.

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, S A; Hyman, M R; Arp, D J

    1992-01-01

    Propylene-grown Xanthobacter cells (strain Py2) degraded several chlorinated alkenes of environmental concern, including trichloroethylene, 1-chloroethylene (vinyl chloride), cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene, 1,3-dichloropropylene, and 2,3-dichloropropylene. 1,1-Dichloroethylene was not degraded efficiently, while tetrachloroethylene was not degraded. The role of alkene monooxygenase in catalyzing chlorinated alkene degradations was established by demonstrating that glucose-grown cells which lack alkene monooxygenase and propylene-grown cells in which alkene monooxygenase was selectively inactivated by propyne were unable to degrade the compounds. C2 and C3 chlorinated alkanes were not oxidized by alkene monooxygenase, but a number of these compounds were inhibitors of propylene and ethylene oxidation, suggesting that they compete for binding to the enzyme. A number of metabolites enhanced the rate of degradation of chlorinated alkenes, including propylene oxide, propionaldehyde, and glucose. Propylene stimulated chlorinated alkene oxidation slightly when present at a low concentration but became inhibitory at higher concentrations. Toxic effects associated with chlorinated alkene oxidations were determined by measuring the propylene oxidation and propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake rates of cells previously incubated with chlorinated alkenes. Compounds which were substrates for alkene monooxygenase exhibited various levels of toxicity, with 1,1-dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxidation and 1,3- and 2,3-dichloropropylene being the most potent inactivators of propylene oxide-dependent O2 uptake. No toxic effects were seen when cells were incubated with chlorinated alkenes anaerobically, indicating that the product(s) of chlorinated alkene oxidation mediates toxicity. PMID:1444418

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a series of Group 4 phenoxy-thiol derivatives

    DOE PAGES

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Parkes, Marie V.

    2016-02-11

    In this study, a series of Group 4 phenoxy-thiols were developed from the reaction products of a series of metal tert-butoxides ([M(OBut)4]) with four equivalents of 4-mercaptophenol (H-4MP). The products were found by single crystal X-ray diffraction to adopt the general structure [(HOBut)(4MP)3M(μ-4MP)]2 [where M = Ti (1), Zr (2), Hf (3)] from toluene and [(py)2M(4MP)] where M = Ti (4), Zr (5) and [(py)(4MP)3Hf(μ-4MP)]2 (6) from pyridine (py). Varying the [Ti(OR)4] precursors (OR = iso-propoxide (OPri) or neo-pentoxide (ONep)) in toluene led to [(HOR)(4MP)3Ti(μ-4MP)]2 (OR = OPri (7), ONep (8)), which were structurally similar to 1. Lower stoichiometric reactionsmore » in toluene led to partial substitution by the 4MP ligands yielding [H][Ti(μ-4MP)(4MP)(ONep)3]2 (9). Independent of the stoichiometry, all of the Ti derivatives were found to be red in color, whereas the heavier congeners were colorless. Attempts to understand this phenomenon led to investigation with a series of varied –SH substituted phenols. From the reaction of H-2MP and H-3MP (2-mercaptophenol and 3-mercaptophenol, respectively), the isolated products had identical arrangements: [(ONep)2(2MP)Ti(μ,η2-2MP)]2 (10) and [(HOR)(3MP)M(μ-3MP)]2 (M/OR = Ti/ONep (11); Zr/OBut (12)) with a similar red color. Based on the simulated and observed UV–Vis spectra, it was reasoned that the color was generated due to a ligand-to-metal charge transfer for Ti that was not available for the larger congeners.« less

  6. Self-assembly of metal-organic coordination polymers constructed from a bent dicarboxylate ligand: diversity of coordination modes, structures, and gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenbin; Lin, Xiang; Blake, Alexander J; Wilson, Claire; Hubberstey, Peter; Champness, Neil R; Schröder, Martin

    2009-12-07

    We have synthesized five new metal-organic coordination polymers incorporating the bent ligand H(2)hfipbb [4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(benzoic acid)] with different transition metal ions and co-ligands via solvothermal reactions to give [Zn(2)(hfipbb)(2)(py)(2)] x DMF (1), [Zn(2)(hfipbb)(2)(4,4'-bipy)(H(2)O)] (2), [Zn(2)(hfipbb)(2)(bpdab)].2DMF (3), [Cd(2)(hfipbb)(2)(DMF)(2)] x 2 DMF (4), and [Co(hfipbb)(dpp)] x MeOH (5) (py = pyridine, 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine, bpdab = 1,4-bis(4-pyridyl)-2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene, dpp = 1,3-di(4-pyridyl)propane). Compound 1 displays a 2-fold 2D-->2D parallel interpenetrated layer network with one-dimensional (1D) helical channels, while 3 exhibits a three-dimensional pillared helical-layer open framework of alpha-Po topology based upon binuclear paddlewheel units. In compounds 2 and 5, binuclear motifs with double carboxylate bridges are linked by hfipbb(2-) ligands into a 1D ribbon, which are further assembled into two-dimensional non-interpenetrated (4,4) layers via bipyridyl co-ligands. However, the different bridging modes of hfipbb(2-) ligands and the different disposition of the coordinated co-ligands around metal ions result in subtle differences in the final architecture. Thus, 2 is based on a binuclear cluster node, double-stranded hfipbb(2-) linkers, and single-stranded 4,4'-bipy linkers, while 5 is based on a binuclear cluster node and hfipbb(2-) and dpp linkers which are both double-stranded. Among these compounds, the Cd(II) complex 4 is possibly the most interesting because it represents a rare example in which metal centers are linked by carboxylate groups into infinite chains further joined together by hfipbb(2-) spacers to form a 2D network with tubular helical channels. All these coordination polymers exhibit low solvent-accessible volumes. Both 3 and 4 retain structural integrity and permanent microporosity upon evacuation of guest molecules, with hydrogen uptakes of 0.57 and 0.78 wt %, respectively, at

  7. Vanadium bisimide bonding investigated by X-ray crystallography, 51V and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    La Pierre, Henry S; Minasian, Stefan G; Abubekerov, Mark; Kozimor, Stosh A; Shuh, David K; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G; Toste, F Dean

    2013-10-07

    Syntheses of neutral halide and aryl vanadium bisimides are described. Treatment of VCl2(NtBu)[NTMS(N(t)Bu)], 2, with PMe3, PEt3, PMe2Ph, or pyridine gave vanadium bisimides via TMSCl elimination in good yield: VCl(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 3, VCl(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2 4, VCl(PMe2Ph)2(N(t)Bu)2 5, and VCl(Py)2(N(t)Bu)2 6. The halide series (Cl-I) was synthesized by use of TMSBr and TMSI to give VBr(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 7 and VI(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 8. The phenyl derivative was obtained by reaction of 3 with MgPh2 to give VPh(PMe3)2(N(t)Bu)2 9. These neutral complexes are compared to the previously reported cationic bisimides [V(PMe3)3(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 10, [V(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 11, and [V(DMAP)(PEt3)2(N(t)Bu)2][Al(PFTB)4] 12 (DMAP = dimethylaminopyridine, PFTB = perfluoro-tert-butoxide). Characterization of the complexes by X-ray diffraction, (13)C NMR, (51)V NMR, and V L(3,2)-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy provides a description of the electronic structure in comparison to group 6 bisimides and the bent metallocene analogues. The electronic structure is dominated by π bonding to the imides, and localization of electron density at the nitrogen atoms of the imides is dictated by the cone angle and donating ability of the axial neutral supporting ligands. This phenomenon is clearly seen in the sensitivity of (51)V NMR shift, (13)C NMR Δδ(αβ), and L3-edge energy to the nature of the supporting phosphine ligand, which defines the parameters for designing cationic group 5 bisimides that would be capable of breaking stronger σ bonds. Conversely, all three methods show little dependence on the variable equatorial halide ligand. Furthermore, this analysis allows for quantification of the electronic differences between vanadium bisimides and the structurally analogous mixed Cp/imide system CpV(N(t)Bu)X2 (Cp = C5H5(1-)).

  8. Titanium and niobium imido complexes stabilized by heteroscorpionate ligands.

    PubMed

    Otero, A; Fernández-Baeza, J; Antiñolo, A; Tejeda, J; Lara-Sánchez, A; Sánchez-Barba, L; Rodríguez, A M

    2004-12-07

    The reaction of [Ti(NR)Cl(2)(py)(3)](R = (t)Bu, p-tolyl, 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)) with [{Li(bdmpza)(H(2)O)}(4)][bdmpza = bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)acetate] and [{Li(bdmpzdta)(H(2)O)}(4)][bdmpzdta = bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)dithioacetate] affords the corresponding complexes [Ti(NR)Cl(kappa(3)-bdmpzx)(py)](x = a, R = (t)Bu 1, p-tolyl 2, 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2) 3; x = dta, R =(t)Bu 4, p-tolyl , 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2) 6), which are the first examples of imido Group 4 complexes stabilized by heteroscorpionate ligands. The solid-state X-ray crystal structure of 1 has been determined. The titanium centre is six-coordinate with three fac-sites occupied by the heteroscorpionate ligand and the remainder of the coordination sphere being completed by chloride, imido and pyridine ligands. The complexes are 1-6 fluxional at room temperature. The pyridine ortho- and meta-proton resonances show evidence of dynamic behaviour for this ligand and variable-temperature NMR studies were carried out in order to study their dynamic behaviour in solution. The complexes [Nb(NR)Cl(3)(py)(2)](R = (t)Bu, p-tolyl, 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)) reacted with [{Li(bdmpza)(H(2)O)}(4)] and (Hbdmpze)[bdmpze = 2,2-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)ethoxide], the latter with prior addition of (n)BuLi, to give the complexes [Nb(NR)Cl(2)(kappa(3)-bdmpzx)](x = a, R =(t)Bu 7, p-tolyl 8, 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2) 9; x = e, R = (t)Bu 10, p-tolyl 11, 2,6-C(6)H(3)(i)Pr(2)) 12 and these are the first examples of imido Group 5 complexes with heteroscorpionate ligands. The structures of these complexes have been determined by spectroscopic methods.

  9. Oxo-functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion through lanthanide-element bond homolysis: synthetic, structural, and bonding analysis of a series of singly reduced uranyl-rare earth 5f1-4f(n) complexes.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Love, Jason B; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Caciuffo, Roberto; Magnani, Nicola; Maron, Laurent; Castro, Ludovic; Yahia, Ahmed; Odoh, Samuel O; Schreckenbach, Georg

    2013-03-13

    The heterobimetallic complexes [{UO2Ln(py)2(L)}2], combining a singly reduced uranyl cation and a rare-earth trication in a binucleating polypyrrole Schiff-base macrocycle (Pacman) and bridged through a uranyl oxo-group, have been prepared for Ln = Sc, Y, Ce, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er, Yb, and Lu. These compounds are formed by the single-electron reduction of the Pacman uranyl complex [UO2(py)(H2L)] by the rare-earth complexes Ln(III)(A)3 (A = N(SiMe3)2, OC6H3Bu(t)2-2,6) via homolysis of a Ln-A bond. The complexes are dimeric through mutual uranyl exo-oxo coordination but can be cleaved to form the trimetallic, monouranyl "ate" complexes [(py)3LiOUO(μ-X)Ln(py)(L)] by the addition of lithium halides. X-ray crystallographic structural characterization of many examples reveals very similar features for monomeric and dimeric series, the dimers containing an asymmetric U2O2 diamond core with shorter uranyl U═O distances than in the monomeric complexes. The synthesis by Ln(III)-A homolysis allows [5f(1)-4f(n)]2 and Li[5f(1)-4f(n)] complexes with oxo-bridged metal cations to be made for all possible 4f(n) configurations. Variable-temperature SQUID magnetometry and IR, NIR, and EPR spectroscopies on the complexes are utilized to provide a basis for the better understanding of the electronic structure of f-block complexes and their f-electron exchange interactions. Furthermore, the structures, calculated by restricted-core or all-electron methods, are compared along with the proposed mechanism of formation of the complexes. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling between the metal centers, mediated by the oxo groups, exists in the U(V)Sm(III) monomer, whereas the dimeric U(V)Dy(III) complex was found to show magnetic bistability at 3 K, a property required for the development of single-molecule magnets.

  10. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag

  11. Oligo-nuclear silver thiocyanate complexes with monodentate tertiary phosphine ligands, including novel 'cubane' and 'step' tetramer forms of AgSCN : PR3 (1:1)4.

    PubMed

    Bowmaker, Graham A; Di Nicola, Corrado; Effendy; Hanna, John V; Healy, Peter C; King, Scott P; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Robinson, Ward T; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; Tăbăcaru, Aurel; White, Allan H

    2013-01-07

    Adducts of a number of tertiary pnicogen ligands ER(3) (triphenyl-phosphine and -arsine (PPh(3),AsPh(3)), diphenyl,2-pyridylphosphine (PPh(2)py), tris(4-fluorophenyl)phosphine (P(C(6)H(4)-4F)(3)), tris(2-tolyl)phosphine (P(o-tol)(3)), tris(cyclohexyl)phosphine (PCy(3))), with silver(I) thiocyanate, AgSCN are structurally and spectroscopically characterized. The 1:3 AgSCN : ER(3) complexes structurally defined (for PPh(3),AsPh(3) (diversely solvated)) take the form [(R(3)E)(3)AgX], the thiocyanate X = NCS being N-bound, thus [(Ph(3)E)Ag(NCS)]. A 1:2 complex with PPh(2)py, takes the binuclear form [(pyPh(2)P)(2)Ag()Ag(PPh(2)py)(2)] with an eight-membered cyclic core. 1:1 complexes are defined with PPh(2)py, P(o-tol)(3) and PCy(3); binuclear forms [(R(3)P)Ag()Ag(PR(3))] are obtained with P(o-tol)(3) (two polymorphs), while novel isomeric tetranuclear forms, which may be envisaged as dimers of dimers, are obtained with PPh(2)py, and, as further polymorphs, with PCy(3); these latter may be considered as extensions of the 'cubane' and 'step' forms previously described for [(R(3)E)AgX](4) (X = halide) complexes. Solvent-assisted mechanochemical or solvent-assisted solid-state synthesis methods were employed in some cases, where complexes could not be obtained by conventional solution methods, or where such methods yielded a mixture of polymorphs unsuitable for solid-state spectroscopy. The wavenumbers of the ν(CN) bands in the IR spectra are in broad agreement with the empirical rule that distinguishes bridging from terminal bonding, but exceptions occur for compounds that have a double SCN bridged dimeric structure, and replacement of PPh(3) with PPh(2)py apparently causes a significant decrease in ν(CN) to well below the range expected for bridging SCN in these structures. (31)P CP MAS NMR spectra yield additional parameters that allow a correlation between the structures and spectra.

  12. Versatility in the binding of 2-pyrazinecarboxylate with iron. Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of iron(II) and iron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Tanase, Stefania; Marqués Gallego, Patricia; Bouwman, Elisabeth; Long, Gary J; Rebbouh, Leila; Grandjean, Fernande; de Gelder, René; Mutikainen, Ilpo; Turpeinen, Urho; Reedijk, Jan

    2006-04-07

    The synthesis and characterization of two new iron(II) complexes, [Fe(pca)2(py)2].py (1) and {[Fe(pca)2(H2O)].H2O}n (2) and one new iron(III) complex, Na2{[Fe(pca)()]2O}.2H2O.2CH3CN (3) (pca- stands for 2-pyrazinecarboxylate), are reported. Complex 1 is obtained from the reaction of iron powder with 2-pyrazinecarboxylic acid. The reaction of Fe(ClO4)3.10H2O with Hpca in the presence of 3 equiv. of Bu4NOH yields 2, whereas the presence of NaOH yields 3. The molecular structure of 1 contains an iron(II) ion with a pseudo-octahedral environment resulting from the coordination of two pca- ligands in a bidentate chelating fashion and two pyridine molecules; pi-pi stacking interactions between pyridine and pyrazine rings lead to a one-dimensional chain. Complex 2 is an iron(II) coordination polymer with an infinite zig-zag motif and an Fe...Fe separation of 7.1 A. In 2, the pi-pi stacking interactions involving the pyrazine rings and the strong hydrogen bonds between the coordinated water molecule and the carboxylate oxygens of two pca- ligands result in a three-dimensional network structure. Complex 3 consists of an anionic micro-oxo-bridged diiron(III) core with two crystallographically distinct iron(iii) ions; the negative charge is compensated by two sodium cations. Complex 3 is assembled in a three dimensional network structure through coordination of Na(I) and hydrogen bond interactions. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that 1 and 2 have similar magnetic properties. Both complexes are paramagnetic above 12 K, whereas antiferromagnetic ordering is observed below 12 K. The magnetic properties of reveal strong intramolecular antiferromagnetic interactions between the two iron(III) ions with a J value of -221 cm(-1); no long range intermolecular magnetic coupling is observed between 295 and 4.2 K.

  13. Nonheme Fe(IV) Oxo Complexes of Two New Pentadentate Ligands and Their Hydrogen-Atom and Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Mainak; Nimir, Hassan; Demeshko, Serhiy; Bhat, Satish S; Malinkin, Sergey O; Haukka, Matti; Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Lisensky, George C; Meyer, Franc; Shteinman, Albert A; Browne, Wesley R; Hrovat, David A; Richmond, Michael G; Costas, Miquel; Nordlander, Ebbe

    2015-08-03

    Two new pentadentate {N5} donor ligands based on the N4Py (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) framework have been synthesized, viz. [N-(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridyl methyl)amine] (L(1)) and [N-bis(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridylmethyl)amine] (L(2)), where one or two pyridyl arms of N4Py have been replaced by corresponding (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl-containing arms. The complexes [Fe(II)(CH3CN)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (1); L(2) (2)) were synthesized, and reaction of these ferrous complexes with iodosylbenzene led to the formation of the ferryl complexes [Fe(IV)(O)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (3); L(2) (4)), which were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Complexes 3 and 4 are relatively stable with half-lives at room temperature of 40 h (L = L(1)) and 2.5 h (L = L(2)). The redox potentials of 1 and 2, as well as the visible spectra of 3 and 4, indicate that the ligand field weakens as ligand pyridyl substituents are progressively substituted by (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl moieties. The reactivities of 3 and 4 in hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) and oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactions show that both complexes exhibit enhanced reactivities when compared to the analogous N4Py complex ([Fe(IV)(O)(N4Py)](2+)), and that the normalized HAT rates increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude for each replacement of a pyridyl moiety; i.e., [Fe(IV)(O)(L(2))](2+) exhibits the highest rates. The second-order HAT rate constants can be directly related to the substrate C-H bond dissociation energies. Computational modeling of the HAT reactions indicates that the reaction proceeds via a high spin transition state.

  14. Properties of a tunable multinuclear nickel polyoxotungstate platform.

    PubMed

    El Moll, Hani; Rousseau, Guillaume; Dolbecq, Anne; Oms, Olivier; Marrot, Jérôme; Haouas, Mohamed; Taulelle, Francis; Rivière, Eric; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Lachkar, David; Lacôte, Emmanuel; Keita, Bineta; Mialane, Pierre

    2013-05-17

    A series of hybrid nickel bisphosphonate (BP) polyoxometalates (POMs) has been isolated. The complexes NaK-Ni7-Ale2 (Ale = [H2O3PC(C3H6NH2)(OH)PO3H2]) and NaNH4-Ni7-Ale2 are both made of two {PW9O34} fragments enclosing a heptanuclear Ni(II) core connected to two alendronate ligands. By pre-functionalising the alendronate moiety through the amino group, the naphthalene (napht) derivative Ni7-(AleNapht)2 and the compounds Ni7-(AlePy2 Ni)2 (py = pyridyl) and Ni7-(AleAc2Ni)2 (Ac = acyl) have been obtained. Compared with the NaK-Ni7-Ale2 species, these last two complexes contain two additional Ni(II) centres connected through two bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amine or two iminodiacetate groups, respectively. This results show that it is possible to functionalise the heptanuclear POM in a controlled manner. Quantification of the magnetic interactions in NaK-Ni7-Ale2 revealed that in the {Ni7} core, ferromagnetic interactions are predominant, with a S = 5 ground state. Magnetisation versus dc field sweeps on a single crystal of NaK-Ni7-Ale2 exhibited hysteresis at low temperature. (1)H and (31)P NMR studies in aqueous solution performed on NaK-Ni7-Ale2 and Ni7-(AleNapht)2 evidenced that the PW9/Ni7/bisphosphonate assembly is stable in solution. This was completed by (31)P magic angle spinning (MAS) investigations and confirmed by (1)H DOSY experiments. The electrochemistry of these compounds proceeds through two well-defined four-electron chemically reversible waves in a medium at pH 6. NaK-Ni7-Ale2 proved to be efficient for the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate, nitrite and nitrous oxide. Remarkably, its electrocatalytic efficiency for nitrate reduction is approximately three times higher than those previously reported for POMs in a medium at pH >4 under the same potential. The catalytic properties of two representatives of the hybrid family were also examined. It is shown that these nickel bisphosphonate polyoxotungstates are pre-catalysts for the oxidation of alcohols

  15. Hydrogen-extraction experiments on grossular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurka, A.; Blanchard, M.; Ingrin, J.

    2003-04-01

    Grossular generally contains the highest amount of hydrogen within the garnet-group and is a minor component in many pyrope-rich mantle garnets, despite some mantle garnets are known showing significant grossular-component. Gemmy, orange-brown colored, grossular-samples from Madagascar of composition Gr 83.2 Py 2.2 An 14.3 were used to study the hydrogen-extraction behaviour. Five doubly polished, single crystal-slices with a thickness ranging from about 350 to 500 microns were cut. The slices were heated in air at temperatures of 800^o, 900^o, 950^o, 1000^o and 1050^o C for 2 hours up to 900 hours. The hydrogen content was determined using FTIR-spectroscopy. Our material shows a spectra characteristic for grossular with about 12 absorption-bands in the OH-region. The initial OH content was determined as 0.022 wt% H_2O. The diffusion coefficients calculated using the equation proposed by Hercule &Ingrin (1999) range from 7 10-15 to 2 10-12 (m2/s) leading to an activation energy for H-extraction in grossular at about 260 kJ/mol, which is similar to that of pyrope from Dora Maira (personal communication M. Blanchard) but slightly higher than pyrope investigated by Wang et al. (1996). It should be further noticed that the extraction rate of some bands at lower energies shows slightly different behaviour than that of other bands. This may affect the model of H-incorporation in grossular, that is usually described by the classic hydrogen-incorporation via O_4H_4 - SiO_4, and may support more sophisticated models of OH-substitution in garnet as proposed recently by Andrut et al. (2002). This study was financially supported by the EU through the Human Potential Program HPRN-CT-2000-0056. References: [1] Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Essene, E. (1996) Diffusion of the hydrous component in pyrope. Am. Mineral., 81, 701-718. [2] Hercule, S. and Ingrin, J. (1999) Hydrogen in diopside: Diffusion, kinetics of extraction-incorporation, and solubility. Am. Mineral., 84, 1577-1587. [3

  16. Hydride-Containing Models for the Active Site of the Nickel-Iron Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Bryan E.; Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    The [NiFe]-hydrogenase model complex NiFe(pdt)(dppe)(CO)3 (1) (pdt = 1,3-propanedithiolate) has been efficiently synthesized and found to be robust. This neutral complex sustains protonation to give the first nickel-iron hydride [1H]BF4. One CO ligand in [1H]BF4 is readily substituted by organophosphorus ligand to afford the substituted derivatives [HNiFe(pdt)(dppe)(CO)2(PR3)]BF4, where PR3 = P(OPh)3 ([2H]BF4); PPh3 ([3H]BF4); PPh2Py ([4H]BF4, where Py = 2-pyridyl). Variable temperature NMR measurements show that the neutral and protonated derivatives are dynamic on the NMR timescale, which partially symmetrizes the phosphine complex. The proposed stereodynamics involve twisting of the Ni(dppe) center, not rotation at the Fe(CO)2(PR3) center. In MeCN solution, 3, which can be prepared by deprotonation of [3H]BF4 with NaOMe, is about 104 stronger base than is 1. X-ray crystallographic analysis of [3H]BF4 revealed a highly unsymmetrical bridging hydride, the Fe-H bond being 0.40 Å shorter than the Ni-H distance. Complexes [2H]BF4, [3H]BF4, [4H]BF4 undergo reductions near −1.46 V vs Fc0/+. For [2H]BF4, this reduction process is reversible, and we assign it as a one-electron process. In the presence of trifluoroacetic acid, proton reduction catalysis coincides with this reductive event. The dependence of ic/ip on the concentration of the acid indicates that H2 evolution entails protonation of a reduced hydride. For [2H]+, [3H]+, and [4H]+, the acid-independent rate constants are 50-75 s−1. For [2H]+ and [3H]+, the overpotentials for H2 evolution are ~430 mV, whereas the overpotential for the N-protonated pyridinium complex [4H2]2+ is estimated to be 260 mV. The mechanism of H2 evolution is proposed to follow an ECEC sequence, where E and C correspond to one-electron reductions and protonations, respectively. On the basis of their values for its pKa and redox potentials, ΔGH• and ΔGH− are 57 and 79 kcal/mol for [1H]+ and [1]2+, respectively. PMID:20925337

  17. Intramolecular proton transfer boosts water oxidation catalyzed by a Ru complex

    SciTech Connect

    Matheu, Roc; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Benet-Buchholz, J.; Coronado, Eugenio; Batista, Victor S.; Sala, Xavier; Llobet, Antoni

    2015-07-30

    We introduce a new family of complexes with the general formula [Run(tda)(py)2]m+ (n = 2, m = 0, 1; n = 3, m = 1, 2+; n = 4, m = 2, 32+), with tda2– being [2,2':6',2"-terpyridine]-6,6"-dicarboxylate, including complex [RuIV(OH)(tda-κ-N3O)(py)2]+, 4H+, which we find to be an impressive water oxidation catalyst, formed by hydroxo coordination to 32+ under basic conditions. The complexes are synthesized, isolated, and thoroughly characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV–vis, nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance), computational, and electrochemical techniques (cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, coulometry), including solid-state monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In oxidation state IV, the Ru center is seven-coordinated and diamagnetic, whereas in oxidation state II, the complex has an unbonded dangling carboxylate and is six-coordinated while still diamagnetic. With oxidation state III, the coordination number is halfway between the coordination of oxidation states II and IV. Species generated in situ have also been characterized by spectroscopic, computational, and electrochemical techniques, together with the related species derived from a different degree of protonation and oxidation states. 4H+ can be generated potentiometrically, or voltammetrically, from 32+, and both coexist in solution. While complex 32+ is not catalytically active, the catalytic performance of complex 4H+ is characterized by the foot of the wave analysis, giving an impressive turnover frequency record of 8000 s–1 at pH 7.0 and 50,000 s–1 at pH 10.0. Density functional theory calculations provide a complete description of the water oxidation catalytic cycle of 4H+, manifesting the key functional role of the dangling carboxylate in lowering

  18. Transition metal complexes of the pyridylphosphine ligand o-C6H4(CH2PPy2)2.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Teresa F; Spencer, John L

    2016-11-14

    The synthesis and coordination behaviour of the pyridylphosphine ligand o-C6H4(CH2PPy2)2 (Py = 2-pyridyl) are reported. The phosphine selenide was synthesised and the (1)JPSe value of 738 Hz indicates the phosphorus atoms have a similar basicity to PPh3. The ligand reacts with platinum(ii) and palladium(ii) complexes to give simple diphosphine complexes of the type [MX2(PP)] (M = Pt, X = Cl, I, Me, Et; M = Pd, X = Cl, Me). When the ligand is reacted with chloromethyl(hexa-1,5-diene)platinum the [PtClMe(PP)] complex results, from which a series of unsymmetrical platinum complexes of the type [PtMeL(PP)](+) (L = PPh3, PTA, SEt2 and pyridine) can be made. This enabled the comparison of the cis and trans influences of a range of ligands. The following cis influence series was compiled based on (31)P NMR data of these complexes: Py ≈ Cl > SEt2 > PTA > PPh3. Reaction of [PtClMe(PP)] with NaCH(SO2CF3)2 and carbon monoxide slowly formed an acyl complex, where the CO had inserted in the Pt-Me bond. Attempts to achieve P,P,N chelation, through abstracting the chloride ligand in [PtClMe(PP)], were unsuccessful. When the ligand reacted with platinum(0), palladium(0) and silver(i) complexes the bis-chelated complexes [M(PP)2] (M = Pt, Pd) and [Ag(PP)2](+) were formed respectively. Reaction of the ligand with [Ir(COD)(μ-Cl)]2 formed [IrCl(PP)(COD)]. When the chloride ligand was abstracted, the pyridyl nitrogens were able to interact with the iridium centre facilitating the isomerisation of the 1,2,5,6-η(4)-COD ligand to a 1-κ-4,5,6-η(3)-C8H12 ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of [Ir(1-κ-4,5,6-η(3)-C8H12)(PPN)]BPh4 confirmed the P,P,N chelation mode of the ligand. In solution, this complex displayed hemilabile behaviour, with the pyridyl nitrogens exchanging at a rate faster than the NMR time scale at room temperature.

  19. Solvent effect-driven assembly of W/Cu/S cluster-based coordination polymers from the cluster precursor [Et4N][Tp*WS3(CuBr)3] and CuCN: isolation, structures and enhanced NLO responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Li; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Rong; Lang, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-07

    We herein describe a coordination polymer system built upon the reactions of a W/Cu/S cluster precursor [Et4N][Tp*WS3(CuBr)3] (1, Tp* = hydridotris(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)borate) with three equivalents of CuCN through solvent modulation. Four coordination polymers, namely, [Tp*WS3Cu3(μ3-DMF)(CN)3Cu(Py)] (2), [Tp*WS3Cu3(μ3-DMF)(CN)3Cu] (3), [Tp*WS3Cu3(μ3-DMF)(CN)3Cu]·4aniline (4·4aniline) and [Tp*WS3Cu3(μ3-DMF)(CN)3Cu]·2(DMF)0.5 (5·2(DMF)0.5), are isolated in different solvent systems and characterized by means of elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-5 feature μ3-DMF association with the nest-shaped [WS3Cu3] cluster cores, yielding cubane-type [WS3Cu3O] clusters which are further linked to single Cu(I) ions through CN bridges to provide 1D or 2D structures. Compounds 3-5 have identical chemical compositions in their main fragments but with distinctively different structural features, and are therefore topological isomers. Compound 2 has a ladder-type structure in which the side rails contain alternately linked cluster cores and Cu(I) ions. Compound 3 has a 2D (6,3) network with alternately arranged cluster cores and Cu(I) ions. Both 4 and 5 have 2D structures with 4·8(2) topology. In 4, a pair of cluster cores and Cu(I) ions form a 4-membered ring which is further linked to four equivalent rings through four CN ligands via a cluster core-to-Cu arrangement; while in the structure of 5, the same 4-membered rings as those in 4 are extended to equivalent rings via a cluster core-to-cluster and Cu-to-Cu arrangement. The hyperpolarizabilities (γ) of the polymeric networks exhibit an enhancement of more than 10 times compared to their parent cluster, 1.

  20. Compatibility of grain-stabilized platinum with candidate propellants for resistojets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, M. V.; Grisnik, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Resistojets are candidates for space station auxiliary propulsion, and should be characterized by both long life and multipropellant operations, requirements limited by available materials. Grain stabilized platinum is examined for use as a resistojet thruster material. Use of platinum in other applications indicates it can be used at moderately high temperatures for extended periods of time. Past results indicate that grain-stabilized platinum should be sufficiently inert in candidate propellant environments. Therefore, compatibility of platinum-yttria (P/Y2O3) and platinum-zirconia (Pt/ZrO2) with carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen and ammonia is examined. A series of 1000 hr tests in CO2, H2, and NH3 is conducted at 1400 C and a series of 1000 hr tests in CH4 is conducted at about 500 C. Scanning electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and depth profiling analysis are then used to determine the effects of propellants on the material surface, to evaluate possible material contamination and to evaluate grain growth. The results indicate that there is carbon deposition on the surface of the Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 in both the CO2 and CH4 environments. In the H2 environment, the Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 specimen surfaces are roughened. After exposure to the NH3 environment, the Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 are roughened and pitted over the entire heated area with some pitted areas along the grain boundaries. SEM photos show grain growth in cross-sectional views of all the Pt/Y2O3 samples and the Pt/ZrO2 samples, except that tested in methane. Mass loss measurements indicate that Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 would last in excess of 200,000 hr in each propellant environment. However, in NH3 both Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 are severely pitted, with voids up to 50 percent into the material. Pt/Y2O3 and Pt/ZrO2 are not recommended for high temperature service in NH3.

  1. Early- and Late-Lanthanide Pyridinethiolates: Synthesis, Redox Stability, and Structure.

    PubMed

    Berardini, M.; Lee, Jongseong; Freedman, Deborah; Lee, Jae; Emge, T. J.; Brennan, J. G.

    1997-12-03

    The early and late lanthanides form stable complexes with the pyridinethiolate (2-S-NC(5)H(4), or SPy) ligands. The Ce compound Ce(SPy)(3) is relatively insoluble in neutral organic donor solvents such as THF or pyridine but can be solubilized by the addition of [PEt(4)][SPy] to form the orange homoleptic cerium thiolate [PEt(4)][Ce(SPy)(4)] (1). Low-temperature structural characterization of 1 showed that the complex is isostructural with the known Eu(III) derivative. Further oxidation of Ce(III) with dipyridyl disulfide does not occur. Molecular 1 is colored due to a low-energy f(1)-to-d(1) promotion. As the size of the lanthanide ion decreases, the solubility of neutral Ln(SPy)(3) appears to increase. Colorless [PEt(4)][Ln(SPy)(4)] (Ln = Ho (2), Tm (3)) can also be isolated by fractional crystallization, and the compounds are isostructural with the Ce and Eu derivatives. The neutral complexes of Ho and Tm are also slightly soluble in acetonitrile and dimethoxyethane and very soluble in pyridine. Both divalent and trivalent Yb complexes of the pyridinethiolate ligand dissolve in and crystallize from pyridine. Divalent Yb(SPy)(2) crystallizes as the pentagonal bipyramidal molecule (py)(3)Yb(SPy)(2) (4). One pyridine nitrogen and the four donor atoms of the two pyridinethiolate ligands are bound in equatorial positions, and two neutral pyridine ligands occupy the axial sites. The Yb(III) compound crystallizes readily from pyridine as molecular 8-coordinate (py)(2)Yb(SPy)(3) (5). Compounds 4 and 5 are intensely colored; 4 has a visible Yb(II)-to-pyridine charge transfer excitation that is virtually identical in energy to the analogous excitation in SmI(2)(py)(4), while 5 has a visible S-to-Yb charge transfer absorption. Crystal data (Mo Kalpha, 153(5) K) are as follows: 1, monoclinic space group P2/n, a = 15.118(6) Å, b = 16.117(4) Å, c = 26.443(7) Å, beta = 90.14(3) degrees, Z = 4; 4, monoclinic space group Cc, a = 10.588(1) Å, b = 16.810(3) Å, c = 14.833(5)

  2. Solution NMR studies of iron(II) spin-crossover complexes.

    PubMed

    Weber, Birgit; Walker, F Ann

    2007-08-06

    The 1H NMR spectra of a series of mono- and dinuclear pyridine complexes [FeL1(R1/R2)(py)2] and [Fe2L2(R1/R2)(py)4] have been investigated in a mixed toluene-d8/pyridine-d5 solution. The equatorial tetradentade Schiff base like ligands L1(R1/R2) and L2(R1/R2) with a N2O22- coordination sphere for each metal center have been obtained by condensation of a substituted malonodialdehyde (R1/R2 are Me/COOEt, Me/COMe, or OEt/COOEt) with o-phenylenediamine (L1(R1/R2)) or 1,2,4,5-tetraaminobenzene (L2(R1/R2)). The 1H NMR resonances were assigned by comparison of differently substituted complexes in combination with a line-width comparison. The 1H NMR shifts from 188 to 358 K show a strong influence of the spin state of the iron center. The behavior of the pure high-spin iron(II) complexes is close to ideal Curie behavior. Analysis of the resonance shifts of the spin-transition complexes can be used for determining the high-spin mole fraction of the complex in solution at different temperatures. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in solution using the Evans method were made for all six complexes. Significant differences between the spin-transition behavior of the complexes in solution of those in the solid state were found. However, the plots of microeff as a function of temperature obtained using the Evans method and those obtained by interpretation of the NMR shifts were virtually identical. The isotropic shifts of protons in the complexes proved to be suitable tools for following a spin transition in solution. Comparison of the microeff plots of the mono- and dinuclear complexes in solution reveals slight differences between the steepness of the curves that may be attributable to cooperative interactions between the metal centers in the case of the dinuclear complexes.

  3. Two Polymorphic Forms of a Six-Coordinate Mononuclear Cobalt(II) Complex with Easy-Plane Anisotropy: Structural Features, Theoretical Calculations, and Field-Induced Slow Relaxation of the Magnetization.

    PubMed

    Roy, Subhadip; Oyarzabal, Itziar; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Colacio, Enrique; Bauza, Antonio; Frontera, Antonio; Kirillov, Alexander M; Drew, Michael G B; Das, Subrata

    2016-09-06

    A mononuclear cobalt(II) complex [Co(3,5-dnb)2(py)2(H2O)2] {3,5-Hdnb = 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid; py = pyridine} was isolated in two polymorphs, in space groups C2/c (1) and P21/c (2). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are not isostructural in spite of having equal formulas and ligand connectivity. In both structures, the Co(II) centers adopt octahedral {CoN2O4} geometries filled by pairs of mutually trans terminal 3,5-dnb, py, and water ligands. However, the structures of 1 and 2 disclose distinct packing patterns driven by strong intermolecular O-H···O hydrogen bonds, leading to their 0D→2D (1) or 0D→1D (2) extension. The resulting two-dimensional layers and one-dimensional chains were topologically classified as the sql and 2C1 underlying nets, respectively. By means of DFT theoretical calculations, the energy variations between the polymorphs were estimated, and the binding energies associated with the noncovalent interactions observed in the crystal structures were also evaluated. The study of the direct-current magnetic properties, as well as ab initio calculations, reveal that both 1 and 2 present a strong easy-plane magnetic anisotropy (D > 0), which is larger for the latter polymorph (D is found to exhibit values between +58 and 117 cm(-1) depending on the method). Alternating current dynamic susceptibility measurements show that these polymorphs exhibit field-induced slow relaxation of the magnetization with Ueff values of 19.5 and 21.1 cm(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The analysis of the whole magnetic data allows the conclusion that the magnetization relaxation in these polymorphs mainly takes place through a virtual excited state (Raman process). It is worth noting that despite the notable difference between the supramolecular networks of 1 and 2, they exhibit almost identical magnetization dynamics. This fact suggests that the relaxation process is intramolecular in nature and that the virtual state involved in the

  4. Intramolecular Gas Phase Reactions of Synthetic Non-heme Oxoiron(IV) Ions: Proximity and Spin-State Reactivity Rules

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Ballesté, Rubén; McDonald, Aidan R.; Reed, Dana; Usharani, Dandamudi; Schyman, Patric; Milko, Petr

    2012-01-01

    The intramolecular gas phase reactivity of four oxoiron(IV) complexes supported by tetradentate N4 ligands (L) has been studied by means of tandem mass spectrometry measurements where the gas-phase ions [FeIV(O)(L)(OTf)]+ and [FeIV(O)(L)]2+ were isolated and then allowed to fragment by collision-induced decay (CID). CID fragmentation of cations derived from oxoiron(IV) complexes of TMC (1,4,8,11-tetramethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) and L8Py2 (N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane) afforded the same predominant products irrespective of whether they were hexacoordinate or pentacoordinate. These products resulted from the loss of water by dehydrogenation of ethylene or propylene linkers on the tetradentate ligand. In contrast, CID fragmentation of ions derived from oxoiron(IV) complexes of linear tetradentate ligands BPMEN (N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminoethane) and BPMPN (N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane) showed predominant oxidative N-dealkylation for the hexacoordinate [FeIV(O)(L)(OTf)]+ cations and predominant dehydrogenation of the diaminoethane/propane backbone for the pentacoordinate [FeIV(O)(L)]2+ cations. DFT calculations on [FeIV(O)(BPMEN)] ions showed that the experimentally observed preference for oxidative N-dealkylation versus dehydrogenation of the diaminoethane linker for the hexa- and pentacoordinate ions, respectively, is dictated by the proximity of the target C–H bond to the oxoiron(IV) moiety and the reactive spin state. Therefore, there must be a difference in ligand topology between the two ions. More importantly, despite the constraints on the geometries of the TSs that prohibit the usual upright σ-trajectory and prevent optimal σCH-σ*z2 overlap, all the reactions still proceed preferentially on the quintet (S = 2) state surface, which increases the number of exchange interactions in the d-block of iron and leads thereby to exchange enhanced reactivity (EER). As such, EER is responsible for the

  5. Comparison of two tetrapodal N,O ligands: impact of the softness of the heterocyclic N-donors pyridine and pyrazine on the selectivity for Am(III) over Eu(III).

    PubMed

    Heitzmann, Marie; Bravard, Florence; Gateau, Christelle; Boubals, Nathalie; Berthon, Claude; Pécaut, Jacques; Charbonnel, Marie-Christine; Delangle, Pascale

    2009-01-05

    To quantify the impact of the N-donor softness on the coordination of f elements in aqueous solution, and in particular on the selectivity for Am(III) over Eu(III), we have designed the two tetrapodal hexadentate ligands N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine-N',N'-diacetic acid (Lpy) and N,N-bis(2-pyrazylmethyl)ethylenediamine-N',N'-diacetic acid (Lpz). These ligands bear two hard acetate groups to provide stability to the An(III) and Ln(III) complexes and two N-heterocyclic soft groups to provide Am(III) versus Eu(III) selectivity. They only differ in their N-donor moieties, pyridine or pyrazine. The proton NMR and potentiometric analyses performed on the lanthanide complexes of the two ligands indicate that a unique metallic complex, LnL, is formed and that LnLpy+ and LnLpz+ have the same structure in water. Furthermore, the hydration numbers of the europium and terbium ions in these complexes, measured by luminescence decay, have the same value (q = 3), indicating that the two ligands act as hexadentate donors in both systems. As expected, the softer pyrazine-based ligand gives less stable complexes than the pyridine-based ligand with the hard Ln(III) cations. The fragment N(CH2pz)2 containing two pyrazine functions has a very low contribution to the stability of the lanthanide complexes, even though the pyrazine groups are coordinated to the cation in water. The stabilities of the americium(III) complexes were determined by potentiometry and are greater than those found for the isoelectronic europium complexes. The selectivity for Am(III) over Eu(III) increases from 60 to 500 when the pyridine-containing fragment N(CH2py)2 is substituted by the pyrazine-containing fragment N(CH2pz)2, which demonstrates that the selectivity for Am(III) over Eu(III) is significantly enhanced when the softness of the N-heterocycle increases from pyridine to pyrazine. These new hydrophilic ligands present attractive selectivities for Am(III) over Eu(III) that could make them good

  6. Molecular basis for enantioselectivity in the (R)- and (S)-hydroxypropylthioethanesulfonate dehydrogenases, a unique pair of stereoselective short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in aliphatic epoxide carboxylation†

    PubMed Central

    Sliwa, Dariusz A.; Krishnakumar, Arathi M.; Peters, John W.; Ensign, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    (R)- and (S)-2-hydroxypropyl-CoM (R-HPC and S-HPC) are produced as intermediates in bacterial propylene metabolism from the nucleophilic addition of coenzyme M to (R)- and (S)-epoxypropane, respectively. Two highly enantioselective dehydrogenases (R-HPCDH and S-HPCDH) belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family catalyze the conversion of R-HPC and S-HPC to 2-ketopropyl-CoM (2-KPC), which undergoes reductive cleavage and carboxylation to produce acetoacetate. In the present study, one of three copies of S-HPCDH enzymes present on a linear megaplasmid in Xanthobacter autotrophicus strain Py2 has been cloned and overexpressed, allowing the first detailed side by side characterization of the R-HPCDH and S-HPCDH enzymes. The catalytic triad of S-HPCDH was found to consist of Y156, K160, and S143. R211 and K214 were identified as the amino acid residues coordinating the sulfonate of CoM in S-HPC. R211A and K214A mutants were severely impaired in the oxidation of R-HPC or reduction of 2-KPC but were largely unaffected in the oxidation and reduction of aliphatic alcohols and ketones. Kinetic analyses using (R)- and (S)-HPC as substrates revealed that enantioselectivity in R-HPCDH (value, 944) was dictated largely by differences in kcat while enantioselectivity for S-HPCDH (value, 658) was dictated largely by changes in Km. S-HPCDH had an inherent high enantioselectivity for producing (S)-2-butanol from 2-butanone that was unaffected by modulators that interact with the sulfonate binding site. The tertiary alcohol 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl-CoM (M-HPC) was a competitive inhibitor of R-HPCDH-catalyzed R-HPC oxidation, with a Kis similar to the Km for R-HPC, but was not an inhibitor of S-HPCDH. The primary alcohol 2-hydroxyethyl-CoM was a substrate for both R-HPCDH and S-HPCDH with identical Km values. The pH dependence of kinetic parameters suggests that the hydroxyl group is a larger contributor to S-HPC binding to S-HPCDH than for R-HPC binding to R-HPCDH. It

  7. Multiscale study of mononuclear CoII SMMs based on curcuminoid ligands

    DOE PAGES

    Díaz-Torres, Raúl; Menelaou, Melita; Roubeau, Olivier; ...

    2016-01-07

    This work introduces a novel family of CoII species having a curcuminoid (CCMoid) ligand, 9Accm, attached, namely [Co(9Accm) 2 (py) 2 ] (1) and [Co(9Accm)2(2,2'-bpy)] (2), achieved in high yields by the use of a microwave reactor, and exhibiting two different arrangements for the 9Accm ligands, described as "cis"(2) and "trans"(1). The study of the similarities/differences of the magnetic, luminescent and surface behaviors of the two new species, 1 and 2, is the main objective of the present work. The determined single-crystal structures of both compounds are the only CoII -CCMoid structures described in the literature so far. Both compoundsmore » exhibit large positive D values, that of 1 (D = +74 cm-1 ) being three times larger than that of 2 (D = +24 cm-1 ), and behave as mononuclear Single-Molecule Magnets (SMMs) in the presence of an external magnetic field. Their similar structures but different anisotropy and SMM characteristics provide, for the first time, deep insight on the spin-orbital effects thanks to the use of CASSCF/NEVPT2 calculations implementing such contributions. Further magnetic studies were performed in solution by means of paramagnetic 1H NMR, where both compounds (1 and 2) are stable in CDCl3 and display high symmetry. Paramagnetic NMR appears to be a useful diagnostic tool for the identification of such molecules in solution, where the resonance values found for the methine group (-CH-) of 9Accm vary significantly depending on the cis or trans disposition of the ligands. Fluorescence studies show that both systems display chelation enhancement of quenching (CHEQ) with regard to the free ligand, while 1 and 2 display similar quantum yields. Deposition of 1-2 on HOPG and Si(100) surfaces using spin-coating was studied using AFM; UV photoemission experiments under the same conditions display 2 as the most robust system. The measured occupied density of states of 2 with UV photoemission is in excellent agreement with theoretical DFT

  8. Postsynthetic modifications of [2,2,2-(H)(PPh3)2-closo-2,1-RhSB8H8] with Lewis bases: cluster modular tuning.

    PubMed

    Luaces, Susana; Passarelli, Vincenzo; Artigas, María José; Lahoz, Fernando J; Oro, Luis A; Macías, Ramón

    2016-05-17

    It has been demonstrated that the reaction of [2,2,2-(H)(PPh3)2-closo-2,1-RhSB8H8] () with PPh3 affords the boron substituted rhodathiaborane-PPh3 adduct, [6,6-(PPh3)2-9-(PPh3)-arachno-6,5-RhSB8H9] (). Building upon this reaction, we report herein that the 10-vertex hydridorhodathiaborane reacts with the Lewis bases, PCy3, py, 2-Mepy, 2-Etpy, 3-Mepy and 4-Mepy to form the rhodathiaborane-ligand adducts, [6,6-(PPh3)2-9-(L)-arachno-6,5-RhSB8H9], where L = PCy3 (), 2-Mepy (), 2-Etpy (), py (), 3-Mepy () or 4-Mepy (), and [8,9-μ-(H)-9-(PPh3)2-8-(L)-arachno-9,6-RhSB8H8], where L = py (), 3-Mepy () or 4-Mepy (). The selectivity of the reactions depended on the nature of the entering Lewis bases, affording the 6,5-isomers, , , and as single products for PPh3, PCy3, 2-Mepy and 2-Etpy; and mixtures of the 6,5-/9,6-regioisomers, /, / and / for py, 3-Mepy and 4-Mepy, respectively. The molecular structures of both regioisomers were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis for the 6,5-isomers, and , and for the 9,6-isomers, and . Variable temperature NMR studies of the reaction between and PPh3 or 2-Mepy demonstrated that at low temperatures there is formation of the 9,6-species that subsequently isomerizes to the 6,5-regioisomer, indicating that for the more sterically hindered Lewis bases, PPh3, 2-Mepy and PCy3, the latter isomer is more stable and accessible through an intramolecular {Rh(PPh3)2} vertex flip. The formation of both isomers with py, 3-Mepy and 4-Mepy indicates that the kinetic and thermodynamic energies of the 6,5 and 9,6 rhodathiaborane-ligand adducts are similar for these Lewis bases. Lewis base bonding to exo-polyhedral boron vertices results in a change of the metal coordination from pseudo-octahedral Rh(iii) in to pseudo-square planar Rh(i) in the adducts. The chemistry described here highlights the remarkable structural flexibility of these polyhedral boron-containing compounds, their modular architecture and their easy postsynthetic modification.

  9. Photoinduced Stepwise Oxidative Activation of a Chromophore-Catalyst Assembly on TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wenjing; Glasson, Christopher R. K.; Luo, Hanlin; Hanson, Kenneth; Brennaman, M. Kyle; Concepcion, Javier J.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2011-07-21

    To probe light-induced redox equivalent separation and accumulation, we prepared ruthenium polypyridyl molecular assembly [(dcb)₂Ru(bpy-Mebim₂py)Ru(bpy)(OH₂)]4+ (RuaII–RubII–OH₂) with Rua as light-harvesting chromophore and Rub as water oxidation catalyst (dcb = 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine; bpy-Mebim₂py = 2,2'-(4-methyl-[2,2':4',4"-terpyridine]-2",6"-diyl)bis(1-methyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole); bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). When bound to TiO₂ in nanoparticle films, it undergoes MLCT excitation, electron injection, and oxidation of the remote -RubII-OH₂ site to give TiO₂(e⁻)-RuaII-RubIII–OH₂3+ as a redox-separated transient. The oxidized assembly, TiO₂-RuaII-RubIII-OH₂³⁺, similarly undergoes excitation and electron injection to give TiO₂(e⁻)-RuaII-RubIV=O²⁺, with RubIV=O²⁺ a known water oxidation catalyst precursor. Injection efficiencies for both forms of the assembly are lower than those for [Ru(bpy)₂(4,4'-(PO₃H₂)₂bpy)]²⁺ bound to TiO₂ (TiO₂-Ru²⁺), whereas the rates of back electron transfer, TiO₂(e⁻) → RubIII-OH₂³⁺ and TiO₂(e⁻) → RubIV=O²⁺, are significantly decreased compared with TiO₂(e⁻) → Ru³⁺ back electron transfer.

  10. Reactions between aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles: covalent and proton-bound dimer cations of benzene/pyridine.

    PubMed

    El-Shall, M Samy; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Alsharaeh, Edreese H; Meot-Ner Mautner, Michael; Watson, Simon P

    2009-07-29

    Despite the fact that benzene (Bz) and pyridine (Py) are probably the most common and extensively studied organic molecules, the observation of a covalent adduct in the ionized benzene/pyridine system has never been reported. This Article reports the first experimental and theoretical evidence of a covalent (Bz x Py)(*+) adduct that results from the reaction of Bz(*+) with pyridine or Py(*+) with benzene. These reactions are studied using mass-selected ion mobility, chemical reactivity, collisional dissociation, and ab initio calculations. The (Bz x Py)(*+) adduct does not exchange ligands with Bz to form Bz(2)(*+) or with Py to form (Py)(2)H(+) despite the strong bonds in these homodimers. The thermochemistry then suggests that the (Bz x Py)(*+) heterodimer is bonded covalently with a bonding energy of >33 kcal/mol. Correspondingly, ab initio calculations identify covalently bonded propeller-shaped isomers of (Bz x Py)(*+) with bonding energies of 31-38 kcal/mol, containing a C-N bond. The mobility of the (Bz x Py)(*+) adduct in helium is consistent with these covalent dimers. As to noncovalent adducts, the computations identify novel distonic hydrogen-bonded complexes (C(5)H(5)NH(+) x C(6)H(5)(*)) where the charge resides on one component (PyH(+)), while the radical site resides on the other component (C(6)H(5)(*)). Collisional dissociation suggests that the covalent and distonic dimers may interconvert at high energies. The most stable distonic (C(5)H(5)NH(+) x C(6)H(5)(*)) complex contains a hydrogen bond to the phenyl radical carbon site with a calculated dissociation energy of 16.6 kcal/mol. This bond is somewhat stronger than the NH(+) x pi hydrogen bonds of PyH(+) to the pi system of the phenyl radical and of the benzene molecule. For this NH(+) x pi bond in the PyH(+) x Bz dimer, the measured binding energy is 13.4 kcal/mol, and ab initio calculations identify two T-shaped isomers with the NH(+) pointing to the center of the benzene ring or to the

  11. Heteroleptic Cycloplatinated N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes: A New Approach to Highly Efficient Blue-Light Emitters.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Sara; Chueca, Andrés J; Arnal, Lorenzo; Martín, Antonio; Giovanella, Umberto; Botta, Chiara; Sicilia, Violeta

    2017-04-07

    New heteroleptic compounds of platinum(II)-containing cyclometalated N-heterocyclic carbenes, [PtCl(R-C^C*)(PPh3)] [R-CH^C*-κC* = 3-methyl-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene (R-C = Naph; 1A), 1-[4-(ethoxycarbonyl)phenyl]-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene (R = CO2Et; 1B), and [Pt(R-C^C*)(py)(PPh3)]PF6 (py = pyridine; R-C = Naph, 2A; R = CO2Et, 2B], have been prepared and fully characterized. All of them were obtained as the trans-(C*,PPh3) isomer in high yields. The selectivity of their synthesis has been explained in terms of the degree of transphobia (T) of pairs of ligands in trans positions. X-ray diffraction studies on both 2A and 2B revealed that only in 2A, containing a C^C* with a more extended π system, do the molecules assemble themselves into head-to-tail pairs through intermolecular π···π contacts. The photophysical properties of 2A and 2B and those of the related compounds [Pt(NC-C^C*)(PPh3)L]PF6 [NC-CH^C*-κC* = 1-(4-cyanophenyl)-3-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-ylidene; L = pyridine (py; 2C), 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide (CNXyl; 3C), and 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (MMI; 4C)] have been examined to analyze the influence of the R substituent on R-C^C* (R-C = Naph; R = CO2Et, CN) and that of the ancillary ligands (L) on them. Experimental data and time-dependent density functional theory calculations showed the similarity of the electronic features associated with R-C^C* (R = CN, CO2Et) and their difference with respect to R-C^C* (R-C = Naph). All of the compounds are very efficient blue emitters in poly(methyl methacrylate) films under an argon atmosphere, with QY values ranging from 68% (2B) to 93% (2C). In the solid state, the color of the emission changes to yellowish-orange for compounds 2A (λmax = 600 nm) and 3C (λmax = 590 nm) because of the formation of aggregates through intermolecular π···π interactions. 2C and 3C were chosen to fabricate fully solution-processed electroluminescent devices with blue-light (2C), yellow-orange-light (3C

  12. Synthesis of homobimetallic molybdenum(VI) complex of bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)malonoyldihydrazone and its reaction with electron and proton bases.

    PubMed

    Lal, Ram A; Choudhury, Sanjesh; Ahmed, Aziz; Borthakur, Rosmita; Asthana, Mrityunjaya; Kumar, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    The diamagnetic dioxomolybdenum(VI) complex [(MoO(2))(2)(CH(2)L)(H(2)O)(2)]H(2)O (1) has been isolated in solid state from reaction of MoO(2)(acac)(2) with bis(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde)malonoyldihydrazone (CH(2)LH(4)) in 3:1 molar ratio in ethanol at higher temperature. The reaction of the complex (1) with electron donor bases gives diamagnetic molybdenum(VI) complexes having composition [Mo(2)O(5)(CH(2)LH(2))].2A.2H(2)O (where A=pyridine (py, 2), 2-picoline (2-pic, 3), 3-picoline (3-pic, 4), 4-picoline (4-pic, 5)). Further, when the complex (1) is allowed to react with protonic bases such as isonicotinoylhydrazine (inhH(3)) and salicyloylhydrazine (slhH(3)), reduction of molybdenum(VI) centre occurs leading to isolation of homobimetallic molybdenum(V) complexes [Mo(2)(CH(2)L)(inh)(2)(H(2)O)(2)] (6) and [Mo(2)(CH(2)L)(slh)(2)] (7), respectively. The composition of the complexes has been established by analytical, thermo-analytical and molecular weight data. The structure of the molybdenum(VI) complexes (1)-(5) has been established by electronic, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectral studies while those of the complexes (6) and (7) by magnetic moment, electronic, IR and EPR spectral studies. The dihydrazone is coordinated to the metal centres in staggered configuration in complex (1) while in anti-cis configuration in complexes (2)-(7). The complexes (6) and (7) possess magnetic moment of 2.95 and 3.06 BM, respectively, indicating presence of two magnetic centre in the complexes per molecule each with one unpaired electron on each metal centre without any metal-metal interaction. The electronic spectra of the complexes are dominated by strong charge transfer bands. All of the complexes involve six coordinated molybdenum centre with octahedral arrangement of donor atoms except in the complex (6), in which the molybdenum centre has rhombic arrangement of ligand donor atoms. The probable mechanism for generation of oxo-group in the complexes (2)-(5) involving

  13. Morphological and Phase Controlled Tungsten Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Scheelites, Wolframites, and Oxides Nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Sanchez, Bernadette A.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Pratt, Harry D.; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Brewer, Luke N.; Dunphy, Darren R.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time tungsten based nanoparticles (WNPs) of scheelite (MWO4; M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb), wolframite (MWO4; M = Mn, Fe, Zn & (Mg0.60Mn0.17Fe0.26)WO4), and the oxide (WO3 and W18O49) were synthesized from solution precipitation (i.e.,trioctylamine or oleic acid) and solvothermal (i.e., benzyl alcohol) routes. The resultant WNPs were prepared directly from tungsten (VI) ethoxide (W(OCH2CH3)6, 1) and stoichiometeric mixtures of the following precursors: [Ca(N(SiMe3)2)2]2 (2), Pb(N(SiMe3)2)2 (3), Mn[(μ-Mes)2Mn(Mes)]2 (4), [Fe(μ-Mes)(Mes)]2 (5), Fe(CO)5 (6), H+[Ba2(μ3-ONep)(μ-ONep)2(ONep)(ONep)3(py)]−2 (7), H+[Sr5(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)4(μ-ONep)4(ONep)(py)4]− (8), and [Zn(Et)(ONep)(py)]2 (9) where Mes = C6H2(CH3)3-2,4,6, ONep = OCH2CMe3, Et = CH2CH3, and py = pyridine. Through these routes, the WNP morphologies were found to be manipulated by the processing conditions, while precursor selection influenced the final phase observed. For the solution precipitation route, 1 yielded (5 × 100 nm) W18O49 rods while stochiometeric reactions between 1 and (2 – 9) generated homogenous sub 30 nm nano-dots, -diamonds, -rods, and -wires for the MWO4 systems. For the solvothermal route, 1 was found to produce wires of WO3 with aspect ratios of 20 while (1 & 2) formed 10 – 60 nm CaWO4 nanodots. Room temperature photoluminescent (PL) emission properties of select WNPs were also examined with fluorescence spectroscopy (λex = 320 nm). Broad PL emissions = 430, 420, 395, 420 nm were noted for 5 × 100 nm W18O49 rods, 5 × 15 nm, CaWO4 rods, 10 – 30 nm CaWO4 dots, and 10 nm BaWO4 diamonds, respectively. PMID:19911034

  14. Self-assembled Cu(II) and Ni(II) metallamacrocycles formed from 3,3,3',3'-tetrabenzyl-1,1'-aroylbis(thiourea) ligands: DNA and protein binding studies, and cytotoxicity of trinuclear complexes.

    PubMed

    Selvakumaran, Nagamani; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Karvembu, Ramasamy

    2014-11-21

    Self-assembled metallamacrocyclic Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes of the types [Cu(L1-O,S)]3 (1), [Ni(L1-O,S)]3 (2), [Cu(L2-O,S)]2 (3) and [Ni(L2-O,S)]2 (4) [H2L1 = 3,3,3',3'-tetrabenzyl-1,1'-terephthaloylbis(thiourea) and H2L2 = 3,3,3',3'-tetrabenzyl-1,1'-isophthaloylbis(thiourea)] were synthesized and characterized by analytical, spectroscopic (UV-Vis, FT-IR, mass, (1)H & (13)C NMR and EPR) and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The crystal structures of [Ni(L1-O,S)]3 and [Cu(L2-O,S)(Py)]2 showed the formation of self-assembled 3:3 and 2:2 metallamacrocyclic Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes respectively. The binding affinity and binding mode of the trinuclear complexes toward CT DNA were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometric titrations and the fluorescent indicator displacement (FID) assay. The interaction of the ligand (H2L1) and the complexes (1 and 2) with BSA was investigated using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Absorption and emission spectral studies indicate that the complexes 1 and 2 interact with CT DNA and BSA protein more strongly than their parent ligand. Both the complexes (1 and 2) cleaved the pBR 322 plasmid DNA in the absence of an external agent. Complex 1 [IC50 = 22.36 (A549) and 10 μM (MCF7)] exhibited higher cytotoxicity than cyclophosphamide against A549 and MCF7 cancer cell lines. The IC50 value of 2 (29.24) is lower in the A549 cell line and slightly higher (18.04) in the MCF7 cell line than that of cyclophosphamide [IC50 = 41.84 (A549) and 11.89 μM (MCF7)].

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and determination of the solution association energy of the dimer [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2]2: magnetic studies of low-coordinate Co(II) silylamides [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2L] (L = PMe3, pyridine, and THF) and related species that reveal evidence of very large zero-field splittings.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Aimee M; Long, Gary J; Grandjean, Fernande; Power, Philip P

    2013-10-21

    The synthesis, magnetic, and spectroscopic characteristics of the synthetically useful dimeric cobalt(II) silylamide complex [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2]2 (1) and several of its Lewis base complexes have been investigated. Variable-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of 1 showed that it exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium in benzene solution and has an association energy (ΔGreacn) of -0.30(20) kcal mol(-1) at 300 K. Magnetic data for the polycrystalline, red-brown [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2]2 (1) showed that it displays strong antiferromagnetic exchange coupling, expressed as -2JexS1S2, between the two S = (3)/2 cobalt(II) centers with a Jex value of -215(5) cm(-1), which is consistent with its bridged dimeric structure in the solid state. The electronic spectrum of 1 in solution is reported for the first time, and it is shown that earlier reports of the melting point, synthesis, electronic spectrum, and magnetic studies of the monomer "Co{N(SiMe3)2}2" are consistent with those of the bright green-colored tetrahydrofuran (THF) complex [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)] (4). Treatment of 1 with various Lewis bases yielded monomeric three-coordinated species-[Co{N(SiMe3)2}2(PMe3)] (2), and [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2(THF)] (4), as well as the previously reported [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2(py)] (3)-and the four-coordinated species [Co{N(SiMe3)2}2(py)2] (5) in good yields. The paramagnetic complexes 2-4 were characterized by electronic and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and by X-ray crystallography in the case of 2 and 4. Magnetic studies of 2-5 and of the known three-coordinated cobalt(II) species [Na(12-crown-4)2][Co{N(SiMe3)2}3] (6) showed that they have considerably larger χMT products and, hence, magnetic moments, than the spin-only values of 1.875 emu K mol(-1) and 3.87 μB, which is indicative of a significant zero-field splitting and g-tensor anisotropy resulting from the pseudo-trigonal crystal field. A fit of χMT for 2-6 yields a large g-tensor anisotropy, large negative D-values (between -62 cm(-1

  16. Towards a Unified Architecture for Data-Intensive Seismology in VERCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klampanos, I.; Spinuso, A.; Trani, L.; Krause, A.; Garcia, C. R.; Atkinson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Modern seismology involves managing, storing and processing large datasets, typically geographically distributed across organisations. Performing computational experiments using these data generates more data, which in turn have to be managed, further analysed and frequently be made available within or outside the scientific community. As part of the EU-funded project VERCE (http://verce.eu), we research and develop a number of use-cases, interfacing technologies to satisfy the data-intensive requirements of modern seismology. Our solution seeks to support: (1) familiar programming environments to develop and execute experiments, in particular via Python/ObsPy, (2) a unified view of heterogeneous computing resources, public or private, through the adoption of workflows, (3) monitoring the experiments and validating the data products at varying granularities, via a comprehensive provenance system, (4) reproducibility of experiments and consistency in collaboration, via a shared registry of processing units and contextual metadata (computing resources, data, etc.) Here, we provide a brief account of these components and their roles in the proposed architecture. Our design integrates heterogeneous distributed systems, while allowing researchers to retain current practices and control data handling and execution via higher-level abstractions. At the core of our solution lies the workflow language Dispel. While Dispel can be used to express workflows at fine detail, it may also be used as part of meta- or job-submission workflows. User interaction can be provided through a visual editor or through custom applications on top of parameterisable workflows, which is the approach VERCE follows. According to our design, the scientist may use versions of Dispel/workflow processing elements offered by the VERCE library or override them introducing custom scientific code, using ObsPy. This approach has the advantage that, while the scientist uses a familiar tool, the resulting

  17. Dinuclear (d(3)-d(3)) Diolate Complexes of Molybdenum and Tungsten. 2.(1) Derivatives of 2,2'-Methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxide). Direct Observation of the Conversion of Bridged to Chelate Isomers (M = Mo) and Reversible Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Oxidative Addition (M = W).

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H.; Huang, Jui-Hsien; Huffman, John C.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    1997-04-09

    Hydrocarbon solutions of Mo(2)(NMe(2))(6) and 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) (>/=2 equiv), HO&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;OH, yield Mo(2)(NMe(2))(2)(O&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;O)(2), I, which exists in bridged Ib and chelated Ic isomers. These are formed under kinetic control, and recrystallization allows the separation of Ib (orange cubes) from Ic (yellow cubes) both of which have been crystallographically characterized. In each there is an ethane-like O(2)NMo&tbd1;MoO(2)N core with Mo-Mo = 2.2 Å (average). In Ib the two O&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;O ligands span the Mo&tbd1;Mo bond yielding a molecule of C(2) symmetry. In Ic the molecule has near-C(2) symmetry in the solid state, but in solution there is either rapid rotation about the M&tbd1;M bond or the anti-rotamer is preferred. In benzene-d(6), Ib and Ic do not interconvert at 110 degrees C over a period of days. However, the addition of pyridine or acetonitrile causes the isomerization of Ib to Ic, thereby establishing that Ic is the thermodynamic isomer. The rate of conversion of Ib to Ic has been shown to be dependent on the square of the concentration of added pyridine: k(obs) = k[py](2). From the temperature dependence of k(obs), we determine DeltaH() = 19 (+/-1) kcal/mol and DeltaS() = -25 (+/-3) eu for the pyridine-promoted isomerization of Ib to Ic. The related reaction involving W(2)(NMe(2))(6) and HO&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;OH (>/=2 equiv) in hydrocarbon solvents at room temperature and below yields a dark brown crystalline compound, wherein C-H activation has occurred at one of the O&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;O diolate ligands, W(2)(&mgr;-H)(&mgr;-NMe(2))(NMe(2))(eta(2)-O&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;O)(eta(3)-O&ndblwave;CH&ndblwave;O)(HNMe(2)), 2. The W-W distance in 2 is 2.495(1) Å, consistent with a (W=W)(8+) core. Heating 2 in the solid-state under a dynamic vacuum leads to the elimination of HNMe(2) and the formation of 3, W(2)(NMe(2))(2)(eta(2)-O&ndblwave;CH(2)&ndblwave;O)(2), an analog

  18. Ab initio study of the n-π* electronic transition in acetone: Symmetry-forbidden vibronic spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, D. W.; Mebel, A. M.; Hayashi, M.; Shiu, Y. J.; Chen, Y. T.; Lin, S. H.

    1999-07-01

    Ab initio calculations of geometry and vibrational frequencies of the first singlet excited 1A2(1A″) state of acetone corresponding to the n-π* electronic transition have been carried out at the CASSCF/6-311G** level. The major geometry changes in this state as compared to the ground state involve CO out-of-plane wagging, CO stretch and torsion of the methyl groups, and the molecular symmetry changes from C2v to Cs. The most pronounced frequency changes in the 1A″ state are the decrease of the CO stretch frequency v3 by almost 500 cm-1 and the increase of the CH3 torsion frequency v12 from 22 to 170 cm-1. The optimized geometries and normal modes are used to compute the normal mode displacements which are applied for calculations of Franck-Condon factors. Transition matrix elements over the one-electron electric field operator at various atomic centers calculated at the state-average CASSCF/6-311+G** level are used to compute vibronic couplings between the ground 1A1, 1A2, and Rydberg 1B2(n-3s), 2 1A1(n-3py), 2 1A2(n-3px), 2 1B2(n-3pz), and 1B1(n-3dxy) electronic states, and the Herzberg-Teller expansion of the electronic wave function is applied to derive the transition dipole moment for 1A1→1A2 as a function of normal coordinates. The results show that the intensity for this transition is mostly borrowed from the allowed 1A1-1B2(n-3s) transition due to vibronic coupling between 1A2 and 1B2 through normal modes Q20, Q22, and Q23 and, to some extent, from the 1A1-1B1 transition due to Q19 (CO in-plane bend) which couples 1A2 with 1B1(n-3dxy). The calculated total oscillator strength for the n-π* transition through the intensity-borrowing mechanism, 3.62×10-4, is in close agreement with the experimental value of 4.14×10-4. Ninety-four percent of the oscillator strength comes from the perpendicular component (b1 inducing modes) and 6% from the parallel component (b2 modes). Calculated spectral origin, 30 115 cm-1 at the MRCI/6-311G** level, underestimates

  19. Two Tertiary metamorphic events recognized in metapelites of the Nevado-Filabride Complex (Betic Cordillera, S Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Botao; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The orogenic belt of the Betic Cordillera in southern Spain resulted from the collision of the African plate with the southwestern edge of the Eurasian plate in Alpine times. This belt can be considered as a large nappe stack with the Nevado-Filabride Complex in the eastern Betic Cordillera representing the lowest nappe, in which high-pressure (HP > 10 kbar) rocks such as eclogites occur. We have studied two metapelites from the Ragua (former Veleta) unit, which is the lowest unit of the Nevado-Filabride Complex. These rocks were sampled at Cerro de los Machos (sample 23085) and c. 3 km east of this locality at the Laguna de la Caldera (sample 23098) and contain quartz, potassic white-mica, paragonite, chlorite, garnet, biotite, tourmaline, epidote, rutile, ilmenite, apatite, zircon and monazite and titanite (23085) or calcite and albite (23098). Garnet in both rocks is similarly zoned. An inclusion-rich core shows a prograde metamorphic zonation with high and low Mn contents in the center (e.g. for 23085: Alm64.5Grs27Py2.5Sps6) and at the rim (Alm84Grs8Py6Sps2), respectively, of the core domain. After corrosion of this domain a garnet mantle formed with an inner zone being again relatively rich in Mn and an outermost rim being poor in Mn. This mantle is significantly richer in Mg and poorer in Ca compared to the core domain. Potassic white-mica in the samples also shows a considerable compositional spread (Si = 3.05-3.20 in 23085 and 3.13-3.33 in 23098) with the highest Si contents in the core of potassic white-mica grains. To elucidate the metamorphic evolution of the rocks we calculated various P-T pseudosections for different H2O-CO2 contents and Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios with PERPLE_X. On the basis of the compositions of the garnet inner core and the highest Si content in potassic white mica contrasting peak pressures at c. 535˚ C resulted for the rocks (23085: 12.8 kbar, 23098: 18.3 kbar). A subsequent pressure release to about 8 (23085) or 5 kbar (23098) at slightly

  20. A Pyridine-Based Ligand with Two Hydrazine Functions for Lanthanide Chelation: Remarkable Kinetic Inertness for a Linear, Bishydrated Complex.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Laine, Sophie; Buron, Frédéric; Tircsó, Gyula; Pallier, Agnès; Helm, Lothar; Suzenet, Franck; Tóth, Éva

    2015-06-15

    To study the influence of hydrazine functions in the ligand skeleton, we designed the heptadentate HYD ligand (2,2',2″,2‴-(2,2'-(pyridine-2,6-diyl)bis(2-methylhydrazine-2,1,1-triyl)) tetraacetic acid) and compared the thermodynamic, kinetic, and relaxation properties of its Ln(3+) complexes to those of the parent pyridine (Py) analogues without hydrazine (Py = 2,6-pyridinebis(methanamine)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). The protonation constants of HYD were determined by pH-potentiometric measurements, and assigned by a combination of UV-visible and NMR spectroscopies. The protonation sequence is rather unusual and illustrates that small structural changes can strongly influence ligand basicity. The first protonation step occurs on the pyridine nitrogen in the basic region, followed by two hydrazine nitrogens and the carboxylate groups at acidic pH. Contrary to Py, HYD self-aggregates through a pH-dependent process (from pH ca. 4). Thermodynamic stability constants have been obtained by pH-potentiometry and UV-visible spectrophotometry for various Ln(3+) and physiological cations (Zn(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+)). LnHYD stability constants show the same trend as those of LnDTPA complexes along the Ln(3+) series, with log K = 18.33 for Gd(3+), comparable to the Py analogue. CuHYD has a particularly high stability (log K > 19) preventing its determination from pH-potentiometric measurements. The stability constant of CuPy was also revisited and found to be underestimated in previous studies, highlighting that UV-visible spectrophotometry is often indispensable to obtain reliable stability constants for Cu(2+) chelates. The dissociation of GdL, assessed by studying the Cu(2+)-exchange reaction, occurs mainly via an acid-catalyzed process, with limited contribution from direct Cu(2+) attack. The kinetic inertness of GdHYD is remarkable for a linear bishydrated chelate; the 25-fold increase in the dissociation half-life with respect to the monohydrated commercial contrast agent

  1. Inorganic lead and calcium interact positively in activation of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Wisniewski, M; Cabell, L; Audesirk, G

    2000-06-01

    Calmodulin is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that mediates many of the intracellular actions of Ca2+ ions. The calcium-binding sites of calmodulin consist of four EF-hand motifs; full activation of calmodulin normally occurs when all four sites are occupied by Ca2+. Inorganic lead (PY2+) has been shown to activate calmodulin at total lead concentrations similar to the concentrations of Ca2+ required for activation (Goldstein and Ar, 1983; Habermann et al., 1983), but the free Pb2+ concentrations required for calmodulin activation have not been determined. In addition, it is possible that activation may occur with different sites occupied by different divalent cations, for example Ca2+ and Pb2+. We investigated the ability of free Pb2+, alone or in combination with Ca2+, to activate calmodulin. In aqueous media, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) show increased fluorescence when bound to hydrophobic regions of proteins. This increased fluorescence has been used to monitor the conformational change that occurs during calmodulin activation (LaPorte et al., 1980). In the presence of calmodulin, both Ca2+ and Pb2+ stimulated increased fluorescence of NPN and ANS. Threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations were approximately 100 nM and 450-500 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 100 pM and 400-550 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. Fluorescence was enhanced by combinations of low concentrations of free Ca2+ and Pb2+; for example, as little as 20 pM free Pb2+ enhanced fluorescence in combination with 200 nM free Ca2+. The activity of the PDE1 isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin (Wang et al., 1990). In the presence of calmodulin, we found that Ca2+ and Pb2+ activated calmodulin-stimulated PDE activity, with threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations of approximately 200 nM and 1200 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 300 pM and 430 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. PDE activity was stimulated by

  2. Finding new equilibria: Directed synthesis of lanthanide materials via sodium azide mediated pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian Freeman

    This dissertation covers the synthesis and characterization of three unique classes of lanthanide materials produced exclusively by the addition of sodium azide (NaN3) into solution based lanthanide reactions. The products were achieved through transmetallation and redox reactions between rare earth chalcogenolate reagents (Lnx(EPh)y), NaN 3 and elemental chalcogenides (E = O, S, Se, Te). The products displayed atypical structural and physical properties including; unique coordination geometries, high nuclearities, tunable detonation/deflagration, strong NIR emissions, and unexpected magnetic ordering behaviors. The introduction of NaN3, Na2O, Cd, elemental Se and Te into Ln (EPh)2 and Ln(EPh)3 pyridine (py) solutions led to the production of (py) 2Na2(EPh)2 and 5 structurally distinct azide encapsulated rare earth clusters; (Py) 10Sm6O2(N3)16Na2, (py)8Ln6O2(N3)12(SePh) 2, (py)10Ln6O2(Se2) 2(N3)10 (Ln=Er, Ho), and (py)16Sm 8Se(O2)Na2(Te2)6(N 3)8. Each system was encapsulated by a variety of azide bridging moieties, while exhibiting a [Ln]/[N3] dependent correlation with detonation and deflagration temperatures. The inclusion of NaN3 in Ln(SePh)3 pyridine solutions with elemental Se, led to the discovery of the (py)16Ln17 NaSe18(SePh)16; (Ln= Ce, Pr, and Nd). Emission studies of the Nd17 analogue, revealed a 35% quantum efficiency for the 4F3/2 - 4I11/2 transition (1070 nm emission), and a near solid state emission intensity for the 4F3/2 → 4I15/2 transition (1822 nm emission). The novel Eu(EPh)4Na2•2DME; (E=S,Se), specimens were synthesized by the combination of Eu(EPh)2 with NaN3 in dimethoxyethane (DME). The europium coordination sphere was solvent free and resembles the coordinations of europium monochalcogenides (EuE). Comparative structural analysis and magnetic susceptibility studies of the Eu3+ product, ((py)6Eu2(mu4-S 2)2(OC6F5)2) revealed paramagnetic ordering at low temperature for Eu(EPh)4Na2•2DME; (E=S,Se), while ferrimagnetic ordering was found

  3. Binding of ligands containing carbonyl and phenol groups to iron(iii): new Fe6, Fe10 and Fe12 coordination clusters.

    PubMed

    Kitos, Alexandros A; Papatriantafyllopoulou, Constantina; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J; Perlepes, Spyros P; Escuer, Albert; Nastopoulos, Vassilios

    2017-03-07

    The initial use of ligands 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (HL(1)), 2-hydroxybenzophenone (HL(2)) and 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone (H2L(3)) in iron(iii) chemistry is described. The syntheses and crystal structures are reported for five iron(iii) clusters: [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(1))6(MeOH)2](NO3)2·3MeOH (1·3MeOH), [Fe12O4(OH)(OMe)17(L(1))8](ClO4)2·2H2O (2·2H2O), [Fe10O4(OMe)14Cl4(L(2))4(MeOH)2] (3), [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(2))6(py)2](ClO4)2·MeOH (4·MeOH), where py = pyridine, and [Fe6O2(OEt)6(O2CMe)2(L(3))2(HL(3))2] (5). The molecular structures of the decanuclear clusters 1, 3 and 4 are organized around a {Fe10(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)2(μ-OMe)12}(8+) core consisting of ten {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubane units. The core of 2 consists of a {Fe12(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)4(μ-OH)(μ-OMe)13}(10+) unit composed of twelve {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The ligands (L(1))(-) and (L(2))(-) in 1-4 adopt the O,O'-bidentate chelating coordination mode and their roles are to terminate the further aggregation of the Fe(III)/O(2-)/RO(-) cores. Complex 5 contains the {Fe6(μ4-O)2(μ-OEt)6(μ-Ocarbonyl)2}(4+) core, where the μ-Ocarbonyl atoms are the bridging carbonyl oxygens of the two η(1):η(2):η(1):μ (L(3))(2-) ligands; the (HL(3))(-) groups behave as Ophenolate, Ocarbonyl-bidentate chelating ligands with the neutral hydroxyl group being unbound to the Fe(III) atoms. The core is composed of four {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The Fe(III) atoms in 1-5 are all six-coordinate with distorted octahedral geometries. The IR spectra of the complexes are discussed in terms of the known coordination modes of the ligands and the ionic character of nitrates and perchlorates. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility and variable-field magnetization measurements establish that 2, 3 and 5 have S = 3, 0 and 5 ground states, respectively. The susceptibility data for 5 were fitted using a 3-J model indicating the simultaneous presence of both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic Fe

  4. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitava; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Patel, Riyaz; Denaxas, Spiros; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate net clinical benefit (NCB) of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care. Methods We conducted a linked electronic health record cohort study of 70 206 individuals with initial record of diagnosis of AF in primary (n=29 568) or secondary care (n=40 638) in England (1998–2010). We defined stroke risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score, and followed individuals over a median 2.2 years for 7005 ischaemic strokes (IS) and for 906 haemorrhagic strokes (HS). We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and 95% CIs per 100 person-years (PYs) (IR (95% CI)/100 PY) of IS and HS, with and without use of warfarin, and the NCB (ie, number of IS avoided) per 100 PYs of warfarin use (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY). Results Compared with individuals with initial record of diagnosis in secondary care, those in primary care had lower scores of IS risk (CHA2DS2-VASc≤2: 30.8% vs 20.6%), and lower overall incidence of IS (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) vs 4.3 (4.2 to 4.4), p value=0.00); however among individuals with CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 or 2 there were no differences in IS rate between those with initial record of diagnosis in primary care or secondary care (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) vs 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9), p value=0.08) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.1 (1.00 to 1.3) vs 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p value=0.05), respectively. For CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 and 2, IRs of IS with versus without warfarin were (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) vs 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.3 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8), p value=0.03) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.8 (0.7 to 1.0) vs 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p value=0.00), respectively. We found a significant positive NCB of warfarin from CHA2DS2-VASc≥2 in men (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)) and from CHA2DS2-VASc≥3 in women (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.5 (1

  5. Net clinical benefit of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    Allan, Victoria; Banerjee, Amitava; Shah, Anoop Dinesh; Patel, Riyaz; Denaxas, Spiros; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Hemingway, Harry

    2017-02-01

    To investigate net clinical benefit (NCB) of warfarin in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF) across stroke risk and across primary and secondary care. We conducted a linked electronic health record cohort study of 70 206 individuals with initial record of diagnosis of AF in primary (n=29 568) or secondary care (n=40 638) in England (1998-2010). We defined stroke risk according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score, and followed individuals over a median 2.2 years for 7005 ischaemic strokes (IS) and for 906 haemorrhagic strokes (HS). We calculated incidence rates (IRs) and 95% CIs per 100 person-years (PYs) (IR (95% CI)/100 PY) of IS and HS, with and without use of warfarin, and the NCB (ie, number of IS avoided) per 100 PYs of warfarin use (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY). Compared with individuals with initial record of diagnosis in secondary care, those in primary care had lower scores of IS risk (CHA2DS2-VASc≤2: 30.8% vs 20.6%), and lower overall incidence of IS (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 2.3 (2.2 to 2.4) vs 4.3 (4.2 to 4.4), p value=0.00); however among individuals with CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 or 2 there were no differences in IS rate between those with initial record of diagnosis in primary care or secondary care (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3) vs 0.3 (0.2 to 0.5), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.6 (0.4 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.9), p value=0.08) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.1 (1.00 to 1.3) vs 1.4 (1.2 to 1.6), p value=0.05), respectively. For CHA2DS2-VASc=0, 1 and 2, IRs of IS with versus without warfarin were (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.2 to 0.8) vs 0.2 (0.1 to 0.3), p value=0.16), (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.4 (0.3 to 0.7) vs 0.7 (0.6 to 0.8), p value=0.03) and (IR (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.8 (0.7 to 1.0) vs 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6), p value=0.00), respectively. We found a significant positive NCB of warfarin from CHA2DS2-VASc≥2 in men (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 0.5 (0.1 to 0.9)) and from CHA2DS2-VASc≥3 in women (NCB (95% CI)/100 PY: 1.5 (1.1 to 1.9)). CHA2DS2-VASc

  6. Rhenium(I) Carbonyl Complexes of 2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT). Rhenium(I)-Promoted Methoxylation of the Triazine Ring Carbon Atom in Dinuclear Rhenium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Femia, Frank J.; Babich, John W.; Zubieta, Jon A.

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6-Tris(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine (TPT) bridged dinuclear rhenium(I) tricarbonyl halide complexes with the composition (μ-TPT)[ReX(CO)3]2 (3, X = Cl; 4, X = Br) can be made either by one-pot reaction of TPT with 2 equiv of [ReX(CO)5] (X = Cl and Br) in chloroform or by reacting mononuclear [ReX(CO)3(TPT)] 2 (1, X = Cl; 2, X = Br) with an excess amount of [ReX(CO)5]. Crystal data are as follows. 1: monoclinic, P21/c, a = 11.751(1) Å, b = 11.376(1) Å, c = 15.562(2) Å, β = 103.584(2)°, V = 2022.0(4) Å3, Z = 4. 2: monoclinic, P21/c, a = 11.896(1) Å, b = 11.396(1) Å, c = 15.655(1) Å, β = 104.474(2)°, V = 2054.9(3) Å3, Z = 4. 3: triclinic, P1‒, a = 11.541(2) Å, b = 12.119(2) Å, c = 13.199(2) Å, α = 80.377(2)°, β = 76.204(3)°, γ = 66.826-(2)°, V = 1642.5(4) Å3, Z ) 2. Crystals of 4 crystallized from acetone: triclinic, P1‒, a = 11.586(5) Å, b = 12.144(5) Å, c = 13.364(6) Å, α = 80.599(7)°, β = 76.271(8)°, γ = 67.158(8)°, V = 1678.0(12) Å3, Z = 2. Crystals of 4′ are obtained from CH2Cl2–pentane solution: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 17.555(4) Å, b = 15.277(3) Å, c = 13.093(3) Å, β = 111.179(3)°, V = 3274.0(12) Å3, Z = 4. By contrast, similar reactions in the presence of methanol yielded complexes with the composition [μ-C3N3(OMe)(py)2(pyH)][ReX(CO)3]2 (5, X = Cl; 6, X = Br). Crystal data for 5: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 26.952(2) Å, b = 16.602(1) Å, c = 14.641(1) Å, β = 116.147(1)°, V = 5880.5(8) Å3, Z = 8. 6: monoclinic, C2/c, a = 27.513(3) Å, b = 16.740(2) Å, c = 14.837(2) Å, β = 116.925(2)°, V = 6092.8(10) Å3, Z = 8. An unusual metal-induced methoxylation at the carbon atom of the triazine ring of the bridging TPT ligand was observed. The nucleophilic attack of MeO− on C(3) results in a tetrahedral geometry around the carbon atom. Concomitantly, the uncoordinated pyridyl ring is protonated and rotated into a perpendicular orientation relative to the central C3N3 ring. Reaction of TPT with [NEt4]2[ReBr3-(CO)3] in

  7. Modular reweighting software for statistical mechanical analysis of biased equilibrium data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindhikara, Daniel J.

    2012-07-01

    version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: While equilibrium reweighting is ubiquitous, there are no public programs available to perform the reweighting in the general case. Further, specific programs often suffer from many library dependencies and numerical instability. Solution method: This package is written in a modular format that allows for easy applicability of reweighting in the general case. Modules are small, numerically stable, and require minimal libraries. Reasons for new version: Some minor bugs, some upgrades needed, error analysis added. analyzeweight.py/analyzeweight.py2 has been replaced by “multihist.py”. This new program performs all the functions of its predecessor while being versatile enough to handle other types of histograms and probability analysis. “bootstrap.py” was added. This script performs basic bootstrap resampling allowing for error analysis of data. “avg_dev_distribution.py” was added. This program computes the averages and standard deviations of multiple distributions, making error analysis (e.g. from bootstrap resampling) easier to visualize. WRE.cpp was slightly modified purely for cosmetic reasons. The manual was updated for clarity and to reflect version updates. Examples were removed from the manual in favor of online tutorials (packaged examples remain). Examples were updated to reflect the new format. An additional example is included to demonstrate error analysis. Running time: Preprocessing scripts 1-5 minutes, WHAM engine <1 minute, postprocess script ∼1-5 minutes.

  8. Detection and classification of hyperfine-shifted 1H, 2H, and 15N resonances of the Rieske ferredoxin component of toluene 4-monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Xia, B; Pikus, J D; Xia, W; McClay, K; Steffan, R J; Chae, Y K; Westler, W M; Markley, J L; Fox, B G

    1999-01-12

    was observed in spectra of reduced T4MOC; this signal was found to correspond to a hydrogen (probably in an H-bond to the cluster) that exchanged with solvent with a half-time of about 2 days in the oxidized state but with a much longer (undetectable) half-time in the reduced state. These results with T4MOC call into question certain 1H assignments recently reported on the basis of NOE measurements for the comparable Rieske ferredoxin component of an evolutionarily related alkene monooxygenase from Xanthobacter sp. Py2 [Holz, R. C., Small, F. J., and Ensign, S. A, (1997) Biochemistry 36, 14690-14696]. Selective 15N labeling was used to identify hyperfine-shifted 15N NMR signals from the backbone nitrogens of all four cluster ligands (C45, H47, C64, and H67), from the Nepsilon2 atoms of the two histidine ligands (H47 and H67), and from nonligand Gln and Ala residues (Q48 and A66) present in the cluster-binding motif of T4MOC in the oxidized and reduced states. The results indicate that the Ndelta1 of each of the two ligand histidines of T4MOC are ligated to an iron atom and reveal a pattern of H-bonding to the Rieske [2Fe-2S] center involving four (H47, Q48, A66, and H67 of T4MOC) of the five backbone amide H-bonds expected on the basis of comparison with the crystal structures of other related Rieske proteins; the fifth backbone amide (I50 of T4MOC) failed to exhibit a hyperfine shift. This anomaly may arise from the lack of an associated disulfide in T4MOC, a fundamental structural difference between the three types of Rieske proteins that may be related to functional diversity in this protein family.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of homo- and heterovalent tetra- hexa- hepta- and decanuclear manganese clusters using pyridyl functionalized beta-diketone, carboxylate and triethanolamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Chilton, Nicholas F; Massi, Massimiliano; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Berry, Kevin J; Murray, Keith S

    2010-08-21

    The syntheses and characterizations are reported for six new homo- and heterovalent manganese clusters, utilizing pyridyl functionalized beta-diketones ligands. The reaction of the trinuclear complex [Mn3O(O2CPh)6(H2O)(Py)2] with 1,3-di(pyridine-2-yl)propane-1,3-dione (dppdH) in CH2Cl2 resulted in a mixed-valence Mn3(II)Mn6(III)Mn(IV) decanuclear cluster of formula [Mn10O7(dppd)3(O2CPh)11] x 4 CH2Cl2 (1). The structure of the core of 1 is based upon a centred tricapped trigonal prism. Reacting Mn(BF4)2 x xH2O with dppdH and triethylamine (NEt3) in CH2Cl2-MeOH gave a rare, homoleptic hexanuclear cluster of formula [Mn(II)6(dppd)8][BF4]4 (2) which has a triangular based core. Reaction of Mn(Y)2 x xH2O, Y = NO3(-) or BF4(-), with dppdH or 1-phenyl-3-(2-pyridyl)propane-1,3-dione (pppdH) in the presence of triethanolamine (teaH3) and NEt3 gave a heptanuclear 'disc' like manganese core of general formula [Mn(II)7(X)6(tea)(OH)3][Y]2 x solv (3) X = pppd- or dppd- and Y = NO3(-) or BF4(-). The addition of N-(2-pyridinyl)acetoacetamide (paaH) to Mn(Y)2 x 4 H2O Y = NO3(-) or ClO4(-) in MeOH gave a second divalent heptanuclear cluster with a 'disc'-like core of general formula [Mn7(paa)6(OMe)6][X]2 x solv (4) (X = NO3(-) or ClO4(-)), whilst the addition of paaH to a mixture of Mn(NO3)2 x 4 H2O, teaH3 and NEt3 in CH2Cl2-MeOH resulted in the formation of a mixed-valence Mn2(II)Mn2(III) tetranuclear 'butterfly' complex of formula [Mn4(paa)4(teaH)2][NO3]2 x 2 MeOH x 2 CH2Cl2 (5). Compound 5 displays the rare Mn(II/III) oxidation state distribution of the body positions being Mn(II) while the wing tips are Mn(III). The in situ formation of the tetranuclear [Mn4(teaH)2(teaH2)2(O2C(CH3)3)2][O2C(CH3)3]2 'butterfly' complex followed by the addition of Mn(O2CMe)2 x 4 H2O resulted in a mixed-valence Mn4(II)Mn(III)Mn(IV) hexanuclear species of formula [Mn6O2(teaH2)4(O2CMe)4][NO3]2[O2CMe] x CH2Cl2 x MeOH x 2 H2O (6). The core of 6 displays a face sharing dicubane topology. Compounds 1 and

  10. Mantle Samples Included in Volcanic Rocks: Xenoliths and Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, D. G.; Canil, D.; Shirey, S. B.

    2003-12-01

    and phlogopite. Can be polycrystalline.Colorado-Wyoming craton (Eggler et al., 1979)Kimberley and Jagersfontein ( Boyd et al., 1984b) Miscellaneous: mostly garnets and pyroxenes with no clear paragenetic association or links to other megacryst suites. May represent disrupted peridotites/eclogites/pyroxenites. AXI: polymict aggregatesPolymict aggregates of peridotite, eclogite and megacrysts, of variable grain size, some containing quenched melt. Mineral assemblages not in elemental or isotopic equilibrium.Bultfontein, De Beers and Premier mines, Kaapvaal (Lawless et al., 1979). MalaitaHighly variable AXII: diamond and inclusions in diamondsWidespread and closely related to cratons. Abundance varies from <1 ppm to 100 ppm by weight. Size <<0.1 g to c. 750 g. Type I diamonds contain abundant N, type II low N (Harris, 1987).All cratons (Harris, 1987; Meyer, 1987)93-96 Inclusion suites divided into peridotitic (P-type) and eclogitic (E-type) parageneses. P-type inclusions: high-Cr, low Ca garnet, Cr-diopside, Fo-rich olivine, orthopyroxene, chromite, wustite, Ni-rich sulfide, have restricted, high Mg, high Ni chemistry. Equilibration temperatures 900-1,100 °C. E-Type inclusions: pyrope-almandine, high Na garnet (>0.1 wt.%), omphacite, coesite, low-Ni sulfide. AXIII: ultra-deep peridotitesRare and restricted to Jagersfontein (Kaapvaal Craton) and Koidu (W. African craton). Four-phase garnet lherzolite. Close association of pyrope-garnet (˜70% py; 2 wt.% Cr2O3) and jadeite-rich clinopyroxene (20% Jd, & 4% Di). Clinopyroxene forms either orientated rods in garnet host or as discrete grains attached to garnet in cuspate contact. Both pyroxenes exsolved from garnet at 100-150 km depth. Recombination of garnet gives original depths of derivation of 300-400 km. Discrete garnets and "lherzolites" with eclogitic affinities also found (Sautter et al., 1991).All samples so far from the Jagersfontein kimberlite, S. Africa (Haggerty and Sautter, 1990; Sautter et al., 1991) and Koidu