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Sample records for rubidium 82

  1. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Sosnowski, Kenneth M.

    1999-10-12

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  2. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with 99mTc-SPECT, 82Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of 82Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of 82Rb PET with regard to 99mTc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of 82Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure. PMID:26442267

  3. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with (99m)Tc-SPECT, (82)Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of (82)Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of (82)Rb PET with regard to (99m)Tc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of (82)Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure. PMID:26442267

  4. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  5. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) PET's long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac (82)Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative (82)Rb PET's ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  6. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 (82Rb) PET’s long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac 82Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative 82Rb PET’s ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  7. Myocardial perfusion of infarcted and normal myocardium in propofol-anesthetized minipigs using (82)Rubidium PET.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Follin, Bjarke; Kastrup, Jens; Christensen, Thomas Emil; Hammelev, Karsten Pharao; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) positron-emission-tomography (PET) is a good method for quantification of myocardial blood flow in man. Quantification of myocardial blood flow in animals to evaluate new treatment strategies or to understand underlying disease is also of great interest but raises some challenges. Animals, which have been anesthetized during PET acquisition, might react differently to used stress medications, and therefore difficulties might exist while evaluating the resulting PET images using standard software packages from commercial vendors optimized for human hearts. Furthermore propofol, used for anesthesia, can influence myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve due to its vasorelaxant effect, and interactions might exist between propofol and used stress agents, potentially affecting the result of the examination. We present cardiac (82)Rb-PET studies performed in propofol-anesthetized minipigs with normal and infarcted myocardium stressed with both adenosine and dipyridamole. Despite the mentioned challenges, we were able to trace the small minipig heart with software designed for human cardiac PET and to achieve blood flow measurements comparable with results in humans with both adenosine and dipyridamole. We found dipyridamole to be a superior stress agent for this experimental setup. Finally, we were able to clearly identify the myocardial perfusion defect after an induced myocardial infarction. PMID:26931633

  8. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p < 0.001). The best repeatability coefficient for same-day rest MBF was 0.20 mL/min/g using a six-minute scan-time, iterative reconstruction, dual SOC, resting rate-pressure-product (RPP) adjustment, and a left atrium image-derived input function. The serial study repeatabilities of the optimized protocol in subjects with homogeneous RPPs and tracer infusion profiles was 0.19 and 0.53 mL/min/g at rest and stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  9. Planar positron imaging of rubidium-82 for myocardial infarction: A comparison with thallium-201 and regional wall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Ryan, J.W.; Resnekov, L.; Stark, V.; Peterson, E.L.; Gustafson, G.C.; Martin, W.B.; Freier, P.A.; Harper, P.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Rubidium-82 (Rb-82) is a generator-produced, short half-life (76 seconds) positron emitting potassium analog. Using a mobile gamma camera equipped with a rotating tungsten collimator and high-energy shielding, we examined the use of Rb-82 in the coronary care unit and clinical laboratory for detection of perfusion defects due to myocardial infarction. We studied 31 subjects, 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 12 with remote myocardial infarction, and nine controls. Rb-82 images were compared with Tl-201 and regional wall motion for detection of infarct-related arteries. Of the 22 patients with myocardial infarction, 16 were identified with Rb-82 and Tl-201. In nine control subjects, eight were normal with each method. Correlation between Rb-82 and Tl-201 defect scores was excellent. Sensitivity and specificity for infarct-related arteries were similar for Rb-82, Tl-201, and wall motion imaging. Thus planar Rb-82 imaging can detect MI reliably in the coronary care unit and in the clinical laboratory.

  10. Comparison of rubidium-82 positron emission tomography and thallium-201 SPECT imaging for detection of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.E.; Schwaiger, M.; Molina, E.; Popma, J.; Gacioch, G.M.; Kalus, M.; Squicciarini, S.; al-Aouar, Z.R.; Schork, A.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1991-06-15

    The diagnostic performance of rubidium-82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET) and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) for detecting coronary artery disease was investigated in 81 patients (52 men, 29 women). PET studies using 60 mCi of Rb-82 were performed at baseline and after intravenous infusion of 0.56 mg/kg dipyridamole in conjunction with handgrip stress. Tl-201 SPECT was performed after dipyridamole-handgrip stress and, in a subset of patients, after treadmill exercise. Sensitivity, specificity and overall diagnostic accuracy were assessed using both visually and quantitatively interpreted coronary angiograms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET for detection of coronary artery disease (greater than 50% diameter stenosis) were 84, 88 and 85%, respectively. In comparison, the performance of SPECT revealed a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 53% (p less than 0.05 vs PET) and accuracy of 79%. Similar results were obtained using either visual or quantitative angiographic criteria for severity of coronary artery disease. In 43 patients without prior myocardial infarction, the sensitivity for detection of disease was 71 and 73%, respectively, similar for both PET and SPECT. There was no significant difference in diagnostic performance between imaging modalities when 2 different modes of stress (exercise treadmill vs intravenous dipyridamole plus handgrip) were used with SPECT imaging. Thus, Rb-82 PET provides improved specificity compared with Tl-201 SPECT for identifying coronary artery disease, most likely due to the higher photon energy of Rb-82 and attenuation correction provided by PET. However, post-test referral cannot be entirely excluded as a potential explanation for the lower specificity of Tl-201 SPECT.

  11. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with

  12. Acute myocardial infarction associated with intravenous dipyridamole for rubidium-82 PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Hollman, J. )

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the occurrence of chest pain and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction following intravenous dipyridamole-handgrip stress. Myocardial perfusion imaging (Rb-82 PET) demonstrated a stress-induced perfusion defect. Following failure to respond to medical therapy, urgent cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The vessel was revascularized, with limitation of myocardial damage evidenced by failure to develop anterior Q waves and only modest elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Complications of intravenous dipyridamole stress are rare, this case constituting the first major problem in over 500 such procedures at this institution. However, this experience demonstrates the importance of vigilant observation during the performance of this technique.

  13. Myocardial metabolism of fluorodeoxyglucose compared to cell membrane integrity for the potassium analogue rubidium-82 for assessing infarct size in man by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Yoshida, K.; Hess, M.J.; Haynie, M.; Mullani, N.; Smalling, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Potassium loss from damaged myocardial cells is linearly related to CPK enzyme loss reflecting extent of necrosis. The potassium analog, rubidium-82 (82Rb), is extracted after i.v. injection and retained in viable myocardium but is not trapped or washed out of necrotic regions. To compare myocardial cell metabolism with membrane dysfunction as indicators of necrosis/viability, 43 patients with evolving myocardial infarction and coronary arteriography had positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the potassium analog 82Rb. Percent of heart showing FDG defects and 82Rb washout on sequential images indicating failure to retain the potassium analogue were visually assessed and quantified by automated software. Infarct size based on rubidium kinetics correlated closely with size and location on FDG images (visual r = 0.93, automated r = 0.82), suggesting that loss of cell membrane integrity for trapping the potassium analog 82Rb parallels loss of intracellular glucose metabolism, both comparable quantitative markers of myocardial necrosis/viability.

  14. A prospective comparison of rubidium-82 PET and thallium-201 SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging utilizing a single dipyridamole stress in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Saha, G.B.; Neumann, D.R.; Underwood, D.A.; Simpfendorfer, C.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to prospectively compare myocardial perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) by positron emission tomography (PET) with thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) imaging by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) by recording both studies with a single dipyridamole handgrip stress, and reading both sets of images with the same display technique. In a series of 202 patients with previous coronary arteriography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of {sup 82}Rb PET were 93%, 78%, and 90% and for {sup 201}Tl SPECT 76%, 80%, and 77%, respectively. When 70 patients with previous therapeutic interventions were excluded, the remaining 132 patients showed a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95%, 82% and 92% for {sup 82}Rb PET and 79%, 76%, and 78% for {sup 201}Tl SPECT. The improved contrast resolution of PET resulted in markedly superior images and a more confident identification of defects.

  15. Variability and reproducibility of rubidium-82 kinetic parameters in the myocardium of the anesthetized canine

    SciTech Connect

    Coxson, P.G.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Kinetic analysis of {sup 82}Rb (I) dynamic PET data produces quantitative measures which could be used to evaluate ischemic heart disease. These measures have the potential to generate objective comparisons of different patients or the same patient at different times. To achieve this potential, it is essential to determine the variability and reproducibility of the kinetic parameters. A total of 48 I dynamic PET datasets were acquired from two pure bred beagles. Each animal underwent eight I PET studies with essentially the same protocol for three successive weeks. Data were acquired with the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph (PET600). In each week, single-slice dynamic I PET datasets were collected with the animal at rest at three different gantry positions separated by 5 mm. Additional dataset were collected after dipyridamole infusion and after administration of aminophylline to induce a return to rest. A two-compartment kinetic model with correction for myocardial vasculature and spillover from the left ventricular blood pool was used to analyze the dynamic datasets. Model parameters for uptake (k{sub 1}), washout (k{sub 2}) and vascular fraction (f{sub v}) were estimated in 11-14 myocardial regions of interest (ROIs) using a weighted least-squares criterion. Statistical fluctuation due to the PET acquisition process was minimized by using a relatively high I dose (about 30 mCi) to take advantage of the high count rate capacity of the PET600. The variation in mean k{sub 1}, where the mean is taken over the myocardial ROIs was 10%-20% (Dog 1) and 15%-50% (Dog 2) among the rest studies conducted on the same data. Similar variation was evident in comparing studies in the same animal for different weeks. Spatial and temporal variation in estimates of the uptake rate (k{sub 1}) of I in the resting myocardium of the anesthetized canine are small in relation to the functional increase in k{sub 1}, following dipyridamole stress. 17 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Normal Myocardial Flow Reserve in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Rubidium-82 PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Andreas; Christensen, Thomas E; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Hasbak, Philip; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten

    2015-10-01

    Studies have found HIV-infected patients to be at increased risk of myocardial infarction, which may be caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction. For the first time among HIV-infected patients, we assessed the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET), which can quantify the coronary microvascular function. MFR has proved highly predictive of future coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in the general population.In a prospective cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients all receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with full viral suppression and HIV-uninfected controls were scanned using 82Rb PET/computed tomography at rest and adenosine-induced stress, thereby obtaining the MFR (stress flow/rest flow), stratified into low ≤1.5, borderline >1.5 to 2.0, or normal >2.0.Fifty-six HIV-infected patients and 25 controls were included. The HIV-infected patients had a mean age of 53 years (range 37-68 years) with 23% active smokers. The controls had a mean age of 52 years (range 36-68 years) and 26% active smokers. In the HIV-infected group 73% had a normal MFR, 17% borderline, and 10% low values of MFR. Among controls these values were 71%, 19%, and 10%, respectively (P = 0.99). However, the HIV-infected group had lower values of stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) (2.63 ± 0.09 mL/g/min vs 2.99 ± 0.14 mL/g/min; P = 0.03). We found no evidence of decreased MFR as assessed by 82Rb PET among HIV-infected patients on stable ART with full viral suppression compared with HIV-uninfected controls. We did notice a decreased MBF during stress. PMID:26512605

  17. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial perfusion imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VIII. Clinical feasibility of positron cardiac imaging without a cyclotron using generator-produced rubidium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Mullani, N.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L.; Wong, W.H.; Tewson, T.J.; Berridge, M.S.; Bolomey, L.A.; Hartz, R.K.; Smalling, R.W.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical feasibility of diagnosing significant coronary artery disease by positron imaging of myocardial perfusion without a cyclotron, using generator-produced rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb). Fifty patients underwent positron emission tomography of the entire heart using a multislice positron camera and intravenous /sup 82/Rb or nitrogen-13 ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) before and after intravenous dipyridamole combined with handgrip stress. Images were read by two observers blinded as to clinical or arteriographic data. Automated quantitative coronary arteriography was obtained for the arteriographic determination of coronary flow reserve, previously demonstrated to be a single integrated measure of stenosis severity accounting for all its geometric dimensions of length, absolute diameter, percent narrowing and asymmetry by quantitative analysis of cine films. Significant coronary artery disease was defined as an arteriographically determined coronary flow reserve of less than 3.0 based on all stenosis dimensions. Any single geometric measure of stenosis severity alone was an inadequate reference standard for comparison with perfusion images. Sensitivity of identifying patients with coronary artery disease having an arteriographically determined coronary flow reserve of less than 3.0 was 95% by positron imaging with a specificity of 100%. The single case that was missed, studied with /sup 13/NH/sub 3/, had a 43% diameter narrowing of a small ramus intermedius off the left coronary artery with no significant narrowing of the major coronary arteries. Positron emission tomography of myocardial perfusion before and after intravenous dipyridamole combined with handgrip stress utilizing generator-produced /sup 82/Rb provides sensitive and specific diagnosis of reduced coronary flow reserve due to coronary artery disease in humans.

  18. Discovery of interstellar rubidium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Smith, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Interstellar rubidium is detected through observations of the resonance line of Rb I at 7800 A towards zeta Oph. The abundance ratio of rubidium to potassium is estimated to be approximately solar, and if rubidium is generally found to have an abundance similar to potassium, it is indicated that the local interstellar medium is well mixed with a wide variety of the products of nucleosynthesis.

  19. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  20. Rubidium-Strontium collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Michaela; Potter, Garrett; Whitehead, Marc; McEntee, Elyse; Koll, Christopher J.

    2010-03-01

    The invention of the magneto-optical trap (MOT) in 1987 - which was awarded the Noble Price in Physics 10 years later - has enabled many new and exciting experiments. Among them are precision measurements of basic atomic properties, ultracold collisions, Bose-Einstein Condensates, atom lasers, etc.. Recent developments in the field of atomic and molecular physics have included the creation of diatomic (homo- and heteronuclear) molecules. These ultracold molecules promise to revolutionize physical chemistry, few-body physics, precision measurements and quantum information processing, similar to how ultracold atoms revolutionized AMO physics several years ago. We will present our first results of a mixed alkaline (rubidium) and alkaline-earth (strontium) magneto-optical trap.

  1. The USNO rubidium fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Four rubidium fountains at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been in operation for 4.5 years. Each fountain has demonstrated periods of stability marked by Total or Theo deviation below 10-16 Occasional frequency changes, on order of 1.5 times per year per fountain, introduce deviations from white-frequency noise behavior. Averaged together, the four fountains form an ensemble with a white-frequency noise level of 10-13 and excellent long-term stability as compared to the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. Progress on using the clocks at USNO for improving limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity by measuring the universality of the gravitational redshift for different types of clocks is discussed.

  2. The USNO rubidium fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Four rubidium fountains at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been in operation for 4.5 years. Each fountain has demonstrated periods of stability marked by Total or Theo deviation below 10‑16 Occasional frequency changes, on order of 1.5 times per year per fountain, introduce deviations from white-frequency noise behavior. Averaged together, the four fountains form an ensemble with a white-frequency noise level of 10‑13 and excellent long-term stability as compared to the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. Progress on using the clocks at USNO for improving limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity by measuring the universality of the gravitational redshift for different types of clocks is discussed.

  3. Rectified Forces in Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Timothy Todd

    The forces exerted on a three-level atom by a bichromatic standing-wave field are investigated. A theoretical analysis shows that the standing-wave dipole force can be rectified, i.e., maintain its sign over many optical wavelengths. Three systems in particular are studied: the lambda, the vee, and the cascade. Experimental results for the rubidium 5S --> 5P --> 5D cascade system are used to confirm the theory. The nearly coincident transition wavelengths for this system (780.0 nm and 776.0 nm) provide potential wells repeating at the beat wavelength (71 μm) which can accumulate laser cooled atoms. This force may have future applications in forming deep neutral atom traps as well as in the creation of new elements for atom optics. Two-color, two-photon spectroscopy of the 5D_{5/2}<=vel using the same cascade system (5S --> 5P --> 5D) was also performed.

  4. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Abraham J.; Mayer, Shannon K.

    2009-02-01

    We investigate ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam at 780.2nm (5S1/2→5P3/2) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam at 776.0nm (5P3/2→5D5/2) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. We use two grating-feedback diode lasers and observe EIT experimentally in rubidium and compare the results to the theory. This experiment brings quantum optics into the advanced undergraduate laboratory and utilizes equipment and expertise commonly available in laboratories equipped to perform diode-laser-based absorption spectroscopy of rubidium.

  5. Rubidium Optical Pumping for an Electron Spin Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norrgard, Eric

    2010-03-01

    Our group is designing a novel polarized electron source based on spin exchange between an incident beam of electrons and an optically-pumped rubidium vapor target [1,2]. An overview of the spin filter design will be provided. I will then discuss optical pumping of rubidium and techniques for measuring spin polarization. An anomalous Rb polarization reversal detected when varying the wavelength of a pump laser with a spectral width of about 6 percent of the absorption profile of the Rb D2 transition width over the absorption profile will be examined. In the rubidium electron spin filter, viable spin exchange is thought to occur in the immediate vicinity of the exit aperture of the optical pumping region. Therefore, optical techniques for mapping the spatial dependence of a pumped Rb sample will be discussed, and measurements of Rb polarization throughout the optically-pump region will be presented.[4pt] [1] H. Batelaan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 82, 4216 (1999).[0pt] [2] M.A. Rosenberry, J.P. Reyes, D. Tupa, T.J. Gay Phys. Rev. A 75, 023401 (2007).

  6. Rubidium dimer destruction by a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, T.; Aumiler, D.; Pichler, G.

    2005-02-01

    We observed rubidium dimer destruction by excitation of rubidium vapor with diode laser light tuned across the Rb D{sub 2} resonance line in a 2400 GHz tuning interval. The destruction was measured for rubidium atom concentrations in the (1-9)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range, pump beam power up to 43 mW, and with a 5 Torr of the helium buffer gas. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and specify the molecular pathways which may effectively lead to the observed dimer destruction.

  7. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  8. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  9. Rubidium-87 gas cell studies, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a compact rubidium-87 maser. Data cover the electronic control system for the maser itself and a superhetrodyne receiver capable of locking a crystal oscillator to the maser signal.

  10. RUBIDIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Kyle M.; Federman, S. R.; Knauth, David C.; Lambert, David L. E-mail: steven.federman@utoledo.ed E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2009-11-20

    We present observations of interstellar rubidium toward o Per, zeta Per, AE Aur, HD 147889, chi Oph, zeta Oph, and 20 Aql. Theory suggests that stable {sup 85}Rb and long-lived {sup 87}Rb are produced predominantly by high-mass stars, through a combination of the weak s- and r-processes. The {sup 85}Rb/{sup 87}Rb ratio was determined from measurements of the Rb I line at 7800 A and was compared to the solar system meteoritic ratio of 2.59. Within 1sigma uncertainties, all directions except HD 147889 have Rb isotope ratios consistent with the solar system value. The ratio toward HD 147889 is much lower than the meteoritic value and similar to that toward rho Oph A; both lines of sight probe the Rho Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. The earlier result was attributed to a deficit of r-processed {sup 85}Rb. Our larger sample suggests instead that {sup 87}Rb is enhanced in these two lines of sight. When the total elemental abundance of Rb is compared to the K elemental abundance, the interstellar Rb/K ratio is significantly lower than the meteoritic ratio for all the sight lines in this study. Available interstellar samples for other s- and r- process elements are used to help interpret these results.

  11. Disciplined rubidium oscillator with GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Wayne P.

    1993-01-01

    A U.S. Department of Defense decision for continuous implementation of GPS Selective Availability (S/A) has made it necessary to modify Rubidium oscillator disciplining methods. One such method for reducing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process was developed which achieves results approaching pre-S/A GPS. The Satellite Hopping algorithm used in minimizing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process is described, and the results of using this process to those obtained prior to the implementation of S/A are compared. Test results are from a TrueTime Rubidium based Model GPS-DC timing receiver.

  12. A rubidium clock for SEEK-TALK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a tactical rubidium frequency standard (TRFS) for the SEEK-TALK program is discussed. This effort, which is entering the prototype stage, is directed toward the establishment of a production capability for miniature rubidium clocks of medium stability capable of fast warmup and extreme ruggedness for military avionics applications. The overall unit consists of an ultraminiature physics package and four plug-in circuit boards inside a 2 1/2-inch square by 4-inch box. This size is achieved without the extensive use of hybrid microcircuitry, yet is believed to be the smallest atomic frequency standard yet developed.

  13. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Rubidium: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, V.; Hingant, B.; Allafort, A.; Pigeard, M.; Roch, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two complementary nonlinear spectroscopy methods which both allow one to achieve Doppler-free spectra of atomic gases. First, saturated absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the 5S[subscript 1/2] [right arrow] 5P[subscript 3/2] transition in rubidium. Using a slightly modified experimental…

  14. A rubidium clock for GPS. [breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design objectives and approach; the more important design features; the signal parameters and error budget; and early test results in the development of a second-source rubidium frequency standard for use in the GPS navigation satellites are discussed. Tests of a breadboard version of the RFS show that the measured time-domain stability is within the goal specification. The results are uncorrected for the conribution of the reference and are probably limited by the reference stability in the medium term region. The Rb reference is bbetter in the medium term region, but the Cs reference is etter at 10,000 seconds and longer, probably because of the barometric sensitivity of the rubidium reference unit.

  15. Process for separation of zirconium-88, rubidium-83 and yttrium-88

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, passing the first ion-containing solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in the first ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, contacting the first resin with an acid solution capable of stripping adsorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin whereby the adsorbed ions are removed from the first resin to form a second ion-containing solution, evaporating the second ion-containing solution for time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the second ion-containing solution whereby a residue remains, dissolving the residue from the evaporated second-ion containing solution in a dilute acid to form a third ion-containing solution, said third ion-containing solution having an acid molarity adapted to permit said ions to be adsorbed by a cationic exchange resin, passing the third ion-containing solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are adsorbed by the second resin, contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the adsorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin, and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the adsorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. Zirconium, rubidium, and yttrium radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  16. Rubidium 87 gas cell studies, phase 2. [design and characteristics of rubidium maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of a rubidium 87 maser are discussed. The design of a receiver capable of locking a crystal oscillator to the maser signal is reported. The subjects considered are: (1) maser construction, (2) maser control electronics, (3) the characteristics of the receiver, and (4) results of experimental maser tests.

  17. Rubidium-strontium relations in tranquillity base samples.

    PubMed

    Hurley, P M; Pinson, W H

    1970-01-30

    Preliminary total rock analyses disclosed a greatly different rubidium depletion between two groups of these igneous rocks, and ratios of strontium-87 to strontium-86 indicate that the rubidium depletion in these materials must have occurred during or shortly after the accretion of the terrestrial planets.

  18. Pulsed filling of a dark magnetooptical trap for rubidium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chapovskii, Pavel L

    2006-03-31

    The parameters of a dark magnetooptical trap for rubidium atoms are measured. The rubidium atoms captured and cooled in the trap occupy a hyperfine level of the ground electronic state, which does not interact with cooling laser radiation. The pulsed filling of the trap is produced due to desorption of rubidium caused by irradiation by a short (1 ms) light pulse. The trap captures and cools 2.5x10{sup 8} rubidium atoms approximately for 0.2 s. The absorption spectra of a weak probe field by cold atoms are obtained, which demonstrate a good spectral resolution of the hyperfine structure in the excited state. This structure is completely hidden by the Doppler broadening in rubidium vapours at room temperature. (laser cooling)

  19. Rubidium dimers in paraffin-coated cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V. M.; Jarmola, A.; Windes, D.; Corsini, E.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Karaulanov, T.; Auzinsh, M.; Rangwala, S. A.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Budker, D.

    2010-08-01

    Measurements were made to determine the density of rubidium dimer vapor in paraffin-coated cells. The number density of dimers and atoms in similar paraffin-coated and uncoated cells was measured by optical spectroscopy. Due to the relatively low melting point of paraffin, a limited temperature range of 43-80 °C was explored, with the lower end corresponding to a dimer density of less than 107 cm- 3. With 1 min integration time, a sensitivity to dimer number density of better than 106 cm- 3 was achieved. No significant difference in dimer density between the cells was observed.

  20. Rubidium-87 gas cell studies, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1972-01-01

    The construction of a quartz bulb-quartz cavity type rubidium maser is described, and the results obtained with two of these masers are presented. The tuning characteristics, medium term stability, and short term stability are reported. It is concluded that the stability of the masers in the short term region is superior to any of the oscillators presently existing. On this basis it is believed that future development of the masers to reduce their size and improve their medium term stability is well justified.

  1. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula. PMID:17095658

  2. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula.

  3. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms in a parahydrogen matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Jonathan; Arnott, W. Patrick; Christy, Tim; Hartzell, Chase; Kanagin, Andrew; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Upadhyay, Sunil

    2016-05-01

    Building on prior work with rubidium atoms in a cryogenic argon matrix, we have grown solid parahydrogen crystals doped with rubidium atoms. Typical rubidium densities are on the order of 1017 cm-3. We have demonstrated optical pumping of the atomic spin of the implanted rubidium atoms; the measured spin polarization signals are roughly one order of magnitude larger than what was achieved in argon matrices. The combination of high atomic densities and optical addressability make this a promising experimental platform for applications such as magnetometry and fundamental physics measurements. Spin lifetimes (T1) on the order of 1 second have been observed. Progress towards measuring coherence times (T2) will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1265905.

  4. On the detection of rubidium in diffuse interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sneden, C.; Schempp, W. V.; Smith, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    A search for absorption from neutral rubidium at 7800 A was conducted. No evidence for absorption to a 3 sigma limit of less than 1.5 mA was seen in the diffuse interstellar gas toward the stars omicron Persei, zeta Persei, and zeta Ophiuchi. Present results do not confirm the detection by Jura and Smith (1981) toward zeta Oph. A possible reason for the discrepancy is presented. In light of the present measurements, the abundance of interstellar rubidium in reconsidered.

  5. Two-element Zeeman slower for rubidium and lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, G. Edward; Olf, Ryan; Vogt, Enrico; Oettl, Anton; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2010-04-15

    We demonstrate a two-element oven and Zeeman slower that produce simultaneous and overlapped slow beams of rubidium and lithium. The slower uses a three-stage design with a long, low-acceleration middle stage for decelerating rubidium situated between two short, high-acceleration stages for aggressive deceleration of lithium. This design is appropriate for producing high fluxes of atoms with a large mass ratio in a simple, robust setup.

  6. Quantum control and pathway manipulation in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fang; Wang, Yaoxiong; Rey-de-Castro, Roberto; Rabitz, Herschel; Shuang, Feng

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing interest in the extraction and control of the interfering quantum pathway amplitudes induced by control fields during laser-matter interactions. The Hamiltonian-encoding and observable-decoding (HE-OD) technique has been introduced for extracting the amplitudes of the pathways present in the dynamics and has recently been experimentally applied to the pathway manipulation of atomic rubidium. This paper theoretically explores various strategies for manipulating pathway amplitudes in the context of a laser field interacting with a multilevel system similar to atomic rubidium for both narrow-band and broadband ultrafast fields. In the perturbation regime, two second-order quantum pathways connecting the Rb states 5 S1 /2 and 5 D3 /2 dominate the dynamics, namely, 5 S1 /2→5 P3 /2→5 D3 /2 (pathway 1) and 5 S1 /2→5 P1 /2→5 D3 /2 (pathway 2). For narrow-band field control, the analysis is carried out in the time domain with the laser field including only four narrow-band envelope subpulses centered at the resonant frequencies. When the two pathways cooperate constructively, temporal oscillations appear in the ratio of the two pathway amplitudes, and we conclude in this case that the period corresponds to the detuning between transitions 5 S1 /2→5 P3 /2 and 5 P3 /2→5 D3 /2 . For broadband field control, the dynamics are treated in the frequency domain with the laser field including both resonant and continuous nonresonant frequency components. Various control strategies based on manipulating the phase of selected spectral components are tested. Compared to the outcome from a transform limited pulse, a π/2 step scheme can increase the dynamic range of the ratio between the two pathway amplitudes by a factor of ˜3 . A scheme that manipulates eight spectral blocks, in which the spectral boundaries depend on the resonant frequencies, can increase the ratio by several orders of magnitude. Numerical simulations show that further dividing the

  7. Catalysis of Forster Resonances in Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, A. L.; Williams, W. D.; Sukenik, C. I.

    2016-05-01

    When two ultracold Rydberg atoms collide they may change their quantum state if the total electronic energy of the two atoms before and after the collision is about the same. This process can be made resonant by tuning the energy levels of the atoms with an electric field, via the Stark shift, so that the energy difference between incoming and outgoing channels vanishes. This condition is known as a ``Forster resonance.'' We have studied a particular Forster resonance in rubidium: 34p + 34p --> 34s + 35s, by investigating the time dependence of the state change in an ultracold environment. Furthermore, we have added 34d state atoms to the mix and observed an enhancement of 34s atom production. We attribute this enhancement to a catalysis effect whereby the 34d atoms alter the spatial distribution of 34p atoms that participate in the energy transfer interaction. We will present results from the experiment and compare them to model calculations. Present address: Department of Physics, Smith College, Northampton, MA.

  8. Precision-controlled elution of a 82Sr/82Rb generator for cardiac perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Adler, A.; Beanlands, R. S.; de Kemp, R. A.

    2007-02-01

    A rubidium-82 (82Rb) elution system is described for use with positron emission tomography. Due to the short half-life of 82Rb (76 s), the system physics must be modelled precisely to account for transport delay and the associated activity decay and dispersion. Saline flow is switched between a 82Sr/82Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant-activity elution of 82Rb. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control (PCC) algorithm is developed which produces a constant-activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. The system model parameters are adjusted through a self-tuning algorithm to minimize error versus the requested time-activity profile. The system is self-calibrating with 2.5% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Accurate 30 s constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity are achieved using both control methods. The combined PWM-PCC method provides significant improvement in precision and accuracy of the requested elution profiles. The 82Rb elution system produces accurate and reproducible constant-activity elution profiles of 82Rb activity, independent of parent 82Sr activity in the generator. More reproducible elution profiles may improve the quality of clinical and research PET perfusion studies using 82Rb.

  9. 40 CFR 82.82 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.82 Definitions. (a) Class I substance means any substance... hydrochlorofluorocarbons. (c) Controlled substance means a class I or class II ozone-depleting substance. (d)...

  10. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily; the total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  11. Operational frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The frequency stabilities under operational conditions of several commercially available rubidium and cesium frequency standards were determined from experimental data for frequency averaging times from 10 to the 7th power s and are presented in table and graph form. For frequency averaging times between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 7th power s, the rubidium standards tested have a stability of between 10 to the minus 12th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 12th power, while the cesium standards have a stability of between 2 x 10 to the minus 13th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 13th power.

  12. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S. M.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2009-02-15

    Subwavelength-diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  13. Spontaneuos and Parametric Processes in Warm Rubidium Vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, M.; Parniak, M.; Pęcak, D.; Chrapkiewicz, R.; Wasilewski, W.

    2014-12-01

    Warm rubidium vapours are known to be a versatile medium for a variety of experiments in atomic physics and quantum optics. Here we present experimental results on producing the frequency converted light for quantum applications based on spontaneous and stimulated processes in rubidium vapours. In particular, we study the efficiency of spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering in the Λ-level configuration and conditions of generating the coherent blue light assisted by multi-photon transitions in the diamond-level configuration. Our results will be helpful in search for new types of interfaces between light and atomic quantum memories.

  14. Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.M.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Currently, 31 rubidium, 35 strontium, 35 molybdenum, and 38 rhodium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  15. Dipole-dipole interaction between rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Altiere, Emily; Fahey, Donald P.; Noel, Michael W.; Smith, Rachel J.; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2011-11-15

    Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a static electric field can exchange energy via the dipole-dipole interaction. The Stark effect shifts the energy levels of the atoms which tunes the energy exchange into resonance at specific values of the electric field (Foerster resonances). We excite rubidium atoms to Rydberg states by focusing either a 480 nm beam from a tunable dye laser or a pair of diode lasers into a magneto-optical trap. The trap lies at the center of a configuration of electrodes. We scan the electric field by controlling the voltage on the electrodes while measuring the fraction of atoms that interact. Dipole-dipole interaction spectra are presented for initially excited rubidium nd states for n=31 to 46 and for four different pairs of initially excited rubidium ns states. We also present the dipole-dipole interaction spectra for individual rubidium 32d (j, m{sub j}) fine structure levels that have been selectively excited. The data are compared to calculated spectra.

  16. Strontium-82 and Future Germanium-68 Production at the ARRONAX Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sounalet, T.; Michel, N.; Alliot, C.; Audouin, A.; Barbet, J.; Bonraisin, A. C.; Bortoli, Y.; Bossé, V.; Bourdeau, C.; Bouvet, G.; Buhour, J. M.; Cadiou, A.; Fresneau, S.; Guillamet, M.; Haddad, F.; Laizé, J.; Milleto, T.; Milon, F.; Mokili, M.; Montavon, G.

    2014-05-01

    The ARRONAX cyclotron is fully operational since the end of 2010. It delivers projectiles (p, d, α) at high energy (up to 70 MeV for protons) and high intensity(2*375μA for protons). The main fields of application of ARRONAX are radionuclide production for nuclear medicine and irradiation of inert or living materials for radiolysis and radio-biology studies. A large part of the beam time will be used to produce radionuclides for targeted radionuclide therapy (copper-67, scandium-47 and astatine-211) as well as for PET imaging (scandium-44, copper-64, strontium-82 for rubidium-82 generators, and germanium-68 for gallium-68 generators). Since June 2012, large scale production of 82Sr has started with rubidium chloride (RbCl) targets. Several improvements are being explored which consist of changing the target material from RbCl to Rb metal and introducing an additional target behind the rubidium assembly. Thus, a target alloy of nickel/gallium for germanium-68 production has been developed. It is obtained by electroplating and exhibits a better thermal behavior than the natural gallium target used in most production facilities.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a series of rubidium alkoxides and rubidium-titanium double alkoxides.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Scott D; Boyle, Timothy J; Pratt III, Harry D; Alam, Todd M; Rodriguez, Mark A

    2004-09-20

    This report investigates the structural aspects of the products isolated from the reactions of a series of titanium alkoxides [[Ti(OR)4]n n = 2, OR = OCH2C(CH3)3 (ONep) (1); n = 1, OC6H3(CH3)2-2,6 (DMP) (2)] with rubidium alkoxides [[Rb(OR)]infinity where OR = (ONep) (3), (DMP) (4), and OC6H3(CH(CH3)2)2-2,6 (DIP) (5)]. The resultant double alkoxides were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction to be [Rb(mu-ONep)4(py)Ti(ONep)]2 (6), [Rb(mu-DMP)Ti(DMP)4]infinity (7), and [Rb(mu-DMP)2(mu-ONep)2Ti(ONep)]infinity (8). Compound 1 is the previously reported dinculear species with trigonal bipyramidal Ti metal centers whereas compound 2 is a monomer with a tetrahedral Ti center. Suitable X-ray quality crystals of 3 were not isolated. Compounds 4 and 5 demonstrate extended polymeric networks with Rb coordination ranging from two to five utilizing terminal mu- and mu3-OR ligands and pi-interactions of neighboring OAr ligands. The double alkoxide 6 revealed a simple tetranuclear structure with mu-ONep acting as the bridge, terminal ONep ligands on the Ti, and one terminal py on the Rb. For 7 and 8, the pi-interaction facilitated the formation of extended polymeric systems. All complexes were further characterized by FT-IR and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Observations on the Reliability of Rubidium Frequency Standards on Block 2/2A GPS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieter, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, the block 2/2A Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are equipped with two rubidium frequency standards. These frequency standards were originally intended to serve as the back-ups to two cesium frequency standards. As the constellation ages, the master Control Station is forced to initialize and increasing number or rubidium frequency standards. Unfortunately the operational use of these frequency standards has not lived up to initial expectations. Although the performance of these rubidium frequency standards has met and even exceeded GPS requirements, their reliability has not. The number of unscheduled outage times and the short operational lifetimes of the rubidium frequency standards compare poorly to the track record of the cesium frequency standards. Only a small number of rubidium frequency standards have actually been made operational. Of these, a large percentage have exhibited poor reliability. If this trend continues, it is unlikely that the rubidium frequency standards will help contribute to the navigation payload meeting program specification.

  19. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  20. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation in rubidium dihydrophosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Borisov, M. M.; Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Troshkov, E. V.; Dmitrienko, V. E.

    2010-03-15

    Purely resonant Bragg reflections 006, 55bar 0, and 666 in a rubidium dihydrophosphate (RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystal at the K edge of rubidium have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. These reflections remain forbidden when the resonant dipole-dipole (E1E1) contribution to the resonant atomic factor is taken into account; they may be due to the dipole-quadrupole (E1E2) transitions as well as to the anisotropy atomic factor, which is caused by thermal atomic displacements (thermally induced contribution) and/or local jumps of hydrogen atoms. A numerical simulation showed that, at room temperature (experimental conditions), the thermally induced contribution to the 'forbidden' reflections is dominant.

  1. Cavity-enhanced frequency up-conversion in rubidium vapor.

    PubMed

    Offer, Rachel F; Conway, Johnathan W C; Riis, Erling; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Arnold, Aidan S

    2016-05-15

    We report the first use of a ring cavity to both enhance the output power and dramatically narrow the linewidth (<1  MHz) of blue light generated by four-wave mixing in a rubidium vapor cell. We find that the high output power available in our cavity-free system leads to power broadening of the generated blue light linewidth. Our ring cavity removes this limitation, allowing high output power and narrow linewidth to be achieved concurrently. As the cavity blue light is widely tunable over the Rb855S1/2F=3→6P3/2 transition, this narrow linewidth light would be suitable for near-resonant rubidium studies including, for example, second-stage laser cooling. PMID:27176956

  2. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  3. Ramsey resonance of coherent population trapping in slow rubidium beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. M.

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance in slow beam of rubidium 87 atoms caused by of their interaction with bichromatic electromagnetic field in two separated spatial domains. In the case of monovelocity beam we study the properties of the CPT resonance depending on type of working transitions, velocity of the atomic beam, intensity and polarization of electromagnetic fields, and space separation in Ramsey scheme.

  4. X-ray spectrographic determination of cesium and rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Axelrod, J.M.; Adler, I.

    1957-01-01

    An x-ray spectrographic method for the determination of rubidium and cesium was developed, using the internal-standard method and a four-channel flat-crystal spectrograph. The sensitivity is within 0.1% for cesia and 0.02% for rubidia; the precision is within 10% of the amount present. Results agree well with those obtained by flame photometry and by radio-activation.

  5. Ionization of rubidium by 50-eV electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, M.A.; Lohmann, B.; Bray, I.; Bartschat, K.

    2004-04-01

    We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of 50-eV electron-impact ionization of rubidium. Comparison of the experimental data with theoretical predictions from various models shows good qualitative agreement, as long as distortion and channel-coupling effects in the projectile-target interaction are accounted for. The remaining differences between experiment and theory indicate the need for further studies of this collision system.

  6. [Electrone probe microanalysis of rubidium retention in myocell of rat heart during acute ischemia].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G; Pogorelova, V N; Pogorelova, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the given investigation contents of potassium and its physiological analog, rubidium, are determined in cardiomyocyte. Applying Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), cytoplasmic concentrations of elements (K, Rb) are measured. The data obtained exhibit that for initial acute ischemia phase the active transport is involved in the uptake of rubidium which competes with potassium entry in cardiac myocell. Then, deep deenergization leads to the intracellular potassium depletion and rubidium retention. This suggests that Rb+ is physiologically not complete analog for K+. Results of combined perfusion with and without rubidium allow us to hypothesize the appearance of cascade of ionic transports to compensate acute ischemic disturbances following the oxygen and substrate deficiency. PMID:23136775

  7. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. Microwave interrogation cavity for the rubidium space cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ren; Yuan-Ci, Gao; Tang, Li; De-Sheng, Lü; Liang, Liu

    2016-06-01

    The performance of space cold atom clocks (SCACs) should be improved thanks to the microgravity environment in space. The microwave interrogation cavity is a key element in a SCAC. In this paper, we develop a microwave interrogation cavity especially for the rubidium SCAC. The interrogation cavity has two microwave interaction zones with a single feed-in source, which is located at the center of the cavity for symmetric coupling excitation and to ensure that the two interaction zones are in phase. The interrogation cavity has a measured resonance frequency of 6.835056471 GHz with a loaded quality factor of nearly 4200, which shows good agreement with simulation results. We measure the Rabi frequency of the clock transition of the rubidium atom in each microwave interaction zone, and subsequently demonstrate that the distributions of the magnetic field in the two interaction zones are the same and meet all requirements of the rubidium SCAC. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11034008), the Fund from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013YQ09094304), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium: An advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon; Olson, Abraham

    2008-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) can be used to modify the optical response of an atomic medium to a resonant laser field. In EIT, a non-resonant pump laser beam can result in the reduction of absorption of a weak, resonant probe laser beam, provided the fields are coherently coupled by a common state. EIT provides a unique means of coherently controlling photons and has potential applications in fields ranging from quantum computing to telecommunications. In this advanced laboratory we describe the theory and experiment for investigating ladder-type EIT in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam tuned across the 5S 1/2 to 5P 3/2 transition (780.2 nm) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam tuned to the 5P 3/2 to 5D 5/2 transition (776.0 nm) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. Using grating-feedback diode lasers, we observe EIT experimentally in rubidium gas and compare the results to the theoretical model. Applications of EIT to high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy are also discussed. This laboratory uses much of the same equipment as the saturated absorption experiment commonly performed on the D2 line in rubidium, so it is easily implemented in laboratories with the equipment to conduct that experiment.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium: An advanced undergraduate laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon; Olson, Abraham

    2008-05-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a quantum interference effect used to modify the optical response of an atomic medium to a resonant laser field. In EIT, a non-resonant pump laser beam can result in the reduction of absorption of a weak, resonant probe laser beam, provided the fields are coherently coupled by a common state. EIT provides a unique means of coherently controlling photons and has potential applications in fields ranging from quantum computing to telecommunications. In this advanced laboratory we describe the theory and experiment for investigating ladder-type EIT in rubidium gas. The theoretical absorption profile of a weak probe laser beam tuned across the 5S 1/2 to 5P 3/2 transition (780.2 nm) is modeled in the presence of a strong coupling laser beam tuned to the 5P 3/2 to 5D 5/2 transition (776.0 nm) and the absorption transparency window is characterized. Using grating-feedback diode lasers, we observe EIT experimentally in rubidium gas and compare the results to the theoretical model. Applications of EIT to high-resolution two-photon spectroscopy are also discussed. This laboratory uses much of the same equipment as the saturated absorption experiment commonly performed on the D2 line in rubidium, so it is easily implemented in laboratories with the equipment to conduct that experiment.

  11. Electronically excited rubidium atom in a helium cluster or film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Viel, Alexandra; Zillich, Robert E.

    2008-11-01

    We present theoretical studies of helium droplets and films doped with one electronically excited rubidium atom Rb∗ (P2). Diffusion and path integral Monte Carlo approaches are used to investigate the energetics and the structure of clusters containing up to 14 helium atoms. The surface of large clusters is approximated by a helium film. The nonpair additive potential energy surface is modeled using a diatomic in molecule scheme. Calculations show that the stable structure of Rb∗Hen consists of a seven helium atom ring centered at the rubidium, surrounded by a tirelike second solvation shell. A very different structure is obtained when performing a "vertical Monte Carlo transition." In this approach, a path integral Monte Carlo equilibration starts from the stable configuration of a rubidium atom in the electronic ground state adsorbed to the helium surface after switching to the electronically excited surface. In this case, Rb∗Hen relaxes to a weakly bound metastable state in which Rb∗ sits in a shallow dimple. The interpretation of the results is consistent with the recent experimental observations [G. Auböck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 035301 (2008)].

  12. 40 CFR 82.21-82.22 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 82.21-82.22 Section 82.21-82.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls §§ 82.21-82.22...

  13. Studies of atomic properties of francium and rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Galvan, Adrian

    High precision measurements of atomic properties are excellent probes for electroweak interaction studies at the lowest possible energy range. The extraction of standard model coupling constants relies on a unique combination of experimental measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. It is only through stringent comparison between experimental and theoretical values of atomic properties that a successful experiment can take place. Francium, with its heavy nucleus and alkali structure that makes it amenable to laser cooling and trapping, stands as an ideal test bed for such studies. Our group has successfully created, trapped and cooled several isotopes of francium, the heaviest of the alkalies, and demonstrated that precision studies of atomic properties, such as the measurement of the 8S 1/2 excited state lifetime of 210Fr presented here, are feasible. Further work in our program of electroweak studies requires a better control of the electromagnetic environment observed by the sample of cold atoms as well as a lower background pressure (10-10 torr or better). We have designed and adapted to our previous setup a new "science" vacuum chamber that fulfills these requirements and the transport system that will transfer the francium atoms to the new chamber. We use this new experimental setup as well as a rubidium glass cell to perform precision studies of atomic and nuclear properties of rubidium. Spectroscopic studies of the most abundant isotopes of rubidium, 85Rb and 87Rb, are a vital component in our program. Performing measurements in rubidium allows us to do extensive and rigorous searches of systematics that can be later extrapolated to francium. We present a precision lifetime measurement of the 5D 3/2 state of 87Rb and a measurement of hyperfine splittings of the 6S1/2 level of 87Rb and 85Rb. The quality of the data of the latter allows us to observe a hyperfine anomaly attributed to an isotopic difference of the magnetization distribution

  14. Was Bijvoet right? Sodium rubidium (+)-tartrate tetrahydrate revisited.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Martin; Schreurs, Antoine M M

    2008-08-01

    The first determination of the absolute configuration of an organic compound was published in 1951 on sodium rubidium (+)-tartrate tetrahydrate, Na(+).Rb(+).C(4)H(4)O(6)(2-).4H(2)O, but the atomic coordinates are not available in the public literature. This structure has therefore been redetermined using current equipment. The most up-to-date techniques for the determination of the absolute configuration have been applied and the question posed in the title can be answered with an unequivocal 'yes'. PMID:18682641

  15. Measurements of myocardial flow vs. extraction of rubidium under varying physiological conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Moyer, B.R.; Twitchell, J.A.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial rubidium extraction (E) and flow (F) are well described by the single capillary model E = (1-exp(-PS/F)) with a permeability surface product PS = 0.87 cc/min/gm. Some effects of alkalosis and acidosis have been reported. Here the authors investigate the effects of dipyridamole, norepinephrine-atropine, exsanguination, pacing, ouabain and calcium on extraction using Rb-82 PET and Rb-86 acute studies with microspheres in dogs. Thoracotomies were performed for left atrial microsphere infusion. Anesthesia was by N/sub 2/O and methoxyflurane. The degree of exsanguination, drug levels administered and pacing rates were sufficient to produce flow modifications. Extraction was calculated by dividing FE from Rb observations by F from microsphere data. These results of extraction vs. flow do not show a significant dependence on the method used for flow modification. There was less than a 20% change in FE after an infusion of 0.04 mg/kg ouabain over 5 minutes in 3 replicate studies each on 4 dogs. An important finding not previously explained in flow vs. extraction studies is the occurrence of extraction values greater than 1.0 which is possible only if the distribution opportunities of small cations are greater than that of microspheres. This is equivalent to the well known hematocrit effect in small channels.

  16. Rubidium atomic frequency standards for GPS Block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standards (RAFS) were provided for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These satellites will replenish and upgrade the space segment of the Global Positioning System in the mid 1990s. The GPS RAFS Rb clocks are the latest generation of the high-performance rubidium frequency standards. They offer an aging rate in the low pp 10(exp 14)/day range and a drift-corrected 1-day stability in the low pp 10(exp 14) range. The Block IIR version of these devices will have improved performance, higher reliability, smaller size, and greater radiation hardness. The GPS Block IIR atomic clocks have a natural frequency configuration whereby they output a frequency of about 13.4 MHz that is a submultiple of the atomic resonance of Rb (or Cs). The RAFS operates at a low, fixed C-field for increased stability. The GPS Block IIR RAFS design, including the changes and improvements made, and the test results obtained are described.

  17. The Rubidium-Crystal Oscillator Hybrid Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vig, J. R.; Rosati, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    The rubidium-crystal oscillator hybrid (RbXO) will make precise time available to systems that lack the power required by atomic frequency standards. The RbXO consists of two subassemblies in separate enclosures. One contains a small rubidium frequency standard (RFS) without its internal oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), plus interface circuits. The second contains a low-power OCXO, and additional interface circuits. The OCXO is on continuously. Periodically, e.g., once a week, the user system applies power to the RFS. After the few necessary for the warmup of the RFS, the interface circuits adjust the frequency of the OCXO to the RFS reference, then shut off the RFS. The OCXO enclosure is separable from the RFS enclosure so that manpacks will be able to operate with minimum size, weight, and power consumption, while having the accuracy of the RFS for the duration of a mission. A prototype RbXO's RFS has operated successfully for 4200 on-off cycles. Parallel efforts on a Phase 2 RbXO development are in progress. Two sources for the RbXO are scheduled to be available during 1986.

  18. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. PMID:26920559

  19. Three-dimensional volumetric display in rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Isaac I.; Korevaar, Eric J.; Hakakha, Harel

    1996-03-01

    The successful demonstration of a novel 3D volumetric display based on the intersection of two low power diode laser beams in an atomic vapor is presented. A 780 nm laser and a 630 nm laser are directed via mirrors and x-y scanners towards an enclosure containing rubidium vapor, where they intersect at 90 degrees. Rubidium atoms within the small intersection volume undergo 5s1/2 to 5p3/2 excitation from the 780 nm laser, and then 5p3/2 to 6d5/2 excitation from the 630 nm laser, resulting in red omnidirectional fluorescence from the intersection point. Tuning of the lasers to the exact excitation wavelengths resulted in an extended red spot with maximum brightness. By tuning the lasers slightly off the transition wavelengths, a very localized red spot with slightly less brightness was produced. A series of intersection points were scanned in a time less than the eye's 15 Hz refresh rate to create true 3D volumetric images such as a floating cube and rotating globe, which were viewable from many angles. The maximum speed of the mechanical scanners limited the complexity of the 3D images. By incorporating higher power lasers and faster acousto-optical scanners, this technique could allow the 3D viewing of real time air traffic control, medical images, or theater battlefield management.

  20. Cell rubidium uptake: a method for studying functional heterogeneity in the nephron

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.B.; Bluemner, E.G.; Giebisch, G.; Thurau, K.

    1988-03-01

    Rubidium uptake into individual tubule cells of rat renal cortex as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis on freeze dried cryosections was used as an index of potassium transport. Over a 30 second period following intravenous infusion of rubidium (0.5 mmol/kg body wt) rubidium content increased in all cells. After 30 seconds, rubidium contents were (in mmol/kg dry wt): 225 +/- 8 in distal convoluted tubule cells, 156 +/- 7 in connecting tubule cells, 110 +/- 7 in principal cells, 86 +/- 4 in proximal tubule cells and 24 +/- 2 in intercalated cells (mean +/- SEM). When distal sodium and potassium transport were stimulated by hypertonic saline loading, rubidium uptake was selectively increased into distal convoluted tubule cells by 38%, into connecting tubule cells by 36%, and into principal cells by 52%. However, rubidium uptake into proximal tubule and into intercalated cells remained unchanged. The preferential uptake of rubidium into distal convoluted tubule cells, connecting tubule cells, and principal cells correlates well with the known transport functions of sodium and potassium, whereas intercalated cells are distinguished by low sodium and potassium transport activity.

  1. Measurement of the lifetime of rubidium atoms in a dark magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakova, O I; Yakovlev, A V; Chapovskii, P L

    2008-09-30

    The lifetimes of rubidium atoms in a dark magneto-optical trap are measured at different populations of the 'bright' and 'dark' hyperfine states of captured atoms. It is found that the lifetime of atoms in the trap decreases if they spend more time in the bright state. A simple explanation of this effect is proposed which is based on the increase in the transport cross section for collisions of thermal rubidium atoms surrounding the trap with cold rubidium atoms upon their electronic excitation. (laser cooling)

  2. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  3. Anomalous two-photon spectral features in warm rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrella, C.; Light, P. S.; Milburn, T. J.; Kielpinski, D.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    We report observation of anomalous fluorescence spectral features in the environs of a two-photon transition in a rubidium vapor when excited with two different wavelength lasers that are both counterpropagating through the vapor. These features are characterized by an unusual trade-off between the detunings of the driving fields. Three different hypothetical processes are presented to explain the observed spectra: a simultaneous three-atom and four-photon collision, a four-photon excitation involving a light field produced via amplified spontaneous emission, and population pumping perturbing the expected steady-state spectra. Numerical modeling of each hypothetical process is presented, supporting the population pumping process as the most plausible mechanism.

  4. Laser-pumped paraffin-coated cell rubidium frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Bandi, Thejesh; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2012-06-15

    We have realized and studied a rubidium atomic frequency standard based on a paraffin-coated cell, exhibiting a short-term frequency stability <3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} {tau}{sup -1/2} between {tau} = 1 and 100 s. Characterization of the wall-coating is performed by measuring the T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} relaxation times. Perturbations of the medium- to long-term clock stability, due to variations in the laser-intensity, laser frequency, the microwave power shift, and the shifts due to temperature variations are measured and analyzed. A method for reducing the intensity light-shift by detuning the laser frequency and the resulting improvement in clock stability is demonstrated. This work is of relevance for further improvements on Rb cell standards using anti-relaxation wall-coating technology.

  5. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: Transient regime

    SciTech Connect

    Becerra, F. E.; Willis, R. T.; Rolston, S. L.; Orozco, L. A.; Carmichael, H. J.

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the transient response of the generated light from four-wave mixing (FWM) in the diamond configuration using a step-down field excitation. The transients show fast decay times and oscillations that depend on the detunings and intensities of the fields. A simplified model taking into account the thermal motion of the atoms, propagation, absorption, and dispersion effects shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations with the energy levels in rubidium (5S{sub 1/2}, 5P{sub 1/2}, 5P{sub 3/2}, and 6S{sub 1/2}). The atomic polarization comes from all the contributions of different velocity classes of atoms in the ensemble modifying dramatically the total transient behavior of the light from FWM.

  6. Tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter.

    PubMed

    Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Xiong, Junyu; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-21

    A tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter working at optical communication wavelength (1.5 μm) is realized. The filter achieves a peak transmittance of 57.6% with a double-peak structure, in which each one has a bandwidth of 600 MHz. Benefiting from the Voigt type structure, the magnetic field of the filter can be tuned from 0 to 1600 gauss, and a peak transmittance tunability of 1.6 GHz can thus be realized. Different from the excited state Faraday type filter, the pump efficiency in the Voigt filter is affected a lot by the pump polarization. Measured absorption results of the pump laser and transmittances of the signal laser both prove that the vertical linear polarization pumping is the most efficient in the Voigt filter. PMID:27136803

  7. Linewidth-tunable laser diode array for rubidium laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyong; Tan Rongqing; Xu Cheng; Li Lin

    2013-02-28

    To optimise the pump source for a high-power diodepumped rubidium vapour laser, we have designed a laser diode array (LDA) with a narrowed and tunable linewidth and an external cavity formed by two volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Through controlling the temperature differences between the two VBGs, the LDA linewidth, which was 1.8 nm before mounting the two VBGs, was tunable from 100 pm to 0.2 nm, while the output power changed by no more than 4 %. By changing simultaneously the temperature in both VBGs, the centre wavelength in air of the linewidth-tunable LDA was tunable from 779.40 nm to 780.05 nm. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  8. Experimental research of a chain of diode pumped rubidium amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfei; Hua, Weihong; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have set up a diode pumped rubidium MOPA system with a chain of two amplifiers. The experimental results show an amplified laser power of 26W with amplification factor of 16.3 and power extraction efficiency of 53% for a single amplifier, and an amplified laser power of 11W with amplification factor of 7.9 and power extraction efficiency of 26% for a chain of two amplifiers. The reason for lower performance of cascade amplification is mainly due to the limited total pump power, which will be not sufficient for efficient pumping when assigned from a single amplifier into two amplifiers. The situation could be well improved by increasing the seed laser power as well as the pump power for each amplifier to realize high efficient saturated amplification. Such MOPA configuration has the potential for scaling high beam quality alkali laser into high powers. PMID:26480105

  9. Experimental research of a chain of diode pumped rubidium amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfei; Hua, Weihong; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have set up a diode pumped rubidium MOPA system with a chain of two amplifiers. The experimental results show an amplified laser power of 26W with amplification factor of 16.3 and power extraction efficiency of 53% for a single amplifier, and an amplified laser power of 11W with amplification factor of 7.9 and power extraction efficiency of 26% for a chain of two amplifiers. The reason for lower performance of cascade amplification is mainly due to the limited total pump power, which will be not sufficient for efficient pumping when assigned from a single amplifier into two amplifiers. The situation could be well improved by increasing the seed laser power as well as the pump power for each amplifier to realize high efficient saturated amplification. Such MOPA configuration has the potential for scaling high beam quality alkali laser into high powers.

  10. Interactions of Rubidium and Metastable Argon at Ultracold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, M. K.

    2005-05-01

    We are investigating the interaction between ultracold rubidium (Rb) and ultracold metastable argon (Ar*) simultaneously confined in a dual species magneto-optical trap (MOT). We will report on recent quantitative measurements of the inter-species trap loss coefficients and present our preliminary results on photoassociative spectra of the Rb-Ar* complex. We will also report on studies of Penning and associative ionization in the MOT using a modified residual gas analyzer (RGA) as a detector. Finally, we will discuss the prospects for producing and spatially confining ultracold ground state RbAr, a weakly-bound van der Waals molecule. Support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research.

  11. STS-82 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery touches down in darkness on Runway 15 of the KSC Shuttle Landing Facility, bringing to a close the 10-day STS-82 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Main gear touchdown was at 3:32:26 a.m. EST on February 21, 1997. It was the ninth nighttime landing in the history of the Shuttle program and the 35th landing at KSC. The first landing opportunity at KSC was waved off because of low clouds in the area. The seven-member crew performed a record- tying five back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks to service the telescope, which has been in orbit for nearly seven years. Two new scientific instruments were installed, replacing two outdated instruments. Five spacewalks also were performed on the first servicing mission, STS-61, in December 1993. Only four spacewalks were scheduled for STS-82, but a fifth one was added during the flight to install several thermal blankets over some aging insulation covering three HST compartments containing key data processing, electronics and scientific instrument telemetry packages. Crew members are Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. STS-82 was the 82nd Space Shuttle flight and the second mission of 1997.

  12. Galaxy M82

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A colorful image showing violent star formation triggered when two galaxies bumped into each other has been captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    In the image, the starburst galaxy M82 has a disturbed appearance caused by violent activity after an ancient encounter with its large galactic neighbor, M81. The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/pictures/wfpc .

    The huge lanes of dust that crisscross M82's disk are another telltale sign of the flurry of star formation. Below the center and to the right, a strong galactic wind is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas. More than 100 super star clusters -- very bright, compact groupings of about 100,000 stars -- appear as white dots sprinkled throughout the galaxy's central area. The dark area just above center is a huge dust cloud.

    A collaboration of European and American scientists used these clusters to date the interaction between M82 and M81 to about 600 million years ago, when a region called M82 B (the bright area just below and to the left of the central dust cloud) exploded with new stars. Scientists have found that this ancient starburst was triggered by the encounter with M81. The results are published in the February 2001 issue of the Astronomical Journal.

    This discovery provides evidence linking the birth of super star clusters to violent interaction between galaxies. These clusters also provide insight into the rough-and-tumble universe of long ago, when galaxies bumped into each other more frequently.

    M82 is located 12 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Ursa Major. The picture was taken Sept. 15, 1997. The natural-color composite was constructed from three exposures taken with blue, green and red filters.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space operations for the Hubble Space Telescope

  13. Rubidium-Strontium Formation Age of Allan Hills 84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Reese, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our preferred age for the formation of carbonates in the martian meteorite ALH 84001 is 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) equals 0.01402 Ga (exp -1), or 3.85 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) = 0.0142 Ga(exponent -1). This age is determined by a three-point Rb-Sr isochron defined by leachates of high-graded carbonate-rich material. Major cation and especially phosphorous analyses of the leachates permit contributions from igneous whitlockite to be recognized for low-acidity leachates, and the corresponding data are omitted from the isochron. Data for the two highest acidity leachates plot close to the preferred isochron, but are omitted because we believe they contain contributions leached from the pyroxene substrate on which most of the carbonates are found. Nevertheless, the isochron age for all five highest-acidity leachates is 3.94 plus or minus 0.04 Ga, and is within error of the age obtained for the more restricted data set. All leachates used to define the isochron have major cation compositions that are singular to those obtained by microprobe analyses of the carbonate rosettes and are consistent with progressive digestion of the carbonates according to their composition. The age thus obtained for the carbonates is about 600 m.y. younger than the crystalization age of ALH 84001 determined by Sm-Nd analyses but is within error limits of the age of impact metamorphism inferred from the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar systematics of silicates. which yield ages of 3.85 plus or minus 0.05 Ga and 4.05- 3.80 Ga to 4.3-3.8 Ga, respectively. Similarities between the carbonate crystallization age and the age of impact metamorphism as determined by Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr suggest that the carbonate formation is impact-related. Nevertheless, both high and low- temperature scenarios for the origin of the carbonates are possible.

  14. Production of complex rubidium and cesium hydrogen sulfate‒phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komornikov, V. A.; Grebenev, V. V.; Makarova, I. P.; Selezneva, E. V.; Andreev, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    The solubility in the CsH2PO4‒CsHSO4‒H2O system at different temperatures (25, 50, and 75°C) is studied and the phase equilibria in the Rb3H(SO4)2‒RbH2PO4‒H2O system under isothermal conditions (at 25°C) are analyzed. The temperature and concentration conditions for forming Rb2(HSO4)(H2PO4), Rb4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs3(HSO4)2(H2PO4), Cs2(HSO4)(H2PO4), and Cs6H(HSO4)3(H2PO4)4 compounds (the latter has been obtained for the first time) are determined. The conditions for growing large single crystals of complex acid rubidium and cesium salts are found.

  15. Distribution of rubidium between sodic sanidine and natural silicic liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Hedge, C.E.

    1970-01-01

    Phenocrysts of sodic sanidine from twelve upper Cenozoic units of silicic ash-flow tuff and lava from the Western United States contain from 0.25 to 0.45 the Rb present in the associated groundmass materials. The ratios of potassium to rubidium in the sanidines are, on the average, about four times greater than those of the groundmass. Separation of phenocrystic sanidine from salic melts provides an efficient method for raising the Rb content and lowering the K/Rb ratio of the melts, although the amount of differentiation probably is limited by continuous reequilibration of the alkalis between crystal and liquid phases through ion exchange. Syenites of cumulate origin will have appreciably lower Rb contents and higher K/Rb ratios than the melts from which they precipitated. Available data on the distribution of Rb between synthetic biotite and K-sanidine demonstrate that the separation of biotite probably will not deplete salic melts in Rb relative to K. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  16. The system design of a rubidium maser frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, C. X.

    1984-01-01

    The Rubidium Maser Frequency Standard is a precision frequency source with excellent short-term stability. A type PBR-II Rb maser frequency standard was developed by the Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement (BIRMM). The time-domain frequency stability (two-sample variance) of this frequency standard is less than 1/5 times 10 to the 13th power for t=10ms yields 1.0s, fh=1.0 KHz. Two PBR-II frequency standards were used as reference frequency sources in a frequency stability measurement system. Some important system characteristics for the PBR-II Rb maser frequency standard such as phase noise and frequency stability transfer characteristics are discussed. Furthermore, the design of the frequency standard for optimum frequency stability of the output signal; the choice of a voltage controlled crystal oscillator for the frequency standard; the design of the phase-locked loop; and the frequency stability test results on the PBR-II are discussed.

  17. Influence of modulation frequency in rubidium cell frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, C.; Viennet, J.; Cyr, N.; Vanier, J.

    1983-01-01

    The error signal which is used to control the frequency of the quartz crystal oscillator of a passive rubidium cell frequency standard is considered. The value of the slope of this signal, for an interrogation frequency close to the atomic transition frequency is calculated and measured for various phase (or frequency) modulation waveforms, and for several values of the modulation frequency. A theoretical analysis is made using a model which applies to a system in which the optical pumping rate, the relaxation rates and the RF field are homogeneous. Results are given for sine-wave phase modulation, square-wave frequency modulation and square-wave phase modulation. The influence of the modulation frequency on the slope of the error signal is specified. It is shown that the modulation frequency can be chosen as large as twice the non-saturated full-width at half-maximum without a drastic loss of the sensitivity to an offset of the interrogation frequency from center line, provided that the power saturation factor and the amplitude of modulation are properly adjusted.

  18. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  19. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, U.

    1986-04-01

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear.

  20. Excitation and emission spectra of rubidium in rare-gas thin-films

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Sin, Kyungseob; Momose, Takamasa

    2012-07-07

    To understand the optical properties of atoms in solid state matrices, the absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of rubidium doped thin-films of argon, krypton, and xenon were investigated in detail. A two-dimensional spectral analysis extends earlier reports on the excitation and emission properties of rubidium in rare-gas hosts. We found that the doped crystals of krypton and xenon exhibit a simple absorption-emission relation, whereas rubidium in argon showed more complicated spectral structures. Our sample preparation employed in the present work yielded different results for the Ar crystal, but our peak positions were consistent with the prediction based on the linear extrapolation of Xe and Kr data. We also observed a bleaching behavior in rubidium excitation spectra, which suggests a population transfer from one to another spectral feature due to hole-burning. The observed optical response implies that rubidium in rare-gas thin-films is detectable with extremely high sensitivity, possibly down to a single atom level, in low concentration samples.

  1. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  2. Rubidium-mediated birch-type reduction of 1,2-diphenylbenzene in tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed

    Krieck, Sven; Kretschmer, Robert; Görls, Helmar; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2011-05-11

    The reaction of 1,2-diphenylbenzene with rubidium metal in THF yields extremely sensitive and pyrophoric [η(5)-{1,2-diphenyl-2,5-cyclohexadienyl}rubidium](∞) (1). Compound 1 characterizes a possible intermediate in a Birch-type reaction and represents a very rare example of a fully characterized organorubidium complex as well as an open main-group metal pentadienide as part of a six-membered ring. In the solid state the rubidium atoms interact with the cyclohexadienyl moiety, whereas the coordination sphere of the soft cation is additionally stabilized exclusively by several metal π-arene interactions despite the presence of strongly coordinating donors. The bonding situation was elucidated by MP2/def2-TZVPP calculations including population analysis.

  3. Microresonator Brillouin laser stabilization using a microfabricated rubidium cell.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Hummon, Matthew T; Leopardi, Holly F; Fortier, Tara M; Quinlan, Frank; Kitching, John; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2016-06-27

    We frequency stabilize the output of a miniature stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) laser to rubidium atoms in a microfabricated cell to realize a laser system with frequency stability at the 10-11 level over seven decades in averaging time. In addition, our system has the advantages of robustness, low cost and the potential for integration that would lead to still further miniaturization. The SBS laser operating at 1560 nm exhibits a spectral linewidth of 820 Hz, but its frequency drifts over a few MHz on the 1 hour timescale. By locking the second harmonic of the SBS laser to the Rb reference, we reduce this drift by a factor of 103 to the level of a few kHz over the course of an hour. For our combined SBS and Rb laser system, we measure a frequency noise of 4 × 104 Hz2/Hz at 10 Hz offset frequency which rapidly rolls off to a level of 0.2 Hz2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The corresponding Allan deviation is ≤2 × 10-11 for averaging times spanning 10-4 to 103 s. By optically dividing the signal of the laser down to microwave frequencies, we generate an RF signal at 2 GHz with phase noise at the level of -76 dBc/Hz and -140 dBc/Hz at offset frequencies of 10 Hz and 10 kHz, respectively. PMID:27410604

  4. Resonance transition 795-nm Rubidium laser using 3He buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S S; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2007-08-02

    We report the first demonstration of a 795-nm Rubidium resonance transition laser using a buffer gas consisting of pure {sup 3}He. This follows our recent demonstration of a hydrocarbon-free 795-nm Rubidium resonance laser which used naturally-occurring He as the buffer gas. Using He gas that is isotopically enriched with {sup 3}He yields enhanced mixing of the Rb fine-structure levels. This enables efficient lasing at reduced He buffer gas pressure, improving thermal management in high average power Rb lasers and enhancing the power scaling potential of such systems.

  5. Radiation trapping in rubidium optical pumping at low buffer-gas pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberry, M. A.; Reyes, J. P.; Gay, T. J.; Tupa, D.

    2007-02-15

    We have made a systematic study of rubidium optical pumping in a simple cylindrical cell geometry with a high-power 10 W diode laser array, low magnetic fields, and buffer-gas pressures of less than 50 torr. We have determined rubidium polarizations experimentally for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, He, and Ar buffer gases, with Rb number densities from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Comparison to a relatively simple optical pumping model allows us to extract useful information about radiation trapping and quenching effects.

  6. Methods and evaluation of frequency aging in distributed-feedback laser diodes for rubidium atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Matthey, Renaud; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    Distributed-feedback laser diodes emitting at 780 nm have been evaluated, with respect to the aging of the injection current required for reaching the rubidium D2 resonance line. Results obtained for lasers operating in air and in vacuum for 9 months are reported. When operated at constant temperature, the laser current required for emission at the wavelength of the desired atomic resonance is found to decrease by 50 to 80 μA per month. The impact of this result on the lifetime and long-term performances of laser-pumped rubidium atomic clocks is discussed.

  7. Continuous generation of rubidium vapor in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Donvalkar, Prathamesh S; Ramelow, Sven; Clemmen, Stéphane; Gaeta, Alexander L

    2015-11-15

    We demonstrate high optical depths (50±5) that last for hours in rubidium-filled hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers, which represent a 1000× improvement over the operation times previously reported. We investigate the vapor generation mechanism using both a continuous wave and a pulsed light source, and find that the mechanism for generating the rubidium atoms is primarily due to thermal vaporization. The continuous generation of large vapor densities should enable measurements at the single-photon level by averaging over longer time scales. PMID:26565879

  8. Selectivity of ion exchangers in extracting cesium and rubidium from alkaline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelkovnikova, L. A.; Kargov, S. I.; Gavlina, O. T.; Ivanov, V. A.; Al'tshuler, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    We compare the ion exchange selectivity of phenol-type sorbents based on phenol formaldehyde resins, products of condensation of diatomic phenols with formaldehyde, and crosslinked polymer based on C-phenyl[4]resorcinarene resin, for cesium and rubidium ions. It is shown that phenol formaldehyde sorbents are the ones most selective. The interaction of alkali metal cations with the anion of calix[4]arene is investigated via quantum-chemical modeling. It is shown that the selectivity toward cesium and rubidium ions in ion exchangers of the phenolic type is not due to specific interactions of ions with phenolic groups.

  9. RUBIDIUM, a program for computer-aided assignment of two-dimensional NMR spectra of polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, C; Hwang, J F; Chen, T B; Soo, V W

    1992-01-01

    Taking advantage of the rule-based expert system technology, a program named RUBIDIUM (Rule-Based Identification In 2D NMR Spectrum) was developed to accomplish the automatic 1H NMR resonance assignments of polypeptides. Besides noise elimination and peak selection capabilities, RUBIDIUM detects the cross-peak patterns of amino acid residues in the COSY spectrum, assigning these patterns to amino acid types, performing sequential assignments using combined COSY/NOESY spectra, and finally, achieving the total assignment of the 1H NMR spectrum.

  10. Collisional shift of hyperfine line for rubidium in an atmosphere of the buffer inert gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Khetselius, O. Yu; Lopatkin, Y. M.; Florko, T. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Mansarliysky, V. F.

    2014-11-01

    New relativistic approach, based on the relativistic many-body perturbation theory using optimized wave functions sets, is applied to calculate the hyper fine structure collision shift for rubidium atom in atmosphere of the helium inert gas. Data for the collisional shifts of the Rb-He system are presented and compared with data available in the literature.

  11. Rydberg-Rydberg interaction in the second-harmonic generation from rubidium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, Natalia R. de; Vianna, Sandra S.

    2008-02-15

    We report on the observation of long range interaction in the second-harmonic generation from rubidium Rydberg atoms. The asymmetric spectral broadening of the resonant lines provides evidence of the van der Waals interaction between pairs of Rydberg atoms. This effect is investigated when the two-photon transition is resonant with nd levels for n{approx_equal}13.

  12. Preparation of high-principal-quantum-number circular'' states of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Nussenzveig, P.; Bernardot, F.; Brune, M.; Hare, J.; Raimond, J.M.; Haroche, S.; Gawlik, W. )

    1993-11-01

    We describe a rubidium circular-state-preparation technique suited to high principal quantum numbers. It combines an excellent selectivity and a good efficiency. Preliminary spectroscopic tests on the [ital n]=50[r arrow][ital n]=51 circular to circular transition at 51 GHz are reported.

  13. Rubidium marking to detect pest and predator dispersal from corn into sorghum and cotton in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This field study evaluated marking both the pest Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and its predator Orius insidiosus (Say) with rubidium chloride (RbCl) in corn to detect their dispersal from corn into sorghum and cotton. Small sorghum and cotton plots were planted at the interface, or common boundary, of co...

  14. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  15. Rubidium beam flux dependence of film properties of Ba1 - xRbxBiO3 deposited by molecular-beam epitaxy using distilled ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogihara, M.; Toda, F.; Makita, T.; Abe, H.

    1993-10-01

    We have focused our attention on the dependence of Ba1-xRbxBiO3 (BRBO) film composition ratio and film properties on rubidium-beam-flux intensity. BRBO films were deposited on MgO(100) substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) using distilled ozone. Systematic measurements showed that the rubidium content was nearly independent of rubidium-beam-flux intensity in a wide beam-flux range. Therefore, it can be concluded that some degree of self-control of rubidium stoichiometry is actually possible in BRBO film growth by MBE. This study also revealed that the BRBO film properties had strong dependences on rubidium-beam-flux intensity even in the range for self-control of rubudium stoichiometry. Our study also clarified that rubidium-beam flux affects the barium content in the BRBO film.

  16. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source.

  17. Highly reliable optical system for a rubidium space cold atom clock.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Yanguang; Wang, Bin; Xia, Wenbing; Qu, Qiuzhi; Xiang, Jingfeng; Dong, Zuoren; Lü, Desheng; Liu, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We describe a highly reliable optical system designed for a rubidium space cold atom clock (SCAC), presenting its design, key technologies, and optical components. All of the optical and electronic components are integrated onto an optimized two-sided 300  mm×290  mm×30  mm optical bench. The compact optical structure and special thermal design ensure that the optical system can pass all of the space environmental qualification tests including both thermal vacuum and mechanical tests. To verify its performance, the optical system is carefully checked before and after each test. The results indicate that this optical system is suitably robust for the space applications for which the rubidium SCAC was built. PMID:27140378

  18. A Doppler-limited rubidium atlas in ascii format, 9500-12 300 cm -1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Amanda J.; Bertrand, Victor; Harker, Heather; Crozet, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    We present a Doppler-limited transmission spectrum of the rubidium dimer, suitable for frequency calibration of near infrared (e.g. Ti:sapphire) excitation experiments in the region 9500-12 300 cm -1. It provides an abundant source of reference peaks that can be used in a graphic environment to calibrate short (<1 cm -1) scans of excitation spectrum. This is a sequel to an iodine atlas in ascii format [1] that we routinely use for the same purpose in the visible spectrum. The rubidium spectrum was recorded at an instrumental resolution of 0.018 cm -1. Absolute precision is expected to be ˜0.005 cm -1, and relative precision ˜0.003 cm -1. The Rb 2 A-X transmission spectrum is available in ascii format, as supplementary material.

  19. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source. PMID:26685233

  20. Rubidium-strontium date of possibly 3 billion years for a granitic rock from antarctica.

    PubMed

    Halpern, M

    1970-09-01

    A single total rock sample of biotite granite from Jule Peaks, Antarctica, has been dated by the rubidium-strontium method at about 3 billion years. The juxtaposition of this sector of Antarctica with Africa in the Dietz and Sproll continental drift reconstruction results in a possible geochronologic fit of the Princess Martha Coast of Antarctica with a covered possible notheastern extension of the African Swaziland Shield, which contains granitic rocks that are also 3 billion years old.

  1. Age Determination by X-ray Fluorescence Rubidium-Strontium Ratio Measurement in Lepidolite.

    PubMed

    Herzog, L F

    1960-07-29

    X-ray fluorescence analysis of several lepidolites whose rubidium and strontium concentrations had already been determined by neutron activation and stable isotope dilution, or both, indicates that this technique can be used for rapid nondestructive reconnaissance rubidiumstrontium studies, and that an x-ray analysis method comparable in accuracy to isotope dilution can probably be developed for dating Precambrian lepidolites, as the simple technique presently used has many obvious possibilities for improvement.

  2. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  3. Rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon age of lunar sample 15555.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Evensen, N. M.; Jahn, B. M.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar mare basalt 15555 from the edge of Hadley Rille has been dated at 3.3 b.y. by both rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon techniques. Age and trace element abundances closely resemble those of the Apollo 12 mare basalts. Data from lunar basalts obtained thus far indicate that they cannot be derived by simple fractionation from a homogeneous source.

  4. Frequency stability of maser oscillators operated with cavity Q. [hydrogen and rubidium masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetu, M.; Tremblay, P.; Lesage, P.; Petit, P.; Audoin, C.

    1982-01-01

    The short term frequency stability of masers equipped with an external feedback loop to increase the cavity quality factor was studied. The frequency stability of a hydrogen and a rubidium maser were measured and compared with theoretical evaluation. It is shown that the frequency stability passes through an optimum when the cavity Q is varied. Long term fluctuations are discussed and the optimum mid term frequency stability achievably by small size active and passive H-masers is considered.

  5. Probing dipole-dipole interaction in a rubidium gas via double-quantum 2D spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Cundiff, Steven T; Li, Hebin

    2016-07-01

    We have implemented double-quantum 2D spectroscopy on a rubidium vapor and shown that this technique provides sensitive and background-free detection of the dipole-dipole interaction. The 2D spectra include signals from both individual atoms and interatomic interactions, allowing quantitative studies of the interaction. A theoretical model based on the optical Bloch equations is used to reproduce the experimental spectrum and confirm the origin of double-quantum signals. PMID:27367074

  6. Development of a sub-miniature rubidium oscillator for SEEKTALK application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruehauf, H.; Weidemann, W.; Jechart, E.

    1981-01-01

    Warm-up and size challenges to oscillator construction are presented as well as the problems involved in these tasks. The performance of M-100 military rubidium oscillator is compared to that of a subminiture rubididum oscillator (M-1000). Methods of achieving 1.5 minute warm-up are discussed as well as improvements in performance under adverse environmental conditions, including temperature, vibration, and magnetics. An attempt is made to construct an oscillator error budget under a set of arbitrary mission conditions.

  7. Neutron scattering studies of spin excitations in superconducting Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Miaoyin; Li, Chunhong; Abernathy, Douglas L; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott V.; Lu, Xiangye; Li, Shiliang; Yamari, Zahra; Hu, Jiangping; Xiang, Tao; Dai, Pengcheng

    2012-01-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to show that superconducting (SC) rubidium iron selenide Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 exhibits antiferromagnetic (AF) spin excitations near the in-plane wave vector Q = ( ,0) identical to that for iron arsenide superconductors. Moreover, we find that these excitations change from incommensurate to commensurate with increasing energy and occur at the expense of spin waves associated with the coexisting 5 5 block AF phase. Since these spin excitations cannot come from Fermi surface nesting based on angle resolved photoemission experiments, our results indicate the presence of local moments in SC Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 that may have a similar origin as the hourglass-like spin excitations in copper oxide superconductors.

  8. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), § 82.116(a), § 82.118(a), or temporarily exempted pursuant to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that the Administrator determines for a particular... to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that...

  9. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), § 82.116(a), § 82.118(a), or temporarily exempted pursuant to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that the Administrator determines for a particular... to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that...

  10. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), § 82.116(a), § 82.118(a), or temporarily exempted pursuant to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that the Administrator determines for a particular... to § 82.120. (ii) On January 1, 2015, or any time between May 15, 1993 and January 1, 2015 that...

  11. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 82.2 Section 82.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the exportation of 5-cent coins...

  12. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Universal technician in accordance with § 82.161; (3) The buyer has been certified in accordance with 40 CFR... CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The buyer complies with § 82.166 (b) and employs at least one technician who is certified in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B, and the refrigerant is either R-12...

  13. The physics of the environmental sensitivity of rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental sensitivity is often the most significant limitation to the practical stability of rubidium frequency standards (RFS). For example, temperature sensitivity can cause a rapid frequency change of several parts in 10(exp 10) for a tactical RFS that has an aging of only 1 times 10(exp -11)/month. Other important environmental factors are barometric pressure, vibration, magnetic field, and nuclear radiation. The physical mechanisms that lie behind these environmental sensitivities are considered. These physical mechanisms are related to the performance of actual rubidium frequency standards. For the user of these devices, a better knowledge of the causes for Rb clock instability will aid in their testing and proper application. For the time frequency specialist, a review of these factors may prove useful toward improving RFS design. Some of the RFS environmental sensitivities are due to simple physical mechanisms like the effect of dc magnetic field on the Rb hyperfine resonance frequency. For these, an analysis can be based on physical principles and straightforward design factors. Other environment factors, like temperature sensitivity, are more complex combinations of many effects, both physical and practical, and the analysis often takes the form of an error budget with large unit-to-unit variations. Today's rubidium frequency standards span a wide performance range from small, inexpensive units with pp 10(exp 10) error budgets to larger, higher performance versions offering pp 10(exp 10) stabilities. For both extremes, however, environmental sensitivity can be the most significant performance limitation. Why this is the case and how to make improvements are discussed.

  14. Kinetics of Alkaline Decomposition and Cyaniding of Argentian Rubidium Jarosite in NaOH Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Eleazar Salinas; Sáenz, Eduardo Cerecedo; Ramírez, Marius; Cardona, Francisco Patiño; Labra, Miguel Pérez

    2012-10-01

    The alkaline decomposition of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media is characterized by an induction period and a progressive conversion period in which the sulfate and rubidium ions pass to the solution, leaving an amorphous iron hydroxide residue. The process is chemically controlled and the order of reaction with respect to hydroxide concentration in the range of 1.75 and 20.4 mol OH- m-3 is 0.94, while activation energy in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 328 K (25 °C to 55 °C) is 91.3 kJ mol-1. Cyaniding of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media presents a reaction order of 0 with respect to NaCN concentration (in the range of 5 to 41 mol m-3) and an order of reaction of 0.62 with respect to hydroxide concentration, in the range of 1.1 and 30 mol [OH-] m-3. In this case, the cyaniding process can be described, as in other jarosites, as the following two-step process: (1) a step (slow) of alkaline decomposition that controls the overall process followed by (2) a fast step of silver complexation. The activation energy during cyaniding in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 333 K (25 °C to 60 °C) is 43.5 kJ mol-1, which is characteristic of a process controlled by chemical reaction. These results are quite similar to that observed for several synthetic jarosites and that precipitated in a zinc hydrometallurgical plant (Industrial Minera México, San Luis Potosi).

  15. Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity of Three Polymorphic Phases of Rubidium Trefluoromethyl Sulfonate, RbSO3CF3

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt,L.; Dinnebier, R.; Jansen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of three polymorphic phases of rubidium trifluoromethyl sulfonate (RbSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}, rubidium 'triflate') were solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. At room temperature, rubidium triflate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cm with lattice parameters of a = 19.9611(5) Angstroms, b = 23.4913(7) Angstroms, c = 5.1514(2) Angstroms, = 102.758(2); Z = 16. At T = 321 K, a first-order phase transition occurs toward a monoclinic phase in space group P2{sub 1} with lattice parameters at T = 344 K of a = 10.3434(5) Angstroms, b = 5.8283(3) Angstroms, c = 5.1982(3) Angstroms, = 104.278(6); Z = (2). At T = 461 K, another phase transition, this time of second order, occurs toward an orthorhombic phase in space group Cmcm with lattice parameters at T = 510 K of a = 5.3069(2) Angstroms, b = 20.2423(10) Angstroms, c = 5.9479(2) Angstroms; Z = 4. As a common feature within all three crystal structures of rubidium triflate, the triflate anions are arranged in double layers with the lipophilic CF{sub 3} groups facing each other. The rubidium ions are located between the SO{sub 3} groups. The general packing is similar to the packing in cesium triflate. Rubidium triflate can be classified as a solid electrolyte with a specific ionic conductivity of = 9.89 x 10{sup -9} S/cm at T = 384 K and = 3.84 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at T = 481 K.

  16. Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

    1990-01-01

    Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

  17. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Ye, C.Y.; Welch, George R.; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Scully, Marlan O.

    2005-06-15

    It was shown by Kocharovskaya and Khanin [Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 945 (1986)] that a comb of optical pulses can induce a ground-state atomic coherence and change the optical response of an atomic medium. In our experiment, we studied the propagation of a comb of optical pulses produced by a mode-locked diode laser in rubidium atomic vapor. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) was observed when the pulse repetition rate is a subharmonic of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. The width of the EIT resonance is determined by the relaxation rate of the ground-state coherence. Possible applications to magnetometery, atomic clocks, and frequency chains are discussed.

  18. Degenerate mixtures of rubidium and ytterbium for engineering open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Varun Dilip

    In the last two decades, experimental progress in controlling cold atoms and ions now allows us to manipulate fragile quantum systems with an unprecedented degree of precision. This has been made possible by the ability to isolate small ensembles of atoms and ions from noisy environments, creating truly closed quantum systems which decouple from dissipative channels. However in recent years, several proposals have considered the possibility of harnessing dissipation in open systems, not only to cool degenerate gases to currently unattainable temperatures, but also to engineer a variety of interesting many-body states. This thesis will describe progress made towards building a degenerate gas apparatus that will soon be capable of realizing these proposals. An ultracold gas of ytterbium atoms, trapped by a species-selective lattice will be immersed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of rubidium atoms which will act as a bath. Here we describe the challenges encountered in making a degenerate mixture of rubidium and ytterbium atoms and present two experiments performed on the path to creating a controllable open quantum system. The first experiment will describe the measurement of a tune-out wavelength where the light shift of 87Rb vanishes. This wavelength was used to create a species-selective trap for ytterbium atoms. Furthermore, the measurement of this wavelength allowed us to extract the dipole matrix element of the 5s → 6p transition in 87Rb with an extraordinary degree of precision. Our method to extract matrix elements has found use in atomic clocks where precise knowledge of transition strengths is necessary to account for minute blackbody radiation shifts. The second experiment will present the first realization of a degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of rubidium and ytterbium atoms. Using a three-color optical dipole trap (ODT), we were able to create a highly-tunable, species-selective potential for rubidium and ytterbium atoms which allowed us to use 87

  19. Experimental study of diode pumped rubidium amplifier for single higher-order Laguerre-Gaussian modes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Cui, Wenda; Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-06-13

    In this paper, we have set up a diode laser pumped rubidium amplifier for higher-order Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes. We experimentally realized amplification of higher-order LG modes including helical and sinusoidal LG03, LG13, LG23, and LG33 modes with their high purity held. This novel scheme of generating high-purity higher-order LG beams at high laser power is preferred to the second-generation gravitational wave interferometers. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time this scheme is formulated. PMID:27410352

  20. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  1. Frequency shifts in a rubidium frequency standard due to coupling to another standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaduszliwer, Bernardo; Cook, R. A.; Frueholz, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Highly reliable timing system, such as used on board satellites, may incorporate a hot standby atomic clock besides the active one. RF couplings between them may affect the performance of the active clock. The effect of such couplings between two rubidium atomic clocks was investigated, and it was found that they will add an oscillatory term to the Allan Variance of the active clock, degrading its frequency stability, and that under certain circumstances they may also shift the active clock's operating frequency. These two effects are discussed in detail, and the level of isolation required to render them negligible is established.

  2. 28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser.

    PubMed

    Zweiback, Jason; Krupke, William F

    2010-01-18

    We present experimental results for a high-power diode pumped hydrocarbon-free rubidium laser with a scalable architecture. The laser consists of a liquid cooled, copper waveguide which serves to both guide the pump light and to provide a thermally conductive surface near the gain volume to remove heat. A laser diode stack, with a linewidth narrowed to approximately 0.35 nm with volume bragg gratings, is used to pump the cell. We have achieved 24W average power output using 4 atmospheres of naturally occurring helium ((4)He) as the buffer gas and 28W using 2.8 atmospheres of (3)He.

  3. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-17

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  4. Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-03-05

    The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].

  5. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  6. 21 CFR 82.1050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1050 General. A batch of a straight... only in drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements of § 82.5 and to...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1050 General. A batch of a straight... only in drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements of § 82.5 and to...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1050 General. A batch of a straight... only in drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements of § 82.5 and to...

  9. Quantification of the Rubidium in Beverage Products Micro Samples by Platinum-wire Loop in Flame Atomization Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kékedy-Nagy, Ladislau; Zsigmond, Andreea R; Cordoş, Emil A

    2010-12-01

    The rubidium content in 3 µL of some beverage products (beer, wine, vegetable and fruit juices) atomized from a Ptwire in the methaneair flame has been determined by atomic emission spectrometry. The flame atomization conditions of rubidium were optimized, they are: λ = 780.0 nm, the height of 8 mm over the burner head, gas flow rates of 300 L h-1 air and 34 L h-1 methane. The effect of Na, K, Cs, Sr and acetone on the emission of rubidium was studied too. The limit of quantification (6σ) obtained is of 4.3±1.8 pg in the presence of 50 mg L-1 K and 5% v/v acetone (P = 0.05). The rubidium content of the samples has been determined with continuous nebulization and by atomization from the Ptwire, using the standard calibration curve and the standard addition method. The results of the two procedures agree within the determination errors. PMID:24061895

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction of Charge Density Wave Materials and the Rubidium Isotope Effect in Superconducting RUBIDIUM(3)CARBON(60)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burk, Brian D.

    We image the surfaces of K_ {0.3}MoO_3 and Rb_{0.3}MoO_3 with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) above and below the charge density wave (CDW) transition temperature (T_ p). Surprisingly, below T_ p real space and Fourier transformed images show no evidence of CDW modulation, suggesting a relatively small CDW amplitude at the sample surface. Furthermore, the lattice images that we obtained below T_ p are unaffected by the sliding of the CDW. With STM and x-ray diffraction we investigate the CDW domain structure of 1T-TaS_2 in the nearly commensurate (NC), triclinic (T), and incommensurate (I) phases. Fourier transformed STM images of the NC phase show fine satellite structure surrounding CDW peaks. The satellite structure confirms that the apparent domain-like modulation seen in real space images results from a true domain structure rather than from a moire pattern. STM images of the T phase indicate a surface striped domain pattern that is contrary to the previously reported stretched -honeycomb domain structure for the crystal bulk. In the T phase our x-ray diffraction measurements of CDW wave vectors and examination of fine satellite structure surrounding CDW peaks conclusively demonstrate that the bulk domain pattern is striped. We find that the bulk and surface domain structures are identical. X-ray diffraction of the I phase reveals weak satellites near CDW peaks. The satellite structure indicates a short wavelength, periodic amplitude and phase modulation of the CDW in a case where the CDW is far from commensurability. We measure the resistive superconducting transition temperature in C_{60} single crystals intercalated with isotopically pure ^{87}Rb and ^{85 }Rb and with natural abundance rubidium. We obtain a rubidium isotope effect exponent of alpha_{Rb} = -0.028 +/- 0.036, a result which implies that the Rb-C_ {60} optic phonons play at most a minor role in the pairing mechanism of Rb_3C _{60}..

  11. Process for strontium-82 separation

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The process is for the selective separation of Sr-82 and Sr-85 from a proton-irradiated Mo target. It includes dissolving the Mo in H2O2 to form a solution which is then passed through a cationic resin, whereby Mo, Nb, Tc, Se, V, As, Ge, Zr, Rb ions remain in the solution, while Rb, Zn, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Y, Zr ions are adsorbed. The resin is contacted with an acid solution to remove the adsorbed ions, forming a second solution. The second solution is evaporated and the residue dissolved in a dilute acid to form a third solution. After adjusting the acid molarity, the third solution is passed through a second cationic resin; this resin is contacted first with a dilute sulfuric acid solution and then with a dilute acid solution to remove the adsorbed Sr ions. Zr, Rb, and Y radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  12. STS-82 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-82 crew, Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Gregory J. Harbaugh, Steven L. Smith, Joseph R. Tanner, and Steven A. Hawley present a video and still picture overview of their mission. Included in the presentation are the following: the pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, being suited up, and riding out to the launch pad, various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad, the countdown, engine ignition, launch, shuttle roll maneuver, separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) from the shuttle, survey of the payload bay with the Shuttle's 50-foot remote manipulator system (RMS), the successful retrieve of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), EVAs to repair HST, release of HST, and the shuttle's landing.

  13. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement,...

  14. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.124 Section 82.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.124 Prohibitions. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  16. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  17. 40 CFR 82.120 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Petitions. 82.120 Section 82.120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.120 Petitions....

  18. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New...

  19. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New...

  20. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  1. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  2. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  3. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3...) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.3 Quarantined areas. (a) Any area where birds or poultry infected with END are located will be designated as a quarantined area. A quarantined area is...

  4. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  5. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  6. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  7. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  8. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  9. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  10. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  11. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  12. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as...

  13. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time....

  14. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force...

  15. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time....

  16. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time....

  17. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force...

  18. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as...

  19. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as...

  20. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force...

  1. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time....

  2. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force...

  3. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as...

  4. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury (or...

  5. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts, or treats 5-cent coins or one-cent coins of...

  6. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United States means a 5-cent coin minted and issued by...

  7. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United...

  8. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts,...

  9. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by...

  10. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by...

  11. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United...

  12. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 10.82 Section 10.82 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Salt for Curing Fish § 10.82...

  14. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  15. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  16. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program...

  17. 50 CFR 82.17 - Procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procurement. 82.17 Section 82.17 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.17 Procurement. Grantees may use their own procurement regulations which reflect applicable State and local laws, rules, and regulations, provided...

  18. 50 CFR 82.17 - Procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procurement. 82.17 Section 82.17 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.17 Procurement. Grantees may use their own procurement regulations which reflect applicable State and local laws, rules, and regulations, provided...

  19. 40 CFR 282.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 282.82 Section 282.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.82...

  20. 40 CFR 282.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 282.82 Section 282.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.82...

  1. 7 CFR 82.15 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appeals. 82.15 Section 82.15 Agriculture Regulations... CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.15 Appeals. Any grower who is dissatisfied with a determination made pursuant to this part may make a request for reconsideration or appeal of such determination. The...

  2. 50 CFR 82.21 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copyrights. 82.21 Section 82.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.21 Copyrights. Where research conducted under...

  3. 50 CFR 82.21 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copyrights. 82.21 Section 82.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.21 Copyrights. Where research conducted under...

  4. 50 CFR 82.21 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copyrights. 82.21 Section 82.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.21 Copyrights. Where research conducted under...

  5. 50 CFR 82.21 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copyrights. 82.21 Section 82.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.21 Copyrights. Where research conducted under...

  6. 50 CFR 82.21 - Copyrights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copyrights. 82.21 Section 82.21 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.21 Copyrights. Where research conducted under...

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  8. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has been certified in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B and the refrigerant is either R-12 or... motor vehicle air conditioners in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The buyer complies with § 82.166 (b) and employs at least one technician who is certified in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  9. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... has been certified in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B and the refrigerant is either R-12 or... motor vehicle air conditioners in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The buyer complies with § 82.166 (b) and employs at least one technician who is certified in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  10. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B. MVAC... means to reprocess refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F... analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 82, subpart F....

  11. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B. MVAC... means to reprocess refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F... analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 82, subpart F....

  12. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... has been certified in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B and the refrigerant is either R-12 or... motor vehicle air conditioners in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The buyer complies with § 82.166 (b) and employs at least one technician who is certified in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  13. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B. MVAC... means to reprocess refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F... analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 82, subpart F....

  14. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B. MVAC... means to reprocess refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F... analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 82, subpart F....

  15. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has been certified in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart B and the refrigerant is either R-12 or... motor vehicle air conditioners in accordance with 40 CFR part 82, subpart G; (4) The buyer complies with § 82.166 (b) and employs at least one technician who is certified in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  16. 40 CFR 82.152 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any appliance that is a motor vehicle air conditioner as defined in 40 CFR part 82, subpart B. MVAC... means to reprocess refrigerant to all of the specifications in appendix A to 40 CFR part 82, subpart F... analytical methodology prescribed in section 5 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 82, subpart F....

  17. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  18. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  19. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  20. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  1. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  2. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  3. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time....

  4. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as...

  5. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force...

  6. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  7. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  8. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  9. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  10. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  11. 7 CFR 1780.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true 1780.82 Section 1780.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER... Documents for Public Body Applicants § 1780.82...

  12. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  13. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  14. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substate allocation. 631.82 Section 631.82 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate...

  15. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  16. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  17. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  18. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  19. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  20. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  1. 32 CFR 776.82 - Interim suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim suspension. 776.82 Section 776.82... Complaint Processing Procedures § 776.82 Interim suspension. (a) Where the Rules Counsel determines there is... interim suspension, pending completion of a professional responsibility investigation. The...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  5. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  7. 40 CFR 82.64 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... person may sell or distribute, or offer to sell or distribute, in interstate commerce any of the products... distribute, or offer to sell or distribute, in interstate commerce any of the products specified in § 82.66(b... commerce any of the products identified as being nonessential in § 82.66(c) or § 82.66(d) except...

  8. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Evaluation standards. 361.82 Section 361.82 Education... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Evaluation Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.82 Evaluation standards. (a) The Secretary establishes...

  9. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  10. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  11. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  12. 7 CFR 1955.82 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.82 Section 1955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.82 State supplements....

  13. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... thereunder, 43 CFR part 17. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative...

  14. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited....

  15. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section 345.82 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82...

  16. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section 345.82 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82...

  17. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  18. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  19. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  20. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  1. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must...

  2. 40 CFR 82.2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 82.2 Section 82.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls § 82.2...

  3. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  4. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  5. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  6. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  7. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  8. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  9. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  10. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  11. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  12. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  13. Rubidium titanyl arsenate difference-frequency generation and validation of new Sellmeier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenimore, D. L.; Schepler, K. L.; Zelmon, D.; Kück, S.; Ramabadran, U. B.; von Richter, P.; Small, D.

    1996-09-01

    Rubidium titanyl arsenate (RTA), a crystallographic isomorph of potassium titanyl phosphate, shows promise for nonlinear-frequency generation throughout the 1-5- mu m spectral region. Difference-frequency generation in an RTA crystal produced tunable output in the 3.2-4.2- mu m wavelength range. A single 1.064- mu m Nd:YAG laser pumped both a LiNbO3 optical parametric oscillator used to generate a tunable signal beam and the RTA crystal used for difference-frequency generation. Conversion efficiencies were limited to 4% primarily by the large beam divergence of the signal beam. Phase-matching measurements were in excellent agreement with new IR-corrected RTA Sellmeier equations based on refractive-index measurements. .

  14. Ultralow-light-level all-optical transistor in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Jietai Zhou, Zhifan; Liu, Cunjin; Qin, Zhongzhong; Fang, Yami; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-04-14

    An all-optical transistor (AOT) is a device in which one light beam can efficiently manipulate another. It is the foundational component of an all-optical communication network. An AOT that can operate at ultralow light levels is especially attractive for its potential application in the quantum information field. Here, we demonstrate an AOT driven by a weak light beam with an energy density of 2.5 × 10{sup −5} photons/(λ{sup 2}/2π) (corresponding to 6  yJ/(λ{sup 2}/2π) and about 800 total photons) using the double-Λ four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. This makes it a promising candidate for ultralow-light-level optical communication and quantum information science.

  15. Pulse reshaping in nearly resonant interaction of femtosecond pulses with dense rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdović, Silvije; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Pichler, Goran

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of intense femtosecond pulses resonant with the atomic rubidium vapor results in phenomenon known as conical emission. The origin of this phenomenon is connected with self-phase modulation in time domain accompanied with spatial self-focusing for blue-detuned pulses. When the laser central wavelength is red-detuned the self-defocusing occurs. Using frequency-resolved optical gating measurements and simple modeling of pulse propagation within the linear dispersion theory it is shown that the retrieved phase of the propagated pulse, and the associated instantaneous frequency, shows evidence of both linear dispersion and self-phase modulation. These results are consistent with the theory of the intensity dependent nonlinear refraction index in medium where linear dispersion contributes significantly to pulse reshaping.

  16. Dynamics of solvation and desolvation of rubidium attached to He nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Vangerow, J. von; John, O.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.

    2015-07-21

    The real-time dynamics of photoexcited and photoionized rubidium (Rb) atoms attached to helium (He) nanodroplets is studied by femtosecond pump-probe mass spectrometry. While excited Rb atoms in the perturbed 6p-state (Rb{sup *}) desorb off the He droplets, Rb{sup +} photoions tend to sink into the droplet interior when created near the droplet surface. The transition from Rb{sup +} solvation to full Rb{sup *} desorption is found to occur at a delay time τ ∼ 600 fs for Rb{sup *} in the 6pΣ-state and τ ∼ 1200 fs for the 6pΠ-state. Rb{sup +}He ions are found to be created by directly exciting bound Rb{sup *}He exciplex states as well as by populating bound Rb{sup +}He-states in a photoassociative ionization process.

  17. Accumulation of myoinositol and rubidium ions in galactose-exposed rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaba, T.; Cheng, H.M.; Kinoshita, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    When rat lens is incubated in 30 mM galactose overnight, the extent of accumulation of rubidium ions (Rb) and myoinositol (MI) are affected, as well as the Na-K ATPase activity. Rb accumulation and Na-K ATPase activity are only slightly affected compared to the dramatic drop in MI accumulation. These changes are completely abolished by sorbinil, which blocks polyol formation, or by rendering the galactose medium hypertonic to offset the osmotic effect of polyol formation. On the other hand, the addition of excess MI to the galactose medium had no effect on correcting these changes. The results obtained are consistent with the polyol-osmotic theory of sugar cataract formation.

  18. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  19. Fractionation of potassium/rubidium by amphiboles: implications regarding mantle composition.

    PubMed

    Hart, S R; Aldrich, L T

    1967-01-20

    We show that the rubidium in amphiboles is generally depleted with respect to potassium. The K:Rb ratios of 50 analyzed amphiboles range from 100 to 5000, averaging 1120. This fractionation effect holds for potassium concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 percent. The K:Rb ratios of abyssal tholeiites do not place unambiguous limits on the K:Rb ratio of the upper mantle, since partial melting of a mantle material such as amphibole peridotite would produce a liquid with a K:Rb ratio higher than that in the initial material. Large-scale mineralogic control of distributions of trace elements in the mantle could produce trends with depth that are the reverse of trends normally attributed to differentiation processes. PMID:17792059

  20. Efficient light storage with reduced energy loss via nonlinear compensation in rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Hong-Li; Xue, Yan; Wu, Jin-Hui; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2016-06-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of efficient light storage based on a modified technique of electromagnetically induced transparency in hot rubidium vapor. By introducing an auxiliary pump field to go beyond the Λ -type configuration, we find that the undesired four-wave mixing can be greatly suppressed to result in sufficiently reduced energy loss of a probe pulse. The light storage efficiency can be as high as  ∼80% within the storage time of 100 ns with the pump field applied, which is almost 6 times larger than that in the absence of the pump field. We may also amend the light storage efficiency in a linear way by increasing the optical depth of our atomic vapor even without saturation effect. We obtain, in fact, an amplified probe pulse via Raman gain during light storage and retrieval, which should have practical applications in classical and quantum information processing.

  1. High polarizability and pyroelectric effect in nonequilibrium nonpolar phases of rubidium dihydroarsenate and potash alum

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilova, N.D.; Lotonov, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    In this work, the authors studied the thermodynamically nonequilibrium ferroelectriclike state formed under certain conditions in the nonpolar phases of dielectric crystals with hydrogen bonds. This state forms upon fast cooling of a crystal to temperature at which protons can move from their positions into interstices. Studied were the crystals of a ferroelectric: rubidium dihydroarsenate (RDA) with T{sub c}=110 Kelvin, potash alum, and a linear pyroelectric (barium nitrite monohydrate) over the temperature range 245-303 Kelvin. It was found that rapid cooling of some dielectric crystals with hydrogen bonds results in the formation of a metastable, ferroelectric-like state, which is likely to be associated with the formation and self-organization of a system of flickering dipoles caused by interstitial proton vacancies. Upon rapid cooling, the nonpolar phases of the crystals exhibit anomalous pyroelectric and dielectric properties resembling those of ferroelectrics below the Curie point.

  2. Observation of an electromagnetically induced change of absorption in multilevel rubidium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Qing; Jin, Shao-Zheng; Xiao, Min

    1995-03-01

    A 64.4% reduction in absorption at the rubidium D2 line is observed when a pumping field at 775.8 nm is tuned on resonance to the transition between the excited states 5P3/2 and 5D5/2. As the pumping field is tuned off resonance, an absorption peak appears at the side of the Doppler-broadened D2 line. This modification in absorption is related to pumping-induced atomic coherence in this three-level ladder-type system. This experiment is done in a Rb vapor cell at room temperature and with cw diode lasers for both pumping and probe beams in a Doppler-free configuration.

  3. Two-Photon Frequency Comb Excitation of Rubidium Atoms in External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vujičić, N.; Ban, T.; Skenderović, H.; Vdović, S.; Pichler, G.

    2008-10-01

    In the present experiment the 5S-5D two-photon transitions in 85Rb and 87Rb atoms as a result of the interaction of the femtosecond frequency comb with atomic levels of both rubidium isotopes are investigated. The main problem in studying of two-photon transitions is in optimization of the excitation efficiency of the desired state. There are two general cases: those transition with an intermediate resonance those in which the pulse spectrum is far detuned from an intermediate resonance. In order to investigate the dependence of the two-photon fluorescence signal as a result of interaction of the frequency comb with perturbed energy-level pattern an external magnetic field was applied.

  4. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerbauer, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Herlert, A.; Schweikhard, L.

    2007-10-15

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes {sup 74-77,79,80,83}Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from 1.6x10{sup -8} to 5.6x10{sup -8} were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide {sup 74}Rb, with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  5. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Domanski, Konrad; Seo, Ji-Youn; Ummadisingu, Amita; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Tress, Wolfgang R.; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    All of the cations currently used in perovskite solar cells abide by the tolerance factor for incorporation into the lattice. We show that the small and oxidation-stable rubidium cation (Rb+) can be embedded into a “cation cascade” to create perovskite materials with excellent material properties. We achieved stabilized efficiencies of up to 21.6% (average value, 20.2%) on small areas (and a stabilized 19.0% on a cell 0.5 square centimeters in area) as well as an electroluminescence of 3.8%. The open-circuit voltage of 1.24 volts at a band gap of 1.63 electron volts leads to a loss in potential of 0.39 volts, versus 0.4 volts for commercial silicon cells. Polymer-coated cells maintained 95% of their initial performance at 85°C for 500 hours under full illumination and maximum power point tracking.

  6. Weak-value amplification of the fast-light effect in rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhosseini, Mohammad; Viza, Gerardo I.; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; Malik, Mehul; Howell, John C.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2016-05-01

    We use weak-value amplification to enhance the polarization-sensitive fast-light effect from induced Raman absorption in hot rubidium vapor. We experimentally demonstrate that projecting the output signal into an appropriate polarization state enables a pulse advancement of 4.2 μ s , which is more than 15 times larger than that naturally caused by dispersion. More significantly, we show that combining weak-value amplification with the dispersive response of an atomic system provides a clear advantage in terms of the maximum pulse advance achievable for a given value of loss. This technique has potential applications for designing novel quantum-information-processing gates and optical buffers for telecommunication systems.

  7. Signatures of shape transitions in odd-A neutron-rich rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop.

  8. Experimental study of linear magnetic dichroism in photoionization satellite transitions of atomic rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenkaelae, K.; Alagia, M.; Feyer, V.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.

    2011-11-15

    Laser orientation in the initial state has been used to study the properties of satellite transitions in inner-shell photoionization of rubidium atoms. The linear magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution (LMDAD) has been utilized to probe the continuum waves of orbital angular momentum conserving monopole, and angular momentum changing conjugate satellites, accompanying the 4p ionization of atomic Rb. We show experimentally that LMDAD of both types of satellite transitions is nonzero and that LMDAD of monopole satellites, measured as a function of photon energy, mimics the LMDAD of direct photoionization, whereas the LMDAD of conjugate transitions deviates drastically from that trend. The results indicate that conjugate transitions cannot be described theoretically without explicit inclusion of electron-electron interaction. The present data can thus be used as a very precise test of current models for photoionization.

  9. Elimination of the light shift in rubidium gas cell frequency standards using pulsed optical pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Jechart, E.; Kwon, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the intensity of the light source in an optically pumped, rubidium, gas cell frequency standard can produce corresponding frequency shifts, with possible adverse effects on the long-term frequency stability. A pulsed optical pumping apparatus was constructed with the intent of investigating the frequency stability in the absence of light shifts. Contrary to original expectations, a small residual frequency shift due to changes in light intensity was experimentally observed. Evidence is given which indicates that this is not a true light-shift effect. Preliminary measurements of the frequency stability of this apparatus, with this small residual pseudo light shift present, are presented. It is shown that this pseudo light shift can be eliminated by using a more homogeneous C-field. This is consistent with the idea that the pseudo light shift is due to inhomogeneity in the physics package (position-shift effect).

  10. Antiferromagnetism in a bosonic mixture of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam

    2010-10-15

    We simulate the experimental possibility of observing antiferromagnetic (AF) order in bosonic mixtures of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K) in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of harmonic confinement. By tuning the interspecies interactions and the lattice heights, we have found the ground states, within the mean-field approximation, that interpolate from phase separation to AF order. For a moderate lattice height, the coexistence of the Mott and AF phases is possible for the Rb atoms whereas the K atoms remain in the AF-superfluid phase. This observation may provide an experimentally feasible route to hitherto unobserved AF order for {sup 87}Rb-{sup 41}K mixtures.

  11. Trap loss in a metastable helium-rubidium magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Byron, L. J.; Dall, R. G.; Truscott, A. G.

    2010-01-15

    We present results of the study of a simultaneously confined metastable helium (He*) and rubidium magneto-optical trap (MOT). By monitoring the trap decay of the {sup 87}Rb MOT with and without a He* MOT present, we find the light-assisted, two-body loss rate to be beta{sub Rb-He}{sup *}=(6+-2)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s. Moreover, we find that it is possible to create a large, robust {sup 87}Rb-He* MOT, opening the possibility of creating a {sup 87}Rb-He{sup *} Bose-Einstein condensate. This would be the first dual-species condensate incorporating an alkali metal ground-state atom and an excited-state noble gas atom.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the trace element rubidium (Rb) as a long-lasting systemic biomarker for bloodfeeding females of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Baits containing Rb chloride were found to be palatable to hamsters in this study. We were able to detect Rb using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in all sand flies that fed on Rb-treated hamsters for at least 14 d postbloodmeal. We also detected Rb in sand flies that took a bloodmeal from hamsters up to 10 d after the hamsters were withdrawn from a Rb-treated diet. Results of this study constitute proof of concept for the incorporation of Rb chloride into rodent baits for marking bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that Rb marking could be used as a technique for evaluating rodent-targeted sand fly control methods and in ecological studies on sand flies.

  13. Photoionization from the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Ali; Haq, S. U.

    2011-06-15

    We report two-step photoionization studies from the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} excited state of rubidium using two dye lasers simultaneously pumped by a common Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with a thermionic diode ion detector. The photoionization cross section at the first ionization threshold is measured as 18.8 {+-} 3 Mb and at excess energies of 0.013, 0.106, 0.229, and 0.329 eV is measured as 15, 13.6, 12.6, and 12.5 Mb, respectively. The measured value of the photoionization cross section at the threshold is used to calibrate the oscillator strengths of the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{yields}nd {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} (22 {<=}n{<=} 52) Rydberg transitions.

  14. Pump-probe spectroscopy of cold rubidium atoms in an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Li; Dong, Ri-Chang; Deng, Jian-Liao; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Absorption spectra of cold rubidium atoms in an integrating sphere under the influence of a diffuse laser field have been systematically investigated. A pronounced dispersionlike structure centered at the light-shifted pump frequency is observed with a subnatural linewidth. In particular, two clearly resolved absorption resonances on the 5 S1 /2(F =2 ) →5 P3 /2(F'=3 ) transitions occur with variable probe beam intensity, which is consistent with our proposed theoretical model. Based on the two absorption resonances,we measure the dependence of light shifts, from which we can directly extract the effective Rabi frequency in a diffuse laser field, on the probe laser intensity, pump laser intensity, and pump laser detuning. Our work helps to identify the physical mechanisms behind these spectral features and is beneficial for studying the corresponding effect in a cold sample.

  15. Demonstration of an Exposed-Core Fiber Platform for Two-Photon Rubidium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrella, C.; Griesser, H. P.; Light, P. S.; Kostecki, R.; Stace, T. M.; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.; Monro, T. M.; White, A. G.; Luiten, A. N.

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate a promising fiber architecture for generating strong photon-photon interactions. Exposed-core silica optical fibers possess low-loss guidance between 400 and 1700 nm crucial for quantum-logic applications. The potential of this fiber is demonstrated by exciting a two-photon transition within a rubidium vapor using an exposed-core silica optical fiber. Transit-time broadened spectral features enable measurement of the evanescent-field scale length of (120 ±20 ) nm which shows excellent agreement with the characteristics of the modeled fiber mode (118 ±2 ) nm . We observe a two-photon absorption coefficient of 8.3 cm-1 for one optical mode in response to a transmitted power of 1.3 mW in the second mode. A clear pathway to an exposed-core fiber exhibiting substantial absorption mediated by a single photon is identified.

  16. Nonlinear Optics with Tapered Fibers and Magneto-Optically Trapped Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Bethany; Mullarkey, Chris; Howell, John; Vamivakas, Nick; Lin, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Tapered optical fibers of sub-wavelength diameter present a promising means of integrating the light-atom interaction into larger scale devices. We present work on a tapered fiber system loaded by a magneto optical trap of Rubidium atoms, in which a combination of red and blue detuned beams create a one-dimensional lattice trap along the fiber. The same fiber is used for interacting with the atoms in the trap via the evanescent fields of light propagating along the fiber. Light storage has been demonstrated in a similar system with Cesium, and we believe that much nonlinear optics remains to be explored in this regime. We also plan to see how these nonlinear effects can be enhanced with the addition of a micro-resonator such as the ones in.

  17. Fractionation of potassium/rubidium by amphiboles: implications regarding mantle composition.

    PubMed

    Hart, S R; Aldrich, L T

    1967-01-20

    We show that the rubidium in amphiboles is generally depleted with respect to potassium. The K:Rb ratios of 50 analyzed amphiboles range from 100 to 5000, averaging 1120. This fractionation effect holds for potassium concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 percent. The K:Rb ratios of abyssal tholeiites do not place unambiguous limits on the K:Rb ratio of the upper mantle, since partial melting of a mantle material such as amphibole peridotite would produce a liquid with a K:Rb ratio higher than that in the initial material. Large-scale mineralogic control of distributions of trace elements in the mantle could produce trends with depth that are the reverse of trends normally attributed to differentiation processes.

  18. Poly[μ(3)-aqua-μ(2)-2,4-dinitro-phenolato-rubidium(I)].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhangqin; Hu, Mancheng; Wang, Xiuhang

    2007-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(5))(H(2)O)](n), comprises a rubidium cation, a 2,4-dinitro-phenoxide anion and a water mol-ecule. The Rb(+) cation is 11-coordinated by O atoms from 2,4-dinitro-phenolate anions and water mol-ecules. The metal centre is firstly coordinated by two μ(3)-H(2)O to form a one-dimensional ladder-shaped unit, [Rb(2)(μ(3)-H(2)O)(2)], which is further linked by 2,4-dinitro-phenolate to give the three-dimensional framework of the title compound. The crystal structure involves O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:21200571

  19. Crystal Chemistry of the Potassium and Rubidium Uranyl Borate Families Derived from Boric Acid Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-07-19

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with a large excess of molten boric acid in the presence of potassium or rubidium nitrate results in the formation of three new potassium uranyl borates, K{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 12}O{sub 19}(OH){sub 4}]·0.3H{sub 2}O (KUBO-1), K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 15}(OH){sub 5}] (KUBO-2), and K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (KUBO-3) and two new rubidium uranyl borates Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 13}O{sub 20}(OH){sub 5}] (RbUBO-1) and Rb[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (RbUBO-2). The latter is isotypic with KUBO-3. These compounds share a common structural motif consisting of a linear uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, cation surrounded by BO{sub 3} triangles and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra to create an UO{sub 8} hexagonal bipyramidal environment around uranium. The borate anions bridge between uranyl units to create sheets. Additional BO{sub 3} triangles extend from the polyborate layers and are directed approximately perpendicular to the sheets. All of these compounds adopt layered structures. With the exception of KUBO-1, the structures are all centrosymmetric. All of these compounds fluoresce when irradiated with long-wavelength UV light. The fluorescence spectrum yields well-defined vibronically coupled charge-transfer features.

  20. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a... prohibitions of 11 CFR 110.4, 110.20, part 114 and part 115; or (2) The lending institution making the loan...

  1. Potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate at 295, 245 and 40 K, and its rubidium analogue at 298 K.

    PubMed

    Kashino, S; Taka, J; Fukunaga, T; Ishida, H

    2001-05-01

    A centrosymmetric and short O-H.O hydrogen bond was found in isomorphic crystals of potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (potassium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, K(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (I), and rubidium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (rubidium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, Rb(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (II). The O.O distance at room temperature is 2.444 (3) A in (I), and 2.417 (4) A in (II). The O.O distance for (I) showed no significant decrease at low temperatures. PMID:11353246

  2. Effects of water concentration in the coating solution on the wall relaxation rate of octadecyltrichlorosilane coated rubidium vapor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guiying; Wei, Lihua; Wang, Meiling; Zhao, Kaifeng

    2015-01-28

    High quality anti-relaxation surface coatings for atomic vapor cells are essential for the preservation of atomic spin coherence and the enhancement of measurement sensitivity. In this paper, we studied the effects of water concentration in octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) coating solution on the relaxation rate and its reproducibility of OTS coated Rubidium vapor cells. We found that appropriate water concentration can improve the anti-relaxation performance of OTS coated cells.

  3. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  4. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship training. FPI provides inmate workers with an opportunity to participate in apprenticeship...

  5. 7 CFR 982.82 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Separability. 982.82 Section 982.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  6. 7 CFR 982.82 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separability. 982.82 Section 982.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  7. 7 CFR 982.82 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separability. 982.82 Section 982.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  8. 7 CFR 982.82 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Separability. 982.82 Section 982.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  9. 7 CFR 982.82 - Separability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separability. 982.82 Section 982.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON...

  10. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., chiller, or freezer. Class I substance means any controlled substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part... in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A. Consumer, when used to describe a person taking action... States. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B...

  11. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., chiller, or freezer. Class I substance means any controlled substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part... in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A. Consumer, when used to describe a person taking action... States. Hydrochlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as class II in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B...

  12. 9 CFR 82.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions. 82.20 Section 82.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  13. 9 CFR 82.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restrictions. 82.20 Section 82.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.82 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 1910, subpart S. (c) Portable lights. (1) In any dark area that does not have permanent or... that are at or above 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) as specified in 29 CFR part 1915... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting. 1915.82 Section 1915.82 Labor...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.82 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 1910, subpart S. (c) Portable lights. (1) In any dark area that does not have permanent or... that are at or above 10 percent of the lower explosive limit (LEL) as specified in 29 CFR part 1915... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting. 1915.82 Section 1915.82 Labor...

  16. 7 CFR 82.15 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 82.15 Section 82.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION...

  17. Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District (AISD) office of Research and Evaluation presents Basic Skills Achievement, 1981-82 (BSA). The BSA answers the following questions: (1) How does AISD student achievement compare to student achievement nationwide? (2) How does AISD's 1981-82 student achievement compare to the achievement of students in past…

  18. 27 CFR 6.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 6.82 Section 6.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  19. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different...

  20. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different...

  1. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different...

  2. 27 CFR 6.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 6.82 Section 6.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  3. 27 CFR 6.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 6.82 Section 6.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  4. 27 CFR 6.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 6.82 Section 6.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  5. 27 CFR 6.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6.82 Section 6.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  6. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different...

  7. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  8. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  9. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  10. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  11. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  12. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  13. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  14. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific...

  15. 44 CFR 5.82 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 5.82 Section 5.82 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... subpart, the following terms have the meanings ascribed to them in this section: (a) Demand refers to...

  16. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Chlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as Class I group I or Class I group III in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82... when such foam is suitable in shape, thickness and design to be used as a product that provides...

  17. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Chlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as Class I group I or Class I group III in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82... when such foam is suitable in shape, thickness and design to be used as a product that provides...

  18. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Chlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as Class I group I or Class I group III in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82... when such foam is suitable in shape, thickness and design to be used as a product that provides...

  19. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Chlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as Class I group I or Class I group III in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82... when such foam is suitable in shape, thickness and design to be used as a product that provides...

  20. 40 CFR 82.62 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Chlorofluorocarbon means any substance listed as Class I group I or Class I group III in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A. Class II Substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part 82... when such foam is suitable in shape, thickness and design to be used as a product that provides...

  1. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 700-93) (which is codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, appendix... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation...

  2. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or...

  3. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 700-93) (which is codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, appendix... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation...

  4. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certified as a technician as required by 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. (4) The Administrator reserves the right... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician... ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to...

  5. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or...

  6. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... certified as a technician as required by 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. (4) The Administrator reserves the right... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician... ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to...

  7. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or...

  8. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certified as a technician as required by 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. (4) The Administrator reserves the right... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician... ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to...

  9. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certified as a technician as required by 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. (4) The Administrator reserves the right... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician... ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to...

  10. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 700-93) (which is codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, appendix... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation...

  11. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 700-93) (which is codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, appendix... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation...

  12. 40 CFR 82.32 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI 700-93) (which is codified at 40 CFR part 82, subpart F, appendix... Administrator pursuant to § 82.38. (b) Approved refrigerant recycling equipment means equipment certified by the... equipment extracts and recycles refrigerant or extracts refrigerant for recycling on-site or reclamation...

  13. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or...

  14. 40 CFR 82.161 - Technician certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certified as a technician as required by 40 CFR part 82, subpart F. (4) The Administrator reserves the right... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.161 Technician... ability to perform proper procedures for recovering and/or recycling refrigerant. Failure to...

  15. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars...

  16. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars...

  17. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  18. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  19. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  20. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  1. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  2. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts, or treats 5-cent coins or one-cent coins of the United States in violation of § 82.1 shall be subject to...

  3. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... on an individual, or in the personal effects of an individual, departing from a place subject to the... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1...) The exportation in any one shipment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins having an aggregate face...

  4. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... on an individual, or in the personal effects of an individual, departing from a place subject to the... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1...) The exportation in any one shipment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins having an aggregate face...

  5. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... on an individual, or in the personal effects of an individual, departing from a place subject to the... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1...) The exportation in any one shipment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins having an aggregate face...

  6. 40 CFR 82.64 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.64 Section 82.64 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential...

  7. 40 CFR 82.60 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 82.60 Section 82.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential...

  8. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... on an individual, or in the personal effects of an individual, departing from a place subject to the... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1...) The exportation in any one shipment of 5-cent coins and one-cent coins having an aggregate face...

  9. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. (a... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  10. 31 CFR 10.82 - Expedited suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Expedited suspension. 10.82 Section... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.82 Expedited suspension. Link to... suspension. A suspension under this section will commence on the date that written notice of the...

  11. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... was manufactured with, or contains a class I substance or was packaged in material that was... Nonessential Products Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any... products specified as nonessential in § 82.70 which are manufactured and placed into initial inventory...

  12. 48 CFR 1631.205-82 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Audits. 1631.205-82 Section... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-82 Audits. Carriers should ensure that the public accounting firms with which they contract for audits of FEHB accounts are registered with the Public...

  13. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different...

  14. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  15. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS...

  16. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS...

  17. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF...

  18. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS...

  19. 30 CFR 256.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental studies. 256.82 Section 256.82... Environmental studies. (a) The Director shall conduct a study of any area or region included in any lease sale... region. Any study shall, to the extent practicable, be designed to predict environmental impacts...

  20. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  4. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF... made with or containing such substances, safe alternatives identified under 42 U.S.C. 7671k...

  5. 48 CFR 1631.205-82 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audits. 1631.205-82... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-82 Audits. Carriers should ensure that the public accounting firms with which they contract for audits of FEHB accounts are registered...

  6. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Evaluation... evaluation standards during each performance period. (c) The evaluation standards for the VR program are— (1... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Evaluation standards. 361.82 Section 361.82...

  7. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Evaluation... evaluation standards during each performance period. (c) The evaluation standards for the VR program are— (1... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Evaluation standards. 361.82 Section 361.82...

  8. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM Evaluation... evaluation standards during each performance period. (c) The evaluation standards for the VR program are— (1... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evaluation standards. 361.82 Section 361.82...

  9. 9 CFR 82.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE (END)...

  10. 9 CFR 82.19 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 82.19 Section 82.19 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  11. Photoassociation and coherent transient dynamics in the interaction of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped femtosecond pulses. I. Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullins, Terry; Salzmann, Wenzel; Götz, Simone; Albert, Magnus; Eng, Judith; Wester, Roland; Weidemüller, Matthias; Weise, Fabian; Merli, Andrea; Weber, Stefan M.; Sauer, Franziska; Wöste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2009-12-01

    We experimentally investigate various processes present in the photoassociative interaction of an ultracold atomic sample with shaped femtosecond laser pulses as an detailed extension of previous work [W. Salzmann , Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233003 (2008)]. We demonstrate the photoassociation of pairs of rubidium atoms into electronically excited, bound molecular states using spectrally cut femtosecond laser pulses tuned below the rubidium D1 or D2 asymptote. Time-resolved pump-probe spectra reveal oscillations of the molecular formation rate, which are due to coherent transient dynamics in the electronic excitation. The oscillation frequency corresponds to the detuning of the spectral cut position to the asymptotic transition frequency of the rubidium D1 or D2 lines, respectively. Measurements of the molecular photoassociation signal as a function of the pulse energy reveal a nonlinear dependence and indicate a nonperturbative excitation process. Chirping the association laser pulse allowed us to change the phase of the coherent transients. Furthermore, a signature for molecules in the electronic ground state is found, which is attributed to molecule formation by femtosecond photoassociation followed by spontaneous decay. In a subsequent article [A. Merli , Phys. Rev. A 80, 063417 (2009)] quantum mechanical calculations are presented, which compare well with the experimental data and reveal further details about the observed coherent transient dynamics.

  12. Photoassociation and coherent transient dynamics in the interaction of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped femtosecond pulses. I. Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Terry; Salzmann, Wenzel; Goetz, Simone; Albert, Magnus; Eng, Judith; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Weise, Fabian; Merli, Andrea; Weber, Stefan M.; Sauer, Franziska; Woeste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2009-12-15

    We experimentally investigate various processes present in the photoassociative interaction of an ultracold atomic sample with shaped femtosecond laser pulses as an detailed extension of previous work [W. Salzmann et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233003 (2008)]. We demonstrate the photoassociation of pairs of rubidium atoms into electronically excited, bound molecular states using spectrally cut femtosecond laser pulses tuned below the rubidium D{sub 1} or D{sub 2} asymptote. Time-resolved pump-probe spectra reveal oscillations of the molecular formation rate, which are due to coherent transient dynamics in the electronic excitation. The oscillation frequency corresponds to the detuning of the spectral cut position to the asymptotic transition frequency of the rubidium D{sub 1} or D{sub 2} lines, respectively. Measurements of the molecular photoassociation signal as a function of the pulse energy reveal a nonlinear dependence and indicate a nonperturbative excitation process. Chirping the association laser pulse allowed us to change the phase of the coherent transients. Furthermore, a signature for molecules in the electronic ground state is found, which is attributed to molecule formation by femtosecond photoassociation followed by spontaneous decay. In a subsequent article [A. Merli et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 063417 (2009)] quantum mechanical calculations are presented, which compare well with the experimental data and reveal further details about the observed coherent transient dynamics.

  13. Activity of rubidium and cesium in soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): insect feeding on cotton and soybean measured by elemental markers.

    PubMed

    Jost, Douglas J; Pitre, Henry N

    2002-04-01

    Uptake and translocation of the elemental markers rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) within adult soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker), were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the laboratory in various feeding and mating treatments. Neonates were tested to determine marker transfer from male and female adults fed rubidium chloride (RbCl)-treated artificial nectar, cesium chloride (CsCI)-treated artificial nectar, or both. All females contained detectable levels of Rb, Cs, or both, which were obtained either through direct feeding or via spermatophores. Rubidium was present in females at significantly greater levels than Cs. No significant differences in Rb levels were observed between feeding or spermatophore acquisitions. Most neonates had significantly higher levels of Rb than Cs. In a field cage study to evaluate adult feeding and oviposition behavior on blooming cotton and blooming soybean treated with RbCl and CsCl, respectively, more eggs contained Rb than Cs, indicating greater feeding on cotton nectar than soybean nectar, regardless of the host plant upon which eggs were laid. Females laid more eggs on blooming soybean than on blooming cotton. Higher levels of Rb in cotton than Cs in soybean were recorded and may be attributed to initial elemental marker quantities available to the insects. This study provides the support for the generalized observations that soybean looper infestations in soybean can be related to feeding activities by adults in cotton.

  14. The first rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates: Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 ( M=Pr, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Theresa; Schleid, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    The two non-isotypical rubidium rare-earth(III) thiophosphates Rb 3M3[PS 4] 4 of praseodymium and erbium can easily be obtained by the stoichiometric reaction of the respective rare-earth metal, red phosphorus and sulfur with an excess of rubidium bromide (RbBr) as flux and rubidium source at 950°C for 14 days in evacuated silica tubes. The pale green platelet-shaped single crystals of Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 as well as the pink rods of Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 are moisture sensitive. Rb 3Pr 3[PS 4] 4 crystallizes triclinically in the space group P1¯ ( a=926.79(5) pm, b=1050.83(5) pm, c=1453.28(7) pm, α=84.329(4)°, β=88.008(4)°, γ=80.704(4)°; Z=2), Rb 3Er 3[PS 4] 4 monoclinically in the space group P21/n ( a=915.97(5) pm, b=1575.86(7) pm, c=1843.32(9) pm, β=95.601(6)°; Z=4). In both structures, there are three crystallographically different rare-earth cations present. ( M1) 3+ is eightfold coordinated in the shape of a square antiprism, ( M2) 3+ and ( M3) 3+ are both surrounded by eight sulfur atoms as bicapped trigonal prisms each with a coordination number of eight as well as for the praseodymium, but better described as CN=7+1 in the case of the erbium compound. These [ MS 8] 13- polyhedra form a layer according to ∞2{[M3[PS]4]} by sharing edges with the isolated [PS 4] 3- tetrahedra ( d(P-S)=200-209 pm, ∢(S-P-S)=102-116°). These layers are stacked with a repetition period of three in the case of the praseodymium compound, but of only two for the erbium analog. The rubidium cation (Rb1) + is located in cavities of these layers and tenfold coordinated in the shape of a tetracapped trigonal antiprism. The also tenfold but more irregularly coordinated rubidium cations (Rb2) + and (Rb3) + reside between the layers.

  15. A waveguide frequency converter connecting rubidium-based quantum memories to the telecom C-band.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Fernandez-Gonzalvo, Xavier; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2014-02-27

    Coherently converting the frequency and temporal waveform of single and entangled photons will be crucial to interconnect the various elements of future quantum information networks. Of particular importance is the quantum frequency conversion of photons emitted by material systems able to store quantum information, so-called quantum memories. There have been significant efforts to implement quantum frequency conversion using nonlinear crystals, with non-classical light from broadband photon-pair sources and solid-state emitters. However, solid state quantum frequency conversion has not yet been achieved with long-lived optical quantum memories. Here we demonstrate an ultra-low-noise solid state photonic quantum interface suitable for connecting quantum memories based on atomic ensembles to the telecommunication fibre network. The interface is based on an integrated-waveguide nonlinear device. We convert heralded single photons at 780 nm from a rubidium-based quantum memory to the telecommunication wavelength of 1,552 nm, showing significant non-classical correlations between the converted photon and the heralding signal.

  16. Does the light shift drive frequency aging in the rubidium atomic clock?

    PubMed

    Camparo, James

    2005-07-01

    Frequency aging in the rubidium (Rb) vapor-cell atomic clock plays a significant role in the device's timekeeping ability. Though many researchers have speculated on the physical mechanism(s) driving the linear, deterministic frequency change (i.e., deltaf(t)/fo = At), there is little unambiguous experimental data regarding the phenomenon. Here, long-term data were used from on-orbit global positioning system (GPS) Rb clocks to examine one postulated mechanism for frequency aging (i.e., the light-shift effect). Defining the light shift of the clock's fractional frequency as alphaI/Io, where alpha is the light-shift coefficient, we find that temporal variations of the relative light intensity, I/Io, cannot account for frequency aging. However, for the population of clocks considered here, we obtain the intriguing result that alpha/A = 1.7 +/- 1.5. Thus, it may be that frequency aging is driven by the light-shift effect through temporal variations of the light-shift coefficient.

  17. Search for collisional exchange of ground-state atomic alignment between rubidium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, E. J.; Kimball, D. F. Jackson; Coste, B.; Rangwala, S. A.; Higbie, J. M.; Ledbetter, M. P.; Rochester, S. M.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2009-05-01

    The collisional transfer of pure atomic alignment (related to coherences between Zeeman sublevels with δM=2) between isotopes of rubidium is searched for using time-dependent magneto-optical rotation. Alignment-exchange collisions are fundamentally different than the commonly studied orientation-exchange collisions: for example, spin-exchange collisions preserve the net orientation in an atomic vapor (because of angular momentum conservation) but do not conserve alignment. Collisional transfer of alignment in alkali atoms has seldom been studied because the cross-sections are expected to be three to four orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal spin-exchange cross-sections. This is due to the fact that ground-state alkali atoms have electronic angular momentum J=1/2 and so the electronic state cannot support a δM=2 coherence. Thus collisional transfer of alignment is only possible because of hyperfine re-coupling during the collision. Implications of the measurement for searches for anomalous spin-dependent forces will be discussed.

  18. Miniature atomic scalar magnetometer for space based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korth, Haje; Strohbehn, Kim; Tejada, Francisco; Andreou, Andreas G.; Kitching, John; Knappe, Svenja; Lehtonen, S. John; London, Shaughn M.; Kafel, Matiwos

    2016-08-01

    A miniature atomic scalar magnetometer based on the rubidium isotope 87Rb was developed for operation in space. The instrument design implements both Mx and Mz mode operation and leverages a novel microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabricated vapor cell and a custom silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuit. The vapor cell has a volume of only 1 mm3 so that it can be efficiently heated to its operating temperature by a specially designed, low-magnetic-field-generating resistive heater implemented in multiple metal layers of the transparent sapphire substrate of the SOS-CMOS chips. The SOS-CMOS chip also hosts the Helmholtz coil and associated circuitry to stimulate the magnetically sensitive atomic resonance and temperature sensors. The prototype instrument has a total mass of fewer than 500 g and uses less than 1 W of power, while maintaining a sensitivity of 15 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, comparable to present state-of-the-art absolute magnetometers.

  19. Observation of picosecond superfluorescent pulses in rubidium atomic vapor pumped by 100-fs laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ariunbold, Gombojav O.; Kash, Michael M.; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Li, Hebin; Welch, George R.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-10-15

    We study the superfluorescence (SF) from a gas of rubidium atoms. The atoms of a dense vapor are excited to the 5D state from the 5S state by a two-photon process driven by 100-fs laser pulses. The atoms decay to the 6P state and then to the 5S state. The SF emission at 420 nm on the 6P-5S transition is recorded by a streak camera with picosecond time resolution. The time duration of the generated SF is tens of picoseconds, which is much shorter than the time scale of the usual relaxation processes, including spontaneous emission and atomic coherence dephasing. The dependence of the time delay between the reference input pulse and SF is measured as a function of laser power. The experimental data are described quantitatively by a simulation based on the semiclassical atom-field interaction theory. The observed change in scaling laws for the peak intensity and delay time can be elucidated by an SF theory in which the sample length is larger than the cooperation length.

  20. Short-pulse photoassociation in rubidium below the D{sub 1} line

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-04-15

    Photoassociation of two ultracold rubidium atoms and the subsequent formation of stable molecules in the singlet ground and lowest triplet states is investigated theoretically. The method employs laser pulses inducing transitions via excited states correlated to the 5S+5P{sub 1/2} asymptote. Weakly bound molecules in the singlet ground or lowest triplet state can be created by a single pulse while the formation of more deeply bound molecules requires a two-color pump-dump scenario. More deeply bound molecules in the singlet ground or lowest triplet state can be produced only if efficient mechanisms for both pump and dump steps exist. While long-range 1/R{sup 3} potentials allow for efficient photoassociation, stabilization is facilitated by the resonant spin-orbit coupling of the 0{sub u}{sup +} states. Molecules in the singlet ground state bound by a few wave numbers can thus be formed. This provides a promising first step toward ground-state molecules which are ultracold in both translational and vibrational degrees of freedom.

  1. The kinetics and mechanism of nanoconfined molten salt reactions: trimerization of potassium and rubidium dicyanamide.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Benjamin; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2015-04-21

    This study highlights the effect of the aggregate state of a reactant on the reaction kinetics under the conditions of nanoconfinement. Our previous work (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2014, 16, 11409) has demonstrated considerable deceleration of the solid state trimerization of sodium dicyanamide in organically modified silica nanopores. In the present study we use FTIR, NMR, pXRD, TGA and DSC to analyze the kinetics and mechanism of the liquid state trimerization of potassium and rubidium dicyanamide under similar conditions of nanoconfinement. It is found that nanoconfinement accelerates dramatically the kinetics of the liquid state trimerization, whereas it does not appear to affect the reaction mechanism. Kinetic analysis indicates that the acceleration is associated with an increase in the preexponential factor. Although nanoconfinement has the opposite effects on the respective kinetics of solid and liquid state trimerization, both effects are linked to a change in the preexponential factor. The results obtained are consistent with our hypothesis that the effects differ because nanoconfinement may promote disordering of the solid and ordering of the liquid reaction media.

  2. A Subfemtotesla Atomic Magnetometer Based on Hybrid Optical Pumping of Potassium and Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Cai, Hongwei; Ding, Ming; Quan, Wei; Fang, Jiancheng

    2016-05-01

    Atomic magnetometers, based on detection of Larmor spin precession of optically pumped atoms, have been researched and applied extensively. Higher sensitivity and spatial resolution combined with no cryogenic cooling of atomic magnetometers would enable many applications with low cost, including the magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ultrahigh sensitivity atomic magnetometer is considered to be the main development direction for the future. Hybrid optical pumping has been proposed to improve the efficiency of nuclear polarization. But it can also be used for magnetic field measurement. This method can control absorption of optical pumping light, which is benefit for improving the uniformity of alkali metal atoms polarization and the sensitivity of atomic magnetometer. In addition, it allows optical pumping in the absence of quenching gas. We conduct experiments with a hybrid optically pumped atomic magnetometer using a cell containing potassium and rubidium. By adjusting the density ratio of alkali metal and the pumping laser conditions, we measured the magnetic field sensitivity better than 0.7 fT/sqrt(Hz).

  3. Analysis of characteristics of a diode-pumped rubidium vapour laser using a kinetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, He; Wang, You; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Han, Juhong; An, Guofei; Jiang, Zhigang; Gao, Ming; Zhou, Jie; Liao, Zhiye

    2016-08-01

    We consider diode-pumped alkali vapour lasers (DPALs), which make it possible to achieve a high output power. Characteristics of such DPALs strongly depend on the physical properties of buffer gases and on structural parameters of a vapour cell. Special attention is paid to a diode-pumped rubidium vapour laser (DPRVL): We have investigated the effect of different conditions on its characteristics. The results show that the linewidth of the D2 line of a DPRVL and the fine-structure mixing rate between two excited energy levels, which are two crucial factors in implementing a high-power DPRVL, increase with the pressure of buffer gases and the temperature of the vapour cell. It is demonstrated that the population ratio of two excited energy levels is close to that corresponding to a thermal equilibrium as the pressure of buffer gases and the temperature of the vapour cell become higher. We have found that the optimal values of the methane pressure, the cell temperature and the cell length can be determined through a kinetic analysis. The conclusions can be valuable for designing configurations of an end-pumped DPAL.

  4. Narrow-band N-resonance formed in thin rubidium atomic layers

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2012-11-15

    The narrow-band N-resonance formed in a {Lambda} system of D{sub 1}-line rubidium atoms is studied in the presence of a buffer gas (neon) and the radiations of two continuous narrow-band diode lasers. Special-purpose cells are used to investigate the dependence of the process on vapor column thickness L in millimeter, micrometer, and nanometer ranges. A comparison of the dependences of the N-resonance and the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance on L demonstrates that the minimum (record) thickness at which the N-resonance can be detected is L = 50 {mu}m and that a high-contrast EIT resonance can easily be formed even at L Almost-Equal-To 800 nm. The N-resonance in a magnetic field for {sup 85}Rb atoms is shown to split into five or six components depending on the magnetic field and laser radiation directions. The results obtained indicate that levels F{sub g} = 2, 3 are initial and final in the N-resonance formation. The dependence of the N-resonance on the angle between the laser beams is analyzed, and practical applications are noted.

  5. Rubidium marking of Anopheles mosquitoes detectable by field-capable X-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, E E; Smith, S C; Roberts, J M; Benedict, M

    2007-06-01

    We present a mosquito marking technique suitable for mark-release-recapture that can be used with a hand-held, portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer, which is practical for field measurements. Third instar Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) and Anopheles stephensi Liston larvae were cultured to pupation in water containing rubidium (Rb) Cl at concentrations up to 1000 p.p.m. Rb. Anopheles gambiae larvae survived to adulthood at concentrations as high as 1000 p.p.m. Rb but suffered pupal mortality and reduced adult longevity at high concentrations. We were able to culture An. stephensi at Rb concentrations as high as 300 p.p.m. The presence of Rb in adults was evaluated using a portable XRF analyser, and we were able to reliably detect Rb above background levels in 10-day-old females and 4-day-old males at concentrations causing minimal pupal or adult mortality. We observed that Rb marking was not permanent, and the concentration declined significantly as adults aged. The low cost of labelling with RbCl and the field portability of the spectrometer provide a useful means for labelling mosquitoes via breeding sites or in the laboratory for mark-release-recapture experiments.

  6. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each endurance... installation on the engine must be established and recorded....

  7. 40 CFR 82.100 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.100 Purpose. The purpose of... with, certain ozone-depleting substances, pursuant to section 611 of the Clean Air Act, as amended....

  8. 40 CFR 82.100 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.100 Purpose. The purpose of... with, certain ozone-depleting substances, pursuant to section 611 of the Clean Air Act, as amended....

  9. 40 CFR 82.100 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.100 Purpose. The purpose of... with, certain ozone-depleting substances, pursuant to section 611 of the Clean Air Act, as amended....

  10. 40 CFR 82.100 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.100 Purpose. The purpose of... with, certain ozone-depleting substances, pursuant to section 611 of the Clean Air Act, as amended....

  11. 40 CFR 82.100 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.100 Purpose. The purpose of... with, certain ozone-depleting substances, pursuant to section 611 of the Clean Air Act, as amended....

  12. 21 CFR 82.50 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.50 General. A batch of a... regulations in this part, for use in food, drugs, and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 82.2050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Externally Applied Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.2050 General. A batch... this part, for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to...

  14. 21 CFR 82.50 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.50 General. A batch of a... regulations in this part, for use in food, drugs, and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements...

  15. 21 CFR 82.2050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Externally Applied Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.2050 General. A batch... this part, for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to...

  16. 21 CFR 82.50 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Foods, Drugs, and Cosmetics § 82.50 General. A batch of a... regulations in this part, for use in food, drugs, and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to the requirements...

  17. 21 CFR 82.2050 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Externally Applied Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.2050 General. A batch... this part, for use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics, if such batch conforms to...

  18. 40 CFR 82.306 - Prohibited products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82...-charged appliance component for air-conditioning or refrigeration appliances manufactured on or...

  19. 40 CFR 82.306 - Prohibited products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82...-charged appliance component for air-conditioning or refrigeration appliances manufactured on or...

  20. 40 CFR 82.306 - Prohibited products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82...-charged appliance component for air-conditioning or refrigeration appliances manufactured on or...

  1. 40 CFR 82.306 - Prohibited products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82...-charged appliance component for air-conditioning or refrigeration appliances manufactured on or...

  2. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Halon means any of the Class I, Group II substances listed in subpart A, appendix A of 40 CFR part 82... 2402, and all isomers of these chemicals. Halon product means any mixture or combination of...

  3. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Halon means any of the Class I, Group II substances listed in subpart A, Appendix A of 40 CFR Part 82... 2402, and all isomers of these chemicals. Halon product means any mixture or combination of...

  4. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Halon means any of the Class I, Group II substances listed in subpart A, appendix A of 40 CFR part 82... 2402, and all isomers of these chemicals. Halon product means any mixture or combination of...

  5. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Halon means any of the Class I, Group II substances listed in subpart A, appendix A of 40 CFR part 82... 2402, and all isomers of these chemicals. Halon product means any mixture or combination of...

  6. 40 CFR 82.306 - Prohibited products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....306 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82...-charged appliance component for air-conditioning or refrigeration appliances manufactured on or...

  7. 40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer... Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f) Certificates are not transferable. In the event of...

  8. 40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer... Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f) Certificates are not transferable. In the event of...

  9. 40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer... Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f) Certificates are not transferable. In the event of...

  10. 40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer... Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f) Certificates are not transferable. In the event of...

  11. 40 CFR 82.164 - Reclaimer certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.164 Reclaimer... Recycling Program Manager—Reclaimer Certification. (f) Certificates are not transferable. In the event of...

  12. 12 CFR 8.2 - Semiannual assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... computed at the same rate as provided in the Table in 12 CFR 8.2(a); however, only the total domestic... the lower endpoint (Column A) of the bracket in which it falls. This base amount of the assessment...

  13. 50 CFR 82.16 - Reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH RESTORATION PROGRAM ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES FOR GRANTS-IN-AID... prescribed by FMC 74-7 or other appropriate referenced Federal Management Circulars cited in § 82.3 of...

  14. 7 CFR 82.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.1 Applicability. Pursuant to the authority conferred by... Marketing Service (AMS) will make payment to California growers who divert clingstone peaches by...

  15. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under..., United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and will be implemented by the California Canning...

  16. 7 CFR 82.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.1 Applicability. Pursuant to the authority conferred by... Marketing Service (AMS) will make payment to California growers who divert clingstone peaches by...

  17. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under..., United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and will be implemented by the California Canning...

  18. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under..., United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and will be implemented by the California Canning...

  19. 7 CFR 82.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.1 Applicability. Pursuant to the authority conferred by... Marketing Service (AMS) will make payment to California growers who divert clingstone peaches by...

  20. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under..., United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and will be implemented by the California Canning...

  1. 7 CFR 82.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.1 Applicability. Pursuant to the authority conferred by... Marketing Service (AMS) will make payment to California growers who divert clingstone peaches by...

  2. 7 CFR 82.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.1 Applicability. Pursuant to the authority conferred by... Marketing Service (AMS) will make payment to California growers who divert clingstone peaches by...

  3. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered under..., United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and will be implemented by the California Canning...

  4. 40 CFR 82.260 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Halon means any of the Class I, Group II substances listed in subpart A, appendix A of 40 CFR part 82... 2402, and all isomers of these chemicals. Halon product means any mixture or combination of...

  5. catena-Poly[[diaqua-rubidium(I)](μ(2)-3-carboxy-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato)(μ(2)-pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid)].

    PubMed

    Tombul, Mustafa; Guven, Kutalmis

    2009-01-01

    The structural unit of the title compound, [Rb(C(6)H(3)N(2)O(4))(C(6)H(4)N(2)O(4))(H(2)O)(2)](n), consists of one rubidium cation, one hydrogen pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxyl-ate anion, one pyrazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid mol-ecule and two water mol-ecules. This formulation is repeated twice in the asymmetric unit as the rubidium cation lies on an inversion centre. Each anion or acid mol-ecule is linked to two rubidium cations, while the rubidium cation has close contacts to four symmetry-equivalent organic ligands, with two different coordination modes towards this cation. In addition, each rubidium cation is coordinated by two water O atoms, raising the coordination number to eight. One of the carboxyl groups of the acid holds its H atom, which forms a hydrogen bond to a coordinated water mol-ecule. The other carboxyl group is deprotonated in half of the ligands and protonated in the other half, taking part in a strong O-H⋯O hydrogen bond disordered over an inversion centre. The stabil-ization of the crystal structure is further assisted by O-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-actions involving the water mol-ecules and carboxyl-ate O atoms. PMID:21581808

  6. PDX experimental results in FY82

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Bitter, M.; Buchenauer, D.; Budny, R.; Brau, K.; Crowley, T.; Davis, S.; Dylla, H.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents a detailed summary of the major experimental results of PDX in FY82 and represents the efforts of the entire PDX group. Topics covered include ..beta..-scaling and fishbone studies, fluctuations, disruptions, impurities and impurity transport, power handling, limiter conditioning, edge studies, plasma fueling, counter-injection, and diagnostic development. A less detailed version will appear as the FY82 PDX contribution to the PPPL Annual Report.

  7. Photoelectron spectra of thulium atoms encapsulated C82 fullerene, Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 (III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takafumi; Tokumoto, Youji; Sumii, Ryohei; Yagi, Hajime; Izumi, Noriko; Shinohara, Hisanori; Hino, Shojun

    2014-03-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) of two thulium atoms and thulium-carbide cluster entrapped fullerenes, Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 (III), were measured using synchrotron radiation and MgKα X-ray light sources. The UPS spectral onset energy of these endohedral fullerenes is around 0.9 eV, which is smaller than that of 1.2 eV of empty C82. The UPS of Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 (III) resemble each other. Further, the UPS of Tm2@C82 (III), Y2@C82-C3v and Er2@C82-C3v are almost identical and as well as are Tm2C2@C82 (III), Y2C2@C82-C3v and Er2C2@C82-C3v. The XPS Tm4d5/2 peaks of Tm2@C82 and Tm2C2@C82 appear at higher binding energy region than that of Tm@C82, which suggests the oxidation states of Tm atoms in Tm2@C82 (III) and Tm2C2@C82 are higher than that in Tm@C82.

  8. Synthesis of novel ion-imprinted polymeric nanoparticles based on dibenzo-21-crown-7 for the selective pre-concentration and recognition of rubidium ions.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Beshare; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report the first application of ion-imprinted technology via precipitation polymerization for simple and practical determination of rubidium ions. The rubidium-ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles were prepared using dibenzo-21-crown-7 as a selective ligand, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as radical initiator. The resulting powder material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, which showed colloidal nanoparticles of 100-200 nm in diameter and slightly irregular in shape. The maximum adsorption capacity of the ion imprinted particles was 63.36 μmol/g. The experimental conditions such as nature and concentration of eluent, pH, adsorption and desorption times, weight of the polymer material, aqueous phase and desorption agent volumes were also studied. Finally, selectivity of the prepared IIP particles toward rubidium ion was investigated in the presence of some foreign metal ions. PMID:26462738

  9. RUBIDIUM ABUNDANCES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS NGC 6752, NGC 1904, AND NGC 104 (47 Tuc)

    SciTech Connect

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Lugaro, Maria; Campbell, Simon W.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara; D'Antona, Francesca

    2013-10-10

    Large star-to-star variations of the abundances of proton-capture elements, such as Na and O, in globular clusters (GCs) are interpreted as the effect of internal pollution resulting from the presence of multiple stellar populations. To better constrain this scenario, we investigate the abundance distribution of the heavy element rubidium (Rb) in NGC 6752, NGC 1904, and NGC 104 (47 Tuc). Combining the results from our sample with those in the literature, we found that Rb exhibits no star-to-star variations, regardless of cluster metallicity, with the possible intriguing, although very uncertain, exception of the metal-rich bulge cluster NGC 6388. If no star-to-star variations can be confirmed for all GCs, this finding implies that the stellar source of the proton-capture element variations must not have produced significant amounts of Rb. This element is observed to be enhanced at extremely high levels in intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (IM-AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (i.e., at a metallicity similar to 47 Tuc and NGC 6388). This fact may present a challenge to this popular candidate polluter, unless the mass range of the observed IM-AGB stars does not participate in the formation of the second-generation stars in GCs. A number of possible solutions are available to resolve this conundrum, including the fact that the Magellanic Cloud observations are very uncertain and may need to be revised. The fast rotating massive stars scenario would not face this potential problem as the slow mechanical winds of these stars during their main-sequence phase do not carry any Rb enhancements; however, these candidates face even bigger issues such as the production of Li and the close overlap with core-collapse supernova timescales. Observations of Sr, Rb, and Zr in metal-rich clusters such as NGC 6388 and NGC 6441 are sorely needed to clarify the situation.

  10. Ultracold Mixtures of Rubidium and Ytterbium for Open Quantum System Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Creston David

    Exquisite experimental control of quantum systems has led to sharp growth of basic quantum research in recent years. Controlling dissipation has been crucial in producing ultracold, trapped atomic samples. Recent theoretical work has suggested dissipation can be a useful tool for quantum state preparation. Controlling not only how a system interacts with a reservoir, but the ability to engineer the reservoir itself would be a powerful platform for open quantum system research. Toward this end, we have constructed an apparatus to study ultracold mixtures of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb). We have developed a Rb-blind optical lattice at 423.018(7) nm, which will enable us to immerse a lattice of Yb atoms (the system) into a Rb BEC (superfluid reservoir). We have produced Bose-Einstein condensates of 170Yb and 174Yb, two of the five bosonic isotopes of Yb, which also has two fermionic isotopes. Flexible optical trapping of Rb and Yb was achieved with a two-color dipole trap of 532 and 1064 nm, and we observed thermalization in ultracold mixtures of Rb and Yb. Using the Rb-blind optical lattice, we measured very small light shifts of 87Rb BECs near the light shift zero-wavelengths adjacent the 6p electronic states, through a coherent series of lattice pulses. The positions of the zero-wavelengths are sensitive to the electric dipole matrix elements between the 5s and 6p states, and we made the first experimental measurement of their strength. By measuring a light shift, we were not sensitive to excited state branching ratios, and we achieved a precision better than 0.3%.

  11. Measurement of the photoionization cross section of the 5S{sub 1/2} state of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, J.R.; Northup, T.; Patterson, B.M.; Takekoshi, T.; Knize, R.J.

    2002-12-01

    We report the measurement of the photoionization cross section for the 5S{sub 1/2} state of rubidium, using atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. A single-photon rate at {lambda}=266 nm was found by monitoring the decay of trap fluorescence after exposure to ionizing radiation from a quadrupled Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. In order to eliminate excited-state ionization, the photoionization and trapping lasers were alternately chopped, so that only ground-state atoms were ionized. We determine that the photoionization cross section at {lambda}=266 nm is {sigma}=1.7(2)x10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}.

  12. Performance of the new Efratom optically pumped rubidium frequency standards and their possible application in space relativity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, C. O.; Williams, R.; Singh, G.; Mullendore, J.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of Efratom optically pumped rubidium frequency standards are discussed. The Efratom units were compared with cesium beam and hydrogen maser standards and showed a stability of approximately 5 times 10 to the minus 12th power over two one-week periods. Dependency of frequency upon the environmental parameters of pressure, magnetic field, temperature, supply voltage, and acceleration was measured. A package of three units with automatic phase comparison and recording was designed and constructed to allow a measurement of relativistic effects on time with high accuracy during space missions.

  13. Realization of low frequency and controllable-bandwidth squeezing based on a four-wave-mixing amplifer in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cunjin; Jing, Jietai; Zhou, Zhifan; Pooser, Raphael C; Hudelist, Florian; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the creation of two correlated beams generated by a nondegenerate four-wave-mixing amplifier at {lambda} = 795 nm in hot rubidium vapor. We achieve intensity difference squeezing at frequencies as low as 1.5 kHz which is so far the lowest frequency to observe squeezing in an atomic system. The squeezing spans from 5.5 to 16.5 MHz with a maximum squeezing of {approx}5 dB at 1 MHz. We can control the squeezing bandwidth by changing the pump power. Both low frequency and controllable bandwidth squeezing show great potential in sensitivity detection and precise control of the atom optics measurement.

  14. Neutron-capture resonances for 82Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; Berman, B. L.

    1982-09-01

    Strong neturon-capture resonances for 82Se have been found at 3.63, 7.1, and 9.51 keV and weaker ones have been found at 0.58, 1.15, and possibly 13.54 and 16.5 keV. None was found at lower neutron energies; this absence of strong epithermal capture resonances invalidates the hypothesis that the depth dependence of the abundance ratio of 78Kr to 83Kr found in meteoritic studies owes its origin to anomalous 83Kr production by neutron capture on 82Se. Precise energies have been assigned to neutron-capture resonances up to 40 keV for all the other selenium isotopes as well. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 82Se, natSe(n, γ) neutron time of flight; resonance energies; abundance ratio of 78Kr to 83Kr.

  15. Detection and severity classification of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Elizabeth J. Kemp, Robert A. de; Glenn Wells, R.; Al Harbi, Ibraheem; Klein, Ran; Beanlands, Rob S. B.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. When MPI studies are performed with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioactive tracer rubidium-82 chloride ({sup 82}Rb), a small but non-negligible fraction of studies (∼10%) suffer from extracardiac interference: high levels of tracer uptake in structures adjacent to the heart which mask the true cardiac tracer uptake. At present, there are no clinically available options for automated detection or correction of this problem. This work presents an algorithm that detects and classifies the severity of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images and reports the accuracy and failure rate of the method. Methods: A set of 200 {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images were reviewed by a trained nuclear cardiologist and interference severity reported on a four-class scale, from absent to severe. An automated algorithm was developed that compares uptake at the external border of the myocardium to three thresholds, separating the four interference severity classes. A minimum area of interference was required, and the search region was limited to that facing the stomach wall and spleen. Maximizing concordance (Cohen’s Kappa) and minimizing failure rate for the set of 200 clinician-read images were used to find the optimal population-based constants defining search limit and minimum area parameters and the thresholds for the algorithm. Tenfold stratified cross-validation was used to find optimal thresholds and report accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa). Results: The algorithm was capable of detecting interference with a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity/specificity/Kappa of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00]/0.82 [0.66, 0.98]/0.79 [0.65, 0.92], and a failure rate of 1.0% ± 0.2%. The four-class overall Kappa was 0.72 [0.64, 0.81]. Separation of mild versus moderate-or-greater interference was performed with good accuracy (sensitivity

  16. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra of (YC)2 @ C82 and Y2 @ C82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Shojun; Wanita, Norihiko; Iwasaki, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Akachi, Takao; Inoue, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2005-11-01

    Ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) of metallofullerenes, (YC)2@C82 (III) and Y2@C82 (III) were measured using a synchrotron radiation light source. The spectral onset energy of (YC)2@C82 (III) was determined to be 0.8 eV below the Fermi level, and that of Y2@C82 (III) was 0.45eV , indicating the semiconductive nature of these metallofullerenes. The UPS consisted of numerous crests and troughs. Further, a change in intensity upon tuning the excitation energy was observed; however, the intensity of the change was not as large as those observed for other fullerenes. The UPS of two metallofullerenes basically resemble each other, although there are minute differences between them. The UPS of (YC)2@C82 (III) was easily reproduced by a simulated spectrum obtained by molecular orbital calculations assuming a C3v (8) cage structure with four additional electrons on the cage. A difference spectrum between the UPS of (YC)2@C82 (III) and Y2@C82 (III) indicates the existence of additional electrons on the cage of Y2@C82 .

  17. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environments and of the impacts of offshore activities on the seabed and affected coastal areas. (b) Studies... quality and productivity of such environments, to establish trends in the areas studies, and to design... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental studies. 556.82 Section...

  18. 12 CFR 8.2 - Semiannual assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rate in Column D: Assessments = C+ . (4) Each year, the OCC may index the marginal rates in Column D to... computed at the same rate as provided in the Table in 12 CFR 8.2(a); however, only the total domestic... (12 U.S.C. 1841(c)(2)(F)) or a bank or a Federal savings association whose ratio of total...

  19. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Postapproval Requirements § 814.82 Postapproval... as a condition to approval of the device: (1) Restriction of the sale, distribution, or use of the device as provided by section 515(d)(1)(B)(ii) or 520(e) of the act. (2) Continuing evaluation...

  20. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Postapproval Requirements § 814.82 Postapproval... as a condition to approval of the device: (1) Restriction of the sale, distribution, or use of the device as provided by section 515(d)(1)(B)(ii) or 520(e) of the act. (2) Continuing evaluation...

  1. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 556.82 Environmental studies. (a) The... which may be affected by OCS oil and gas activities in such area or region. Any study shall, to the... the extent possible, shall not duplicate studies done under other laws. Where appropriate,...

  2. 30 CFR 556.82 - Environmental studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Studies § 556.82 Environmental studies. (a) The... which may be affected by OCS oil and gas activities in such area or region. Any study shall, to the... the extent possible, shall not duplicate studies done under other laws. Where appropriate,...

  3. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302 Definitions... and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner,...

  4. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose. The... containing appliances under authority of section 615 of the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990....

  5. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  6. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  7. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  8. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.82 Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  9. 9 CFR 82.4 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or poultry, infected with END, except as provided in § 82.7(b); (3) Any eggs from birds or poultry, or a flock of birds or poultry, infected with END; (4) Hatching eggs from flocks of birds or poultry... birds or poultry not known to be infected with END; (4) Eggs, other than hatching eggs, from birds...

  10. 40 CFR 745.82 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.82... coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams/per square centimeter (mg/cm2) or...

  11. 40 CFR 745.82 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.82... components affected by the renovation are free of paint or other surface coatings that contain lead equal...

  12. 40 CFR 745.82 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.82... coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams/per square centimeter (mg/cm2) or...

  13. 40 CFR 745.82 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.82... coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams/per square centimeter (mg/cm2) or...

  14. 40 CFR 745.82 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Residential Property Renovation § 745.82... coatings that contain lead equal to or in excess of 1.0 milligrams/per square centimeter (mg/cm2) or...

  15. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.82 Evaluation standards. (a) The Secretary establishes two evaluation standards to evaluate the performance of each DSU that receives funds under this part. The evaluation standards assist the Secretary and each DSU to evaluate a DSU's performance in serving...

  16. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance means any substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A, including... Agency at a later date. (b) Class II substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part... federal regulations. (d) Consumer means a commercial or non-commercial purchaser of a product or...

  17. 50 CFR 17.82 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.82 Prohibitions. Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population shall be treated as if it were listed... Act with respect to such population. The Special rules (protective regulations) adopted for...

  18. 50 CFR 17.82 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.82 Prohibitions. Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population shall be treated as if it were listed... Act with respect to such population. The Special rules (protective regulations) adopted for...

  19. 50 CFR 17.82 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.82 Prohibitions. Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population shall be treated as if it were listed... Act with respect to such population. The Special rules (protective regulations) adopted for...

  20. 50 CFR 17.82 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.82 Prohibitions. Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population shall be treated as if it were listed... Act with respect to such population. The Special rules (protective regulations) adopted for...

  1. 50 CFR 17.82 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Experimental Populations § 17.82 Prohibitions. Any population determined by the Secretary to be an experimental population shall be treated as if it were listed... Act with respect to such population. The Special rules (protective regulations) adopted for...

  2. 20 CFR 631.82 - Substate allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.82 Substate allocation..., within such disaster areas. The remainder of such funds may be reserved by the Governor for use, in... with such major disaster. (b) The JTPA title III program substate grantee for the disaster area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82... Potter Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Potter Valley.” (b) Approved map. The approved maps for the Potter Valley viticultural area are the U.S.G.S....

  4. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by the..., or treat: (a) Any 5-cent coin of the United States; or (b) Any one-cent coin of the United States....

  5. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substance means any substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A, including... Agency at a later date. (b) Class II substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part..., a product manufactured with a controlled substance, or any other chemical substance (including...

  6. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance means any substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A, including... Agency at a later date. (b) Class II substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part..., a product manufactured with a controlled substance, or any other chemical substance (including...

  7. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substance means any substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A, including... Agency at a later date. (b) Class II substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part..., a product manufactured with a controlled substance, or any other chemical substance (including...

  8. 40 CFR 82.104 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substance means any substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part 82, appendix A to subpart A, including... Agency at a later date. (b) Class II substance means any substance designated as class II in 40 CFR part..., a product manufactured with a controlled substance, or any other chemical substance (including...

  9. 21 CFR 312.82 - Early consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., plans for studying the drug product in pediatric populations, and the best approach for presentation and... USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs Intended to Treat Life-threatening and Severely-debilitating Illnesses § 312.82 Early consultation. For products intended to treat life-threatening or...

  10. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Postapproval Requirements § 814.82 Postapproval... as a condition to approval of the device: (1) Restriction of the sale, distribution, or use of the device as provided by section 515(d)(1)(B)(ii) or 520(e) of the act. (2) Continuing evaluation...

  11. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have... may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive. (c) Hand-operated doors....

  12. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have... may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive. (c) Hand-operated doors....

  13. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have... may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive. (c) Hand-operated doors....

  14. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have... may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive. (c) Hand-operated doors....

  15. 49 CFR 230.82 - Fire doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.82 Fire doors. (a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have... may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive. (c) Hand-operated doors....

  16. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... class II ozone-depleting substance that is used for heat transfer purposes and provides a cooling effect. ..., chiller, or freezer. Class I substance means any controlled substance designated as class I in 40 CFR part... in 40 CFR part 82, appendix B to subpart A. Consumer, when used to describe a person taking...

  17. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302 Definitions. As used in this subpart, the term: Appliance means any device which contains and uses a refrigerant..., chiller, or freezer. Class I substance means any controlled substance designated as class I in 40 CFR...

  18. 7 CFR 82.5 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.5 General requirements. (a) To be eligible for this... eligible trees or an entire orchard. Clingstone peach tree removal shall not take place until the grower... participating in this program must agree not to replant clingstone peach trees on the land cleared under...

  19. 7 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.3 Definitions. (a) Administrator means the Administrator of AMS. (b... means “Application for Clingstone Peach Tree Removal Program.” (d) Calendar year means the 12-month... Peach Association, a grower-owned marketing and bargaining cooperative representing the clingstone...

  20. 7 CFR 82.5 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.5 General requirements. (a) To be eligible for this... eligible trees or an entire orchard. Clingstone peach tree removal shall not take place until the grower... participating in this program must agree not to replant clingstone peach trees on the land cleared under...