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Sample records for rubidium 82

  1. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Sosnowski, Kenneth M.

    1999-10-12

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  2. [82 Rubidium PET to replace myocardial scintigraphy].

    PubMed

    Hasbak, Philip; Kjær, Andreas

    2011-02-21

    Since the 1970's nuclear cardiology has mainly been based on the use of gamma camera technology. While gamma cameras have undergone a rapid development, the number of perfusion tracers has been limited. In parallel, cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) has only been performed with short-lived isotopes at centres with access to a cyclotron, and only including a very limited number of patients. The number of PET scanners has increased markedly in Denmark and with the introduction of generator-produced 82-Rubidium, this modality may replace the traditional cardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  3. Myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82. II. Effects of metaolic and pharmacologic interventions. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.A.; Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Fisher,D.J.; Gould, K.L.; O'Brien, H.A. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    In order to validate a new method for quantifying coronary blood flow, a bolus of rubidium-82 (Rb-82) was injected intravenously into 28 open-chested dogs under a wide range of flow and physiologic conditions, using beta probes to monitor myocardial radioactivity. Extraction fraction and perfusion were measured using a functional model that separates the data into the free and trapped myocardial rubidium. Extraction and uptake of rubidium were lower during acidosis than during alkalosis and were unchanged by glucose-insulin, digoxin, or propranolol. Myocardial flow, as indicated by rubidium, correlated linearly with simultaneous measurements of flow by microspheres in the same sample volume over a wide range of flow (r = 0.97, n = 106, range 0.02 to 7.75 ml/min/g). Regional myocardial blood flow can be accurately determined using generator-produced Rb-82. Studies using current state-of-the-art, fast positron-emission tomographic cameras are required to determine the utility of this approach in man.

  4. Feasibility of stress only rubidium-82 PET myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sean R; Kikut, Janusz; Pinckney, Richard G; Keating, Friederike K

    2013-12-01

    Stress only SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a validated strategy to streamline cardiac diagnostic imaging. The potential use of Rb82 PET stress only MPI has not been investigated. Stress images from 200 Rb82 PET-MPI were reviewed by two blinded readers and categorized as not requiring additional rest images (normal) or requiring additional images (abnormal or equivocal). No additional images were deemed necessary for 95 (48%) and 99 (50%) by the two blinded readers. The stress only interpretation was compared to the previous read of the complete rest-stress study. The rate of detecting a normal result with stress only reading was 76%-79% with a negative predictive value of 94%-95%. Clinical predictors of a normal stress only PET-MPI included lower age, the absence of CAD, and female gender, but not body mass index. Blinded reads of 50 additional consecutive PET-MPI from patients with selected clinical predictors (age <65 years, no known CAD) were then performed. Of these, 40 (80%) were normal by previous rest-stress reading, and 34 (68%) were categorized as not requiring additional images after stress only reading. PET stress only imaging would have resulted in a mean reduction of radiation exposure of 2.4 mSv per study according to a published radiation estimate. Stress only Rb82 PET-MPI is a feasible strategy to reduce resource utilization and radiation exposure associated with MPI. This strategy would be most applicable to patients with a lower pretest likelihood.

  5. Prognostic value of rubidium-82 positron emission tomography in patients after heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Mc Ardle, Brian A; Davies, Ross A; Chen, Li; Small, Gary R; Ruddy, Terrence D; Dwivedi, Girish; Yam, Yeung; Haddad, Haissam; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; Stadnick, Ellamae; Hessian, Renee; Guo, Ann; Beanlands, Rob S; deKemp, Robert A; Chow, Benjamin J W

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a key prognostic determinant after heart transplant. Detection and risk stratification of patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy are problematic. Positron emission tomography using rubidium-82 allows quantification of absolute myocardial blood flow and may have utility for risk stratification in this population. Patients with a history of heart transplant undergoing dipyridamole rubidium-82 positron emission tomography were prospectively enrolled. Myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were recorded. Absolute flow quantification at rest and after dipyridamole stress as well as the ratio of mean global flow at stress and at rest, termed myocardial flow reserve, were calculated. Patients were followed for all-cause death, acute coronary syndrome, and heart failure hospitalization. A total of 140 patients (81% men; median age, 62 years; median follow-up, 18.2 months) were included. There were 14 events during follow-up (9 deaths, 1 acute coronary syndrome, and 4 heart failure admissions). In addition to baseline clinical variables (estimated glomerular filtration rate, previously documented cardiac allograft vasculopathy), relative perfusion defects, mean myocardial flow reserve, and mean stress myocardial blood flow were significant predictors of adverse outcome. Abnormalities on rubidium-82 positron emission tomography were predictors of adverse events in heart transplant patients. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Review: comparison of PET rubidium-82 with conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has for many years been focused on gamma camera technology. With ever improving cameras and software applications, this modality has developed into an important assessment tool for ischaemic heart disease. However, the development of new perfusion tracers has been scarce. While cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) so far largely has been limited to centres with on-site cyclotron, recent developments with generator produced perfusion tracers such as rubidium-82, as well as an increasing number of PET scanners installed, may enable a larger patient flow that may supersede that of gamma camera myocardial perfusion imaging. PMID:24028171

  7. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with (99m)Tc-SPECT, (82)Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of (82)Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of (82)Rb PET with regard to (99m)Tc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of (82)Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure.

  8. Story of Rubidium-82 and Advantages for Myocardial Perfusion PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chatal, Jean-François; Rouzet, François; Haddad, Ferid; Bourdeau, Cécile; Mathieu, Cédric; Le Guludec, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Rubidium-82 has a long story, starting in 1954. After preclinical studies in dogs showing that myocardial uptake of this radionuclide was directly proportional to myocardial blood flow (MBF), clinical studies were performed in the 80s leading to an approval in the USA in 1989. From that time, thousands of patients have been tested and their results have been reported in three meta-analyses. Pooled patient-based sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 0.91 and 0.90. By comparison with 99mTc-SPECT, 82Rb PET had a much better diagnostic accuracy, especially in obese patients with body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (85 versus 67% with SPECT) and in women with large breasts. A great advantage of 82Rb PET is its capacity to accurately quantify MBF. Quite importantly, it has been recently shown that coronary flow reserve is associated with adverse cardiovascular events independently of luminal angiographic severity. Moreover, coronary flow reserve is a functional parameter particularly useful in the estimate of microvascular dysfunction, such as in diabetes mellitus. Due to the very short half-life of rubidium-82, the effective dose calculated for a rest/stress test is roughly equivalent to the annual natural exposure and even less when stress-only is performed with a low activity compatible with a good image quality with the last generation 3D PET scanners. There is still some debate on the relative advantages of 82Rb PET with regard to 99mTc-SPECT. For the last 10 years, great technological advances substantially improved performances of SPECT with its accuracy getting closer to this of 82Rb/PET. Currently, the main advantages of PET are its capacity to accurately quantify MBF and to deliver a low radiation exposure. PMID:26442267

  9. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  10. Impact of pharmacological stress agent on patient motion during rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Memmott, Matthew J; Tonge, Christine M; Saint, Kimberley J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2017-01-04

    Patient motion has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the quality and accuracy of rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion PET/CT. This study aimed to investigate the effect on patient motion of two pharmacological stressing agents, adenosine and regadenoson. Dynamic data were retrospectively analyzed in 90 patients undergoing adenosine (n = 30), incremental adenosine (n = 30), or regadenoson (n = 30) rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion PET/CT. Severity of motion was scored qualitatively using a four-point (0-3) scale and quantitatively using frame-to-frame pixel shifts. The type of motion, returning or non-returning, and the frame in which it occurred were also recorded. There were significant differences in both the qualitative and quantitative scores comparing regadenoson to adenosine (P = .025 and P < .001) and incremental adenosine (P = .014, P = .015), respectively. The difference in scores between adenosine and incremental adenosine was not significant. Where motion was present, significantly more adenosine patients were classed as non-returning (P = .018). The median frames for motion occurring were 12 for regadenoson and 14 for both adenosine cohorts. The choice of stressing protocol impacts significantly on patient motion. Patients stressed with regadenoson have significantly lower motion scores than those stressed with adenosine, using local protocols. This motion is more likely to be associated with a drift of the heart away from a baseline position, coinciding with the termination of infusion.

  11. The impact of prompt gamma compensation on myocardial blood flow measurements with rubidium-82 dynamic PET.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ian S; Memmott, Matthew J; Tonge, Christine M; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-09-13

    Rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging is a well-established technique for assessing myocardial ischemia. With continuing interest on myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements, there is a requirement to fully appreciate the impact of technical aspects of the process. One such factor for rubidium-82 is prompt gamma compensation (PGC). This study aims to assess the impact of PGC on MBF and MFR calculated from dynamic Rb-82 data. Dynamic rest and stress images were acquired on a Siemens Biograph mCT and reconstructed with and without PGC in 50 patients (29 male). MBF and MFR were measured in the three main coronary territories as well as globally. With PGC, statistically significant reductions in MBF were observed in LAD (-6.9%), LCx (-4.8%), and globally (-6.5%) but only in obese patients. Significant increases in MBF were observed in RCA (+6.4%) in only nonobese patients. In very obese patients, differences of up to 40% in MBF were observed between PGC and non-PGC images. In nearly all cases, similar PGC differences were observed at stress and rest so there were no significant differences in MFR; however, in a small number of very obese patients, differences in excess of 20% were observed. PGC results in statistically significant changes in MBF, with the greatest reductions observed in the LAD and LCx territories of obese patients. In most cases, the impact on stress and rest data is of similar relative magnitudes and changes to MFR are small.

  12. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 (82Rb) PET’s long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac 82Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative 82Rb PET’s ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  13. Review: comparison of PET rubidium-82 with conventional SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear cardiology has for many years been focused on gamma camera technology. With ever improving cameras and software applications, this modality has developed into an important assessment tool for ischaemic heart disease. However, the development of new perfusion tracers has been scarce. While cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) so far largely has been limited to centres with on-site cyclotron, recent developments with generator produced perfusion tracers such as rubidium-82, as well as an increasing number of PET scanners installed, may enable a larger patient flow that may supersede that of gamma camera myocardial perfusion imaging. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  14. Initial human experience with Rubidium-82 renal PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Tahari, Abdel K; Bravo, Paco E; Rahmim, Arman; Bengel, Frank M; Szabo, Zsolt

    2014-02-01

    Preclinical data have shown that Rubidium-82 chloride ((82)Rb) is a radiotracer with high first pass extraction and slow washout in the kidneys. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of human kidney imaging with (82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET) and obtain quantitative data of its uptake non-invasively. Eight healthy volunteers underwent dynamic PET/CT imaging with (82)Rb. A preprogrammed pump was used to insure reproducible injections. Tissue time activity curves were generated from the renal cortex. An input function was derived from the left ventricular blood pool (LVBP), the descending thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta. Renal blood flow was estimated by applying a two-compartment kinetic model. Results obtained with different input functions were compared. Radiotracer accumulation was rapid and reached a plateau within 15-30 s after the bolus entered the kidneys. The derived K1 and k2 parameters were reproducible using input functions obtained from diverse vascular locations. K1 averaged 1.98 ± 0.14 mL/min/g. The average k2 was 0.35 ± 0.11/min. Correlation between K1 values obtained from the LVBP from different bed positions when the kidneys and abdominal aorta were in the same field of view was excellent (R = 0.95). Non-invasive quantitative human kidney imaging with (82)Rb PET is feasible. Advantages of renal PET with (82)Rb include excellent image quality with high image resolution and contrast. (82)Rb has potential as a clinical renal imaging agent in humans. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  15. Rubidium-82 PET imaging is feasible in a rat myocardial infarction model.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Clemmensen, Andreas; Kyhl, Kasper; Follin, Bjarke; Hasbak, Philip; Engstrøm, Thomas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjaer, Andreas

    2017-07-18

    Small-animal myocardial infarct models are frequently used in the assessment of new cardioprotective strategies. A validated quantification of perfusion using a non-cyclotron-dependent PET tracer would be of importance in monitoring response to therapy. We tested whether myocardial PET perfusion imaging is feasible with Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) in a small-animal scanner using a rat myocardial infarct model. 18 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent permanent coronary artery ligation (infarct group), and 11 rats underwent ischemia-reperfusion (reperfusion group) procedure. (82)Rb-PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were conducted before and after the intervention. Perfusion was compared to both left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct size assessed by MRI. Follow-up global (82)Rb-uptake correlated significantly with infarct size (infarct group: r = -0.81, P < 0.001 and reperfusion group: r = -0.61, P = 0.04). Only (82)Rb-uptake in the infarct group correlated with LVEF. At follow-up, a higher segmental (82)Rb-uptake in the infarct group was associated with better wall motion (β = 0.034, CI [0.028;0.039], P < 0.001, R (2) = 0.30), and inversely associated with scar transmurality (β = -2.4 [-2.6; -2.2], P < 0.001, R (2) = 0.59). The associations were similar for the reperfusion group. (82)Rb-PET is feasible in small animal scanners despite the long positron range and enables fast and time-efficient myocardial perfusion imaging in rat models.

  16. Regadenoson pharmacologic rubidium-82 PET: a comparison of quantitative perfusion and function to dipyridamole.

    PubMed

    Cullom, S James; Case, James A; Courter, Staci A; McGhie, A Iain; Bateman, Timothy M

    2013-02-01

    Dipyridamole is used for stress (82)rubidium chloride ((82)RbCl) PET because of its long hyperemic duration. Regadenoson has advantages of a fixed dose and favorable symptom profile, but its mean maximal hyperemia is only 2.3 minutes. To determine its suitability for (82)RbCl PET, we imaged subjects using a regadenoson protocol based on its hyperemic response and compared the images in the same subjects having dipyridamole PET. In 32 subjects (23 M), we assessed visually by blinded interpretation and quantitatively compared summed stress and difference scores, total perfusion deficit (TPD), LVEF, LV volumes, and change in stress-rest function. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analysis of the paired measurements were applied for evaluation of differences. Paired t test and Pearson's correlation were applied for testing of significance. The images were interpreted the same by visual assessment. Twenty-six (26) subjects had reversible defects; by quantitation the SSS was 12.9 ± 7.0 and 14.1 ± 6.4 (P = .23) and SDS was 7.0 ± 6.8 versus 7.6 ± 6.2 (P = .40) for dipyridamole and regadenoson, respectively. Six (6) subjects had <5% likelihood of CAD and were normal by both. All paired measurements showed a high positive correlation between regadenoson and dipyridamole; stress segmental perfusion Reg = 0.93Dip + 4.4, r = 0.88; TPD Reg = 0.94Dip + 0.41, r = 0.93; LVEF Reg = 0.92Dip + 4.7, r = 0.95; stress minus rest LVEF Reg = 0.87Dip - 0.99, r = 0.82. Regadenoson stress (82)RbCl PET perfusion defect and cardiac function measurements are visually and quantitatively equivalent to dipyridamole studies and can be obtained with the clinical advantages of regadenoson.

  17. Early risk stratification using Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography in STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Hasbak, Philip; Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Lønborg, Jacob; Atharovski, Kiril; Christensen, Thomas; Holmvang, Lene; Engstrøm, Thomas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Kjær, Andreas

    2017-07-17

    Assessment of infarct size after myocardial infarction is predictive of subsequent morphological changes and clinical outcome. This study aimed to assess subacute post-intervention Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb)-PET imaging in predicting left ventricle ejection fraction, regional wall motion, and final infarct size by CMR at 3-months after STEMI. STEMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were included prospectively. Rest-only (82)Rb-PET perfusion imaging was performed at median 36 hours [IQR: 22 to 50] after the treatment. The extent of hypoperfusion and absolute blood flow (mL·min·g) were estimated on a global and a 17-segment model with dedicated software. At 3-months follow-up patients completed the CMR functional and late gadolinium enhancement imaging. 42 patients were included, but only 35 had follow-up CMR and constituted the study population. Absolute blood flow was significantly lower in the infarct-related territory compared to remote myocardium, P < .005. Extent of hypoperfusion correlated with final infarct size, r = 0.58, P < .001, while blood flow correlated with ejection fraction, r = 0.41, P < .05. In linear mixed models, higher subacute absolute blood flow (β = 4.6, confidence interval [3.5; 5.2], P < .001, R (2) = 0.67) was associated with greater wall motion. Segmental extent of subacute hypoperfusion (β = 0.43 [0.38; 0.49], P < .001, R (2) = 0.58) was associated with the degree of late gadolinium enhancement at 3-months. Subacute rest-only (82)Rb-PET is feasible following STEMI and seems predictive of myocardial function and infarct size at 3-months.

  18. Economic analysis of clinical positron emission tomography of the heart with rubidium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Mullani, N.A.

    1989-05-01

    This report describes a cost analysis for clinical positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart using generator produced rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb). Considered sequentially are the clinical problem, current noninvasive radionuclide methods, positron emission tomograph, and the cost of PET per study. Also analyzed are the costs of PET versus thallium imaging in the management of chest pain, for screening asymptomatic men at high risk for coronary artery disease and for evaluating myocardial viability after myocardial infarction or thrombolytic therapy. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial ischemia/viability in symptomatic or asymptomatic subjects remains a major medical problem because the sensitivity and specificity of thallium imaging are only 70-85% and 50-70%, respectively, in recent studies. Cardiac positron imaging has an accuracy for noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with a sensitivity and specificity of 95-98%. It can also be used for assessing physiologic stenosis severity, for imaging myocardial infarction and viability, for assessing effects of interventions such as thrombolysis, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or bypass surgery on myocardial perfusion, metabolism or coronary flow reserve, for assessing collateral function noninvasively in man, and for diagnosing cardiomyopathy not due to coronary artery disease. Although the cost for cardiac PET with /sup 82/Rb may be modestly higher than for /sup 201/Tl, the greater diagnostic yield of PET results in comparable or lower overall medical management costs than no diagnostic tests/interventions and lower overall costs compared to thallium imaging for evaluating patients with chest pain, asymptomatic high risk males, and patients after acute myocardial infarction/thrombolysis for myocardial viability.

  19. Extracardiac abnormalities on rubidium-82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mirpour, Sahar; Khandani, Amir H

    2011-04-01

    The role of rubidium-82 (Rb) in recognizing extracardiac diseases is minimally investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and incremental added value of extracardiac findings on Rb cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. The study included all consecutive patients who were referred from July 2008 to June 2010 for Rb cardiac PET/CT to our institution. A blinded reader reviewed the images retrospectively to assess abnormal extracardiac PET findings. Images of 406 patients (142 men; 264 women) with a mean age±standard deviation of 59.72±12.93 years (range: 18-91 years) were reviewed. Incidental extracardiac abnormalities were found in 67 of 406 patients (16.5%). Among them, eight patients had malignant etiologies (1.9%). Incidental extracardiac findings were present in a significant portion of patients undergoing Rb cardiac PET/CT studies. Although most of the extracardiac findings on Rb cardiac PET/CT studies represented clinically known pathologies, these incidental findings on routine Rb cardiac PET/CT scans may have a significant clinical impact on a small number of patients, and offer the referring physician the chance to obtain additional clinically relevant information.

  20. Test-Retest Repeatability of Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements using Rubidium-82 Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efseaff, Matthew

    Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been proposed for routine myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification. Few studies have investigated the test-retest repeatability of this method. Same-day repeatability of rest MBF imaging was optimized with a highly automated analysis program using image-derived input functions and a dual spillover correction (SOC). The effects of heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and subject hemodynamics on test-retest repeatability were investigated at rest and during hyperemic stress. Factors affecting rest MBF repeatability included gender, suspected coronary artery disease, and dual SOC (p < 0.001). The best repeatability coefficient for same-day rest MBF was 0.20 mL/min/g using a six-minute scan-time, iterative reconstruction, dual SOC, resting rate-pressure-product (RPP) adjustment, and a left atrium image-derived input function. The serial study repeatabilities of the optimized protocol in subjects with homogeneous RPPs and tracer infusion profiles was 0.19 and 0.53 mL/min/g at rest and stress, and 0.95 for stress / rest myocardial flow reserve (MFR). Subjects with heterogeneous tracer infusion profiles and hemodynamic conditions had significantly less repeatable MBF measurements at rest, stress, and stress/rest flow reserve (p < 0.05).

  1. Skeletal muscle blood flow in vivo: detection with rubidium-82 and effects of glucose, insulin, and exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Mossberg, K.A.; Mullani, N.; Gould, K.L.; Taegtmeyer, H.

    1987-07-01

    In order to assess the effects of glucose, insulin, and exercise on skeletal muscle blood flow in vivo, we measured positron emission from the thigh muscle of anesthetized rabbits after simultaneous aortic bolus injection of /sup 82/Rb and radiolabeled microspheres (15 micron diameter). Estimates of flow with /sup 82/Rb were based on first-pass regional extraction of /sup 82/Rb by skeletal muscle. Flow estimates were made serially as a function of variations in plasma glucose and insulin and changing the muscle contractile state by electrical stimulation. Flow ranged from 3.1 ml/min/100 g at rest to 71 ml/min/100 g during stimulation. There was good agreement between the two methods of flow measurement over the entire range of flows (r = 0.96 at a slope of 0.90). Flow measured by either method did not vary significantly from baseline over a range of plasma glucose from 5 to 30 mM and plasma insulin from 0 to 20 microU/ml. When flow was increased up to 20-fold by electrical stimulation there was a decrease in extraction of /sup 82/Rb proportional to the increase in flow. However, at pharmacologic levels of insulin (greater than 150 microU/ml) flow was increased twofold as measured by radiolabeled microspheres, but not as measured by rubidium. There was no apparent decrease in extraction of /sup 82/Rb with high insulin. The discrepancy between the microsphere measured flow and rubidium measured flow with high plasma insulin levels can be explained by the assumption that the expected decrease in the extraction fraction was counteracted by an increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity. It is concluded that the first-pass flow model gives valid estimates of skeletal muscle blood flow in vivo with /sup 82/Rb, provided that plasma insulin levels are normal.

  2. Planar positron imaging of rubidium-82 for myocardial infarction: A comparison with thallium-201 and regional wall motion

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.A.; Ryan, J.W.; Resnekov, L.; Stark, V.; Peterson, E.L.; Gustafson, G.C.; Martin, W.B.; Freier, P.A.; Harper, P.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Rubidium-82 (Rb-82) is a generator-produced, short half-life (76 seconds) positron emitting potassium analog. Using a mobile gamma camera equipped with a rotating tungsten collimator and high-energy shielding, we examined the use of Rb-82 in the coronary care unit and clinical laboratory for detection of perfusion defects due to myocardial infarction. We studied 31 subjects, 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 12 with remote myocardial infarction, and nine controls. Rb-82 images were compared with Tl-201 and regional wall motion for detection of infarct-related arteries. Of the 22 patients with myocardial infarction, 16 were identified with Rb-82 and Tl-201. In nine control subjects, eight were normal with each method. Correlation between Rb-82 and Tl-201 defect scores was excellent. Sensitivity and specificity for infarct-related arteries were similar for Rb-82, Tl-201, and wall motion imaging. Thus planar Rb-82 imaging can detect MI reliably in the coronary care unit and in the clinical laboratory.

  3. Kinetics of rubidium-82 after coronary occlusion and reperfusion. Assessment of patency and viability in open-chested dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, R A

    1985-01-01

    Currently available noninvasive techniques are unable to rapidly assess artery patency and tissue viability during acute myocardial infarction. In prior studies, rubidium-82 (Rb-82), a short-lived positron emitter obtained from a generator, was validated as an indicator of flow with a model that included the rate constants for transfer into and out of the cell. Accordingly, in the current study, 20 open-chested dogs with experimental infarction were studied serially at base line, after coronary occlusion, and at reperfusion. Time-activity curves acquired with beta probes on the epicardial surface were used to measure flow and net transfer of rubidium. Flow decreased to 0.41 +/- 0.08 ml/min per gram during occlusion and increased to 2.73 +/- 0.56 ml/min per gram in potentially viable ischemic tissue, whereas flows were 0.32 +/- 0.08 during occlusion (P less than 0.05 vs. viable) and 1.58 ml/min per gram (P less than 0.002 vs. viable) in irreversibly injured tissue. The transfer rate constant for Rb-82, kT, at base line was +1.22 +/- 0.60 X 10(-3) s-1 and did not change significantly during occlusion in viable vs. nonviable samples (+1.41 +/- 1.27 vs. +0.93 +/- 1.51 X 10(-3) s-1, respectively), except that 4 out of 11 nonviable tissue samples had negative kTs. At reperfusion, viable myocardial samples were all positive (+1.26 +/- 1.58 X 10(-3) s-1), whereas all irreversibly injured tissues had a negative kT, indicating leakage of tracer (-1.50 +/- 1.10 X 10(-3) s-1, P less than 0.001). This study suggests that Rb-82 time-activity curves can be useful to determine patency of an infarct related artery and potential viability after reperfusion during myocardial infarction. Images PMID:3988934

  4. Comparison of rubidium-82 positron emission tomography and thallium-201 SPECT imaging for detection of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.E.; Schwaiger, M.; Molina, E.; Popma, J.; Gacioch, G.M.; Kalus, M.; Squicciarini, S.; al-Aouar, Z.R.; Schork, A.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1991-06-15

    The diagnostic performance of rubidium-82 (Rb-82) positron emission tomography (PET) and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) for detecting coronary artery disease was investigated in 81 patients (52 men, 29 women). PET studies using 60 mCi of Rb-82 were performed at baseline and after intravenous infusion of 0.56 mg/kg dipyridamole in conjunction with handgrip stress. Tl-201 SPECT was performed after dipyridamole-handgrip stress and, in a subset of patients, after treadmill exercise. Sensitivity, specificity and overall diagnostic accuracy were assessed using both visually and quantitatively interpreted coronary angiograms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET for detection of coronary artery disease (greater than 50% diameter stenosis) were 84, 88 and 85%, respectively. In comparison, the performance of SPECT revealed a sensitivity of 84%, specificity of 53% (p less than 0.05 vs PET) and accuracy of 79%. Similar results were obtained using either visual or quantitative angiographic criteria for severity of coronary artery disease. In 43 patients without prior myocardial infarction, the sensitivity for detection of disease was 71 and 73%, respectively, similar for both PET and SPECT. There was no significant difference in diagnostic performance between imaging modalities when 2 different modes of stress (exercise treadmill vs intravenous dipyridamole plus handgrip) were used with SPECT imaging. Thus, Rb-82 PET provides improved specificity compared with Tl-201 SPECT for identifying coronary artery disease, most likely due to the higher photon energy of Rb-82 and attenuation correction provided by PET. However, post-test referral cannot be entirely excluded as a potential explanation for the lower specificity of Tl-201 SPECT.

  5. Comparison of rubidium-82 myocardial blood flow quantification with coronary calcium score for evaluation of coronary artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, Marguerite; Sathekge, Mike; Makanjee, Chandra R; Dickson, John C; Endozo, Raymond; Rheeder, Paul; Bomanji, Jamshed

    2016-02-01

    PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the standard technique for assessing myocardial function, but provides limited information on the anatomy of cardiac structures whereas the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score provides information on calcified plaque burden and the anatomical structure of the coronary arteries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF), CAC, and coronary artery disease (CAD). This work also aims to determine whether MBF quantification and/or CAC add value to relative MPI, and aid in the reclassification of patients with CAD. This way, a 'gatekeeper' study could be identified to predict coronary artery stenosis and improve our clinical service. Rubidium-82 PET/CT MPI, calcium score, and computed tomographic coronary angiography imaging were performed in 128 patients with known or suspected CAD. The presence of ischemia was assessed from qualitative reporting of rubidium-82 MPI, and using the same data, quantitative values of MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were derived. Calcium score images were quantitatively analyzed and categorized into three groups defined by CAC values of 0, 1-400, and >400. Significant stenosis was classified as stenosis of 50% or more on computed tomographic angiography. A total of 120 patients were included in the final analysis (77 men, 43 women). Our results showed an inverse correlation between stress MBF, CFR, and the percentage stenosis as well as an inverse correlation compared with CAC. A direct correlation between CAC and the percentage stenosis was observed, indicating that an increase in coronary calcification in individual coronary arteries is related to the severity of the coronary stenosis. These results proved that the addition of stress MBF to relative MPI (32%) resulted in a significantly higher sensitivity (48%, P=0.002), which increased significantly more with the addition of CFR (58%, P≤0.001). The further addition of CAC resulted

  6. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with

  7. Kinetic model-based factor analysis of dynamic sequences for 82-rubidium cardiac positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Klein, R; Beanlands, R S; Wassenaar, R W; Thorn, S L; Lamoureux, M; DaSilva, J N; Adler, A; deKemp, R A

    2010-08-01

    Factor analysis has been pursued as a means to decompose dynamic cardiac PET images into different tissue types based on their unique temporal signatures to improve quantification of physiological function. In this work, the authors present a novel kinetic model-based (MB) method that includes physiological models of factor relationships within the decomposition process. The physiological accuracy of MB decomposed (82)Rb cardiac PET images is evaluated using simulated and experimental data. Precision of myocardial blood flow (MBF) measurement is also evaluated. A gamma-variate model was used to describe the transport of (82)Rb in arterial blood from the right to left ventricle, and a one-compartment model to describe the exchange between blood and myocardium. Simulations of canine and rat heart imaging were performed to evaluate parameter estimation errors. Arterial blood sampling in rats and (11)CO blood pool imaging in dogs were used to evaluate factor and structure accuracy. Variable infusion duration studies in canine were used to evaluate MB structure and global MBF reproducibility. All results were compared to a previously published minimal structure overlap (MSO) method. Canine heart simulations demonstrated that MB has lower root-mean-square error (RMSE) than MSO for both factor (0.2% vs 0.5%, p < 0.001 MB vs MSO, respectively) and structure (3.0% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001) estimations, as with rat heart simulations (factors: 0.2% vs 0.9%, p < 0.001 and structures: 3.0% vs 6.7%, p < 0.001). MB blood factors compared to arterial blood samples in rats had lower RMSE than MSO (1.6% vs 2.2%, p =0.025). There was no difference in the RMSE of blood structures compared to a (11)CO blood pool image in dogs (8.5% vs 8.8%, p =0.23). Myocardial structures were more reproducible with MB than with MSO (RMSE=3.9% vs 6.2%, p < 0.001), as were blood structures (RMSE=4.9% vs 5.6%, p =0.006). Finally, MBF values tended to be more reproducible with MB compared to MSO (CV= 10% vs 18

  8. Acute myocardial infarction associated with intravenous dipyridamole for rubidium-82 PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marwick, T.H.; Hollman, J. )

    1990-03-01

    This report describes the occurrence of chest pain and electrocardiographic features of acute myocardial infarction following intravenous dipyridamole-handgrip stress. Myocardial perfusion imaging (Rb-82 PET) demonstrated a stress-induced perfusion defect. Following failure to respond to medical therapy, urgent cardiac catheterization demonstrated total occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The vessel was revascularized, with limitation of myocardial damage evidenced by failure to develop anterior Q waves and only modest elevation of cardiac enzyme levels. Complications of intravenous dipyridamole stress are rare, this case constituting the first major problem in over 500 such procedures at this institution. However, this experience demonstrates the importance of vigilant observation during the performance of this technique.

  9. Added prognostic value of myocardial blood flow quantitation in rubidium-82 positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Farhad, Hoshang; Dunet, Vincent; Bachelard, Kim; Allenbach, Gilles; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Prior, John O

    2013-12-01

    We studied the respective added value of the quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) as assessed with (82)Rb positron emission tomography (PET)/CT in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with suspected myocardial ischaemia. Myocardial perfusion images were analysed semi-quantitatively (SDS, summed difference score) and quantitatively (MBF, MFR) in 351 patients. Follow-up was completed in 335 patients and annualized MACE (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, revascularization, or hospitalization for congestive heart failure or de novo stable angor) rates were analysed with the Kaplan-Meier method in 318 patients after excluding 17 patients with early revascularizations (<60 days). Independent predictors of MACEs were identified by multivariate analysis. During a median follow-up of 624 days (inter-quartile range 540-697), 35 MACEs occurred. An annualized MACE rate was higher in patients with ischaemia (SDS >2) (n = 105) than those without [14% (95% CI = 9.1-22%) vs. 4.5% (2.7-7.4%), P < 0.0001]. The lowest MFR tertile group (MFR <1.8) had the highest MACE rate [16% (11-25%) vs. 2.9% (1.2-7.0%) and 4.3% (2.1-9.0%), P < 0.0001]. Similarly, the lowest stress MBF tertile group (MBF <1.8 mL/min/g) had the highest MACE rate [14% (9.2-22%) vs. 7.3% (4.2-13%) and 1.8% (0.6-5.5%), P = 0.0005]. Quantitation with stress MBF or MFR had a significant independent prognostic power in addition to semi-quantitative findings. The largest added value was conferred by combining stress MBF to SDS. This holds true even for patients without ischaemia. Perfusion findings in (82)Rb PET/CT are strong MACE outcome predictors. MBF quantification has an added value allowing further risk stratification in patients with normal and abnormal perfusion images.

  10. Myocardial metabolism of fluorodeoxyglucose compared to cell membrane integrity for the potassium analogue rubidium-82 for assessing infarct size in man by PET

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Yoshida, K.; Hess, M.J.; Haynie, M.; Mullani, N.; Smalling, R.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Potassium loss from damaged myocardial cells is linearly related to CPK enzyme loss reflecting extent of necrosis. The potassium analog, rubidium-82 (82Rb), is extracted after i.v. injection and retained in viable myocardium but is not trapped or washed out of necrotic regions. To compare myocardial cell metabolism with membrane dysfunction as indicators of necrosis/viability, 43 patients with evolving myocardial infarction and coronary arteriography had positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the potassium analog 82Rb. Percent of heart showing FDG defects and 82Rb washout on sequential images indicating failure to retain the potassium analogue were visually assessed and quantified by automated software. Infarct size based on rubidium kinetics correlated closely with size and location on FDG images (visual r = 0.93, automated r = 0.82), suggesting that loss of cell membrane integrity for trapping the potassium analog 82Rb parallels loss of intracellular glucose metabolism, both comparable quantitative markers of myocardial necrosis/viability.

  11. A prospective comparison of rubidium-82 PET and thallium-201 SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging utilizing a single dipyridamole stress in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Go, R.T.; Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Saha, G.B.; Neumann, D.R.; Underwood, D.A.; Simpfendorfer, C.C. )

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to prospectively compare myocardial perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 ({sup 82}Rb) by positron emission tomography (PET) with thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) imaging by single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) by recording both studies with a single dipyridamole handgrip stress, and reading both sets of images with the same display technique. In a series of 202 patients with previous coronary arteriography, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of {sup 82}Rb PET were 93%, 78%, and 90% and for {sup 201}Tl SPECT 76%, 80%, and 77%, respectively. When 70 patients with previous therapeutic interventions were excluded, the remaining 132 patients showed a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95%, 82% and 92% for {sup 82}Rb PET and 79%, 76%, and 78% for {sup 201}Tl SPECT. The improved contrast resolution of PET resulted in markedly superior images and a more confident identification of defects.

  12. Assessment of a protocol for routine simultaneous myocardial blood flow measurement and standard myocardial perfusion imaging with rubidium-82 on a high count rate positron emission tomography system.

    PubMed

    Tout, Deborah; Tonge, Christine M; Muthu, Sivakumar; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2012-11-01

    High count rate positron emission tomography (PET) systems offer the potential for accurate myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantification during first-pass dynamic imaging in conjunction with standard rubidium-82 (Rb-82) PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We investigate the feasibility of this using a Siemens Biograph mCT. Current routine clinical PET MPI is performed with 1480 MBq (40 mCi) Rb-82. Dynamic first-pass images from 217 consecutive patients were reviewed for evidence of detector saturation, indicating that count rate limits had been exceeded. Phantom acquisitions in the presence of high count rates were performed to assess the effect of detector saturation on quantitative accuracy. Accurate MBF quantification and perfusion imaging using current protocols was successful in 85% of clinical cases. Detector block saturation was observed in 15% of cases, and phantom acquisitions indicate that saturation may have an adverse effect on quantitative accuracy. Visualization of transit or pooling of Rb-82 in the vessels in the axilla was the most consistent feature when saturation occurred. Reduction of administered activity to 1110 MBq (30 mCi) and subsequent evaluation of 159 patients ensured successful MBF quantification while maintaining good diagnostic quality perfusion imaging in 99% of cases. MBF quantification and good-quality standard perfusion imaging can be performed on a high count rate PET system using a single-acquisition protocol. The administered activity requires optimization and we recommend 1110 MBq for PET MPI with a Biograph mCT.

  13. Normal Myocardial Flow Reserve in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Rubidium-82 PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Andreas; Christensen, Thomas E; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Hasbak, Philip; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten

    2015-10-01

    Studies have found HIV-infected patients to be at increased risk of myocardial infarction, which may be caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction. For the first time among HIV-infected patients, we assessed the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET), which can quantify the coronary microvascular function. MFR has proved highly predictive of future coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in the general population.In a prospective cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients all receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with full viral suppression and HIV-uninfected controls were scanned using 82Rb PET/computed tomography at rest and adenosine-induced stress, thereby obtaining the MFR (stress flow/rest flow), stratified into low ≤1.5, borderline >1.5 to 2.0, or normal >2.0.Fifty-six HIV-infected patients and 25 controls were included. The HIV-infected patients had a mean age of 53 years (range 37-68 years) with 23% active smokers. The controls had a mean age of 52 years (range 36-68 years) and 26% active smokers. In the HIV-infected group 73% had a normal MFR, 17% borderline, and 10% low values of MFR. Among controls these values were 71%, 19%, and 10%, respectively (P = 0.99). However, the HIV-infected group had lower values of stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) (2.63 ± 0.09 mL/g/min vs 2.99 ± 0.14 mL/g/min; P = 0.03). We found no evidence of decreased MFR as assessed by 82Rb PET among HIV-infected patients on stable ART with full viral suppression compared with HIV-uninfected controls. We did notice a decreased MBF during stress.

  14. Quantification of myocardial perfusion using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging correlates significantly to rubidium-82 positron emission tomography in patients with severe coronary artery disease: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Abbas A; Hasbak, Philip; Larsson, Henrik B W; Christensen, Thomas E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Mathiasen, Anders B; Vejlstrup, Niels G; Kjaer, Andreas; Kastrup, Jens

    2014-07-01

    Aim was to compare absolute myocardial perfusion using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) based on Tikhonov's procedure of deconvolution and rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-82 PET). Fourteen patients with coronary artery stenosis underwent rest and adenosine stress imaging by 1.5-Tesla MR Scanner and a mCT/PET 64-slice Scanner. CMRI were analyzed based on Tikhonov's procedure of deconvolution without specifying an explicit compartment model using our own software. PET images were analyzed using standard clinical software. CMRI and PET data was compared with Spearman's rho and Bland-Altman analysis. CMRI results were strongly and significantly correlated with PET results for the absolute global myocardial perfusion differences (r=0.805, p=0.001) and for global myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) (r=0.886, p<0.001). At vessel territorial level, CMRI results were also significantly correlated with absolute PET myocardial perfusion differences (r=0.737, p<0.001) and MPR (r=0.818, p<0.001). Each vessel territory had similar strong correlation for absolute myocardial perfusion differences (right coronary artery (RCA): r=0.787, p=0.001; left anterior descending artery (LAD): r=0.796, p=0.001; left circumflex artery (LCX): r=0.880, p<0.001) and for MPR (RCA: r=0.895, p<0.001; LAD: r=0.886, p<0.001; LCX: r=0.886, p<0.001). On a global and vessel territorial basis, CMRI-measured absolute myocardial perfusion differences and MPR were strongly and significantly correlated with the Rb-82 PET findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of the response of left ventricular ejection fraction to vasodilator stress in electrocardiographically gated (82)rubidium myocardial perfusion PET.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tracy L Y; Merrill, Jennifer; Volokh, Lana; Bengel, Frank M

    2008-02-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging with (82)Rb PET allows for ECG-gated studies to be obtained early after radiotracer injection, capturing ventricular function close to peak pharmacologic action of dipyridamole. This is different from gated SPECT and may potentially provide additional diagnostic information. We sought to identify potential correlates of the PET-derived ejection fraction response to vasodilator stress. One hundred ten consecutive patients undergoing (82)Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging during evaluation for coronary artery disease were included. Using a GE Discovery STRx PET-CT scanner, ECG-gated images (eight bins) were obtained at rest and 4 min after dipyridamole infusion, 90 s after infusion of 1,480-2,220 MBq of (82)Rb. Summed rest, stress, and difference scores (SRS, SSS, and SDS) were determined using a five-point scoring system and 20-segment model. Ejection fraction was calculated using automated QGS software. Significant reversibility (SDS > or = 4) was found in 23 patients (21%). Mean LVEF in all patients was 47 +/- 13% at rest and 53 +/- 13% during dipyridamole. LVEF increased in 89 patients, and decreased in 17 patients during vasodilation. The change in LVEF was inversely correlated with SDS (r = -0.26; p = 0.007). Additionally, it was inversely correlated with resting LVEF (r = -0.20; p = 0.03) and SSS (r = -0.25; p = 0.009). No significant correlations were observed with SRS, heart rate, blood pressure, age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or pretest likelihood of disease. At multivariate regression analysis, SDS was an independent predictor of the change in LVEF. Gated (82)Rb PET during pharmacologic stress allows for assessment of the functional response to vasodilation. The magnitude of LVEF increase is determined by stress perfusion/reversible perfusion defects. Functional response to hyperemia may thus be incorporated in future evaluations of diagnostic and prognostic algorithms based on (82)Rb PET.

  16. Subacute cardiac rubidium-82 positron emission tomography ((82)Rb-PET) to assess myocardial area at risk, final infarct size, and myocardial salvage after STEMI.

    PubMed

    Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Kjaer, Andreas; Nepper-Christensen, Lars; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Lønborg, Jacob Thomsen; Vejlstrup, Niels; Kyhl, Kasper; Christensen, Thomas Emil; Engstrøm, Thomas; Kelbæk, Henning; Holmvang, Lene; Bang, Lia E; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Hasbak, Philip

    2016-10-14

    Determining infarct size and myocardial salvage in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is important when assessing the efficacy of new reperfusion strategies. We investigated whether rest (82)Rb-PET myocardial perfusion imaging can estimate area at risk, final infarct size, and myocardial salvage index when compared to cardiac SPECT and magnetic resonance (CMR). Twelve STEMI patients were injected with (99m)Tc-Sestamibi intravenously immediate prior to reperfusion. SPECT, (82)Rb-PET, and CMR imaging were performed post-reperfusion and at a 3-month follow-up. An automated algorithm determined area at risk, final infarct size, and hence myocardial salvage index. SPECT, CMR, and PET were performed 2.2 ± 0.5, 34 ± 8.5, and 32 ± 24.4 h after reperfusion, respectively. Mean (± SD) area at risk were 35.2 ± 16.6%, 34.7 ± 11.3%, and 28.1 ± 16.1% of the left ventricle (LV) in SPECT, CMR, and PET, respectively, P = 0.04 for difference. Mean final infarct size estimates were 12.3 ± 15.4%, 13.7 ± 10.4%, and 11.9 ± 14.6% of the LV in SPECT, CMR, and PET imaging, respectively, P = .72. Myocardial salvage indices were 0.64 ± 0.33 (SPECT), 0.65 ± 0.20 (CMR), and 0.63 ± 0.28 (PET), (P = .78). (82)Rb-PET underestimates area at risk in patients with STEMI when compared to SPECT and CMR. However, our findings suggest that PET imaging seems feasible when assessing the clinical important parameters of final infarct size and myocardial salvage index, although with great variability, in a selected STEMI population with large infarcts. These findings should be confirmed in a larger population.

  17. Dependency of cardiac rubidium-82 imaging quantitative measures on age, gender, vascular territory, and software in a cardiovascular normal population.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, John J; Pan, Xiao-Bo; Declerck, Jerome; Menda, Yusuf

    2015-02-01

    Recent technological improvements to PET imaging equipment combined with the availability of software optimized to calculate regional myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) create a paradigm shifting opportunity to provide new clinically relevant quantitative information to cardiologists. However, clinical interpretation of the MBF and MFR is entirely dependent upon knowledge of MBF and MFR values in normal populations and subpopulations. This work reports Rb-82-based MBF and MFR measurements for a series of 49 verified cardiovascularly normal subjects as a preliminary baseline for future clinical studies. Forty-nine subjects (24F/25M, ages 41-69) with low probability for coronary artery disease and with normal exercise stress test were included. These subjects underwent rest/dipyridamole stress Rb-82 myocardial perfusion imaging using standard clinical techniques (40 mCi injection, 6-minute acquisition) using a Siemens Biograph 40 PET/CT scanner with high count rate detector option. List mode data was rehistogrammed into 26 dynamic frames (12 × 5 seconds, 6 × 10 seconds, 4 × 20 seconds, 4 × 40 seconds). Cardiac images were processed, and MBF and MFR calculated using Siemens syngo MBF, PMOD, and FlowQuant software using a single compartment Rb-82 model. Global myocardial blood flow under pharmacological stress for the 24 females as measured by PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant were 3.10 ± 0.72, 2.80 ± 0.66, and 2.60 ± 0.63 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), and for the 25 males was 2.60 ± 0.84, 2.33 ± 0.75, 2.15 ± 0.62 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1), respectively. Rest flows for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant averaged 1.32 ± 0.42, 1.20 ± 0.33, and 1.06 ± 0.38 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the female subjects, and 1.12 ± 0.29, 0.90 ± 0.26, and 0.85 ± 0.24 mL·minute(-1)·g(-1) for the males. Myocardial flow reserves for PMOD, syngo MBF, and FlowQuant for the female normals were calculated to be 2.50 ± 0.80, 2.53 ± 0.67, 2.71 ± 0.90, and 2.50 ± 1.19, 2

  18. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial perfusion imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VIII. Clinical feasibility of positron cardiac imaging without a cyclotron using generator-produced rubidium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Mullani, N.A.; Kirkeeide, R.L.; Wong, W.H.; Tewson, T.J.; Berridge, M.S.; Bolomey, L.A.; Hartz, R.K.; Smalling, R.W.

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical feasibility of diagnosing significant coronary artery disease by positron imaging of myocardial perfusion without a cyclotron, using generator-produced rubidium-82 (/sup 82/Rb). Fifty patients underwent positron emission tomography of the entire heart using a multislice positron camera and intravenous /sup 82/Rb or nitrogen-13 ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 3/) before and after intravenous dipyridamole combined with handgrip stress. Images were read by two observers blinded as to clinical or arteriographic data. Automated quantitative coronary arteriography was obtained for the arteriographic determination of coronary flow reserve, previously demonstrated to be a single integrated measure of stenosis severity accounting for all its geometric dimensions of length, absolute diameter, percent narrowing and asymmetry by quantitative analysis of cine films. Significant coronary artery disease was defined as an arteriographically determined coronary flow reserve of less than 3.0 based on all stenosis dimensions. Any single geometric measure of stenosis severity alone was an inadequate reference standard for comparison with perfusion images. Sensitivity of identifying patients with coronary artery disease having an arteriographically determined coronary flow reserve of less than 3.0 was 95% by positron imaging with a specificity of 100%. The single case that was missed, studied with /sup 13/NH/sub 3/, had a 43% diameter narrowing of a small ramus intermedius off the left coronary artery with no significant narrowing of the major coronary arteries. Positron emission tomography of myocardial perfusion before and after intravenous dipyridamole combined with handgrip stress utilizing generator-produced /sup 82/Rb provides sensitive and specific diagnosis of reduced coronary flow reserve due to coronary artery disease in humans.

  19. Altered myocardial glucose utilization and the reverse mismatch pattern on rubidium-82 perfusion/F-18-FDG PET during the sub-acute phase following reperfusion of acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Anselm, Daniel D; Anselm, Anjali H; Renaud, Jennifer; Atkins, Harold L; de Kemp, Robert; Burwash, Ian G; Williams, Kathryn A; Guo, Ann; Kelly, Cathy; Dasilva, Jean; Beanlands, Rob S B; Glover, Christopher A

    2011-08-01

    Reperfused myocardium post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may have altered metabolism with implications for therapy response and function recovery. We explored glucose utilization and the "reverse mismatch" (RMM) pattern (decreased F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake relative to perfusion) in patients who underwent mechanical reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI. Thirty-one patients with anterior wall AMI treated with acute reperfusion, with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%, underwent rest rubidium-82 (Rb-82) and FDG PET 2-10 days post-AMI. Resting echocardiograms were used to assess wall motion abnormalities. Significant RMM occurred in 15 (48%) patients and was associated with a shorter time to PCI of 2.9 hours (2.2, 13.3 hours) compared to patients without significant RMM: 11.4 hours (3.9, 22.4 hours) (P = .03). Within the peri-infarct regions, segments with significant RMM were more likely to have wall motion abnormalities (OR = 2.3 (1.1, 4.7), P = .02) compared to segments without significant RMM. RMM is a common pattern on perfusion/FDG PET during the sub-acute phase following reperfusion of AMI and is associated with shorter times to PCI. Within the peri-infarct region, RMM occurs frequently and is more often associated with wall motion abnormalities than segments without RMM. Whether this represents a myocardial metabolic shift during the sub-acute phase of recovery warrants further study.

  20. Discovery of interstellar rubidium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; Smith, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Interstellar rubidium is detected through observations of the resonance line of Rb I at 7800 A towards zeta Oph. The abundance ratio of rubidium to potassium is estimated to be approximately solar, and if rubidium is generally found to have an abundance similar to potassium, it is indicated that the local interstellar medium is well mixed with a wide variety of the products of nucleosynthesis.

  1. Mineral Commodity Profiles -- Rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Reese, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- Rubidium is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that melts at 39.3 ?C. One of the alkali metals, it is positioned in group 1 (or IA) of the periodic table between potassium and cesium. Naturally occurring rubidium is slightly radioactive. Rubidium is an extremely reactive metal--it ignites spontaneously in the presence of air and decomposes water explosively, igniting the liberated hydrogen. Because of its reactivity, the metal and several of its compounds are hazardous materials, and must be stored and transported in isolation from possible reactants. Although rubidium is more abundant in the earth?s crust than copper, lead, or zinc, it forms no minerals of its own, and is, or has been, produced in small quantities as a byproduct of the processing of cesium and lithium ores taken from a few small deposits in Canada, Namibia, and Zambia. In the United States, the metal and its compounds are produced from imported raw materials by at least one company, the Cabot Corporation (Cabot, 2003). Rubidium is used interchangeably or together with cesium in many uses. Its principal application is in specialty glasses used in fiber optic telecommunication systems. Rubidium?s photoemissive properties have led to its use in night-vision devices, photoelectric cells, and photomultiplier tubes. It has several uses in medical science, such as in positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging, the treatment of epilepsy, and the ultracentrifugal separation of nucleic acids and viruses. A dozen or more other uses are known, which include use as a cocatalyst for several organic reactions and in frequency reference oscillators for telecommunications network synchronization. The market for rubidium is extremely small, amounting to 1 to 2 metric tons per year (t/yr) in the United States. World resources are vast compared with demand.

  2. Semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion measured by computed tomography in patients with refractory angina: a head-to-head comparison with quantitative rubidium-82 positron emission tomography as reference.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kühl, Jørgen Tobias; Kjaer, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang; Kastrup, Jens

    2017-09-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a novel method for assessment of myocardial perfusion and has not yet been compared to rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (PET). We aimed to compare CT measured semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion with absolute quantified myocardial perfusion using PET and to detect stenotic territories in patients with severe coronary artery disease. Eighteen patients with stenosis narrowing coronary arteries ≥70% demonstrated on invasive coronary angiography underwent rest and adenosine stress imaging obtained by 320-multidetector CT scanner and CT/PET 64-slice scanner. CT measured myocardial attenuation density (AD) and perfusion index (PI) were correlated to absolute PET myocardial perfusion values. Rest AD, rest and stress PI did not correlate to PET findings (r = 0·412, P = 0·113; r = 0·300, P = 0·259; and r = 0·508, P = 0·064, respectively). However, there was a significant correlation between stress AD and stress PET values (r = 0·670, P = 0·009) and between stress and rest differences for AD and PI with PET differences (r = 0·620, P = 0·006; and r = 0·639, P = 0·004, respectively). Furthermore, significant differences were observed between remote and stenotic territories for rest and stress AD (48 ± 14HU and 37 ± 16HU, P = 0·002; 76 ± 19HU and 58 ± 13HU, P<0·001, respectively), PI (9·6 ± 2·9 and 7·5 ± 3·1, P = 0·002; 21·6 ± 4·1 and 16·9 ± 3·9, P<0·001, respectively) and PET (0·96 ± 0·37 ml g(-1)  min(-1) and 0·86 ± 0·26 ml g(-1)  min(-1) , P = 0·036; 2·07 ± 0·76 ml g(-1)  min(-1) and 1·61 ± 0·76 ml g(-1)  min(-1) , P = 0·006, respectively). Semi-quantitative CT parameters may be useful in the detection of myocardium subtended by stenotic coronary arteries. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Candlestick rubidium beam source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walkiewicz, M. R.; Fox, P. J.; Scholten, R. E.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a long-lived, bright and intense rubidium atomic beam source based on a previously published recirculating candlestick design for sodium, with several modifications and enhancements. The device operates for thousands of hours without maintenance, with brightness of 1.9×1022 m-2 s-1 sr-1.

  4. Rubidium Rydberg linear macrotrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samboy, Nolan; Côté, Robin

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the interaction between three rubidium atoms in highly excited (58p) Rydberg states lying along a common axis and calculate the potential energy surfaces between the three atoms. We find that three-body long-range potential wells exist in some of these surfaces, indicating the existence of very extended bound states that we label macrotrimers. We calculate the lowest vibrational eigenmodes and the resulting energy levels and show that the corresponding vibrational periods are rapid enough to be detected spectroscopically.

  5. The USNO rubidium fountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peil, Steven; Hanssen, James; Swanson, Thomas B.; Taylor, Jennifer; Ekstrom, Christopher R.

    2016-06-01

    Four rubidium fountains at the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been in operation for 4.5 years. Each fountain has demonstrated periods of stability marked by Total or Theo deviation below 10-16 Occasional frequency changes, on order of 1.5 times per year per fountain, introduce deviations from white-frequency noise behavior. Averaged together, the four fountains form an ensemble with a white-frequency noise level of 10-13 and excellent long-term stability as compared to the primary frequency standards contributing to TAI. Progress on using the clocks at USNO for improving limits on coupling of fundamental constants to gravity by measuring the universality of the gravitational redshift for different types of clocks is discussed.

  6. Urinary rubidium in breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi; Chen, Li-Juan; He, Jian-Rong; Yuan, Xue-Jiao; Cen, Yu-Ling; Su, Feng-Xi; Tang, Lu-Ying; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Chen, Wei-Qing; Lin, Ying; Wang, Shen-Ming; Ren, Ze-Fang

    2011-11-20

    Rubidium is a putative anticancer agent, but no studies have been performed on the association of rubidium levels in biospecimen with breast cancer risk and the potential as a biomarker of the risk assessment. Survey data and urine specimens were collected from 240 women with incident invasive breast cancer before their treatments and 246 age-matched female controls between October 2009 and July 2010. Urinary concentrations of rubidium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Creatinine-adjusted levels [median (25th, 75th) ug/g] of rubidium in cases [2253.01(1606.81, 3110.46)] were significantly lower than that in the controls [2921.85 (2367.94, 4142.04)]. After adjustment for potential risk factors of breast cancer, women in the second and highest tertile decreased risk of breast cancer in a dose-dependent manner as compared with those in the lowest tertile [ORs and 95% CIs were 0.45 (0.27-0.73) and 0.22 (0.13-0.38), respectively]. The area under the receive-operating-characteristic curve for urinary rubidium level was 0.697 (95% CI: 0.650-0.743). The urinary levels of rubidium were significantly and inversely associated with risk of breast cancer and had potential to be a biomarker for breast cancer risk assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mirrorless Lasing in Optically Pumped Rubidium Vapor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    MIRRORLESS LASING IN OPTICALLY PUMPED RUBIDIUM VAPOR THESIS Ryan M. Richards AFIT-ENP...MIRRORLESS LASING IN OPTICALLY PUMPED RUBIDIUM VAPOR THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Physics Graduate School of...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION IS UNLIMITED. v AFIT-ENP-13-M-41 MIRRORLESS LASING IN OPTICALLY PUMPED RUBIDIUM VAPOR Ryan M. Richards

  8. GPS Synchronized Disciplined Rubidium Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    GPS SYNCHRONIZED DISCIPLINED RUBIDIUM FREQUENCY STANDARD D. Earl Fossler TRAK Systems Div. of TRAK Microwave Tampa, Florida Abstract A...disciplined rubidium freqllency standard steered by the corrected 1 PPS output from a GPS timing receiver or other stable 1 PPS source can provide a low...used for many timing applications, disciplined rubidium frcqucncy standards arc rtot, in wide use. GPS timing receivers have bcen used for several

  9. Rubidium Atomic Clock for Galileo

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    Rubidium Ultra-Stable Oscillator ( RUSO ) for space applications, was funded by ESA under its Technology Demonstration Programme (TDP-Il) in 1993. The...objective of such development was to manufacture and qualify a compact spaceborne RUSO for the Russian Radioastron mission (Radioastron is a Russian lead...via microwave links). The development activity for the RUSO was completed in 1995 leading to the manufacturing of 3 flight models and one EQM. The

  10. A GPS Disciplined Rubidium Clock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    A GPS DISCIPLINED RUBIDIUM CLOCK .Wayne Dewey. Kincmctrics/TrueTime 3243 Sarita Rosa Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95407 Abstract Sub-microsecond timing ...accuracy during periods when no satellites are visible, a highly sta1,lc local time base is required. For those cases which require Cesililll oscillat...tcrxxr stability. INTRODUCTION In recerlt years, time syr~chronization requirements between rer-note sites has becorrie rrlora clr:rriiir~tilr

  11. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  12. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  13. Extraction of rubidium from natural resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertan, Bengü

    2017-04-01

    Rubidium is a rare alkali metal in the first group of periodic table. It has some exclusive properties like softness, ductility, malleability, strong chemical and photo-emissive activity, low melting point, easy ionization. So it is used many of applications such that optical and laser technology, electronics, telecommunications, biomedical, space technology, academic research especially quantum mechanics-based computing devices. Attention of rubidium in relation to its uses will increase in the near future. Rubidium does not have any mineral that is the main component. It is produced as minor quantities from lithium or cesium-rich minerals and natural brines. However, there are a few researches on the extraction of rubidium from mine tailings. It is difficult extraction or concentration of rubidium from these resources. Because they require a series of physical and chemical treatments and cost expensive. Efficient, cheap and friendly of environment methods for the recovery of this metal are being investigated.

  14. Rubidium dimer destruction by a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, T.; Aumiler, D.; Pichler, G.

    2005-02-01

    We observed rubidium dimer destruction by excitation of rubidium vapor with diode laser light tuned across the Rb D{sub 2} resonance line in a 2400 GHz tuning interval. The destruction was measured for rubidium atom concentrations in the (1-9)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range, pump beam power up to 43 mW, and with a 5 Torr of the helium buffer gas. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and specify the molecular pathways which may effectively lead to the observed dimer destruction.

  15. Rubidium-87 gas cell studies, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a compact rubidium-87 maser. Data cover the electronic control system for the maser itself and a superhetrodyne receiver capable of locking a crystal oscillator to the maser signal.

  16. RUBIDIUM IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Kyle M.; Federman, S. R.; Knauth, David C.; Lambert, David L. E-mail: steven.federman@utoledo.ed E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2009-11-20

    We present observations of interstellar rubidium toward o Per, zeta Per, AE Aur, HD 147889, chi Oph, zeta Oph, and 20 Aql. Theory suggests that stable {sup 85}Rb and long-lived {sup 87}Rb are produced predominantly by high-mass stars, through a combination of the weak s- and r-processes. The {sup 85}Rb/{sup 87}Rb ratio was determined from measurements of the Rb I line at 7800 A and was compared to the solar system meteoritic ratio of 2.59. Within 1sigma uncertainties, all directions except HD 147889 have Rb isotope ratios consistent with the solar system value. The ratio toward HD 147889 is much lower than the meteoritic value and similar to that toward rho Oph A; both lines of sight probe the Rho Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud. The earlier result was attributed to a deficit of r-processed {sup 85}Rb. Our larger sample suggests instead that {sup 87}Rb is enhanced in these two lines of sight. When the total elemental abundance of Rb is compared to the K elemental abundance, the interstellar Rb/K ratio is significantly lower than the meteoritic ratio for all the sight lines in this study. Available interstellar samples for other s- and r- process elements are used to help interpret these results.

  17. A rubidium clock for SEEK-TALK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The development of a tactical rubidium frequency standard (TRFS) for the SEEK-TALK program is discussed. This effort, which is entering the prototype stage, is directed toward the establishment of a production capability for miniature rubidium clocks of medium stability capable of fast warmup and extreme ruggedness for military avionics applications. The overall unit consists of an ultraminiature physics package and four plug-in circuit boards inside a 2 1/2-inch square by 4-inch box. This size is achieved without the extensive use of hybrid microcircuitry, yet is believed to be the smallest atomic frequency standard yet developed.

  18. Disciplined rubidium oscillator with GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Wayne P.

    1993-01-01

    A U.S. Department of Defense decision for continuous implementation of GPS Selective Availability (S/A) has made it necessary to modify Rubidium oscillator disciplining methods. One such method for reducing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process was developed which achieves results approaching pre-S/A GPS. The Satellite Hopping algorithm used in minimizing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process is described, and the results of using this process to those obtained prior to the implementation of S/A are compared. Test results are from a TrueTime Rubidium based Model GPS-DC timing receiver.

  19. Disciplined rubidium oscillator with GPS selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewey, Wayne P.

    1993-01-01

    A U.S. Department of Defense decision for continuous implementation of GPS Selective Availability (S/A) has made it necessary to modify Rubidium oscillator disciplining methods. One such method for reducing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process was developed which achieves results approaching pre-S/A GPS. The Satellite Hopping algorithm used in minimizing the effects of S/A on the oscillator disciplining process is described, and the results of using this process to those obtained prior to the implementation of S/A are compared. Test results are from a TrueTime Rubidium based Model GPS-DC timing receiver.

  20. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Rubidium: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, V.; Hingant, B.; Allafort, A.; Pigeard, M.; Roch, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two complementary nonlinear spectroscopy methods which both allow one to achieve Doppler-free spectra of atomic gases. First, saturated absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the 5S[subscript 1/2] [right arrow] 5P[subscript 3/2] transition in rubidium. Using a slightly modified experimental…

  1. Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Rubidium: An Undergraduate Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacques, V.; Hingant, B.; Allafort, A.; Pigeard, M.; Roch, J. F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two complementary nonlinear spectroscopy methods which both allow one to achieve Doppler-free spectra of atomic gases. First, saturated absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the structure of the 5S[subscript 1/2] [right arrow] 5P[subscript 3/2] transition in rubidium. Using a slightly modified experimental…

  2. Remote Frequency Measurement of TV 5 Rubidium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    measurements were then converted into a frequency drift rate by a program called “TV5 Test” written in Visual Basic . A rubidium clock at the WTTG...Counter and a Windows omputer running the “TV 5 Test” program. The new Visual Basic program used commands sent hrough the GPIB card to the Stanford

  3. Rubidium, salami and depression. You cannot have everything in life.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Caterina; Decostanzi, Ester; Bergamo, Daniela; Sabbioni, Enrico; Stratta, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Depression may induce malnutrition, but, as a paradoxical hypothesis, malnutrition may induce depression. This relationship, of course, depends on how we define malnutrition. Rubidium is a trace element strongly linked with depression, and is deficient in uremia sufferers. However, in uremic patients, rubidium deficiency is more evident during predialysis, as it is at least partially corrected during dialysis and after transplantation. It seems that diet restrictions might be the main cause of rubidium deficiency, as it is mainly found in red meat. If rubidium is found in salami, then the occasional slice could be more beneficial for people suffering from depression than taking a lot of medication. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. A rubidium clock for GPS. [breadboard model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The design objectives and approach; the more important design features; the signal parameters and error budget; and early test results in the development of a second-source rubidium frequency standard for use in the GPS navigation satellites are discussed. Tests of a breadboard version of the RFS show that the measured time-domain stability is within the goal specification. The results are uncorrected for the conribution of the reference and are probably limited by the reference stability in the medium term region. The Rb reference is bbetter in the medium term region, but the Cs reference is etter at 10,000 seconds and longer, probably because of the barometric sensitivity of the rubidium reference unit.

  5. Bioassay Method for Polyene Antibiotics Based on the Measurement of Rubidium Efflux from Rubidium-Loaded Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, R. F.; Fairbrother, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A bioassay method for the polyene antibiotics nystatin and amphotericin B is proposed based on the measurement of the efflux of rubidium ions from a rubidium-loaded yeast culture challenged with the antibiotics. For this purpose a major proportion of the intracellular K+ ions in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae culture has been substituted by Rb+ ions. The rubidium leakage is measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and a straight-line, dose-response correlation has been obtained for both antibiotics. PMID:319752

  6. Process for separation of zirconium-88, rubidium-83 and yttrium-88

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets is provided and includes dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first ion-containing solution, passing the first ion-containing solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium and rubidium remain in the first ion-containing solution while ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium and zirconium are selectively adsorbed by the first resin, contacting the first resin with an acid solution capable of stripping adsorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin whereby the adsorbed ions are removed from the first resin to form a second ion-containing solution, evaporating the second ion-containing solution for time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the second ion-containing solution whereby a residue remains, dissolving the residue from the evaporated second-ion containing solution in a dilute acid to form a third ion-containing solution, said third ion-containing solution having an acid molarity adapted to permit said ions to be adsorbed by a cationic exchange resin, passing the third ion-containing solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are adsorbed by the second resin, contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the adsorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin, and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the adsorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. Zirconium, rubidium, and yttrium radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  7. Rubidium 87 gas cell studies, phase 2. [design and characteristics of rubidium maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1974-01-01

    The design, development, and characteristics of a rubidium 87 maser are discussed. The design of a receiver capable of locking a crystal oscillator to the maser signal is reported. The subjects considered are: (1) maser construction, (2) maser control electronics, (3) the characteristics of the receiver, and (4) results of experimental maser tests.

  8. Pulsed filling of a dark magnetooptical trap for rubidium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chapovskii, Pavel L

    2006-03-31

    The parameters of a dark magnetooptical trap for rubidium atoms are measured. The rubidium atoms captured and cooled in the trap occupy a hyperfine level of the ground electronic state, which does not interact with cooling laser radiation. The pulsed filling of the trap is produced due to desorption of rubidium caused by irradiation by a short (1 ms) light pulse. The trap captures and cools 2.5x10{sup 8} rubidium atoms approximately for 0.2 s. The absorption spectra of a weak probe field by cold atoms are obtained, which demonstrate a good spectral resolution of the hyperfine structure in the excited state. This structure is completely hidden by the Doppler broadening in rubidium vapours at room temperature. (laser cooling)

  9. Rubidium-87 gas cell studies, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanier, J.

    1972-01-01

    The construction of a quartz bulb-quartz cavity type rubidium maser is described, and the results obtained with two of these masers are presented. The tuning characteristics, medium term stability, and short term stability are reported. It is concluded that the stability of the masers in the short term region is superior to any of the oscillators presently existing. On this basis it is believed that future development of the masers to reduce their size and improve their medium term stability is well justified.

  10. L-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Copper -29, GERMANIUM-32, RUBIDIUM-37, STRONTIUM-38, and Yttrium -39 and M-Shell X-Ray Production Cross Sections of Gold -79, LEAD-82, BISMUTH-83, THORIUM-90, and URANIUM-92 by 70-200 KEV Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressett, John David

    L-shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of _{29} Cu, _{32}Ge, _{37}Rb, _{38 }Sr, and _{39}Y. M -shell x-ray production cross sections have been measured for thin targets of _{79}Au, _{82}Pb, _ {83}Bi, _{90} Th, and _{92}U. All targets were irradiated with a beam of H^ {+} ions with energies in a range from 70 to 200 keV. Experimental cross sections are compared to other measurements at higher energies and to first Born (Plane Wave Born Approximation for direct ionization and Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers-Nikolaev approximation for electron capture) and the ECPSSR (Energy loss, Coulomb deflection, Perturbed Stationary State calculations with Relativistic effects) theoretical cross sections.

  11. Cation exchange chromatographic elution and separation of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, V.P.; Khopkar, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The systematic cation exchange chromatographic separation of rubidium on Dowex 50W-X8 was carried out with mineral acids and their salts as eluants.A selectivity scale for various eluants in terms of the elution constant was devised. Rubidium was separated from a large number of elements in binary mixtures by the process of gradient or selective elutions or selective sorption. The noteworthy feature of the method is the sequential separation of rubidium from alkali as well as alkaline earth elements.

  12. Using surface-bound rubidium ions for protein phasing

    PubMed Central

    Korolev, S.; Dementieva, I.; Sanishvili, R.; Minor, W.; Otwinowski, Z.; Joachimiak, A.

    2013-01-01

    Rubidium is a monovalent metal that can be used as a counterion in protein solutions. X-ray anomalous scattering from rubidium ions bound to the protein surface was used for phasing of the crystal structure of the hsp60 apical domain from Thermus thermophilus. Multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected from a crystal obtained from a solution containing 0.2 M rubidium salt. One molecule of protein (147 amino acids) binds one well ordered and one poorly ordered Rb atom. Phases calculated with the program SHARP were sufficient for automatic tracing and side-chain assignment using the program ARP/wARP. The data show that bound rubidium ions can be used to determine protein structures and to study the interaction of monovalent metal ions with proteins and other macromolecules. PMID:11418770

  13. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms in a parahydrogen matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Jonathan; Arnott, W. Patrick; Christy, Tim; Hartzell, Chase; Kanagin, Andrew; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Upadhyay, Sunil

    2016-05-01

    Building on prior work with rubidium atoms in a cryogenic argon matrix, we have grown solid parahydrogen crystals doped with rubidium atoms. Typical rubidium densities are on the order of 1017 cm-3. We have demonstrated optical pumping of the atomic spin of the implanted rubidium atoms; the measured spin polarization signals are roughly one order of magnitude larger than what was achieved in argon matrices. The combination of high atomic densities and optical addressability make this a promising experimental platform for applications such as magnetometry and fundamental physics measurements. Spin lifetimes (T1) on the order of 1 second have been observed. Progress towards measuring coherence times (T2) will be discussed. This material is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1265905.

  14. Using surface-bound rubidium ions for protein phasing.

    PubMed

    Korolev, S; Dementieva, I; Sanishvili, R; Minor, W; Otwinowski, Z; Joachimiak, A

    2001-07-01

    Rubidium is a monovalent metal that can be used as a counterion in protein solutions. X-ray anomalous scattering from rubidium ions bound to the protein surface was used for phasing of the crystal structure of the hsp60 apical domain from Thermus thermophilus. Multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data were collected from a crystal obtained from a solution containing 0.2 M rubidium salt. One molecule of protein (147 amino acids) binds one well ordered and one poorly ordered Rb atom. Phases calculated with the program SHARP were sufficient for automatic tracing and side-chain assignment using the program ARP/wARP. The data show that bound rubidium ions can be used to determine protein structures and to study the interaction of monovalent metal ions with proteins and other macromolecules.

  15. Two-element Zeeman slower for rubidium and lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, G. Edward; Olf, Ryan; Vogt, Enrico; Oettl, Anton; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.

    2010-04-15

    We demonstrate a two-element oven and Zeeman slower that produce simultaneous and overlapped slow beams of rubidium and lithium. The slower uses a three-stage design with a long, low-acceleration middle stage for decelerating rubidium situated between two short, high-acceleration stages for aggressive deceleration of lithium. This design is appropriate for producing high fluxes of atoms with a large mass ratio in a simple, robust setup.

  16. On the detection of rubidium in diffuse interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Sneden, C.; Schempp, W. V.; Smith, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    A search for absorption from neutral rubidium at 7800 A was conducted. No evidence for absorption to a 3 sigma limit of less than 1.5 mA was seen in the diffuse interstellar gas toward the stars omicron Persei, zeta Persei, and zeta Ophiuchi. Present results do not confirm the detection by Jura and Smith (1981) toward zeta Oph. A possible reason for the discrepancy is presented. In light of the present measurements, the abundance of interstellar rubidium in reconsidered.

  17. Experimental vacuum squeezing in rubidium vapor via self-rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, J.; Brezger, B.; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2003-08-01

    We report the generation of optical squeezed vacuum states by means of polarization self-rotation in rubidium vapor following a proposal by Matsko et al. [Phys. Rev. A 66, 043815 (2002)]. The experimental setup, involving in essence just a diode laser and a heated rubidium gas cell, is simple and easily scalable. A squeezing of (0.85{+-}0.05) dB was achieved.

  18. Optical pumping of rubidium atoms frozen in solid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagin, Andrew N.; Regmi, Sameer K.; Pathak, Pawan; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2013-12-01

    We have grown crystals of solid argon doped with rubidium atoms. The spectrum of the implanted atoms depends on the crystal-growth temperature and annealing history. We have used optical pumping to polarize the spin state of the implanted atoms and polarization spectroscopy to detect the spin state and measure the spin-relaxation time. In addition to the desired optical pumping, we also observed modification of the absorption spectrum of the rubidium due to the applied light.

  19. Crystal structure of rubidium peroxide ammonia disolvate.

    PubMed

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, Rb2O2·2NH3, has been obtained as a reaction product of rubidium metal dissolved in liquid ammonia and glucuronic acid. As a result of the low-temperature crystallization, a disolvate was formed. To our knowledge, only one other solvate of an alkali metal peroxide is known: Na2O2·8H2O has been reported by Grehl et al. [Acta Cryst. (1995), C51, 1038-1040]. We determined the peroxide bond length to be 1.530 (11) Å, which is in accordance with the length reported by Bremm & Jansen [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (1992), 610, 64-66]. One of the ammonia solvate molecules is disordered relative to a mirror plane, with 0.5 occupancy for the corresponding nitrogen atom.

  20. Crystal structure of rubidium peroxide ammonia disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, Rb2O2·2NH3, has been obtained as a reaction product of rubidium metal dissolved in liquid ammonia and glucuronic acid. As a result of the low-temperature crystallization, a disolvate was formed. To our knowledge, only one other solvate of an alkali metal peroxide is known: Na2O2·8H2O has been reported by Grehl et al. [Acta Cryst. (1995), C51, 1038–1040]. We determined the peroxide bond length to be 1.530 (11) Å, which is in accordance with the length reported by Bremm & Jansen [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (1992), 610, 64–66]. One of the ammonia solvate molecules is disordered relative to a mirror plane, with 0.5 occupancy for the corresponding nitrogen atom. PMID:28217342

  1. Rubidium-rich asymptotic giant branch stars.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, D A; García-Lario, P; Plez, B; D'Antona, F; Manchado, A; Trigo-Rodríguez, J M

    2006-12-15

    A long-debated issue concerning the nucleosynthesis of neutron-rich elements in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is the identification of the neutron source. We report intermediate-mass (4 to 8 solar masses) AGB stars in our Galaxy that are rubidium-rich as a result of overproduction of the long-lived radioactive isotope (87)Rb, as predicted theoretically 40 years ago. This finding represents direct observational evidence that the (22)Ne(alpha,n)(25)Mg reaction must be the dominant neutron source in these stars. These stars challenge our understanding of the late stages of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars and would have promoted a highly variable Rb/Sr environment in the early solar nebula.

  2. 40 CFR 82.82 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.82 Definitions. (a) Class I substance means any substance... hydrochlorofluorocarbons. (c) Controlled substance means a class I or class II ozone-depleting substance. (d)...

  3. Precision-controlled elution of a 82Sr/82Rb generator for cardiac perfusion imaging with positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Adler, A.; Beanlands, R. S.; de Kemp, R. A.

    2007-02-01

    A rubidium-82 (82Rb) elution system is described for use with positron emission tomography. Due to the short half-life of 82Rb (76 s), the system physics must be modelled precisely to account for transport delay and the associated activity decay and dispersion. Saline flow is switched between a 82Sr/82Rb generator and a bypass line to achieve a constant-activity elution of 82Rb. Pulse width modulation (PWM) of a solenoid valve is compared to simple threshold control as a means to simulate a proportional valve. A predictive-corrective control (PCC) algorithm is developed which produces a constant-activity elution within the constraints of long feedback delay and short elution time. The system model parameters are adjusted through a self-tuning algorithm to minimize error versus the requested time-activity profile. The system is self-calibrating with 2.5% repeatability, independent of generator activity and elution flow rate. Accurate 30 s constant-activity elutions of 10-70% of the total generator activity are achieved using both control methods. The combined PWM-PCC method provides significant improvement in precision and accuracy of the requested elution profiles. The 82Rb elution system produces accurate and reproducible constant-activity elution profiles of 82Rb activity, independent of parent 82Sr activity in the generator. More reproducible elution profiles may improve the quality of clinical and research PET perfusion studies using 82Rb.

  4. Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler Velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario; Molek, Christopher; Vesely, Annamaria

    2015-06-01

    We report the successful proof-of-concept demonstration of the Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry technique. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration adaptation of the Global Doppler Velocimetry (GDV) method developed in the 1990s by aerodynamics researchers. Laser velocimetry techniques in common use within the shock physics community (e . g . VISAR, Fabry-Perot, PDV) decode the Doppler shift of light reflected from a moving surface via interference phenomena. In contrast, RALF employs a completely different physical principle: the frequency-dependent near-resonant optical transmission of a Rb/N2 gas cell, to convert the Doppler shift of reflected λ0 ~ 780.24 nm light directly into transmitted light intensity. The single-point RALF apparatus used in these experiments is fiber optic based, and incorporates a simultaneous PDV measurement channel as an ``internal standard'' for validation of the RALF results. Future plans include ``line-RALF'' experiments with streak camera detection, and two-dimensional surface velocity mapping using pulsed laser illumination and gated intensified CCD camera detection. [RW PA#4931

  5. Catalysis of Forster Resonances in Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, A. L.; Williams, W. D.; Sukenik, C. I.

    2016-05-01

    When two ultracold Rydberg atoms collide they may change their quantum state if the total electronic energy of the two atoms before and after the collision is about the same. This process can be made resonant by tuning the energy levels of the atoms with an electric field, via the Stark shift, so that the energy difference between incoming and outgoing channels vanishes. This condition is known as a ``Forster resonance.'' We have studied a particular Forster resonance in rubidium: 34p + 34p --> 34s + 35s, by investigating the time dependence of the state change in an ultracold environment. Furthermore, we have added 34d state atoms to the mix and observed an enhancement of 34s atom production. We attribute this enhancement to a catalysis effect whereby the 34d atoms alter the spatial distribution of 34p atoms that participate in the energy transfer interaction. We will present results from the experiment and compare them to model calculations. Present address: Department of Physics, Smith College, Northampton, MA.

  6. Myocardial perfusion with rubidium-82. III. Theory relating severity of coronary stenosis to perfusion deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.

    1984-11-01

    The relation between the quantitative perfusion deficit, as measured by emission computerized tomography, and the severity of coronary artery stenosis is important for the noninvasive clinical evaluation of coronary artery disease in man. Positron emission tomography allows direct noninvasive measurement of myocardial perfusion and quantification of the size of the perfusion defect. Given this important imformation, a mathematical model has been derived to gauge the severity of a coronary stenosis from quantitative perfusion measurements in the normal and poststenotic regions of the heart. The theoretical basis is presented for relating regional myocardial perfusion and regional perfusion resistance to total, coronary blood flow and resistance at normal resting flow and during maximal coronary vasodilation. The concept of perfusion reserve is presented as a clinical measure of the severity of a stenosis.

  7. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily; the total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  8. Radiation hardness of Efratom M-100 rubidium frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    English, T.C.; Vorwerk, H.; Rudie, N.J.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on rubidium gas cell frequency standards and components are presented, including the results of recent tests where a continuously operating rubidium frequency standard (Effratom, Model M-100) was subjected to simultaneous neutron/gamma radiation. At the highest neutron fluence 7.5 10 to the 12th power n/sq cm and total dose 11 krad(Si) tested, the unit operated satisfactorily. The total frequency change over the 2 1/2 hour test period due to all causes, including repeated retraction from and insertion into the reactor, was less than 1 x 10 to the -10th power. The effects of combined neutron/gamma radiation on rubidium frequency standard physics package components were also studied, and the results are presented.

  9. Optical Pumping of Rubidium Spin in a Solid Argon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Sameer K.

    Using the matrix isolation technique we have trapped rubidium atoms inside a cryogenic solid argon crystal of thickness 200 mum. This weakly-interacting solid offers the experimental simplicity and high densities of solid-state systems, while allowing the implanted atoms to retain many of the properties of their gas-phase counterparts. As such, they are a promising environment for quantum information experiments, as well as sensors such as magnetometers. We spectroscopically observed narrow lines at 799 nm, 785 nm, and 747 nm, and investigated optical pumping of the implanted rubidium atoms. We observed that the absorption spectrum of the rubidium could be modified by incident laser light. This modification could be reversed by applying an additional light source. In addition, we were able to create spin polarization and measure a longitudinal spin relaxation time T1 of about 0.1 s.

  10. Separation of rubidium from irradiated aluminum-encapsulated uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E. P.; Schmitz, F. J.; Rokop, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    A procedure was developed for separating rubidium from irradiated aluminum encapsulated uranium. The separations procedure produces a final ultra-high purity RbCl product for subsequent high performance mass spectrometric analysis. The procedure involves first removing most of the macro-components and fission products by strong base anion exchange using, first, concentrated HCl, then oxalic acid media and second, selectively separating rubidium from alkaline-earth ions and other alkali-metal ions, including cesium, using Bio-Rex-40 cation-exchange resin. The resultant RbCl is then put through a final vacuum sublimation step. Ultra-pure reagents and specially clean glassware are used throughout the procedure to minimize contamination by naturally-occurring rubidium.

  11. Operational frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The frequency stabilities under operational conditions of several commercially available rubidium and cesium frequency standards were determined from experimental data for frequency averaging times from 10 to the 7th power s and are presented in table and graph form. For frequency averaging times between 10 to the 5th power and 10 to the 7th power s, the rubidium standards tested have a stability of between 10 to the minus 12th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 12th power, while the cesium standards have a stability of between 2 x 10 to the minus 13th power and 5 x 10 to the minus 13th power.

  12. Simultaneous determination of potassium and rubidium content in yeast.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Jose M; Serrano, Ramón

    2002-11-01

    Rubidium is widely used as a potassium analogue in transport studies in yeast and other organisms. As rubidium (potassium) uptake is modulated by the internal potassium concentration, it is often necessary to determine both Rb(+) and K(+) concentrations in the same cell extract. Current methods based on atomic absorption/emission spectroscopy require separate analysis for each cation. Alternatively, unsafe radioactive isotopes can be used. Here we report a convenient, non-radioactive, HPLC/conductivity-based method that allows a complete analysis of both cations with a single injection from a cell extract. The increase in Rb(+) uptake during K(+) starvation in yeast is easily demonstrated with this method.

  13. Rubidium Spectroscopy with an External Cavity Diode Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Charity; Smith, R. Seth

    2014-03-01

    A homebuilt external cavity diode laser (ECDL) was used to provide a very narrow range of laser wavelengths near 780 nm in order to study the structure of rubidium (Rb). The absorption spectrum of Rb was measured. This spectrum was subject to Doppler-broadening of the spectral lines. A technique known as Saturated Absorption Spectroscopy was employed to eliminate the effects of Doppler-broadening and to obtain a high resolution spectrum for Rubidium. The setup, operation, and performance of this system will be described. Research made possible by a REAL grant from Francis Marion University.

  14. Nonlinear transmission through a tapered fiber in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, S. M.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2009-02-15

    Subwavelength-diameter tapered optical fibers surrounded by rubidium vapor can undergo a substantial decrease in transmission at high atomic densities due to the accumulation of rubidium atoms on the surface of the fiber. Here we demonstrate the ability to control these changes in transmission using light guided within the taper. We observe transmission through a tapered fiber that is a nonlinear function of the incident power. This effect can also allow a strong control beam to change the transmission of a weak probe beam.

  15. Positronium formation in positron-rubidium inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raouf, M. A.

    1988-04-01

    Eight partial cross sections of positron-rubidium ( 37Rb) inelastic scattering (corresponding to 0 ⩽ l⩽ 7, where l is the total angular momentum) are calculated at 25 values of the incident energy ranging from 0.1 to 1000 eV. The calculations are carried out using Clementi-Roetti's wavefunctions, and a combination of the coupled-static and frozen-core approximations. A comparison between the total positronium formation cross sections of the collisions of positrons with four different alkali atoms (lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium) is presented.

  16. Spectrally resolved coherent transient signal for ultracold rubidium molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimer, F.; Weise, F.; Merli, A.; Birkner, S.; Sauer, F.; Wöste, L.; Lindinger, A.; Aç§Anoç§Lu, R.; Koch, C. P.; Salzmann, W.; Mullins, T.; Götz, S.; Wester, R.; Weidemüller, M.

    2009-09-01

    We present spectrally resolved pump-probe experiments on the photoassociation of ultracold rubidium atoms with shaped ultrashort laser pulses. The pump pulse causes a free-bound transition leading to a coherent transient signal of rubidium molecules in the first excited state. In order to achieve a high frequency resolution the bandwidth of the pump pulse is reduced to a few wavenumbers. The frequency dependence of the transient signal close to the D1 atomic resonance is investigated for characteristic pump-probe delay times. The observed spectra, which show a pronounced dip for pump-probe coincidence, are interpreted using quantum dynamical calculations.

  17. Rubidium atomic line filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario E.; Molek, Christopher D.; Vesely, Annamaria L.

    2017-01-01

    We report recent improvements to our Rubidium Atomic Line Filtered (RALF) Doppler velocimetry apparatus [M.E. Fajardo, C.D. Molek, and A.L. Vesely, J. Appl. Phys. 118, 144901 (2015)]. RALF is a high-velocity and high-acceleration adaptation of the Doppler Global Velocimetry method for measuring multi-dimensional velocity vector flow fields, which was developed in the 1990s by aerodynamics researchers [H. Komine, U.S. Patent #4,919,536]. Laser velocimetry techniques in common use within the shock physics community (e.g. VISAR, Fabry-Pérot, PDV) decode the Doppler shift of light reflected from a moving surface via interference phenomena. In contrast, RALF employs a completely different physical principle: the frequency-dependent near-resonant optical transmission of a Rb/N2 gas cell, to encode the Doppler shift of reflected λ0 ≈ 780.24 nm light directly onto the transmitted light intensity. Thus, RALF is insensitive to minor changes to the optical pathlengths and transit times of the Doppler shifted light, which promises a number of practical advantages in imaging velocimetry applications. The single-point RALF proof-of-concept apparatus described here is fiber optic based, and our most recent modifications include the incorporation of a larger bandwidth detection system, and a second 780 nm laser for simultaneous upshifted-PDV (UPDV) measurements. We report results for the laser driven launch of a 10-μm-thick aluminum flyer which show good agreement between the RALF and UPDV velocity profiles, within the limitations of the admittedly poor signal:noise ratio (SNR) RALF data.

  18. Discovery of rubidium, strontium, molybdenum, and rhodium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.M.; Thoennessen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Currently, 31 rubidium, 35 strontium, 35 molybdenum, and 38 rhodium isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  19. Dipole-dipole interaction between rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Altiere, Emily; Fahey, Donald P.; Noel, Michael W.; Smith, Rachel J.; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2011-11-15

    Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a static electric field can exchange energy via the dipole-dipole interaction. The Stark effect shifts the energy levels of the atoms which tunes the energy exchange into resonance at specific values of the electric field (Foerster resonances). We excite rubidium atoms to Rydberg states by focusing either a 480 nm beam from a tunable dye laser or a pair of diode lasers into a magneto-optical trap. The trap lies at the center of a configuration of electrodes. We scan the electric field by controlling the voltage on the electrodes while measuring the fraction of atoms that interact. Dipole-dipole interaction spectra are presented for initially excited rubidium nd states for n=31 to 46 and for four different pairs of initially excited rubidium ns states. We also present the dipole-dipole interaction spectra for individual rubidium 32d (j, m{sub j}) fine structure levels that have been selectively excited. The data are compared to calculated spectra.

  20. Rubidium vapor laser pumped by two laser diode arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, Boris V; Stooke, Adam; Boyadjian, Gregory; Voci, Adam; Knize, R J

    2008-03-01

    Scaling of alkali lasers to higher powers requires using multiple diode lasers for pumping. The first (to our knowledge) results of a cw rubidium laser pumped by two laser diode arrays are presented. A slope efficiency of 53%, total optical efficiency of 46%, and output power of 17 W have been demonstrated.

  1. Strontium-82 and Future Germanium-68 Production at the ARRONAX Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sounalet, T.; Michel, N.; Alliot, C.; Audouin, A.; Barbet, J.; Bonraisin, A. C.; Bortoli, Y.; Bossé, V.; Bourdeau, C.; Bouvet, G.; Buhour, J. M.; Cadiou, A.; Fresneau, S.; Guillamet, M.; Haddad, F.; Laizé, J.; Milleto, T.; Milon, F.; Mokili, M.; Montavon, G.

    2014-05-01

    The ARRONAX cyclotron is fully operational since the end of 2010. It delivers projectiles (p, d, α) at high energy (up to 70 MeV for protons) and high intensity(2*375μA for protons). The main fields of application of ARRONAX are radionuclide production for nuclear medicine and irradiation of inert or living materials for radiolysis and radio-biology studies. A large part of the beam time will be used to produce radionuclides for targeted radionuclide therapy (copper-67, scandium-47 and astatine-211) as well as for PET imaging (scandium-44, copper-64, strontium-82 for rubidium-82 generators, and germanium-68 for gallium-68 generators). Since June 2012, large scale production of 82Sr has started with rubidium chloride (RbCl) targets. Several improvements are being explored which consist of changing the target material from RbCl to Rb metal and introducing an additional target behind the rubidium assembly. Thus, a target alloy of nickel/gallium for germanium-68 production has been developed. It is obtained by electroplating and exhibits a better thermal behavior than the natural gallium target used in most production facilities.

  2. Observations on the Reliability of Rubidium Frequency Standards on Block 2/2A GPS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieter, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, the block 2/2A Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are equipped with two rubidium frequency standards. These frequency standards were originally intended to serve as the back-ups to two cesium frequency standards. As the constellation ages, the master Control Station is forced to initialize and increasing number or rubidium frequency standards. Unfortunately the operational use of these frequency standards has not lived up to initial expectations. Although the performance of these rubidium frequency standards has met and even exceeded GPS requirements, their reliability has not. The number of unscheduled outage times and the short operational lifetimes of the rubidium frequency standards compare poorly to the track record of the cesium frequency standards. Only a small number of rubidium frequency standards have actually been made operational. Of these, a large percentage have exhibited poor reliability. If this trend continues, it is unlikely that the rubidium frequency standards will help contribute to the navigation payload meeting program specification.

  3. Absorption Spectroscopy of Rubidium in an Alkali Metal Dispenser Cell and Bleached Wave Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF RUBIDIUM IN AN ALKALI METAL DISPENSER CELL AND BLEACHED WAVE ANALYSIS THESIS JAMES M. ROSENTHAL, 2 nd Lt...102 ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF RUBIDIUM IN AN ALKALI METAL DISPENSER CELL AND BLEACHED WAVE ANALYSIS THESIS Presented to the Faculty...SPECTROSCOPY OF RUBIDIUM IN AN ALKALI METAL DISPENSER CELL AND BLEACHED WAVE ANALYSIS James M. Rosenthal, BA 2 nd Lt, USAF Committee Membership

  4. Effects of rubidium chloride on the course of manic-depressive illness.

    PubMed Central

    Paschalis, C; Jenner, F A; Lee, C R

    1978-01-01

    Clinical studies of the effects of rubidium ions on the course of manic-depressive illness are reported. It seems that rubidium tends to increase the length of manic phases and possibly reduces the extremes of mood. Rubidium did not seem to produce any severe side effects in the dose administered, but it has a long biological half-life and caution is still required. Some details of the CSF, RBC, saliva and plasma and urine kinetics are also reported. PMID:349155

  5. [Electrone probe microanalysis of rubidium retention in myocell of rat heart during acute ischemia].

    PubMed

    Pogorelov, A G; Pogorelova, V N; Pogorelova, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the given investigation contents of potassium and its physiological analog, rubidium, are determined in cardiomyocyte. Applying Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), cytoplasmic concentrations of elements (K, Rb) are measured. The data obtained exhibit that for initial acute ischemia phase the active transport is involved in the uptake of rubidium which competes with potassium entry in cardiac myocell. Then, deep deenergization leads to the intracellular potassium depletion and rubidium retention. This suggests that Rb+ is physiologically not complete analog for K+. Results of combined perfusion with and without rubidium allow us to hypothesize the appearance of cascade of ionic transports to compensate acute ischemic disturbances following the oxygen and substrate deficiency.

  6. Risk assessment visualization of rubidium compounds: comparison of renal and hepatic toxicities, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Kan; Kono, Rei; Ueno, Takaaki; Ito, Yuichi; Dote, Tomotaro; Yokoyama, Hirotaka; Kono, Koichi; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-06-01

    Rubidium has been considered to be nontoxic. Its use includes thin film on glass deposition and as medical contrast medium. Recent technology innovations also involve the use of rubidium, but there is limited information about the biological effects of its various compounds. In the present risk assessment study, a series of rubidium compounds with different counter anions-acetate, bromide, carbonate, chloride, and fluoride-were orally administrated in a single dose to several groups of rats. Cumulative 24-h urine samples were obtained, and the levels of rubidium, fluoride, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and creatinine were measured to evaluate possible acute renal effects. Daily samples of serum were also obtained to determine the levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases to assess possible acute hepatic effects. Urinary rubidium excretion recovery of 8.0-10.5% shows that urine can be a useful diagnostic tool for rubidium exposure. The present results reveal that rubidium shows different biological effects depending on the counter anion. A pattern of large significant NAG leakage and elevation of ALT observed in rats treated with anhydrous rubidium fluoride indicates renal and hepatic toxicities that can be attributed to fluoride. The techniques reported in this study will be of help to assess the potential risks of toxicity of rubidium compounds with a variety of anions.

  7. [Determination of high concentrations of rubidium chloride by ICP-OES].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Sun, Bai; Li, Hai-jun; Wang, Tao; Li, Wu; Song, Peng-sheng

    2015-01-01

    The method of ICP-OES for the direct determination of high content of rubidium in rubidium chloride solutions was studied through mass dilution method and optimizing parameters of the instrument in the present paper. It can reduce the times of dilution and the error introduced by the dilution, and improve the accuracy of determination results of rubidium. Through analyzing the sensitivity of the three detection spectral lines for rubidium ion, linearly dependent coefficient and the relative errors of the determination results, the spectral line of Rb 780. 023 nm was chosen as the most suitable wavelength to measure the high content of rubidium in the rubidium chloride solutions. It was found that the instrument parameters of ICP-OES such as the atomizer flow, the pump speed and the high-frequency power are the major factors for the determination of rubidium ion in the rubidium chloride solutions. As we know instrument parameters of ICP-OES have an important influence on the atomization efficiency as well as the emissive power of the spectral lines of rubidium, they are considered as the significant factors for the determination of rubidium. The optimization parameters of the instrument were obtained by orthogonal experiments and further single factor experiment, which are 0. 60 L . min-1 of atomizer flow, 60 r . min-1 of pump speed, and 1 150 W of high-frequency power. The same experiments were repeated a week later with the optimization parameters of the instrument, and the relative errors of the determination results are less than 0. 5% when the concentration of rubidium chloride ranged from 0. 09% to 0. 18%. As the concentration of rubidium chloride is 0. 06%, the relative errors of the determination results are -1. 7%. The determination of lithium chloride and potassium chloride in the high concentration of the aqueous solutions was studied under the condition of similar instrument parameters. It was found by comparison that the determination results of lithium

  8. Clocks for airborne systems. [performance of rubidium oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houlding, N.

    1982-01-01

    The potential performance of compact oscillators, needed for the development of accurate clocks for future airborne systems (such as Identification Friend or Foe schemes), is addressed. In particular, extensive testing of rubidium oscillators manufactured by Efratom is discussed. The results indicate that an accuracy of better than 10 microseconds should be achievable in tactical aircraft provided that appropriate measures are adopted to counter the many environmental factors. In a favorable environment a stability of better than 5 x 10 to the -13th power for one day is achievable with present commercial units, but improvements are required to suit operation in an aircraft. With further development of rubidium controlled clocks the ultimate limitation on time accuracy in aircraft will probably be associated with time dissemination, maintenance difficulties and doctrinal hurdles.

  9. Resonant diffraction of synchrotron radiation in rubidium dihydrophosphate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhamedzhanov, E. Kh.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Borisov, M. M.; Ovchinnikova, E. N.; Troshkov, E. V.; Dmitrienko, V. E.

    2010-03-15

    Purely resonant Bragg reflections 006, 55bar 0, and 666 in a rubidium dihydrophosphate (RbH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}) crystal at the K edge of rubidium have been experimentally and theoretically investigated. These reflections remain forbidden when the resonant dipole-dipole (E1E1) contribution to the resonant atomic factor is taken into account; they may be due to the dipole-quadrupole (E1E2) transitions as well as to the anisotropy atomic factor, which is caused by thermal atomic displacements (thermally induced contribution) and/or local jumps of hydrogen atoms. A numerical simulation showed that, at room temperature (experimental conditions), the thermally induced contribution to the 'forbidden' reflections is dominant.

  10. Ionization spectra of highly Stark-shifted rubidium Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmel, Jens; Stecker, Markus; Kaiser, Manuel; Karlewski, Florian; Torralbo-Campo, Lara; Günther, Andreas; Fortágh, József

    2017-07-01

    We report on the observation and numerical calculation of ionization spectra of highly Stark-shifted Rydberg states of rubidium beyond the classical ionization threshold. In the numerical calculations, a complex absorbing potential (CAP) allows us to predict the energy levels and ionization rates of Rydberg states in this regime. Our approach of adjusting the CAP to the external electric field reduces the number of free parameters from one per resonance to a single one. Furthermore, we have measured the ionization spectra of magneto-optically trapped rubidium atoms which are excited to principal quantum numbers of 43 and 70 at various electric fields. The emerging ions are detected using an ion optics. We find good agreement between the numerically and experimentally obtained spectra.

  11. Recycle Rate in a Pulsed, Optically Pumped Rubidium Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Wooddy S.; Sulham, Clifford V.; Holtgrave, Jeremy C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-10-08

    A pulsed, optically pumped rubidium laser operating in analogy to the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) system at pump intensities as high as 750 kW/cm{sup 2} has been demonstrated with output energies of up to 13 {mu}J/pulse. Output energy is dramatically limited by spin-orbit relaxation rates under these high intensity pump conditions. More than 250 photons are available for every rubidium atom in the pumped volume, requiring a high number of cycles per atom during the 2-8 ns duration of the pump pulse. At 550 Torr of ethane, the spin-orbit relaxation rate is too slow to effectively utilize all the incident pump photons. Indeed, a linear dependence of output energy on pump pulse duration for fixed pump energy is demonstrated.

  12. Extreme electron-phonon coupling in magnetic rubidium sesquioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot, Robert; Attema, Jisk; Riyadi, S.; Blake, Greame; de Wijs, Gilles; Palstra, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Rb2O3 is a black, opaque oxide. Early work suggests that the stability range of the sesquioxide phase in the rubidium-oxygen phase diagram is rather broad. Rb2O3 remains cubic down to the lowest temperature measured (5 K). The oxygens form dumbbells with interatomic distances in between those of peroxide and superoxide anions, and strong athermal motion persists down to low temperatures. [1] Electronic-structure calculations show that the dynamics at low temperature is caused by 6 phonon modes of zero frequency, which induce a very strong electron-phonon interaction. The softness of half of these modes is suppressed by the application of pressure. Calculated using the average oxygen positions, rubidium sesquioxide is a half-metallic ferromagnet. [2] [1] CR CHIM (11-13): 591-594 NOV 1999[2] JACS 127 (46): 16325-16328 NOV 23 2005

  13. Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Design and Preliminary Characterization of the USNO Rubidium Fountain Steven Peil, Scott Crane, Thomas B. Swanson, and Christopher R. Ekstrom Time ...and power servos are among the user-configurable electronics modules that we designed. Data acquisition and timing are executed with compact PCI...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  14. X-ray spectrographic determination of cesium and rubidium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Axelrod, J.M.; Adler, I.

    1957-01-01

    An x-ray spectrographic method for the determination of rubidium and cesium was developed, using the internal-standard method and a four-channel flat-crystal spectrograph. The sensitivity is within 0.1% for cesia and 0.02% for rubidia; the precision is within 10% of the amount present. Results agree well with those obtained by flame photometry and by radio-activation.

  15. Electronically excited rubidium atom in a helium cluster or film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Viel, Alexandra; Zillich, Robert E.

    2008-11-01

    We present theoretical studies of helium droplets and films doped with one electronically excited rubidium atom Rb∗ (P2). Diffusion and path integral Monte Carlo approaches are used to investigate the energetics and the structure of clusters containing up to 14 helium atoms. The surface of large clusters is approximated by a helium film. The nonpair additive potential energy surface is modeled using a diatomic in molecule scheme. Calculations show that the stable structure of Rb∗Hen consists of a seven helium atom ring centered at the rubidium, surrounded by a tirelike second solvation shell. A very different structure is obtained when performing a "vertical Monte Carlo transition." In this approach, a path integral Monte Carlo equilibration starts from the stable configuration of a rubidium atom in the electronic ground state adsorbed to the helium surface after switching to the electronically excited surface. In this case, Rb∗Hen relaxes to a weakly bound metastable state in which Rb∗ sits in a shallow dimple. The interpretation of the results is consistent with the recent experimental observations [G. Auböck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 035301 (2008)].

  16. Clinical interpretation standards and quality assurance for the multicenter PET/CT trial rubidium-ARMI.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Jennifer M; Mylonas, Ilias; McArdle, Brian; Dowsley, Taylor; Yip, Kathy; Turcotte, Eric; Guimond, Jean; Trottier, Mikael; Pibarot, Philipe; Maguire, Conor; Lalonde, Lucille; Gulenchyn, Karen; Wisenberg, Gerald; Wells, R Glenn; Ruddy, Terrence; Chow, Benjamin; Beanlands, Rob S B; deKemp, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Rubidium-ARMI ((82)Rb as an Alternative Radiopharmaceutical for Myocardial Imaging) is a multicenter trial to evaluate the accuracy, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of low-dose (82)Rb perfusion imaging using 3-dimensional (3D) PET/CT technology. Standardized imaging protocols are essential to ensure consistent interpretation. Cardiac phantom qualifying scans were obtained at 7 recruiting centers. Low-dose (10 MBq/kg) rest and pharmacologic stress (82)Rb PET scans were obtained in 25 patients at each site. Summed stress scores, summed rest scores, and summed difference scores (SSS, SRS, and SDS [respectively] = SSS-SRS) were evaluated using 17-segment visual interpretation with a discretized color map. All scans were coread at the core lab (University of Ottawa Heart Institute) to assess agreement of scoring, clinical diagnosis, and image quality. Scoring differences greater than 3 underwent a third review to improve consensus. Scoring agreement was evaluated with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC-r), concordance of clinical interpretation, and image quality using κ coefficient and percentage agreement. Patient (99m)Tc and (201)Tl SPECT scans (n = 25) from 2 centers were analyzed similarly for comparison to (82)Rb. Qualifying scores of SSS = 2, SDS = 2, were achieved uniformly at all imaging sites on 9 different 3D PET/CT scanners. Patient scores showed good agreement between core and recruiting sites: ICC-r = 0.92, 0.77 for SSS, SDS. Eighty-five and eighty-seven percent of SSS and SDS scores, respectively, had site-core differences of 3 or less. After consensus review, scoring agreement improved to ICC-r = 0.97, 0.96 for SSS, SDS (P < 0.05). The agreement of normal versus abnormal (SSS ≥ 4) and nonischemic versus ischemic (SDS ≥ 2) studies was excellent: ICC-r = 0.90 and 0.88. Overall interpretation showed excellent agreement, with a κ = 0.94. Image quality was perceived differently by the site versus core reviewers (90% vs. 76% good or better; P < 0

  17. [Determination of rubidium and cesium in chloride type oilfield water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiu-Shen; Zhang, Shan-Ying; Li, Hai-Jun; Li, Wu; Wu, Zhi-Jian

    2009-03-01

    Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was applied to the determination of rubidium and cesium in chloride type oilfield water by considering the interferences of the coexistent K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, Standard curve method and standard addition method were compared in the determination of rubidium and cesium in the simulated oilfield water and the real oilfield water from the Nanyishan region in Qaidam Basin. Although rubidium and cesium have similar physical-chemical properties, they present different characters during their analyses using the FAAS technique. When the standard addition method was used for the determination of rubidium and cesium in the simulated oilfield water, the results of rubidium were very poor, whereas the results of cesium were satisfactory. When the standard curve method was used for the determination of rubidium and cesium in the simulated oilfield water, the results of both rubidium and cesium were satisfactory within the linear ranges of the standard curves. For the real oilfield water, standard addition method is also only applicable for the determination of cesium with a recovery ranging from 90% to 110%. While standard curve method is applicable for the determination of both rubidium and cesium with a recovery ranging from 90% to 110%.

  18. The Kinetics of Ouabain Inhibition and the Partition of Rubidium Influx in Human Red Blood Cells

    PubMed Central

    Beauge, L. A.; Adragna, Norma

    1971-01-01

    In the development of ouabain inhibition of rubidium influx in human red blood cells a time lag can be detected which is a function of at least three variables: the concentrations of external sodium, rubidium, and ouabain. The inhibition is antagonized by rubidium and favored by sodium. Similar considerations could be applied to the binding of ouabain to membrane sites. The total influx of rubidium as a function of external rubidium concentration can be separated into two components: (a) a linear uptake not affected by external sodium or ouabain and not requiring an energy supply, and (b) a saturable component. The latter component, on the basis of the different effects of the aforementioned factors, can be divided into three fractions. The first is ouabain-sensitive, inhibited by external sodium at low rubidium, and requires an energy supply; this represents about 70–80% of the total uptake and is related to the active sodium extrusion mechanism. The second is ouabain-insensitive, activated by external sodium over the entire range of rubidium concentrations studied, and dependent on internal ATP; this represents about 15% of the total influx; it could be coupled to an active sodium extrusion or belong to a rubidium-potassium exchange. The third, which can be called residual influx, is ouabain-insensitive, unaffected by external sodium, and independent of internal ATP; this represents about 10–20% of the total influx. PMID:5553102

  19. Nerve fibre refractory period in patients treated with rubidium and lithium.

    PubMed Central

    Betts, R P; Paschalis, C; Jarratt, J A; Jenner, F A

    1978-01-01

    Nerve fibre refractory period distributions have been measured on the median nerves of six manic-depressive patients controlled with lithium carbonate, three chronic patients (two manic-depressives and one catatonic schizophrenic) controlled with rubidium chloride, and eight normal volunteers. Rubidium prolonged the refractory periods of all nerve fibres while lithium increased only the longer refractory periods. PMID:690649

  20. Structure of the hydrated and dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Paola; Persson, Ingmar

    2004-05-31

    The structure of the hydrated and the dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions in solution has been determined by means of large-angle X-ray scattering (LAXS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies. The models of the hydrated and dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ions fitting the experimental data best are square antiprisms with Rb-O bond distances of 2.98(2) and 2.98(3) A, respectively. The EXAFS data show a significant asymmetry in the Rb-O bond distance distribution with C(3) values of 0.0076 and 0.015 A(3), respectively. No second hydration sphere is observed around the hydrated rubidium ion. The dimethyl sulfoxide solvated rubidium ion displays a Rb-O-S bond angle of ca. 130 degrees, which is typical for a medium hard electron acceptor such as rubidium.

  1. Was Bijvoet right? Sodium rubidium (+)-tartrate tetrahydrate revisited.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Martin; Schreurs, Antoine M M

    2008-08-01

    The first determination of the absolute configuration of an organic compound was published in 1951 on sodium rubidium (+)-tartrate tetrahydrate, Na(+).Rb(+).C(4)H(4)O(6)(2-).4H(2)O, but the atomic coordinates are not available in the public literature. This structure has therefore been redetermined using current equipment. The most up-to-date techniques for the determination of the absolute configuration have been applied and the question posed in the title can be answered with an unequivocal 'yes'.

  2. Measurement of Rubidium Number Density Under Optically Thick Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-15

    Voigt profiles . A Voigt line shape is represented by equations 4.1 and 4.2. (4.1) gV oigt(λ, λFF ′) = 1 2π √ π ∫ ∞ −∞  ∆λL exp(−t2) (λ− λFF ′ − t ∆λD...various cell conditions of temperature and pressure were then fit to a pressure broadened Voigt profile thereby allowing the determination of the...broadened Voigt profile thereby allowing the determination of the rubidium number den- sity. 1. Background In recent years, alkali metals have garnered a

  3. Study on photoionization in a rubidium diode-pumped alkali laser gain medium with the optogalvanic method.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lun; Hua, Weihong; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2013-01-15

    We use the optogalvanic method to calculate the concentration of rubidium ions produced by photoionization in a Rb diode-pumped alkali laser gain medium. With bias voltage added across the electrodes of a rubidium hollow cathode lamp, the measured optogalvanic current is 2.3×10(-7) A. Further study shows that the rubidium ion concentration is proportional to the pump intensity, and the drift velocity of rubidium ions is proportional to the bias voltage. When the photoionization process reaches dynamic equilibrium, the rubidium ion concentration will not increase with growing rubidium atom density. The calculated rubidium ion concentration is 1.5×10(5)-10(6) according to the experiment, and the ionization degree is less than 2.4×10(-7).

  4. Measurements of myocardial flow vs. extraction of rubidium under varying physiological conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Moyer, B.R.; Twitchell, J.A.; Brennan, K.M.; Huesman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial rubidium extraction (E) and flow (F) are well described by the single capillary model E = (1-exp(-PS/F)) with a permeability surface product PS = 0.87 cc/min/gm. Some effects of alkalosis and acidosis have been reported. Here the authors investigate the effects of dipyridamole, norepinephrine-atropine, exsanguination, pacing, ouabain and calcium on extraction using Rb-82 PET and Rb-86 acute studies with microspheres in dogs. Thoracotomies were performed for left atrial microsphere infusion. Anesthesia was by N/sub 2/O and methoxyflurane. The degree of exsanguination, drug levels administered and pacing rates were sufficient to produce flow modifications. Extraction was calculated by dividing FE from Rb observations by F from microsphere data. These results of extraction vs. flow do not show a significant dependence on the method used for flow modification. There was less than a 20% change in FE after an infusion of 0.04 mg/kg ouabain over 5 minutes in 3 replicate studies each on 4 dogs. An important finding not previously explained in flow vs. extraction studies is the occurrence of extraction values greater than 1.0 which is possible only if the distribution opportunities of small cations are greater than that of microspheres. This is equivalent to the well known hematocrit effect in small channels.

  5. Evidence for the ordered release of rubidium ions occluded within the Na,K-ATPase of mammalian kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, I M; Howland, J L; Richards, D E

    1985-01-01

    When Na,K-ATPase containing occluded rubidium ions is exposed to orthophosphate, in the presence of magnesium ions, there is a rapid release of half or all of the occluded ions. This behaviour is observed irrespective of whether the occluded-rubidium form of the enzyme is generated by putting the unphosphorylated enzyme in a sodium-free medium containing rubidium ions, or by allowing rubidium ions to catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphoenzyme made by adding ATP to enzyme suspended in a medium containing sodium and magnesium ions. The release of occluded rubidium ions by orthophosphate requires the presence of magnesium, presumably because phosphorylation is necessary. Whether the addition of orthophosphate causes the rapid release of all or of half of the occluded rubidium depends on whether free rubidium (or potassium, thallium or (probably) caesium ions) are present in the medium at the time the orthophosphate is added. In the absence of free ions of these species, all of the occluded rubidium is released. In their presence (in adequate concentration), only half of the occluded rubidium is released. The relative effectiveness of the different potassium congeners in preventing the rapid release of 50% of the occluded rubidium when orthophosphate is added is: thallium greater than rubidium greater than potassium greater than caesium. Lithium and sodium are ineffective even at high concentrations, and sodium ions strongly antagonize the effect of free rubidium ions. In a sodium-free, Tris medium, the concentration of free rubidium ions necessary for a half-maximal effect is about 30 microM. In a medium containing 250 microM-free rubidium, the concentration of sodium necessary to reduce the effect of free rubidium by 50% is about 500 microM. These figures are compatible with the hypothesis that the free rubidium or other ions act at the potassium-loading sites at the extracellular face of the pump. By starting with enzyme occluding unlabelled rubidium, and using 86Rb

  6. Cell rubidium uptake: a method for studying functional heterogeneity in the nephron

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, F.X.; Doerge, A.B.; Bluemner, E.G.; Giebisch, G.; Thurau, K.

    1988-03-01

    Rubidium uptake into individual tubule cells of rat renal cortex as measured by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis on freeze dried cryosections was used as an index of potassium transport. Over a 30 second period following intravenous infusion of rubidium (0.5 mmol/kg body wt) rubidium content increased in all cells. After 30 seconds, rubidium contents were (in mmol/kg dry wt): 225 +/- 8 in distal convoluted tubule cells, 156 +/- 7 in connecting tubule cells, 110 +/- 7 in principal cells, 86 +/- 4 in proximal tubule cells and 24 +/- 2 in intercalated cells (mean +/- SEM). When distal sodium and potassium transport were stimulated by hypertonic saline loading, rubidium uptake was selectively increased into distal convoluted tubule cells by 38%, into connecting tubule cells by 36%, and into principal cells by 52%. However, rubidium uptake into proximal tubule and into intercalated cells remained unchanged. The preferential uptake of rubidium into distal convoluted tubule cells, connecting tubule cells, and principal cells correlates well with the known transport functions of sodium and potassium, whereas intercalated cells are distinguished by low sodium and potassium transport activity.

  7. Predictions for collisional frequency shifts of ultracold rubidium atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkelmans, S. J. J. M. F.; Verhaar, B. J.; Heinzen, D. J.; Gibble, K.

    1997-04-01

    A few years ago atomic fountains using cold ^133Cs atoms led to a breakthrough in the field of atomic frequency standards(A. Clairon, C. Salomon, S. Guellati, and W. D. Phillips, Europhys. Lett. 16), 165 (1991); K. Gibble and S. Chu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1771 (1993).. It was soon found that the frequency shifts induced by collisions between atoms during their fountain orbit stand in the way to drawing the full benefits from this development. A possible way out is to switch to another atomic species(K. Gibble and B.J. Verhaar, Phys. Rev. A 52), 3370 (1995).. Recent experiments have made it possible to determine cold collision parameters for pairs of rubidium atoms with unprecedented accuracy(J.M. Vogels, C.C. Tsai, R.S. Freeland, S.J.J.M.F. Kokkelmans, B.J. Verhaar, and D.J. Heinzen (submitted).). Making use of these parameters we predict the collisional frequency shifts for a ^87Rb and a ^85Rb laser-cooled clock. Our results show the prospects for new atomic clocks based on ultracold rubidium to be promising.

  8. Pulsed high magnetic field measurement with a rubidium vapor sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S.; Bruyant, N.; Béard, J.; Scotto, S.; Arimondo, E.; Battesti, R.; Ciampini, D.; Rizzo, C.

    2017-07-01

    We present a new technique to measure pulsed magnetic fields based on the use of rubidium in gas phase as a metrological standard. We have therefore developed an instrument based on laser inducing transitions at about 780 nm (D2 line) in rubidium gas contained in a mini-cell of 3 mm × 3 mm cross section. To be able to insert such a cell in a standard high-field pulsed magnet, we have developed a fibred probe kept at a fixed temperature. Transition frequencies for both the π (light polarization parallel to the magnetic field) and σ (light polarization perpendicular to the magnetic field) configurations are measured by a commercial wavemeter. One innovation of our sensor is that in addition to the usual monitoring of the light transmitted by the Rb cell, we also monitor the fluorescence emission of the gas sample from a volume of 0.13 mm3. Our sensor has been tested up to about 58 T.

  9. Pulsed high magnetic field measurement with a rubidium vapor sensor.

    PubMed

    George, S; Bruyant, N; Béard, J; Scotto, S; Arimondo, E; Battesti, R; Ciampini, D; Rizzo, C

    2017-07-01

    We present a new technique to measure pulsed magnetic fields based on the use of rubidium in gas phase as a metrological standard. We have therefore developed an instrument based on laser inducing transitions at about 780 nm (D2 line) in rubidium gas contained in a mini-cell of 3 mm × 3 mm cross section. To be able to insert such a cell in a standard high-field pulsed magnet, we have developed a fibred probe kept at a fixed temperature. Transition frequencies for both the π (light polarization parallel to the magnetic field) and σ (light polarization perpendicular to the magnetic field) configurations are measured by a commercial wavemeter. One innovation of our sensor is that in addition to the usual monitoring of the light transmitted by the Rb cell, we also monitor the fluorescence emission of the gas sample from a volume of 0.13 mm(3). Our sensor has been tested up to about 58 T.

  10. Labeling Feral Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Populations With Rubidium.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, Wayne; Eveleigh, Eldon; Silk, Peter; Forbes, Glen

    2016-04-01

    Rubidium (Rb) is a trace element that occurs naturally in low concentrations and is easily absorbed by plants, making it a useful tool for labeling insect defoliators, such as spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens). Balsam fir trees (Abies balsamea (L.) Miller) injected with either 8 or 16 g per tree of rubidium chloride (RbCl) showed quick uptake and distribution throughout the crown, with no negative effects on tree shoot growth or spruce budworm survival and development. Adult spruce budworm that fed as larvae on trees injected with RbCl were clearly labeled, with significantly higher Rb concentrations than the background levels found in adults that fed as larvae on control trees. Rb concentrations in feral spruce budworm adults for both the 8 g (9 µg/g) and 16 g (25 µg/g) per tree treatments were at least five times lower than those in laboratory-reared adults on 1,000 µg/g RbCl diet (125 µg/g); survival, development, pupal weight, sex ratio, and mating status of spruce budworm were not adversely affected by Rb treatment. Egg masses laid by feral females that fed as larvae on Rb-labeled trees were also labeled with Rb. Injecting trees with RbCl is a viable technique for labeling feral spruce budworm populations to help distinguish local populations from immigrants to better evaluate the success of early intervention strategies such as mating disruption. © Crown copyright 2016.

  11. The Rubidium-Crystal Oscillator Hybrid Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vig, J. R.; Rosati, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    The rubidium-crystal oscillator hybrid (RbXO) will make precise time available to systems that lack the power required by atomic frequency standards. The RbXO consists of two subassemblies in separate enclosures. One contains a small rubidium frequency standard (RFS) without its internal oven-controlled crystal oscillator (OCXO), plus interface circuits. The second contains a low-power OCXO, and additional interface circuits. The OCXO is on continuously. Periodically, e.g., once a week, the user system applies power to the RFS. After the few necessary for the warmup of the RFS, the interface circuits adjust the frequency of the OCXO to the RFS reference, then shut off the RFS. The OCXO enclosure is separable from the RFS enclosure so that manpacks will be able to operate with minimum size, weight, and power consumption, while having the accuracy of the RFS for the duration of a mission. A prototype RbXO's RFS has operated successfully for 4200 on-off cycles. Parallel efforts on a Phase 2 RbXO development are in progress. Two sources for the RbXO are scheduled to be available during 1986.

  12. TF-4020A: TFL's new compact military rubidium standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltsufin, E.; Stern, A.

    1992-06-01

    A military rubidium frequency standard model TF-4020A is described and analyzed. It is a compact (volume less than 500 cc) military rubidium standard and meets MIL-E-5400 (airborne electronic equipment) class 2 (-55 C to +71 C, 70,000 ft). The physics package shown is extremely small (87 cc) and comprises lamp and cavity subassembly and a twofold magnetic field. The oscillator is a miniature oven controlled crystal oscillator with a SC (Stress Compensated) cut crystal for a low vibration susceptibility. The main effort during the design process was concentrated on the design of reliable circuits: general reliability, stability and low susceptibility to external and internal influences like temperature, vibration and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Key features of the unit are: compact design; extremely small physics package (87 cc) with a special rugged design to withstand strong vibration; high stability over the wide operating temperature range of -55 C to +71 C; low susceptibility to EMI; low sensitivity to external DC and AC magnetic field; excellent short term stability of 7 x 10(exp -12)/square root of tau for tau greater than 0.1 s and less than 300 s; excellent long term stability of 1 x 10(exp -11) per month; and versatility to adopt versions without size increase.

  13. Compact microwave cavity for high performance rubidium frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanucci, Camillo; Bandi, Thejesh; Merli, Francesco; Pellaton, Matthieu; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; Skrivervik, Anja K.

    2012-10-01

    The design, realization, and characterization of a compact magnetron-type microwave cavity operating with a TE011-like mode are presented. The resonator works at the rubidium hyperfine ground-state frequency (i.e., 6.835 GHz) by accommodating a glass cell of 25 mm diameter containing rubidium vapor. Its design analysis demonstrates the limitation of the loop-gap resonator lumped model when targeting such a large cell, thus numerical optimization was done to obtain the required performances. Microwave characterization of the realized prototype confirmed the expected working behavior. Double-resonance and Zeeman spectroscopy performed with this cavity indicated an excellent microwave magnetic field homogeneity: the performance validation of the cavity was done by achieving an excellent short-term clock stability as low as 2.4 × 10-13 τ-1/2. The achieved experimental results and the compact design make this resonator suitable for applications in portable atomic high-performance frequency standards for both terrestrial and space applications.

  14. Compact microwave cavity for high performance rubidium frequency standards.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, Camillo; Bandi, Thejesh; Merli, Francesco; Pellaton, Matthieu; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano; Skrivervik, Anja K

    2012-10-01

    The design, realization, and characterization of a compact magnetron-type microwave cavity operating with a TE(011)-like mode are presented. The resonator works at the rubidium hyperfine ground-state frequency (i.e., 6.835 GHz) by accommodating a glass cell of 25 mm diameter containing rubidium vapor. Its design analysis demonstrates the limitation of the loop-gap resonator lumped model when targeting such a large cell, thus numerical optimization was done to obtain the required performances. Microwave characterization of the realized prototype confirmed the expected working behavior. Double-resonance and Zeeman spectroscopy performed with this cavity indicated an excellent microwave magnetic field homogeneity: the performance validation of the cavity was done by achieving an excellent short-term clock stability as low as 2.4 × 10(-13) τ(-1/2). The achieved experimental results and the compact design make this resonator suitable for applications in portable atomic high-performance frequency standards for both terrestrial and space applications.

  15. Long-range interactions between rubidium and potassium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samboy, Nolan

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the long-range, two-body interactions between rubidium and potassium atoms in highly excited (n =70 ) Rydberg states. After establishing properly symmetrized asymptotic basis states, we diagonalize an interaction Hamiltonian consisting of the standard Coulombic potential expansion and atomic fine structure to calculate electronic potential energy curves. We find that when both atoms are excited to either the 70 s state or the 70 p state, both the Ω =0+ symmetry interactions and the Ω =0- symmetry interactions demonstrate a deep potential well capable of supporting many bound levels; the sizes of the corresponding dimer states are of the order of 2.25 μ m . We establish n -scaling relations for the equilibrium separation Re and the dissociation energy De and find these relations to be consistent with similar calculations involving the homonuclear interactions between rubidium and cesium. We discuss the specific effects of ℓ mixing and the exact composition of the calculated potential well via the expansion coefficients of the asymptotic basis states. Finally, we apply a Landau-Zener treatment to show that the dimer states are stable with respect to predissociation.

  16. Rubidium atomic frequency standards for GPS Block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standards (RAFS) were provided for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These satellites will replenish and upgrade the space segment of the Global Positioning System in the mid 1990s. The GPS RAFS Rb clocks are the latest generation of the high-performance rubidium frequency standards. They offer an aging rate in the low pp 10(exp 14)/day range and a drift-corrected 1-day stability in the low pp 10(exp 14) range. The Block IIR version of these devices will have improved performance, higher reliability, smaller size, and greater radiation hardness. The GPS Block IIR atomic clocks have a natural frequency configuration whereby they output a frequency of about 13.4 MHz that is a submultiple of the atomic resonance of Rb (or Cs). The RAFS operates at a low, fixed C-field for increased stability. The GPS Block IIR RAFS design, including the changes and improvements made, and the test results obtained are described.

  17. Rubidium atomic frequency standards for GPS Block IIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standards (RAFS) were provided for the GPS Block IIR NAVSTAR satellites. These satellites will replenish and upgrade the space segment of the Global Positioning System in the mid 1990s. The GPS RAFS Rb clocks are the latest generation of the high-performance rubidium frequency standards. They offer an aging rate in the low pp 10(exp 14)/day range and a drift-corrected 1-day stability in the low pp 10(exp 14) range. The Block IIR version of these devices will have improved performance, higher reliability, smaller size, and greater radiation hardness. The GPS Block IIR atomic clocks have a natural frequency configuration whereby they output a frequency of about 13.4 MHz that is a submultiple of the atomic resonance of Rb (or Cs). The RAFS operates at a low, fixed C-field for increased stability. The GPS Block IIR RAFS design, including the changes and improvements made, and the test results obtained are described.

  18. Specific activity and isotope abundances of strontium in purified strontium-82

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzsimmons, J. M.; Medvedev, D. G.; Mausner, L. F.

    2015-11-12

    A linear accelerator was used to irradiate a rubidium chloride target with protons to produce strontium-82 (Sr-82), and the Sr-82 was purified by ion exchange chromatography. The amount of strontium associated with the purified Sr-82 was determined by either: ICP-OES or method B which consisted of a summation of strontium quantified by gamma spectroscopy and ICP-MS. The summation method agreed within 10% to the ICP-OES for the total mass of strontium and the subsequent specific activities were determined to be 0.25–0.52 TBq mg-1. Method B was used to determine the isotope abundances by weight% of the purified Sr-82, and the abundances were: Sr-82 (10–20.7%), Sr-83 (0–0.05%), Sr-84 (35–48.5%), Sr-85 (16–25%), Sr-86 (12.5–23%), Sr-87 (0%), and Sr-88 (0–10%). The purified strontium contained mass amounts of Sr-82, Sr-84, Sr-85, Sr-86, and Sr-88 in abundances not associated with natural abundance, and 90% of the strontium was produced by the proton irradiation. A comparison of ICP-OES and method B for the analysis of Sr-82 indicated analysis by ICP-OES would be easier to determine total mass of strontium and comply with regulatory requirements. An ICP-OES analytical method for Sr-82 analysis was established and validated according to regulatory guidelines.

  19. Measurement of the lifetime of rubidium atoms in a dark magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Permyakova, O I; Yakovlev, A V; Chapovskii, P L

    2008-09-30

    The lifetimes of rubidium atoms in a dark magneto-optical trap are measured at different populations of the 'bright' and 'dark' hyperfine states of captured atoms. It is found that the lifetime of atoms in the trap decreases if they spend more time in the bright state. A simple explanation of this effect is proposed which is based on the increase in the transport cross section for collisions of thermal rubidium atoms surrounding the trap with cold rubidium atoms upon their electronic excitation. (laser cooling)

  20. Evolution of collectivity in 82Y and 82Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, G. D.; Christian, K. A.; Kaye, R. A.; Tabor, S. L.; García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Filevich, A.; Somacal, H.; Szybisz, L.

    1996-04-01

    Lifetimes of states in 82Y and 82Sr produced by the 58Ni(27Al,2pn)82Y and 58Ni(27Al,3p)82Sr reactions at 90 MeV have been measured using the recoil distance method. The present results along with previous measurements show how the B(E2) strengths and collectivity vary with spin in the lowest π=+ and π=- bands of 82Y and in the ground state band of 82Sr. The alternating pattern of B(M1) strengths in the yrast band of 82Y has been confirmed.

  1. Transmission degradation and preservation for tapered optical fibers in rubidium vapor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Meimei; Franson, James D; Pittman, Todd B

    2013-04-20

    The use of subwavelength diameter tapered optical fibers (TOFs) in warm rubidium vapor has recently been identified as a promising system for realizing ultralow-power nonlinear optical effects. However, at the relatively high atomic densities needed for many of these experiments, rubidium atoms accumulating on the TOF surface can cause a significant loss of overall transmission through the fiber. Here we report direct measurements of the time scale associated with this transmission degradation for various rubidium density conditions. Transmission is affected almost immediately after the introduction of rubidium vapor into the system, and declines rapidly as the density is increased. More significantly, we show how a heating element designed to raise the TOF temperature can be used to reduce this transmission loss and dramatically extend the effective TOF transmission lifetime.

  2. A kind of magnetron cavity used in rubidium atomic frequency standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyu, Yang; Jingzhong, Cui; Jianhui, Tu; Yaoting, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Research on the magnetron cavity used in the rubidium atomic frequency standards is developed, through which the main characteristic parameters of the magnetron cavity are studied, mainly including the resonant frequency, quality factor and oscillation mode. The resonant frequency and quality factor of the magnetron cavity were calculated, and the test results of the resonant frequency agreed well with the calculation theory. The test results also show that the resonant frequency of the magnetron cavity can be attenuated to 6.835 GHz, which is the resonant frequency of the rubidium atoms, and the Q-factor can be attenuated to 500-1000. The oscillation mode is a typical TE011 mode and is the correct mode needed for the rubidium atomic frequency standard. Therefore these derivative magnetron cavities meet the requirements of the rubidium atomic frequency standards well.

  3. s82-33227

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-30

    S82-33227 (4 July 1982) --- President and First Lady Reagan share a meeting with Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly II, right, and Henry W. Hartsfield Jr., after the successful landing of the Space Shuttle Columbia at Edwards Air Force Base today. Besides the Columbia, pictures, the new Space Shuttle Challenger and the Enterprise (vehicle used for test flights in the lower atmosphere in 1977), were also present at Edwards AFB. The latter served as a backdrop for the President?s podium from which he made a brief speech.

  4. A New Synchronized Miniature Rubidium Oscillator with an Auto-Adaptive Disciplining Filter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    33rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting A NEW SYNCHRONIZED MINIATURE RUBIDIUM DISCIPLINING FILTER OSCILLATOR WITH AN AUTO...ADAPTIVE Pascal Rochat and Bernard Leuenberger Temex Neuchfitel Time SA, Switzerland Abstract A new rubidium line (SRO) integrating timing functions and... time interval measurements was developed using an auto-adaptive disciplining algorithm. This led to an ultra-stable time & frequency machine usable

  5. Optimization of a rubidium magnetometer based on nonlinear optical rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Lok Fai; Jacome, L. R.; Guttikonda, Srikanth; Bahr, Eric; Kimball, Derek

    2009-11-01

    Atomic spin polarization of alkali atoms in the ground state can survive thousands of collisions with paraffin-coated cell walls. The resulting long spin-relaxation times achieved in evacuated, paraffin-coated cells enable precise measurement of atomic spin precession and energy shifts of ground-state Zeeman sublevels. In the present work, nonlinear magneto-optical rotation with frequency-modulated light (FM NMOR) is used to measure magnetic-field-induced spin precession for rubidium atoms contained in a paraffin-coated cell. We discuss optimization of the shot-noise-projected magnetometer sensitivity and practical implementation of the Rb magnetometer. The magnetometer will be applied to searches for anomalous spin-dependent interactions of the proton.

  6. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor: Transient regime

    SciTech Connect

    Becerra, F. E.; Willis, R. T.; Rolston, S. L.; Orozco, L. A.; Carmichael, H. J.

    2010-10-15

    We investigate the transient response of the generated light from four-wave mixing (FWM) in the diamond configuration using a step-down field excitation. The transients show fast decay times and oscillations that depend on the detunings and intensities of the fields. A simplified model taking into account the thermal motion of the atoms, propagation, absorption, and dispersion effects shows qualitative agreement with the experimental observations with the energy levels in rubidium (5S{sub 1/2}, 5P{sub 1/2}, 5P{sub 3/2}, and 6S{sub 1/2}). The atomic polarization comes from all the contributions of different velocity classes of atoms in the ensemble modifying dramatically the total transient behavior of the light from FWM.

  7. Experimental evidence for two different dynamical regimes in liquid rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demmel, Franz; Morkel, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    We present evidence for changes in the dynamics of liquid rubidium with rising temperature. The thermal expansion of this liquid alkali metal shows a changing derivative with temperature in a temperature range of about 400-500 K. With neutron scattering the amplitude at the structure factor maximum demonstrates a changing slope with increasing temperature. A derived averaged structural relaxation time can be understood that an additional relaxation process sets in upon cooling. The deduced generalized viscosity and high frequency shear modulus indicate a change in dynamics in the same temperature range. All these findings point to a change in dynamics of the equilibrium liquid metal state with a dynamical crossover from a viscous to a fluid-like liquid metal well above the melting point.

  8. Demonstration of bicolor slow-light channelization in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkansky, Mark; Fatemi, Fredrik K.; Reintjes, John; Dutton, Zachary; Steiner, Michael

    2007-02-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-principle of a previously proposed 'channelization' architecture for wideband slow-light propagation in atomic vapors using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use two optical frequencies to generate a sine wave signal which is delayed in rubidium vapor. The optical frequencies were tuned near the EIT resonances of two Zeeman sublevels, which are shifted from each other well beyond the EIT linewidth by a uniform magnetic field. We varied the Zeeman shift between these two levels (relative to the optical frequency splitting) and measured the delay versus Zeeman shift. Significant delays were observed and were in agreement with a theoretical model treating each Zeeman sublevel as part of an independent three-level system. We achieved delay of a signal with a bandwidth 16 times the EIT linewidth and confirmed our earlier theoretical models that delay occurs only when the optical spectral separation slightly exceeds the Zeeman splitting.

  9. Laser-pumped paraffin-coated cell rubidium frequency standard

    SciTech Connect

    Bandi, Thejesh; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2012-06-15

    We have realized and studied a rubidium atomic frequency standard based on a paraffin-coated cell, exhibiting a short-term frequency stability <3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} {tau}{sup -1/2} between {tau} = 1 and 100 s. Characterization of the wall-coating is performed by measuring the T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} relaxation times. Perturbations of the medium- to long-term clock stability, due to variations in the laser-intensity, laser frequency, the microwave power shift, and the shifts due to temperature variations are measured and analyzed. A method for reducing the intensity light-shift by detuning the laser frequency and the resulting improvement in clock stability is demonstrated. This work is of relevance for further improvements on Rb cell standards using anti-relaxation wall-coating technology.

  10. Interactions of Rubidium and Metastable Argon at Ultracold Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, M. K.

    2005-05-01

    We are investigating the interaction between ultracold rubidium (Rb) and ultracold metastable argon (Ar*) simultaneously confined in a dual species magneto-optical trap (MOT). We will report on recent quantitative measurements of the inter-species trap loss coefficients and present our preliminary results on photoassociative spectra of the Rb-Ar* complex. We will also report on studies of Penning and associative ionization in the MOT using a modified residual gas analyzer (RGA) as a detector. Finally, we will discuss the prospects for producing and spatially confining ultracold ground state RbAr, a weakly-bound van der Waals molecule. Support provided by the National Science Foundation and the Office of Naval Research.

  11. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  12. Laser-pumped paraffin-coated cell rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandi, Thejesh; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2012-06-01

    We have realized and studied a rubidium atomic frequency standard based on a paraffin-coated cell, exhibiting a short-term frequency stability <3 × 10-12 τ-1/2 between τ = 1 and 100 s. Characterization of the wall-coating is performed by measuring the T1 and T2 relaxation times. Perturbations of the medium- to long-term clock stability, due to variations in the laser-intensity, laser frequency, the microwave power shift, and the shifts due to temperature variations are measured and analyzed. A method for reducing the intensity light-shift by detuning the laser frequency and the resulting improvement in clock stability is demonstrated. This work is of relevance for further improvements on Rb cell standards using anti-relaxation wall-coating technology.

  13. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, M.; Sparkes, B.M.; Campbell, G.; Lam, P.K.; Buchler, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    By harnessing aspects of quantum mechanics, communication and information processing could be radically transformed. Promising forms of quantum information technology include optical quantum cryptographic systems and computing using photons for quantum logic operations. As with current information processing systems, some form of memory will be required. Quantum repeaters, which are required for long distance quantum key distribution, require quantum optical memory as do deterministic logic gates for optical quantum computing. Here, we present results from a coherent optical memory based on warm rubidium vapour and show 87% efficient recall of light pulses, the highest efficiency measured to date for any coherent optical memory suitable for quantum information applications. We also show storage and recall of up to 20 pulses from our system. These results show that simple warm atomic vapour systems have clear potential as a platform for quantum memory. PMID:21285952

  14. Experimental research of a chain of diode pumped rubidium amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfei; Hua, Weihong; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-10-05

    In this paper, we have set up a diode pumped rubidium MOPA system with a chain of two amplifiers. The experimental results show an amplified laser power of 26W with amplification factor of 16.3 and power extraction efficiency of 53% for a single amplifier, and an amplified laser power of 11W with amplification factor of 7.9 and power extraction efficiency of 26% for a chain of two amplifiers. The reason for lower performance of cascade amplification is mainly due to the limited total pump power, which will be not sufficient for efficient pumping when assigned from a single amplifier into two amplifiers. The situation could be well improved by increasing the seed laser power as well as the pump power for each amplifier to realize high efficient saturated amplification. Such MOPA configuration has the potential for scaling high beam quality alkali laser into high powers.

  15. Linewidth-tunable laser diode array for rubidium laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhiyong; Tan Rongqing; Xu Cheng; Li Lin

    2013-02-28

    To optimise the pump source for a high-power diodepumped rubidium vapour laser, we have designed a laser diode array (LDA) with a narrowed and tunable linewidth and an external cavity formed by two volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). Through controlling the temperature differences between the two VBGs, the LDA linewidth, which was 1.8 nm before mounting the two VBGs, was tunable from 100 pm to 0.2 nm, while the output power changed by no more than 4 %. By changing simultaneously the temperature in both VBGs, the centre wavelength in air of the linewidth-tunable LDA was tunable from 779.40 nm to 780.05 nm. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  16. Anomalous two-photon spectral features in warm rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrella, C.; Light, P. S.; Milburn, T. J.; Kielpinski, D.; Stace, T. M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2016-09-01

    We report observation of anomalous fluorescence spectral features in the environs of a two-photon transition in a rubidium vapor when excited with two different wavelength lasers that are both counterpropagating through the vapor. These features are characterized by an unusual trade-off between the detunings of the driving fields. Three different hypothetical processes are presented to explain the observed spectra: a simultaneous three-atom and four-photon collision, a four-photon excitation involving a light field produced via amplified spontaneous emission, and population pumping perturbing the expected steady-state spectra. Numerical modeling of each hypothetical process is presented, supporting the population pumping process as the most plausible mechanism.

  17. Comparison of absorption, fluorescence, and polarization spectroscopy of atomic rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashman, Seth; Stifler, Cayla; Romero, Joaquin

    2015-05-01

    An ongoing spectroscopic investigation of atomic rubidium utilizes a two-photon, single-laser excitation process. Transitions accessible with our tunable laser include 5P1 / 2F' <-- 5S1 / 2 F and 5P3 / 2F' <-- 5S1 / 2 F . The laser is split into a pump and probe beam to allow for Doppler-free measurements of transitions between hyperfine levels. The pump and probe beams are overlapped in a counter-propagating geometry and the laser frequency scans over a transition. Absorption, fluorescence and polarization spectroscopy techniques are applied to this basic experimental setup. The temperature of the vapor cell and the power of the pump and probe beams have been varied to explore line broadening effects and signal-to-noise of each technique. This humble setup will hopefully grow into a more robust experimental arrangement in which double resonance, two-laser excitations are used to explore hyperfine state changing collisions between rubidium atoms and noble gas atoms. Rb-noble gas collisions can transfer population between hyperfine levels, such as 5P3 / 2 (F' = 3) <-- Collision 5P3 / 2 (F ' = 2) , and the probe beam couples 7S1 / 2 (F'' = 2) <-- 5P3 / 2 (F' = 3) . Polarization spectroscopy signal depends on the rate of population transfer due to the collision as well as maintaining the orientation created by the pump laser. Fluorescence spectroscopy relies only on transfer of population due to the collision. Comparison of these techniques yields information regarding the change of the magnetic sublevels, mF, during hyperfine state changing collisions.

  18. Effects of external cesium and rubidium on outward potassium currents in squid axons.

    PubMed Central

    Clay, J R; Shlesinger, M F

    1983-01-01

    We have studied the effects of external cesium and rubidium on potassium conductance of voltage clamped squid axons over a broad range of concentrations of these ions relative to the external potassium concentration. Our primary novel finding concerning cesium is that relatively large concentrations of this ion are able to block a small, but statistically significant fraction of outward potassium current for potentials less than approximately 50 mV positive to reversal potential. This effect is relieved at more positive potentials. We have also found that external rubidium blocks outward current with a qualitatively similar voltage dependence. This effect is more readily apparent than the cesium blockade, occurring even for concentrations less than that of external potassium. Rubidium also has a blocking effect on inward current, which is relieved for potentials more than 20-40 mV negative to reversal, thereby allowing both potassium and rubidium ions to cross the membrane. We have described these results with a single-file diffusion model of ion permeation through potassium channels. The model analysis suggests that both rubidium and cesium ions exert their blocking effects at the innermost site of a two-site channel, and that rubidium competes with potassium ions for entry into the channel more effectively than does cesium under comparable conditions. PMID:6301576

  19. Membrane potential and conductance during transport of sodium, potassium and rubidium in frog muscle.

    PubMed

    Adrian, R H; Slayman, C L

    1966-06-01

    1. Muscles with high intracellular sodium concentrations can extrude sodium into solutions which contain 10 m-equiv/l. of either potassium or rubidium. Potassium or rubidium replaces the extruded intracellular sodium. These cation movements take place equally well when the external anion is chloride or sulphate, though muscles deteriorate if left for long periods in sulphate solutions.2. Measurements of intracellular potentials during extrusion of sodium into solutions containing potassium show:(a) an internal potential more negative than the potassium equilibrium potential (E(K)); at 20 degrees C the difference is nearly 20 mV.(b) that a difference between the membrane potential and E(K) is dependent on temperature and is abolished by 10(-5)M ouabain.(c) an internal potential which becomes more negative in the presence of 0.1% cocaine, a concentration of cocaine which substantially increases the membrane resistance to potassium movement. In the absence of potassium or rubidium no such hyperpolarization occurs.3. When muscles extrude into solutions which contain rubidium they have internal potentials which are 10-20 mV more negative than when extruding sodium into corresponding solutions containing potassium.4. Measurements of electrical conductance in the potassium solution suggest that the electrochemical potential difference for potassium ions may be large enough to account for the measured inward potassium movements during sodium extrusion. The reliability of the measurements does not, however, exclude the possibility that some part of the inward potassium movement is chemically linked to outward movement.5. Measurements of membrane conductance in solutions containing rubidium, and of net movements of rubidium in the presence and absence of ouabain, lead to the conclusion that at least 90% of the inward rubidium movement during sodium extrusion must be chemically linked to the sodium movement.6. The hyperpolarization during extrusion of sodium could be

  20. Membrane potential and conductance during transport of sodium, potassium and rubidium in frog muscle

    PubMed Central

    Adrian, R. H.; Slayman, C. L.

    1966-01-01

    1. Muscles with high intracellular sodium concentrations can extrude sodium into solutions which contain 10 m-equiv/l. of either potassium or rubidium. Potassium or rubidium replaces the extruded intracellular sodium. These cation movements take place equally well when the external anion is chloride or sulphate, though muscles deteriorate if left for long periods in sulphate solutions. 2. Measurements of intracellular potentials during extrusion of sodium into solutions containing potassium show: (a) an internal potential more negative than the potassium equilibrium potential (EK); at 20° C the difference is nearly 20 mV. (b) that a difference between the membrane potential and EK is dependent on temperature and is abolished by 10-5 M ouabain. (c) an internal potential which becomes more negative in the presence of 0·1% cocaine, a concentration of cocaine which substantially increases the membrane resistance to potassium movement. In the absence of potassium or rubidium no such hyperpolarization occurs. 3. When muscles extrude into solutions which contain rubidium they have internal potentials which are 10-20 mV more negative than when extruding sodium into corresponding solutions containing potassium. 4. Measurements of electrical conductance in the potassium solution suggest that the electrochemical potential difference for potassium ions may be large enough to account for the measured inward potassium movements during sodium extrusion. The reliability of the measurements does not, however, exclude the possibility that some part of the inward potassium movement is chemically linked to outward movement. 5. Measurements of membrane conductance in solutions containing rubidium, and of net movements of rubidium in the presence and absence of ouabain, lead to the conclusion that at least 90% of the inward rubidium movement during sodium extrusion must be chemically linked to the sodium movement. 6. The hyperpolarization during extrusion of sodium could be explained

  1. Rubidium-Strontium Formation Age of Allan Hills 84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Reese, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our preferred age for the formation of carbonates in the martian meteorite ALH 84001 is 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) equals 0.01402 Ga (exp -1), or 3.85 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) = 0.0142 Ga(exponent -1). This age is determined by a three-point Rb-Sr isochron defined by leachates of high-graded carbonate-rich material. Major cation and especially phosphorous analyses of the leachates permit contributions from igneous whitlockite to be recognized for low-acidity leachates, and the corresponding data are omitted from the isochron. Data for the two highest acidity leachates plot close to the preferred isochron, but are omitted because we believe they contain contributions leached from the pyroxene substrate on which most of the carbonates are found. Nevertheless, the isochron age for all five highest-acidity leachates is 3.94 plus or minus 0.04 Ga, and is within error of the age obtained for the more restricted data set. All leachates used to define the isochron have major cation compositions that are singular to those obtained by microprobe analyses of the carbonate rosettes and are consistent with progressive digestion of the carbonates according to their composition. The age thus obtained for the carbonates is about 600 m.y. younger than the crystalization age of ALH 84001 determined by Sm-Nd analyses but is within error limits of the age of impact metamorphism inferred from the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar systematics of silicates. which yield ages of 3.85 plus or minus 0.05 Ga and 4.05- 3.80 Ga to 4.3-3.8 Ga, respectively. Similarities between the carbonate crystallization age and the age of impact metamorphism as determined by Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr suggest that the carbonate formation is impact-related. Nevertheless, both high and low- temperature scenarios for the origin of the carbonates are possible.

  2. Rubidium-Strontium Formation Age of Allan Hills 84001 Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Weismann, H.; Reese, Y.; Connelly, J. N.

    1998-01-01

    Our preferred age for the formation of carbonates in the martian meteorite ALH 84001 is 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) equals 0.01402 Ga (exp -1), or 3.85 plus or minus 0.04 Ga for Lambda (Rubidium 87) = 0.0142 Ga(exponent -1). This age is determined by a three-point Rb-Sr isochron defined by leachates of high-graded carbonate-rich material. Major cation and especially phosphorous analyses of the leachates permit contributions from igneous whitlockite to be recognized for low-acidity leachates, and the corresponding data are omitted from the isochron. Data for the two highest acidity leachates plot close to the preferred isochron, but are omitted because we believe they contain contributions leached from the pyroxene substrate on which most of the carbonates are found. Nevertheless, the isochron age for all five highest-acidity leachates is 3.94 plus or minus 0.04 Ga, and is within error of the age obtained for the more restricted data set. All leachates used to define the isochron have major cation compositions that are singular to those obtained by microprobe analyses of the carbonate rosettes and are consistent with progressive digestion of the carbonates according to their composition. The age thus obtained for the carbonates is about 600 m.y. younger than the crystalization age of ALH 84001 determined by Sm-Nd analyses but is within error limits of the age of impact metamorphism inferred from the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar systematics of silicates. which yield ages of 3.85 plus or minus 0.05 Ga and 4.05- 3.80 Ga to 4.3-3.8 Ga, respectively. Similarities between the carbonate crystallization age and the age of impact metamorphism as determined by Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr suggest that the carbonate formation is impact-related. Nevertheless, both high and low- temperature scenarios for the origin of the carbonates are possible.

  3. Excitation and emission spectra of rubidium in rare-gas thin-films.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Sin, Kyungseob; Momose, Takamasa

    2012-07-07

    To understand the optical properties of atoms in solid state matrices, the absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of rubidium doped thin-films of argon, krypton, and xenon were investigated in detail. A two-dimensional spectral analysis extends earlier reports on the excitation and emission properties of rubidium in rare-gas hosts. We found that the doped crystals of krypton and xenon exhibit a simple absorption-emission relation, whereas rubidium in argon showed more complicated spectral structures. Our sample preparation employed in the present work yielded different results for the Ar crystal, but our peak positions were consistent with the prediction based on the linear extrapolation of Xe and Kr data. We also observed a bleaching behavior in rubidium excitation spectra, which suggests a population transfer from one to another spectral feature due to hole-burning. The observed optical response implies that rubidium in rare-gas thin-films is detectable with extremely high sensitivity, possibly down to a single atom level, in low concentration samples.

  4. Excitation and emission spectra of rubidium in rare-gas thin-films

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Sin, Kyungseob; Momose, Takamasa

    2012-07-07

    To understand the optical properties of atoms in solid state matrices, the absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of rubidium doped thin-films of argon, krypton, and xenon were investigated in detail. A two-dimensional spectral analysis extends earlier reports on the excitation and emission properties of rubidium in rare-gas hosts. We found that the doped crystals of krypton and xenon exhibit a simple absorption-emission relation, whereas rubidium in argon showed more complicated spectral structures. Our sample preparation employed in the present work yielded different results for the Ar crystal, but our peak positions were consistent with the prediction based on the linear extrapolation of Xe and Kr data. We also observed a bleaching behavior in rubidium excitation spectra, which suggests a population transfer from one to another spectral feature due to hole-burning. The observed optical response implies that rubidium in rare-gas thin-films is detectable with extremely high sensitivity, possibly down to a single atom level, in low concentration samples.

  5. Glucose-induced activation of rubidium transport and water flux in sunflower root systems.

    PubMed

    Quintero, J M; Molina, R; Fournier, J M; Benlloch, M; Ramos, J

    2001-01-01

    Excised 20-d-old sunflower roots (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Sun-Gro 393) were used to study the effect of different sugars on rubidium and water fluxes. The roots sensed and absorbed glucose from the external medium inducing the activation of rubidium accumulated in the root (Rb(+) root), the flux of exuded rubidium (J(Rb)) and, to a lesser degree, the exudation rate (J(v)). These effects were also triggered by fructose, but not by 6-deoxyglucose (6-dG), a glucose analogue which is not a substrate for hexokinase (HXK). The effect of 2-deoxyglucose (2-dG), an analogue that is phosphorylated but not further metabolized, was complex, suggesting an inhibitory effect on solute transport to the xylem. The amounts of glucose required to activate rubidium and water fluxes were similar to those previously reported to regulate different processes in other plants (0.5--10 mM). When sorbitol was used instead of glucose, neither rubidium uptake (Rb(+) root plus J(Rb)) nor J(v) was activated. It is proposed that glucose present in the root plays an important signalling role in the regulation of Rb(+) (K(+)) and water transport in plant roots.

  6. Excitation and emission spectra of rubidium in rare-gas thin-films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, Ilja; Sin, Kyungseob; Momose, Takamasa

    2012-07-01

    To understand the optical properties of atoms in solid state matrices, the absorption, excitation, and emission spectra of rubidium doped thin-films of argon, krypton, and xenon were investigated in detail. A two-dimensional spectral analysis extends earlier reports on the excitation and emission properties of rubidium in rare-gas hosts. We found that the doped crystals of krypton and xenon exhibit a simple absorption-emission relation, whereas rubidium in argon showed more complicated spectral structures. Our sample preparation employed in the present work yielded different results for the Ar crystal, but our peak positions were consistent with the prediction based on the linear extrapolation of Xe and Kr data. We also observed a bleaching behavior in rubidium excitation spectra, which suggests a population transfer from one to another spectral feature due to hole-burning. The observed optical response implies that rubidium in rare-gas thin-films is detectable with extremely high sensitivity, possibly down to a single atom level, in low concentration samples.

  7. The effects of potassium and rubidium hydroxide on the alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shomglin, K.; Turanli, L.; Wenk, H.-R.; Monteiro, P.J.M.; Sposito, G

    2003-11-01

    Expansion of mortar specimens prepared with an aggregate of mylonite from the Santa Rosa mylonite zone in southern California was studied to investigate the effect of different alkali ions on the alkali-silica reaction in concrete. The expansion tests indicate that mortar has a greater expansion when subjected to a sodium hydroxide bath than in a sodium-potassium-rubidium hydroxide bath. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of mortar bars at early ages show that rubidium ions, used as tracer, were present throughout the sample by the third day of exposure. The analysis also shows a high concentration of rubidium in silica gel from mortar bars exposed to bath solutions containing rubidium. The results suggest that expansion of mortar bars using ASTM C 1260 does not depend on the diffusion of alkali ions. The results indicate that the expansion of alkali-silica gel depends on the type of alkali ions present. Alkali-silica gel containing rubidium shows a lower concentration of calcium, suggesting competition for the same sites.

  8. Influence of modulation frequency in rubidium cell frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audoin, C.; Viennet, J.; Cyr, N.; Vanier, J.

    1983-01-01

    The error signal which is used to control the frequency of the quartz crystal oscillator of a passive rubidium cell frequency standard is considered. The value of the slope of this signal, for an interrogation frequency close to the atomic transition frequency is calculated and measured for various phase (or frequency) modulation waveforms, and for several values of the modulation frequency. A theoretical analysis is made using a model which applies to a system in which the optical pumping rate, the relaxation rates and the RF field are homogeneous. Results are given for sine-wave phase modulation, square-wave frequency modulation and square-wave phase modulation. The influence of the modulation frequency on the slope of the error signal is specified. It is shown that the modulation frequency can be chosen as large as twice the non-saturated full-width at half-maximum without a drastic loss of the sensitivity to an offset of the interrogation frequency from center line, provided that the power saturation factor and the amplitude of modulation are properly adjusted.

  9. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Crystal structure of rubidium methyl-diazo-tate.

    PubMed

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2017-02-01

    The title compound, Rb(+)·H3CN2O(-), has been crystallized in liquid ammonia as a reaction product of the reductive ammonolysis of the natural compound streptozocin. Elemental rubidium was used as reduction agent as it is soluble in liquid ammonia, forming a blue solution. Reductive bond cleavage in biogenic materials under kinetically controlled conditions offers a new approach to gain access to sustainably produced raw materials. The anion is nearly planar [dihedral angle O-N-N-C = -0.4 (2)°]. The Rb(+) cation has a coordination number of seven, and coordinates to five anions. One anion is bound via both its N atoms, one by both O and N, two anions are bound by only their O atoms, and the last is bound via the N atom adjacent to the methyl group. The diazo-tate anions are bridged by cations and do not exhibit any direct contacts with each other. The cations form corrugated layers that propagate in the (-101) plane.

  11. The system design of a rubidium maser frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, C. X.

    1984-01-01

    The Rubidium Maser Frequency Standard is a precision frequency source with excellent short-term stability. A type PBR-II Rb maser frequency standard was developed by the Beijing Institute of Radio Metrology and Measurement (BIRMM). The time-domain frequency stability (two-sample variance) of this frequency standard is less than 1/5 times 10 to the 13th power for t=10ms yields 1.0s, fh=1.0 KHz. Two PBR-II frequency standards were used as reference frequency sources in a frequency stability measurement system. Some important system characteristics for the PBR-II Rb maser frequency standard such as phase noise and frequency stability transfer characteristics are discussed. Furthermore, the design of the frequency standard for optimum frequency stability of the output signal; the choice of a voltage controlled crystal oscillator for the frequency standard; the design of the phase-locked loop; and the frequency stability test results on the PBR-II are discussed.

  12. Distribution of rubidium between sodic sanidine and natural silicic liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; Hedge, C.E.

    1970-01-01

    Phenocrysts of sodic sanidine from twelve upper Cenozoic units of silicic ash-flow tuff and lava from the Western United States contain from 0.25 to 0.45 the Rb present in the associated groundmass materials. The ratios of potassium to rubidium in the sanidines are, on the average, about four times greater than those of the groundmass. Separation of phenocrystic sanidine from salic melts provides an efficient method for raising the Rb content and lowering the K/Rb ratio of the melts, although the amount of differentiation probably is limited by continuous reequilibration of the alkalis between crystal and liquid phases through ion exchange. Syenites of cumulate origin will have appreciably lower Rb contents and higher K/Rb ratios than the melts from which they precipitated. Available data on the distribution of Rb between synthetic biotite and K-sanidine demonstrate that the separation of biotite probably will not deplete salic melts in Rb relative to K. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Crystal structure of rubidium methyl­diazo­tate

    PubMed Central

    Grassl, Tobias; Korber, Nikolaus

    2017-01-01

    The title compound, Rb+·H3CN2O−, has been crystallized in liquid ammonia as a reaction product of the reductive ammonolysis of the natural compound streptozocin. Elemental rubidium was used as reduction agent as it is soluble in liquid ammonia, forming a blue solution. Reductive bond cleavage in biogenic materials under kinetically controlled conditions offers a new approach to gain access to sustainably produced raw materials. The anion is nearly planar [dihedral angle O—N—N—C = −0.4 (2)°]. The Rb+ cation has a coordination number of seven, and coordinates to five anions. One anion is bound via both its N atoms, one by both O and N, two anions are bound by only their O atoms, and the last is bound via the N atom adjacent to the methyl group. The diazo­tate anions are bridged by cations and do not exhibit any direct contacts with each other. The cations form corrugated layers that propagate in the (-101) plane. PMID:28217333

  14. Production of complex rubidium and cesium hydrogen sulfate‒phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komornikov, V. A.; Grebenev, V. V.; Makarova, I. P.; Selezneva, E. V.; Andreev, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    The solubility in the CsH2PO4‒CsHSO4‒H2O system at different temperatures (25, 50, and 75°C) is studied and the phase equilibria in the Rb3H(SO4)2‒RbH2PO4‒H2O system under isothermal conditions (at 25°C) are analyzed. The temperature and concentration conditions for forming Rb2(HSO4)(H2PO4), Rb4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs3(HSO4)2(H2PO4), Cs2(HSO4)(H2PO4), and Cs6H(HSO4)3(H2PO4)4 compounds (the latter has been obtained for the first time) are determined. The conditions for growing large single crystals of complex acid rubidium and cesium salts are found.

  15. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    SciTech Connect

    Feller, U.

    1986-04-01

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear.

  16. Evidence for the ordered release of rubidium ions occluded within individual protomers of dog kidney Na+,K+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, I M; Richards, D E

    1989-01-01

    1. When magnesium and orthophosphate are added to Na+,K+-ATPase containing occluded rubidium ions, and suspended in a medium containing free rubidium ions, only 50% of the occluded rubidium is released rapidly. This is because the release of occluded rubidium is ordered, and the replacement (by rubidium ions from the medium) of the first occluded rubidium ions to leave slows the departure of the remaining occluded ions. 2. Since the Na+,K+-ATPase probably exists in the membrane as a structural dimer, the ordered release might represent either the ordered emptying of the two halves of the dimer, or the ordered release of the two rubidium ions thought to be contained in each promoter. 3. The present experiments were designed to decide between these possibilities by examining the behaviour of Na+,K+-ATPase in which about half of the protomers had been randomly inactivated by pre-treatment either with fluorescein isothiocyanate or with alpha-chymotrypsin. 4. The results show that the release of rubidium ions from each protomer is ordered. PMID:2550627

  17. Longitudinal Spin Relaxation of Optically Pumped Rubidium Atoms in Solid Parahydrogen.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Sunil; Kanagin, Andrew N; Hartzell, Chase; Christy, Tim; Arnott, W Patrick; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Weinstein, Jonathan D

    2016-10-21

    We have grown crystals of solid parahydrogen using a single closed-cycle cryostat. We have doped the crystals with rubidium atoms at densities on the order of 10^{17}  cm^{-3} and used optical pumping to polarize the spin state of the implanted atoms. The optical spectrum of the rubidium atoms shows larger broadening than previous work in which the rubidium was implanted in solid argon or neon. However, the optical pumping behavior is significantly improved, with both a larger optical pumping signal and a longer longitudinal relaxation time. The spin relaxation time shows a strong dependence on orthohydrogen impurity levels in the crystal, as well as the applied magnetic field. Current performance is comparable to state-of-the-art solid state systems at comparable spin densities, with potential for improvement at higher parahydrogen purities.

  18. Operational stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards. [analysis of equipment performance at NASA tracking stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing various rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions for use in NASA tracking stations, about 55 unit-years of relative frequency measurements for averaging times from 10 to 10 to the 7th power have been accumulated at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Statistics on the behavior of rubidium and cesium standards under controlled laboratory conditions have been published, but it was not known to what extent the lesser controlled environments of NASA tracking stations affected the performance of the standards. The purpose of this report is to present estimates of the frequency stability of rubidium and cesium frequency standards under operational conditions based on the data accumulated at GSFC.

  19. Longitudinal Spin Relaxation of Optically Pumped Rubidium Atoms in Solid Parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sunil; Kanagin, Andrew N.; Hartzell, Chase; Christy, Tim; Arnott, W. Patrick; Momose, Takamasa; Patterson, David; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2016-10-01

    We have grown crystals of solid parahydrogen using a single closed-cycle cryostat. We have doped the crystals with rubidium atoms at densities on the order of 1017 cm-3 and used optical pumping to polarize the spin state of the implanted atoms. The optical spectrum of the rubidium atoms shows larger broadening than previous work in which the rubidium was implanted in solid argon or neon. However, the optical pumping behavior is significantly improved, with both a larger optical pumping signal and a longer longitudinal relaxation time. The spin relaxation time shows a strong dependence on orthohydrogen impurity levels in the crystal, as well as the applied magnetic field. Current performance is comparable to state-of-the-art solid state systems at comparable spin densities, with potential for improvement at higher parahydrogen purities.

  20. Trapping of neutral rubidium with a macroscopic three-phase electric trap.

    PubMed

    Rieger, T; Windpassinger, P; Rangwala, S A; Rempe, G; Pinkse, P W H

    2007-08-10

    We trap neutral ground-state rubidium atoms in a macroscopic trap based on purely electric fields. For this, three electrostatic field configurations are alternated in a periodic manner. The rubidium is precooled in a magneto-optical trap, transferred into a magnetic trap, and then translated into the electric trap. The electric trap consists of six rod-shaped electrodes in cubic arrangement, giving ample optical access. Up to 10;{5} atoms have been trapped with an initial temperature of around 20 microkelvin in the three-phase electric trap. The observations are in good agreement with detailed numerical simulations.

  1. Hyperfine structure measurement of rubidium atom and tunable diode laser stabilization by using Sagnac interferometer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Tae; Zhen, Liu; Kapitanov, Venedikt; Kim, Hyun Su; Park, Jong Rak; Park, Si-Hyun

    2006-11-01

    The Rubidium saturated absorption spectra for D2 transition lines are used to measure the Fabry-Perot interferometer free spectral range (FSR). The scale linearity of the laser frequency tuning is determined. The Sagnac interferometer has been used for the laser stabilization. The result shows that the laser frequency is stabilized upto sub-mega Herz level. Also the hyperfine structure [5(2)S(1/2) F = 3 --> F' = 2, 3, 4 5(2)P(3/2) 85Rb] of the rubidium atom has been measured by using the tilt locking method, which shows the same result as the conventional saturation spectroscopy.

  2. Resonance transition 795-nm Rubidium laser using 3He buffer gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S S; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2007-08-02

    We report the first demonstration of a 795-nm Rubidium resonance transition laser using a buffer gas consisting of pure {sup 3}He. This follows our recent demonstration of a hydrocarbon-free 795-nm Rubidium resonance laser which used naturally-occurring He as the buffer gas. Using He gas that is isotopically enriched with {sup 3}He yields enhanced mixing of the Rb fine-structure levels. This enables efficient lasing at reduced He buffer gas pressure, improving thermal management in high average power Rb lasers and enhancing the power scaling potential of such systems.

  3. Structural aspects of rubidium ion selectivity by tribenzo-21-crown-7

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Sachleben, R.A.; Lavis, J.M.; Davis, M.C.; Burns, J.H.; Hay, B.P.

    1998-06-01

    The structural origins of the selectivity of rubidium ion over other alkali metal ions (Cs, Rb, Na, Re) by tribenzo-21-crown-7 is investigated from single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures reported here are the first reported for a tribenzo-21-crown-7, and the alkali metal ion complexes are the first reported structures of these ions with any 21-crown-7 ether. Different crown conformations are observed for each structure. Molecular mechanics calculations were performed on all conformers, and the results are related to the observed extraction selectivity for rubidium.

  4. Radiation trapping in rubidium optical pumping at low buffer-gas pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberry, M. A.; Reyes, J. P.; Gay, T. J.; Tupa, D.

    2007-02-15

    We have made a systematic study of rubidium optical pumping in a simple cylindrical cell geometry with a high-power 10 W diode laser array, low magnetic fields, and buffer-gas pressures of less than 50 torr. We have determined rubidium polarizations experimentally for H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, He, and Ar buffer gases, with Rb number densities from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Comparison to a relatively simple optical pumping model allows us to extract useful information about radiation trapping and quenching effects.

  5. Methods and evaluation of frequency aging in distributed-feedback laser diodes for rubidium atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthey, Renaud; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    Distributed-feedback laser diodes emitting at 780nm have been evaluated, with respect to the aging of the injection current required for reaching the rubidium D2 resonance line. Results obtained for lasers operating in air and in vacuum for 9 months are reported. When operated at constant temperature, the laser current required for emission at the wavelength of the desired atomic resonance is found to decrease by 50 to 80μA per month. The impact of this result on the lifetime and long-term performances of laser-pumped rubidium atomic clocks is discussed.

  6. The metal-insulator phase transition in mixed potassium-rubidium electro-sodalites.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Georg K H

    2004-09-01

    The collapse under pressure of the antiferromagnetic ground state of the potassium-rubidium electro-sodalite is studied using the linearized augmented plane wave with local orbitals method. Special considerations needed for setting up this basis for systems such as the electro-sodalites are discussed. It is demonstrated that the magnetism collapses at a unit-cell volume similar to potassium electro-sodalite and rubidium electro-sodalite. A critical pressure of 8 GPa is predicted. The mechanism behind the collapse is a mixing of the F-center states with the highly diffuse unoccupied p states of the alkali atoms.

  7. Methods and evaluation of frequency aging in distributed-feedback laser diodes for rubidium atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Matthey, Renaud; Affolderbach, Christoph; Mileti, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    Distributed-feedback laser diodes emitting at 780 nm have been evaluated, with respect to the aging of the injection current required for reaching the rubidium D2 resonance line. Results obtained for lasers operating in air and in vacuum for 9 months are reported. When operated at constant temperature, the laser current required for emission at the wavelength of the desired atomic resonance is found to decrease by 50 to 80 μA per month. The impact of this result on the lifetime and long-term performances of laser-pumped rubidium atomic clocks is discussed.

  8. Microwave Field Strength Measurement in a Rubidium Clock Cavity via Adiabatic Rapid Passage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    ber) Adiabatic rapid passage Atomic clocks * Microwave field strength AftFR7 ACT (Confna On r’ee side yf "*"myr a"d UeIIIIIIIIr blocek ember) Ridium...7 RD-A57 79 MICROWAE IELD STRENGTH MESUREMENT IN A RUBIDIUM / CLOCK CAVITY VIA ADIAB..(U) AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CR CHEMISTRYAND PHYSICSLAB R P...OF STANOARLS-1963-A 9% % % -w-- w-- €,, .6 . k, . . . •i •• -• 0Microwave Field Strength Measurement N in a Rubidium Clock Cavity via 12 Adiabatic

  9. Measurement of the rubidium D2 natural transition linewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Brad E.

    A new technique was developed to measure the natural linewidth of an optical transition. It tunes the frequency of a laser precisely across the resonance using an acousto-optic modulator. The transmission of the laser through a cloud of atoms was monitored using a CCD camera. This work studied the 5S1/2→5P3/2 transition or D2 line of 87Rb. The rubidium atoms were first cooled to a temperature of 50 muK using a magneto-optical trap. The transition linewidth was then given by the natural linewidth as the Doppler width is negligible at such low temperatures. Indeed, the observed lineshape was very well fit by a Lorentzian function. The full width at half maximum linewidth was examined as a function of the probe laser intensity and atom density. The natural linewidth was determined to be 6.069 +/- 0.016 MHz which corresponds to a lifetime of 26.22 +/- 0.07 nsec for the 5P 3/2 state. This lifetime is one of only a handful known to an accuracy of 3 parts in 103. It is in excellent agreement with results found using different experimental techniques. An important advantage of this technique is that it does not require a detector be placed relatively close to the atoms to be sensitive to fluorescence emitted into a large solid angle, as is the case with experiments that measure the temporal decay of fluorescence. All of the experimentally determined lifetimes for the 5P 3/2 state are about 1% less (3sigma) than the result of a relativistic many-body perturbation calculation.

  10. Microresonator Brillouin laser stabilization using a microfabricated rubidium cell.

    PubMed

    Loh, William; Hummon, Matthew T; Leopardi, Holly F; Fortier, Tara M; Quinlan, Frank; Kitching, John; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2016-06-27

    We frequency stabilize the output of a miniature stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) laser to rubidium atoms in a microfabricated cell to realize a laser system with frequency stability at the 10-11 level over seven decades in averaging time. In addition, our system has the advantages of robustness, low cost and the potential for integration that would lead to still further miniaturization. The SBS laser operating at 1560 nm exhibits a spectral linewidth of 820 Hz, but its frequency drifts over a few MHz on the 1 hour timescale. By locking the second harmonic of the SBS laser to the Rb reference, we reduce this drift by a factor of 103 to the level of a few kHz over the course of an hour. For our combined SBS and Rb laser system, we measure a frequency noise of 4 × 104 Hz2/Hz at 10 Hz offset frequency which rapidly rolls off to a level of 0.2 Hz2/Hz at 100 kHz offset. The corresponding Allan deviation is ≤2 × 10-11 for averaging times spanning 10-4 to 103 s. By optically dividing the signal of the laser down to microwave frequencies, we generate an RF signal at 2 GHz with phase noise at the level of -76 dBc/Hz and -140 dBc/Hz at offset frequencies of 10 Hz and 10 kHz, respectively.

  11. Gating and flickery block differentially affected by rubidium in homomeric KCNQ1 and heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 potassium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Pusch, M; Bertorello, L; Conti, F

    2000-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1 associates with the small KCNE1 subunit to form the cardiac IKs delayed rectifier potassium current and mutations in both genes can lead to the long QT syndrome. KCNQ1 can form functional homotetrameric channels, however with drastically different biophysical properties compared to heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels. We analyzed gating and conductance of these channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the patch-clamp technique and high extracellular potassium (K) and rubidium (Rb) solutions. Inward tail currents of homomeric KCNQ1 channels are increased about threefold upon substitution of 100 mM potassium with 100 mM rubidium despite a smaller rubidium permeability, suggesting an effect of rubidium on gating. However, the kinetics of tail currents and the steady-state activation curve are only slightly changed in rubidium. Single-channel amplitude at negative voltages was estimated by nonstationary noise analysis, and it was found that rubidium has only a small effect on homomeric channels (1.2-fold increase) when measured at a 5-kHz bandwidth. The apparent single-channel conductance was decreased after filtering the data at lower cutoff frequencies indicative of a relatively fast "flickery/block" process. The relative conductance in rubidium compared to potassium increased at lower cutoff frequencies (about twofold at 10 Hz), suggesting that the main effect of rubidium is to decrease the probability of channel blockage leading to an increase of inward currents without large changes in gating properties. Macroscopic inward tail currents of heteromeric KCNQ1/KCNE1 channels in rubidium are reduced by about twofold and show a pronounced sigmoidal time course that develops with a delay similar to the inactivation process of homomeric KCNQ1, and is indicative of the presence of several open states. The single channel amplitude of heteromers is about twofold smaller in rubidium than in

  12. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  13. Solid-state 87Rb NMR signatures for rubidium cations bound to a G-quadruplex.

    PubMed

    Ida, Ramsey; Wu, Gang

    2005-09-14

    We report the first solid-state 87Rb NMR characterization for rubidium cations bound to G-quartet structures formed by self-association of guanosine 5'-monophosphate and 5'-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-2', 3'-O-isopropylidene guanosine.

  14. Sodium and rubidium fluxes in rat red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Beaugé, L. A.; Ortíz, Olga

    1971-01-01

    1. The Na content of rat red cells was found to be 4·40 m-mole/l. cells. When incubated in K(Rb)-free Na this value was doubled in 1 hr, whereas in K(Rb)-free choline it was reduced to about 35% in the same period of time. 2. In cells with elevated Na (13·70 m-mole/l.) the activation curve of Rb influx by external Rb reached the same Vmax in sodium as in choline. The shape of the curve was sigmoid in the first case (Km about 1·05 mM) and hyperbolic in the second (Km about 0·20 mM). 3. The activation curve of rubidium influx by internal sodium was linear at least up to 12 m-mole/l. cells with a slope of 0·84. From this concentration it could increase more steeply, though the data is insufficient to assure it. 4. In normal cells the efflux of Na in K(Rb)-free Na Ringer was 5·64 m-mole/l. cells. hr, and it was reduced to 4·32 m-mole by 10-4 M ouabain. This was accompanied by a reduction of Na influx by 4·14 m-mole, representing then a Na-Na ouabain-sensitive exchange mechanism. 5. At a concentration of 5 mM, external Rb increased Na efflux in 2·32 m-mole/l. cells. hr above the K(Rb)-free levels, and reduced Na influx by 2·13 m-mole. 6. It is proposed that the Na pump is able to operate even in the absence of external K(Rb), though at reduced rate and on a Na-Na exchange basis (Na is the only monovalent cation in the bathing solution). External K(Rb) would have two actions: to increase the rate of shuttling of the carrier (catalytic effect) and to switch the Na-Na to a Na-K(Rb) exchange. 7. These results raise a question of the real significance of the Na/K(Rb) `coupling' ratio and the K-free effect on the Na pump mechanism. PMID:5133948

  15. Occupational radiation dose associated with Rb-82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Schleipman, A Robert; Castronovo, Frank P; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Dorbala, Sharmila

    2006-01-01

    We determined staff radiation dose during rest and stress rubidium 82 myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Patients received 1,587 +/- 163 MBq (42.9 +/- 4.4 mCi) Rb-82 during rest or pharmacologic stress. A pressurized ion chamber was used to monitor radiation exposure in 50 examinations. For comparison, staff exposure during pharmacologic stress in 20 other patients receiving 1,204 +/- 55.5 MBq (32.54 +/- 1.5 mCi) technetium 99m 2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) was measured. For Rb-82 infusion and PET acquisition, the mean dose was 0.45 +/- 0.25 microSv (0.045 +/- 0.025 mrem). Exposure for routine stress testing at variable distances from the patient was equivalent to background. Similar exposure for pharmacologic stress testing through 7 minutes after injection of Tc-99m MIBI at variable distances was 1.075 +/- 0.32 microSv (0.108 +/- 0.03 mrem). However, exposure for stress tests starting 7 minutes after Rb-82 infusion at 0.5 m was estimated at 0.4 microSv (0.04 mrem). To determine the potential radiation dose for those responding to a medical emergency or otherwise in close proximity to a patient, we measured the mean cumulative dose at 0.5 m from 0 to 7 minutes of Rb-82 infusion, which resulted in 19.1 +/- 5.8 microSv (1.9 +/- 0.58 mrem). Radiation doses for all tasks during routine Rb-82 stress-rest PET are lower than measured Tc-99m MIBI values. However, the radiation dose in close proximity to the patient during or immediately after Rb-82 infusion can be considerably higher, underscoring the need for strict attention to source distance and contact times.

  16. Rubidium and potassium levels are altered in Alzheimer's disease brain and blood but not in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Blaine R; Doecke, James D; Rembach, Alan; Yévenes, L Fernanda; Fowler, Christopher J; McLean, Catriona A; Lind, Monica; Volitakis, Irene; Masters, Colin L; Bush, Ashley I; Hare, Dominic J

    2016-11-14

    Loss of intracellular compartmentalization of potassium is a biochemical feature of Alzheimer's disease indicating a loss of membrane integrity and mitochondrial dysfunction. We examined potassium and rubidium (a biological proxy for potassium) in brain tissue, blood fractions and cerebrospinal fluid from Alzheimer's disease and healthy control subjects to investigate the diagnostic potential of these two metal ions. We found that both potassium and rubidium levels were significantly decreased across all intracellular compartments in the Alzheimer's disease brain. Serum from over 1000 participants in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL), showed minor changes according to disease state. Potassium and rubidium levels in erythrocytes and cerebrospinal fluid were not significantly different according to disease state, and rubidium was slightly decreased in Alzheimer's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Our data provides evidence that contrasts the hypothesized disruption of the blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer's disease, with the systemic decrease in cortical potassium and rubidium levels suggesting influx of ions from the blood is minimal and that the observed changes are more likely indicative of an internal energy crisis within the brain. These findings may be the basis for potential diagnostic imaging studies using radioactive potassium and rubidium tracers.

  17. Neutron scattering studies of spin excitations in superconducting Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Miaoyin; Li, Chunhong; Abernathy, Douglas L; Song, Yu; Carr, Scott V.; Lu, Xiangye; Li, Shiliang; Yamari, Zahra; Hu, Jiangping; Xiang, Tao; Dai, Pengcheng

    2012-01-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering to show that superconducting (SC) rubidium iron selenide Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 exhibits antiferromagnetic (AF) spin excitations near the in-plane wave vector Q = ( ,0) identical to that for iron arsenide superconductors. Moreover, we find that these excitations change from incommensurate to commensurate with increasing energy and occur at the expense of spin waves associated with the coexisting 5 5 block AF phase. Since these spin excitations cannot come from Fermi surface nesting based on angle resolved photoemission experiments, our results indicate the presence of local moments in SC Rb0.82Fe1.68Se2 that may have a similar origin as the hourglass-like spin excitations in copper oxide superconductors.

  18. Fibonacci Meets the TI-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Gloria S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Fibonacci sequence in a format that is readily implemented using the table and list features of the Texas Instruments TI-82 graphing calculator or a spreadsheet. Includes questions and investigations that can be explored using these tables and lists. (MKR)

  19. 29 CFR 1915.82 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting. 1915.82 Section 1915.82 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.82 Lighting... that meets the levels set forth in Table F-1 to § 1915.82. Table F-1 to § 1915.82—Minimum...

  20. Optical cavity for enhanced parametric four-wave mixing in rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, E.; Potier, S.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the implementation of a ring cavity to enhance the efficiency of parametric four-wave mixing in rubidium. Using an input coupler with 95% reflectance, a finesse of 19.6$\\pm$0.5 is achieved with a rubidium cell inside. This increases the circulating intensity by a factor of 5.6$\\pm$0.5, and through two-photon excitation on the $5s_{1/2}\\rightarrow5d_{5/2}$ transition with a single excitation laser, up to 1.9$\\pm$0.3 mW of power at 420 nm is generated, 50 times what was previously generated with this scheme. The dependence of the output on Rb density and input power has been explored, suggesting the process may be approaching saturation. The blue output of the cavity also shows greatly improved spatial quality, combining to make this a promising source of 420 nm light for future experiments.

  1. Reversible light-controlled formation and evaporation of rubidium clusters in nanoporous silica.

    PubMed

    Burchianti, A; Bogi, A; Marinelli, C; Maibohm, C; Mariotti, E; Moi, L

    2006-10-13

    We observe reversible light assisted formation and evaporation of rubidium clusters embedded in nanoporous silica. Metallic nanoparticles are cyclically produced and evaporated by weak blue-green and near-infrared light, respectively. The atoms photodetached from the huge surface of the silica matrix build up clusters, whereas cluster evaporation is increased by induced surface plasmon excitation. Frequency tuning of light activates either one process or the other and the related changes of glass transparency become visible to the naked eye. We demonstrate that the porous silica, loaded with rubidium, shows memory of illumination sequences behaving as a rereadable and rewritable optical medium. These processes take place as a consequence of the strong confinement of atoms and particles at the nanoscale.

  2. Rubidium efflux as a tool for the pharmacological characterisation of compounds with BK channel opening properties.

    PubMed

    McKay, Neil G; Kirby, Robert W; Lawson, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes a method of assaying rubidium (Rb(+)) efflux as a measure of potassium channel activity. In this assay, rubidium acts as a tracer for potassium movement across the cell membrane. HEK 293 cells expressing the alpha subunit of the human brain large-conductance, voltage-activated, calcium-sensitive potassium channel (BK channel) are loaded with Rb(+), washed, and then incubated under experimental conditions. The cell supernatant is removed, and the remaining cell monolayer lysed. These two samples contain Rb(+) that has moved out of the cell and Rb(+) that remains in the cell, respectively. Measurement of the Rb(+) content of these samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry allows calculation of the percentage Rb(+) efflux and, depending on the experimental design, provides pharmacological data about the control and test compounds used. In this chapter, we describe the protocol and steps for optimisation and illustrate this with data obtained using NS1619, a well-characterised BK channel opener.

  3. Multi-line fiber laser system for cesium and rubidium atom interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diboune, Clément; Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    We present an innovative fiber laser system for both cesium and rubidium manipulation. The architecture is based on frequency conversion of two lasers at 1560 nm and 1878 nm. By taking advantage of existing fiber components at these wavelengths, we demonstrate an all fiber laser system delivering 350 mW at 780 nm for rubidium and 210 mW at 852 nm for cesium. This result highlights the promising nature of such laser system especially for Cs manipulation for which no fiber laser system has been reported. It offers new perspectives for the development of atomic instruments dedicated to onboard applications and opens the way to a new generation of atom interferometers involving three atomic species $^{85}$Rb, $^{87}$Rb and $^{133}$Cs for which we propose an original laser architecture.

  4. Multi-line fiber laser system for cesium and rubidium atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Diboune, Clément; Zahzam, Nassim; Bidel, Yannick; Cadoret, Malo; Bresson, Alexandre

    2017-07-24

    We present an innovative multi-line fiber laser system for both cesium and rubidium manipulation. The architecture is based on frequency conversion of two lasers at 1560 nm and 1878 nm. By taking advantage of existing high performance fibered components at these wavelengths, we have demonstrated multi-line operation of an all fiber laser system delivering 350 mW at 780 nm for rubidium and 210 mW at 852 nm for cesium. This result highlights the promising nature of such laser system especially for Cs manipulation for which no fiber laser system has been reported. It offers new perspectives for the development of atomic instruments dedicated to onboard applications and opens the way to a new generation of atom interferometers involving three atomic species ((85)Rb, (87)Rb and (133)Cs) for which we propose an original laser architecture.

  5. The Suppression of the Late After-Potential in Rubidium-Containing Frog Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hellam, D. C.; Goldstein, D. A.; Peachey, L. D.; Freygang, W. H.

    1965-01-01

    The late after-potential that follows trains of impulses in frog muscle fibers is virtually absent when most of the intracellular potassium is replaced by rubidium and the muscle is immersed in rubidium-containing Ringer's fluid. Its amplitude is also reduced in freshly dissected, potassium-containing muscle fibers that are immersed directly in Rb-Ringer's fluid. These findings are discussed in terms of the model for muscle membrane of Adrian and Freygang (1962 a, b) and in relation to the report of Adrian (1964) that Rb-containing muscle fibers do not exhibit the variations in potassium permeability as a function of membrane potential that are found in fibers with normal intracellular potassium concentration immersed in Ringer's fluid. PMID:5855505

  6. Autonomous Rubidium Clock Weak Frequency Jump Detector for Onboard Navigation Satellite System.

    PubMed

    Khare, Akshay; Arora, Rajat; Banik, Alak; Mehta, Sanjay D

    2016-02-01

    Frequency jumps are common in rubidium frequency sources. They affect the estimation of user position in navigational satellite systems. These jumps must be detected and corrected immediately as they have direct impact on the navigation system integrity. A novel weak frequency jump detector is proposed based on a Kalman filter with a multi-interval approach. This detector can be applied for both "sudden" and "slow" frequency transitions. In this detection method, noises of clock data are reduced by Kalman filtering, for accurate estimation of jump size with less latency. Analysis on in-orbit rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS) phase telemetry data shows that the detector can be used for fast detection and correction of weak frequency jumps. Furthermore, performance comparison of different existing frequency jump detection techniques with the proposed detector is discussed. A multialgorithm-based strategy is proposed depending on the jump size and latency for onboard navigation satellites having RAFS as the primary frequency source.

  7. Highly reliable optical system for a rubidium space cold atom clock.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wei; Sun, Yanguang; Wang, Bin; Xia, Wenbing; Qu, Qiuzhi; Xiang, Jingfeng; Dong, Zuoren; Lü, Desheng; Liu, Liang

    2016-05-01

    We describe a highly reliable optical system designed for a rubidium space cold atom clock (SCAC), presenting its design, key technologies, and optical components. All of the optical and electronic components are integrated onto an optimized two-sided 300  mm×290  mm×30  mm optical bench. The compact optical structure and special thermal design ensure that the optical system can pass all of the space environmental qualification tests including both thermal vacuum and mechanical tests. To verify its performance, the optical system is carefully checked before and after each test. The results indicate that this optical system is suitably robust for the space applications for which the rubidium SCAC was built.

  8. Mathematical simulation of heating effects in a static diode-pumped vapor rubidium cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, You; Han, Juhong; Cai, He; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan

    2015-02-01

    Diode-pumped alkali lasers (DPALs) have attracted a lot of interests in the recent years because of their high Stokes efficiency, good beam quality, compact size, and near-infrared emission wavelengths. Until now, the thermal features have been only analyzed in an open alkali cell. In this report, we established a mathematical model to examine the heating effect of a static sealed rubidium cell by means of a Finite Difference (FD) procedure. After assuming the absorption coefficient of the alkali vapor, the temperature distributions of a real sealed rubidium vapor cell have been acquired for different powers and beam waists of the pump. The analytic conclusions would be helpful in designing a feasible DPAL.

  9. Rubidium-cation conductivity of Rb3-2 x Pb x PO4 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhtman, G. Sh.; Burmakin, E. I.

    2017-07-01

    New Rb3PO4-based ceramic materials with high rubidium-cation conductivity in the Rb3-2 x Pb x PO4 system have been synthesized and studied. Introduction of Pb2+ cations leads to a sharp increase in the conductivity of rubidium orthophosphate due to formation of cation vacancies and, at temperatures 350-550°C, also due to the stabilization of high-temperature cubic modification Rb3PO4. At high temperatures, the electrolytes prepared have very high ion conductivity higher than 10-1 S cm-1 at 700°C, which is higher than the values previously obtained in similar systems with additions of tin and cadmium ions. The factors influencing the transport properties of the materials under study are discussed.

  10. Bis(calix[4]diquinone) receptors: cesium- and rubidium-selective redox-active ionophores.

    PubMed

    Webber, Philip R A; Beer, Paul D; Chen, George Z; Felix, Vitor; Drew, Michael G B

    2003-05-14

    A new class of redox-active ionophore comprised of two calix[4]diquinone moieties connected through either alkylene or pyridylene linkages has been developed. Spectroscopic and electrochemical investigations, X-ray crystal structure analyses, and molecular modeling studies show butylene- and propylene-linked members of this family of redox-active receptors exhibit remarkable selectivity preferences and substantial electrochemical recognition effects toward cesium and rubidium cations.

  11. Development of a sub-miniature rubidium oscillator for SEEKTALK application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruehauf, H.; Weidemann, W.; Jechart, E.

    1981-01-01

    Warm-up and size challenges to oscillator construction are presented as well as the problems involved in these tasks. The performance of M-100 military rubidium oscillator is compared to that of a subminiture rubididum oscillator (M-1000). Methods of achieving 1.5 minute warm-up are discussed as well as improvements in performance under adverse environmental conditions, including temperature, vibration, and magnetics. An attempt is made to construct an oscillator error budget under a set of arbitrary mission conditions.

  12. Coherence protection by the quantum Zeno effect and nonholonomic control in a Rydberg rubidium isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Brion, E.; Akulin, V. M.; Comparat, D.; Kebaili, N.; Pillet, P.; Dumer, I.; Harel, G.; Kurizki, G.; Mazets, I.

    2005-05-15

    The protection of the coherence of open quantum systems against the influence of their environment is a very topical issue. A scheme is proposed here which protects a general quantum system from the action of a set of arbitrary uncontrolled unitary evolutions. This method draws its inspiration from ideas of standard error correction (ancilla adding, coding and decoding) and the quantum Zeno effect. A demonstration of our method on a simple atomic system--namely, a rubidium isotope--is proposed.

  13. Frequency stability of maser oscillators operated with cavity Q. [hydrogen and rubidium masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetu, M.; Tremblay, P.; Lesage, P.; Petit, P.; Audoin, C.

    1982-01-01

    The short term frequency stability of masers equipped with an external feedback loop to increase the cavity quality factor was studied. The frequency stability of a hydrogen and a rubidium maser were measured and compared with theoretical evaluation. It is shown that the frequency stability passes through an optimum when the cavity Q is varied. Long term fluctuations are discussed and the optimum mid term frequency stability achievably by small size active and passive H-masers is considered.

  14. Rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon age of lunar sample 15555.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Evensen, N. M.; Jahn, B. M.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The lunar mare basalt 15555 from the edge of Hadley Rille has been dated at 3.3 b.y. by both rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon techniques. Age and trace element abundances closely resemble those of the Apollo 12 mare basalts. Data from lunar basalts obtained thus far indicate that they cannot be derived by simple fractionation from a homogeneous source.

  15. Absolute frequency measurement of rubidium 5S-7S two-photon transitions.

    PubMed

    Morzyński, Piotr; Wcisło, Piotr; Ablewski, Piotr; Gartman, Rafał; Gawlik, Wojciech; Masłowski, Piotr; Nagórny, Bartłomiej; Ozimek, Filip; Radzewicz, Czesław; Witkowski, Marcin; Ciuryło, Roman; Zawada, Michał

    2013-11-15

    We report the absolute frequency measurements of rubidium 5S-7S two-photon transitions with a cw laser digitally locked to an atomic transition and referenced to an optical frequency comb. The narrow, two-photon transition, 5S-7S (760 nm), insensitive to first-order in a magnetic field, is a promising candidate for frequency reference. The performed tests yielded more accurate transition frequencies than previously reported.

  16. Observation of coherent effects using a mode-locked rubidium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Welch, George R.

    2017-02-01

    We study a diode-pumped alkaline rubidium laser operating at the D 1-line transition. The mode-locked regime of laser operation using an active technique inside the laser cavity has been demonstrated. We have also experimentally shown that the mode-locked laser radiation can be used to observe coherent effects: the electromagnetically induced transparency and the nonlinear Faraday rotation in Rb vapor.

  17. Early In-Orbit Performance of GPS Block IIR Rubidium Clocks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    29th Annual Precwe Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting EARLY IN-ORBIT PERFORMANCE OF GPS BLOCK IIR RUBIDIUM CLOCKS W.J. Riley EG&G Frequency...Products 35 Congress Street Salem, MA 01970 USA Tire f is t Block IIR GPS navigation satel&, placed in orbit on July 22, 1997, carried a new...RQFS) needed for the Block IIR GPS progrm Composite frequency and t k - plo& are presented for all &livered units, and more detailed acceptance test

  18. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  19. Limitation on the accelerating gradient of a wakefield excited by an ultrarelativistic electron beam in rubidium plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Marsh, K. A.; Clayton, C. E.; An, W.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Adli, E.; Corde, S.; Clarke, C. I.; Litos, M.; Green, S. Z.; Gessner, S.; Frederico, J.; Fisher, A. S.; Wu, Z.; Walz, D.; Hogan, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the viability of using plasmas formed by ionization of high Z, low ionization potential element rubidium (Rb) for beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration. The Rb vapor column confined by argon (Ar) buffer gas was used to reduce the expected limitation on the beam propagation length due to head erosion that was observed previously when a lower Z but higher ionization potential lithium vapor was used. However, injection of electrons into the wakefield due to ionization of Ar buffer gas and nonuniform ionization of Rb1 + to Rb2 + was a possible concern. In this paper we describe experimental results and the supporting simulations which indicate that such ionization of Ar and Rb1 + in the presence of combined fields of the beam and the wakefield inside the wake does indeed occur. Some of this charge accumulates in the accelerating region of the wake leading to the reduction of the electric field—an effect known as beam loading. The beam-loading effect is quantified by determining the average transformer ratio ⟨R ⟩ which is the maximum energy gained divided by the maximum energy lost by the electrons in the bunch used to produce the wake. ⟨R ⟩ is shown to depend on the propagation length and the quantity of the accumulated charge, indicating that the distributed injection of secondary Rb electrons is the main cause of beam loading in this experiment. The average transformer ratio is reduced from 1.5 to less than 1 as the excess charge from secondary ionization increased from 100 to 700 pC. The simulations show that while the decelerating field remains constant, the accelerating field is reduced from its unloaded value of 82 to 46 GeV /m due to this distributed injection of dark current into the wake.

  20. Occlusion of rubidium ions by the sodium-potassium pump: its implications for the mechanism of potassium transport

    PubMed Central

    Glynn, I. M.; Richards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    1. The occlusion of rubidium ions by Na, K-ATPase has been investigated by suspending enzyme prepared from pig kidney outer medulla in media containing low concentrations of 86Rb, forcing the suspensions rapidly through small columns of cation-exchange resin, and measuring the amounts of radioactivity emerging from the columns. 2. When the suspension media contained 2 mM-ATP or ADP, or 15 mM-NaCl, the amounts of radioactivity emerging from the columns were greatly (and similarly) reduced, presumably because both nucleotides and sodium ions stabilized the enzyme in the E1 form. (See p. 19 for definition of E1 and E2). The extra radioactivity carried through the columns when nucleotides and sodium were absent was taken as a measure of the amount of rubidium occluded within the enzyme (in the E2 form) when it emerged from the resin. 3. By varying the flow rate, and therefore the time spent by the enzyme on the resin, and relating this to the amount of radioactivity emerging from the columns, we have been able to estimate the rate constant for the conformational change (E2 → E1) that allows the occluded rubidium ions to escape. At 20 °C, and in the absence of nucleotides, it is about 0·1 S-1. 4. The rate constant for rubidium release was the same in a sodium-containing as in a potassium-containing medium. The opposite effects of sodium and potassium ions on the poise of the equilibrium between the E1 and the E2 forms of the enzyme must, therefore, be due solely to opposite effects of these ions on the rate of conversion of E1 to E2. 5. The rate constant for rubidium release was greatly increased by ATP and by ADP. Both nucleotides appeared to act at low-affinity sites and without phosphorylating the enzyme. 6. Orthovanadate, in the presence of magnesium ions, stabilized the enzyme in the occluded-rubidium (E2Rb) form. 7. Ouabain, in the presence of magnesium ions, prevented the occlusion of rubidium ions. 8. We have measured the amount of rubidium occluded by the

  1. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions. 82.2 Section 82.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in § 82.1 against the exportation of 5-cent coins and...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.82 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting. 1915.82 Section 1915.82 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.82 Lighting... that meets the levels set forth in Table F-1 to § 1915.82. Table F-1 to § 1915.82—Minimum Lighting...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.82 - Lighting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting. 1915.82 Section 1915.82 Labor Regulations...) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.82 Lighting... that meets the levels set forth in Table F-1 to § 1915.82. Table F-1 to § 1915.82—Minimum Lighting...

  4. STS-82 Post Flight Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-82 crew, Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox, Pilot Scott J. Horowitz, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, and Mission Specialists Gregory J. Harbaugh, Steven L. Smith, Joseph R. Tanner, and Steven A. Hawley present a video and still picture overview of their mission. Included in the presentation are the following: the pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, being suited up, and riding out to the launch pad, various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad, the countdown, engine ignition, launch, shuttle roll maneuver, separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) from the shuttle, survey of the payload bay with the Shuttle's 50-foot remote manipulator system (RMS), the successful retrieve of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), EVAs to repair HST, release of HST, and the shuttle's landing.

  5. Process for strontium-82 separation

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The process is for the selective separation of Sr-82 and Sr-85 from a proton-irradiated Mo target. It includes dissolving the Mo in H2O2 to form a solution which is then passed through a cationic resin, whereby Mo, Nb, Tc, Se, V, As, Ge, Zr, Rb ions remain in the solution, while Rb, Zn, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Cr, Sr, Y, Zr ions are adsorbed. The resin is contacted with an acid solution to remove the adsorbed ions, forming a second solution. The second solution is evaporated and the residue dissolved in a dilute acid to form a third solution. After adjusting the acid molarity, the third solution is passed through a second cationic resin; this resin is contacted first with a dilute sulfuric acid solution and then with a dilute acid solution to remove the adsorbed Sr ions. Zr, Rb, and Y radioisotopes can also be recovered with additional steps.

  6. A medium-throughput functional assay of KCNQ2 potassium channels using rubidium efflux and atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scott, Clay W; Wilkins, Deidre E; Trivedi, Shephali; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2003-08-15

    Heterologous expression of KCNQ2 (Kv7.2) results in the formation of a slowly activating, noninactivating, voltage-gated potassium channel. Using a cell line that stably expresses KCNQ2, we developed a rubidium flux assay to measure the functional activity and pharmacological modulation of this ion channel. Rubidium flux was performed in a 96-well microtiter plate format; rubidium was quantified using an automated atomic absorption spectrometer to enable screening of 1000 data points/day. Cells accumulated rubidium at 37 degrees C in a monoexponential manner with t(1/2)=40min. Treating cells with elevated extracellular potassium caused membrane depolarization and stimulation of rubidium efflux through KCNQ2. The rate of rubidium efflux increased with increasing extracellular potassium: the t(1/2) at 50mM potassium was 5.1 min. Potassium-stimulated efflux was potentiated by the anticonvulsant drug retigabine (EC(50)=0.5 microM). Both potassium-induced and retigabine-facilitated efflux were blocked by TEA (IC(50)s=0.4 and 0.3mM, respectively) and the neurotransmitter release enhancers and putative cognition enhancers linopirdine (IC(50)s=2.3 and 7.1 microM, respectively) and XE991 (IC(50)s=0.3 and 0.9 microM, respectively). Screening a collection of ion channel modulators revealed additional inhibitors including clofilium (IC(50) = 27 microM). These studies extend the pharmacological profile of KCNQ2 and demonstrate the feasibility of using this assay system to rapidly screen for compounds that modulate the function of KCNQ2.

  7. Crystal Structure and Ionic Conductivity of Three Polymorphic Phases of Rubidium Trefluoromethyl Sulfonate, RbSO3CF3

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt,L.; Dinnebier, R.; Jansen, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of three polymorphic phases of rubidium trifluoromethyl sulfonate (RbSO{sub 3}CF{sub 3}, rubidium 'triflate') were solved from X-ray powder diffraction data. At room temperature, rubidium triflate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Cm with lattice parameters of a = 19.9611(5) Angstroms, b = 23.4913(7) Angstroms, c = 5.1514(2) Angstroms, = 102.758(2); Z = 16. At T = 321 K, a first-order phase transition occurs toward a monoclinic phase in space group P2{sub 1} with lattice parameters at T = 344 K of a = 10.3434(5) Angstroms, b = 5.8283(3) Angstroms, c = 5.1982(3) Angstroms, = 104.278(6); Z = (2). At T = 461 K, another phase transition, this time of second order, occurs toward an orthorhombic phase in space group Cmcm with lattice parameters at T = 510 K of a = 5.3069(2) Angstroms, b = 20.2423(10) Angstroms, c = 5.9479(2) Angstroms; Z = 4. As a common feature within all three crystal structures of rubidium triflate, the triflate anions are arranged in double layers with the lipophilic CF{sub 3} groups facing each other. The rubidium ions are located between the SO{sub 3} groups. The general packing is similar to the packing in cesium triflate. Rubidium triflate can be classified as a solid electrolyte with a specific ionic conductivity of = 9.89 x 10{sup -9} S/cm at T = 384 K and = 3.84 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at T = 481 K.

  8. The physics of the environmental sensitivity of rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental sensitivity is often the most significant limitation to the practical stability of rubidium frequency standards (RFS). For example, temperature sensitivity can cause a rapid frequency change of several parts in 10(exp 10) for a tactical RFS that has an aging of only 1 times 10(exp -11)/month. Other important environmental factors are barometric pressure, vibration, magnetic field, and nuclear radiation. The physical mechanisms that lie behind these environmental sensitivities are considered. These physical mechanisms are related to the performance of actual rubidium frequency standards. For the user of these devices, a better knowledge of the causes for Rb clock instability will aid in their testing and proper application. For the time frequency specialist, a review of these factors may prove useful toward improving RFS design. Some of the RFS environmental sensitivities are due to simple physical mechanisms like the effect of dc magnetic field on the Rb hyperfine resonance frequency. For these, an analysis can be based on physical principles and straightforward design factors. Other environment factors, like temperature sensitivity, are more complex combinations of many effects, both physical and practical, and the analysis often takes the form of an error budget with large unit-to-unit variations. Today's rubidium frequency standards span a wide performance range from small, inexpensive units with pp 10(exp 10) error budgets to larger, higher performance versions offering pp 10(exp 10) stabilities. For both extremes, however, environmental sensitivity can be the most significant performance limitation. Why this is the case and how to make improvements are discussed.

  9. On the Uptake of Materials by the Intact Liver THE CONCENTRATIVE TRANSPORT OF RUBIDIUM-86

    PubMed Central

    Goresky, Carl A.; Bach, Glen G.; Nadeau, Brita E.

    1973-01-01

    In this study we use the multiple indicator dilution technique to outline the kinetic mechanisms underlying the uptake of rubidium, a cation which, in the steady state, is concentrated by hepatic parenchymal cells. We inject a mixture of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells (a vascular reference substance), 22Na (which is confined to the extracellular space, the expected extravascular distribution space for rubidium, in the absence of cellular uptake), and 86Rb into the portal vein and obtain normalized outflow patterns, expressed as outflowing fractions of each injected mass per milliliter vs. time. The labeled red cell curve rises to the highest and earliest peak and decays rapidly. That for labeled sodium rises to a later and lower peak, and decays less rapidly. Its extrapolated recovery is equal to that for the red cells. The observed 86Rb curve consists of two parts: an early clearly defined peak of reduced area, related to the 22Na peak in timing; and a later tailing, obscured by recirculation, so that total outflow recovery cannot be defined (even though it would be expected to be the same). We model the concentrative uptake of 86Rb and find two corresponding outflow fractions: throughput material, which sweeps past the cell surface as a wave delayed with respect to the vascular reference (tracer which has not entered cells); and exchanging material (tracer which has entered cells and later returns to the circulation). We find that the outflow form of the rubidium curve, the presence of both a relatively clearly defined throughput component and a relatively prolonged low-in-magnitude tailing, is consequent to the concentrative character of the transport mechanism, to the presence of an influx rate constant many times the efflux rate constant. The modeling which we develop is general, and has potential application in situations where transport is nonconcentrative. Images PMID:4573355

  10. Rubidium influx into rat skeletal muscles in relation to electrical activity

    PubMed Central

    Kernan, R. P.; McDermott, Mary

    1973-01-01

    1. Rates of 86Rb influx were compared in vivo over 2, 4 and 6 hr periods in various tonic and phasic muscles of rat following its I.P. injection. During the 2 hr period its influx rate into soleus was about 4 times that of the vastus with the EDL muscles at an intermediate rate. Uptake by diaphragm was fastest reaching equilibrium within 2 hr. 2. Unilateral section of the sciatic nerve 48 hr before 86Rb injection reduced isotope uptake into soleus to about 50% of its contralateral control muscle over a 4 hr period. In EDL muscles on the other hand nerve section increased influx by about 75% of control in conscious rats and more than doubled influx in anaesthetized rats. 3. Tenotomy of soleus reduced 86Rb influx to 40% of control, but tenotomy in EDL was without effect in influx. 4. Uptake of urea into muscles within 5 min of its I.V. injection was used to determine the possibility of muscle blood flow determining 86Rb influx. Accumulation of urea was not significantly different in control and denervated EDL muscles nor between soleus and vastus muscles in anaesthetized rats, so it seems unlikely that blood flow is important here. 5. Membrane depolarization in response to addition of 30 mM rubidium to external bathing fluid was greater in the case of denervated than in control EDL muscles which was in keeping with the greater 86Rb influx seen in the former muscles. The ouabain sensitivity of rubidium-induced depolarization in the denervated EDL muscles would suggest, however, that rubidium enters the fibres actively. PMID:4747232

  11. The physics of the environmental sensitivity of rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, William J.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental sensitivity is often the most significant limitation to the practical stability of rubidium frequency standards (RFS). For example, temperature sensitivity can cause a rapid frequency change of several parts in 10(exp 10) for a tactical RFS that has an aging of only 1 times 10(exp -11)/month. Other important environmental factors are barometric pressure, vibration, magnetic field, and nuclear radiation. The physical mechanisms that lie behind these environmental sensitivities are considered. These physical mechanisms are related to the performance of actual rubidium frequency standards. For the user of these devices, a better knowledge of the causes for Rb clock instability will aid in their testing and proper application. For the time frequency specialist, a review of these factors may prove useful toward improving RFS design. Some of the RFS environmental sensitivities are due to simple physical mechanisms like the effect of dc magnetic field on the Rb hyperfine resonance frequency. For these, an analysis can be based on physical principles and straightforward design factors. Other environment factors, like temperature sensitivity, are more complex combinations of many effects, both physical and practical, and the analysis often takes the form of an error budget with large unit-to-unit variations. Today's rubidium frequency standards span a wide performance range from small, inexpensive units with pp 10(exp 10) error budgets to larger, higher performance versions offering pp 10(exp 10) stabilities. For both extremes, however, environmental sensitivity can be the most significant performance limitation. Why this is the case and how to make improvements are discussed.

  12. Kinetics of Alkaline Decomposition and Cyaniding of Argentian Rubidium Jarosite in NaOH Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Eleazar Salinas; Sáenz, Eduardo Cerecedo; Ramírez, Marius; Cardona, Francisco Patiño; Labra, Miguel Pérez

    2012-10-01

    The alkaline decomposition of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media is characterized by an induction period and a progressive conversion period in which the sulfate and rubidium ions pass to the solution, leaving an amorphous iron hydroxide residue. The process is chemically controlled and the order of reaction with respect to hydroxide concentration in the range of 1.75 and 20.4 mol OH- m-3 is 0.94, while activation energy in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 328 K (25 °C to 55 °C) is 91.3 kJ mol-1. Cyaniding of Argentian rubidium jarosite in NaOH media presents a reaction order of 0 with respect to NaCN concentration (in the range of 5 to 41 mol m-3) and an order of reaction of 0.62 with respect to hydroxide concentration, in the range of 1.1 and 30 mol [OH-] m-3. In this case, the cyaniding process can be described, as in other jarosites, as the following two-step process: (1) a step (slow) of alkaline decomposition that controls the overall process followed by (2) a fast step of silver complexation. The activation energy during cyaniding in the range of temperatures of 298 K to 333 K (25 °C to 60 °C) is 43.5 kJ mol-1, which is characteristic of a process controlled by chemical reaction. These results are quite similar to that observed for several synthetic jarosites and that precipitated in a zinc hydrometallurgical plant (Industrial Minera México, San Luis Potosi).

  13. Potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate at 295, 245 and 40 K, and its rubidium analogue at 298 K.

    PubMed

    Kashino, S; Taka, J; Fukunaga, T; Ishida, H

    2001-05-01

    A centrosymmetric and short O-H.O hydrogen bond was found in isomorphic crystals of potassium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (potassium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, K(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (I), and rubidium hydrogen trans-glutaconate monohydrate (rubidium hydrogen trans-pent-2-ene-1,5-dioate, Rb(+).C(5)H(5)O(4)(-).H(2)O), (II). The O.O distance at room temperature is 2.444 (3) A in (I), and 2.417 (4) A in (II). The O.O distance for (I) showed no significant decrease at low temperatures.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency in rubidium vapor prepared by a comb of short optical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Sautenkov, Vladimir A.; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.; Ye, C.Y.; Welch, George R.; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Scully, Marlan O.

    2005-06-15

    It was shown by Kocharovskaya and Khanin [Sov. Phys. JETP 63, 945 (1986)] that a comb of optical pulses can induce a ground-state atomic coherence and change the optical response of an atomic medium. In our experiment, we studied the propagation of a comb of optical pulses produced by a mode-locked diode laser in rubidium atomic vapor. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) was observed when the pulse repetition rate is a subharmonic of the hyperfine splitting of the ground state. The width of the EIT resonance is determined by the relaxation rate of the ground-state coherence. Possible applications to magnetometery, atomic clocks, and frequency chains are discussed.

  15. Temperature Dependent Rubidium-Helium Line Shapes and Fine Structure Mixing Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    was loaded into the circulator in a nitrogen purged dry box. This single charge of rubidium was not depleted or reacted during the 9 months of...the effective potential proposed by Müller and Meyer. The electric dipole polarizabilities were taken as 9.245 a.u. for the Rb+ core and 1.3838 a.u...of large diode arrays combines the best features of electrically driven lasers with the inherent thermal management advantages of a gas lasers

  16. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  17. Degenerate mixtures of rubidium and ytterbium for engineering open quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, Varun Dilip

    In the last two decades, experimental progress in controlling cold atoms and ions now allows us to manipulate fragile quantum systems with an unprecedented degree of precision. This has been made possible by the ability to isolate small ensembles of atoms and ions from noisy environments, creating truly closed quantum systems which decouple from dissipative channels. However in recent years, several proposals have considered the possibility of harnessing dissipation in open systems, not only to cool degenerate gases to currently unattainable temperatures, but also to engineer a variety of interesting many-body states. This thesis will describe progress made towards building a degenerate gas apparatus that will soon be capable of realizing these proposals. An ultracold gas of ytterbium atoms, trapped by a species-selective lattice will be immersed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of rubidium atoms which will act as a bath. Here we describe the challenges encountered in making a degenerate mixture of rubidium and ytterbium atoms and present two experiments performed on the path to creating a controllable open quantum system. The first experiment will describe the measurement of a tune-out wavelength where the light shift of 87Rb vanishes. This wavelength was used to create a species-selective trap for ytterbium atoms. Furthermore, the measurement of this wavelength allowed us to extract the dipole matrix element of the 5s → 6p transition in 87Rb with an extraordinary degree of precision. Our method to extract matrix elements has found use in atomic clocks where precise knowledge of transition strengths is necessary to account for minute blackbody radiation shifts. The second experiment will present the first realization of a degenerate Bose-Fermi mixture of rubidium and ytterbium atoms. Using a three-color optical dipole trap (ODT), we were able to create a highly-tunable, species-selective potential for rubidium and ytterbium atoms which allowed us to use 87

  18. Electron and positron scattering on rubidium at 200 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J. H.; Ratnavelu, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-03-05

    The recent implementation of the coupled-channels-optical method (CCOM) [1,2], in the study of the electron and positron-Rubidium(Rb) scattering at intermediate energies [3,4], shows that the continuum effect remains important as the energy increases, even to 100 eV. Here, we study the effect of the continuum in electron and positron scattering on Rb at an even higher energy namely 200 eV. The total, elastic and inelastic integral and differential cross sections are therefore calculated and compared to the available experimental [5] and theoretical data [6,7].

  19. Spin noise spectroscopy of rubidium atomic gas under resonant and non-resonant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Shi, Ping; Qian, Xuan; Li, Wei; Ji, Yang

    2016-11-01

    The spin fluctuation in rubidium atom gas is studied via all-optical spin noise spectroscopy (SNS). Experimental results show that the integrated SNS signal and its full width at half maximum (FWHM) strongly depend on the frequency detuning of the probe light under resonant and non-resonant conditions. The total integrated SNS signal can be well fitted with a single squared Faraday rotation spectrum and the FWHM dependence may be related to the absorption profile of the sample. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 91321310 and 11404325) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922304).

  20. Interim results from the characterization testing of the Engineering Development (EDM) rubidium clocks for satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Edward D., Jr.; Danzy, Fredrick

    1990-01-01

    Some interim results from the environmental testing program to evaluate the Engineering Design Model (EDM) of the EG and G Spaceborne Rubidium Clock are presented. This effort is in support of the Global Positioning System (GPS) BLOCK IIR program and is intended to characterize the performance of EG and G design for BLOCK IIR satellite applications. Two EG and G EDM units are currently under test at NRL's Clock Test Facility to measure the long-term frequency stability, drift, and frequency versus temperature characteristics.

  1. Frequency shifts in a rubidium frequency standard due to coupling to another standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaduszliwer, Bernardo; Cook, R. A.; Frueholz, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Highly reliable timing system, such as used on board satellites, may incorporate a hot standby atomic clock besides the active one. RF couplings between them may affect the performance of the active clock. The effect of such couplings between two rubidium atomic clocks was investigated, and it was found that they will add an oscillatory term to the Allan Variance of the active clock, degrading its frequency stability, and that under certain circumstances they may also shift the active clock's operating frequency. These two effects are discussed in detail, and the level of isolation required to render them negligible is established.

  2. Evaluation of the rubidium efflux assay for preclinical identification of HERG blockade.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Khuram W; O'Neal, Janet M; Mo, Zun-Li; Fermini, Bernard; Gallavan, Robert H; Bahinski, Anthony

    2006-02-01

    Inhibition of the delayed-rectifier potassium channel current, human ether-a-go-go (hERG), by pharmaceutical agents can lead to acquired long QT syndrome and the generation of potentially lethal arrhythmias and sudden death. There remains an unmet need for higher-throughput assays to screen compounds in preclinical development for the potential to block hERG and cause QT prolongation. We evaluated the rubidium efflux assay for its ability to determine block of the hERG potassium channel. hERG-transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells were cultured on 96-well assay plates and loaded with rubidium ion by incubating in media in which potassium was replaced by 5.4 mM Rb+. Cells were exposed to test compounds and then depolarized with a K+ channel opening buffer containing 50 mM K+. The supernatant was removed, and cells were lysed using 0.1% Triton X-100. Concentration-response curves were generated for test agents by determining the Rb+ efflux using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. Multiple trials with cisapride yielded 50% inhibitory concentration values between 308.1 +/- 11 nM to 456.3 +/- 24 nM for inhibition of Rb+ efflux and a Z factor of 0.80 +/- 0.07 (n = 5 plates, 12 wells per plate). The values for inhibition of the hERG channel exhibited a rightward shift in potency as compared to those measured using electrophysiological techniques. In addition, we evaluated 19 blinded compounds at 10 microM in the Rb+ efflux assay, and compared results to those using patch clamp electrophysiology and the dofetilide displacement binding assay. The dofetilide displacement binding assay yielded a good correlation with electrophysiological measurements of hERG block. The rubidium efflux assay lacked sensitivity to consistently identify significant channel blockade. In conclusion, the rubidium efflux assay provides a higher-throughput means to identify potent hERG channel blocking agents, but lacks the sensitivity required to accurately determine the potency of

  3. Transient coherence oscillation induced by a detuned Raman field in a rubidium {lambda} system

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung Jong; Cho, Hyuck; Kwon, Taeg Yong; Lee, Ho Seong

    2004-02-01

    The temporal evolution of coherent population trapping (CPT) was observed in rubidium atomic vapor when sudden changes were made to the detuning of a weak Raman field. The subsequent creation and destruction of CPT are caused by the temporal oscillations of optically induced Raman coherence, with their period depending on the Raman detuning. The oscillating signal was observed over a time of order of tens of milliseconds, and the dependence of the relaxation time on the cell temperature and laser power were investigated. The main features of the experimental observations were well explained by the time-dependent density-matrix equations.

  4. Optimising a High-Stability CW Laser-Pumped Rubidium Gas-Cell Frequency Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolderbach, C.; Gruet, F.; Miletic, D.; Mileti, G.

    2009-04-01

    We report on our development of a compact and high-performance laser-pumped Rubidium atomic frequency standard. The clock design is based on optical-microwave double-resonance using cw optical pumping, and a physical realization as simple as possible. Main development goals are a short-term instability of ≤ 6 × 10-13 τ-1/2 and a flicker floor of ≤ 1 × 10-14 up to one day. Here we discuss our approaches for controlling the clock's main physical parameters in view of optimized frequency stability.

  5. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  6. Bright narrowband biphoton generation from a hot rubidium atomic vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lingbang; Guo, Xianxin; Shu, Chi; Jeong, Heejeong; Du, Shengwang

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the generation of high-quality narrowband biphotons from a Doppler-broadened hot rubidium atomic vapor cell. Choosing a double-Λ atomic energy level scheme for optimizing both spontaneous four-wave mixing nonlinear parametric interaction and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), we achieve a biphoton spectral brightness as high as 14 000 s-1 MHz-1. Meanwhile, we apply a spatially tailored optical pumping beam for reduction of the Raman noise and obtain a violation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality by a factor of 1023.

  7. Methane-based in situ temperature rise measurement in a diode-pumped rubidium laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Yang, Zining; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-02-15

    We measured active zone temperature rise of an operational diode-pumped rubidium laser non-perturbatively with methane-based near-infrared tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLAS). For a Rb+ methane diode-pumped alkali laser (DPAL), the temperature rise was obtained. Especially, the temperature differences (∼10  K) between lasing and un-lasing cases were well identified, which demonstrated a high sensitivity of the method. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of extending the methane-based TDLAS method to DPAL study.

  8. 28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser.

    PubMed

    Zweiback, Jason; Krupke, William F

    2010-01-18

    We present experimental results for a high-power diode pumped hydrocarbon-free rubidium laser with a scalable architecture. The laser consists of a liquid cooled, copper waveguide which serves to both guide the pump light and to provide a thermally conductive surface near the gain volume to remove heat. A laser diode stack, with a linewidth narrowed to approximately 0.35 nm with volume bragg gratings, is used to pump the cell. We have achieved 24W average power output using 4 atmospheres of naturally occurring helium ((4)He) as the buffer gas and 28W using 2.8 atmospheres of (3)He.

  9. Rubidium Recycling in a High Intensity Short Duration Pulsed Alkali Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    rubidium laser27 and a 48 W CW cesium laser .28 As time goes on the maximum output power of DPAL devices is 16 expected to rise with this research...greatly over the next couple of years. In 2007 Zhdanov and Knize demonstrated a 10 W CW cesium DPAL.11 This was followed in 2008 by a 17 W CW ...Encyclopedia of Optical Engineering, 901, 2003. 11. Boris Zhadanov and R. J. Knize. Diode-pumped 10 W continuous wave cesium laser . Optics Letters, 32:2167

  10. Measurement of the electric hyperfine coupling constant P/k in a uranyl rubidium nitrate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Tambovtsev, D. I.

    2007-11-15

    New investigations with nuclei oriented in a single-crystal sample of uranyl rubidium nitrate required refining values of the constants that determine the degree of orientation. The results obtained from new measurements of the angular anisotropy of the emission of alpha particles from aligned {sup 233}U nuclei are presented in this article. A method for experimental-data treatment is described. New values of the hyperfine coupling constants for {sup 233}U and {sup 235}U are obtained with much smaller uncertainties.

  11. Power Enhancement of a Rubidium Vapor Laser With a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-15

    Phys. Lett. 34, 655-658 (1979). 5 . W. F. Krupke, R. J. Beach, V. K. Kanz, and S. A. Payne, “Resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser,” Opt. Lett...Kanz, and W. F. Krupke, “Multimode-diode-pumped gas (alkali-vapor) laser,” Opt. Lett. 31 , 353-355 (2006). 10. Y. Wang, T. Kasamatsu, Y.Zheng, H...OPTICS EXPRESS 8050 #94531 - $15.00 USD Received 7 Apr 2008; revised 4 May 2008; accepted 7 May 2008; published 19 May 2008 (DPAL) started rapidly gaining

  12. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  13. A stable frequency comb directly referenced to rubidium electromagnetically induced transparency and two-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Dong; Wu, Jiutao; Zhang, Shuangyou; Ren, Quansheng; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhao, Jianye

    2014-03-17

    We demonstrate an approach to create a stable erbium-fiber-based frequency comb at communication band by directly locking the combs to two rubidium atomic transitions resonances (electromagnetically induced transparency absorption and two-photon absorption), respectively. This approach directly transfers the precision and stability of the atomic transitions to the comb. With its distinguishing feature of compactness by removing the conventional octave-spanning spectrum and f-to-2f beating facilities and the ability to directly control the comb's frequency at the atomic transition frequency, this stable optical comb can be widely used in optical communication, frequency standard, and optical spectroscopy and microscopy.

  14. Potassium, rubidium, strontium, barium, and rare-Earth concentrations in lunar rocks and separated phases.

    PubMed

    Philpotts, J A; Schnetzler, C C

    1970-01-30

    Concentrations of potassium, rubidium, strontium, barium, and rareearth elements have been determined by mass spectrometric isotope dilution for eight Apollo 11 lunar samples and for some separated phases. Potassiumn and ritbidium are at chondritic levels, strontium at 15 times, and barium and rare earths at 30 to 100 times chondritic levels. There are trace element similarities between the lunar samples and basaltic achondrites, terrestrial dredge basalts and the bulk earth. The trace element data appear to be consistent with these lunar samples being the result of limited partial fusion of some material similar to the brecciated eucrite meteorites.

  15. Automated quantitative Rb-82 3D PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging: normal limits and correlation with invasive coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ryo; Berman, Daniel S; Dey, Damini; Le Meunier, Ludovic; Hayes, Sean W; Fermin, Jimmy S; Cheng, Victor Y; Thomson, Louise E J; Friedman, John D; Germano, Guido; Slomka, Piotr J

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to characterize normal limits and to determine the diagnostic accuracy for an automated quantification of 3D 82-Rubidium (Rb-82) PET/CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We studied 125 consecutive patients undergoing Rb-82 PET/CT MPI, including patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and invasive coronary angiography, and 42 patients with a low likelihood (LLk) of CAD. Normal limits for perfusion and function were derived from LLk patients. QPET software was used to quantify perfusion abnormality at rest and stress expressed as total perfusion deficit (TPD). Relative perfusion databases did not differ in any of the 17 segments between males and females. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detection of CAD were 0.86 for identification of ≥50% and ≥70% stenosis. The sensitivity/specificity was 86%/86% for detecting ≥50% stenosis and 93%/77% for ≥70% stenosis, respectively. In regard to normal limits, mean rest and stress left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were 67% ± 10% and 75% ± 9%, respectively. Mean transient ischemic dilation ratio was 1.06 ± 0.14 and mean increase in LVEF with stress was 7.4% ± 6.1% (95th percentile of 0%). Normal limits have been established for 3D Rb-82 PET/CT analysis with QPET software. Fully automated quantification of myocardial perfusion PET data shows high diagnostic accuracy for detecting obstructive CAD.

  16. Comparison of occupational radiation exposure from myocardial perfusion imaging with Rb-82 PET and Tc-99m SPECT.

    PubMed

    Tout, Deborah; Davidson, Gillian; Hurley, Caroline; Bartley, Michelle; Arumugam, Parthiban; Bradley, Andy

    2014-10-01

    Rubidium-82 (Rb-82) PET myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) has superior diagnostic accuracy, at least similar prognostic value, and lower patient radiation exposure when compared with technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography (Tc-99m SPECT) MPI. The aim of this study was to compare occupational radiation exposure from the two modalities and show that improvements for the patient do not come at a cost to staff. Electronic personal dosimeters were worn by staff involved in the administration and imaging of routine clinical Tc-99m SPECT and Rb-82 PET MPI, and during tracer production and QC. To estimate dose to the staff in the event of a medical emergency, a survey meter was placed in close contact with the patient during Rb-82 infusion and imaging, and immediately after administration for Tc-99m SPECT. Mean (SD) whole-body effective dose to staff during a single MPI procedure was 0.4 (0.4) μSv for Rb-82 PET (1110 MBq) and 3.3 (1.7) μSv for Tc-99m SPECT (350 MBq). Staff effective dose during tracer production and QC was low (<0.2 μSv/patient) and comparable between tracers. An additional effective dose was measured at close contact to the patient during, and immediately after, tracer administration, although this will not pose a significant radiation risk to staff with either technique as long as this is not routine practice. There is a significant reduction in effective dose during Rb-82 PET when compared with Tc-99m SPECT MPI because of the short half-life of Rb-82 and reduced patient contact.

  17. 50 CFR 18.82 - Prehearing order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prehearing order. 18.82 Section 18.82 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.82 Prehearing order...

  18. 50 CFR 18.82 - Prehearing order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prehearing order. 18.82 Section 18.82 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.82 Prehearing order...

  19. 50 CFR 18.82 - Prehearing order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prehearing order. 18.82 Section 18.82 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.82 Prehearing order...

  20. 50 CFR 18.82 - Prehearing order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prehearing order. 18.82 Section 18.82 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.82 Prehearing order...

  1. 50 CFR 18.82 - Prehearing order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prehearing order. 18.82 Section 18.82 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS Notice and Hearing on Section 103 Regulations § 18.82 Prehearing order...

  2. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  3. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  4. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  5. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  6. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  7. 27 CFR 8.2 - Territorial extent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Territorial extent. 8.2 Section 8.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Scope of Regulations § 8.2 Territorial extent. This part...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required...

  9. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a... loan is made in accordance with applicable banking laws and regulations and is made in the...

  10. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a... loan is made in accordance with applicable banking laws and regulations and is made in the...

  11. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give prospective...

  12. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give prospective...

  13. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury (or designee...

  14. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United States means a 5-cent coin minted and issued by the...

  15. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts, or treats 5-cent coins or one-cent coins of the...

  16. 48 CFR 1631.205-82 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audits. 1631.205-82 Section 1631.205-82 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL... AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-82 Audits. Carriers should ensure that...

  17. 48 CFR 1631.205-82 - Audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Audits. 1631.205-82 Section 1631.205-82 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 1631.205-82 Audits. Carriers should ensure that the public...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  20. 7 CFR 3575.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 3575.82 Section 3575.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.82 ...

  1. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.124 Section 82.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.124 Prohibitions. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 82.124 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.124 Section 82.124 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.124 Prohibitions. (a)...

  3. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  4. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  5. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  6. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  7. 40 CFR 82.102 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability. 82.102 Section 82.102 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE The Labeling of Products Using Ozone-Depleting Substances § 82.102 Applicability. (a) In...

  8. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.82 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity...

  9. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.82 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity...

  10. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.82 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity...

  11. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.82 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity...

  12. 24 CFR 200.82 - Maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maturity. 200.82 Section 200.82 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... Requirements for Existing Projects Mortgage Provisions § 200.82 Maturity. The mortgage shall have a maturity...

  13. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administration. 82.2 Section 82.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered...

  14. 7 CFR 82.2 - Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administration. 82.2 Section 82.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.2 Administration. The program will be administered...

  15. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  16. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  17. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  18. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  19. 10 CFR 74.82 - Tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests. 74.82 Section 74.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Enforcement § 74.82 Tests. Each licensee shall perform, or permit the Commission to perform, any tests that the Commission...

  20. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be...

  1. 36 CFR 251.82 - Appealable decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appealable decisions. 251.82 Section 251.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.82 Appealable...

  2. 36 CFR 251.82 - Appealable decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appealable decisions. 251.82 Section 251.82 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Appeal of Decisions Relating to Occupancy and Use of National Forest System Lands § 251.82 Appealable...

  3. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 82.302 Section 82.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302...

  4. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  5. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 82.302 Section 82.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302...

  6. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  7. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  8. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  9. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.154 Prohibitions. (a)(1) Effective June 13, 2005, no... required practices set forth in § 82.156 are observed, recovery or recycling machines that meet the... certified for that type of appliance pursuant to § 82.158. (c) No person may manufacture or import recycling...

  10. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.154 Prohibitions. (a)(1) Effective June 13, 2005, no... required practices set forth in § 82.156 are observed, recovery or recycling machines that meet the... certified for that type of appliance pursuant to § 82.158. (c) No person may manufacture or import recycling...

  11. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.154 Prohibitions. (a)(1) Effective June 13, 2005, no... required practices set forth in § 82.156 are observed, recovery or recycling machines that meet the... certified for that type of appliance pursuant to § 82.158. (c) No person may manufacture or import recycling...

  12. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.154 Prohibitions. (a)(1) Effective June 13, 2005, no... required practices set forth in § 82.156 are observed, recovery or recycling machines that meet the... certified for that type of appliance pursuant to § 82.158. (c) No person may manufacture or import recycling...

  13. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  14. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  15. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  16. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  17. 49 CFR 572.82 - Head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head. 572.82 Section 572.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES 9-Month Old Child § 572.82 Head. The...

  18. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  19. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  20. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of a mixture which contains no straight color listed in subpart C or D may be certified for use in food,...

  1. 12 CFR 313.82 - Debtor's rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debtor's rights. 313.82 Section 313.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.82 Debtor's rights. The FDIC shall afford...

  2. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  3. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  4. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  5. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  6. 7 CFR 1955.82 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false State supplements. 1955.82 Section 1955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.82 State supplements...

  7. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  8. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time. The...

  9. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time. The...

  10. 7 CFR 905.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 905.82 Section 905.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 905.82 Effective time. The...

  11. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  12. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  13. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  14. 7 CFR 930.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 930.82 Section 930.82 Agriculture... Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.82 Effective time. The provisions of this part, and of any amendment thereto, shall become effective at such time as the Secretary may declare, and shall continue in force until...

  15. 7 CFR 945.82 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 945.82 Section 945.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... § 945.82 Effective time. The provisions of this subpart shall become effective at such time as the...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs used...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs used...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs used...

  19. 7 CFR 993.82 - Funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funds. 993.82 Section 993.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Expenses and Assessments § 993.82 Funds. All funds received by the committee pursuant...

  20. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York...

  1. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York...

  2. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York...

  3. 21 CFR 808.82 - New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false New York. 808.82 Section 808.82 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.82 New York. (a) The following New York medical device requirements are... 784(3) and (4). (2) Official Compilation of Codes, Rules and Regulations of the State of New York...

  4. 7 CFR 1955.82 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State supplements. 1955.82 Section 1955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.82 State supplements...

  5. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts,...

  6. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exceptions. 82.2 Section 82.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in §...

  7. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United...

  8. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by...

  9. 7 CFR 1955.82 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.82 Section 1955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.82 State supplements....

  10. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each endurance...

  11. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each endurance...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required to...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required to...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required to...

  15. 7 CFR 1230.82 - Confidential treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confidential treatment. 1230.82 Section 1230.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 1230.82 Confidential treatment. All information obtained from the books, records or reports required to...

  16. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  17. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  18. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  19. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  20. 40 CFR 82.300 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purpose. 82.300 Section 82.300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.300 Purpose....

  1. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 82.302 Section 82.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302...

  2. 40 CFR 82.304 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.304 Section 82.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.304...

  3. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 82.302 Section 82.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302...

  4. 40 CFR 82.302 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 82.302 Section 82.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Appliances Containing HCFCs § 82.302...

  5. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  6. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  7. 42 CFR 460.82 - Marketing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marketing. 460.82 Section 460.82 Public Health... Administrative Requirements § 460.82 Marketing. (a) Information that a PACE organization must include in its marketing materials. (1) A PACE organization must inform the public about its program and give...

  8. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and, in the case of mixtures which are aqueous solutions or aqueous pastes, sodium benzoate in a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of...

  9. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and, in the case of mixtures which are aqueous solutions or aqueous pastes, sodium benzoate in a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certifiable mixtures. 82.6 Section 82.6 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS General Provisions § 82.6 Certifiable mixtures. (a) A batch of...

  10. 25 CFR 82.9 - Challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Challenges. 82.9 Section 82.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES § 82.9 Challenges. (a) Once an official filing has been made... of the tribe upon request. During this 15-day period, challenges of signatures may be filed with...

  11. 40 CFR 282.82 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 282.82 Section 282.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Approved State Programs § 282.82 ...

  12. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program...

  13. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  14. 22 CFR 226.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Program income. 226.82 Section 226.82 Foreign... ORGANIZATIONS Additional Provisions For Awards to Commercial Organizations § 226.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 226.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program income earned by...

  15. 45 CFR 74.82 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program income. 74.82 Section 74.82 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.82 Program income. The additional costs alternative described in § 74.24(b)(1) may not be applied to program...

  16. 49 CFR 585.82 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 585.82 Section 585.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... Phase-In Reporting Requirements § 585.82 Purpose. The purpose of these reporting requirements is...

  17. 25 CFR 82.6 - Petition format.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition format. 82.6 Section 82.6 Indians BUREAU OF... REORGANIZED UNDER FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES § 82.6 Petition format. Petitions may consist of... of a petition must set forth at least a summary of the objectives of the petitioners and must show...

  18. 40 CFR 82.184 - Petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Petitions. 82.184 Section 82.184... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Significant New Alternatives Policy Program § 82.184 Petitions. (a) Who may petition. Any person may petition the Agency to amend existing listing decisions under the SNAP program, or to add a...

  19. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  20. 14 CFR 33.82 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General. 33.82 Section 33.82 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.82 General. Before each...

  1. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  2. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  3. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  4. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  5. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of Federal...

  6. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exceptions. 82.2 Section 82.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in §...

  7. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United...

  8. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts,...

  9. 31 CFR 82.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 82.3 Section 82.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.3 Definitions. (a) 5-cent coin of the United...

  10. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by...

  11. 31 CFR 82.1 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions. 82.1 Section 82.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.1 Prohibitions. Except as specifically authorized by...

  12. 31 CFR 82.2 - Exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exceptions. 82.2 Section 82.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.2 Exceptions. (a) The prohibition contained in §...

  13. 31 CFR 82.4 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalties. 82.4 Section 82.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 5-CENT AND ONE-CENT COIN REGULATIONS § 82.4 Penalties. (a) Any person who exports, melts,...

  14. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section 345.82 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship...

  15. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section 345.82 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship...

  16. 28 CFR 345.82 - Apprenticeship training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Apprenticeship training. 345.82 Section 345.82 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS FPI Inmate Training and Scholarship Programs § 345.82 Apprenticeship...

  17. 10 CFR 40.82 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 40.82 Section 40.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.82 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful...

  18. 10 CFR 40.82 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 40.82 Section 40.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL Enforcement § 40.82 Criminal penalties. (a) Section 223 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, provides for criminal sanctions for willful...

  19. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement, the...

  20. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement, the...

  1. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement, the...

  2. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement, the...

  3. 32 CFR 643.82 - Term.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Term. 643.82 Section 643.82 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Easements § 643.82 Term. The term for which an easement is granted will be guided by the type of easement, the...

  4. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.84 Requirements. (a) No later than October 24, 1994, each... requirements and policies of title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671-7671g. Each such regulation shall...

  5. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.84 Requirements. (a) No later than October 24, 1994, each... requirements and policies of title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671-7671g. Each such regulation shall...

  6. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.84 Requirements. (a) No later than October 24, 1994, each... requirements and policies of title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671-7671g. Each such regulation shall...

  7. 40 CFR 82.84 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements. 82.84 Section 82.84... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Federal Procurement § 82.84 Requirements. (a) No later than October 24, 1994, each... requirements and policies of title VI of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7671-7671g. Each such regulation shall...

  8. A rubidium traced white-light etalon calibrator for MAROON-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stürmer, Julian; Seifahrt, Andreas; Schwab, Christian; Bean, Jacob L.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the construction and testing of a vacuum-gap Fabry-Perot etalon calibrator for high precision radial velocity spectrographs. The etalon is referenced against hyper fine transitions of rubidium to provide a precise wavelength calibrator for MAROON-X, a new fiber-fed, red-optical, high-precision radial-velocity spectrograph currently under construction for one of the twin 6.5m Magellan Telescopes in Chile. We demonstrate a turnkey system, ready to be installed at any current and next generation radial velocity spectrograph that requires calibration over a wide spectral band-pass. Uncertainties in the position of one etalon line are at the 10 cm s-1 level in individual measurements taken at 4 Hz. Our long-term stability is mainly limited by aging effects of the spacer material Zerodur, which imprints a 12 cm s-1 daily drift. However, as the etalon position is traced by the rubidium reference with a precision of <3 cm s-1 for integration times longer than 10s, we can fully account for this effect at the RV data reduction level.

  9. Rubidium Atoms on Helium Droplets: Analysis of AN Exotic Rydberg Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Günter; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2012-06-01

    Rubidium atoms on the surface of superfluid helium droplets have been excited into Rydberg states. The excitation spectrum of the Rb-He_N system has been recorded from the 5^2D state manifold up to the ionization threshold by resonant three-photon-ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The observation of droplet size dependent shifts of excited states with respect to bare atom states is explained by a decreased quantum defect and a lowered ionization threshold. Within the scope of a Rydberg model we demonstrate that quantum defects and ionization thresholds are constant for each specific Rydberg series, which confirms the Rydberg character of excited Rubidium states on helium droplets. A set of six Rydberg series could be identified. Individual Rydberg states are observed with effective principle quantum numbers up to n* ≈ 19 and l ≤ 3, for which the expectation value of the electron orbital radius is about ten times larger than the droplet radius. M. Theisen, F. Lackner, G. Krois, and W.E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2, 2778-2782 (2011) F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Theisen, M. Koch, and W.E. Ernst, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 18781-18788 (2011) J.E. Murphy, J.M. Berg, A.J. Merer, N.A. Harris, and R.W. Field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1861 (1990)

  10. Photoabsorption spectra of potassium and rubidium near the K-edge

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; Berry, H.G.; Cowan, P.L.

    1995-08-01

    We have used a high-temperature circulating heat-pipe absorption cell together with monochromatized X-ray beams at the X24A and X23A2 beam lines at the NSLS to obtain photoabsorption spectra of potassium and rubidium at their K- and KM-edges. The photon-energy ranges lay near 3600 eV and 15200 eV, respectively. We have also obtained first measurements of the LII and LIII edges in cesium. Although the K-edge photoabsorptions of the rare gases have been studied, there is little previous work on other atomic vapors. Most of the edges and resonance peaks that we observed have now been identified using Dirac Hartree-Fock calculations. As a check, we have compared these results with those obtained previously in closed-shell rare-gas absorption spectra. The absolute energies were obtained through a calibration of the X24A systems using measurements of several metal L-edges in the 3200-5000 eV energy range. We found that the 4p resonance in potassium is significantly enhanced compared with the corresponding situation in argon. Likewise, the 5p resonance in krypton is unresolved from the background ionization cross section, whereas it is well resolved in rubidium. As suggested by Amusia, these enhancements may be due to the enhanced potential seen in the excited state of the alkali systems as a result of the presence of an s-electron which reduces the nuclear shielding.

  11. Breast milk concentration of rubidium in lactating mothers by instrumental neutron activation analysis method.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18-39 year old Iranian women. The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns' weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations.

  12. RUBIDIUM AND CESIUM FLUXES IN MUSCLE AS RELATED TO THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sjodin, Raymond A.

    1959-01-01

    The reduction of membrane potential in frog sartorius muscle produced by rubidium and cesium ions has been studied over a wide concentration range and compared with depolarization occasioned by potassium ions. The constant field theory of passive flux has been used to predict the potential changes observed. The potential data suggest certain permeability coefficient ratios and these are compared with ratios obtained from flux data using radioactive tracers. The agreement of the flux with the potential data is good if account is taken of the inhibition of potassium flux which occurs in the presence of rubidium and cesium ions. A high temperature dependence has been observed for cesium influx (Q10 = 2.5) which is correlated with the observation that cesium ions depolarize very little at low temperatures. The observations suggest that cesium ions behave more like sodium ions at low temperatures and more like potassium ions at room temperature with respect to their effect on the muscle cell resting potential. The constant field theory of passive ion flux appears to be in general agreement with the experimental results observed if account is taken of the dependence of permeability coefficients on the concentrations of ions used and of possible interactions between the permeabilities of ions. PMID:13654746

  13. Electric-field affected low-energy collisions between co-trapped ammonia and rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, L. Paul

    This thesis describes the effect of an electric field on the interaction between rubidium and ammonia at 100 mK. The ability to study low energy interactions between molecules and atoms provides new tools to understand how the processes that govern these interactions work. For example, the use of external electric and magnetic fields provides tools to spatially orient molecules to show how this affects the dynamics of the interaction. The use of electric fields have been proposed to affect dipole-dipole interactions, however we have showed that the space-orienting effect of the field can have a significant effect even in the absence of dipole-dipole interaction. To measure this effect, we trap ammonia molecules in a single quantum state using an electrostatic trap. Rubidium atoms are trapped in a magnetic trap which is overlayed with the ammonia trap. The two samples then interact with minimal center of mass collision energy and we measure the elastic and inelastic cross sections by careful analysis of the ammonia trap-loss profile.

  14. Hydrothermal descriptive chemistry and single crystal structure determination of cesium and rubidium thorium fluorides.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Christopher C; Mann, Matthew; McMillen, Colin D; Kolis, Joseph W

    2011-11-21

    Two new cesium thorium fluorides and three new rubidium thorium fluorides have been synthesized hydrothermally and structurally characterized. The structures of two polymorphs of CsTh(3)F(13) are described in space group P6/mmm with a = 8.2608(14) and c = 8.6519(17) and space group Pmc2(1) with a = 8.1830(16), b = 7.5780(15), and c = 8.6244(17). The analogous orthorhombic compound RbTh(3)F(13), with a = 8.1805(16), b = 7.4378(15), and c = 8.6594(17) in space group Pmc2(1), is also reported. Two other rubidium thorium fluorides are also described: RbTh(2)F(9) crystallizes in the space group Pnma where a = 8.9101(18), b = 11.829(2), and c = 7.4048(15), and Rb(7)Th(6)F(31) crystallizes in the space group R3 where a = 15.609(2) and c = 10.823(2). Comparison of these materials was made on the basis of their structures and synthesis conditions. The formation of these species in hydrothermal fluids appears to be dependent upon the concentration of the alkali fluoride mineralizer solution and, thus, the ratio of alkali ions to thorium in the system.

  15. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  16. Construction and Implementation of a Low-Cost Rubidium Magneto-Optical Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Judith

    2011-03-01

    A low-cost magneto-optical trap (MOT) for ultra-cold atoms is a wonderful tool for undergraduate research and teaching laboratories that highlights many topics in modern physics. We researched and created such a MOT using two external-cavity diode lasers, two laser locking systems, optics, magnetic coils, and Rubidium vapor cells. At our undergraduate institution, we chose a combination of equipment that we fabricated ourselves together with some purchased items as an optimum balance between cost and building time. However, an emphasis was placed upon self-construction of components, such as machining the laser cavities and constructing the majority of the circuitry within the institution. The total cost of our MOT was about 25,000. We were successfully able to trap more than 10 million Rubidium atoms in 1 cubic centimeter. Such a MOT is a feasible addition to any undergraduate course of study. The theory of operation and construction methods of our MOT will be presented along with our first measurement results. Many thanks to Ithaca College and the Ithaca College Department of Physics.

  17. A non-invasive method of measuring concentrations of rubidium in rat skeletal muscle in vivo by 87Rb nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: implications for the measurement of cation transport activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Syme, P D; Dixon, R M; Allis, J L; Aronson, J K; Grahame-Smith, D G; Radda, G K

    1990-03-01

    1. We have used n.m.r. spectroscopy to measure rubidium concentrations in the skeletal muscle of live intact rats. Using a 1.9 T superconducting magnet and an ear-phone coil tuned to both protons (1H) and rubidium (87Rb), it was possible to make measurements of both tissue rubidium content and water content, and from these measurements to obtain the rubidium concentration. 2. The n.m.r. estimate of rubidium concentration in muscle in vivo was found to be a constant 31% (SEM 4%) of that estimated by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy in an extract of excised muscle. This is close to the predicted theoretical n.m.r. visibility of 33%. The visibility was constant for muscle rubidium concentrations ranging between 10 and 34 mmol/l. 3. Rubidium concentration measurement by this method is unaffected by variations in sample geometry, sample volume, tissue conductivity, coil tuning and amplifier gain. 4. By using this method to measure changes in tissue rubidium concentration with time in the same animal, it should now be possible to assess the activity of ion transport systems, such as sodium- and potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase in vivo, by measuring the rates of change of tissue rubidium concentrations during the administration of rubidium salts. 5. This method could also be used to measure the absolute concentration of any n.m.r.-visible nucleus and could be applied to man.

  18. Accumulation of caesium and rubidium in vivo by red and white muscles of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kernan, R. P.

    1969-01-01

    1. Rats were given drinking water containing either 20 mM-CsCl or 20 mM-RbCl for a period of 2 weeks. Samples of blood were then taken from the rats under anaesthetic. They were immediately centrifuged and the plasma taken for analysis. Soleus muscles, diaphragm, extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis muscles were then taken from the dead animals and these and the plasma were analysed for potassium, and for caesium or rubidium by means of the flame photometer. 2. The concentrations of potassium and rubidium or caesium in the fibre water of these various muscles and in the samples of plasma water were then calculated. 3. It was found that the red muscles including soleus and diaphragm generally tended to accumulate caesium and rubidium to a greater extent than did the white muscles such as the white gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis. 4. When the concentration ratio [K]i/[K]o was divided into the ratio [Rb]i/[Rb]o for the different muscles, values of about 1·3 were obtained for the red muscles compared with values about 1·14 for white muscles. 5. When in the case of the caesium-treated rats the ratio [K]i/[K]o was divided into the ratio [Cs]i/[Cs]o values ranged from 1·94 ± 0·12 for the red soleus to 1·08 ± 0·09 for the white gastrocnemius. 6. When these values in the caesium-treated animals were plotted against the percentage of red fibres in the five muscle types (as obtained from the data of Sreter & Woo, 1963) the graph indicated that the white fibres had similar ionic gradients for Cs+ and K+ and that affinity for Cs+ was confined to the red fibres. 7. The membrane potential measured in soleus and extensor muscles immersed in plasma from the same animal was not significantly different from EK but was much less than ECs. 8. These results are interpreted in terms of permeability differences between the slow red fibres and white twitch fibres. PMID:5352044

  19. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  20. Search for anomalous spin-mass coupling with a rubidium magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Ian; Jacome, L. R.; Chan, Lok Fai; Muhsin, Sahar; Boyd, Alec; Bahr, Eric; Guttikonda, Srikanth; Kimball, Derek

    2009-11-01

    We report on progress of our experiment using a dual-isotope rubidium magnetometer to search for a hypothetical long-range coupling between Rb nuclear spins and the mass of the Earth. The valence electron dominates magnetic interactions and serves as a precise co-magnetometer for the nuclei in a simultaneous measurement of Rb-85 and Rb-87 spin precession frequencies, enabling accurate subtraction of magnetic perturbations. The construction and optimization of the apparatus is nearly complete, and we are now addressing several technical sources of noise and studying potential sources of systematic error. The optimized dual-isotope Rb magnetometer has sufficient shot- noise-projected sensitivity to improve experimental limits on long-range spin-mass couplings by an order of magnitude in general and by two orders of magnitude for the proton spin in particular.

  1. The phase transition of rubidium hydrogen carbonate, RbHCO3.

    PubMed

    Larvor, Carla; Stöger, Berthold

    2017-07-01

    Rubidium hydrogen carbonate, RbHCO3, features an order/disorder phase transition at TC = 245 K from the high-temperature (HT) disordered C2/m modification to the low-temperature (LT) C-1 modification. The crystal structures are characterized by [HCO3]2(2-) pairs of hydrogen carbonate groups connected by strong hydrogen bonding. The [HCO3]2(2-) pairs are connected by Rb(+) cations into a three-dimensional network. In HT-RbHCO3, the hydrogen atom is disordered. In LT-RbHCO3, ordering of the hydrogen atom leads to a translation-engleiche symmetry reduction of index 2. The lost reflections and rotations are retained as twin operations.

  2. Accumulation of myoinositol and rubidium ions in galactose-exposed rat lens

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaba, T.; Cheng, H.M.; Kinoshita, J.H.

    1986-10-01

    When rat lens is incubated in 30 mM galactose overnight, the extent of accumulation of rubidium ions (Rb) and myoinositol (MI) are affected, as well as the Na-K ATPase activity. Rb accumulation and Na-K ATPase activity are only slightly affected compared to the dramatic drop in MI accumulation. These changes are completely abolished by sorbinil, which blocks polyol formation, or by rendering the galactose medium hypertonic to offset the osmotic effect of polyol formation. On the other hand, the addition of excess MI to the galactose medium had no effect on correcting these changes. The results obtained are consistent with the polyol-osmotic theory of sugar cataract formation.

  3. High polarizability and pyroelectric effect in nonequilibrium nonpolar phases of rubidium dihydroarsenate and potash alum

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilova, N.D.; Lotonov, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    In this work, the authors studied the thermodynamically nonequilibrium ferroelectriclike state formed under certain conditions in the nonpolar phases of dielectric crystals with hydrogen bonds. This state forms upon fast cooling of a crystal to temperature at which protons can move from their positions into interstices. Studied were the crystals of a ferroelectric: rubidium dihydroarsenate (RDA) with T{sub c}=110 Kelvin, potash alum, and a linear pyroelectric (barium nitrite monohydrate) over the temperature range 245-303 Kelvin. It was found that rapid cooling of some dielectric crystals with hydrogen bonds results in the formation of a metastable, ferroelectric-like state, which is likely to be associated with the formation and self-organization of a system of flickering dipoles caused by interstitial proton vacancies. Upon rapid cooling, the nonpolar phases of the crystals exhibit anomalous pyroelectric and dielectric properties resembling those of ferroelectrics below the Curie point.

  4. Frequency moments and elastic moduli of liquid rubidium at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, A. B.; Bhatt, N. K.; Thakore, B. Y.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    To shed light on structural and vibrational dynamics of liquid rubidium (Rb) at different temperatures; a treatment of pseudopotential theory has been performed. The temperature dependence of structure factor and pair correlation functions has been determined using Percus-Yevick approximation consistent to the model potential used. In the present study, a modified empty core potential is employed to explain an electron-ion interaction. It consists of the full electron-ion interaction and a delta function which represents the orthogonalisation effect due to the s-core states in such sp-bonded metals. The temperature dependence of pair potential is achieved by using the damping factor exp(-αkBTr/2kF) in the pair potential. Expressions for phonon dispersions are derived using different frequency moments. Results for longitudinal phonon frequencies and various elastic moduli are obtained.

  5. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Domanski, Konrad; Seo, Ji-Youn; Ummadisingu, Amita; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Tress, Wolfgang R; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-14

    All of the cations currently used in perovskite solar cells abide by the tolerance factor for incorporation into the lattice. We show that the small and oxidation-stable rubidium cation (Rb(+)) can be embedded into a "cation cascade" to create perovskite materials with excellent material properties. We achieved stabilized efficiencies of up to 21.6% (average value, 20.2%) on small areas (and a stabilized 19.0% on a cell 0.5 square centimeters in area) as well as an electroluminescence of 3.8%. The open-circuit voltage of 1.24 volts at a band gap of 1.63 electron volts leads to a loss in potential of 0.39 volts, versus 0.4 volts for commercial silicon cells. Polymer-coated cells maintained 95% of their initial performance at 85°C for 500 hours under full illumination and maximum power point tracking.

  6. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerbauer, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Herlert, A.; Schweikhard, L.

    2007-10-15

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes {sup 74-77,79,80,83}Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from 1.6x10{sup -8} to 5.6x10{sup -8} were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide {sup 74}Rb, with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  7. Signatures of shape transitions in odd-A neutron-rich rubidium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R.; Sarriguren, P.; Robledo, L. M.

    2010-12-15

    The isotopic evolution of the ground-state nuclear shapes and the systematics of one-quasiproton configurations are studied in odd-A Rubidium isotopes. We use a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov formalism based on the Gogny energy density functional with two parametrizations, D1S and D1M, and implemented with the equal-filling approximation. We find clear signatures of a sharp shape transition at N=60 in both the charge radii and spin parity of the ground states, which are robust, consistent with each other, and in agreement with experiment. We point out that the combined analysis of these two observables could be used to predict unambiguously new regions where shape transitions might develop.

  8. Solution-phase synthesis of rubidium lead iodide orthorhombic perovskite nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Da-Hye; Ramasamy, Parthiban; Kwak, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2017-06-01

    Recently, metal halide perovskite nanocrystals have demonstrated outstanding properties in various optoelectronic applications. Cesium lead halides (CsPbX3) are the most studied perovskites in nanoscale dimensions. However, halide perovskite nanocrystals with other cations have rarely been reported. It is important to develop new perovskite compositions to further expand their application in various fields. In this paper, we first report the synthesis of colloidal rubidium lead iodide (RbPbI3) nanowires (NWs). RbPbI3 NWs have an orthorhombic crystal structure and are single-crystalline in nature. The diameter of the NWs is around 32 nm with lengths up to several tens of micrometers. RbPbI3 NWs absorb strongly below 450 nm. RbPbI3 devices exhibited good photoresponsive behavior, suggesting a potential use in optoelectronics.

  9. Trap loss in a metastable helium-rubidium magneto-optical trap

    SciTech Connect

    Byron, L. J.; Dall, R. G.; Truscott, A. G.

    2010-01-15

    We present results of the study of a simultaneously confined metastable helium (He*) and rubidium magneto-optical trap (MOT). By monitoring the trap decay of the {sup 87}Rb MOT with and without a He* MOT present, we find the light-assisted, two-body loss rate to be beta{sub Rb-He}{sup *}=(6+-2)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s. Moreover, we find that it is possible to create a large, robust {sup 87}Rb-He* MOT, opening the possibility of creating a {sup 87}Rb-He{sup *} Bose-Einstein condensate. This would be the first dual-species condensate incorporating an alkali metal ground-state atom and an excited-state noble gas atom.

  10. Dynamics of solvation and desolvation of rubidium attached to He nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Vangerow, J. von; John, O.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.

    2015-07-21

    The real-time dynamics of photoexcited and photoionized rubidium (Rb) atoms attached to helium (He) nanodroplets is studied by femtosecond pump-probe mass spectrometry. While excited Rb atoms in the perturbed 6p-state (Rb{sup *}) desorb off the He droplets, Rb{sup +} photoions tend to sink into the droplet interior when created near the droplet surface. The transition from Rb{sup +} solvation to full Rb{sup *} desorption is found to occur at a delay time τ ∼ 600 fs for Rb{sup *} in the 6pΣ-state and τ ∼ 1200 fs for the 6pΠ-state. Rb{sup +}He ions are found to be created by directly exciting bound Rb{sup *}He exciplex states as well as by populating bound Rb{sup +}He-states in a photoassociative ionization process.

  11. Antiferromagnetism in a bosonic mixture of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K)

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Uttam

    2010-10-15

    We simulate the experimental possibility of observing antiferromagnetic (AF) order in bosonic mixtures of rubidium ({sup 87}Rb) and potassium ({sup 41}K) in a two-dimensional optical lattice in the presence of harmonic confinement. By tuning the interspecies interactions and the lattice heights, we have found the ground states, within the mean-field approximation, that interpolate from phase separation to AF order. For a moderate lattice height, the coexistence of the Mott and AF phases is possible for the Rb atoms whereas the K atoms remain in the AF-superfluid phase. This observation may provide an experimentally feasible route to hitherto unobserved AF order for {sup 87}Rb-{sup 41}K mixtures.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of rubidium as a long-lasting marker for bloodfeeding sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    PubMed

    Mascari, T M; Stout, R W; Foil, L D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the trace element rubidium (Rb) as a long-lasting systemic biomarker for bloodfeeding females of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Baits containing Rb chloride were found to be palatable to hamsters in this study. We were able to detect Rb using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer in all sand flies that fed on Rb-treated hamsters for at least 14 d postbloodmeal. We also detected Rb in sand flies that took a bloodmeal from hamsters up to 10 d after the hamsters were withdrawn from a Rb-treated diet. Results of this study constitute proof of concept for the incorporation of Rb chloride into rodent baits for marking bloodfeeding sand flies, and suggest that Rb marking could be used as a technique for evaluating rodent-targeted sand fly control methods and in ecological studies on sand flies.

  13. Experimental study of linear magnetic dichroism in photoionization satellite transitions of atomic rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Jaenkaelae, K.; Alagia, M.; Feyer, V.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.

    2011-11-15

    Laser orientation in the initial state has been used to study the properties of satellite transitions in inner-shell photoionization of rubidium atoms. The linear magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution (LMDAD) has been utilized to probe the continuum waves of orbital angular momentum conserving monopole, and angular momentum changing conjugate satellites, accompanying the 4p ionization of atomic Rb. We show experimentally that LMDAD of both types of satellite transitions is nonzero and that LMDAD of monopole satellites, measured as a function of photon energy, mimics the LMDAD of direct photoionization, whereas the LMDAD of conjugate transitions deviates drastically from that trend. The results indicate that conjugate transitions cannot be described theoretically without explicit inclusion of electron-electron interaction. The present data can thus be used as a very precise test of current models for photoionization.

  14. Incorporation of rubidium cations into perovskite solar cells improves photovoltaic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Michael; Matsui, Taisuke; Domanski, Konrad; Seo, Ji-Youn; Ummadisingu, Amita; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Correa-Baena, Juan-Pablo; Tress, Wolfgang R.; Abate, Antonio; Hagfeldt, Anders; Grätzel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    All of the cations currently used in perovskite solar cells abide by the tolerance factor for incorporation into the lattice. We show that the small and oxidation-stable rubidium cation (Rb+) can be embedded into a “cation cascade” to create perovskite materials with excellent material properties. We achieved stabilized efficiencies of up to 21.6% (average value, 20.2%) on small areas (and a stabilized 19.0% on a cell 0.5 square centimeters in area) as well as an electroluminescence of 3.8%. The open-circuit voltage of 1.24 volts at a band gap of 1.63 electron volts leads to a loss in potential of 0.39 volts, versus 0.4 volts for commercial silicon cells. Polymer-coated cells maintained 95% of their initial performance at 85°C for 500 hours under full illumination and maximum power point tracking.

  15. Pulse reshaping in nearly resonant interaction of femtosecond pulses with dense rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vdović, Silvije; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Pichler, Goran

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of intense femtosecond pulses resonant with the atomic rubidium vapor results in phenomenon known as conical emission. The origin of this phenomenon is connected with self-phase modulation in time domain accompanied with spatial self-focusing for blue-detuned pulses. When the laser central wavelength is red-detuned the self-defocusing occurs. Using frequency-resolved optical gating measurements and simple modeling of pulse propagation within the linear dispersion theory it is shown that the retrieved phase of the propagated pulse, and the associated instantaneous frequency, shows evidence of both linear dispersion and self-phase modulation. These results are consistent with the theory of the intensity dependent nonlinear refraction index in medium where linear dispersion contributes significantly to pulse reshaping.

  16. Fractionation of potassium/rubidium by amphiboles: implications regarding mantle composition.

    PubMed

    Hart, S R; Aldrich, L T

    1967-01-20

    We show that the rubidium in amphiboles is generally depleted with respect to potassium. The K:Rb ratios of 50 analyzed amphiboles range from 100 to 5000, averaging 1120. This fractionation effect holds for potassium concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 percent. The K:Rb ratios of abyssal tholeiites do not place unambiguous limits on the K:Rb ratio of the upper mantle, since partial melting of a mantle material such as amphibole peridotite would produce a liquid with a K:Rb ratio higher than that in the initial material. Large-scale mineralogic control of distributions of trace elements in the mantle could produce trends with depth that are the reverse of trends normally attributed to differentiation processes.

  17. The physics of the environmental sensitivity of rubidium gas cell atomic frequency standards.

    PubMed

    Riley, W R

    1992-01-01

    The physical mechanisms behind environmental sensitivity are considered, and they are related to the performances of rubidium frequency standards (RFSs). Some of the RFS environmental sensitivities are due to simple physical mechanisms like the effect of DC magnetic field on the Rb hyperfine resonance frequency. For these, an analysis can be based on physical principles and straightforward design factors. Other environmental factors, like temperature sensitivity, are more complex combinations of many effects, both physical and practical, and the analysis often takes the form of an error budget, with large unit-to-unit variations. Today's RFSs span a wide performance range from small, inexpensive units with pp10(10) error budgets to larger, higher-performance versions offering pp10(14) stabilities. For both extremes, however, environmental sensitivity can be the most significant performance limitation. Why this is the case is explained, and some insight into how to make improvements is offered.

  18. Efficient light storage with reduced energy loss via nonlinear compensation in rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Hong-Li; Xue, Yan; Wu, Jin-Hui; Xu, Huai-Liang; Gao, Jin-Yue

    2016-06-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of efficient light storage based on a modified technique of electromagnetically induced transparency in hot rubidium vapor. By introducing an auxiliary pump field to go beyond the Λ -type configuration, we find that the undesired four-wave mixing can be greatly suppressed to result in sufficiently reduced energy loss of a probe pulse. The light storage efficiency can be as high as  ∼80% within the storage time of 100 ns with the pump field applied, which is almost 6 times larger than that in the absence of the pump field. We may also amend the light storage efficiency in a linear way by increasing the optical depth of our atomic vapor even without saturation effect. We obtain, in fact, an amplified probe pulse via Raman gain during light storage and retrieval, which should have practical applications in classical and quantum information processing.

  19. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  20. A rubidium Mx-magnetometer for measurements on solid state spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Daniel; Siegel, Steven; Grisanti, Emily; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2017-02-01

    The detection of environmental magnetic fields is well established by optically pumped atomic magnetometers. Another focus of magnetometry can be the research on magnetic or spin-active solid-state samples. Here we introduce a simple and compact design of a rubidium-based Mx magnetometer, which allows for hosting solid-state samples. The optical, mechanical, and electrical design is reported, as well as simple measurements which introduce the ground-state spin-relaxation time, the signal-to-noise ratio of a measurement, and subsequently the overall sensitivity of the magnetometer. The magnetometer is optimized for the most sensitive operation with respect to laser power and magnetic field excitation at the Larmor frequency.

  1. Photoionization from the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} state of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Ali; Haq, S. U.

    2011-06-15

    We report two-step photoionization studies from the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} excited state of rubidium using two dye lasers simultaneously pumped by a common Nd:YAG laser in conjunction with a thermionic diode ion detector. The photoionization cross section at the first ionization threshold is measured as 18.8 {+-} 3 Mb and at excess energies of 0.013, 0.106, 0.229, and 0.329 eV is measured as 15, 13.6, 12.6, and 12.5 Mb, respectively. The measured value of the photoionization cross section at the threshold is used to calibrate the oscillator strengths of the 5p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{yields}nd {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} (22 {<=}n{<=} 52) Rydberg transitions.

  2. Elimination of the light shift in rubidium gas cell frequency standards using pulsed optical pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T. C.; Jechart, E.; Kwon, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    Changes in the intensity of the light source in an optically pumped, rubidium, gas cell frequency standard can produce corresponding frequency shifts, with possible adverse effects on the long-term frequency stability. A pulsed optical pumping apparatus was constructed with the intent of investigating the frequency stability in the absence of light shifts. Contrary to original expectations, a small residual frequency shift due to changes in light intensity was experimentally observed. Evidence is given which indicates that this is not a true light-shift effect. Preliminary measurements of the frequency stability of this apparatus, with this small residual pseudo light shift present, are presented. It is shown that this pseudo light shift can be eliminated by using a more homogeneous C-field. This is consistent with the idea that the pseudo light shift is due to inhomogeneity in the physics package (position-shift effect).

  3. Polarization squeezing at the audio frequency band for the Rubidium D_1 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xin; Han, Yashuai; Liu, Jinyu; He, Jun; Wang, Junmin

    2017-08-01

    A 2.8-dB polarization squeezing of the Stokes operator S2 for the rubidium D1 line (795 nm) is achieved, with the lowest squeezing band at an audio frequency of 2.6 kHz. Two methods are applied for improving the squeezing towards low frequencies: an orthogonal-polarized locking beam that precludes residual unwanted interference and quantum noise locking method that stabilizes the relative phase between the squeezed vacuum and the local oscillator. The squeezing level is limited by absorption-induced losses at short wavelengths, here is 397.5 nm. The generated polarization squeezed light can be used in a quantum enhanced magnetometer to increase the measurement sensitivity.

  4. The use of rubidium as a surrogate for potassium in combustion system imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengel, Russell K.; Linder, Jeffrey S.

    1990-06-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) studies on rubidium (Rb) were initiated to determine if Rb would serve as a useful surrogate for potassium atoms in MHD combustion gas stream imaging. Supporting evidence for the use of Rb was observed in emission spectra from oil and coal-fired facilities and through knowledge of the elemental composition of coal. LIF images were obtained for an Rb-seeded laboratory burner with and without the presence of added K. The ability to obtain Rb images in the presence of K indicates that Rb is more suitable for MHD channel diagnostics than K, and that Rb is not effected by factors such as the large thermal emission and self-reversals observed from potassium.

  5. Ultralow-light-level all-optical transistor in rubidium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Jietai Zhou, Zhifan; Liu, Cunjin; Qin, Zhongzhong; Fang, Yami; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Weiping

    2014-04-14

    An all-optical transistor (AOT) is a device in which one light beam can efficiently manipulate another. It is the foundational component of an all-optical communication network. An AOT that can operate at ultralow light levels is especially attractive for its potential application in the quantum information field. Here, we demonstrate an AOT driven by a weak light beam with an energy density of 2.5 × 10{sup −5} photons/(λ{sup 2}/2π) (corresponding to 6  yJ/(λ{sup 2}/2π) and about 800 total photons) using the double-Λ four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. This makes it a promising candidate for ultralow-light-level optical communication and quantum information science.

  6. Pump-probe spectroscopy of cold rubidium atoms in an integrating sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wen-Li; Dong, Ri-Chang; Deng, Jian-Liao; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2016-05-01

    Absorption spectra of cold rubidium atoms in an integrating sphere under the influence of a diffuse laser field have been systematically investigated. A pronounced dispersionlike structure centered at the light-shifted pump frequency is observed with a subnatural linewidth. In particular, two clearly resolved absorption resonances on the 5 S1 /2(F =2 ) →5 P3 /2(F'=3 ) transitions occur with variable probe beam intensity, which is consistent with our proposed theoretical model. Based on the two absorption resonances,we measure the dependence of light shifts, from which we can directly extract the effective Rabi frequency in a diffuse laser field, on the probe laser intensity, pump laser intensity, and pump laser detuning. Our work helps to identify the physical mechanisms behind these spectral features and is beneficial for studying the corresponding effect in a cold sample.

  7. The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S-5P-5D cascade excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Waseem; Ali, Md. Sabir; Chakrabarti, Alok; Ray, Ayan

    2017-07-01

    The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump-probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon-atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits 420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.

  8. The KLM + KLN Auger electron spectrum of rubidium in different matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoyatov, A. Kh; Kovalík, A.; Perevoshchikov, L. L.; Filosofov, D. V.; Vénos, D.; Lee, B. Q.; Ekman, J.; Baimukhanova, A.

    2017-08-01

    The KLM + KLN Auger electron spectrum of rubidium (Z = 37) emitted in the electron capture decay of radioactive 83Sr in a polycrystalline platinum matrix and also 85Sr in polycrystalline platinum and carbon matrices as well as in an evaporated layer onto a carbon backing were experimentally studied in detail for the first time using a combined electrostatic electron spectrometer. Energies, relative intensities, and natural widths of fifteen basic spectrum components were determined and compared with both theoretical predictions and experimental data for krypton (Z = 36). Relative spectrum line energies obtained from the semi-empirical calculations in intermediate coupling scheme were found to agree within 3σ with the measured values while disagreement with experiment exceeding 3σ was often observed for values obtained from our multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations. The absolute energy of the dominant spectrum component given by the semi-empirical approach agrees within 1σ with the measured value. Shifts of +(0.2 ± 0.2) and -(1.9 ± 0.2) eV were measured for the dominant KLM spectrum components between the 85Sr sources prepared by vacuum evaporation on and implanted into the carbon foil, respectively, relative to 85Sr implanted into the platinum foil. A value of (713 ± 2) eV was determined for the energy difference of the dominant components of the KLM + KLN Auger electron spectra of rubidium and krypton generated in the polycrystalline platinum matrix. From the detailed analysis of the measured data and available theoretical results, the general conclusion can be drawn that the proper description of the KLM + KLN Auger electron spectrum for Z around 37 should still be based on the intermediate coupling of angular momenta taking into account relativistic effects.

  9. Development of an HTS assay for Na+, K+-ATPase using nonradioactive rubidium ion uptake.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sikander; Gill, Rajwant; Wicks, David; Despotovski, Sasko; Liang, Dong

    2004-10-01

    A high-throughput screening (HTS) assay was developed for the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase channel in order to study rubidium uptake as a measure of the functional activity and modulation of this exchanger. The assay uses elemental rubidium as a tracer for K(+) ions. Three cell lines were used to study the exchanger, and the assay was performed in a 96-well microtiter plate format. Rb(+) uptake was carried by the CHO-K1 cells at 37 degrees C; the maximum ion influx was at 80 min of incubation of the cell line in the medium containing 5.4 mM RbCl. The cells were incubated in Rb(+) uptake buffer (5.4 mM) and with the pump blocker ouabain for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. A complete block of the Rb(+) uptake was observed with a 5 mM concentration of ouabain for all the three time intervals. The ouabain 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value for CHO-K1 cell line ATPase was observed to be 298 microM after 3 h of incubation. In addition, IC(50) values of 94 and 89 microM were observed at 30 min of incubation, indicating that the protocol shows reproducible results. A Z' factor higher than 0.7 was observed in the assays. These studies extend the profile of Na(+),K(+)-ATPases and demonstrate the feasibility of this HTS assay system to screen for compounds that pharmacologically modulate the function of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase.

  10. Elevated level of nitric oxide mediates the anti-depressant effect of rubidium chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Kordjazy, Nastaran; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Amiri, Shayan; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Kordjazy, Mehdi; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-09-05

    Rubidium has been used to treat psychiatric conditions including depression. We examined the antidepressant activity of rubidium chloride (RbCl) in male mice and the possible interference of nitric oxide (NO) in this effect. Mouse forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of RbCl. These drugs were used in this study: N(G)-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-Nitroindazole and aminoguanidine, selective neuronal and inducible NOS inhibitors, respectively, and l-arginine, an NO precursor. We studied the changes of serum and hippocampus nitrite level after different treatments. RbCl (30mg/kg), when administered 60min before the tests, significantly reduced the immobility time. Non-effective doses of l-NAME (10mg/kg) and aminoguanidine (50mg/kg), co-administered with the effective dose of RbCl (30mg/kg), reversed the anti-immobility effect of RbCl, while 7-NI (25mg/kg) could not prevent the diminishing effect of RbCl on immobility time. Moreover, co-administration of non-effective doses of l-arginine (750mg/kg) and RbCl (10mg/kg) decreased the immobility time. None of the mentioned treatments altered the locomotor activity of mice in open-field test. Nitrite level was significantly increased in serum and hippocampus of animals after RbCl (30mg/kg) administration and this nitrite level elevation was reversed by non-effective dose of l-NAME and aminoguanidine, but not 7-NI. Our data for the first time reveal the role of NO pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of RbCl, concluding that this effect results from elevation of NO through involvement of iNOS in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Crystal Chemistry of the Potassium and Rubidium Uranyl Borate Families Derived from Boric Acid Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuao; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Stritzinger, Jared T.; Depmeier, Wulf; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2010-07-19

    The reaction of uranyl nitrate with a large excess of molten boric acid in the presence of potassium or rubidium nitrate results in the formation of three new potassium uranyl borates, K{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 12}O{sub 19}(OH){sub 4}]·0.3H{sub 2}O (KUBO-1), K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 15}(OH){sub 5}] (KUBO-2), and K[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (KUBO-3) and two new rubidium uranyl borates Rb{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 13}O{sub 20}(OH){sub 5}] (RbUBO-1) and Rb[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}B{sub 10}O{sub 16}(OH){sub 3}]·0.7H{sub 2}O (RbUBO-2). The latter is isotypic with KUBO-3. These compounds share a common structural motif consisting of a linear uranyl, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, cation surrounded by BO{sub 3} triangles and BO{sub 4} tetrahedra to create an UO{sub 8} hexagonal bipyramidal environment around uranium. The borate anions bridge between uranyl units to create sheets. Additional BO{sub 3} triangles extend from the polyborate layers and are directed approximately perpendicular to the sheets. All of these compounds adopt layered structures. With the exception of KUBO-1, the structures are all centrosymmetric. All of these compounds fluoresce when irradiated with long-wavelength UV light. The fluorescence spectrum yields well-defined vibronically coupled charge-transfer features.

  12. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  13. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Design requirements. 65.82 Section 65...) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Transfer Racks § 65.82 Design requirements. (a) The owner or operator shall equip... shall be designed to collect the regulated material displaced from tank trucks or railcars during...

  14. 40 CFR 65.82 - Design requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  15. 21 CFR 814.82 - Postapproval requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Postapproval requirements. 814.82 Section 814.82 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... a device and in the advertising of any restricted device of warnings, hazards, or precautions...

  16. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  17. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  18. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  19. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  20. 40 CFR 164.82 - Transcripts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transcripts. 164.82 Section 164.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  1. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  2. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

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  3. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Energy conservation. 242.82 Section... INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.82 Energy conservation. Construction, mechanical equipment, and energy and metering selections shall provide cost-effective energy conservation in...

  4. 24 CFR 242.82 - Energy conservation.

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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  6. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

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  7. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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  8. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  9. 34 CFR 361.82 - Evaluation standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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  10. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

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    ... childhood development programs. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordination. 98.82 Section 98.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Indian Tribes...

  11. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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  12. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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  13. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... childhood development programs. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination. 98.82 Section 98.82 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Indian Tribes...

  14. 45 CFR 98.82 - Coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  15. 10 CFR 1040.82 - Application.

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    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application. 1040.82 Section 1040.82 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... Application. (a) These regulations apply to each program or activity which receives Federal financial...

  16. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

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  17. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  18. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  19. 27 CFR 9.82 - Potter Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potter Valley. 9.82 Section 9.82 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  20. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or recycling...

  1. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or recycling...

  2. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or recycling...

  3. 40 CFR 82.154 - Prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.154 Prohibitions. (a)(1) No person maintaining... or recycling machines that meet the requirements set forth in § 82.158 are used, and the technician... may manufacture or import recycling or recovery equipment for use during the maintenance, service, or...

  4. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or recycling...

  5. 40 CFR 82.156 - Required practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Recycling and Emissions Reduction § 82.156 Required practices. (a) All... recycling machine certified pursuant to § 82.158. All persons opening appliances except for MVACs and MVAC... remaining portions of the appliance, or a specific vessel within the appliance) or a recovery or recycling...

  6. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  7. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  8. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  9. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES...

  10. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS...

  11. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES...

  12. 38 CFR 39.82 - Plan preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plan preparation. 39.82 Section 39.82 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES...

  13. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  14. 9 CFR 82.4 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General provisions. 82.4 Section 82.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  15. 9 CFR 82.3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantined areas. 82.3 Section 82.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  16. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  17. 7 CFR 983.82 - Personal liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal liability. 983.82 Section 983.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  18. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  19. 27 CFR 31.82 - Hotels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hotels. 31.82 Section 31... Same Premises § 31.82 Hotels. The proprietor of a hotel who conducts the sale of liquors throughout the hotel premises is only required to register under this part for one place. For example, different areas...

  20. 10 CFR 140.82 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures. 140.82 Section 140.82 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Extraordinary... licensee or person with whom an indemnity agreement is executed or a person providing financial...