Science.gov

Sample records for ruii sintez strukturnaya

  1. Binding of piano-stool Ru(II) complexes to DNA; QM/MM study.

    PubMed

    Futera, Zdeněk; Platts, James A; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2012-10-01

    Ru(II) "piano-stool" complexes belong to group of biologically active metallocomplexes with promising anticancer activity. In this study, we investigate the reaction mechanism of [(η(6)-benzene)Ru(II)(en)(H(2)O)](2+) (en = ethylenediamine) complex binding to DNA by hybrid QM/MM computational techniques. The reaction when the Ru(II) complex is coordinated on N7-guanine from major groove is explored. Two reaction pathways, direct binding to N7 position and two-step mechanism passing through O6 position, are considered. It was found that the reaction is exothermic and the direct binding process is preferred kinetically. In analogy to cisplatin, we also explored the possibility of intrastrand cross-link formation where the Ru(II) complex makes a bridge between two adjacent guanines. Two different pathways were found, leading to a final structure with released benzene ligand. This process is exothermic; however, one pathway is blocked by relatively high initial activation barrier. Geometries, energies, and electronic properties analyzed by atoms in molecules and natural population analysis methods are discussed. PMID:22707416

  2. Reaction mechanism of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes: umbrella sampling QM/MM MD study.

    PubMed

    Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2014-07-15

    Biologically relevant interactions of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes with ds-DNA are studied in this article by hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational technique. The whole reaction mechanism is divided into three phases: (i) hydration of the [Ru(II) (η(6) -benzene)(en)Cl](+) complex, (ii) monoadduct formation between the resulting aqua-Ru(II) complex and N7 position of one of the guanines in the ds-DNA oligomer, and (iii) formation of the intrastrand Ru(II) bridge (cross-link) between two adjacent guanines. Free energy profiles of all the reactions are explored by QM/MM MD umbrella sampling approach where the Ru(II) complex and two guanines represent a quantum core, which is described by density functional theory methods. The combined QM/MM scheme is realized by our own software, which was developed to couple several quantum chemical programs (in this study Gaussian 09) and Amber 11 package. Calculated free energy barriers of the both ruthenium hydration and Ru(II)-N7(G) DNA binding process are in good agreement with experimentally measured rate constants. Then, this method was used to study the possibility of cross-link formation. One feasible pathway leading to Ru(II) guanine-guanine cross-link with synchronous releasing of the benzene ligand is predicted. The cross-linking is an exergonic process with the energy barrier lower than for the monoadduct reaction of Ru(II) complex with ds-DNA.

  3. Reaction mechanism of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes: umbrella sampling QM/MM MD study.

    PubMed

    Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2014-07-15

    Biologically relevant interactions of piano-stool ruthenium(II) complexes with ds-DNA are studied in this article by hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM) computational technique. The whole reaction mechanism is divided into three phases: (i) hydration of the [Ru(II) (η(6) -benzene)(en)Cl](+) complex, (ii) monoadduct formation between the resulting aqua-Ru(II) complex and N7 position of one of the guanines in the ds-DNA oligomer, and (iii) formation of the intrastrand Ru(II) bridge (cross-link) between two adjacent guanines. Free energy profiles of all the reactions are explored by QM/MM MD umbrella sampling approach where the Ru(II) complex and two guanines represent a quantum core, which is described by density functional theory methods. The combined QM/MM scheme is realized by our own software, which was developed to couple several quantum chemical programs (in this study Gaussian 09) and Amber 11 package. Calculated free energy barriers of the both ruthenium hydration and Ru(II)-N7(G) DNA binding process are in good agreement with experimentally measured rate constants. Then, this method was used to study the possibility of cross-link formation. One feasible pathway leading to Ru(II) guanine-guanine cross-link with synchronous releasing of the benzene ligand is predicted. The cross-linking is an exergonic process with the energy barrier lower than for the monoadduct reaction of Ru(II) complex with ds-DNA. PMID:24865949

  4. Unprecedented Self-Organized Monolayer of a Ru(II) Complex by Diazonium Electroreduction.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Quynh; Sun, Xiaonan; Lafolet, Frédéric; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Loiseau, Frédérique; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    A new heteroleptic polypyridyle Ru(II) complex was synthesized and deposited on surface by the diazonium electroreduction process. It yields to the covalent grafting of a monolayer. The functionalized surface was characterized by XPS, electrochemistry, AFM, and STM. A precise organization of the molecules within the monolayer is observed with parallel linear stripes separated by a distance of 3.8 nm corresponding to the lateral size of the molecule. Such organization suggests a strong cooperative process in the deposition process. This strategy is an original way to obtain well-controlled and stable functionalized surfaces for potential applications related to the photophysical properties of the grafted chromophore. As an exciting result, it is the first example of a self-organized monolayer (SOM) obtained using diazonium electroreduction. PMID:27430366

  5. Can luminescent Ru(II) polypyridyl dyes measure pH directly?

    PubMed

    Tormo, Laura; Bustamante, Nelia; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Orellana, Guillermo

    2010-06-15

    Two molecularly engineered Ru(II) complexes for direct pH optosensing in environmental or physiological media based on luminescence lifetime measurements-namely, Na(2)[Ru(bpds)(2)(F(15)ap)] and Na(2)[Ru(pbbs)(2)(pyim)] (where bpds = 2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-disulfonate, F(15)ap = 5-perfluorooctanamide-1,10-phenanthroline, pbbs = 1,10-phenanthroline-4,7-(diyl)bis(benzenesulfonate), and pyim = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole)-have been prepared. The suitability of these two luminophores as general-purpose pH indicators has been assessed to determine the general features of Ru(II) dyes required for such application. Their photochemical properties were investigated at different pH values in various buffer solutions using absorption spectroscopy, as well as steady-state and time-resolved luminescence. Both dyes display a parallel absorption and emission behavior as a function of pH (2-10), namely, higher luminescence in acidic solutions together with a 8-10 nm bathochromic shift in their (blue) absorption and 6-39 nm bathochromic shift in their (red) luminescence maxima in basic media, respectively. Similar ground-state acidity values (pK(a)) of 6.5 +/- 0.2 for the amide group of the F(15)ap complex and 6.9 +/- 0.2 for the imidazole NH moiety of the pyim complex have been measured. However, dramatic differences in their luminescence lifetimes as a function of pH were found. The HA and A(-) forms of *[Ru(bpds)(2)(F(15)ap)](2-) conveniently display lifetimes of 372 and 263 ns, respectively, regardless of the solution acidity and buffer nature. Their relative contributions to the overall decay (0%-100%) are dependent on the solution pH indicating excited-state proton exchange rates well below the decay rates of the acidic and basic forms. However, *[Ru(pbbs)(2)(pyim)](2-) deactivation kinetics show a pH-independent component of 80 ns at high pH and an acidity-sensitive one that varies from 610 ns (at pH 2) to 170 ns (at pH 10). Both components are also dependent on the buffer nature

  6. Photorelease of Pyridyl Esters in Organometallic Ru(II) Arene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Abraha; Garino, Claudio; Ruggiero, Emmanuel; Alonso-de Castro, Silvia; Mareque-Rivas, Juan C; Salassa, Luca

    2015-01-01

    New Ru(II) arene complexes of formula [(η6-p-cym)Ru(N-N)(X)]2+ (where p-cym = para-cymene, N-N = 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpm) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) and X = m/p-COOMe-Py, 1-4) were synthesised and characterized, including the molecular structure of complexes [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy)(m-COOMe-Py)]2+ (3) and [(η6-p-cym)Ru(bpy) (p-COOMe-Py)]2+ (4) by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-4 are stable in the dark in aqueous solution over 48 h and photolysis studies indicate that they can photodissociate the monodentate m/p-COOMe-Py ligands selectively with yields lower than 1%. DFT and TD-DFT calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ/6-31G**) performed on singlet and triplet states pinpoint a low-energy triplet state as the reactive state responsible for the selective dissociation of the monodentate pyridyl ligands. PMID:25905605

  7. Synthesis, characterization, DNA binding, DNA cleavage, protein binding and cytotoxic activities of Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Thota, Sreekanth; Vallala, Srujana; Yerra, Rajeshwar; Rodrigues, Daniel Alencar; Raghavendra, Nulgumnalli Manjunathaiah; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2016-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of novel Ru(II) compounds (Ru-1 to Ru-8) bearing R-pdc, 4-Cl-pbinh ligands (where R=4-CF3, 4-F, 4-OH pdc=3-phenyl-5-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carbothioamide, pbinh=phenoxybenzylidene isonicotinyl hydrazides) and their in vitro antitumor activity toward the cell lines murine leukemia L1210, human lymphocyte CEM, human epithelial cervical carcinoma HeLa, BEL-7402 and Molt4/C8. Some of the complexes exhibited more potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines than the standard drug cisplatin. Ruthenium complex Ru-2 displayed potent cytotoxicity with than that of cisplatin. DNA-binding, DNA cleavage and protein binding properties of ruthenium complexes with these ligands are reported. Interactions of these ruthenium complexes with DNA revealed an intercalative mode of binding between them. Synchronous fluorescence spectra proved that the interaction of ruthenium complexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) resulted in a conformational change of the latter.

  8. Interactions of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes with DNA mismatches and abasic sites.

    PubMed

    Nandhini, T; Anju, K R; Manikandamathavan, V M; Vaidyanathan, V G; Nair, B U

    2015-05-21

    Polypyridyl based ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(furphen)](PF6)2 (1) and [Ru(bpy)2(imiphen)](PF6)2 (2) {furphen: 2-(furan-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and imiphen: 2-(1H-imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} were synthesized and characterized by ESI-MS, NMR, UV-Visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The interaction of Ru(II) complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) as well as oligonucleotides containing mismatches and abasic sites was studied along with unmodified control DNA. Based on absorption titration studies, binding constants (Kb) for the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with DNA were found to be 6.7 ± 0.2 × 10(3) and 4.9 ± 0.2 × 10(4) M(-1), respectively. Hydrodynamic studies revealed weak interactions between the two complexes and CT-DNA. Luminescence studies revealed that both the complexes exhibit a five-fold increase in emission upon addition of CT-DNA. The integrated emission intensity of complexes 1 and 2 with CC mismatch oligonucleotides was 1.5 and 1.2 fold higher than that of control GC match oligonucleotides, respectively. Both the complexes did not show any specificity towards abasic or other mismatch sites except for CC mismatch. The results from this study provide an insight into the requirements of ligand shape in recognising DNA mutations such as mismatch and selectivity between DNA mismatches. PMID:25893583

  9. Elucidation of the binding sites of two novel Ru(II) complexes on bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Nišavić, Marija; Masnikosa, Romana; Butorac, Ana; Perica, Kristina; Rilak, Ana; Korićanac, Lela; Hozić, Amela; Petković, Marijana; Cindrić, Mario

    2016-06-01

    Hyphenated mass spectrometry (MS) techniques have attained an important position in analysis of covalent and non-covalent interactions of metal complexes with peptides and proteins. The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine ruthenium binding sites on a protein using tandem mass spectrometry and allied techniques, i.e. liquid chromatography (LC) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). For that purpose, two newly synthesized Ru(II) complexes of a meridional geometry, namely mer-[Ru(4' Cl-tpy)(en)Cl](+) (1) and mer-[Ru(4' Cl-tpy)(dach)Cl](+) (2) (where 4' Cl-tpy=4'-chloro-2,2':6',2″-terpyridine, en=1,2-diaminoethane and dach=1,2-diaminocyclohexane), and bovine serum albumin were used. The binding of the complexes to the protein was investigated by means of size exclusion- and reversed phase-LC, ICP OES, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization MS and MS/MS. Ruthenated peptide sequence and a binding target amino acid were revealed through accurate elucidation of MS/MS spectra. The results obtained in this study suggest a high binding capacity of the protein towards both complexes, with up to 5.77±0.14 and 6.95±0.43mol of 1 and 2 bound per mol of protein, respectively. The proposed binding mechanism for the selected complexes includes the release of Cl ligand, its replacement with water molecule and further coordination to electron donor histidine residue.

  10. DNA intercalating Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes as effective photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Mari, Cristina; Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Patra, Malay; Hess, Jeannine; Spingler, Bernhard; Oehninger, Luciano; Schur, Julia; Ott, Ingo; Salassa, Luca; Ferrari, Stefano; Gasser, Gilles

    2014-10-27

    Six substitutionally inert [Ru(II) (bipy)2 dppz](2+) derivatives (bipy=2,2'-bipyridine, dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) bearing different functional groups on the dppz ligand [NH2 (1), OMe (2), OAc (3), OH (4), CH2 OH (5), CH2 Cl (6)] were synthesized and studied as potential photosensitizers (PSs) in photodynamic therapy (PDT). As also confirmed by DFT calculations, all complexes showed promising (1) O2 production quantum yields, well comparable with PSs available on the market. They can also efficiently intercalate into the DNA double helix, which is of high interest in view of DNA targeting. The cellular localization and uptake quantification of 1-6 were assessed by confocal microscopy and high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry. Compound 1, and especially 2, showed very good uptake in cervical cancer cells (HeLa) with preferential nuclear accumulation. None of the compounds studied was found to be cytotoxic in the dark on both HeLa cells and, interestingly, on noncancerous MRC-5 cells (IC50 >100 μM). However, 1 and 2 showed very promising behavior with an increment of about 150 and 42 times, respectively, in their cytotoxicities upon light illumination at 420 nm in addition to a very good human plasma stability. As anticipated, the preferential nuclear accumulation of 1 and 2 and their very high DNA binding affinity resulted in very efficient DNA photocleavage, suggesting a DNA-based mode of phototoxic action. PMID:25213439

  11. Molecularly Engineered Ru(II) Sensitizers Compatible with Cobalt(II/III) Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Huckaba, Aron J; Clifford, John N; Yang, Ya-Wen; Yella, Aswani; Palomares, Emilio; Grätzel, Michael; Chi, Yun; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-08-01

    Thiocyanate-free isoquinazolylpyrazolate Ru(II) complexes were synthesized and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Unlike most other successful Ru sensitizers, Co-based electrolytes were used, and resulting record efficiency of 9.53% was obtained under simulated sunlight with an intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). Specifically, dye 51-57dht.1 and an electrolyte based on Co(phen)3 led to measurement of a JSC of 13.89 mA cm(-2), VOC of 900 mV, and FF of 0.762 to yield 9.53% efficiency. The improved device performances were achieved by the inclusion of 2-hexylthiophene units onto the isoquinoline subunits, in addition to lengthening the perfluoroalkyl chain on the pyrazolate chelating group, which worked to increase light absorption and decrease recombination effects when using the Co-based electrolyte. As this study shows, Ru(II) sensitizers bearing sterically demanding ligands can allow successful utilization of important Co electrolytes and high performance. PMID:27420188

  12. Ru(II) Tris(3,8-Dibromo-1,10-Phenanthro1ine): A New Versatile Core for the Divergent Synthesis of Hyperbranched Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Yang, Jinhua; Duan, Penggao; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    We report the first synthesis of Ru(II) tris(3,8-dibromo-1,lO-phenanthroline) bishexafluorophosphate, and we demonstrate its utility as a building core for the divergent synthesis of hyperbranched systems by coupling with phenylacetylene in the preparation of Rum tris(3,8-diphenylethynyl- 1,lO-phenanthroline) dihexafluorophosphate.

  13. Electronic and optical response of functionalized Ru(II) complexes: joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Kilina, Svetlana; Tretiak, Sergei; Sykora, Milan; Albert, Victor; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Koposov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the Ru(II) complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge -- a carboxyl group -- needs to be added to one or two of the 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure affect electronic and optical properties and, consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru(II)-systems. In this study, we analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state properties, respectively, of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase and acetonitrile solution. In addition, an effective Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states in all molecules. All theoretical results nicely complement and allow for detailed interpretation of experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes that have been done in parallel with our theoretical investigations. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show that deprotonation of the carboxyl group in the Ru-complexes results in a slight blue shift and decrease of oscillator strengths of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotonated complexes demonstrate strong agreement if the theoretical calculations are performed with the addition of a dielectric continuum model. A polar solvent is found to play an

  14. A beta-D-allopyranoside-grafted Ru(II) complex: synthesis and acid-base and DNA-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan-Zi; Yin, Hong-Ju; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2009-08-01

    A new ruthenium(II) complex grafted with beta-d-allopyranoside, Ru(bpy)(2)(Happip)(ClO(4))(2) (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; Happip = 2-(4-(beta-d-allopyranoside)phenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The acid-base properties of the complex have been studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state ionization constants have been derived. The Ru(II) complex functions as a DNA intercalator as revealed by UV-visible and emission titrations, salt effects, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)(6)](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA melting experiment, and viscosity measurements.

  15. Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical characterization of terpyridine-functionalized dendritic oligothiophenes and their Ru(II) complexes

    PubMed Central

    Mena-Osteritz, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Summary Pd-catalyzed Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions were used to synthesize novel π-conjugated oligothienylene-ethynylene dendrons and their corresponding terpyridine-based ligands. Their complexation with Ru(II) led to interesting novel metallodendrimers with rich spectroscopic properties. All new compounds were fully characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, as well as MALDI–TOF mass spectra. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on these complexes gave more insight into the molecular orbital distributions. Photophysical and electrochemical studies were carried out in order to elucidate structure–property relationships and the effect of the dendritic structure on the metal complexes. Photophysical studies of the complexes revealed broad absorption spectra covering from 250 to 600 nm and high molar extinction coefficients. The MLCT emission of these complexes were significantly red-shifted (up to 115 nm) compared to the parent [Ru(tpy)2]2+ complex. PMID:23766802

  16. New Ru(II) Complexes for Dual Photoreactivity: Ligand Exchange and 1O2 Generation

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Jessica D.; Albani, Bryan A.; Turro, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Uncovering the factors that govern the electronic structure of Ru(II)–polypyridyl complexes is critical in designing new compounds for desired photochemical reactions, and strategies to tune excited states for ligand dissociation and 1O2 production are discussed herein. The generally accepted mechanism for photoinduced ligand dissociation proposes that population of the dissociative triplet ligand field (3LF) state proceeds through thermal population from the vibrationally cooled triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) state; however, temperature-dependent emission spectroscopy provides varied activation energies using the emission and ligand exchange quantum yields for [Ru(bpy)2(L)2]2+ (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; L = CH3CN or py). This suggests that population of the 3LF state proceeds from the vibrationally excited 3MLCT state. Because the quantum yield of ligand dissociation for nitriles is much more efficient than that for py, steric bulk was introduced into the ligand set to distort the pseudo-octahedral geometry and lower the energy of the 3LF state. The py dissociation quantum yield with 500 nm irradiation in a series of [Ru(tpy)(NN)(py)]2+ complexes (tpy = 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine; NN = bpy, 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine (Me2bpy), 2,2′-biquinoline (biq)) increases by 2–3 orders of magnitude with the sterically bulky Me2bpy and biq ligands relative to bpy. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy reveals population of the 3LF state within 3–7 ps when NN is bulky, and density functional theory calculations support stabilized 3LF states. Dual activity via ligand dissociation and 1O2 production can be achieved by careful selection of the ligand set to tune the excited-state dynamics. Incorporation of an extended π system in Ru(II) complexes such as [Ru(bpy)(dppn)(CH3CN)2]2+ (dppn = benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine) and [Ru(tpy)(Me2dppn)(py)]2+ (Me2dppn = 3,6-dimethylbenzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3

  17. Luminescent pH sensor of a novel imidazole-containing hexanuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feixiang; Tang, Ning; Chen, Jishu; Chen, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Hexapodal ligand H6L containing imidazole rings has been prepared by the reaction of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione with 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis[(3-formylphenoxy)methyl]benzene. The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex [{Ru(bpy)2}6(μ6-H6L)](PF6)12 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) has been synthesized by the reaction of Ru(bpy)2Cl2·2H2O with ligand H6L. The pH effects on the UV-vis absorption and emission spectra of the complex have been studied. The ground- and excited-state ionization constants of the acid-base equilibria have been calculated according to the absorbance and emission data. The complex acts as an off-on-off luminescent pH sensor through two successive deprotonation processes of imidazole rings, with a maximum on-off ratio of 5 in buffer solution.

  18. The electronic structure and spectra of Ru(II) and Ru(III) complexes with imidazole and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogachevsky, I. V.; Baranovski, V. I.

    2000-12-01

    The calculations of the electronic structure and spectra of [Ru(NH 3) 5L] 2+ (L=imidazole, histidine) and [Ru(NH 3) 5L] 3+ (L=imidazole, N-imidazolate anion, 4-methylimidazole, 4-methyl-1 N-imidazolate anion and 1 N-bound histidine) complexes are performed in the framework of the CI method in the INDO/CNDO approximation. The MO diagram is obtained. The assignment of all transitions with energies of 4-5 eV is made and the nature of corresponding excited states is discussed. For the Ru(II) complexes, the lower energy observable transition is assigned to d→π* type, whereas the higher energy one is assigned to π→π* type. In the spectra of the Ru(III) complexes with charged ligands both transitions are of π→d character, while in the case of uncharged ligands, the higher energy transition mostly incorporates π→π* excitations.

  19. On the viability of cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes as dyes in DSSC regulated by COOH group, a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Bai, Fu-Quan; Xia, Bao-Hui; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Pan, Qing-Jiang

    2011-02-14

    The Ru(II) complexes [Ru(bpp)(dcbpy)Cl](+) (1), [Ru(tcbpp)(bpy)Cl](+) (2), and [Ru(tc'bpp)(bpy)Cl](+) (3) (bpp = 2,6-bis(N-pyrazolyl)pyridine, dcbpy = 4,4'-dicarboxyl-bipyridine, bpy = bipyridine, tcbpp = 4-carboxyl-2,6-bis(2-carboxyl-N-pyrazolyl)pyridine, tc'bpp = 4-carboxyl-2,6-bis(4-carboxyl-N-pyrazolyl)pyridine) are studied theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) techniques to explore their properties as dye in a solar cell. The calculated geometry structure and absorption spectrum of 1 are consistent with its experimental results. The calculation results indicate which sites the COOH groups attach to can significantly influence the electronic structure of the complex. By migrating the COOH groups from the bpy ligand in 1 to bpp ligand in 2 and 3, the nature of LUMO changes from bpy-localized to bpp dominated. The calculated low-lying absorptions at λ > 370 nm of the three complexes are categorized as metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) transitions and the transition terminates at the orbital populated by the COOH appended ligand. The atomic spin density analysis also indicates that the ligand which is modified by the COOH groups is the ideal spot for the captured electron to situate. It can be predicted that the performance of 2 and 3 in the dye-sensitized solar cell can be enhanced as compared with 1.

  20. Aryl-Decorated Ru(II) Polypyridyl-type Photosensitizer Approaching NIR Emission with Microsecond Excited State Lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Schlotthauer, Tina; Suchland, Benedikt; Görls, Helmar; Parada, Giovanny A; Hammarström, Leif; Schubert, Ulrich S; Jäger, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Bis-tridentate Ru(II) complexes based on the dqp scaffold (dqp is 2,6-di(quinolin-8-yl)pyridine) with multiple aryl substituents were explored to tailor the absorption and emission properties. A synthetic methodology was developed for the facile synthesis and purification of homo- and heteroleptic bis-tridentate Ru complexes. The effect of the aryl substituents in the para positions of the pyridine and quinoline subunits was detailed by X-ray crystallography, steady state and time-resolved spectroscopy, electrochemistry, and computational methods. The attachment of the aryl groups results in enhanced molar extinction coefficients with the largest effect in the pyridine position, whereas the quinoline substituent leads to red-shifted emission tailing into the NIR region (up to 800 nm). Notably, the excited state lifetimes remain in the microsecond time scale even in the presence of O2, whereas the emission quantum yields are slightly increased with respect to the parental complex [Ru(dqp)2](2+). The peripheral functional groups (Br, Me, OMe) have only a minor impact on the optical properties and are attractive to utilize such complexes as functional building blocks. PMID:27228222

  1. Temperature and Oxygen Sensing Properties of Ru(II) Covalently-Grafted Sol-Gel Derived Ormosil Hybrid Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoran; Lei, Bingfu; Dong, Hanwu; Liu, Yingliang; Zheng, Mingtao; Xiao, Yong

    2016-04-01

    In this article, oxygen and temperature-sensing hybrid materials consisting of [Ru(Phen)3]2+ portions covalently-grafted onto the sol-gel derived ormosil network were prepared by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) using n-octyltriethoxysilane as the network modifier. For comparison purposes, the hybrid materials in which [Ru(Phen)3]2+ were conventionally physically-incorporated into the matrix were also prepared. The obtained hybrid materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), luminescence intensity oxygen quenching Stern-Volmer plots, temperature quenching plots and excited-state lifetime. The near linear Stern-Volmer plots can be attributed to the approximate heterogeneous environment of the luminophore within the ormosil materials. The results reveal that the. covalently-grafted sample is more sensitive to 02, and has a higher sensing sensitivity and a higher thermal activation energy compared to the physically-incorporated one, since these Ru(II) molecules are strongly covalently-grafted onto the Si-O network via the CH2-Si bonds and less -OH group. PMID:27451760

  2. Steric and Electronic Factors Associated with the Photoinduced Ligand Exchange of Bidentate Ligands Coordinated to Ru(II).

    PubMed

    Albani, Bryan A; Whittemore, Tyler; Durr, Christopher B; Turro, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to create a molecule that can absorb low energy visible or near-infrared light for photochemotherapy (PCT), the new complexes [Ru(biq)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (1, biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, dpb = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)benzoquinoxaline) and [(biq)2 Ru(dpb)Re(CO)3 Cl](PF6 )2 (2) were synthesized and characterized. Complexes 1 and 2 were compared to [Ru(bpy)2 (dpb)](PF6 )2 (3, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(biq)2 (phen)](PF6 )2 (4, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline). Distortions around the metal and biq ligands were used to explain the exchange of one biq ligand in 4 upon irradiation. Complex 1, however, undergoes photoinduced dissociation of the dpb ligand rather than biq under analogous experimental conditions. Complex 3 is not photoactive, providing evidence that the biq ligands are crucial for ligand photodissociation in 1. The crystal structures of 1 and 4 are compared to explain the difference in photochemistry between the complexes. Complex 2 absorbs lower energy light than 1, but is photochemically inert although its crystal structure displays significant distortions. These results indicate that both the excited state electronic structure and steric bulk play key roles in bidentate photoinduced ligand dissociation. The present work also shows that it is possible to stabilize sterically hindered Ru(II) complexes by the addition of another metal, a property that may be useful for other applications. PMID:25403564

  3. Design, synthesis and excited-state properties of mononuclear Ru(II) complexes of tridentate heterocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amlan K; Hanan, Garry S

    2014-09-01

    Artificial photosynthetic systems that contain light-harvesting coordination complexes may one day replace conventional non-renewable sources of energy with renewable solar energy sources. Light-Harvesting Complexes (LHC) are important components of natural photosynthetic systems and are also sought after in artificial systems as well. Polynuclear photoactive complexes are therefore very attractive, and those based on stereogenic [Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)3](2+) are photophysically appealing, but difficult to obtain in a stereochemically pure form. On the other hand, polynuclear complexes based on the achiral [Ru(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)2](2+) motif are easy to synthesise, however, these complexes are devoid of attractive excited-state properties. Hence strategies to increase the r.t. excited-state lifetime of these complexes would be of practical importance in vectorial electron and/or electron transfer in various optoelectronic applications. This tutorial review will report on the sophisticated synthetic strategies currently in use to enhance the photophysical properties of mononuclear Ru(II) complexes of tridentate ligands at room temperature. PMID:24919706

  4. 4,4',5,5'-Tetracarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine Ru(II) sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chun-Cheng; Hu, Fa-Chun; Wu, Kuan-Lin; Duan, Tainan; Chi, Yun; Liu, Shih-Hung; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2014-08-18

    Two Ru(II) sensitizers TCR-1 and TCR-2 bearing four carboxy anchoring groups were prepared using 4,4',5,5'-tetraethoxycarbonyl-2,2'-bipyridine chelate and 4-(5-hexylthien-2-yl)-2-(3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)pyridine and 6-t-butyl-1-(3-trifluoromethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)isoquinoline, respectively. Dissolution of these sensitizers in DMF solution afforded a light green solution up to 10(-5) M, for which their color gradually turned red upon further dilution and deposition on the surface of a TiO2 photoanode due to the spontaneous deprotonation of carboxylic acid groups. These sensitizers were characterized using electrochemical means and structural analysis time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulation and were also subjected to actual device fabrication. The as-fabricated DSC devices showed overall efficiencies η = 6.16% and 6.23% versus their 4,4'-dicarboxy counterparts TFRS-2 and TFRS-52 with higher efficiencies of 7.57% and 8.09%, using electrolyte with 0.2 M LiI additive. Their inferior efficiencies are possibly caused by the combination of blue-shifted absorption on TiO2, inadequate dye loading, and the perpendicularly oriented central carboxy groups.

  5. Syntheses and molecular structures of novel Ru(II) complexes with bidentate benzimidazole based ligands and their catalytic efficiency for oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayan, Osman; Tercan, Melek; Özdemir, Namık

    2016-11-01

    Five bidentate ligands derived from quinoline-2-carboxylic acid, i.e. 2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L1), 2-(1-benzyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)quinoline (L2), 2-[1-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L3), 2-[1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L4), and 2-[1-(4-methylbenzyl)-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl]quinoline (L5) were synthesized. Treatment of L1-5 with [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 and KPF6 afforded six-coordinate piano-stool Ru(II) complexes, namely, [RuCl(L1)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C1), [RuCl(L2)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C2), [RuCl(L3)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C3), [RuCl(L4)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C4), and [RuCl(L5)(p-cymene)]PF6 (C5). Synthesized compounds were characterized with different techniques such as 1H and 13C NMR, FT-IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The solid state structure of L1 and C3 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The single crystal structure of C3 verified coordination of L3 to the Ru(II) center. The Ru(II) center has a pseudo-octahedral three legged piano stool geometry. The complexes C1-5 were tested as catalysts for the catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde in the presence of periodic acid (H5IO6) (Substrate/Catalyst/Oxidant = 1/0.01/0.5). The best result was obtained with C2 (3 h→90%).

  6. A Z-scheme photocatalyst constructed with an yttrium-tantalum oxynitride and a binuclear Ru(ii) complex for visible-light CO2 reduction.

    PubMed

    Muraoka, Kanemichi; Kumagai, Hiromu; Eguchi, Miharu; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-14

    An yttrium-tantalum oxynitride having a band gap of 2.1 eV (absorbing visible light at <580 nm) was applicable as a semiconductor component of a Z-scheme CO2 reduction system operable under visible light, in combination with a binuclear Ru(ii) complex that has strong absorption in the visible region (<600 nm). Excitation of this system with visible light under a CO2 atmosphere induced photocatalytic formation of formic acid with very high selectivity (>99%). PMID:27251369

  7. BODIPY-modified Ru(II) arene complex--a new ligand dissociation mechanism and a novel strategy to red shift the photoactivation wavelength of anticancer metallodrugs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian-Xiong; Lei, Wan-Hua; Hou, Yuan-Jun; Chen, Yong-Jie; Li, Chao; Zhang, Bao-Wen; Wang, Xue-Song

    2013-02-28

    A Ru(II) arene complex [(η(6)-p-cymene)Ru(bpy)(py-BODIPY)](PF(6))(2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine and py-BODIPY is a 4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene dye containing a pyridine group at the 8-position, was designed and synthesized. BODIPY modification renders the monodentate pyridine ligand with long wavelength absorbing capability, and an absorption maximum at 504 nm. Upon selective irradiation of the absorption band of the py-BODIPY ligand, the dissociation of the monodentate ligand occurs efficiently, followed by substitution by 9-ethylguanine if it is present in the solution. The photoinduced ligand dissociation quantum yield was measured to be 4.1% at 480 nm. The photoinduced electron transfer from the BODIPY chromophore to the Ru(II) arene moiety plays an important role in the ligand dissociation. Such a photosensitization strategy can be utilized to develop novel anticancer metallodrugs that may respond to light in the phototherapeutic window (650-900 nm).

  8. Polypyrrolic bipyridine bis(phenantrolinequinone) Ru(II) complex/carbon nanotube composites for NAD-dependent enzyme immobilization and wiring.

    PubMed

    Reuillard, Bertrand; Le Goff, Alan; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-05-01

    We report the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of a novel electropolymerizable Ru(II) complex containing two phenanthrolinequinone ligands, Ru(II)(PhQ)2(bpy-pyrrole)(PF6)2. This complex was electropolymerized on glassy carbon (GC) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes. Higher apparent surface concentrations (80 nmol cm(-2)) were obtained on MWCNTs than on GC electrodes and correspond to ∼1000 equivalent compact monolayers of Ru complex. Moreover, the nanostructured metallopolymer exhibits efficient electrocatalytic properties toward oxidation of NADH. This metallopolymer can be electrogenerated in water from the adsorbed Ru(II) monomer. This property was applied to the immobilization of enzymes by coadsorption of Ru complex and enzyme and then electropolymerization of coatings. This two-step procedure leads to the entrapment of 70%-90% of the deposited amount of enzyme in poly-Ru(II)(PhQ)2(bpy-pyrrole) films. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was thus efficiently immobilized in the electrogenerated polymer matrix. In presence of NAD(+) (10 mM), the resulting enzyme electrode exhibits high current densities for glucose oxidation of 1.04 mA cm(-2) at low overpotentials (-0.1 V) with a detection limit of 1 μM of glucose.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of some Ru(II) complexes with substituted chalcones and their applications as chemotherapeutics against breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Saxena, Gunjan; Dixit, Shivani; Hamidullah; Singh, Sachin K.; Singh, Sudheer K.; Arshad, M.; Konwar, Rituraj

    2016-05-01

    Four new Ru(II) DMSO complexes with substituted chalcone ligands viz. (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (HL1), (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (HL2), (E)-3-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (HL3) and (E)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(4-Chlorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (HL4) have been synthesized, and characterized by micro-analyses, IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis and ESI-MS and screened for anti-cancer activity against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA MB-231). Compounds HL4 and [Ru(HL1) (O-DMSO)3(S-DMSO)]Cl (M1R) showed significant anti-breast cancer activity as evident from cytotoxicity, morphological and nuclear changes, DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells. UV-Vis and CD-spectra analysis showed HL4 and M1R interfered with DNA absorption spectra possibly due to DNA binding whereas these compounds were devoid of DNA topoisomerase inhibiting activity. Thus, these Ru(II) compounds have been established as new leads for future optimization by improving anti-cancer potency and safety.

  10. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II) acceptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Inhye; Song, Young Ho; Singh, Nem; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kwon, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyunuk; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II) molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3, 6-bis(pyridin-3- ylethynyl) phenanthrene (bpep) (1) and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2, 5-dioxido-1, 4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate) (2), 5, 8-dioxido-1, 4-naphthoquinonato (3), or 6, 11-dioxido-5, 12-naphthacenediona (4), resulted in three molecular bowls 5–7 of general formula [{(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)}2(bpep)2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90%) and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5–7 were determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation of p62 and promotion of the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Moreover, bowl 6 promoted apoptotic cell death through downregulation of Akt/mTOR activation, followed by increased caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that bowl 6 induces gastric cancer cell death via modulation of autophagy and apoptosis. Bowl 6 is a potent anticancer agent and a potential treatment for human gastric cancer that merits further study. PMID:26347134

  11. Electronic and optical response of Ru(II) complexes functionalized by methyl, carboxylate groups: joint theoretical and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Tretiak, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge - a carboxyl group - is added to one or two of the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure, indeed, affect electronic and optical properties and consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru-systems. In this study, we apply both theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the Ru(II) bipyridine complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state structures of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase, as well as in acetonitrile solution. In addition, an inelaborate Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states. All theoretical results nicely complement experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes and contribute to their interpretation. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show a high probability of deprotonation of the carbboxyl group in the Ru-complexes resulted in a slight blue shift and decrease of intensities of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotanated complexes demonstrate strong agreement when acetonitrile solvent is used in simulations. A polar solvent is found to play an important role in calculations of optical spectra: it

  12. Anticancer activities of self-assembled molecular bowls containing a phenanthrene-based donor and Ru(II) acceptors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inhye; Song, Young Ho; Singh, Nem; Jeong, Yong Joon; Kwon, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyunuk; Cho, Young Mi; Kang, Se Chan; Chi, Ki-Whan

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized multinuclear ruthenium complexes have rapidly emerged as promising therapeutic candidates with unique anticancer activities. Here, we describe the coordination-driven self-assembly and anticancer activities of a set of three organometallic tetranuclear Ru(II) molecular bowls. [2+2] Coordination-driven self-assembly of 3, 6-bis(pyridin-3- ylethynyl) phenanthrene (bpep) (1) and one of the three dinuclear arene ruthenium clips, [(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)][OTf]2 (OO\\OO =2, 5-dioxido-1, 4-benzoquinonato, OTf = triflate) (2), 5, 8-dioxido-1, 4-naphthoquinonato (3), or 6, 11-dioxido-5, 12-naphthacenediona (4), resulted in three molecular bowls 5-7 of general formula [{(η6-p-iPrC6H4Me)2Ru2-(OO\\OO)}2(bpep)2][OTf]4. All molecular bowls were obtained as triflate salts in very good yields (>90%) and were fully characterized using multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and elemental analysis. The structure of the representative molecular bowl 5 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The anticancer activities of molecular bowls 5-7 were determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, autophagy, and Western blot analysis. Bowl 6 showed the strongest cytotoxicity in AGS human gastric carcinoma cells and was more cytotoxic than doxorubicin. In addition, autophagic activity and the ratio of apoptotic cell death increased in AGS cells by treatment with bowl 6. Bowl 6 also induced autophagosome formation via upregulation of p62 and promotion of the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Moreover, bowl 6 promoted apoptotic cell death through downregulation of Akt/mTOR activation, followed by increased caspase-3 activity. These results suggest that bowl 6 induces gastric cancer cell death via modulation of autophagy and apoptosis. Bowl 6 is a potent anticancer agent and a potential treatment for human gastric cancer that merits further study. PMID:26347134

  13. Cationic half-sandwich Ru(II) complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands: Synthesis, crystal structure analysis and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Li; Miao, Qian; Tehrani, Alireza Azhdari; Hajiashrafi, Taraneh; Hu, Mao-Lin; Morsali, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Three Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes containing (N,N)-bound Schiff-base ligands, [(η6-C6H6) RuCl(L1)]PF6 (1) L1 = (E)-1-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L1)]PF6 (2) and [(η6-p-cymene)RuCl(L2)]PF6(3) L2 = (E)-1-(6-bromopyridin-2-yl)-N-(p-tolyl)methanimine, were synthesized, characterized and their supramolecular structures were analyzed. The crystal packing of these compounds was studied using geometrical analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The fluorescence behavior of these compounds was also studied. TD-DFT calculations were carried out to better understand the fluorescence properties of complexes 1-3. These compounds could be promising for the design of organometallic dye systems.

  14. A visible-light harvesting system for CO2 reduction using a Ru(II) -Re(I) photocatalyst adsorbed in mesoporous organosilica.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yutaro; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Yui, Tatsuto; Koike, Kazuhide; Goto, Yasutomo; Inagaki, Shinji; Ishitani, Osamu

    2015-02-01

    A photocatalytic system for CO2 reduction exhibiting visible-light harvesting was developed by preparing a hybrid consisting of a supramolecular metal complex as photocatalyst and periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) as light harvester. A Ru(II) Re(I) binuclear complex (RuRe) with methylphosphonic acid anchor groups was adsorbed on acridone or methylacridone embedded in the walls of PMO mesochannels to yield the hybrid structure. The embedded organic groups absorbed visible light, and the excitation energy was funneled to the Ru units. The energy accumulation was followed by electron transfer and catalytic reduction of CO2 to CO on the Re unit. The light harvesting of these hybrids enhanced the photocatalytic CO evolution rate by a factor of up to ten compared with that of RuRe adsorbed on mesoporous silica without a light harvester. PMID:25524162

  15. New RuII (arene) complexes with halogen-substituted bis- and tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate ligands.

    PubMed

    Orbisaglia, Serena; Di Nicola, Corrado; Marchetti, Fabio; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Martins, Luísa M D R S; Alegria, Elisabete C B A; da Silva, M Fátima C Guedes; Rocha, Bruno G M; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Pombeiro, Armando J L; Skelton, Brian W; Sobolev, Alexandre N; White, Allan H

    2014-03-24

    [RuCl(arene)(μ-Cl)]2 dimers were treated in a 1:2 molar ratio with sodium or thallium salts of bis- and tris(pyrazolyl)borate ligands [Na(Bp(Br3))], [Tl(Tp(Br3))], and [Tl(Tp(iPr, 4Br))]. Mononuclear neutral complexes [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))] (1: arene=p-cymene (cym); 2: arene=hexamethylbenzene (hmb); 3: arene=benzene (bz)), [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Tp(Br3))] (4: arene=cym; 6: arene=bz), and [RuCl(arene)(κ(2)-Tp(iPr, 4Br))] (7: arene=cym, 8: arene=hmb, 9: arene=bz) have been always obtained with the exception of the ionic [Ru2 (hmb)2-(μ-Cl)3][Tp(Br3)] (5'), which formed independently of the ratio of reactants and reaction conditions employed. The ionic [Ru-(CH3OH)(cym)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))][X] (10: X=PF6, 12: X=O3SCF3) and the neutral [Ru(O2CCF3)(cym)(κ(2)-Bp(Br3))] (11) have been obtained by a metathesis reaction with corresponding silver salts. All complexes 1-12 have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic data (IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy). The structures of the thallium and calcium derivatives of ligand Tp(Br3), [Tl(Tp(Br3))] and [Ca(dmso)6][Tp(Br3)]2 ⋅2 DMSO, of the complexes 1, 4, 5', 6, 11, and of the decomposition product [RuCl(cym)(Hpz(iPr, 4Br))2][Cl] (7') have been confirmed by using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical studies showed that 1-9 and 11 undergo a single-electron Ru(II) →Ru(III) oxidation at a potential, measured by cyclic voltammetry, which allows comparison of the electron-donor characters of the bis- and tris(pyrazol-1-yl)borate and arene ligands, and to estimate, for the first time, the values of the Lever EL ligand parameter for Bp(Br3), Tp(Br3), and Tp(iPr, 4Br). Theoretical calculations at the DFT level indicated that both oxidation and reduction of the Ru complexes under study are mostly metal-centered with some involvement of the chloride ligand in the former case, and also demonstrated that the experimental isolation of the μ(3)-binuclear complex 5' (instead of the mononuclear 5

  16. Pyrene and imidazole functionalized luminescent bimetallic Ru(II) terpyridine complexes as efficient optical chemosensors for cyanide in aqueous, organic and solid media.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Srikanta; Maity, Dinesh; Mardanya, Sourav; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2015-11-14

    We report in this work the anion recognition and sensing aspect of a new family of bimetallic Ru(ii) complexes derived from a symmetrical bridging 5,11-bis(4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)phenyl)-4,12-dihydropyreno[4,5-d:9,10-d']diimidazole (tpy-H2PhImzPy-tpy) terpyridine ligand in solution as well as in the solid sate through different channels such as absorption, steady state and time-resolved emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. Interestingly, the complexes exhibit luminescence in the red region with moderately long lifetimes compared with the related terpyridine complexes of Ru(ii). In DMSO, complexes 1 and 2 act as sensors for F(-) and to a lesser extent for AcO(-), CN(-) and H2PO4(-), whereas 3 acts as a sensor for F(-), AcO(-), CN(-) and to some extent for H2PO4(-). In contrast to DMSO, all the complexes exhibit very high selectivity towards cyanide ions in the presence of an excess of other anions in aqueous medium. The complexes display visual detection of cyanide with the detection limit lying in the range of 1.01 × 10(-7) to 9.79 × 10(-8) M. Equilibrium constants for the interaction of the complexes with the anions were evaluated from absorption and emission titration profiles and were found to lie in six orders of magnitude. It is observed that the excited-state lifetimes of the complexes were modulated to a significant extent by the selected anions in all the three media proving the utility of such complexes to act as lifetime-based sensors for anions. The fact that all the complexes can selectively sense cyanide in the presence of other anions with their detection limits lying in the range of 10(-7) M-10(-8) M in aqueous solution is particularly important for their practical applicability. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies were performed to understand the nature of the ground and excited states of the complexes with detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in absorption

  17. Pyrene and imidazole functionalized luminescent bimetallic Ru(II) terpyridine complexes as efficient optical chemosensors for cyanide in aqueous, organic and solid media.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Srikanta; Maity, Dinesh; Mardanya, Sourav; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2015-11-14

    We report in this work the anion recognition and sensing aspect of a new family of bimetallic Ru(ii) complexes derived from a symmetrical bridging 5,11-bis(4-([2,2':6',2''-terpyridine]-4'-yl)phenyl)-4,12-dihydropyreno[4,5-d:9,10-d']diimidazole (tpy-H2PhImzPy-tpy) terpyridine ligand in solution as well as in the solid sate through different channels such as absorption, steady state and time-resolved emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. Interestingly, the complexes exhibit luminescence in the red region with moderately long lifetimes compared with the related terpyridine complexes of Ru(ii). In DMSO, complexes 1 and 2 act as sensors for F(-) and to a lesser extent for AcO(-), CN(-) and H2PO4(-), whereas 3 acts as a sensor for F(-), AcO(-), CN(-) and to some extent for H2PO4(-). In contrast to DMSO, all the complexes exhibit very high selectivity towards cyanide ions in the presence of an excess of other anions in aqueous medium. The complexes display visual detection of cyanide with the detection limit lying in the range of 1.01 × 10(-7) to 9.79 × 10(-8) M. Equilibrium constants for the interaction of the complexes with the anions were evaluated from absorption and emission titration profiles and were found to lie in six orders of magnitude. It is observed that the excited-state lifetimes of the complexes were modulated to a significant extent by the selected anions in all the three media proving the utility of such complexes to act as lifetime-based sensors for anions. The fact that all the complexes can selectively sense cyanide in the presence of other anions with their detection limits lying in the range of 10(-7) M-10(-8) M in aqueous solution is particularly important for their practical applicability. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies were performed to understand the nature of the ground and excited states of the complexes with detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in absorption

  18. Synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of a mixed bipyridyl-phenanthrolyl ligand Ru(II) heteroleptic complex having trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid functionalities.

    PubMed

    Adeloye, Adewale O

    2011-01-01

    In this work, two ligands: 4-(trans-2-Methyl-2-butenoic acid)-2,2'-bipyridine) (L(1)) and 5-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline (L(2)), with the corresponding mixed-ligand heteroleptic Ru(II) complex were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The influence of the mixed functionalized polypyridyl ruthenium(II) complex on the photophysical and electrochemical properties were investigated and compared to individual single-ligand homoleptic complexes. Interestingly, the mixed-ligand complex formulated as [RuL(1)L(2)(NCS)(2)] exhibits broad and intense metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) absorption with a high molar extinction coefficient (λ(max) = 514 nm, ε = 69,700 M(-1) cm(-1)), better than those of individual single-ligand complexes, [Ru(L(1))(2)(NCS)(2)] and [Ru(L(2))(2)(NCS)(2)], and a strong photoluminescence intensity ratio in the red region at λ(em) = 686 nm. The electrochemical properties of the complex indicated that the redox processes are ligand-based.

  19. A high molar extinction coefficient bisterpyridyl homoleptic ru(II) complex with trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid functionality: potential dye for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Adeloye, Adewale O; Olomola, Temitope O; Adebayo, Akinbulu I; Ajibade, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    In our continued efforts in the synthesis of ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes as potential dyes for use in varied applications, such as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), this work particularly describes the synthesis, absorption spectrum, redox behavior and luminescence properties of a new homoleptic ruthenium(II) complex bearing a simple trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid functionality as the anchoring ligand on terpyridine moiety. The functionalized terpyridine ligand: 4'-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl (L1) was synthesized by aryl bromide substitution on terpyridine in a basic reaction condition under palladium carbide catalysis. In particular, the photophysical and redox properties of the complex formulated as: bis-4'-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl ruthenium(II) bis-hexafluorophosphate [Ru(L1)(2)(PF(6))(2)] are significantly better compared to those of [Ru(tpy)(2)](2+) and compare well with those of the best emitters of Ru(II) polypyridine family containing tridentate ligands. Reasons for the improved photophysical and redox properties of the complex may be attributed partly to the presence of a substituted α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid moiety leading to increase in the length of π-conjugation bond thereby enhancing the MLCT-MC (Metal-to-ligand-charge transfer-metal centred) energy gap, and to the reduced difference between the minima of the excited and ground states potential energy surfaces.

  20. Ru(II) complexes of N 4 and N 2O 2 macrocyclic Schiff base ligands: Their antibacterial and antifungal studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Kanne; Rohini, Rondla; Ravinder, Vadde; Reddy, P. Muralidhar; Ho, Yen-Peng

    2009-07-01

    Reactions of [RuCl 2(DMSO) 4] with some of the biologically active macrocyclic Schiff base ligands containing N 4 and N 2O 2 donor group yielded a number of stable complexes, effecting complete displacement of DMSO groups from the complex. The interaction of tetradentate ligand with [RuCl 2(DMSO) 4] gave neutral complexes of the type [RuCl 2(L)] [where L = tetradentate macrocyclic ligand]. These complexes were characterized by elemental, IR, 1H, 13C NMR, mass, electronic, thermal, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all complexes. All the macrocycles and macrocyclic Ru(II) complexes along with existing antibacterial drugs were screened for antibacterial activity against Gram +ve ( Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia) bacteria. All these compounds were found to be more active when compared to streptomycin and ampicillin. The representative macrocyclic Schiff bases and their complexes were also tested in vitro to evaluate their activity against fungi, namely, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium species.

  1. A High Molar Extinction Coefficient Bisterpyridyl Homoleptic Ru(II) Complex with trans-2-Methyl-2-butenoic Acid Functionality: Potential Dye for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adeloye, Adewale O.; Olomola, Temitope O.; Adebayo, Akinbulu I.; Ajibade, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    In our continued efforts in the synthesis of ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes as potential dyes for use in varied applications, such as the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), this work particularly describes the synthesis, absorption spectrum, redox behavior and luminescence properties of a new homoleptic ruthenium(II) complex bearing a simple trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid functionality as the anchoring ligand on terpyridine moiety. The functionalized terpyridine ligand: 4′-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl (L1) was synthesized by aryl bromide substitution on terpyridine in a basic reaction condition under palladium carbide catalysis. In particular, the photophysical and redox properties of the complex formulated as: bis-4′-(trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid)-terpyridyl ruthenium(II) bis-hexafluorophosphate [Ru(L1)2(PF6)2] are significantly better compared to those of [Ru(tpy)2]2+ and compare well with those of the best emitters of Ru(II) polypyridine family containing tridentate ligands. Reasons for the improved photophysical and redox properties of the complex may be attributed partly to the presence of a substituted α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid moiety leading to increase in the length of π-conjugation bond thereby enhancing the MLCT-MC (Metal-to-ligand-charge transfer-metal centred) energy gap, and to the reduced difference between the minima of the excited and ground states potential energy surfaces. PMID:22489165

  2. Multichromophoric bimetallic Ru(II) terpyridine complexes based on pyrenyl-bis-phenylimidazole spacer: synthesis, photophysics, spectroelectrochemistry, and TD-DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Srikanta; Maity, Dinesh; Mardanya, Sourav; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2014-11-17

    A symmetrical bridging ligand, 5,11-bis(4-([2,2':6',2″-terpyridine]-4'-yl)phenyl)-4,12-dihydropyreno[4,5-d:9,10-d']diimidazole (tpy-H2PhImzPy-tpy), containing terpyridyl coordinating units connected via a pyrenyl-bis-phenylimidazole spacer have been designed to synthesize a new class of light harvesting bimetallic Ru(II) complexes. The electronic properties of this complexes can be fine-tuned by varying tridentate terminal ligands. Full characterization of the compounds has been done with the help of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. Geometry optimization of the complexes was also carried out with density functional theory (DFT). Electronic absorption spectra exhibit a number of very intense π-π* and n-π* transitions in the UV and moderately intense MLCT and ILCT transitions in the visible region. Interestingly, the present bimetallic complexes exhibit moderately strong luminescence in the range between 657 and 703 nm and lifetimes (long component) between 5.8 and 67.0 ns at room temperature showing the dependence of the emission characteristics upon the type of terminal ligand and solvent. Detailed temperature-dependent emission measurements showed that an overall enhancement of photoluminescence intensity and lifetime occur in all three cases upon lowering of temperature. The redox behavior of the compounds is characterized by a single reversible anodic wave corresponding to two closely spaced one-electron processes. The appearance of intervalence charge transfer transition (IVCT) bands in the NIR region on electrochemical generation of Ru(II)Ru(II)/Ru(II)Ru(III) species indicates the presence of substantial electronic communication among the two ruthenium centers in the bimetallic complexes. DFT and TDDFT calculations were also done for better understanding of the absorption and emission spectral characteristics of the complexes. PMID:25376014

  3. Homoleptic "star" Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes: shielded chromophores to study charge-transfer at the sensitizer-TiO2 interface.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik G; Zhang, Yongyi; Meyer, Gerald J; Galoppini, Elena

    2013-07-15

    Three homoleptic star-shaped ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, termed Star YZ1, Star YZ2, and Star YZ3, where the Ru(II) center is coordinated to three bipyridine ligands each carrying two oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) rigid linker units terminating with isophthalic ester (Ipa) groups for binding to metal-oxide surfaces were synthesized. In Star YZ3, each OPE linker was substituted with two n-butoxy (n-BuO) solubilizing groups. Star complex YZ4, which is homoleptic but lacks the octahedral symmetry, was synthesized as a reference compound. The Star complexes were synthesized using two approaches: in the first, Ru(4,4'-(Br)2-2,2'-bpy)3 was reacted in a Sonogashira cross coupling reaction with the ethynyl-OPE-Ipa linkers; in the second, the 2,2'-bpy-OPE-Ipa ligands were reacted with Ru(DMSO)4(PF6)2. The photophysical behavior of the Star complexes were studied in fluid solution and anchored to the surface of mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films (Star/TiO2). To a first approximation the excited state behavior in CH3CN was unchanged when the compounds were anchored to a TiO2 thin film, indicating that the highly symmetrical (octahedral) and rigid molecular structure of the ligands shielded the chromophoric core from the TiO2 semiconductor. Inefficient excited state injection, φ(inj) < 0.05, was observed to occur on a nanosecond time scale with slow recombination. In addition, the presence of n-BuO groups on the linker unit gave a large increase in the extinction coefficient of YZ3, which allows for enhanced harvesting of sunlight. The results indicate that molecular design on the nanometer length scale can be utilized to control excited state relaxation pathways at semiconductor surfaces.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, antiproliferative and molecular docking study of new half sandwich Ir(III), Rh(III) and Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Thangavel, Saravanan; Paulpandi, Manickam; Friedrich, Holger B; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kalva, Sukesh; Skelton, Adam A

    2016-06-01

    The new carbazole N,N' ligand containing [(η(5)-C5Me5)MCl(L)]PF6, (M=Ir (1) and Rh (2)) and [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl(L)]PF6 (3) (C5Me5=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, L=9-ethyl-N-(pyridine-2-yl methylene)-9H-carbazole-3-amine) complexes has been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR, melting point analysis, electronic absorption, infrared spectroscopy, HR-Mass spectroscopy and elemental analyses. The crystal structure of the [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl(L)]PF6 has been confirmed by single crystal XRD. The anticancer study of the synthesized complexes 1-3 clearly showed a potent inhibitor of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) under in vitro conditions. The inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the complexes 1-3 were determined at low (5, 6 and 8μM) concentration against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Further cytotoxic, cell cycle and nuclear studies confirmed that the novel half sandwich Ir(III), Rh(III) and Ru(II) complexes could be effective against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover the results indicate that anticancer in vitro activity of complexes 1-3 falls in the order of 1>2>3. A molecular docking study of the complexes 1-3 showed the nature of binding energy, H-bond and hydrophobic interactions with the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) receptor. PMID:26918899

  5. More stable and more efficient alternatives of Z-907: carbazole-based amphiphilic Ru(II) sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Hammad; Islam, Ashraful; Younts, Robert; Gautam, Bhoj; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Han, Liyuan; Gundogdu, Kenan; El-Shafei, Ahmed

    2014-12-28

    Here we report two novel amphiphilic Ru(II) heteroleptic bipyridyl complexes, HD-14 and HD-15, compared to previously reported NCSU-10. We have combined the strong electron donor characteristics of carbazole and the hydrophobic nature of different long alkyl chains, C7, C18 and C2 (NCSU-10), tethered to N-carbazole to study their influence on photocurrent, photovoltage and long term stability for dye-sensitized solar cells. Photon harvesting efficiency and electron donating characteristics of carbazole-based ancillary ligands were found to be unaffected by different alkyl chain lengths. However, a slight drop in the Voc of HD-14 and HD-15 was observed compared to that of NCSU-10. It was found by nanosecond flash photolysis transient absorption (TA) measurements that the faster the dye regeneration the higher the photocurrent density response, and the dye regeneration time was found to be 2.6, 3.6, and 3.7 μs for HD-14, HD-15, and N719 dyes, respectively. The difference in the amplitude of the transient absorption (TA) signal of the oxidized dye as measured by femtosecond TA studies is in excellent agreement with the photocurrent generated, which was in the following order HD-14 > HD-15 > N719. Under 1000 h light soaking conditions, HD-15 maintained up to 98% (only 2% loss) of the initial power conversion efficiency compared to 8% loss for HD-14 and 22% loss in the power conversion efficiency for NCSU-10. HD-15 was strikingly stable to light soaking conditions when employed in the presence of an ionic liquid electrolyte, which paves the way for widespread applications of dye-sensitized solar cells with long term stability. The total power conversion efficiency (η) was 9.27% for HD-14 and 9.17% for HD-15 compared to 8.92% for N719.

  6. Silica Aerogels Doped with Ru(II) Tris 1,l0-Phenanthro1ine)-Electron Acceptor Dyads: Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevebtusm Bucgikas; Rawashdeh, Abdel M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2005-01-01

    Complexes 1 and 2 were characterized in fluid and frozen solution and as dopants of silica aerogels. The intramolecular quenching efficiency of pendant 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium group (4BzPy) is solvent dependent: emission is quenched completely in acetonitrile but not in alcohols. On the other hand, N-benzyl-N'-methylviologen (BzMeV) quenches the emission in all solvents completely. The differences are traced electrochemically to a stronger solvation effect by the alcohol in the case of 1. In fiozen matrices or absorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both 1 and 2 are photoluminescent. The lack of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigidity. When doped aerogels are cooled to 77K, the emission shifts to the blue and its intensity increases in analogy to what is observed with Ru(II) complexes in media undergoing fluid-to-rigid transition. The photoluminescence of 1 and 2 from the aerogel is quenched by oxygen diffusing through the pores. In the presence of oxygen, aerogels doped with 1 can modulate their emission over a wider dynamic range than aerogels doped with 2, and both are more sensitive than aerogels doped with Ru(II) tris(1,l0- phenanthroline). In contrast to frozen solutions, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at 77K are still accessible, leading to more sensitive platforms for oxygen sensors than other ambient temperature configurations.

  7. Synthesis and Evaluation of In Vitro DNA/Protein Binding Affinity, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activity of Mononuclear Ru(II) Mixed Polypyridyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Putta, Venkat Reddy; Chintakuntla, Nagamani; Mallepally, Rajender Reddy; Avudoddi, Srishailam; K, Nagasuryaprasad; Nancherla, Deepika; V V N, Yaswanth; R S, Prakasham; Surya, Satyanarayana Singh; Sirasani, Satyanarayana

    2016-01-01

    The four novel Ru(II) complexes [Ru(phen)2MAFIP](2+) (1) [MAFIP = 2-(5-(methylacetate)furan-2-yl)-1 H-imidazo[4,5-f] [1, 10]phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-Phenanthroline], [Ru(bpy)2MAFIP](2+) (2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(dmb)2MAFIP](2+) (3) (dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(hdpa)2MAFIP](2+) (4) (hdpa = 2,2-dipyridylamine) have been synthesized and fully characterized via elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy, EI-MS and FT-IR spectroscopy. In addition, the DNA-binding behaviors of the complexes 1-4 with calf thymus DNA were investigated by UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence studies and viscosity measurement. The DNA-binding experiments showed that the complexes 1-4 interact with CT-DNA through an intercalative mode. BSA protein binding affinity of synthesized complexes was determined by UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence emission titrations. The binding affinity of ruthenium complexes was supported by molecular docking. The photoactivated cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA by ruthenium complexes 1-4 was investigated. All the synthesized compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity by using three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and three Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium) organisms, these results indicated that complex 3 was more activity compared to other complexes against all tested microbial strains while moderate antimicrobial activity profile was noticed for complex 4. The antioxidant activity experiments show that the complexes exhibit moderate antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of synthesized complexes on HeLa cell lines has been examined by MTT assay. The apoptosis assay was carried out with Acridine Orange (AO) staining methods and the results indicate that complexes can induce the apoptosis of HeLa cells. The cell cycle arrest investigated by flow cytometry and these results indicate that complexes 1-4 induce the cell cycle arrest at G0/G1

  8. 'Click' generated 1,2,3-triazole based organosulfur/selenium ligands and their Pd(ii) and Ru(ii) complexes: their synthesis, structure and catalytic applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyendra; Saleem, Fariha; Singh, Ajai K

    2016-07-28

    1-(2,6-Diisopropylphenyl)-4-(phenylthio/selenomethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole (L1/L2) was synthesized by a 'Click' reaction and treated with [Pd(CH3CN)2Cl2] for 5 h or [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl(μ-Cl)]2 for 8 h (followed by reaction with NH4PF6) at room temperature, resulting in complexes [Pd(L)Cl2] (1 and 2) or [(η(6)-C6H6)Ru(L)Cl]PF6 (3 and 4) (L = L1 or L2), respectively. The four complexes (1-4) and ligands (L1 and L2) were characterized with (1)H, (13)C{(1)H} and (77)Se{(1)H} NMR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. The single crystal structures of 1-4 were solved. The geometry of Pd in 1 and 2 is distorted square planar. The Pd-S and Pd-Se bond distances in 1 and 2 are 2.277(3) and 2.384(6) Å respectively. In 3 and 4, there is a pseudo-octahedral "piano-stool" type disposition of donor atoms around Ru. The Ru-S and Ru-Se bond lengths in 3 and 4 are 2.3728(12) and 2.4741(6) Å respectively. The catalytic activity of complexes 1 and 2 was explored for Suzuki-Miyaura coupling (SMC) in water and the Sonogashira coupling reaction. For various aryl bromides, including deactivated ones, complexes 1 and 2 were found to be efficient catalysts for both couplings. The optimum loading of 1 and 2 required to catalyze both coupling reactions is of the order of 0.001-2 mol% of Pd. For SMC, no additive or phase transfer catalyst was added. For catalysis of the transfer hydrogenation (TH) of aldehydes and ketones, the half-sandwich Ru(ii) complexes 3 and 4 were explored. Their optimum catalytic loading was found to be 0.1-0.4 mol% of Ru. For TH, both the water solvent and the glycerol hydrogen source are environmentally friendly. The catalytic efficiencies of 3 and 4 are comparable with those reported for other catalysts for TH carried out with 2-propanol or glycerol as a H-source. 1, with a sulfur ligand, is more efficient than 2 (Se analog) for both SMC and the Sonogashira coupling. The activities of 3 and 4 for TH are in the order Se > S. PMID:27338234

  9. Photocatalytic Hydroxylation of Benzene by Dioxygen to Phenol with a Cyano-Bridged Complex Containing Fe(II) and Ru(II) Incorporated in Mesoporous Silica-Alumina.

    PubMed

    Aratani, Yusuke; Oyama, Kohei; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi; Yamada, Yusuke; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-06-20

    Photocatalytic hydroxylation of benzene to phenol was achieved by using O2 as an oxidant as well as an oxygen source with a cyano-bridged polynuclear metal complex containing Fe(II) and Ru(II) incorporated in mesoporous silica-alumina ([Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6]@sAl-MCM-41). An apparent turnover number (TON) of phenol production per the monomer unit of [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6] was 41 for 59 h. The cyano-bridged polynuclear metal complex, [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6], exhibited catalytic activity for thermal hydroxylation of benzene by H2O2 in acetonitrile (MeCN), where the apparent TON of phenol production reached 393 for 60 h. The apparent TON increased to 2500 for 114 h by incorporating [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6] in sAl-MCM-41. Additionally, [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6] acts as a water oxidation catalyst by using [Ru(bpy)3](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) and Na2S2O8 as a photosensitizer and a sacrificial electron acceptor as evidenced by (18)O-isotope labeling experiments. Photoirradiation of an O2-saturated MeCN solution containing [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6]@sAl-MCM-41 and scandium ion provided H2O2 formation, where photoexcited [Ru(CN)6](4-) moiety reduces O2 as indicated by laser flash photolysis measurements. Thus, hydroxylation of benzene to phenol using molecular oxygen photocatalyzed by [Fe(H2O)3]2[Ru(CN)6] occurred via a two-step route; (1) molecular oxygen was photocatalytically reduced to peroxide by using water as an electron donor, and then (2) peroxide thus formed is used as an oxidant for hydroxylation of benzene. PMID:27265780

  10. The effects of structural variations of thiophene-containing Ru(II) complexes on the acid-base and DNA binding properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cui-Li; Zhang, An-Guo; Zheng, Ze-Bo; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-03-01

    A phenylthiophenyl-bearing Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hbptip)](PF₆)₂ {bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hbptip = 2-(4-phenylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ¹H NMR spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of the complex were studied by UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations and the negative logarithm values of the ground-state acid ionization constants were derived to be pK(a1) = 1.31 ± 0.09 and pK(a2) = 5.71 ± 0.11 with the pK(a2) associated deprotonation/protonation process occurring over 3 pK(a) units more acidic than thiophenyl-free parent complex of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hpip)]²⁺ {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}. The calf thymus DNA-binding properties of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hbptip)]²⁺ in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.1 and 50 mM NaCl) were investigated by DNA viscosities and density functional theoretical calculations as well as UV-visible and emission spectroscopy techniques of UV-visible and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA melting experiments, and reverse salt effects. The complex was evidenced to bind to the DNA intercalatively with binding affinity being greater than those for previously reported analogs of [Ru(bpy)₂(Hip)]²⁺, [Ru(bpy)₂(Htip)]²⁺, and [Ru(bpy)₂(Haptip)]²⁺ {Hip = 1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Htip = 2-thiophenimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, Haptip = 2-(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}.

  11. UV-vis absorption spectrum of a novel Ru(II) complex intercalated in DNA: [Ru(2,2'-bipy)(dppz)(2,2'-ArPy)]⁺.

    PubMed

    Chantzis, Agisilaos; Very, Thibaut; Despax, Stéphane; Issenhuth, Jean-Thomas; Boeglin, Alex; Hébraud, Pascal; Pfeffer, Michel; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    The synthesis of a new Ru(II) complex is reported. Its absorption spectrum when interacting with DNA in water was calculated at the hybrid quantum mechanics molecular mechanics level of theory and compared with experimental data. The vertical transitions were computed using time-dependent density functional theory in the linear response approximation. The complex and its environment were treated at the quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical levels, respectively. The effects of the environment were investigated in detail and conveniently classified into electrostatic and polarization effects. The latter were modeled using the computationally inexpensive "electronic response of the surroundings" method. It was found that the main features of the experimental spectrum are nicely reproduced by the theoretical calculations. Moreover, analysis of the most intense transitions utilizing the natural transition orbital formalism revealed important insights into their nature and their potential role in the irreversible oxidation of DNA, a phenomenon that could be relevant in the field of cancer therapy.

  12. A Ru(II) complex with 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline: Synthesis, characterization, and acid-base and DNA-binding properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yuan, Cui-Li; Jia, Hai-Shun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2011-09-01

    A new Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 {in which bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, Hmspip = 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1 H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been synthesized and characterized. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 and its parent complex of [Ru(bpy) 2(Hpip)]Cl 2 {Hpip = 2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5- f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been studied by UV-visible (UV-vis) and emission spectrophotometric pH titrations. [Ru(bpy) 2(Hmspip)]Cl 2 acts as a calf thymus DNA intercalators with a binding constant of 4.0 × 10 5 M -1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl, as evidenced by UV-vis and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN) 6] 4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, reverse salt titrations and viscosity measurements.

  13. A Ru(II) complex with 2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline: synthesis, characterization, and acid-base and DNA-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yuan, Cui-Li; Jia, Hai-Shun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2011-09-01

    A new Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hmspip)]Cl2 {in which bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, Hmspip=2-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been synthesized and characterized. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of [Ru(bpy)2(Hmspip)]Cl2 and its parent complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hpip)]Cl2 {Hpip=2-phenyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} have been studied by UV-visible (UV-vis) and emission spectrophotometric pH titrations. [Ru(bpy)2(Hmspip)]Cl2 acts as a calf thymus DNA intercalators with a binding constant of 4.0×10(5) M(-1) in buffered 50 mM NaCl, as evidenced by UV-vis and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, reverse salt titrations and viscosity measurements.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic, crystal structure and DNA binding of Ru(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Sathiya Kamatchi, Thangavel; Zeller, Matthias; Lee, Hyosun; Natarajan, Karuppannan

    2011-10-01

    Reactions of 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide (H 2L) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 3] (E = P or As) were carried out and the new complexes obtained were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex ( 1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/ c with unit cell dimensions a = 18.6236(17) Å, b = 12.8627(12) Å, c = 21.683(2) Å, α = 90.00, β = 114.626(2), γ = 90.00 V = 4721.8(8) Å, Z = 4. The crystal structure of the complex shows Ru(II) atom is six-coordinated, forming a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with two P atoms in axial positions, and three chelating donor atoms of the tridentate Schiff base ligand and one carbonyl group located in the equatorial plane. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular O—H···N interactions. No intermolecular hydrogen bond was observed. The intramolecular hydrogen bond exists between the oxygen atom from salicylic acid moiety and nitrogen from the same moiety. A variety of solution studies were carried out for the determination of DNA binding mode of the complexes. The results suggest that both complexes bind to Herring sperm DNA via non intercalative mode.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic, crystal structure and DNA binding of Ru(II) complexes with 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Kamatchi, Thangavel Sathiya; Zeller, Matthias; Lee, Hyosun; Natarajan, Karuppannan

    2011-10-15

    Reactions of 2-hydroxy-benzoic acid [1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)-ethylidene]-hydrazide (H(2)L) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh(3))(3)] (E = P or As) were carried out and the new complexes obtained were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Complex (1) crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with unit cell dimensions a=18.6236(17) Å, b=12.8627(12) Å, c=21.683(2) Å, α=90.00, β=114.626(2), γ=90.00 V=4721.8(8) Å, Z=4. The crystal structure of the complex shows Ru(II) atom is six-coordinated, forming a slightly distorted octahedral geometry with two P atoms in axial positions, and three chelating donor atoms of the tridentate Schiff base ligand and one carbonyl group located in the equatorial plane. The molecular structure is stabilized by intramolecular O-H···N interactions. No intermolecular hydrogen bond was observed. The intramolecular hydrogen bond exists between the oxygen atom from salicylic acid moiety and nitrogen from the same moiety. A variety of solution studies were carried out for the determination of DNA binding mode of the complexes. The results suggest that both complexes bind to Herring sperm DNA via non intercalative mode. PMID:21763180

  16. A femtosecond study of the anomaly in electron injection for dye-sensitized solar cells: the influence of isomerization employing Ru(II) sensitizers with anthracene and phenanthrene ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Hammad; Younts, Robert; Ogbose, Louis; Gautam, Bhoj; Gundogdu, Kenan; El-Shafei, Ahmed

    2015-01-28

    In this study, an intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands in Ru(ii) sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) has been investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Both anthracene and phenanthrene based sensitizers HD-7 and HD-8, respectively, resulted in a similar extinction coefficient, photophysical and thermodynamic free energy of electron injection and dye regeneration as measured by UV-Vis, excited state lifetime and cyclic voltammetry measurements, respectively. However, TiO2 adsorbed HD-7 resulted in up to 45% less photocurrent density than HD-8 although photovoltage was similar owing to comparable thermodynamic characteristics. It was obvious from the measurement of incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) that excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to internal energy loss before injection into the TiO2 conduction band. Analysis of photo-induced spectral features measured by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy showed that excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not injected into TiO2 efficiently. Interestingly, from impedance measurements, HD-7 showed higher recombination resistance than HD-8 and N719, but a shorter lifetime for electrons injected into the TiO2 conduction band.

  17. A comparative study of Ru(II) cyclometallated complexes versus thiocyanated heteroleptic complexes: thermodynamic force for efficient dye regeneration in dye-sensitized solar cells and how low could it be?

    PubMed

    Hussain, Maqbool; Islam, Ashraful; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Han, Liyuan; El-Shafei, Ahmed

    2014-07-28

    Four novel Ru(II) bipyridyl complexes MH12–15 were synthesized and characterized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Their photovoltaic performance including incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE), total solar-to-power conversion efficiency (η%) and ground and excited state oxidation potentials and photoelectrochemical properties were evaluated on mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 and compared with the benchmark N719-dye under the same experimental conditions. MH12–15 showed stronger MLCT with significantly higher molar extinction coefficient for the lower energy absorption bands at 553 nm (27,500 M(−1) cm(−1)), 554 nm (34,605 M(−1) cm(−1)), 577 nm (23,300 M(−1) cm(−1)), and 582 nm (39,000 M(−1) cm(−1)), respectively, than that of N719 (14,200 M(−1) cm(−1)). The introduction of a cyclometallated ligand in dyes MH14 and 15 improved the optical properties and red-shifts of 24 nm and 28 nm, respectively, compared to the non-cyclometallated analogs MH12 and 13. The red shift in the UV-Vis spectra of MH14 and 15 can be attributed to the destabilization of the HOMO t2g of Ru(II). However, the destabilization of the HOMO furnished an upward shift of the ground state oxidation potentials (GSOPs) of MH14 and 15 at −5.44 eV and −5.36 eV against vacuum, respectively, which resulted in a driving force of only 0.22 and 0.16 eV for regeneration of dyes MH14 and 15, respectively. In the case of NCS analogs, MH12 and 13, the GSOPs, however, were −5.56 and −5.51 eV, respectively, which produced a driving force of more than 0.25 eV for dye regeneration. The nanosecond transient absorbance measurements showed that the time needed for the oxidized forms of MH12–MH15 to regenerate the neutral dye is 6 μs, 4 μs, 13 μs and 18 μs, respectively, compared to N719 (2.3 μs). These kinetic data confirmed that the weak thermodynamic force, small negative free energy (−ΔG), for regeneration of MH14 and 15 neutral dyes makes the dye

  18. Structure-property relationship of extended π-conjugation of ancillary ligands with and without an electron donor of heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridyl complexes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Maqbool; El-Shafei, Ahmed; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan

    2013-06-01

    Two new heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridyl complexes MH06 and MH11 were designed, synthesized and characterized for DSSCs. While the ancillary ligand of MH06 was molecularly engineered with a strong electron donating group coupled with an extended π-conjugated system, the ancillary ligand of MH11 contained a longer π-conjugated system only. Molecular modeling, photophysical, and photovoltaic properties were compared under the same experimental conditions against the benchmark N719. In an effort to understand the structure-property relationship, their photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical properties including Jsc, Voc, ground and excited state oxidation potentials, UV-Vis absorption, and molar extinction coefficients were studied. The UV-Vis results showed intense MLCT absorption peaks of MH06 and MH11 in the visible region with a red shift of 12 and 18 nm, respectively, with significantly higher molar extinction coefficients compared to N719. Tetrabutylammonium (TBA) substituted MH11-TBA demonstrated the most efficient IPCE of over 90% in the plateau region covering the entire visible spectrum and extending into the near IR region (ca. 890 nm), which showed a solar-to-power conversion efficiency (η) of 10.06%, significantly higher than that of the benchmark N719 dye (9.32%). The superior performance in terms of the IPCE and Jsc of MH11 can be attributed to the bulky and highly hydrophobic nature of the pyrene-based ancillary ligand, which behaves as a shielding barrier for hole-transport recombination between TiO2 and the electrolyte. In addition, the IMPS results showed that the contribution of dyes to the conduction band shift of the TiO2 level is almost similar, regardless of different substitutions on the bipy-moiety. This implies that the open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) increases with reduced charge recombination in the presence of a thick layer of tetrabutyl ammonium ions (TBA) of the dye anchored on the surface of TiO2.

  19. Charge injection into nanostructured TiO2 electrodes from the photogenerated reduced form of a new Ru(ii) polypyridine compound: the "anti-biomimetic" mechanism at work.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Federico; Santoni, Marie-Pierre; Nastasi, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppe; Argazzi, Roberto; Berardi, Serena; Caramori, Stefano; Bignozzi, Carlo A; Campagna, Sebastiano

    2016-09-28

    The charge transfer dynamics involving a new Ru(ii) polypyridine complex (1), developed to generate highly oxidizing photoholes for water oxidation, was studied by electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and spectroscopic means. Mesoporous TiO2 electrodes sensitized with complex 1, under 1 sun illumination (420 nm cut-off filter) and a moderate applied bias (0.3 V vs. SCE), in ACN/0.1 M LiI as a sacrificial electron donor reach an anodic photocurrent of ∼0.2 mA cm(-2) with 3% photon-to-current conversion efficiency. When 0.1 M aqueous sodium ascorbate (pH 3) is used instead of iodide, the photocurrent increases to ∼0.7 mA cm(-2) and up to 1 mA cm(-2) if the concentration of ascorbate is increased to 0.5 M, explainable with a modification of the charge injection mechanism. This is the photoelectrochemical evidence, in the heterogeneous phase, of the so-called "anti-biomimetic" pathway, confirmed in transient absorption spectroscopy by a long lived sharp bleaching at 480 nm and a narrow absorption between 500 and 550 nm, characteristic fingerprints of the photogenerated reduced state (1(-)). After the formation of *1/TiO2, reductive quenching by ascorbate occurs, not observed in LiI where the classic oxidative quenching takes place. Due to the modest excited state oxidation potential, electron transfer to TiO2 is thermodynamically more favorable from 1(-) than *1. Lastly, experiments performed with sensitized SnO2 photoanodes, where *1 undergoes the usual oxidative quenching, by charge transfer to the conduction band of the metal oxide allowed us to verify the interaction between 1(+) and IrO2 nanoparticles, grafted onto the surface in order to drive photoinduced water oxidation. PMID:27537828

  20. Charge injection into nanostructured TiO2 electrodes from the photogenerated reduced form of a new Ru(ii) polypyridine compound: the "anti-biomimetic" mechanism at work.

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Federico; Santoni, Marie-Pierre; Nastasi, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppe; Argazzi, Roberto; Berardi, Serena; Caramori, Stefano; Bignozzi, Carlo A; Campagna, Sebastiano

    2016-09-28

    The charge transfer dynamics involving a new Ru(ii) polypyridine complex (1), developed to generate highly oxidizing photoholes for water oxidation, was studied by electrochemical, photoelectrochemical and spectroscopic means. Mesoporous TiO2 electrodes sensitized with complex 1, under 1 sun illumination (420 nm cut-off filter) and a moderate applied bias (0.3 V vs. SCE), in ACN/0.1 M LiI as a sacrificial electron donor reach an anodic photocurrent of ∼0.2 mA cm(-2) with 3% photon-to-current conversion efficiency. When 0.1 M aqueous sodium ascorbate (pH 3) is used instead of iodide, the photocurrent increases to ∼0.7 mA cm(-2) and up to 1 mA cm(-2) if the concentration of ascorbate is increased to 0.5 M, explainable with a modification of the charge injection mechanism. This is the photoelectrochemical evidence, in the heterogeneous phase, of the so-called "anti-biomimetic" pathway, confirmed in transient absorption spectroscopy by a long lived sharp bleaching at 480 nm and a narrow absorption between 500 and 550 nm, characteristic fingerprints of the photogenerated reduced state (1(-)). After the formation of *1/TiO2, reductive quenching by ascorbate occurs, not observed in LiI where the classic oxidative quenching takes place. Due to the modest excited state oxidation potential, electron transfer to TiO2 is thermodynamically more favorable from 1(-) than *1. Lastly, experiments performed with sensitized SnO2 photoanodes, where *1 undergoes the usual oxidative quenching, by charge transfer to the conduction band of the metal oxide allowed us to verify the interaction between 1(+) and IrO2 nanoparticles, grafted onto the surface in order to drive photoinduced water oxidation.

  1. Micellar Effects on Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Aqueous Solutions Revisited: Dramatic Enhancement of Cage Escape Yields in Surfactant Ru(II) Diimine Complex/[Ru(NH3)6](2+) Systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rebecca E; Schmehl, Russell H

    2016-08-30

    The effect of cationic micelle incorporation on light induced electron transfer, charge separation and back electron transfer between an aqueous electron donor, [Ru(NH3)6](2+), and a series of Ru(II) diimine complex chromophores/acceptors, is presented. The chromophores have the general formula [(bpy)2Ru(LL)](2+) (LL = bpy; 4-R-4'-methyl-2,2'-bpy, R = pentyl (MC5), terdecyl (MC13), heptadecyl (MC17); 4,4'-di(heptadecyl)-2,2'-bpy (DC17)). Of the five chromophores, the MC13, MC17, and DC17 complexes associate with the added micelle forming surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Quenching of the luminescence of the bpy and MC5 complexes by [Ru(NH3)6](2+) is unaffected by addition of surfactant, while rate constants for quenching of the MC13 and MC17 complexes are decreased. Cage escape yields following photoinduced electron transfer to generate [(bpy)2Ru(LL)](+) and [Ru(NH3)6](3+) are approximately 0.1 for all the water-soluble chromophores (excluding DC17) in the absence of added CTAB. In the presence of surfactant, the cage escape yields dramatically increase for the MC13 (0.4) and MC17 (0.6) complexes, while remaining unchanged for [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and the MC5 complex. Back electron transfer of the solvent separated ions is also strongly influenced by the presence of surfactant. For the MC13 and MC17 complexes, back electron transfer rate constants decrease by factors of 270 and 190, respectively. The MC5 complex exhibits two component back electron transfer, with the fast component having a rate constant close to that in the absence of surfactant and a slow component nearly 200 times smaller. Results are interpreted in terms of the partitioning of the 2+ and 1+ forms of the chromophores between aqueous and micellar phases. The extended lifetimes of the radical ions may prove useful in coupling the strong reductants formed to kinetically facile catalysts for reduction of water to hydrogen. PMID:27486891

  2. A Cyanuric Acid Platform Based Tripodal Bis-heteroleptic Ru(II) Complex of Click Generated Ligand for Selective Sensing of Phosphates via C-H···Anion Interaction.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Bijit; Dutta, Ranjan; Khatua, Snehadrinarayan; Ghosh, Pradyut

    2016-01-01

    A new bis-heteroleptic trinuclear Ru(II) complex (1[PF6]6) has been synthesized from electron deficient cyanuric acid platform based copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, i.e., CuAAC click generated ligand, 1,3,5-tris [(2-aminoethyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-pyridine]-1,3,5-triazinane-2,4,6-trione (L1). Complex 1[PF6]6 displays weak luminescence (ϕf = 0.002) at room temperature with a short lifetime of ∼5 ns in acetonitrile. It shows selective sensing of hydrogen pyrophosphate (HP2O7(3-)) through 20-fold enhanced emission intensity (ϕf = 0.039) with a 15 nm red shift in emission maxima even in the presence of a large excess of various competitive anions like F(-), Cl(-), AcO(-), BzO(-), NO3(-), HCO3(-), HSO4(-), HO(-), and H2PO4(-) in acetonitrile. Selective change in the decay profile as well as in the lifetime of 1[PF6]6 in the presence of HP2O7(3-) (108 ns) further supports its selectivity toward HP2O7(3-). UV-vis and photoluminescence titration profiles and corresponding Job's plot analyses suggest 1:3 host-guest stoichiometric binding between 1[PF6]6 and HP2O7(3-). High emission enhancement of 1[PF6]6 in the presence of HP2O7(3-) has resulted in the detection limit of the anion being as low as 0.02 μM. However, 1[PF6]6 shows selectivity toward higher analogues of phosphates (e.g., ATP, ADP, and AMP) over HP2O7(3-)/H2PO4(-) in 10% Tris HCl buffer (10 mM)/acetonitrile medium. Downfield shifting of the triazole C-H in a (1)H NMR titration study confirms that the binding of HP2O7(3-)/H2PO4(-) is occurring via C-H···anion interaction. The single crystal X-ray structure of complex 1 having NO3(-) counteranion, 1[NO3]6 shows binding of NO3(-) with complex 1 via C-H···NO3(-) interactions. PMID:26653882

  3. A combined computational and experimental study on DNA-photocleavage of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ (L = pip, o-mopip and p-mopip).

    PubMed

    Xu, Lian-Cai; Shi, Shuo; Li, Jun; Liao, Si-Yan; Zheng, Kang-Cheng; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2008-01-14

    A combined computational and experimental study on DNA-photocleavage by Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ 1-3 (bpy = 2,2-bipyridine; L: pip = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, o-mopip = 2-(2-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline and p-mopip = 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline) has been carried out. The DNA-photocleavage behavior of these complexes was comparably measured by the gel electrophoresis experiments. The experimental results show that they can induce considerable DNA-photocleavage, and have different DNA-photocleavage efficiencies (phi) following the order phi (1) < phi (2) < phi (3). In order to understand their DNA-photocleavage mechanism and trend, the theoretical studies on the geometric and electronic structures of these complexes in the ground state (S0), the first singlet excited state (S1) and triplet excited states (T1), have been carried out using the density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT), Hartree-Fock (HF) and configuration interaction singles (CIS) methods. In particular, the reduction potentials (E*red) of the excited complexes in aqueous solution, which seem to be closely responsible for the DNA-photocleavage behavior, were calculated to be 0.966 V (vs. SCE) for complex , 1.024 V (vs. SCE) for complex and 1.030 V (vs. SCE) for complex , respectively. Such computational results show that the reduction potentials of the excited complexes reach the theoretical range for oxidizing some DNA-bases, and follow the order E*red (1) < E*red (2) < E*red (3). Therefore, here, in addition to the general theoretical explanation of their DNA-photocleavage mechanism according to our recent report, a further explanation on the trend of their DNA-photocleavage efficiencies, i.e., phi (1) < phi (2) < phi (3), was reasonably carried out, on the basis of the calculated electrochemical properties in the excited states as well as general photochemical insights. PMID:18097496

  4. A combined experimental and DFT/TD-DFT investigation of structural, electronic, and cation-induced switching of photophysical properties of bimetallic Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes derived from imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and 2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal; Karmakar, Srikanta; Saha, Debasish; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2013-06-17

    Experimental results coupled with computational studies were utilized to investigate the structural and electronic properties of mixed-ligand bimetallic ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes of composition [(bpy)2M(Imdc)M(bpy)2](+) [M = Ru(II) (1) and M = Os(II) (2)], where H3Imdc = imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine. The X-ray crystal structures of both the bimetallic complexes were determined which showed that compound 1 crystallizes in monoclinic form with space group P2(1)/c, while 2 is obtained in orthorhombic form with the space group Pca2(1). The optimized geometrical parameters for the complexes computed both in the gas phase and in solution are reported and compared with the single-crystal X-ray data. The absorption spectra, redox behaviors, and luminescence properties of the complexes were thoroughly investigated. The complexes display very intense, ligand-centered absorption bands in the UV and moderately intense MLCT bands in the visible regions. While the Ru(II) complex displays moderately strong luminescence, the corresponding Os(II) complex does not luminesce at room temperature. Both the bimetallic complexes show two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations. The effect of alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metal cations on the absorption and emission spectral behavior of the complexes has also been studied in detail. As compared to the luminescence intensities and the quantum yields of the free complexes, those of the complexes were enhanced substantially in the presence of selective cations showing cation-induced molecular switching behaviors. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) studies provide insight into the nature of the ground and excited states with resulting detailed assignments of the orbitals involved in absorption and emission transitions. In particular, the blue-shifts of the absorption and emission bands in the presence of cations are also reproduced by our

  5. Dual mode of cell death upon the photo-irradiation of a RuII polypyridyl complex in interphase or mitosis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc00387g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gentili, Christian; Patra, Malay; Mari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65. We demonstrate that Ru65 intercalates in DNA and, upon light irradiation, promotes guanine oxidation, resulting in nicks in the double helix. We confirm this mechanism of action in living cells, showing that the UV-A irradiation of cells loaded with Ru65 results in a transient DNA damage response and cell death. Strikingly, the photo-irradiation of Ru65 triggered distinct mechanisms of cell death in interphase or mitotic cells. The former underwent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and massive cytoplasmic vacuolation, which was paralleled by an unfolded-protein stress response, resulting in a reduction of viability and cell death through a paraptosis-like mechanism. On the other hand, the UV-A irradiation of Ru65 in cells synchronized by G2/M block-release with a selective CDK1 inhibitor led to blocking mitotic entry and rapid cell death through classic apoptotic pathways. Importantly, targeting mitotic cells with Ru65 allowed increasing its photo-toxicity by a factor of 3.6. Overall, our findings show that the use of a combination of a cell cycle inhibitor and a PS targeting the nucleus could open up new avenues in PDT. PMID:27708751

  6. Dual mode of cell death upon the photo-irradiation of a RuII polypyridyl complex in interphase or mitosis† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc00387g Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Vanessa; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gentili, Christian; Patra, Malay; Mari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an attractive, complementary medical technique to chemotherapy. Among the different photosensitizers (PSs) employed, Ru(ii) polypyridyl complexes were found to be valid substitutes to porphyrin-based or phthalocyanine-based PSs. Here, we confirm that one such complex, namely [Ru(bipy)2-dppz-7-methoxy][PF6]2 (Ru65), which localizes in the nucleus of various cancer and normal cells, displays cytotoxicity only upon UV-A irradiation. Importantly, we disclose the molecular mechanism of the UV-A mediated cytotoxic action of Ru65. We demonstrate that Ru65 intercalates in DNA and, upon light irradiation, promotes guanine oxidation, resulting in nicks in the double helix. We confirm this mechanism of action in living cells, showing that the UV-A irradiation of cells loaded with Ru65 results in a transient DNA damage response and cell death. Strikingly, the photo-irradiation of Ru65 triggered distinct mechanisms of cell death in interphase or mitotic cells. The former underwent cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and massive cytoplasmic vacuolation, which was paralleled by an unfolded-protein stress response, resulting in a reduction of viability and cell death through a paraptosis-like mechanism. On the other hand, the UV-A irradiation of Ru65 in cells synchronized by G2/M block-release with a selective CDK1 inhibitor led to blocking mitotic entry and rapid cell death through classic apoptotic pathways. Importantly, targeting mitotic cells with Ru65 allowed increasing its photo-toxicity by a factor of 3.6. Overall, our findings show that the use of a combination of a cell cycle inhibitor and a PS targeting the nucleus could open up new avenues in PDT.

  7. Photoinduced water oxidation sensitized by a tetranuclear Ru(II) dendrimer.

    PubMed

    La Ganga, Giuseppina; Nastasi, Francesco; Campagna, Sebastiano; Puntoriero, Fausto

    2009-12-01

    A multimetallic ruthenium(II) dendrimer is used for the first time to photosensitize dioxygen production from water by IrO2 nanoparticles; the system is more efficient than an analogous system based on the more commonly used [Ru(bpy)3]2+-type photosensitizers, in particular for the ability of the dendrimer to take advantage of the red portion of the solar spectrum. PMID:19904425

  8. Base-enhanced catalytic water oxidation by a carboxylate-bipyridine Ru(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Concepcion, Javier J; Binstead, Robert A; Rudd, Jennifer A; Vannucci, Aaron K; Dares, Christopher J; Coggins, Michael K; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-04-21

    In aqueous solution above pH 2.4 with 4% (vol/vol) CH3CN, the complex [Ru(II)(bda)(isoq)2] (bda is 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; isoq is isoquinoline) exists as the open-arm chelate, [Ru(II)(CO2-bpy-CO2(-))(isoq)2(NCCH3)], as shown by (1)H and (13)C-NMR, X-ray crystallography, and pH titrations. Rates of water oxidation with the open-arm chelate are remarkably enhanced by added proton acceptor bases, as measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In 1.0 M PO4(3-), the calculated half-time for water oxidation is ∼7 μs. The key to the rate accelerations with added bases is direct involvement of the buffer base in either atom-proton transfer (APT) or concerted electron-proton transfer (EPT) pathways. PMID:25848035

  9. New RuII Complex for Dual Activity: Photoinduced Ligand Release and 1O2 Production

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Lauren M.; White, Jessica K.; Albani, Bryan A.; Kohler, Lars; Kodanko, Jeremy J.; Thummel, Randolph P.

    2016-01-01

    The new complex [Ru(pydppn)(biq)(py)]2+ (1) undergoes both py photodissociation in CH3CN with Φ500=0.0070(4) and 1O2 production with ΦΔ=0.75(7) in CH3OH from a long-lived 3ππ* state centered on the pydppn ligand (pydppn=3-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]phenazine; biq = 2,2′-biquinoline; py= pyridine). This represents an order of magnitude decrease in the Φ500 compared to the previously reported model compound [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)]2+ (3) (tpy=2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine) that undergoes only ligand exchange. The effect on the quantum yields by the addition of a second deactivation pathway through the low-lying 3ππ* state necessary for dual reactivity was investigated using ultrafast and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, revealing a significantly shorter 3MLCT lifetime in 1 relative to that of the model complex 3. Due to the structural similarities between the two compounds, the lower values of Φ500 and ΦΔ compared to that of [Ru(pydppn)(bpy)(py)]2+ (2) (bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) are attributed to a competitive excited state population between the 3LF states involved in ligand dissociation and the long-lived 3ππ* state in 1. Complex 1 represents a model compound for dual activity that may be applied to photochemotherapy. PMID:26715085

  10. New Ru(II) Complex for Dual Activity: Photoinduced Ligand Release and (1)O2 Production.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Lauren M; White, Jessica K; Albani, Bryan A; Kohler, Lars; Kodanko, Jeremy J; Thummel, Randolph P; Dunbar, Kim R; Turro, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    The new complex [Ru(pydppn)(biq)(py)](2+) (1) undergoes both py photodissociation in CH3CN with Φ500 =0.0070(4) and (1)O2 production with ΦΔ =0.75(7) in CH3 OH from a long-lived (3) ππ* state centered on the pydppn ligand (pydppn=3-(pyrid-2-yl)benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine; biq = 2,2'-biquinoline; py=pyridine). This represents an order of magnitude decrease in the Φ500 compared to the previously reported model compound [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)](2+) (3) (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) that undergoes only ligand exchange. The effect on the quantum yields by the addition of a second deactivation pathway through the low-lying (3) ππ* state necessary for dual reactivity was investigated using ultrafast and nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, revealing a significantly shorter (3) MLCT lifetime in 1 relative to that of the model complex 3. Due to the structural similarities between the two compounds, the lower values of Φ500 and ΦΔ compared to that of [Ru(pydppn)(bpy)(py)](2+) (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine) are attributed to a competitive excited state population between the (3) LF states involved in ligand dissociation and the long-lived (3) ππ* state in 1. Complex 1 represents a model compound for dual activity that may be applied to photochemotherapy. PMID:26715085

  11. Synthesis of Monomeric Fe(II) and Ru(II) Complexes of Tetradentate Phosphines

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Barun; Ellern, Arkady; Pestovsky, Oleg; Sadow, Aaron; Bakac, Andreja

    2011-03-07

    rac-Bis[{l_brace}(diphenylphosphino)ethyl{r_brace}-phenylphosphino]methane (DPPEPM) reacts with iron(II) and ruthenium(II) halides to generate complexes with folded DPPEPM coordination. The paramagnetic, five-coordinate Fe(DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2} (1) in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} features a tridentate binding mode as established by {sup 31}P{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} NMR spectroscopy. Crystal structure analysis of the analogous bromo complex, Fe(DPPEPM)Br{sub 2} (2) revealed a pseudo-octahedral, cis-{alpha} geometry at iron with DPPEPM coordinated in a tetradentate fashion. However, in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution, the coordination of DPPEPM in 2 is similar to that of 1 in that one of the external phosphorus atoms is dissociated resulting in a mixture of three tridentate complexes. The chloro ruthenium complex cis-Ru({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2} (3) is obtained from rac-DPPEPM and either [RuCl{sub 2}(COD)]{sub 2} [COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene] or RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 4}. The structure of 3 in both the solid state and in CD{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} solution features a folded {kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM. This binding mode was also observed in cis-[Fe({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)(CH{sub 3}CN){sub 2}](CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2} (4). Addition of an excess of CO to a methanolic solution of 1 results in the replacement of one of the chloride ions by CO to yield cis-[Fe({kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM)Cl(CO)](Cl) (5). The same reaction in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} produces a mixture of 5 and [Fe({kappa}{sup 3}-DPPEPM)Cl{sub 2}(CO)] (6) in which one of the internal phosphines has been substituted by CO. Complexes 2, 3, 4, and 5 appear to be the first structurally characterized monometallic complexes of {kappa}{sup 4}-DPPEPM.

  12. Base-enhanced catalytic water oxidation by a carboxylate–bipyridine Ru(II) complex

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na; Concepcion, Javier J.; Binstead, Robert A.; Rudd, Jennifer A.; Vannucci, Aaron K.; Dares, Christopher J.; Coggins, Michael K.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    In aqueous solution above pH 2.4 with 4% (vol/vol) CH3CN, the complex [RuII(bda)(isoq)2] (bda is 2,2′-bipyridine-6,6′-dicarboxylate; isoq is isoquinoline) exists as the open-arm chelate, [RuII(CO2-bpy-CO2−)(isoq)2(NCCH3)], as shown by 1H and 13C-NMR, X-ray crystallography, and pH titrations. Rates of water oxidation with the open-arm chelate are remarkably enhanced by added proton acceptor bases, as measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). In 1.0 M PO43–, the calculated half-time for water oxidation is ∼7 μs. The key to the rate accelerations with added bases is direct involvement of the buffer base in either atom–proton transfer (APT) or concerted electron–proton transfer (EPT) pathways. PMID:25848035

  13. Unusually efficient pyridine photodissociation from Ru(II) complexes with sterically bulky bidentate ancillary ligands.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Jessica D; Albani, Bryan A; Durr, Christopher B; Turro, Claudia

    2014-11-13

    The introduction of steric bulk to the bidentate ligand in [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(py)](2+) (1; tpy = 2,2':2',6″-terpyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; py = pyridine) to provide [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)(py)](2+) (2; Me2bpy = 6,6'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) and [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)](2+) (3; biq = 2,2'-biquinoline) facilitates photoinduced dissociation of pyridine with visible light. Upon irradiation of 2 and 3 in CH3CN (λirr = 500 nm), ligand exchange occurs to produce the corresponding [Ru(tpy)(NN)(NCCH3)](2+) (NN = Me2bpy, biq) complex with quantum yields, Φ500, of 0.16(1) and 0.033(1) for 2 and 3, respectively. These values represent an increase in efficiency of the reaction by 2-3 orders of magnitude as compared to that of 1, Φ500 < 0.0001, under similar experimental conditions. The photolysis of 2 and 3 in H2O with low energy light to produce [Ru(tpy)(NN)(OH2)](2+) (NN = Me2bpy, biq) also proceeds rapidly (λirr > 590 nm). Complexes 1-3 are stable in the dark in both CH3CN and H2O under similar experimental conditions. X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations highlight significant distortion of the planes of the bidentate ligands in 2 and 3 relative to that of 1. The crystallographic dihedral angles defined by the bidentate ligand, Me2bpy in 2 and biq in 3, and the tpy ligand were determined to be 67.87° and 61.89°, respectively, whereas only a small distortion from the octahedral geometry is observed between bpy and tpy in 1, 83.34°. The steric bulk afforded by Me2bpy and biq also result in major distortions of the pyridine ligand in 2 and 3, respectively, relative to 1, which are believed to weaken its σ-bonding and π-back-bonding to the metal and play a crucial role in the efficiency of the photoinduced ligand exchange. The ability of 2 and 3 to undergo ligand exchange with λirr > 590 nm makes them potential candidates to build photochemotherapeutic agents for the delivery of drugs with pyridine binding groups.

  14. Unusually Efficient Pyridine Photodissociation from Ru(II) Complexes with Sterically Bulky Bidentate Ancillary Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of steric bulk to the bidentate ligand in [Ru(tpy)(bpy)(py)]2+ (1; tpy = 2,2′:2′,6″-terpyridine; bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine; py = pyridine) to provide [Ru(tpy)(Me2bpy)(py)]2+ (2; Me2bpy = 6,6′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) and [Ru(tpy)(biq)(py)]2+ (3; biq = 2,2′-biquinoline) facilitates photoinduced dissociation of pyridine with visible light. Upon irradiation of 2 and 3 in CH3CN (λirr = 500 nm), ligand exchange occurs to produce the corresponding [Ru(tpy)(NN)(NCCH3)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) complex with quantum yields, Φ500, of 0.16(1) and 0.033(1) for 2 and 3, respectively. These values represent an increase in efficiency of the reaction by 2–3 orders of magnitude as compared to that of 1, Φ500 < 0.0001, under similar experimental conditions. The photolysis of 2 and 3 in H2O with low energy light to produce [Ru(tpy)(NN)(OH2)]2+ (NN = Me2bpy, biq) also proceeds rapidly (λirr > 590 nm). Complexes 1–3 are stable in the dark in both CH3CN and H2O under similar experimental conditions. X-ray crystal structures and theoretical calculations highlight significant distortion of the planes of the bidentate ligands in 2 and 3 relative to that of 1. The crystallographic dihedral angles defined by the bidentate ligand, Me2bpy in 2 and biq in 3, and the tpy ligand were determined to be 67.87° and 61.89°, respectively, whereas only a small distortion from the octahedral geometry is observed between bpy and tpy in 1, 83.34°. The steric bulk afforded by Me2bpy and biq also result in major distortions of the pyridine ligand in 2 and 3, respectively, relative to 1, which are believed to weaken its σ-bonding and π-back-bonding to the metal and play a crucial role in the efficiency of the photoinduced ligand exchange. The ability of 2 and 3 to undergo ligand exchange with λirr > 590 nm makes them potential candidates to build photochemotherapeutic agents for the delivery of drugs with pyridine binding groups. PMID:25027458

  15. Static and time-resolved spectroscopic studies of low-symmetry Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, A.E.; McCusker, J.K.

    1999-09-02

    The spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of a series of four Ru{sup II} polypyridyl complexes are reported. Compounds of the form [Ru(dmb){sub x}(dea){sub 3{minus}x}]{sup 2+} (x = 0--3), where dmb is 4,4{prime}-dimethyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine and dea is 4,4{prime}-bis(diethylamino)-2,2{prime}-bipyridine, have been prepared and studied using static and time-resolved electronic and vibrational spectroscopies as a prelude to femtosecond spectroscopic studies of excited-state dynamics. Static electronic spectra in CH{sub 3}CN solution reveal a systematic shift of the MLCT absorption envelope from a maximum of 458 nm in the case of [Ru(dmb){sub 3}]{sup 2+} to 518 nm for [Ru(dea){sub 3}]{sup 2+} with successive substitutions of dea for dmb, suggesting a dea-based chromophore as the lowest-energy species. However, analysis of static and time-resolved emission data indicates an energy gap ordering of [Ru(dmb){sub 3}]{sup 2+} > [Ru(dmb){sub 2}(dea)]{sup 2+} > [Ru(dea){sub 3}]{sup 2+} > [Ru(dmb)(DEA){sub 2}]{sup 2+}, at variance with the electronic structures inferred from the absorption spectra. Nanosecond time-resolved electronic absorption and time-resolved step-scan infrared data are used to resolve this apparent conflict and confirm localization of the long-lived {sup 3}MLCT state on dmb in all three complexes where this ligand is present, thus making the dea-based excited state unique to [Ru(dea){sub 3}]{sup 2+}. Electrochemical studies further reveal the origin of this result, where a strong influence of the dea ligand on the oxidative Ru{sup II/III} couple, due to {pi} donation from the diethylamino substituent, is observed. The electronic absorption spectra are then reexamined in light of the now well-determined excited-state electronic structure. The results serve to underscore the importance of complete characterization of the electronic structures of transition metal complexes before embarking on ultrafast studies of their excited-state properties.

  16. Hydroxymethylpyridine containing half-sandwich complexes of Rh(III), Ir(III) or Ru(II).

    PubMed

    Carmona, Daniel; Lamata, Pilar; Sánchez, Antonio; Pardo, Pilar; Rodríguez, Ricardo; Ramírez, Paola; Lahoz, Fernando J; García-Orduña, Pilar; Oro, Luis A

    2014-11-01

    Complexes of the formula [(η(n)-ring)M(NOH){(R)-P1}][SbF6]2 ((η(n)-ring)M = (η(5)-C5Me5)Rh, (η(5)-C5Me5)Ir, (η(6)-p-MeC6H4iPr)Ru; NOH = hydroxymethylpyridine ligand; {(R)-P1} = (R)-monophos) have been prepared from the corresponding dimers [{(η(n)-ring)MCl}2(μ-Cl)2] through routes involving [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl2{(R)-P1}] or [(η(n)-ring)MCl(NOH)][SbF6] intermediates. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectroscopic means, including the determination of the crystal structures of [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl2{(R)-P1}] (1b), [(η(6)-p-MeC6H4iPr)RuCl(NOH-1)][SbF6] (2c), [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl{(R)-NOH-2}][SbF6] ((R)-3b), [(η(5)-C5Me5)Rh(NOH-1){(R)-P1}][SbF6]2 (4a) and [(η(6)-p-MeC6H4iPr)Ru{(R)-NOH-2}{(S)-P1}][SbF6]2 ((R)-5c') by X-ray diffractometric methods. From NMR and X-ray data, the absolute configuration of the new chiral compounds was established.

  17. Luminescent property and catalytic activity of Ru(II) carbonyl complexes containing N, O donor of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneimines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivagamasundari, M.; Ramesh, R.

    2007-05-01

    The reaction of the chelating ligands (obtained by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with various primary amines) with [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] (where E = P; B = PPh 3, py or pip: E = As; B = AsPh 3) in benzene afforded new stable ruthenium(II) carbonyl complexes of the general formula [Ru(Cl)(CO)(EPh 3)(B)(L)] (L = anion of bidentate Schiff bases). The structure of the new complexes was investigated using elemental analyses, spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR) and electrochemical studies and is found to be octahedral. All the metal complexes exhibit characteristic MLCT absorption and luminescence bands in the visible region. The luminescence efficiency of the ruthenium(II) complexes was explained based on the ligand environment around the metal ion. These complexes catalyze oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds in the presence of N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide (NMO) as the source of oxygen. The formation of high valent Ru IVdbnd O species as a catalytic intermediate is proposed for the catalytic process.

  18. Spectroscopic and computational studies of a Ru(II) terpyridine complex: the importance of weak intermolecular forces to photophysical properties.

    PubMed

    Garino, Claudio; Gobetto, Roberto; Nervi, Carlo; Salassa, Luca; Rosenberg, Edward; Ross, J B Alexander; Chu, Xi; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Sabatini, Cristiana

    2007-10-15

    The complex [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- (where tpy = 2,2':6',2' '-terpyridine and TFA = CF(3)CO(2)-) (1) has been synthesized and fully characterized spectroscopically. The X-ray structure of the complex has been determined. The photopysical properties of the ruthenium complex and the free ligand tpy have been investigated at room temperature and at 77 K in acetonitrile solution and in the solid state. Their electronic spectra are highly influenced by intermolecular stacking interactions, both in solution and in the solid state. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure and the excited states of [Ru(tpy)(CO)(2)TFA]+[PF(6)]- and tpy. TDDFT calculations on three different conformations of free ligand have been performed as well. Absorption and emission spectra of tpy have been studied at different temperatures and concentrations in order to have a better understanding of this ruthenium derivative's properties. The absorption spectrum of 1 is characterized by metal-perturbed ligand-centered (LC) bands in the UV region. No metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands are observed in the visible for the complex. Only at high concentrations (10(-4) M) does a very weak band appear at 470 nm. At 77 K and low concentrations, solutions of 1 exhibit a major 3LC emission band centered at 468 nm (21.4 x 10(-3) cm(-1)). When the concentration of the complex is increased, an unstructured narrow emission at 603 nm (16.6 x 10(-3) cm(-1)), with a lifetime of 10 micros, dominates the emission spectrum in glassy acetonitrile. This emission originates from a pi-pi stacked dimeric (or oligomeric) species. TDDFT calculations performed on a tail-to-tail dimer structure, similar to that seen in the solid state, ascribe the transition to a triplet excited state, where intermolecular metal (d) --> ligand (pi*, polypyridine) charge transfer occurs. A good estimate of the transition energy is also obtained (623 nm, 1.94 eV).

  19. Synthesis and characterization of a heteroleptic Ru(II) complex of phenanthroline containing oligo-anthracenyl carboxylic acid moieties.

    PubMed

    Adeloye, Adewale O; Ajibade, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop new ruthenium(II) complexes, this work describes the design, synthesis and characterization of a ruthenium(II) functionalized phenanthroline complex with extended π-conjugation. The ligand were L(1) (4,7-bis(2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline), synthesized by a direct aromatic substitution reaction, and L(2) (4,7-bis(trianthracenyl-2,3-dimethylacrylic acid)-1,10-phenanthroline), which was synthesized by the dehalogenation of halogenated aromatic compounds using a zero-valent palladium cross-catalyzed reaction in the absence of magnesium-diene complexes and/or cyclooctadienyl nickel (0) catalysts to generate a new carbon-carbon bond (C-C bond) polymerized hydrocarbon units. The ruthenium complex [RuL(1)L(2)(NCS)(2)] showed improved photophysical properties (red-shifted metal-to-ligand charge-transfer transition absorptions and enhanced molar extinction coefficients), luminescence and interesting electrochemical properties. Cyclic and square wave voltammetry revealed five major redox processes. The number of electron(s) transferred by the ruthenium complex was determined by chronocoulometry in each case. The results show that processes I, II and III are multi-electron transfer reactions while processes IV and V involved one-electron transfer reaction. The photophysical property of the complex makes it a promising candidate in the design of chemosensors and photosensitizers, while its redox-active nature makes the complex a potential mediator of electron transfer in photochemical processes.

  20. Azadipyrromethene cyclometalation in neutral Ru(II) complexes: photosensitizers with extended near-infrared absorption for solar energy conversion applications.

    PubMed

    Bessette, André; Cibian, Mihaela; Ferreira, Janaina G; DiMarco, Brian N; Bélanger, Francis; Désilets, Denis; Meyer, Gerald J; Hanan, Garry S

    2016-06-28

    In the on-going quest to harvest near-infrared (NIR) photons for energy conversion applications, a novel family of neutral ruthenium(ii) sensitizers has been developed by cyclometalation of an azadipyrromethene chromophore. These rare examples of neutral ruthenium complexes based on polypyridine ligands exhibit an impressive panchromaticity achieved by the cyclometalation strategy, with strong light absorption in the 600-800 nm range that tails beyond 1100 nm in the terpyridine-based adducts. Evaluation of the potential for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) applications is made through rationalization of the structure-property relationship by spectroscopic, electrochemical, X-ray structural and computational modelization investigations. Spectroscopic evidence for photo-induced charge injection into the conduction band of TiO2 is also provided. PMID:27264670

  1. New ru(II) complexes containing oxazoline ligands as epoxidation catalysts. Influence of the substituents on the catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Isabel; López, M Isabel; Ferrer, Íngrid; Poater, Albert; Parella, Teodor; Fontrodona, Xavier; Solà, Miquel; Llobet, Antoni; Rodríguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel

    2011-07-01

    The synthesis of a family of new Ru complexes containing the facial tridentate ligand with general formula [Ru(II)(T)(D)(X)](n+) (T = trispyrazolylmethane (tpm); D = ((4S,4'S)-(-)-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydro-4,4'-bis(1-methylethyl)-2,2'-bioxazole) (iPr-box-C) or N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-(2S)-(-)-2-yl)-(4S)-(-)-4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole-2-carbimidate (iPr-box-O); X = Cl, H(2)O) has been described. All complexes have been spectroscopically characterized in solution through (1)H NMR and UV-vis techniques, and the redox properties of complexes have also been studied by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV). Furthermore, the chloro complexes presented here have been characterized in the solid state through monocrystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The oxazolinic iPr-box-C ligand undergoes a Ru-assisted hydrolysis reaction generating the corresponding amidate anionic ligand iPr-box-O, that keeps coordinated to the Ru metal center and that produces a strong σ-donation effect over it. The reactivity of the Ru-OH(2) complexes described in this paper together with other similar ones, previously synthesized by us, has been tested with regard to the epoxidation of different olefins. Complexes [Ru(II)(R-box-C)(tpm)OH(2)](BF(4))(2), R = Bz, 3'c/iPr, 3c, show high stereoselectivity in the epoxidation of cis-β-methylstyrene, with the exclusive formation of the cis-epoxide. However, there is a significant difference in regioselectivity between the two catalysts in the epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene; complex 3'c leads to the regioselective oxidation at the ring alkene position, whereas complex 3c leads to the oxidation at the terminal position. Computational calculations indicate only small energy differences between the two possible products of 4-vinylcyclohexene epoxidation, but the energy barriers for the interaction of the catalytic systems with the alkene groups of 4-vinylcyclohexene agree with the reactivity differences found for the two catalysts having isopropyl or benzyl as substituent of the oxazole ligand. Computed local Fukui functions help to explain the observed reactivity trends.

  2. Study on DNA binding behavior and light switch effect of new coumarin-derived Ru(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Shen, You-Ming; Li, Zhi-Xin; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Zhang, Song-Bai

    2015-10-01

    A new ligand mhcip (mhcip = 2-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyl-8-coumarinyl)imidazo[4,5-f]-[1,10]phenanthroline) and its ruthenium complexes, [Ru(L)2mhcip]2+ (L = bpy (2,2‧-bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline)), have been synthesized and characterized. The introduction of coumarin ring may play an important role in the strong fluorescence of the complexes. Intercalative binding mode between both complexes and CT-DNA was determined by UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The two complexes show efficient DNA photocleavage under irradiation at 365 nm. The cycling of light switch off and on has been achieved for both complexes through the introduction of Cu2+ and EDTA in the absence or presence of DNA.

  3. Homochiral D4-symmetric metal–organic cages from stereogenic Ru(II) metalloligands for effective enantioseparation of atropisomeric molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai; Li, Kang; Hou, Ya-Jun; Pan, Mei; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Chen, Ling; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Absolute chiral environments are rare in regular polyhedral and prismatic architectures, but are achievable from self-assembly of metal–organic cages/containers (MOCs), which endow us with a promising ability to imitate natural organization systems to accomplish stereochemical recognition, catalysis and separation. Here we report a general assembly approach to homochiral MOCs with robust chemical viability suitable for various practical applications. A stepwise process for assembly of enantiopure ΔΔΔΔΔΔΔΔ- and ΛΛΛΛΛΛΛΛ-Pd6(RuL3)8 MOCs is accomplished by pre-resolution of the Δ/Λ-Ru-metalloligand precursors. The obtained Pd–Ru bimetallic MOCs feature in large D4-symmetric chiral space imposed by the predetermined Ru(II)-octahedral stereoconfigurations, which are substitutionally inert, stable, water-soluble and are capable of encapsulating a dozen guests per cage. Chiral resolution tests reveal diverse host–guest stereoselectivity towards different chiral molecules, which demonstrate enantioseparation ability for atropisomeric compounds with C2 symmetry. NMR studies indicate a distinctive resolution process depending on guest exchange dynamics, which is differentiable between host–guest diastereomers. PMID:26839048

  4. Luminescent sensing of dissolved oxygen based on Ru(II) complex embedded in sol-gel matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yubing; Tao, Wei; Hu, Yanli; Mao, Yimei; Zhao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    In biological cells and tissues environment, real-time monitoring and controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) provides critical information for studying cellular metabolism process, health status and pathological features. This paper developed an optical DO sensor based on fluorescence quenching principle, prepared tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10- phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) dichloride complex sol-gel sensing film, and studied its sensing performance. The principle of this sensor is that dissolved oxygen has quenching effect towards the fluorescence emitted by ruthenium complex. So the fluorescence intensity is reduced due to the existence of DO. The measurement limit of DO was 10- 100%, the response time was 20s, and the resolution was 0.02. Compared to traditional dissolved oxygen electrode probe, this luminescent fiber had many advantages, such as smaller size, shorter response time and higher stability.

  5. Conditions for Directional Charge Transfer in CdSe Quantum Dots Functionalized by Ru(II) Polypyridine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kilina, Svetlana; Cui, Peng; Fischer, Sean A; Tretiak, Sergei

    2014-10-16

    Thermodynamic conditions governing the charge transfer direction in CdSe quantum dots (QD) functionalized by either Ru(II)-trisbipyridine or black dye are studied using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). Compared to the energy offsets of the isolated QD and the dye, QD-dye interactions strongly stabilize dye orbitals with respect to the QD states, while the surface chemistry of the QD has a minor effect on the energy offsets. In all considered QD/dye composites, the dyes always introduce unoccupied states close to the edge of the conduction band and control the electron transfer. Negatively charged ligands and less polar solvents significantly destabilize the dye's occupied orbitals shifting them toward the very edge of the valence band, thus, providing favorite conditions for the hole transfer. Overall, variations in the dye's ligands and solvent polarity can progressively adjust the electronic structure of QD/dye composites to modify conditions for the directed charge transfer. PMID:26278611

  6. A family of Ru(II) complexes built on a novel sexipyridine building block: synthesis, photophysical properties and the rare structural characterization of a triruthenium species.

    PubMed

    Laramée-Milette, Baptiste; Lussier, Félix; Ciofini, Ilaria; Hanan, Garry S

    2015-07-01

    A new tris-2'',4'',6''-(2,2'-bipyridin-4-yl)-1'',3'',5''-triazine ligand and its family of ruthenium coordination complexes are described along with their characterization by electrochemical and photophysical methods as well as a rare single crystal X-ray analysis of a triruthenium polypyridine complex. PMID:26037408

  7. Interaction of ferrocene appended Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) dipyrrinato complexes with DNA/protein, molecular docking and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Paitandi, Rajendra Prasad; Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Roop Shikha; Sharma, Gunjan; Koch, Biplob; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2014-09-12

    Efficacy of the ferrocene appended piano-stool dipyrrinato complexes [(η(6)-C6H6)RuCl(fcdpm)] (1), [(η(6)-C10H14)RuCl(fcdpm)] (2), [(η(6)-C12H18)RuCl(fcdpm)] (3) [(η(5)-C5Me5)RhCl(fcdpm)] (4) and [(η(5)-C5Me5)IrCl(fcdpm)] (5) [fcdpm = 5-ferrocenyldipyrromethene] toward anticancer activity have been described. Binding of the complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and BSA (bovine serum albumin) have been thoroughly investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Binding constants for 1-5 (range, 10(4)-10(5) M(-1)) validated their efficient binding with CT-DNA. Molecular docking studies revealed interaction through minor groove of the DNA, on the other hand these also interact through hydrophobic residues of the protein, particularly cavity in the subdomain IIA. In vitro anticancer activity have been scrutinized by MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) fluorescence staining, and DNA ladder (fragmentation) assay against Dalton's Lymphoma (DL) cells. Present study revealed that rhodium complex (4) is more effective relative to ruthenium (1-3) and iridium (5) complexes.

  8. Cytotoxicity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes with chloroquine and chelating ligands against breast and lung tumor cells: Interactions with DNA and BSA.

    PubMed

    Colina-Vegas, Legna; Villarreal, Wilmer; Navarro, Maribel; de Oliveira, Clayton Rodrigues; Graminha, Angélica E; Maia, Pedro Ivo da S; Deflon, Victor M; Ferreira, Antonio G; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nine π-arene piano-stool ruthenium (II) complexes with aromatic dinitrogen chelating ligands or containing chloroquine (CQ), are described in this study: [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(phen)Cl]PF6 (1), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dphphen)Cl]PF6 (2), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bipy)Cl]PF6 (3), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dmebipy)Cl]PF6 (4) and [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bdutbipy)Cl]PF6 (5), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(phen)CQ](PF6)2 (6), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dphphen)CQ](PF6)2 (7), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bipy)CQ](PF6)2 (8), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dmebipy)CQ](PF6)2 (9): [1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dphphen), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmebipy), and 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dbutbipy)]. The solid state structures of five ruthenium complexes (1-5) were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical experiments were performed by cyclic voltammetry to estimate the redox potential of the Ru(II)/Ru(III) couple in each case. Their interactions with DNA and BSA, and activity against four cell lines (L929, A549, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were evaluated. Compounds 2, 6 through 9, interact with DNA which was comparable to the one observed for free chloroquine. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that these complexes strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA following a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Kb) and the number of binding sites (n~1) were calculated using modified Stern-Volmer equations. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG at different temperatures were calculated and subsequently the values of ΔH and ΔS were also calculated, which revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the BSA-complex association. The MTT assay results indicated that complexes 2, 5 and 7 showed cytostatic effects at appreciably lower concentrations than those needed for cisplatin, chloroquine and doxorubicin.

  9. Hydrogen bonding and anticancer properties of water-soluble chiral p-cymene Ru(II) compounds with amino-oxime ligands

    PubMed Central

    Benabdelouahab, Yosra; Muñoz-Moreno, Laura; Frik, Malgorzata; de la Cueva-Alique, Isabel; El Amrani, Mohammed Amin; Contel, María; Bajo, Ana M.; Cuenca, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the hydrogen-bonding effect on the aggregation tendency of ruthenium compounds [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(κNHR,κNOH)Cl]Cl (R = Ph (1a), Bn (1b)) and [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(κ2NH(2-pic),κNOH)][PF6]2 (1c), [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(κNHBn,κNO)Cl] (2b) and [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(κNBn,κ2NO)] (3b), has been performed by means of concentration dependence 1H NMR chemical shifts and DOSY experiments. The synthesis and full characterization of new compounds 1c, [(η6-p-cymene)Ru(κNPh,κ2NO)] (3a) and 3b are also reported. The effect of the water soluble ruthenium complexes 1a-1c on cytotoxicity, cell adhesion and cell migration of the androgen-independent prostate cancer PC3 cells have been assessed by MTT, adhesion to type-I-collagen and recovery of monolayer wounds assays, respectively. Interactions of 1a-1c with DNA and human serum albumin have also been studied. Altogether, the properties reported herein suggest that ruthenium compounds 1a-1c have considerable potential as anticancer agents against advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27175101

  10. Energy transfer in hybrids based on a thiophene-substituted ethynylbipyridine dimer decorated with Re(I), Ru(II), and Os(II) units.

    PubMed

    Goeb, Sébastien; De Nicola, Antoinette; Ziessel, Raymond; Sabatini, Cristiana; Barbieri, Andrea; Barigelletti, Francesco

    2006-02-01

    The preparation, structural features, electrochemical behavior, and optical properties (at room temperature and at 77 K) are reported for a series of thiophene-containing hybrids based on the bent conjugated backbone of a rigid ditopic ligand, the dimeric moiety 3,4-dibutyl-2,5-bis{5'-[(3,4-dibutylthien-2-ylethynyl)-2,2'-bipyridin-5-yl]ethynyl}thiophene (TBTBT). Within the dimer, the diethynyl-2,2'-bipyridine units (bpy, the coordination sites) alternate with three 3,4-dibuthylthiophene units and coordination of the [Re(CO)3Cl], [Ru(bpy)2]2+, and [Os(bpy)2]2+ centers results in the mononuclear species RuTBTBT and OsTBTBT and the binuclear species RuTBTBTRu, OsTBTBTOs, RuTBTBTOs, and ReTBTBTOs. At room temperature, the emitting states obtained by photoexcitation are of 3MLCT nature, and vibronic analysis of the emission spectra indicates that they are largely delocalized over the TBTBT ligand. In the binuclear species, the intermetal separation is ca. 17 A, and for RuTBTBTOs, an efficient Ru --> Os excitation transfer takes place, resulting solely in an Os-based emission. The process is ascribed to double-electron transfer (Dexter), as mediated by the TBTBT ligand; a similar conclusion holds for the case of ReTBTBTOs. For RuTBTBTOs, the process is discussed in some detail also with regard to the possibility of disentangling the constituent hole and electron-transfer events.

  11. Cytotoxicity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes with chloroquine and chelating ligands against breast and lung tumor cells: Interactions with DNA and BSA.

    PubMed

    Colina-Vegas, Legna; Villarreal, Wilmer; Navarro, Maribel; de Oliveira, Clayton Rodrigues; Graminha, Angélica E; Maia, Pedro Ivo da S; Deflon, Victor M; Ferreira, Antonio G; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Batista, Alzir A

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nine π-arene piano-stool ruthenium (II) complexes with aromatic dinitrogen chelating ligands or containing chloroquine (CQ), are described in this study: [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(phen)Cl]PF6 (1), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dphphen)Cl]PF6 (2), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bipy)Cl]PF6 (3), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dmebipy)Cl]PF6 (4) and [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bdutbipy)Cl]PF6 (5), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(phen)CQ](PF6)2 (6), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dphphen)CQ](PF6)2 (7), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(bipy)CQ](PF6)2 (8), [Ru(η(6)-C10H14)(dmebipy)CQ](PF6)2 (9): [1,10-phenanthroline (phen), 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dphphen), 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy), 5,5'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dmebipy), and 4,4'-di-t-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dbutbipy)]. The solid state structures of five ruthenium complexes (1-5) were determined by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical experiments were performed by cyclic voltammetry to estimate the redox potential of the Ru(II)/Ru(III) couple in each case. Their interactions with DNA and BSA, and activity against four cell lines (L929, A549, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were evaluated. Compounds 2, 6 through 9, interact with DNA which was comparable to the one observed for free chloroquine. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that these complexes strongly quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA following a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Kb) and the number of binding sites (n~1) were calculated using modified Stern-Volmer equations. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG at different temperatures were calculated and subsequently the values of ΔH and ΔS were also calculated, which revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play a major role in the BSA-complex association. The MTT assay results indicated that complexes 2, 5 and 7 showed cytostatic effects at appreciably lower concentrations than those needed for cisplatin, chloroquine and doxorubicin. PMID:26277415

  12. Conjugation of a Ru(II) arene complex to neomycin or to guanidinoneomycin leads to compounds with differential cytotoxicities and accumulation between cancer and normal cells.

    PubMed

    Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Massaguer, Anna; Carrion-Salip, Dolors; Barragán, Flavia; Artigas, Gerard; López-Senín, Paula; Moreno, Virtudes; Marchán, Vicente

    2013-05-01

    A straightforward methodology for the synthesis of conjugates between a cytotoxic organometallic ruthenium(II) complex and amino- and guanidinoglycosides, as potential RNA-targeted anticancer compounds, is described. Under microwave irradiation, the imidazole ligand incorporated on the aminoglycoside moiety (neamine or neomycin) was found to replace one triphenylphosphine ligand from the ruthenium precursor [(η(6)-p-cym)RuCl(PPh3)2](+), allowing the assembly of the target conjugates. The guanidinylated analogue was easily prepared from the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate by reaction with N,N'-di-Boc-N″-triflylguanidine, a powerful guanidinylating reagent that was compatible with the integrity of the metal complex. All conjugates were purified by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and characterized by electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was tested in MCF-7 (breast) and DU-145 (prostate) human cancer cells, as well as in the normal HEK293 (Human Embryonic Kidney) cell line, revealing a dependence on the nature of the glycoside moiety and the type of cell (cancer or healthy). Indeed, the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate (2) displayed moderate antiproliferative activity in both cancer cell lines (IC50 ≈ 80 μM), whereas the neamine conjugate (4) was inactive (IC50 ≈ 200 μM). However, the guanidinylated analogue of the neomycin-ruthenium conjugate (3) required much lower concentrations than the parent conjugate for equal effect (IC50 = 7.17 μM in DU-145 and IC50 = 11.33 μM in MCF-7). Although the same ranking in antiproliferative activity was found in the nontumorigenic cell line (3 ≫ 2 > 4), IC50 values indicate that aminoglycoside-containing conjugates are about 2-fold more cytotoxic in normal cells (e.g., IC50 = 49.4 μM for 2) than in cancer cells, whereas an opposite tendency was found with the guanidinylated conjugate, since its cytotoxicity in the normal cell line (IC50 = 12.75 μM for 3) was similar or even lower than that found in MCF-7 and DU-145 cancer cell lines, respectively. Cell uptake studies performed by ICP-MS with conjugates 2 and 3 revealed that guanidinylation of the neomycin moiety had a positive effect on accumulation (about 3-fold higher in DU-145 and 4-fold higher in HEK293), which correlates well with the higher antiproliferative activity of 3. Interestingly, despite the slightly higher accumulation in the normal cell than in the cancer cell line (about 1.4-fold), guanidinoneomycin-ruthenium conjugate (3) was more cytotoxic to cancer cells (about 1.8-fold), whereas the opposite tendency applied for neomycin-ruthenium conjugate (2). Such differences in cytotoxic activity and cellular accumulation between cancer and normal cells open the way to the creation of more selective, less toxic anticancer metallodrugs by conjugating cytotoxic metal-based complexes such as ruthenium(II) arene derivatives to guanidinoglycosides.

  13. Disentangling the Physical Processes Responsible for the Kinetic Complexity in Interfacial Electron Transfer of Excited Ru(II) Polypyridyl Dyes on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zigler, David F; Morseth, Zachary A; Wang, Li; Ashford, Dennis L; Brennaman, M Kyle; Grumstrup, Erik M; Brigham, Erinn C; Gish, Melissa K; Dillon, Robert J; Alibabaei, Leila; Meyer, Gerald J; Meyer, Thomas J; Papanikolas, John M

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial electron transfer at titanium dioxide (TiO2) is investigated for a series of surface bound ruthenium-polypyridyl dyes whose metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state (MLCT) energetics are tuned through chemical modification. The 12 complexes are of the form Ru(II)(bpy-A)(L)2(2+), where bpy-A is a bipyridine ligand functionalized with phosphonate groups for surface attachment to TiO2. Functionalization of ancillary bipyridine ligands (L) enables the potential of the excited state Ru(III/)* couple, E(+/)*, in 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO4(aq)) to be tuned from -0.69 to -1.03 V vs NHE. Each dye is excited by a 200 fs pulse of light in the visible region of the spectrum and probed with a time-delayed supercontiuum pulse (350-800 nm). Decay of the MLCT excited-state absorption at 376 nm is observed without loss of the ground-state bleach, which is a clear signature of electron injection and formation of the oxidized dye. The dye-dependent decays are biphasic with time constants in the 3-30 and 30-500 ps range. The slower injection rate constant for each dye is exponentially distributed relative to E(+/)*. The correlation between the exponentially diminishing density of TiO2 sub-band acceptor levels and injection rate is well described using Marcus-Gerischer theory, with the slower decay components being assigned to injection from the thermally equilibrated state and the faster components corresponding to injection from higher energy states within the (3)MLCT manifold. These results and detailed analyses incorporating molecular photophysics and semiconductor density of states measurements indicate that the multiexponential behavior that is often observed in interfacial injection studies is not due to sample heterogeneity. Rather, this work shows that the kinetic heterogeneity results from competition between excited-state relaxation and injection as the photoexcited dye relaxes through the (3)MLCT manifold to the thermally equilibrated state, underscoring the potential for a simple kinetic model to reproduce the complex kinetic behavior often observed at the interface of mesoporous metal oxide materials. PMID:26974040

  14. Simple and cheap steric and electronic characterization of the reactivity of Ru(II) complexes containing oxazoline ligands as epoxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poater, Albert; Falivene, Laura; Cavallo, Luigi; Llobet, Antoni; Rodríguez, Montserrat; Romero, Isabel; Solà, Miquel

    2013-07-01

    The reactivity of a new family of complexes with general formula [RuIV(T)(R-D)(O)]2+ (T = trispyrazolylmethane (tpm); D = N-(1-hydroxy-3-methylbutan-(2S)-(-)-2-yl)-(4S)-(-)-4-isopropyl-4,5-dihydrooxazole-2-carbimidate, R = Bz (1); iPr (2)) has been analyzed. There is a significant difference in regioselectivity between the two catalysts in the epoxidation of 4-vinylcyclohexene; 1 leads to the regioselective oxidation at the ring alkene position, whereas 2 leads to the oxidation at the terminal position. Although computational calculations indicate small energy differences, both the geometry through steric maps and the electronic parameters of the reactants via conceptual DFT, or charges via NPA, explain the reactivity differences found for the catalysts depending on the substituents of the oxazoline ligands.

  15. Molecular Engineering, Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterizations of Novel Ru(II) and BODIPY Sensitizers for Mesoporous TiO2 Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, Hammad Arshad

    To realize the dream of a low carbon society and ensure the wide spread application of renewable energy sources such as solar energy, photovoltaic devices should be highly efficient, cost-effective and stable for at least 20 years. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) are photovoltaic cells that mimic the natural photosynthesis. In a DSC, the dye absorbs photons from incident light and converts those photons to electric charges, which are then extracted to the outer circuit through semiconductor TiO2, whereas the mediator regenerates the oxidized dye. A sensitizer is the pivotal component in the device in terms of determining the spectral response, color, photocurrent density, long term stability, and thickness of a DSC. The breakthrough report by O'Regan and Gratzel in 1991 has garnered more than 18,673 citations (as of October 9, 2014), which indicates the immense scientific interest to better understand and improve the fundamental science of this technology. With the aforementioned in mind, this study has focused on the molecular engineering of novel sensitizers to provide a better understanding of structure-property relationships of novel sensitizers for DSCs. The characterization of sensitizers (HD-1-mono, HD-2-mono and HD-2) for photovoltaic applications showed that the photocurrent response of DSCs can be increased by using mono-ancillary ligand instead of bis-ancillary ligands, which is of great commercial value considering the difference in the molecular weights of both dyes. The results of this work were published in Journal of Materials Chemistry A (doi:10.1039/c4ta01942c) and ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (doi: 10.1021/am502400b). Furthermore, structure-property relationships were investigated in Ru (II) sensitizers HL-41 and HL-42 in order to elucidate the steric effects of electron donating ancillary ligands on photocurrent and photovoltage, as discussed in Chapter 4. It was found that the electron donating group (ethoxy) ortho to the CH=CH spacer precludes coplanarity of the naphthalene moiety, thus decreasing the extracted photocurrent response from solar device. The findings were published in Dyes and Pigments (doi:10.1016/j.dyepig.2014.08.005). For HD-7 and HD-8, intriguing difference caused by structural isomerization based on anthracene and phenanthrene stilbazole type ancillary ligands, respectively in Ru (II) sensitizers was investigated using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the excited electrons in HD-7 are prone to ISC (intersystem crossing) much more than that in HD-8 and those triplet electrons are not being injected in TiO2 efficiently as discussed in Chapter 5. To achieve long term stability, we combined the strong electron donor characteristics of carbazole and the hydrophobic nature of long alkyl chains, C7 (HD-14 ), C18 (HD-15) and C2 (NCSU-10), tethered to N-carbazole. HD-15 showed strikingly good long term light soaking stability and maintained up to 98% of initial efficiency value compared to 92% for HD-14 and 78% for NCSU-10, as discussed in Chapter 6. Boron dipyromethene (BODIPY) dyes HB-1, HB-2 and HB-3 were synthesized and fully characterized for dye solar cells. It was found that having long alkyl chains tethered to the donor groups alone are not sufficient for achieving highly efficient photovoltaic response from BODIPY dyes (Chapter 7). Thus, replacement of fluorines from BODIPY core with long alkoxy chains has been suggested for future work.

  16. Selective electrocatalytic oxidation of a re-methyl complex to methanol by a surface-bound Ru(II) polypyridyl catalyst.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Michael K; Méndez, Manuel A; Concepcion, Javier J; Periana, Roy A; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-11-12

    The complex [Ru(Mebimpy)(4,4'-((HO)2OPCH2)2bpy)(OH2)](2+) surface bound to tin-doped indium oxide mesoporous nanoparticle film electrodes (nanoITO-Ru(II)(OH2)(2+)) is an electrocatalyst for the selective oxidation of methylrhenium trioxide (MTO) to methanol in acidic aqueous solution. Oxidative activation of the catalyst to nanoITO-Ru(IV)(OH)(3+) induces oxidation of MTO. The reaction is first order in MTO with rate saturation observed at [MTO] > 12 mM with a limiting rate constant of k = 25 s(-1). Methanol is formed selectively in 87% Faradaic yield in controlled potential electrolyses at 1.3 V vs NHE. At higher potentials, oxidation of MTO by nanoITO-Ru(V)(O)(3+) leads to multiple electrolysis products. The results of an electrochemical kinetics study point to a mechanism in which surface oxidation to nanoITO-Ru(IV)(OH)(3+) is followed by direct insertion into the rhenium-methyl bond of MTO with a detectable intermediate. PMID:25325162

  17. Synthesis, spectral, catalytic and antimicrobial studies of PPh 3/AsPh 3 complexes of Ru(II) with dibasic tridentate O, N, S donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K. P.; Karvembu, R.; Prabhakaran, R.; Chinnusamy, V.; Natarajan, K.

    2007-09-01

    Complexes of the type [Ru(CO)(EPh 3)(B)(L)] (E = P or As; B = PPh 3, AsPh 3, py or pip; L = dianion of the Schiff bases derived from thiosemicarbazone with acetoacetanilide, acetoacet- o-toluidide and o-chloro acetoacetanilide) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar amounts of [RuHCl(CO)(EPh 3) 2(B)] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic, NMR) data. The arrangement of PPh 3 groups around ruthenium metal was determined from 31P NMR spectra. An octahedral structure has been assigned for all the new complexes. All the complexes exhibited catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol in presence of N-methylmorpholine- N-oxide as co-oxidant. The complexes also exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla and Salmonella typhi. The activity was compared with standard streptomycin.

  18. Synthesis, spectral, catalytic and antimicrobial studies of PPh3/AsPh3 complexes of Ru(II) with dibasic tridentate O, N, S donor ligands.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, K P; Karvembu, R; Prabhakaran, R; Chinnusamy, V; Natarajan, K

    2007-09-01

    Complexes of the type [Ru(CO)(EPh(3))(B)(L)] (E = P or As; B = PPh(3), AsPh(3), py or pip; L=dianion of the Schiff bases derived from thiosemicarbazone with acetoacetanilide, acetoacet-o-toluidide and o-chloro acetoacetanilide) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar amounts of [RuHCl(CO)(EPh(3))(2)(B)] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, electronic, NMR) data. The arrangement of PPh(3) groups around ruthenium metal was determined from (31)P NMR spectra. An octahedral structure has been assigned for all the new complexes. All the complexes exhibited catalytic activity for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol in presence of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide as co-oxidant. The complexes also exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla and Salmonella typhi. The activity was compared with standard streptomycin. PMID:17182271

  19. Disentangling the Physical Processes Responsible for the Kinetic Complexity in Interfacial Electron Transfer of Excited Ru(II) Polypyridyl Dyes on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zigler, David F; Morseth, Zachary A; Wang, Li; Ashford, Dennis L; Brennaman, M Kyle; Grumstrup, Erik M; Brigham, Erinn C; Gish, Melissa K; Dillon, Robert J; Alibabaei, Leila; Meyer, Gerald J; Meyer, Thomas J; Papanikolas, John M

    2016-04-01

    Interfacial electron transfer at titanium dioxide (TiO2) is investigated for a series of surface bound ruthenium-polypyridyl dyes whose metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state (MLCT) energetics are tuned through chemical modification. The 12 complexes are of the form Ru(II)(bpy-A)(L)2(2+), where bpy-A is a bipyridine ligand functionalized with phosphonate groups for surface attachment to TiO2. Functionalization of ancillary bipyridine ligands (L) enables the potential of the excited state Ru(III/)* couple, E(+/)*, in 0.1 M perchloric acid (HClO4(aq)) to be tuned from -0.69 to -1.03 V vs NHE. Each dye is excited by a 200 fs pulse of light in the visible region of the spectrum and probed with a time-delayed supercontiuum pulse (350-800 nm). Decay of the MLCT excited-state absorption at 376 nm is observed without loss of the ground-state bleach, which is a clear signature of electron injection and formation of the oxidized dye. The dye-dependent decays are biphasic with time constants in the 3-30 and 30-500 ps range. The slower injection rate constant for each dye is exponentially distributed relative to E(+/)*. The correlation between the exponentially diminishing density of TiO2 sub-band acceptor levels and injection rate is well described using Marcus-Gerischer theory, with the slower decay components being assigned to injection from the thermally equilibrated state and the faster components corresponding to injection from higher energy states within the (3)MLCT manifold. These results and detailed analyses incorporating molecular photophysics and semiconductor density of states measurements indicate that the multiexponential behavior that is often observed in interfacial injection studies is not due to sample heterogeneity. Rather, this work shows that the kinetic heterogeneity results from competition between excited-state relaxation and injection as the photoexcited dye relaxes through the (3)MLCT manifold to the thermally equilibrated state, underscoring the potential for a simple kinetic model to reproduce the complex kinetic behavior often observed at the interface of mesoporous metal oxide materials.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of new salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone Schiff base compounds of Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) as in vitro antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Narasinga Rao; Nongbri, S L; Premkumar, J Richard; Verma, Akalesh Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Joshi, S R; Forbes, Scott; Mozharivskyj, Yurij; Thounaojam, Romita; Aguan, K; Kollipara, Mohan Rao

    2015-06-01

    Reaction of salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) Schiff base ligand with precursor compounds [{(p-cymene)RuCl2}2] 1, [{(C6H6)RuCl2}2] 2, [{Cp*RhCl2}2] 3 and [{Cp*IrCl2}2] 4 yielded the corresponding neutral mononuclear compounds 5-8, respectively. The in vitro antitumor evaluation of the compounds 1-8 against Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DL) cells by fluorescence-based apoptosis study and by their half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values revealed the high antitumor activity of compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6. Compounds 1-8 render comparatively lower apoptotic effect than that of cisplatin on model non-tumor cells, i.e., peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 5-8 by agar well-diffusion method revealed that compound 6 is significantly effective against all the eight bacterial species considered with zone of inhibition up to 35 mm. Fluorescence imaging study of compounds 5-8 with plasmid circular DNA (pcDNA) and HeLa RNA demonstrated their fluorescence imaging property upon binding with nucleic acids. The docking study with some key enzymes associated with the propagation of cancer such as ribonucleotide reductase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate phosphorylase and topoisomerase II revealed strong interactions between proteins and compounds 5-8. Conformational analysis by density functional theory (DFT) study has corroborated our experimental observation of the N, N binding mode of ligand. Compounds 5-8 exhibited a HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)-LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap 2.99-3.04 eV. Half-sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium compounds were obtained by treatment of metal precursors with salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) by in situ metal-mediated deprotonation of the ligand. Compounds under investigation have shown potential antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging properties. Arene ruthenium compounds exhibited higher activity compared to that of Cp*Rh/Cp*Ir in inhibiting the cancer cells growth and pathogenic bacteria. At a concentration 100 µg/mL, the apoptosis activity of arene ruthenium compounds, 5 and 6 (~30 %) is double to that of Cp*Rh/Cp*Ir compounds, 7 and 8 (~12 %). Among the four new compounds 5-8, the benzene ruthenium compound, i.e., compound 6 is significantly effective against the pathogenic bacteria under investigation. PMID:25712889

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of new salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone Schiff base compounds of Ru(II), Rh(III) and Ir(III) as in vitro antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Palepu, Narasinga Rao; Nongbri, S L; Premkumar, J Richard; Verma, Akalesh Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Kaushik; Joshi, S R; Forbes, Scott; Mozharivskyj, Yurij; Thounaojam, Romita; Aguan, K; Kollipara, Mohan Rao

    2015-06-01

    Reaction of salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) Schiff base ligand with precursor compounds [{(p-cymene)RuCl2}2] 1, [{(C6H6)RuCl2}2] 2, [{Cp*RhCl2}2] 3 and [{Cp*IrCl2}2] 4 yielded the corresponding neutral mononuclear compounds 5-8, respectively. The in vitro antitumor evaluation of the compounds 1-8 against Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DL) cells by fluorescence-based apoptosis study and by their half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values revealed the high antitumor activity of compounds 3, 4, 5 and 6. Compounds 1-8 render comparatively lower apoptotic effect than that of cisplatin on model non-tumor cells, i.e., peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 5-8 by agar well-diffusion method revealed that compound 6 is significantly effective against all the eight bacterial species considered with zone of inhibition up to 35 mm. Fluorescence imaging study of compounds 5-8 with plasmid circular DNA (pcDNA) and HeLa RNA demonstrated their fluorescence imaging property upon binding with nucleic acids. The docking study with some key enzymes associated with the propagation of cancer such as ribonucleotide reductase, thymidylate synthase, thymidylate phosphorylase and topoisomerase II revealed strong interactions between proteins and compounds 5-8. Conformational analysis by density functional theory (DFT) study has corroborated our experimental observation of the N, N binding mode of ligand. Compounds 5-8 exhibited a HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)-LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) energy gap 2.99-3.04 eV. Half-sandwich ruthenium, rhodium and iridium compounds were obtained by treatment of metal precursors with salicylaldehyde-2-picolinylhydrazone (HL) by in situ metal-mediated deprotonation of the ligand. Compounds under investigation have shown potential antitumor, antibacterial and fluorescence imaging properties. Arene ruthenium compounds exhibited higher activity compared to that of Cp*Rh/Cp*Ir in inhibiting the cancer cells growth and pathogenic bacteria. At a concentration 100 µg/mL, the apoptosis activity of arene ruthenium compounds, 5 and 6 (~30 %) is double to that of Cp*Rh/Cp*Ir compounds, 7 and 8 (~12 %). Among the four new compounds 5-8, the benzene ruthenium compound, i.e., compound 6 is significantly effective against the pathogenic bacteria under investigation.

  2. DNA binding and anti-cancer activity of redox-active heteroleptic piano-stool Ru(II), Rh(III), and Ir(III) complexes containing 4-(2-methoxypyridyl)phenyldipyrromethene.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Pandey, Rampal; Sharma, Gunjan; Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob; Srikrishna, Saripella; Li, Pei-Zhou; Xu, Qiang; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of four novel heteroleptic dipyrrinato complexes [(η(6)-arene)RuCl(2-pcdpm)] (η(6)-arene = C6H6, 1; C10H14, 2) and [(η(5)-C5Me5)MCl(2-pcdpm)] (M = Rh, 3; Ir, 4) containing a new chelating ligand 4-(2-methoxypyridyl)-phenyldipyrromethene (2-pcdpm) have been described. The complexes 1-4 have been fully characterized by various physicochemical techniques, namely, elemental analyses, spectral (ESI-MS, IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR, UV/vis) and electrochemical studies (cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV)). Structures of 3 and 4 have been determined crystallographically. In vitro antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of these complexes has been evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, cell morphology, apoptosis, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EtBr) fluorescence staining, and DNA fragmentation assay in Dalton lymphoma (DL) cell lines. Interaction of 1-4 with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) has also been supported by absorption titration and electrochemical studies. Our results suggest that in vitro antitumor activity of 1-4 lies in the order 2 > 1 > 4 > 3. PMID:23477351

  3. Concerning the electronic coupling of MoMo quadruple bonds linked by 4,4'-azodibenzoate and comparison with t2g 6-Ru(II) centers by 4,4'-azodiphenylcyanamido ligands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Malcolm H; D'Acchioli, Jason S; Hadad, Christopher M; Patmore, Nathan J

    2006-12-25

    From the reactions between Mo2(O2CtBu)4 and each of terephthalic acid and 4,4'-azodibenzoic acid, the compounds [Mo2(O2CtBu)3]2(mu-O2CC6H4CO2) (1) and [Mo2(O2CtBu)3]2(mu-O2CC6H4N2C6H4CO2) (2) have been made and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Their electronic structures have been examined by computations employing density functional theory on model compounds where HCO2 substitutes for tBuCO2. On the basis of these studies, the two Mo2 units are shown to be only weakly coupled and the mixed-valence ions 1+ and 2+ to be valence-trapped and Class II and I, respectively, on the Robin-Day classification scheme for mixed-valence compounds. These results are compared to t2g6-Ru centers linked by 1,4-dicyanamidobenzene and azo-4,4'-diphenylcyanamido bridges for which the mixed-valence ions [Ru-bridge-Ru]5+ have been previously classified as fully delocalized, Class III [Crutchley et al. Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 1189; Inorg. Chem. 2004, 43, 1770], and on the basis of results described herein, it is proposed that the latter complex ion is more likely a mixed-valence organic radical where the bridge is oxidized and not the Ru(2+) centers.

  4. Photochemistry of RuII 4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl (btz) complexes: crystallographic characterization of the photoreactive ligand-loss intermediate trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ2-btz)(κ1-btz)(NCMe)]2+.

    PubMed

    Welby, Christine E; Armitage, Georgina K; Bartley, Harry; Wilkinson, Aaron; Sinopoli, Alessandro; Uppal, Baljinder S; Rice, Craig R; Elliott, Paul I P

    2014-07-01

    We report the unprecedented observation and unequivocal crystallographic characterization of the meta-stable ligand loss intermediate solvento complex trans-[Ru(bpy)(κ(2) -btz)(κ(1) -btz)(NCMe)](2+) (1 a) that contains a monodentate chelate ligand. This and analogous complexes can be observed during the photolysis reactions of a family of complexes of the form [Ru({NN})(btz)(2)](2+) (1 a-d: btz=1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl; {NN}=a) 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy), b) 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridyl (dmbpy), c) 4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridyl (dmeobpy), d) 1,10-phenanthroline (phen)). In acetonitrile solutions, 1 a-d eventually convert to the bis-solvento complexes trans-[Ru({NN})(btz)(NCMe)(2)](2+) (3 a-d) along with one equivalent of free btz, in a process in which the remaining coordinated bidentate ligands undergo a new rearrangement such that they become coplanar. X-ray crystal structure of 3 a and 3 d confirmed the co-planar arrangement of the {NN} and btz ligands and the trans coordination of two solvent molecules. These conversions proceed via the observed intermediate complexes 2 a-d, which are formed quantitatively from 1 a-d in a matter of minutes and to which they slowly revert back on being left to stand in the dark over several days. The remarkably long lifetime of the intermediate complexes (>12 h at 40 °C) allowed the isolation of 2 a in the solid state, and the complex to be crystallographically characterized. Similarly to the structures adopted by complexes 3 a and d, the bpy and κ(2) -btz ligands in 2 a coordinate in a square-planar fashion with the second monodentate btz ligand coordinated trans to an acetonitrile ligand. PMID:24889966

  5. Dichlorido(η6-p-cymene)(eth­oxy­diphenyl­phosphane)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Spring M. M.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Tyler, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [RuCl2(C10H14)(C14H15OP)], is an RuII complex in which an η6-p-cymene ligand, two chloride anions and the P atom of an ethoxydiphenylphosphane ligand form a piano-stool coordination environment about the central RuII atom. PMID:23468692

  6. A highly selective OFF-ON red-emitting phosphorescent thiol probe with large stokes shift and long luminescent lifetime.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shaomin; Guo, Huimin; Yuan, Xiaolin; Li, Xiaohuan; Ding, Haidong; Gao, Peng; Zhao, Chunxia; Wu, Wenting; Wu, Wanhua; Zhao, Jianzhang

    2010-06-18

    An OFF-ON red-emitting phosphorescent thiol probe is designed by using the (3)MLCT photophysics of Ru(II) complexes, i.e., with Ru(II) as the electron donor. The probe is non-luminescent because the MLCT is corrupted by electron transfer from Ru(II) to an intramolecular electron sink (2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonyl). Thiols cleave the electron sink, and the MLCT is re-established. Phosphorescence at 598 nm was enhanced by 90-fold, with a 143 nm (5256 cm(-1)) Stokes shift and a 1.1 mus luminescent lifetime.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Ru(II) Tris(1,1O-phenanthroline)-Electron Acceptor Dyads Incorporating the 4-benzoyl-N-methylpyridinium Cation or N-Benzyl-N'-methyl-viologen. Improving the Dynamic Range, Sensitivity and Response Time of Sol-Gel Based Optical Oxygen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monen M.; Elder, Ian A.; Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia

    2004-01-01

    The title compounds (1 and 2, above) were synthesized by Sonogashira coupling reactions of appropriate Ru(1I) complexes with the electron a cceptors. Characterization was conducted in solution and in frozen ma trices. Finally, the title compounds were evaluated as dopants of sol-gel materials. It was found that the intramolecular quenching efficie ncy of 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridinium cation in solution depends on the solvent: photoluminescence is quenched completely in CH,CN, but not i n methanol or ethanol. On the other hand, intramolecular emission que nching by 4-benzyl-N-methyl viologen is complete in all solvents. The difference between the two quenchers is traced electrochemically to t he solvation of the 4-benzoyl-Nmethylpyridiniums by alcohol. In froze n matrices or adsorbed on the surfaces of silica aerogel, both Ru(I1) complex/electron acceptor dyads of this study are photoluminescent, and the absence of quenching has been traced to the environmental rigi dity. When doped aerogels are cooled at 77 K, the emission intensity increases by approximately 4x, and the spectra shift to the blue, analogous to what is observed with Ru(I1) complexes in solutions undergoi ng fluid-to-rigid transition. However, in contrast to frozen solution s, the luminescent moieties in the bulk of aerogels kept at low tempe ratures are still accessible to gas-phase quenchers diffusing through the mesopores, leading to more sensitive platforms for sensors than o ther room-temperature configurations. Thus the photoluminescence of o ur Ru(I1) complex dyads adsorbed on aerogel is quenchable by O2 both at room temperature and at 77 K. Furthermore, it was also found that O 2 modulates the photoluminescence of aerogels doped with 4-benzoyl -N -methylpyridinium-based dyads over a wider dynamic range compared wi th aerogels doped with either our vislogen-based dyads or with Ru(I1) tris(1,lO-phenanthroline) itself.

  8. Photoinduced energy- and electron-transfer processes in dinuclear Ru(II)-Os(II), Ru(II)-Os(III), and Ru(III)-Os(II) trisbipyridine complexes containing a shape-persistent macrocyclic spacer.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Margherita; Marchioni, Filippo; Ferrer Ribera, Belén; Balzani, Vincenzo; Opris, Dorina M; Schlüter, A Dieter

    2006-01-16

    The PF6- salt of the dinuclear [(bpy)2Ru(1)Os(bpy)2]4+ complex, where 1 is a phenylacetylene macrocycle which incorporates two 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) chelating units in opposite sites of its shape-persistent structure, was prepared. In acetonitrile solution, the Ru- and Os-based units display their characteristic absorption spectra and electrochemical properties as in the parent homodinuclear compounds. The luminescence spectrum, however, shows that the emission band of the Ru(II) unit is almost completely quenched with concomitant sensitization of the emission of the Os(II) unit. Electronic energy transfer from the Ru(II) to the Os(II) unit takes place by two distinct processes (k(en) = 2.0x10(8) and 2.2x10(7) s(-1) at 298 K). Oxidation of the Os(II) unit of [(bpy)2Ru(1)Os(bpy)2]4+ by Ce(IV) or nitric acid leads quantitatively to the [(bpy)2Ru(II)(1)Os(III)(bpy)2]5+ complex which exhibits a bpy-to-Os(III) charge-transfer band at 720 nm (epsilon(max) = 250 M(-1) cm(-1)). Light excitation of the Ru(II) unit of [(bpy)2Ru(II)(1)Os(III)(bpy)2]5+ is followed by electron transfer from the Ru(II) to the Os(III) unit (k(el,f) = 1.6x10(8) and 2.7x10(7) s(-1)), resulting in the transient formation of the [(bpy)2Ru(III)(1)Os(II)(bpy)2]5+ complex. The latter species relaxes to the [(bpy)2Ru(II)(1)Os(III)(bpy)2]5+ one by back electron transfer (k(el,b) = 9.1x10(7) and 1.2x10(7) s(-1)). The biexponential decays of the [(bpy)2*Ru(II)(1)Os(II)(bpy)2]4+, [(bpy)2*Ru(II)(1)Os(III)(bpy)2]5+, and [(bpy)2Ru(III)(1)Os(II)(bpy)2]5+ species are related to the presence of two conformers, as expected because of the steric hindrance between hydrogen atoms of the pyridine and phenyl rings. Comparison of the results obtained with those previously reported for other Ru-Os polypyridine complexes shows that the macrocyclic ligand 1 is a relatively poor conducting bridge.

  9. A 2,2"-bipyridine ligand for incorporation into oligodeoxynucleotides: synthesis, stability and fluorescence properties of ruthenium-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Wiederholt, K; McLaughlin, L W

    1999-06-15

    A non-nucleoside linker based upon the ligand 2,2'-bipyridine and ethylene glycol is prepared and placed into the backbone of a number of oligonucleo-tides. The bipyridine ligand is reacted with cis -dichloro bis(2,2'-bipyridyl) Ru(II) to generate the relatively substitutionally inert complex based upon the well-characterized tris -2,2'-bipyridyl Ru(II). The ruthenium-containing DNA complexes exhibited UV and fluorescence characteristics that are consistent with those previously observed for simple tris -2,2'-bipyridyl Ru(II) complexes. Oligonucleotides containing the ruthenium complex will form both DNA duplexes and triplexes with stabilities that are slightly better than those formed from simple tethered oligonucleotide probes in which the two hybridizing sequences are tethered by simple tri(ethylene glycol) or hexa(ethylene glycol) linkers.

  10. The study of redox-active inorganic substituents of cellulase enzyme. Quarterly report, 25 August--25 November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Hexaammineruthemium(III) chloride enhances the catalytic activity of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) by as much as 45 percent over a 24 hr period. The mechanism involved could be related to the redox activity and reduction of O{sub 2} by RU(II) complexes. Since the addition of ascorbic acid is not required for the enhancement of CBHI activity, we speculate that the cellobiose generated by the enzyme activity may serve as the reducing agent for the formation of RU(II) species.

  11. The study of redox-active inorganic substituents of cellulase enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Hexaammineruthemium(III) chloride enhances the catalytic activity of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I (CBHI) by as much as 45 percent over a 24 hr period. The mechanism involved could be related to the redox activity and reduction of O[sub 2] by RU(II) complexes. Since the addition of ascorbic acid is not required for the enhancement of CBHI activity, we speculate that the cellobiose generated by the enzyme activity may serve as the reducing agent for the formation of RU(II) species.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and DNA-binding studies of ruthenium(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing dipyrido[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Du, Ke-Jie; Yu, Bo-Le; Chao, Hui; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2009-11-01

    A novel ligand dipyrido[1,2,5]oxadiazolo[3,4-b]quinoxaline (dpoq) and its complexes [Ru(bpy) 2(dpoq)] 2+ and [Ru(phen) 2(dpoq)] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray mass spectra and 1H NMR. The interaction of Ru(II) complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. Results suggest that two Ru(II) complexes bind to DNA via an intercalative mode.

  13. Oligomer and mixed-metal compounds, potential multielectron transfer catalysts. Progress report, January 1, 1990--January 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rillema, D.P.

    1993-08-01

    Physical, photophysical, and photochemical properties of Ru(II), Re(I), Pt(II), and Cu(II) monometallic complexes and of Ru(II)-Ru(II), Ru(II)-Co(III), Ru(II)-Re(I) bimetallic complexes were investigated. In an application, Pt and Au working electrodes were modified with the hydrogel kappa-carrageenan (anionic polysaccharide from seaweed), which was cured on the electrode surface with Ru(II) trisbipyridine and methyl viologen. Max photocurrent obtained was 12 {mu}A.cm{sup 2}.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a new trifunctional magnetic photoluminescent oxygen-sensing nanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lina; Li, Bin; Ying, Jun; Wu, Xiudong; Zhao, Haifeng; Ren, Xinguang; Zhu, Dongxia; Su, Zhongmin

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic Fe2O3 nanoparticles coated with SiO2 chemically doped with a Ru(II) complex were prepared using a simple solution based method. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the Fe2O3 nanoparticles with a mean diameter of ~115 nm were successfully coated with Ru(II) complex-chemically doped SiO2 shell with a thickness of ~30 nm. The obtained nanocomposite material showed a strong magnetic response to a varying magnetic field, exhibited the bright red triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) emission, and its photoluminescent intensity was sensitive to oxygen concentration. Compared with the Ru(II) complex in silica gels, the Ru(II) complex in the magnetic-optical-oxygen-sensing nanocomposite demonstrated improved thermodynamic stability of emissions. These nanocomposites are also nontoxic and easily conjugated with biomolecules. Their magnetic, photoluminescent and oxygen-sensing properties make them promising candidates for cell separation, biomarkers and optical oxygen sensors, which can measure the O2 concentration in biological bodies.

  15. Photo-induced water oxidation with tetra-nuclear ruthenium sensitizer and catalyst: a unique 4 x 4 ruthenium interplay triggering high efficiency with low-energy visible light.

    PubMed

    Puntoriero, Fausto; La Ganga, Giuseppina; Sartorel, Andrea; Carraro, Mauro; Scorrano, Gianfranco; Bonchio, Marcella; Campagna, Sebastiano

    2010-07-14

    The combined use of a tetranuclear Ru(II) dendrimeric photosensitizer (1) and of a tretraruthenium substituted polyoxotungstate (2) as the catalyst enables photo-induced water oxidation at 550 nm producing O(2) with an outstanding quantum yield of 0.30.

  16. Serum Albumin Binding Inhibits Nuclear Uptake of Luminescent Metal-Complex-Based DNA Imaging Probes.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ashley; Gill, Martin R; McKenzie, Luke; Glover, Caroline; Mowll, Rachel; Weinstein, Julia A; Su, Xiaodi; Smythe, Carl; Thomas, Jim A

    2015-08-10

    The DNA binding and cellular localization properties of a new luminescent heterobimetallic Ir(III) Ru(II) tetrapyridophenazine complex are reported. Surprisingly, in standard cell media, in which its tetracationic, isostructural Ru(II) Ru(II) analogue is localized in the nucleus, the new tricationic complex is poorly taken up by live cells and demonstrates no nuclear staining. Consequent cell-free studies reveal that the Ir(III) Ru(II) complex binds bovine serum albumin, BSA, in Sudlow's Site I with a similar increase in emission and binding affinity to that observed with DNA. Contrastingly, in serum-free conditions the complex is rapidly internalized by live cells, where it localizes in cell nuclei and functions as a DNA imaging agent. The absence of serum proteins also greatly alters the cytotoxicity of the complex, where high levels of oncosis/necrosis are observed due to this enhanced uptake. This suggests that simply increasing the lipophilicity of a DNA imaging probe to enhance cellular uptake can be counterproductive as, due to increased binding to serum albumin protein, this strategy can actually disrupt nuclear targeting.

  17. Langmuir-Blodgett films of a clay mineral and ruthenium(II) complexes with a noncentrosymmetric structure.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Yasushi; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Schoonheydt, Robert; Persoons, André; De Schryver, Frans

    2002-02-13

    Mono- and multilayers of amphiphilic [Ru(phen)(2)(dcC12bpy)](2+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dcC12bpy = 4,4'-caboxyl-2,2'-bipyridyl didodecyl ester) hybridized with a clay mineral have been prepared by a modified Langmuir-Blodgett method, and their structures and properties have been investigated. Formation of a hybrid monolayer of the Ru(II) complex cations and the clay platelets at an air-clay suspension interface was confirmed by surface pressure-molecular area (pi-A) isotherm measurement and atomic force microscopic (AFM) observation. Multilayers were fabricated by depositing the hybrid monolayers onto glass substrates. The absorbance at 492 nm due to the Ru(II) complex cation in the multilayer increased linearly with the increase in the layer number, indicating layer-by-layer deposition of the hybrid monolayers. Because no increase in the second-harmonic generation (SHG) signal from the multilayers against the layer number was observed, the orientation of the Ru(II) complex cations in the layer would be disturbed. The hydrophilic surface of the transferred hybrid monolayer can be converted to a hydrophobic surface by dipping it in an aqueous solution of octadecylammonium chloride (ODAH(+)Cl(-)). The multilayers modified with ODAH(+) showed a quadratic relation between the SHG intensity and the layer number. This means that the Ru(II) complex cations in the multilayer are successfully oriented in a noncentrosymmetric way by the conversion of the surface property. Both a racemic mixture and an enantiomer of the Ru(II) complex cations were employed to examine the chiral effect on the film properties. The chiral contribution to the SHG signal was enhanced in the multilayer modified with ODAH(+).

  18. Noncovalent Ruthenium(II) Complexes-Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Composites for Bimodal Photothermal and Photodynamic Therapy with Near-Infrared Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Huaiyi; Huang, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongmin; Wang, Jinquan; Qiu, Kangqiang; Zhao, Donglei; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-10-21

    To enhance the efficacy and optimize the treatment of cancers, the integration of multimodal treatment strategies leading to synergistic effects is a promising approach. The coassembly of multifunctional agents for systematic therapies has received considerable interest in cancer treatment. Herein, Ru(II) complex-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (Ru@SWCNTs) are developed as nanotemplates for bimodal photothermal and two-photon photodynamic therapy (PTT-TPPDT). SWCNTs have the ability to load a great amount of Ru(II) complexes (Ru1 or Ru2) via noncovalent π-π interactions. The loaded Ru(II) complexes are efficiently released by the photothermal effect of irradiation from an 808 nm diode laser (0.25 W/cm(2)). The released Ru(II) complexes produce singlet oxygen species ((1)O2) upon two-photon laser irradiation (808 nm, 0.25 W/cm(2)) and can be used as a two-photon photodynamic therapy (TPPDT) agent. Based on the combination of photothermal therapy and two-photon photodynamic therapy, Ru@SWCNTs have greater anticancer efficacies than either PDT using Ru(II) complexes or PTT using SWCNTs in two-dimensional (2D) cancer cell and three-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS) models. Furthermore, in vivo tumor ablation is achieved with excellent treatment efficacy under a diode laser (808 nm) irradiation at the power density of 0.25 W/cm(2) for 5 min. This study examines an efficacious bimodal PTT and TPPDT nanoplat form for the development of cancer therapeutics.

  19. Tuning the reactivity of an actor ligand for tandem CO2 and C-H activations: from spectator metals to metal-free.

    PubMed

    Annibale, Vincent T; Dalessandro, Daniel A; Song, Datong

    2013-10-30

    The 4,5-diazafluorenide ligand (L(-)) serves as an actor ligand in the formal insertion of CO2 into a C-H bond remote from the metal center. With the Ru(II) complex of L(-) as the starting point, Rh(III), Rh(I), and Cu(I) were used as spectator metal centers to tune the reactivity of the actor ligand toward CO2. In the case of Rh(III)-diazafluorenide a room temperature reversible activation of CO2 was observed, similar to the isoelectronic Ru(II) analogue. In the case of Rh(I)- and Cu(I)-diazafluorenide CO2 is trapped by the formation of dinuclear carboxylate complexes and diazafluorene (LH). The spectator metal center could even be replaced entirely with an organic group allowing for the first metal-free reversible tandem CO2 and C-H activation.

  20. Photochemical Reduction of Low Concentrations of CO2 in a Porous Coordination Polymer with a Ruthenium(II)-CO Complex.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Takashi; Fujii, Machiko; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Katsuaki; Higuchi, Masakazu; Tanaka, Koji; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2016-02-18

    Direct use of low pressures of CO2 as a C1 source without concentration from gas mixtures is of great interest from an energy-saving viewpoint. Porous heterogeneous catalysts containing both adsorption and catalytically active sites are promising candidates for such applications. Here, we report a porous coordination polymer (PCP)-based catalyst, PCP-Ru(II) composite, bearing a Ru(II) -CO complex active for CO2 reduction. The PCP-Ru(II) composite showed improved CO2 adsorption behavior at ambient temperature. In the photochemical reduction of CO2 the PCP-Ru(II) composite produced CO, HCOOH, and H2 . Catalytic activity was comparable with the corresponding homogeneous Ru(II) catalyst and ranks among the highest of known PCP-based catalysts. Furthermore, catalytic activity was maintained even under a 5 % CO2 /Ar gas mixture, revealing a synergistic effect between the adsorption and catalytically active sites within the PCP-Ru(II) composite.

  1. Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA-binding, photocleavage and molecular docking studies of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Srishailam, A; Kumar, Yata Praveen; Venkat Reddy, P; Nambigari, Navaneetha; Vuruputuri, Uma; Singh, Surya S; Satyanarayana, S

    2014-03-01

    Three new mononuclear [Ru (phen)2 ptip](2+) (1), [Ru (bpy)2 ptip](2+) (2) and [Ru (dmb)2 ptip](2+) (3) [ptip=(2-(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)-1H-imidazo[4, 5-f][1,10 phenanthroline, phen=1, 10 phenanthroline, bpy=2, 2' bipyridine, dmb=4, 4'-dimethyl 2, 2' bipyridine] complexes were synthesized and characterised by elemental analysis, IR, NMR and Mass spectra. The DNA-binding behaviours were investigated by electronic absorption titration, luminescence spectra, viscosity measurements and photo-activated cleavage. The DNA-binding constants Kb of complexes 1, 2 and 3 were determined to be 7.0 (± 0.06)× 10(5), 3.87 (± 0.04) × 10(5), 2.79 (±0.07) × 10(5) respectively. The results showed that these complexes interact with CT-DNA by intercalative mode. Cell viability experiments indicated that the Ru(II) complex showed significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity to HeLa tumour cell lines. Further flow cytometry experiments showed that the cytotoxic Ru(II) complex induced apoptosis of HeLa tumour cell lines. Our data demonstrated that the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex binds to DNA and thereby induces apoptosis in tumor cells, suggesting that anti-tumor activity of the Ru(II) complex could be related to its interaction with DNA. The molecular dynamic simulations and docking methods were used to predict the DNA binding affinity of ruthenium complexes and with good visualisation images supporting with experimental results.

  2. An artificial CO-releasing metalloprotein built by histidine-selective metallation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Inês S; Jeremias, Hélia F; Chaves-Ferreira, Miguel; Matak-Vinkovic, Dijana; Boutureira, Omar; Romão, Carlos C; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L

    2015-03-01

    We report the design and synthesis of an aquacarbonyl Ru(II) dication cis-[Ru(CO)2(H2O)4](2+) reagent for histidine (His)-selective metallation of interleukin (IL)-8 at site 33. The artificial, non-toxic interleukin (IL)-8-Ru(II)(CO)2 metalloprotein retained IL-8-dependent neutrophil chemotactic activity and was shown to spontaneously release CO in live cells.

  3. Chemical interference with iron transport systems to suppress bacterial growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics.

  4. Polymer-Based Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Chromophores on TiO2 for Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Leem, Gyu; Morseth, Zachary A; Wee, Kyung-Ryang; Jiang, Junlin; Brennaman, M Kyle; Papanikolas, John M; Schanze, Kirk S

    2016-04-20

    A polychromophoric light-harvesting assembly featuring a polystyrene (PS) backbone with ionic carboxylate-functionalized Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes as pendant groups (PS-Ru-A) was synthesized and successfully anchored onto mesoporous structured TiO2 films (TiO2 //PS-Ru-A). Studies of the resulting TiO2 //PS-Ru-A films carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirmed that the ionic carboxylated Ru(II) complexes from PS-Ru-A led to the surface immobilization on the TiO2 film. Monochromatic light photocurrent spectroscopy (IPCE) and white light (AM1.5G) current-voltage studies of dye-sensitized solar cells using the TiO2 //PS-Ru-A photoanode give rise to modest photocurrent and white light efficiency (24 % peak IPCE and 0.33 % PCE, respectively). The photostability of surface-bound TiO2 //PS-Ru-A films was tested and compared to a monomeric Ru(II) complex (TiO2 //Ru-A), showing an enhancement of ∼14 % in the photostability of PS-Ru-A. Transient absorption measurements reveal that electron injection from surface-bound pendants occurs on the picosecond time scale, similar to TiO2 //Ru-A, while time-resolved emission measurements reveal delayed electron injection occurring in TiO2 //PS-Ru-A on the nanosecond time scale, underscoring energy transport from unbound to surface-bound complexes. Additionally, charge recombination is delayed in PS-Ru-A, pointing towards intra-assembly hole transport to complexes away from the surface. Molecular dynamics simulations of PS-Ru-A in fluid solution indicate that a majority of the pendant Ru(II) complexes lie within 10-20 Å of each other, facilitating efficient energy- and charge transport among the pendant complexes.

  5. DNA Interactions with Ruthenium(ll) Polypyridine Complexes Containing Asymmetric Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hui

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to probe nucleic acid structures, numerous Ru(II) complexes with different ligands have been synthesized and investigated. In this contribution we focus on the DNA-binding properties of ruthenium(II) complexes containing asymmetric ligands that have attracted little attention in the past decades. The influences of the shape and size of the ligand on the binding modes, affinity, enantioselectivities and photocleavage of the complexes to DNA are described. PMID:18365086

  6. Chemical Interference with Iron Transport Systems to Suppress Bacterial Growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Nan; Han, Junlong; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Xuesong; He, Qing-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Iron is an essential nutrient for the growth of most bacteria. To obtain iron, bacteria have developed specific iron-transport systems located on the membrane surface to uptake iron and iron complexes such as ferrichrome. Interference with the iron-acquisition systems should be therefore an efficient strategy to suppress bacterial growth and infection. Based on the chemical similarity of iron and ruthenium, we used a Ru(II) complex R-825 to compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. R-825 inhibited the bacterial growth of S. pneumoniae and stimulated the expression of PiuA, the iron-binding protein in the ferrichrome-uptake system on the cell surface. R-825 treatment decreased the cellular content of iron, accompanying with the increase of Ru(II) level in the bacterium. When the piuA gene (SPD_0915) was deleted in the bacterium, the mutant strain became resistant to R-825 treatment, with decreased content of Ru(II). Addition of ferrichrome can rescue the bacterial growth that was suppressed by R-825. Fluorescence spectral quenching showed that R-825 can bind with PiuA in a similar pattern to the ferrichrome-PiuA interaction in vitro. These observations demonstrated that Ru(II) complex R-825 can compete with ferrichrome for the ferrichrome-transport system to enter S. pneumoniae, reduce the cellular iron supply, and thus suppress the bacterial growth. This finding suggests a novel antimicrobial approach by interfering with iron-uptake pathways, which is different from the mechanisms used by current antibiotics. PMID:25170896

  7. A functional ruthenium(ii) complex for imaging biothiols in living bodies.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Gao, Quankun; An, Xin; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-05-01

    A unique ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, DNS-bpy: 4-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)-2,2'-bipyridine], that can act as a probe for the recognition and luminescence sensing of biothiols has been designed and synthesized. Due to the presence of effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the potent electron donor (Ru-bpy centre) to the strong electron acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety), the Ru(ii) complex itself is weakly luminescent. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 with biothiols leads to the replacement of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety by biothiols, which results in the loss of PET within the complex, to allow recovery of the MLCT-based emission of the Ru(ii) complex with an 80-fold increase in luminescence intensity. Taking advantage of the high specificity and sensitivity, and the excellent photophysical properties of Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of biothiols in living Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the practical applicability of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of biothiols in living bodies.

  8. Ruthenium(ii) complexes of hemilabile pincer ligands: synthesis and catalysing the transfer hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ashwin G; McBurney, Roy T; Walker, D Barney; Page, Michael J; Gatus, Mark R D; Bhadbhade, Mohan; Messerle, Barbara A

    2016-09-28

    A series of Ru(ii) complexes were synthesised based on a hemilabile pyrazole-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-pyrazole (C3N2H3)CH2(C3N2H2)CH2(C3N2H3) NCN pincer ligand 1. All complexes were fully characterised using single crystal X-ray crystallography and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Hemilabile ligands provide flexible coordination modes for the coordinating metal ion which can play a significant effect on the efficiency and mechanism of catalysis by the resulting complex. Here we observed and isolated mono-, bi- and tri-dentate complexes of both Ag(i) and Ru(ii) with 1 in which the resultant coordination mode was controlled by careful reagent selection. The catalytic activity of the Ru(ii) complexes for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of acetophenone with isopropanol was investigated. The unexpected formation of the pentaborate anion, [B5O6(OH)4](-), during the synthesis of complex 6a was found to have an unexpected positive effect by enhancing the catalysis rate. This work provides insights into the roles that different coordination modes, counterions and ligand hemilability play on the catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenations. PMID:27539740

  9. Photoluminescence quenching/recovery kinetics of [Ru(bpy)2(tatp)]2+ and [Ru(bpy)2(dmtatp)]2+ intercalated within DNA by copper(II) ions and EDTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shibo; Chen, Miaojing; Gan, Guilian; Li, Hong; Li, Weishan

    2012-03-01

    The quenching and recovery kinetics of photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy)2(tatp)]2+ (Ru1) and [Ru(bpy)2(dmtatp)]2+ (Ru2) intercalated within DNA (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene and dmtatp = 2,3-dimethyl-1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) have been investigated by steady-state and time-resolved methods performed at various temperatures (293-333 K). Two complexes Ru1 and Ru2 show a single-exponential luminescence decay with τRu1 = 246.0 ns and τRu2 = 513.5 ns, whose luminescence upon intercalating into DNA exhibits very consistent bi-exponential decay changes. The addition of Cu2+ ions is found to dynamically quench the luminescence of both DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes, involving a spontaneous exothermic process. The sequential addition of EDTA can partially recover the luminescence quenched by Cu2+, however depending on methyl substituents of the intercalative ligand. The chemical conversion and luminescence control mechanism of the two DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes is discussed in detail. The present results should be of value for better understanding chemical modulation of DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes as luminescence probes.

  10. Photoluminescence quenching/recovery kinetics of [Ru(bpy)2(tatp)]2+ and [Ru(bpy)2(dmtatp)]2+ intercalated within DNA by copper(II) ions and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shibo; Chen, Miaojing; Gan, Guilian; Li, Hong; Li, Weishan

    2012-03-01

    The quenching and recovery kinetics of photoluminescence of [Ru(bpy)(2)(tatp)](2+) (Ru1) and [Ru(bpy)(2)(dmtatp)](2+) (Ru2) intercalated within DNA (where bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, tatp=1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene and dmtatp=2,3-dimethyl-1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) have been investigated by steady-state and time-resolved methods performed at various temperatures (293-333K). Two complexes Ru1 and Ru2 show a single-exponential luminescence decay with τ(Ru1)=246.0 ns and τ(Ru2)=513.5 ns, whose luminescence upon intercalating into DNA exhibits very consistent bi-exponential decay changes. The addition of Cu(2+) ions is found to dynamically quench the luminescence of both DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes, involving a spontaneous exothermic process. The sequential addition of EDTA can partially recover the luminescence quenched by Cu(2+), however depending on methyl substituents of the intercalative ligand. The chemical conversion and luminescence control mechanism of the two DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes is discussed in detail. The present results should be of value for better understanding chemical modulation of DNA-bound Ru(II) complexes as luminescence probes. PMID:22208960

  11. Energy conversion based on molecular excited states: Redox splitting in soluble polymers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    A general method was developed for preparing complexes of Ru(II) with three different bidentate ligands; it is being extended to monodentate ligands for more synthetic versatility. This method was used to prepare a series of complexes with pre-designed absorption properties, with the goal of ``black absorbers`` for use as antenna chromophores in a light-to-chemical energy conversion array. The energy gap law for nonradiative decay was studied for preparing near-IR luminophores with long excited state lifetimes. The problem of destructive dd excited states in Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes was focused on, with success in preparing an extremely photo-inert complex with monodentate pyridine ligands. Time-resolved resonance Raman and infrared spectroscopy were used to study subtle excited state properties of complexes of Ru(II), Os(II), and Re(I). Success was achieved in controlled immobilization of d{sup 6} chromophores and quenchers on styrenic polymers. Having perfected our synthetic technique, we have begun to optimize the ground and excited state properties such as chromophore density, dipole orientation, and lifetime.

  12. Intracomplex electron transfer between ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives and cytochrome c1.

    PubMed

    Heacock, D H; Liu, R Q; Yu, C A; Yu, L; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1993-12-25

    The reactions of a beef heart cytochrome c1 preparation containing the hinge protein with horse cytochrome c derivatives labeled at specific lysine amino groups with (dicarboxybipyridine)(bisbipyridine)ruthenium(II) (Ru(II)) were studied by flash photolysis. All of the ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives formed complexes with cytochrome c1 in low ionic strength buffer (5 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7). Excitation of Ru(II) to Ru(II*) with a 0.4-microseconds laser flash resulted in rapid electron transfer to the ferric heme group in cytochrome c, followed by electron transfer from the ferrous heme group of cytochrome c to the ferric heme group of cytochrome c1. The kinetic difference spectra displayed maxima at 546 nm and minima at 554 nm characteristic of electron transfer between the two cytochromes. The rate constants were independent of concentration at low ionic strength, indicating intracomplex electron transfer. The rate constants were 4,800, 6,800, 22,000, and 22,000 s-1 for cytochrome c derivatives modified at lysines 13, 27, 25, and 72, respectively. The observed rate constants were independent of ionic strength up to about 50 nM and then decreased progressively with further increases in ionic strength indicating dissociation of the complex. Second-order kinetics were observed at 310 mM ionic strength, with rate constants of 1.0 x 10(6), 1.6 x 10(7), 1.2 x 10(8), and 3.0 x 10(7) M-1 s-1 for the derivatives modified at lysines 13, 27, 25, and 72, respectively. The ionic strength dependence of the second-order rate constants is comparable to that involving native horse cytochrome c and is consistent with electron transfer reactions between oppositely charged proteins.

  13. Microwave-assisted synthesis of arene ruthenium(II) complexes that induce S-phase arrest in cancer cells by DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Fan, Cundong; Chen, Tianfeng; Liu, Chaoran; Mei, Wenjie; Chen, Sidong; Wang, Baoguo; Chen, Yunyun; Zheng, Wenjie

    2013-05-01

    A series of arene ruthenium(II) complexes coordinated by phenanthroimidazole derivates, [(C6H6)Ru(L)Cl]Cl·2H2O (1b L = IP, 2b L = p-NMe2PIP, 3b L = p-MeOPIP, 4b L = p-HOPIP, 5b L = p-COOHPIP, 6b L = p-CF3PIP, 7b L = p-BrPIP) have been synthesized in yields of 89-92% under microwave irradiation in 30 min, and the crystal structure of 1b by XRD gives a typical "piano stool" conformation. The antitumor activity of these complexes against various tumor cells have been evaluated by MTT assay, and the results show that this type of arene Ru(II) complexes exhibit acceptable inhibitory effect against all of these tumor cells, especially osteosarcoma MG-63 cells, but with low toxicity toward HK-2 human normal cells. Studies on the mechanism revealed that cell cycle arrest at S-phase in MG-63 cells induced by the arene Ru(II) complex 2b, which was confirmed by the increase in the percentage of cells at S-phase and down-regulator of cyclin A. The further studies by Comet assay at single cell level indicated that DNA damage in MG-63 cells was triggered by 2b, following with the up-regulation of phosphorylated p53 and histone. The studies by spectroscopy in vitro also indicate that 2b bind to DNA molecule by intercalative mode to disturb the bio-function of tumor cells. In conclusion, the synthetic arene Ru(II) complexes could serve as novel p53 activator with potential application in cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Homo- and Heterobimetallic Ruthenium(II) and Osmium(II) Complexes Based on a Pyrene-Biimidazolate Spacer as Efficient DNA-Binding Probes in the Near-Infrared Domain.

    PubMed

    Mardanya, Sourav; Karmakar, Srikanta; Mondal, Debiprasad; Baitalik, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    We report in this work a new family of homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of the type [(bpy)2M(Py-Biimz)M'(II)(bpy)2](2+) (M = M' = Ru(II) or Os(II); M = Ru(II) and M' = Os(II)) derived from a pyrenyl-biimidazole-based bridge, 2-imidazolylpyreno[4,5-d]imidazole (Py-BiimzH2). The homobimetallic Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes were found to crystallize in monoclinic form with space group P21/n. All the complexes exhibit strong absorptions throughout the entire UV-vis region and also exhibit luminescence at room temperature. For osmium-containing complexes (2 and 3) both the absorption and emission band stretched up to the NIR region and thus afford more biofriendly conditions for probable applications in infrared imaging and phototherapeutic studies. Detailed luminescence studies indicate that the emission originates from the respective (3)MLCT excited state mainly centered in the [M(bpy)2](2+) moiety of the complexes and is only slightly affected by the pyrene moiety. The bimetallic complexes show two successive one-electron reversible metal-centered oxidations in the positive potential window and several reduction processes in the negative potential window. An efficient intramolecular electronic energy transfer is found to occur from the Ru center to the Os-based component in the heterometallic dyad. The binding studies of the complexes with DNA were thoroughly studied through different spectroscopic techniques such as UV-vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved emission, circular dichroism, and relative DNA binding study using ethidium bromide. The intercalative mode of binding was suggested to be operative in all cases. Finally, computational studies employing DFT and TD-DFT were also carried out to interpret the experimentally observed absorption and emission bands of the complexes. PMID:27011117

  15. Time resolved study of three ruthenium(II) complexes at micellar surfaces: A new long excited state lifetime probe for determining critical micelle concentration of surfactant nano-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Patra, Digambara; Chaaban, Ahmad H; Darwish, Shaza; Saad, Huda A; Nehme, Ali S; Ghaddar, Tarek H

    2016-02-01

    Three different ruthenium complexes have been synthesized and their luminescence properties in different solvent environments are reported. Luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III vary with solvent viscosity. The excited state lifetime of Ru-I linearly increases in the viscosity range 1.76-12,100cP. Ru-II shows two linear increases: one in the low and another in the high viscosity ranges, whereas Ru-III illustrates a linear enhancement only in the low viscosity range. Interestingly, luminescence intensities and excited state lifetimes of Ru-I, Ru-II and Ru-III are found to be sensitive to nano-aggregation. However, the surfactant head charge and that of the ruthenium center as well as the hydrophobic tail of the ancillary ligand of the complexes have a great role in deciding the nature of the interaction and on the excited state properties at micellar surfaces. It is proposed that the long lifetime of Ru-III in water could be due to the coiling of the carbon chain of the ancillary ligand around the ruthenium center. At micelle surface, this coiling of the carbon chain is lost due to the parallel alignment with surfactants and thus quenching of the excited state lifetime is seen. Furthermore, it is shown that the variation of the excited state lifetime with respect to the change in surfactant concentration is a result of the formation of micelles from the surfactant monomer, thus, a novel technique for the determination of the critical micelle concentration (cmc) based on the long excited state lifetime of Ru-III located at the micellar nano-aggregates is reported.

  16. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1992-07-31

    Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

  17. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. [Annual] progress report, August 1, 1989--July 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1992-07-31

    Conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used to study the intermediates involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. These intermediates were excited state of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and species formed in reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern was the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes. (DLC)

  18. [(1R)-3-Benzoyl-1,7,7-trimethyl­bicyclo­[2.2.1]heptan-2-onato-κ2 O,O′]chlorido(η6-p-cymene)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Harrad, Mohamed Anouar; Valerga, Pedro; Puerta, M. Carmen; Ali, Mustapha Ait; El Firdoussi, Larbi; Karim, Abdellah

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, [RuCl(C10H14)(C17H19O2)], contains two diastereomers. In both, the RuII ion has a tetra­hedral coordination, formed by two O atoms of the camphor-derived ligand and the p-cymene and Cl ligands. In the crystal structure, weak inter­molecular C—H⋯Cl inter­actions link the mol­ecules into columns propagated along [010]. PMID:21580227

  19. Unique properties of C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanions. Synthesis, structure and bonding of ruthenium monocarbollide via unprecedented cage carbon extrusion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Da; Zhang, Jiji; Lin, Zhenyang; Xie, Zuowei

    2016-08-21

    Four reaction pathways have been found in the reaction of a C,C'-linked nido-biscarborane tetraanionic salt with [Ru(p-cymene)Cl2]2, leading to the isolation and structural characterization of redox, triple cage B-H oxidative addition, cage expansion and cage carbon extrusion products. Among these, the unprecedented cage carbon extrusion results in the formation of a new 6π-electron carboranyl ligand [C2B10H10](2-). The bonding interactions between this ligand and the Ru(ii) center have also been discussed on the basis of DFT calculations.

  20. [(R)-2,2-Bis(diphenyl­phosphan­yl)-1,1′-binaphthyl-κ2 P,P′]{2-[(2R)-1,2-diamino-1-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-3-methyl­but­yl]-5-meth­oxy­phenyl-κC 1}hydrido­ruthenium(II) benzene monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Abdur-Rashid, Kamaluddin; Lough, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    In the title complex, [Ru(C19H25N2O2)H(C44H32P2)]·C6H6, the RuII ion is in a distorted octa­hedral coordination environment with the hydride H atom trans to the tertiary carbinamine N atom, giving an H—Ru—N angle of 160.8 (12)°. The equatorial sites are occupied by two P atoms, the secondary carbinamine N atom and a coordinated C atom. PMID:23468708

  1. Theoretical investigation on dye sensitizer solar cell: Spin-forbidden transition

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Yutaka

    2015-12-31

    We studied spin-forbidden transitions of metal polypyridyl sensitizers by two-component relativistic time-dependent density functional theory with the spin-orbit interaction based on Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The singlet-to-triplet transition, which is assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer type excitation, appears for a phosphine-coordinated Ru(II), DX1. Absorption spectra of the modified DX1 molecules, whose Ru is replaced with Fe and Os, were also calculated for examining the effects of metals on the spin-orbit interaction.

  2. Selective Formic Acid Production via CO2 Reduction with Visible Light Using a Hybrid of a Perovskite Tantalum Oxynitride and a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, Fumiaki; Sekizawa, Keita; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Ishitani, Osamu

    2015-06-17

    A hybrid material consisting of CaTaO2N (a perovskite oxynitride semiconductor having a band gap of 2.5 eV) and a binuclear Ru(II) complex photocatalytically produced HCOOH via CO2 reduction with high selectivity (>99%) under visible light (λ>400 nm). Results of photocatalytic reactions, spectroscopic measurements, and electron microscopy observations indicated that the reaction was driven according to a two-step photoexcitation of CaTaO2N and the Ru photosensitizer unit, where Ag nanoparticles loaded on CaTaO2N with optimal distribution mediated interfacial electron transfer due to reductive quenching.

  3. Theoretical investigation on dye sensitizer solar cell: Spin-forbidden transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Yutaka

    2015-12-01

    We studied spin-forbidden transitions of metal polypyridyl sensitizers by two-component relativistic time-dependent density functional theory with the spin-orbit interaction based on Tamm-Dancoff approximation. The singlet-to-triplet transition, which is assigned to a metal-to-ligand charge-transfer type excitation, appears for a phosphine-coordinated Ru(II), DX1. Absorption spectra of the modified DX1 molecules, whose Ru is replaced with Fe and Os, were also calculated for examining the effects of metals on the spin-orbit interaction.

  4. The direct synthesis of organic and organometallic-containing MICA-type aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Carrado, K.A.; Awaluddin, A.

    1993-08-01

    Layer-silicate clay structures can provide supramolecular organization for catalysis, chiral reactions, colloid science, and electron transfer. The authors have successfully modified the experimental preparations of several different layer silicates in order to incorporate a wide variety of organic and organometallic molecules in the clay galleries. Synthesis and physical characterization of these materials are described and compared to ion-exchanged natural clay analogs. In addition, the photophysical properties of organometallic Ru(II) complexes incorporated by direct hydrothermal crystallization into synthetic clays were measured. 3 tabs, 21 refs.

  5. Investigations of thermal and photochemical arene displacement reactions from ruthenium and osmium arene complexes. 2. Photochemical carbon-hydrogen bond activation via the photolysis of iridium(III) azide and oxalate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The syntheses of several new bis-arene Ru(II) complexes are described. Complexes where one arene is naphthalene, anthracene or tetracene react thermally with acetonitrile resulting in arene displacement. Thermally inert complexes will react photochemically with acetonitrile. Kinetic data were collected for the chemical reactions and reaction mechanism are proposed. Electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data are reported for the new hexacoordinate osmium complexes. Two methods of catalyzing the photochemical displacement of benzene from [CpOsBz][sup +] in acetonitrile to give [CpOs(CH[sub 3]CN)[sub 3

  6. High catalytic activity of heteropolynuclear cyanide complexes containing cobalt and platinum ions: visible-light driven water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yusuke; Oyama, Kohei; Gates, Rachel; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2015-05-01

    A near-stoichiometric amount of O2 was evolved as observed in the visible-light irradiation of an aqueous buffer (pH 8) containing [Ru(II) (2,2'-bipyridine)3 ] as a photosensitizer, Na2 S2 O8 as a sacrificial electron acceptor, and a heteropolynuclear cyanide complex as a water-oxidation catalyst. The heteropolynuclear cyanide complexes exhibited higher catalytic activity than a polynuclear cyanide complex containing only Co(III) or Pt(IV) ions as C-bound metal ions. The origin of the synergistic effect between Co and Pt ions is discussed in relation to electronic and local atomic structures of the complexes.

  7. Ruthenium(II)-Schiff base complexes derived from substituted salicylaldimines and triphenylphosphine

    SciTech Connect

    Armando, M.B.; Lena, R.R.; Rafael, M.E.; Federico, D.R.P.J.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of octahedral ruthenium(II) Schiff base complexes obtained from the interaction of RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} with N,N{prime}-ethylene-bis-(5-R-salicylideneimine) are presented. Redox properties and the stability towards oxidation of [Ru(II)(5R-sal{sub 2}en)(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}] complexes, (R = H-(1), Cl-(2), Br-(3), CH{sub 3}O-(4), NO{sub 2}-(5)) were related to the electron-withdrawing or releasing ability of the substituent in the phenyl ring of the Schiff base. Results show that electron-withdrawing substituents stabilize Ru(II) complexes, while electron-donating groups favour oxidation to Ru(III). Changes in E{sub 1/2} for the complexes, due to remote substituent effects, could be related to changes in basicity of the phenolic oxygen. This variation has more influence on E{sub 1/2} than changes in basicity of the phosphorus in the phosphine ligand. 32 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Topoisomerase IIα poisoning and DNA double-strand breaking by chiral ruthenium(ii) complexes containing 2-furanyl-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chen; Wu, Jingheng; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-06-28

    Four chiral Ru(ii) complexes bearing furan ligands, Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(pocl)](2+) () and Δ/Λ-[Ru(bpy)2(poi)](2+) () (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, pocl = 2-(5-chlorofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, poi = 2-(5-5-iodofuran-2-yl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), were synthesized and characterized. These Ru(ii) complexes showed antitumor activities against HeLa, A549, HepG2, HL-60 and K562 tumor cell lines, especially the HL-60 tumor cell line. Moreover, was more active than other complexes accounting for the different cellular uptakes. In addition, could accumulate in the nucleus of HL-60 cells, suggesting that nucleic acids were the cellular target of . Topoisomerase inhibition tests in vitro and in living cells confirmed that the four complexes acted as efficient topoisomerase IIα poisons, DNA double-strand breaks had also been observed from neutral single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). inhibited the growth of HL-60 cells through the induction of apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by the Alexa Fluor® 488 annexin V staining assays. The results demonstrated that acted as a topoisomerase IIα poison and caused DNA double-strand damage that could lead to apoptosis. PMID:27226117

  9. Influence of different ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex on the photocatalytic H 2 evolution over TiO 2 nanoparticles with mesostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tianyou; Ke, Dingning; Cai, Ping; Dai, Ke; Ma, Liang; Zan, Ling

    H 2 production over dye-sensitized Pt/TiO 2 nanoparticles with mesostructures (m-TiO 2) under visible light (λ > 420 nm) was investigated by using methanol as electron donors. Experimental results indicate that three types of ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complex dyes (one binuclear Ru, two mononuclear Ru), which can be attached to Pt/ m-TiO 2 with different linkage modes, show different photosensitization effects due to their different coordination circumstances and physicochemical properties. The dye tightly linked with m-TiO 2 has better durability but the lowest H 2 evolution efficiency, whereas the loosely attached dyes possess higher H 2 evolution efficiency and preferable durability. It seems that the dynamic equilibrium between the linkage of the ground state dye with TiO 2 and the divorce of the oxidization state dye from the surfaces plays a crucial role in the photochemical behavior during the photocatalyst sensitization process. It is helpful to improve the H 2 evolution efficiency by enhancing the electron injection and hindering the backward transfer. The binuclear Ru(II) dye shows a better photosensitization in comparison with mononuclear Ru(II) dyes due to its large molecular area, conjugation system, and "antenna effect", which, in turn, improve the visible light harvesting and electron transfer between the dye molecules and TiO 2.

  10. Four-electron oxidative dehydrogenation induced by proton-coupled electron transfer in ruthenium(III) complex with 2-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenolate.

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Sunatsuki, Yukinari

    2013-09-01

    New ruthenium(II or III) complexes with general formula [Ru(O-N)(bpy)2](n+) (O-N = unsymmetrical bidentate phenolate ligand; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized, and their crystal structures and electrochemical properties were characterized. Ru(II) complexes with 2-(2-imidazolinyl)phenolate (Himn(-)) or 2-(1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2-yl)phenolate (Hthp(-)) could be deprotonated by addition of excess KO(t)Bu, although the deprotonated species were easily reprotonated by exposure to air. Unlike these Ru(II) complexes, their Ru(III) analogs showed interesting ligand oxidation reactions upon addition of bases. With [Ru(III)(Himn)(bpy)2](2+), two-electron oxidation of Himn(-) and reduction of the Ru(III) center resulted in conversion of the 2-imidazolinyl group to a 2-imidazolyl group. On the other hand, the corresponding Hthp(-) complex exhibited four-electron oxidation of the ligand to form 2-(2-pyrimidyl)phenolate (pym(-)). These aromatization reactions of imidazolinyl and 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidyl groups were also achieved by the electrochemically generated Ru(III) complexes. PMID:23967872

  11. Two-photon absorption properties of iron(II) and ruthenium(II) trischelate complexes of 2,2':4,4' ':4',4' ''-quaterpyridinium ligands.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Samoc, Marek; Samoc, Anna; Zhu, Lingyun; Yi, Yuanping; Shuai, Zhigang

    2007-01-25

    A series of RuII or FeII trischelate complex salts containing N-methyl/aryl-2,2':4,4' ':4',4' ''-quaterpyridinium ligands that has previously been subjected to quadratic nonlinear optical studies (Coe, B. J. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13399) has now been investigated for two-photon absorbing behavior. Z-scan measurements using a 750 nm laser afford reasonably large two-photon absorption (2PA) cross-sections sigma2 of ca. 62-180 GM for the RuII complexes, but only very weak 2PA is observed for the FeII compounds. The excited-state and 2PA properties of the representative chromophore [RuII(Me2Qpy2+)3]8+ (Me2Qpy2+=N' ',N' ''-dimethyl-2,2':4,4' ':4',4' ''-quaterpyridinium) have also been investigated by using semiempirical intermediate neglect of differential overlap/multireference-determinant single and double configuration interaction computations with the optimized geometry obtained via density functional theory. The calculated sigma2 value of ca. 624 GM at 1.70 eV for this metal-to-ligand charge-transfer chromophore is about 10 times larger than that obtained from the Z-scan studies. PMID:17228896

  12. Heteroleptic Ru(ii)-bipyridine complexes based on hexylthioether-, hexyloxy- and hexyl-substituted thienylenevinylenes and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Urbani, Maxence; Sánchez Carballo, María; Kumar, Sangeeta Amit; Vázquez, Purificación; Grätzel, Michael; Khaja Nazeeruddin, Mohammad; Langa, Fernando; Torres, Tomás

    2016-04-28

    A series of eight Ru(ii) heteroleptic complexes incorporating an ancillary [2,2']bipyridine functionalised at the [4,4'] positions with one (-type) or two (-type) thienylenevinylenes (nTVs, n = 2 or 4) is reported. Three types of substitutions have been used for nTVs: hexylthioether, hexyloxy and hexyl. The characterisation of the half-sandwich intermediates and final complexes is provided. In particular, the half-sandwich complexes in the -type series are obtained as a racemate, whereas the heteroleptic complexes consist of two regioisomers. Finally, these complexes have been tested as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Counterintuitively, better performances were obtained for -type complexes with shorter 2TV moieties. The best performing dye was the Ru(ii) complex mono-functionalized with a 2TV moiety having an hexylthioether substitution (), which achieved a maximum power efficiency of 2.77% under full sun illumination (AM1.5G standard conditions). The structure-performance relationship in DSSCs is discussed based on photovoltaic and electrochemical data and DFT-calculations.

  13. Heteroleptic Ru(ii)-bipyridine complexes based on hexylthioether-, hexyloxy- and hexyl-substituted thienylenevinylenes and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Urbani, Maxence; Sánchez Carballo, María; Kumar, Sangeeta Amit; Vázquez, Purificación; Grätzel, Michael; Khaja Nazeeruddin, Mohammad; Langa, Fernando; Torres, Tomás

    2016-04-28

    A series of eight Ru(ii) heteroleptic complexes incorporating an ancillary [2,2']bipyridine functionalised at the [4,4'] positions with one (-type) or two (-type) thienylenevinylenes (nTVs, n = 2 or 4) is reported. Three types of substitutions have been used for nTVs: hexylthioether, hexyloxy and hexyl. The characterisation of the half-sandwich intermediates and final complexes is provided. In particular, the half-sandwich complexes in the -type series are obtained as a racemate, whereas the heteroleptic complexes consist of two regioisomers. Finally, these complexes have been tested as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Counterintuitively, better performances were obtained for -type complexes with shorter 2TV moieties. The best performing dye was the Ru(ii) complex mono-functionalized with a 2TV moiety having an hexylthioether substitution (), which achieved a maximum power efficiency of 2.77% under full sun illumination (AM1.5G standard conditions). The structure-performance relationship in DSSCs is discussed based on photovoltaic and electrochemical data and DFT-calculations. PMID:26935911

  14. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) 1,2,3-triazolylidene organometallics: a preliminary investigation into the biological activity of 'click' carbene complexes.

    PubMed

    Kilpin, Kelly J; Crot, Stéphanie; Riedel, Tina; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Dyson, Paul J

    2014-01-21

    Taking advantage of the facile and versatile synthetic properties of 'click' 1,2,3-triazolylidene N-heterocyclic carbenes (tzNHC's), a range of new organometallic Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes containing functionalised tzNHC ligands, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)(tzNHC)Cl2] [M = Ru(II), Os(II)], have been synthesised and fully characterised, including the X-ray crystal structure of one of the Os(II) complexes. The tzNHC ligands remain coordinated to the metal centres under relevant physiological conditions, and following binding to the model protein, ubiquitin. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the compounds towards human ovarian cancer cells is dependent on the substituent on the tzNHC ligand but is generally <50 μM and in some cases <1 μM, whilst still retaining a high degree of selectivity towards cancer cells over healthy cells (1.85 μM in A2780 ovarian cancer cells versus 435 μM in human embryonic kidney cells in one case).

  15. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The work done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. The authors have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed them to prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). They have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived (> 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, the authors have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  16. Photoinduced energy transfer in transition metal complex oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The work we have done over the past three years has been directed toward the preparation, characterization and photophysical examination of mono- and bimetallic diimine complexes. The work is part of a broader project directed toward the development of stable, efficient, light harvesting arrays of transition metal complex chromophores. One focus has been the synthesis of rigid bis-bidentate and bis-tridentate bridging ligands. We have managed to make the ligand bphb in multigram quantities from inexpensive starting materials. The synthetic approach used has allowed us prepare a variety of other ligands which may have unique applications (vide infra). We have prepared, characterized and examined the photophysical behavior of Ru(II) and Re(I) complexes of the ligands. Energy donor/acceptor complexes of bphb have been prepared which exhibit nearly activationless energy transfer. Complexes of Ru(II) and Re(I) have also been prepared with other polyunsaturated ligands in which two different long lived ( > 50 ns) excited states exist; results of luminescence and transient absorbance measurements suggest the two states are metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand localized {pi}{r_arrow}{pi}* triplets. Finally, we have developed methods to prepare polymetallic complexes which are covalently bound to various surfaces. The long term objective of this work is to make light harvesting arrays for the sensitization of large band gap semiconductors. Details of this work are provided in the body of the report.

  17. Unexpected high photothemal conversion efficiency of gold nanospheres upon grafting with two-photon luminescent ruthenium(II) complexes: A way towards cancer therapy?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pingyu; Wang, Jinquan; Huang, Huaiyi; Yu, Bole; Qiu, Kangqiang; Huang, Juanjuan; Wang, Shutao; Jiang, Lei; Gasser, Gilles; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-09-01

    The design and development of functional hybrid nanomaterials is currently a topic of great interest in biomedicine. Herein we investigated the grafting of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes onto gold nanospheres (Ru@AuNPs) to improve the particles' near infrared (NIR) absorption, and ultimately allow for application in photothermal cancer therapy. As demonstrated in this article, these ruthenium(II) complexes could indeed significantly enhance gold nanospheres' two-photon luminescence (PTL) intensity and photothermal therapy (PTT) efficiency. The best dual functional nanoparticles of this study were successfully used for real-time luminescent imaging-guided PTT in live cancer cells. Furthermore, in vivo tumor ablation was achieved with excellent treatment efficacy under a diode laser (808 nm) irradiation at the power density of 0.8 W/cm(2) for 5 min. This study demonstrates that the coupling of inert Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes to gold nanospheres allows for the enhancement of two-photon luminescence and for efficient photothermal effect.

  18. Development and Experimental Study of Phantoms for Mapping Skin Chromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silapetere, A.; Spigulis, J.; Saknite, I.

    2014-06-01

    Skin chromophore phantoms are widely used for better understanding of the light interaction with tissue and for calibration of skin diagnostic imaging techniques. In this work, different phantoms were examined and compared in order to find biologically equivalent substances that are the most promising for this purpose. For mimicking the skin medium and layered structure, a fibrin matrix with epidermal and dermal cell inclusion was used. Synthesized bilirubin, red blood cells and nigrosin were taken as absorbers. For spectral analysis of the developed phantoms a computer-aided multispectral imaging system Nuance 2.4 (Cambridge Research & Instrumentation, Inc., USA) was used. In this study, skin phantoms were created using such substances as bilirubin, melanin, haemoglobin and nigrosin Mūsdienās multispektrālās attēlošanas iekārtas izmanto ādas parametru un fizioloģisko procesu aprakstīšanai gan pētniecības, gan diagnostikas nolūkiem. Iekārtu darbības uzlabošanai ir nepieciešams labāk saprast gaismas mijiedarbību ar audiem, kā arī veikt šo iekārtu kalibrēšanu ar ādas maketu. Redzamā un tuvā infrasarkanā optiskā diapazona spektroskopijā ir svarīgi ādas maketi, kas simulē audu slāņaino struktūru un ķīmiskās īpašības, kā arī maketi, kas ir bioloģiski līdzvērtīgi. Šajā pētījumā tika izveidots ādas makets no bioloģiskām un ķīmiski sintezētām struktūrām. Ādas maketa izveidei tika izmantota fibrīna matrica ar dermālo un epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu, lai imitētu ādas slāņaino struktūru. Fibrīna matrica tiek veidota no 0,47 ml asins plazmas, 0,4 ml fizioloģiskā šķīduma, 0,8 μl treneksāmskābes un 89,4 μl kalcija glukanāta. Izveidoto matricu ievieto šūnu inkubatorā, lai tā polimerizētos. Nākošais slānis tiek veidots ar dermālo šūnu piejaukumu (180-270 šūnas), un pēdējais fibrīna matriksa slānis tiek veidots ar epidermālo šūnu piejaukumu (270 šūnas) un šūnu aug

  19. Metamodels for New Designs of Outer-Rotor Brushless Synchronous Electric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirba, J.; Lavrinovicha, L.

    2014-04-01

    The authors consider the possibilities to synthesise metamodels for the analysis and optimisation of brushless synchronous motors. The metamodels are presented for new designs of the outer-rotor permanent magnet synchronous motor and the outer-rotor reluctance motor. The metamodels are synthesised based on the results obtained by the numerical calculations of magnetic field taking into account magnetic saturation. Analysis of the results for the motor magnetic field and tests of the metamodels at the selected and intermediate points shows that these can be synthesised with acceptable accuracy using numerical calculations instead of expensive real experiments. Rakstā ir apskatītas metamodeļu iegūšanas iespējas to izmantošanai bezkontaktu sinhrono dzinēju analīzē un optimizācijā. Ir iegūti metamodeļi sinhronam dzinējam ar pastāvīgajiem magnētiem un reaktīvam dzinējam ar ārējo rotoru. Sintezēto metamodeļu iegūšanai izmantoti elektrisko dzinēju magnētiskā lauka skaitlisko aprēķinu rezultāti, ievērojot magnētiskās ķēdes piesātinājumu. Metamodeļu pārbaude aprēķinu un starppunktos parādīja, ka to iegūšanai dārgo reālo eksperimentu vietā var izmantot magnētiskā lauka aprēķinu rezultātus.

  20. Cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes as efficient redox mediators in peroxidase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Alpeeva, Inna S; Soukharev, Valentin S; Alexandrova, Larissa; Shilova, Nadezhda V; Bovin, Nicolai V; Csöregi, Elisabeth; Ryabov, Alexander D; Sakharov, Ivan Yu

    2003-07-01

    Cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(II)(C~N)(N~N)(2)]PF(6) [HC~N=2-phenylpyridine (Hphpy) or 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine; N~N=2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline, or 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine], are rapidly oxidized by H(2)O(2) catalyzed by plant peroxidases to the corresponding Ru(III) species. The commercial isoenzyme C of horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C) and two recently purified peroxidases from sweet potato (SPP) and royal palm tree (RPTP) have been used. The most favorable conditions for the oxidation have been evaluated by varying the pH, buffer, and H(2)O(2) concentrations and the apparent second-order rate constants ( k(app)) have been measured. All the complexes studied are oxidized by HRP-C at similar rates and the rate constants k(app) are identical to those known for the best substrates of HRP-C (10(6)-10(7) M(-1) s(-1)). Both cationic (HRP-C) and anionic (SPP and RPTP) peroxidases show similar catalytic efficiency in the oxidation of the Ru(II) complexes. The mediating capacity of the complexes has been evaluated using the SPP-catalyzed co-oxidation of [Ru(II)(phpy)(bpy)(2)]PF(6) and catechol as a poor peroxidase substrate as an example. The rate of enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of catechol increases more than 10000-fold in the presence of the ruthenium complex. A simple routine for calculating the rate constant k(c) for the oxidation of catechol by the Ru(III) complex generated enzymatically from [Ru(II)(phpy)(bpy)(2)](+) is proposed. It is based on the accepted mechanism of peroxidase catalysis and involves spectrophotometric measurements of the limiting Ru(II) concentration at different concentrations of catechol. The calculated k(c) value of 0.75 M(-1) s(-1) shows that the cyclometalated Ru(II) complexes are efficient mediators in peroxidase catalysis. PMID:12774217

  1. Unique Solvent Effects on Visible-Light CO2 Reduction over Ruthenium(II)-Complex/Carbon Nitride Hybrid Photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ryo; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalytic CO2 reduction using hybrids of carbon nitride (C3N4) and a Ru(II) complex under visible light was studied with respect to reaction solvent. Three different Ru(II) complexes, trans(Cl)-[Ru(X2bpy) (CO)2Cl2] (X2bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine with substituents X in the 4-positions, X = COOH, PO3H2, or CH2PO3H2), were employed as promoters and will be abbreviated as RuC (X = COOH), RuP (X = PO3H2), and RuCP (X = CH2PO3H2). When C3N4 modified with a larger amount of RuCP (>7.8 μmol g(-1)) was employed as a photocatalyst in a solvent having a relatively high donor number (e.g., N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) with the aid of triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, the hybrid photocatalyst exhibited high performance for CO2 reduction, producing CO and HCOOH with relatively high CO selectivity (40-70%). On the other hand, HCOOH was the major product when RuC/C3N4 or RuP/C3N4 was employed regardless of the loading amount of the Ru(II) complex and the reaction solvent. Results of photocatalytic reactions and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicated that polymeric Ru species, which were formed in situ from RuCP on C3N4 under irradiation in a solvent having a high donor number, were active catalysts for CO formation. Nonsacrificial CO2 reduction using RuP/C3N4 was accomplished in a DMA solution containing methanol as an electron donor, which means that visible light energy was stored as chemical energy in the form of CO and formaldehyde (ΔG° = +67.6 kJ mol(-1)). This study demonstrated the first successful example of an energy conversion scheme using carbon nitride through photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

  2. A dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vector

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kangqiang; Yu, Bole; Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Zou, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent tracking gene delivery could provide us with a better understanding of the critical steps in the transfection process. However, for in vivo tracking applications, a small diameter (<10 nm) is one of the rigorous requirements for tracking vectors. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for two-photon tracking gene delivery based on a dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. Because this metallodendrimer has a multivalent periphery, the complex, which is 6.1 nm, showed high stability and excellent dispersibility and could stepwise condense DNA in vitro. With the outstanding photochemical properties of Ru(II) polypyridyl, this complex could track gene delivery in vivo using one- and two-photon imaging. PMID:26185052

  3. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Biology: Results from Synergistic Studies in Natural and Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Steven Y.; Nocera, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) underpins energy conversion in biology. PCET may occur with the unidirectional or bidirectional transfer of a proton and electron and may proceed synchronously or asynchronously. To illustrate the role of PCET in biology, this review presents complementary biological and model systems that explore PCET in electron transfer (ET) through hydrogen bonds [azurin as compared to donor-acceptor (D–A) hydrogen-bonded networks], the activation of C–H bonds [alcohol dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase (SLO) as compared to Fe(III) metal complexes], and the generation and transport of amino acid radicals [photosystem II (PSII) and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR)as compared to tyrosine-modified photoactive Re(I) and Ru(II) complexes]. In providing these comparisons, the fundamental principles of PCET in biology are illustrated in a tangible way. PMID:19344235

  4. Light-driven biocatalytic reduction of α,β-unsaturated compounds by ene reductases employing transition metal complexes as photosensitizers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental sections, tables, figures and discussion. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cy01642h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Peers, Martyn K.; Toogood, Helen S.; Heyes, Derren J.; Mansell, David; Coe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and cost effective nicotinamide cofactor regeneration is essential for industrial-scale bio-hydrogenations employing flavin-containing biocatalysts such as the Old Yellow Enzymes. A direct flavin regeneration system using visible light to initiate a photoredox cycle and drive biocatalysis is described, and shown to be effective in driving biocatalytic activated alkene reduction. Using Ru(ii) or Ir(iii) complexes as photosensitizers, coupled with an electron transfer mediator (methyl viologen) and sacrificial electron donor (triethanolamine) drives catalytic turnover of two Old Yellow Enzymes with multiple oxidative substrates. Therefore, there is great potential in the development of light-driven biocatalytic systems, providing an alternative to the reliance on enzyme-based cofactor regeneration systems. PMID:27019691

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of zeolite-entrapped bis-heteroleptic ruthenium(II) polypyridine complexes. [Ru sup 2+ (bpy) sub 2 (bpz) sup 2+ -Y and Ru sup 2+ (bpy) sub 2 (dmb) sup 2+ -Y where bpy is bipyridine, bpz is bipyrazine, dmp is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, and Y is zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Maruszewski, K.; Kincaid, J.R. ); Strommen, D.P.; Handrich, K. )

    1991-11-27

    A convenient method for the preparation of polypyridine complexes of Ru(II) within the supercages of zeolite Y is reported. The bis-heteroleptic trisligated species Ru{sup 2+}(bpy){sub 2}(bpz){sup 2+}-Y and Ru{sup 2+}(bpy){sub 2}(dmb){sup 2+}-Y have been obtained and characterized by electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopies. Two methods of zeolite matrix destruction have been used to extract the zeolite-entrapped complexes. Depending on experimental conditions, a blue byproduct can be formed in the zeolite supercages. Preliminary evidence suggests that this compound is properly formulated as Ru{sup 3+}(bpy){sub 2}(X)0-(where X is unspecified) bound to the supercage interior wall via an oxygen atom donated by the zeolite.

  6. The influence of arene-ring size on stacking interaction with canonical base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formánek, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2014-04-01

    Stacking interactions between aromatic molecules (benzene, p-cymene, biphenyl, and di- and tetra-hydrogen anthracene) and G.C and A.T canonical Watson-Crick (WC) base pairs are explored. Two functionals with dispersion corrections: ω-B97XD and B3LYP-D3 are used. For a comparison also the MP2 and B3LYP-D3/PCM methods were used for the most stable p-cymene…WC geometries. It was found that the stacking interaction increases with the size of π-conjugation system. Its extent is in agreement with experimental finding on anticancer activity of Ru(II) piano-stool complexes where intercalation of these aromatic molecules should play an important role. The explored structures are considered as ternary system so that decomposition of the interaction energy to pairwise and non-additivity contributions is also examined.

  7. Protein-binding, cytotoxicity in vitro and cell cycle arrest of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Hong; Zhu, Jian-Wei; Xu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Yan; Liu, Ya-Min; Liang, Jun-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Qiang; Cao, Di-Hua; Lin, Yang-Yang; Wu, Yong; Guo, Qi-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The cytotoxic activity of two Ru(II) complexes against A549, BEL-7402, HeLa, PC-12, SGC-7901 and SiHa cell lines was investigated by MTT method. Complexes 1 and 2 show moderate cytotoxicity toward BEL-7402 cells with an IC50 value of 53.9 ± 3.4 and 39.3 ± 2.1 μM. The effects of the complexes inducing apoptosis, cellular uptake, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential in BEL-7402 cells have been studied by fluorescence microscopy. The percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells and cell cycle arrest were studied by flow cytometry. The BSA-binding behaviors were investigated by UV/visible and fluorescent spectra.

  8. Synthesis of Bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine Monomers from 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhanwei; Yan, Peifang; Liu, Kairui; Wan, Lu; Xu, Wenjuan; Li, Huixiang; Liu, Xiumei; Zhang, Z Conrad

    2016-06-01

    We report the synthesis of bis(hydroxylmethylfurfuryl)amine (BHMFA) from 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by reacting 5-HMF with primary amines in the presence of homogeneous Ru(II) catalysts having sterically strained ligands. BHMFA is a group of furan-based monomers that offer great potential to form functional biopolymers with tunable properties. A range of primary amines, such as aliphatic and benzyl amines, are readily converted with 5-HMF to form the corresponding BHMFA in good yields. The reaction proceeds through reductive amination of 5-HMF with primary amine to form secondary amine, followed by reductive amination of 5-HMF with in situ generated secondary amine to produce BHMFA. PMID:27151257

  9. Optimum Thickness Conditions of TiO2 Nanotubes Layer for Efficient Electrochemical Luminescence Cells Application.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Ki; Sung, Youl-Moon; Park, Min-Woo

    2015-02-01

    We report a TiO2 nanotubes (NTs)-based Electrochemical luminescence (ECL) cell. The ECL cell was fabricated using the electrode of TiO2 NTs and Ru(II) complex (Ru(bpy)2+(3)) as a luminescence materials. The fabricated ECL cell is composed of F-doped SnO2 (FTO) glass/Ru(II)/TiO2 NTs/Ti plate. At a bias voltage of 3 V, the measured ECL efficiencies were 0 Im/W for cell without NTs, 0.03 Im/W for NTs-6.5 µm, 0.07 Im/W for NTs-8 µm and 0.1 Im/W for NTs-10 µm, respectively. The use of Ti02 NTs increases ECL intensities by about 2 times compared to the typical ECL cell without the use of TiO2 NTs.

  10. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM. PMID:23903983

  11. Polypyrrole-Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)3(2+)/MoSx structured composite film as a photocathode for the hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Lattach, Youssef; Fortage, Jérôme; Deronzier, Alain; Moutet, Jean-Claude

    2015-03-01

    The development of photoelectrochemical devices for solar light-driven water splitting and H2 production requires new strategies for the fabrication of materials that combine the necessary photoredox and catalytic properties, to allow the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) to take place at a low overvoltage under visible light irradiation. We report the first example of a structured composite, synthesized by electrodeposition of MoSx cocatalyst into a photosensitive Ru complex film deposited onto carbon electrodes by electropolymerization of a pyrrole-functionalized Ru(II)(2,2'-bipyridine)3(2+). Composite films show efficient photocatalytic activity for HER. Our study highlights the great simplicity of this versatile electrochemical procedure to synthesize photocathodes.

  12. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. Progress report, August 1, 1989--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1991-12-31

    During this period, conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used for the characterization of the intermediates that are involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. The intermediates of interest were the excited states of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and the species formed in the reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern has been the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes.

  13. Study of intermediates from transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.Z.

    1991-12-31

    During this period, conventional and fast-kinetics techniques of photochemistry, photophysics, radiation chemistry, and electrochemistry were used for the characterization of the intermediates that are involved in transition metal excited-state electron-transfer reactions. The intermediates of interest were the excited states of Ru(II) and Cr(III) photosensitizers, their reduced forms, and the species formed in the reactions of redox quenchers and electron-transfer agents. Of particular concern has been the back electron-transfer reaction between the geminate pair formed in the redox quenching of the photosensitizers, and the dependence of its rate on solution medium and temperature in competition with transformation and cage escape processes.

  14. Excited-State Dynamics of a Two-Photon-Activatable Ruthenium Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Simon E; Horbury, Michael D; Smith, Nichola A; Sadler, Peter J; Paterson, Martin J; Stavros, Vasilios G

    2016-01-18

    We present a new approach to investigate how the photodynamics of an octahedral ruthenium(II) complex activated through two-photon absorption (TPA) differ from the equivalent complex activated through one-photon absorption (OPA). We photoactivated a Ru(II) polypyridyl complex containing bioactive monodentate ligands in the photodynamic therapy window (620-1000 nm) by using TPA and used transient UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy to elucidate its reaction pathways. Density functional calculations allowed us to identify the nature of the initially populated states and kinetic analysis recovers a photoactivation lifetime of approximately 100 ps. The dynamics displayed following TPA or OPA are identical, showing that TPA prodrug design may use knowledge gathered from the more numerous and easily conducted OPA studies.

  15. Antiproliferative activity of ruthenium(ii) arene complexes with mono- and bidentate pyridine-based ligands.

    PubMed

    Richter, Stefan; Singh, Sushma; Draca, Dijana; Kate, Anup; Kumbhar, Anupa; Kumbhar, Avinash S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Mijatovic, Sanja; Lönnecke, Peter; Hey-Hawkins, Evamarie

    2016-08-16

    A series of Ru(II) arene complexes of mono- and bidentate N-donor ligands with carboxyl or ester groups and chlorido ancillary ligands were synthesised and structurally characterised. The complexes have a distorted tetrahedral piano-stool geometry. The binding interaction was studied with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) by absorption titration, viscosity measurement, thermal melting, circular dichroism, ethidium bromide displacement assay and DNA cleavage of plasmid DNA (pBR322), investigated by gel electrophoresis. The dichlorido complexes bind covalently to DNA in the dark, similar to cisplatin, while the monochlorido complexes bind covalently on irradiation, similar to cisplatin analogues. The compounds are selectively cytotoxic against several tumour cell lines and show specific nonlinear correlation between dose and activity. This phenomenon is closely related to their potential to act preferentially as inhibitors of cell division. PMID:27264161

  16. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes.

  17. Iodide Recognition and Sensing in Water by a Halogen-Bonding Ruthenium(II)-Based Rotaxane.

    PubMed

    Langton, Matthew J; Marques, Igor; Robinson, Sean W; Félix, Vítor; Beer, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis and anion-recognition properties of the first halogen-bonding rotaxane host to sense anions in water is described. The rotaxane features a halogen-bonding axle component, which is stoppered with water-solubilizing permethylated β-cyclodextrin motifs, and a luminescent tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II)-based macrocycle component. (1) H NMR anion-binding titrations in D2 O reveal the halogen-bonding rotaxane to bind iodide with high affinity and with selectively over the smaller halide anions and sulfate. The binding affinity trend was explained through molecular dynamics simulations and free-energy calculations. Photo-physical investigations demonstrate the ability of the interlocked halogen-bonding host to sense iodide in water, through enhancement of the macrocycle component's Ru(II) metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) emission. PMID:26626866

  18. Ultrafast electronic and vibrational dynamics of a ruthenium porphyrin complex in intersystem crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Iwakura, Izumi; Yabushita, Atsushi

    Using sub-5fs visible laser pulses, ultrafast time-resolved absorption change was observed for RuII (TPP)(CO) (TPP=5,10, 15, 20 tetraphenylporphirine) solved in chloroform. Exponential fitting of the time traces estimated decay life times of intermediates as 230±70 fs, 1150±260 fs, 2150±360 fs, and ≫4.8 ps for 1Q x(1 , 0) /(π ,π∗) ,1Q x(0 , 0)(π ,π∗) , 3(d ,π∗) , and 3(π ,π∗) , respectively. Real-time 4.8 change of instantaneous molecular vibration frequency was studied by spectrogram analysis, which reflects gradual vibration mode change in the intersystem crossing from singlet state to triplet state.

  19. Coordination chemistry of N-heterocyclic nitrenium-based ligands.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, Yuri; Kozuch, Sebastian; Saha, Prasenjit; Mauda, Assaf; Nisnevich, Gennady; Botoshansky, Mark; Shimon, Linda J W; Gandelman, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Comprehensive studies on the coordination properties of tridentate nitrenium-based ligands are presented. N-heterocyclic nitrenium ions demonstrate general and versatile binding abilities to various transition metals, as exemplified by the synthesis and characterization of Rh(I) , Rh(III) , Mo(0) , Ru(0) , Ru(II) , Pd(II) , Pt(II) , Pt(IV) , and Ag(I) complexes based on these unusual ligands. Formation of nitrenium-metal bonds is unambiguously confirmed both in solution by selective (15) N-labeling experiments and in the solid state by X-ray crystallography. The generality of N-heterocyclic nitrenium as a ligand is also validated by a systematic DFT study of its affinity towards all second-row transition and post-transition metals (Y-Cd) in terms of the corresponding bond-dissociation energies.

  20. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes. PMID:24037457

  1. Iodide Recognition and Sensing in Water by a Halogen‐Bonding Ruthenium(II)‐Based Rotaxane

    PubMed Central

    Langton, Matthew J.; Marques, Igor; Robinson, Sean W.; Félix, Vítor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis and anion‐recognition properties of the first halogen‐bonding rotaxane host to sense anions in water is described. The rotaxane features a halogen‐bonding axle component, which is stoppered with water‐solubilizing permethylated β‐cyclodextrin motifs, and a luminescent tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II)‐based macrocycle component. 1H NMR anion‐binding titrations in D2O reveal the halogen‐bonding rotaxane to bind iodide with high affinity and with selectively over the smaller halide anions and sulfate. The binding affinity trend was explained through molecular dynamics simulations and free‐energy calculations. Photo‐physical investigations demonstrate the ability of the interlocked halogen‐bonding host to sense iodide in water, through enhancement of the macrocycle component’s RuII metal–ligand charge transfer (MLCT) emission. PMID:26626866

  2. Visible-Light-Driven Photoisomerization and Increased Rotation Speed of a Molecular Motor Acting as a Ligand in a Ruthenium(II) Complex.

    PubMed

    Wezenberg, Sander J; Chen, Kuang-Yen; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-09-21

    Toward the development of visible-light-driven molecular rotary motors, an overcrowded alkene-based ligand and the corresponding ruthenium(II) complex is presented. In our design, a 4,5-diazafluorenyl coordination motif is directly integrated into the motor function. The photochemical and thermal isomerization behavior has been studied by UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopy. Upon coordination to a Ru(II) bipyridine complex, the photoisomerization process can be driven by visible (λmax = 450 nm) instead of UV light and furthermore, a large increase of the speed of rotation is noted. DFT calculations point to a contraction of the diazafluorenyl lower half upon metal-coordination resulting in reduced steric hindrance in the "fjord region" of the molecule. Consequently, it is shown that metal-ligand interactions can play an important role in the adjustment of both photophysical and thermodynamic properties of molecular motors.

  3. Anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands.

    PubMed

    Chelopo, Madichaba P; Pawar, Sachin A; Sokhela, Mxolisi K; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2013-08-01

    Ruthenium complexes offer potential reduced toxicity compared to current platinum anticancer drugs. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands were synthesised, characterised and coordinated to an organometallic Ru(II) centre. These complexes were evaluated for activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and MDA-MB-231 as well as for toxicity in the normal cell line MDBK. They were observed to be moderately active against only the MCF-7 cells with the best IC₅₀ value of 34 μM for the cis-diastereomeric complex C4. They also displayed excellent selectivity by being relatively inactive against the normal MDBK cell line with SI values ranging from 2.3 to 7.4. PMID:23827181

  4. [1,1′-Bis(di­phenyl­phosphan­yl)cobalto­cenium-κ2 P,P′](η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl){2-[4-(4-ethynylphen­yl)phen­yl]ethynyl-κC}ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ling-Zhen; Wu, Yun-Ying; Tian, Guang-Xuan; Li, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, [CoRu(C5H5)(C16H9)(C17H14P)2]PF6, the RuII atom is coordinated by a cyclo­penta­dienyl ring in an η5-mode, one C atom from a 4,4′-diethynyl-1,1′-biphenyl ligand and two P atoms from a chelating 1,1′-bis­(di­phenyl­phosphan­yl)cobaltocenium ligand, giving a three-legged piano-stool geometry. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds link the complex cations and hexa­fluorido­phosphate anions into a three-dimensional supra­molecular structure. PMID:24454037

  5. Redox-Active-Ligand-Mediated Formation of an Acyclic Trinuclear Ruthenium Complex with Bridging Nitrido Ligands.

    PubMed

    Bagh, Bidraha; Broere, Daniël L J; Siegler, Maxime A; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar

    2016-07-11

    Coordination of a redox-active pyridine aminophenol ligand to Ru(II) followed by aerobic oxidation generates two diamagnetic Ru(III) species [1 a (cis) and 1 b (trans)] with ligand-centered radicals. The reaction of 1 a/1 b with excess NaN3 under inert atmosphere resulted in the formation of a rare bis(nitrido)-bridged trinuclear ruthenium complex with two nonlinear asymmetrical Ru-N-Ru fragments. The spontaneous reduction of the ligand centered radical in the parent 1 a/1 b supports the oxidation of a nitride (N(3-) ) to half an equivalent of N2 . The trinuclear omplex is reactive toward TEMPO-H, tin hydrides, thiols, and dihydrogen. PMID:27321547

  6. Synthesis of N4 donor macrocyclic Schiff base ligands and their Ru (II), Pd (II), Pt (II) metal complexes for biological studies and catalytic oxidation of didanosine in pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi krishna, E.; Muralidhar Reddy, P.; Sarangapani, M.; Hanmanthu, G.; Geeta, B.; Shoba Rani, K.; Ravinder, V.

    2012-11-01

    A series of tetraaza (N4 donor) macrocyclic ligands (L1-L4) were derived from the condensation of o-phthalaldehyde (OPA) with some substituted aromatic amines/azide, and subsequently used to synthesize the metal complexes of Ru(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II). The structures of macrocyclic ligands and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H &13C NMR, mass and electronic spectroscopy, thermal, magnetic and conductance measurements. Both the ligands and their complexes were screened for their antibacterial activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by MIC method. Besides, these macrocyclic complexes were investigated as catalysts in the oxidation of pharmaceutical drug didanosine. The oxidized products were further treated with sulphanilic acid to develop the colored products to determine by spectrophotometrically. The current oxidation method is an environmentally friendly, simple to set-up, requires short reaction time, produces high yields and does not require co-oxidant.

  7. Anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) arene complexes bearing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands.

    PubMed

    Chelopo, Madichaba P; Pawar, Sachin A; Sokhela, Mxolisi K; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Maguire, Glenn E M

    2013-08-01

    Ruthenium complexes offer potential reduced toxicity compared to current platinum anticancer drugs. 1,2,3,4-tetrahydrisoquinoline amino alcohol ligands were synthesised, characterised and coordinated to an organometallic Ru(II) centre. These complexes were evaluated for activity against the cancer cell lines MCF-7, A549 and MDA-MB-231 as well as for toxicity in the normal cell line MDBK. They were observed to be moderately active against only the MCF-7 cells with the best IC₅₀ value of 34 μM for the cis-diastereomeric complex C4. They also displayed excellent selectivity by being relatively inactive against the normal MDBK cell line with SI values ranging from 2.3 to 7.4.

  8. Ru(ii)-polypyridyl surface functionalised gold nanoparticles as DNA targeting supramolecular structures and luminescent cellular imaging agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Orange, Kim N.; Elmes, Robert B. P.; La Cour Poulsen, Bjørn; Williams, D. Clive; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2015-12-01

    The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics.The development of Ru(ii) functionalized gold nanoparticles 1-3.AuNP is described. These systems were found to be mono-disperse with a hydrodynamic radius of ca. 15 nm in water but gave rise to the formation of higher order structures in buffered solution. The interaction of 1-3.AuNP with DNA was also studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods and suggested the formation of large self-assembly structures in solution. The uptake of 1-3.AuNP by cancer cells was studied using both confocal fluorescence as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with the aim of investigating their potential as tools for cellular biology. These systems displaying a non-toxic profile with favourable photophysical properties may have application across various biological fields including diagnostics and therapeutics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05598a

  9. Simulating Ru L3-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-04-26

    Ruthenium L3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes unoccupied 4d orbitals of the metal atom and is increasingly being used to investigate the local electronic structure in ground and excited electronic states of Ru complexes. The simultaneous development of computational tools for simulating Ru L3-edge spectra is crucial for interpreting the spectral features at a molecular level. This study demonstrates that time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is a viable and predictive tool for simulating ruthenium L3-edge XA spectroscopy. We systematically investigate the effects of exchange correlation functional and implicit and explicit solvent interactions on a series of RuII and RuIII complexes in their ground and electronic excited states. The TDDFT simulations reproduce all of the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra within the experimental resolution (0.4 eV). Our simulations identify ligand-specific charge transfer features in complicated Ru L3-edge spectra of [Ru(CN)6]4- and RuII polypyridyl complexes illustrating the advantage of using TDDFT in complex systems. We conclude that the B3LYP functional most accurately predicts the transition energies of charge transfer features in these systems. We use our TDDFT approach to simulate experimental Ru L3-edge XA spectra of transition metal mixed-valence dimers of the form [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5] (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. Our study determines the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. We find that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is necessary for reproducing the spectral features and the experimentally determined valencies in these mixed-valence complexes. This study validates the use of TDDFT for simulating Ru 2p excitations using popular quantum chemistry codes and providing a powerful interpretive tool for equilibrium and ultrafast Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy.

  10. Ruthenium(II) complexes of 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione: Cytotoxicity against tumor cells and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity enhanced upon combination with benznidazole.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rodrigo S; da Silva, Monize M; Graminha, Angelica E; Meira, Cássio S; Santos, Jamyle A F Dos; Moreira, Diogo R M; Soares, Milena B P; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Castellano, Eduardo E; Bloch, Carlos; Cominetti, Marcia R; Batista, Alzir A

    2016-03-01

    Three new mixed and mononuclear Ru(II) complexes containing 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione (tzdtH) were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic analysis, molar conductivity, cyclic voltammetry, high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectra and X-ray diffraction. The complexes presented unique stereochemistry and the proposed formulae are: [Ru(tzdt)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (1), cis-[Ru(tzdt)2(PPh3)2] (2) and trans-[Ru(tzdt)(PPh3)2(bipy)]PF6 (3), where dppb=1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane and bipy=2,2'-bipyridine. These complexes demonstrated strong cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines when compared to cisplatin. Specifically, complex 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against MCF-7 breast cells, while complexes 1 and 3 were more active in DU-145 prostate cells. Binding of complexes to ctDNA was determined by UV-vis titration and viscosity measurements and revealed binding constant (Kb) values in range of 1.0-4.9×10(3)M(-1), which are characteristic of compounds possessing weak affinity to ctDNA. In addition, these complexes presented antiparasitic activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. Specifically, complex 3 demonstrated strong potency, moderate selectivity index and acted in synergism with the approved antiparasitic drug, benznidazole. Additionally, complex 3 caused parasite cell death through a necrotic process. In conclusion, we demonstrated that Ru(II) complexes have powerful pharmacological activity, while the metal-free tzdtH does not provoke the same outcome. PMID:26795676

  11. Intracomplex electron transfer between ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives and cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pan, L P; Hibdon, S; Liu, R Q; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1993-08-24

    The reactions of bovine cytochrome c oxidase with horse cytochrome c derivatives labeled at specific lysine amino groups with (dicarboxybipyridine)bis(bipyridine)ruthenium (II) were studied by laser flash photolysis. All of the derivatives form complexes with cytochrome c oxidase at low ionic strength (5 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7). Excitation of Ru(II) to Ru(II*) with a short laser flash resulted in rapid electron transfer to the ferric heme group of cytochrome c, followed by electron transfer to cytochrome c oxidase. The photoreduced heme Fe(II) in the cytochrome c derivative modified at lysine 25 on the periphery of the heme crevice domain transferred an electron to CuA with a rate constant of 1.1 x 10(4) s-1. CuA then transferred an electron to cytochrome a with a rate constant of 2.3 x 10(4) s-1. The derivatives modified at lysines 7, 39, 55, and 60 remote from the heme crevice domain of cytochrome c have nearly the same kinetics. The rate constant for electron transfer from the cytochrome c heme to CuA is greater than 10(5) s-1, and the rate constant for electron transfer from CuA to cytochrome a is 2 x 10(4) s-1. The cytochrome c derivatives modified at lysines 13 and 27 in the heme crevice domain react much more slowly than the other derivatives, with intracomplex rate constants for oxidation of cytochrome c ranging from 1000 to 6000 s-1. The bulky ruthenium group at the heme crevice domain of these derivatives apparently alters the binding orientation, leading to smaller electron-transfer rates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Ruthenium Complexes Induce HepG2 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibit Cell Migration and Invasion through Regulation of the Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yiyu; Shen, Ting; Yang, Hua; Gu, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) complexes are currently the focus of substantial interest because of their potential application as chemotherapeutic agents with broad anticancer activities. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities and mechanisms of two Ru complexes—2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru1) and 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru2)—against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. These Ru complexes effectively inhibited the cellular growth of three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, with IC50 values ranging from 2.7–7.3 μM. In contrast, the complexes exhibited lower toxicity towards L02 human liver normal cells with IC50 values of 20.4 and 24.8 μM, respectively. Moreover, Ru2 significantly inhibited HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and these effects were dose-dependent. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that Ru2 induced HCC cell apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation, which was predominately triggered via caspase family member activation. Furthermore, HCC cell treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream effectors, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1). Ru2 also exhibited potent in vivo anticancer efficacy in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model, as demonstrated by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition on tumor growth. The results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Ru complexes against HCC via Nrf2 pathway regulation. PMID:27213353

  13. Comparison of hydration reactions for "piano-stool" RAPTA-B and [Ru(η6-arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes: density functional theory computational study.

    PubMed

    Chval, Zdeněk; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2011-01-14

    The hydration process for two Ru(II) representative half-sandwich complexes: Ru(arene)(pta)Cl(2) (from the RAPTA family) and [Ru(arene)(en)Cl](+) (further labeled as Ru_en) were compared with analogous reaction of cisplatin. In the study, quantum chemical methods were employed. All the complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using Conductor Polarizable Continuum Model (CPCM) solvent continuum model and single-point (SP) energy calculations and determination of electronic properties were performed at the B3LYP∕6-311++G(2df,2pd)/CPCM level. It was found that the hydration model works fairly well for the replacement of the first chloride by water where an acceptable agreement for both Gibbs free energies and rate constants was obtained. However, in the second hydration step worse agreement of the experimental and calculated values was achieved. In agreement with experimental values, the rate constants for the first step can be ordered as RAPTA-B > Ru_en > cisplatin. The rate constants correlate well with binding energies (BEs) of the Pt∕Ru-Cl bond in the reactant complexes. Substitution reactions on Ru_en and cisplatin complexes proceed only via pseudoassociative (associative interchange) mechanism. On the other hand in the case of RAPTA there is also possible a competitive dissociation mechanism with metastable pentacoordinated intermediate. The first hydration step is slightly endothermic for all three complexes by 3-5 kcal∕mol. Estimated BEs confirm that the benzene ligand is relatively weakly bonded assuming the fact that it occupies three coordination positions of the Ru(II) cation. PMID:21241133

  14. Control in the Rate-Determining Step Provides a Promising Strategy To Develop New Catalysts for CO2 Hydrogenation: A Local Pair Natural Orbital Coupled Cluster Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bhaskar; Neese, Frank; Ye, Shengfa

    2015-08-01

    The development of efficient catalysts with base metals for CO2 hydrogenation has always been a major thrust of interest. A series of experimental and theoretical work has revealed that the catalytic cycle typically involves two key steps, namely, base-promoted heterolytic H2 splitting and hydride transfer to CO2, either of which can be the rate-determining step (RDS) of the entire reaction. To explore the determining factor for the nature of RDS, we present herein a comparative mechanistic investigation on CO2 hydrogenation mediated by [M(H)(η(2)-H2)(PP3(Ph))](n+) (M = Fe(II), Ru(II), and Co(III); PP3(Ph) = tris(2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl)phosphine) type complexes. In order to construct reliable free energy profiles, we used highly correlated wave function based ab initio methods of the coupled cluster type alongside the standard density functional theory. Our calculations demonstrate that the hydricity of the metal-hydride intermediate generated by H2 splitting dictates the nature of the RDS for the Fe(II) and Co(III) systems, while the RDS for the Ru(II) catalyst appears to be ambiguous. CO2 hydrogenation catalyzed by the Fe(II) complex that possesses moderate hydricity traverses an H2-splitting RDS, whereas the RDS for the high-hydricity Co(III) species is found to be the hydride transfer. Thus, our findings suggest that hydricity can be used as a practical guide in future catalyst design. Enhancing the electron-accepting ability of low-hydricity catalysts is likely to improve their catalytic performance, while increasing the electron-donating ability of high-hydricity complexes may speed up CO2 conversion. Moreover, we also established the active roles of base NEt3 in directing the heterolytic H2 splitting and assisting product release through the formation of an acid-base complex.

  15. Electrochemically-tuned luminescence of a [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+-sensitized TiO 2 anode and its applications to photo-stimulated guanine/H 2O 2 fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Jiangyang; Sun, Ting; Ji, Shibo; Li, Hong; Lan, Sheng; Li, Weishan

    A phenazine-containing Ru(II) complex [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+ (bpy = 2,2‧-bipyridine and tatp = 1,4,8,9-tetra-aza-triphenylene) is first applied to a modification of the nano-TiO 2/indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode by the method of repetitive voltammetric sweeping. The resulting [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+-modified TiO 2 electrode shows two pairs of well-defined redox waves and excellent electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of guanine. [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+ on TiO 2 surfaces exhibits intense absorbance and photoluminescence in visible region, revealed by absorption spectra, emission spectra and fluorescence microscope. While [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+-sensitized TiO 2 is functionalized as an anode to combine with a continuous wave green laser via an optical microscope, the luminescence of Ru(II)-based excited states can be enhanced by the oxidation of guanine. Furthermore, the [Ru(bpy) 2(tatp)] 2+-sensitized TiO 2 electrode is used as photoanode and hemoglobin-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as cathode for the elaboration of a photo-stimulated guanine/H 2O 2 fuel cell with a saturated KCl salt-bridge. It becomes evident that the photo-stimulated fuel cell performance depends strongly on the excited states of Ru(II) complex-sensitized anodes as well as the electrocatalytic oxidation of guanine. This study provides an electrochemically-tuned luminescence method for better evaluating contributions of the sensitizer excited states to photo-stimulated fuel cells.

  16. Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of ruthenium diene/diamine complexes including catalytic hydrogenation of ketones.

    PubMed

    Morilla, M Esther; Rodríguez, Pilar; Belderrain, Tomas R; Graiff, Claudia; Tiripicchio, Antonio; Nicasio, M Carmen; Pérez, Pedro J

    2007-10-29

    Thermal reactions between [RuCl2(diene)]n (diene = 2,5-norbornadiene, nbd; 1,5-cyclooctadiene, cod) with an excess of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylene diamine (tmeda) afforded derivatives [RuCl2(diene)(tmeda)] (diene = nbd, 1; cod, 2) as a mixture of cis and trans isomers. When thermolysis was performed under H2 mixtures of hydride species [RuCl(H)(diene)(tmeda)] (diene = nbd, 3; cod, 4) and the bis-tmeda adduct trans-[RuCl2(tmeda)2] (5) were obtained in different ratios depending upon the reaction conditions and reaction times. Heating polymeric Ru(II) precursors in toluene in the presence of a 5-fold excess of the bulkier N,N,N',N'-tetraethylethylene diamine (teeda) resulted in a rare diamine dealkylation process with formation of trans-[RuCl2(nbd)(Et2NCH2CH2NHEt)] (6) and trans-[RuCl2(cod)(EtHNCH2CH2NHEt)] (7) in high yields. The presence of N-H functionalities in the coordinated diamine ligands of 6 and 7 was unambiguously established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The dealkylation process of the teeda ligand seems to proceed intramolecularly as shown by solution NMR studies performed with the soluble Ru(II) precursors trans-[RuCl2(amine)2(diene)] (diene = nbd, amine = morpholine, 9; diene = cod, amine = Et2NH, 10). The above complexes [RuCl2(diene)(diamine)] have been tested as precatalysts in the hydrogenation of ketones both for transfer as well as direct hydrogenation, the latter route being the most effective.

  17. Nature-Inspired, Highly Durable CO2 Reduction System Consisting of a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex and an Organic Semiconductor Using Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ryo; Matsunaga, Hironori; Nakashima, Takuya; Wada, Keisuke; Yamakata, Akira; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-20

    A metal-free organic semiconductor of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) coupled with a Ru(II) binuclear complex (RuRu') containing photosensitizer and catalytic units selectively reduced CO2 into HCOOH under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in the presence of a suitable electron donor with high durability, even in aqueous solution. Modification of C3N4 with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 photocatalyst that exhibited a very high turnover number (>33000 with respect to the amount of RuRu'), while maintaining high selectivity for HCOOH production (87-99%). This turnover number was 30 times greater than that reported previously using C3N4 modified with a mononuclear Ru(II) complex, and by far the highest among the metal-complex/semiconductor hybrid systems reported to date. The results of photocatalytic reactions, emission decay measurements, and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy indicated that Ag nanoparticles on C3N4 collected electrons having lifetimes of several milliseconds from the conduction band of C3N4, which were transferred to the excited state of RuRu', thereby promoting photocatalytic CO2 reduction driven by two-step photoexcitation of C3N4 and RuRu'. This study also revealed that the RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 hybrid photocatalyst worked efficiently in water containing a proper electron donor, despite the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of C3N4 and low solubility of CO2 in an aqueous environment.

  18. Crystal structure of cis,fac-{N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine-κ3 N,N′,N′′}di­chlorido­(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)ruthenium(II)

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Kasey; Arulsamy, Navamoney; Hulley, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of di­chlorido­tetra­kis­(dimethyl sulfoxide)­ruthen­ium(II) with N,N-bis[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine aff­ords the title complex, [RuCl2(C13H15N3)(C2H6OS)]. The asymmetric unit contains a well-ordered complex mol­ecule. The N,N-bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]methyl­amine (bpma) ligand binds the cation through its two pyridyl N atoms and one aliphatic N atom in a facial manner. The coordination sphere of the low-spin d 6 RuII is distorted octahedral. The dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) ligand coordinates to the cation through its S atom and is cis to the aliphatic N atom. The two chloride ligands occupy the remaining sites. The bpma ligand is folded with the dihedral angle between the mean planes passing through its two pyridine rings being 64.55 (8)°. The two N—Ru—N bite angles of the ligand at 81.70 (7) and 82.34 (8)° illustrate the distorted octa­hedral coordination geometry of the RuII cation. Two neighboring molecules are weakly associated through mutual intermolecular hydrogen bonding involving the O atom and one of the methyl groups of the dmso ligand. One of the chloride ligands is also weakly hydrogen bonded to a pyridyl H atom of another molecule. PMID:26396870

  19. Half-sandwich RuCl2(η(6)-p-cymene) core complexes containing sulfur donor aroylthiourea ligands: DNA and protein binding, DNA cleavage and cytotoxic studies.

    PubMed

    Jeyalakshmi, Kumaramangalam; Haribabu, Jebiti; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S P; Karvembu, Ramasamy

    2016-08-01

    A series of Ru(ii)(η(6)-p-cymene) complexes (1-4) bearing the general formula [RuCl2(η(6)-p-cymene)L] (L = monodentate aroylthiourea ligand) has been synthesized and characterized by analytical and various spectroscopic techniques. The neutral monodentate coordination of aroylthiourea with Ru via an S atom was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The complexes were tested for their ability to interact with DNA and protein. The complexes bound with calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) with the intrinsic binding constant value in the order of 10(4) M(-1). The intercalative mode of binding was confirmed by the ethidium bromide (EB) displacement study. The interaction of the complexes with CT DNA was further supported by viscosity measurements and circular dichroic (CD) spectra. The Ru(ii) complexes cleaved the supercoiled DNA without the need of any external agent. The spectroscopic evidence showed good binding efficacy of the complexes with BSA (Bovine Serum Albumin). The alterations in the secondary structure of BSA by the Ru(ii) complexes were confirmed by synchronous fluorescence spectra. Cytotoxicity examination by MTT assay was carried out in two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) and one non-cancerous cell line (L929). Complex 4 showed significant activity [IC50 = 52.3 (MCF7) and 54.6 (A549) μM] which was comparable with that of similar known complexes. The morphological changes assessed by Hoechst staining revealed that the cell death occurred by apoptosis. PMID:27435011

  20. New series of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes showing solid-state phosphorescence in far-visible and near-infrared.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Lin; Chi, Yun; Chen, Kellen; Cheng, Yi-Ming; Chung, Min-Wen; Yu, Ya-Chien; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai; Shu, Ching-Fong

    2010-02-01

    A new Ru(II) complex, [Ru(fpbpymH)(2)]Cl(2) (1), in which fpbpymH = [5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-3-yl](2,2'-bipyrid-6-yl)methane, was prepared by the treatment of [Ru(DMSO)(4)Cl(2)] with 2 equiv of the terdentate chelate fpbpymH in refluxing ethanol. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction study of 1 revealed a distorted octahedral Ru(II) framework, showing strong N-H...Cl hydrogen bonding between the fpbpymH ligand and Cl anions. In the presence of Na(2)CO(3), the methylene linkers of chelates in 1 underwent stepwise oxygenation, forming the charge-neutral complexes [Ru(fpbpym)(fpbpyk)] (2) and [Ru(fpbpyk)(2)] (3) [fpbpykH = [5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrazol-3-yl](2,2'-bipyrid-6-yl) ketone] in sequence. The respective charge-neutral Os(II) complex [Os(fpbpyk)(2)] (4) was also isolated by the treatment of OsCl(3).3H(2)O with 2 equiv of the terdentate chelate fpbpymH. Electrochemical analysis indicated that the introduction of the electron-withdrawing ketone group in 2-4 increased the metal-based oxidation potential in sequence. For the photophysical properties, complexes 1-4 are essentially nonluminescent in solution (e.g., CH(2)Cl(2) or MeOH) at room temperature, but all exhibit 600-1100 nm phosphorescence with moderate intensity for the powdery, solid sample at room temperature. The trend in terms of the emission peak wavelength of 1 (666 nm) < 3 (795 nm) < 2 (810 nm) < 4 (994 nm) among titled complexes is in agreement with the corresponding onset of absorption spectra as well as the time-dependent density functional theory calculation of 1 < 3 < 2 < 4. PMID:20030393

  1. Organobimetallic Ru(II)-Re(I) 4-ethynylpyridyl complexes: structures and non-linear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Corkery, T Christopher; Humphrey, Mark G; Samoc, Marek; Hor, T S Andy

    2009-08-21

    A series of heterobimetallic complexes, [RuCp(C[triple bond]Cpy-4)(P-P)][Re(CO)3(N-N)]+ (P-P = dppf, N-N = bpy 5, Me2bpy 6, tBu2bpy 7, phen 8, tpy 9; P-P = 2PPh3, N-N = bpy 10) have been obtained from Lewis addition between the metalloligands [RuCp(C[triple bond]Cpy-4)(P-P)] (P-P = dppf 1; 2PPh3 2) and solvent-stabilised fac-[Re(CH3CN)(CO)3(N-N)]+. All new complexes 5-10, together with fac-[ReBr(CO)3(tpy)] (3) and fac-[Re(CH3CN)(CO)3(tpy)][PF6] (4), are characterized by solution spectroscopy; 3 and 5-9 are also characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The terpyridine ligands in 3 and 9 are in an unusual 2-bidentate coordination mode with a pendant pyridyl. Electrochemical studies showed successive metal-based oxidations and a ligand-centered reduction in 5-10. Significant oxidation changes are observed at the Ru(II) and Re(I) centers in 5-10 when compared with their respective monometallic components. Cubic nonlinearities of 5-10 determined by the Z-scan technique at 750 nm reveal two-photon absorption that increases significantly on progression from Ru(II) monomeric precursors to heterobimetallics, suggesting NLO enhancement upon heterometallic complex formation.

  2. Comparison of hydration reactions for "piano-stool" RAPTA-B and [Ru(η6- arene)(en)Cl]+ complexes: Density functional theory computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chval, Zdeněk; Futera, Zdeněk; Burda, Jaroslav V.

    2011-01-01

    The hydration process for two Ru(II) representative half-sandwich complexes: Ru(arene)(pta)Cl2 (from the RAPTA family) and [Ru(arene)(en)Cl]+ (further labeled as Ru_en) were compared with analogous reaction of cisplatin. In the study, quantum chemical methods were employed. All the complexes were optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level using Conductor Polarizable Continuum Model (CPCM) solvent continuum model and single-point (SP) energy calculations and determination of electronic properties were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/CPCM level. It was found that the hydration model works fairly well for the replacement of the first chloride by water where an acceptable agreement for both Gibbs free energies and rate constants was obtained. However, in the second hydration step worse agreement of the experimental and calculated values was achieved. In agreement with experimental values, the rate constants for the first step can be ordered as RAPTA-B > Ru_en > cisplatin. The rate constants correlate well with binding energies (BEs) of the Pt/Ru-Cl bond in the reactant complexes. Substitution reactions on Ru_en and cisplatin complexes proceed only via pseudoassociative (associative interchange) mechanism. On the other hand in the case of RAPTA there is also possible a competitive dissociation mechanism with metastable pentacoordinated intermediate. The first hydration step is slightly endothermic for all three complexes by 3-5 kcal/mol. Estimated BEs confirm that the benzene ligand is relatively weakly bonded assuming the fact that it occupies three coordination positions of the Ru(II) cation.

  3. The contrasting catalytic efficiency and cancer cell antiproliferative activity of stereoselective organoruthenium transfer hydrogenation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Soni, Rina; Romero-Canelon, Isolda; Hearn, Jessica M; Liu, Zhe; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-05-28

    The rapidly growing area of catalytic ruthenium chemistry has provided new complexes with potential as organometallic anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of action. Here we report the anticancer activity of four neutral organometallic Ru(II) arene N-tosyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine (TsDPEN) tethered transfer hydrogenation catalysts. The enantiomers (R,R)-[Ru(η(6)-C6H5(CH2)3-TsDPEN-N-Me)Cl] (8) and (S,S)-[Ru(η(6)-C6H5(CH2)3-TsDPEN-N-Me)Cl] (8a) exhibited higher potency than cisplatin against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. When the N-methyl was replaced by N-H, i.e. to give (R,R)-[Ru(η(6)-Ph(CH2)3-TsDPEN-NH)Cl] (7) and (S,S)-[Ru(η(6)-Ph(CH2)3-TsDPEN-NH)Cl] (7a), respectively, anticancer activity decreased >5-fold. Their antiproliferative activity appears to be linked to their ability to accumulate in cells, and their mechanism of action might involve inhibition of tubulin polymerisation. This appears to be the first report of the potent anticancer activity of tethered Ru(II) arene complexes, and the structure-activity relationship suggests that the N-methyl substituents are important for potency. In the National Cancer Institute 60-cancer-cell-line screen, complexes 8 and 8a exhibited higher activity than cisplatin towards a broad range of cancer cell lines. Intriguingly, in contrast to their potent anticancer properties, complexes 8/8a are poor catalysts for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation, whereas complexes 7/7a are effective asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts. PMID:27109147

  4. Synthesis, characterization and chemistry of platinum and iridium nanoparticles in solution and nanoporous silicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagassar, Parbatee Samaroo

    This project focuses on the synthesis of catalytically-active, transition-metal nanoparticles, their adsorption into porous Vycor glass (PVG), the removal of the poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) surfactant employed in their synthesis and their chemistry with Ru(II) diimine complexes. Platinum and iridium nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were prepared by the alcohol reduction method with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as the size limiting surfactant. PVP/Pt nanoparticles adsorb into PVG and as much as 46 ± 4% of the PVP can be removed without further nanoparticle aggregation. XANES spectra show that removal of the PVP surfactant occurs without oxidation of the Pt nanoparticle. EXAFS of the adsorbed Pt nanoparticles after removal of the PVP yield a Pt-Pt bond length of 2.74 ± 0.01 Å which is slightly shorter than the Pt-Pt bond length measured in Pt foil, 2.78 Å. We have shown that the Pt nanoparticles, both the stripped and the unstripped of PVP in porous Vycor glass, does not influence their reactivity with either the [Ru(bpy)2 dpp]2+ or the [Ru(bpy)2ppz]2+ complexes. The addition of PVP/Pt or PVP/Ir nanoparticles to aqueous-ethanol solutions of [Ru(bpy)2ppz]2+ (ppz denotes 4,7-phenanthro-lino-5:6,5'6'pyrazine) leads to the spontaneous aggregation of the nanoparticles about the complex. A comparison of the aggregation about different Ru(II) diimines indicates aggregation initiates at the heteroleptic ligand. Although initiating at the ppz ligand, continued aggregation of the nanoparticles about the complex dilutes the specificity of the initial interaction leading to larger aggregates of differing shape. TEM analyses of the aggregates indicate the volume occupied by the individual nanoparticles is a small fraction of the total volume of the aggregate suggesting a somewhat open structure interlaced with the solvent. Correlating TEM analyses of the aggregation with the electronic spectra of the solutions reveals a new absorption assigned to the formation

  5. Ultrafast dynamics in multifunctional Ru(II)-loaded polymers for solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Morseth, Zachary A; Wang, Li; Puodziukynaite, Egle; Leem, Gyu; Gilligan, Alexander T; Meyer, Thomas J; Schanze, Kirk S; Reynolds, John R; Papanikolas, John M

    2015-03-17

    The use of sunlight to make chemical fuels (i.e., solar fuels) is an attractive approach in the quest to develop sustainable energy sources. Using nature as a guide, assemblies for artificial photosynthesis will need to perform multiple functions. They will need to be able to harvest light across a broad region of the solar spectrum, transport excited-state energy to charge-separation sites, and then transport and store redox equivalents for use in the catalytic reactions that produce chemical fuels. This multifunctional behavior will require the assimilation of multiple components into a single macromolecular system. A wide variety of different architectures including porphyrin arrays, peptides, dendrimers, and polymers have been explored, with each design posing unique challenges. Polymer assemblies are attractive due to their relative ease of production and facile synthetic modification. However, their disordered nature gives rise to stochastic dynamics not present in more ordered assemblies. The rational design of assemblies requires a detailed understanding of the energy and electron transfer events that follow light absorption, which can occur on time scales ranging from femtoseconds to hundreds of microseconds, necessitating the use of sophisticated techniques. We have used a combination of time-resolved absorption and emission spectroscopies with observation times that span 9 orders of magnitude to follow the excited-state evolution within polymer-based molecular assemblies. We complement experimental observations with molecular dynamics simulations to develop a microscopic view of these dynamics. This Account provides an overview of our work on polymers decorated with pendant Ru(II) chromophores, both in solution and on surfaces. We have examined site-to-site energy transport among the Ru(II) complexes, and in systems incorporating π-conjugated polymers, we have observed ultrafast formation of a long-lived charge-separated state. When attached to TiO2

  6. Fabrication of Three-Layer-Component Organoclay Hybrid Films with Reverse Deposition Orders by a Modified Langmuir-Schaefer Technique and Their Pyroelectric Currents Measured by a Noncontact Method.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, Masanari; Umemura, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    In an aqueous clay mineral (montmorillonite) dispersion at a low concentration, isolated clay nanosheets with negative charges were suspended. When a solution of amphiphilic octadecylammonium chloride (ODAH(+)Cl(-)) was spread on an air-dispersion interface, the clay nanosheets were adsorbed on the ODAH(+) cations at the interface to form a stable ultrathin floating film. The floating film was transferred onto a substrate by the Schaefer method, and then the film was immersed in a [Ru(dpp)3]Cl2 (dpp = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) solution. The Ru(II) complex cations were adsorbed on the film surface because the film surface possessed a cation-exchange ability. The layers of ODAH(+), clay nanosheets, and [Ru(dpp)3](2+) were deposited in this order. By repeating these procedures, three-layer-component films were fabricated (OCR films). In a similar way, three-layer-component films in which the layers of [Ru(dpp)3](2+), clay nanosheets, and ODAH(+) were deposited in the reverse order (RCO films) were prepared by spreading a [Ru(dpp)3](ClO4)2 solution and immersing the films in an ODAH(+)Cl(-) solution. Both OCR and RCO films were characterized by surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) curve measurements, IR and visible spectroscopy, and the XRD method. The OCR and RCO film systems possessed nearly the same properties in the densities of ODAH(+) and [Ru(dpp)3](2+) and the tilt angle of the Ru(II) complex cation, although the layer distance for the RCO film was a little longer than that for the OCR film and the layered structure for the RCO film was less ordered than that for the OCR film. Pyroelectric currents for the films were measured by a noncontact method using an (241)Am radioactive electrode. When the films were heated, the pyroelectric currents were observed and the current directions for the OCR and RCO films were different. This was clear evidence that the layer order in the OCR film was reverse of that in the RCO film.

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies of phenol oxidation by ruthenium complex with N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J Guadalupe; Silva, Antonio Romero; Thangarasu, Pandiyan; Najera, Rafael Herrera; Moreno, Alfonso Duran; Ledesma, M Teresa Orta; Cruz-Borbolla, Julian; Singh, Narinder

    2015-09-01

    The ruthenium complex with (N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine, L(1)) was prepared, and characterized. Fukui data were used to localize the reactive sites on the ligand. The structural and electronic properties of the complex were analyzed by DFT in different oxidation states in order to evaluate its oxidant properties for phenol oxidation. The results show that the hard Ru(IV) cation bonds preferentially with a hard base (Namine = amine nitrogen, or axial chloride ion), and soft Ru(II) with a soft base (Nbzim = benzimidazole nitrogen or axial triphenyl phosphine). Furthermore, the Jahn-Teller effect causes an elongation of the axial bond in the octahedral structure. The bonding nature and the orbital contribution to the electronic transitions of the complex were studied. The experimental UV-visible bands were interpreted by using TD-DFT studies. The complex oxidizes phenol to benzoquinone in the presence of H2O2 and the intermediate was detected by HPLC and (13)C NMR. A possible mechanism and rate law are proposed for the oxidation. The adduct formation of phenol with [Ru(O)L(1)](2+) or [Ru(OH)L(1)](+) is theoretically analyzed to show that [Ru(OH)L(1)-OPh](+) could produce the phenol radical.

  8. Synergistic "ping-pong" energy transfer for efficient light activation in a chromophore-catalyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Annamaria; Charalambidis, Georgios; Herrero, Christian; Margiola, Sofia; Leibl, Winfried; Coutsolelos, Athanassios; Aukauloo, Ally

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of a porphyrin-Ru(II) polypyridine complex where the porphyrin acts as a photoactive unit and the Ru(II) polypyridine as a catalytic precursor is described. Comparatively, the free base porphyrin was found to outperform the ruthenium based chromophore in the yield of light induced electron transfer. Mechanistic insights indicate the occurrence of a ping-pong energy transfer from the (1)LC excited state of the porphyrin chromophore to the (3)MCLT state of the catalyst and back to the (3)LC excited state of the porphyrin unit. The latter, triplet-triplet energy transfer back to the chromophore, efficiently competes with fast radiationless deactivation of the excited state at the catalyst site. The energy thus recovered by the chromophore allows improved yield of formation of the oxidized form of the chromophore and concomitantly of the oxidation of the catalytic unit by intramolecular charge transfer. The presented results are among the rare examples where a porphyrin chromophore is successfully used to drive an oxidative activation process where reductive processes prevail in the literature.

  9. (2,2'-Bipyridine-4,4'-dicarb-oxy-lic acid-κN,N')chlorido(2,2':6',2''-terpyridyl-κN,N',N'')ruthenium(II) perchlorate ethanol monosolvate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Anne; McKenzie, Christine J; Bond, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    In the title compound, [RuCl(C(15)H(11)N(3))(C(12)H(8)N(2)O(4))]ClO(4)·C(2)H(5)OH·H(2)O, the geometry of the ClN(5) coordination set around the Ru(II) atom is close to octa-hedral, but distorted on account of the limited bite angles of the polypyridyl ligands. The complexes are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between the carboxyl groups and the crystal lattice water mol-ecules into chains along [110]. Face-to-face stacking inter-actions are formed between terpyridine ligands, with inter-planar separations of 3.66 (1) and 3.42 (1) Å, and between bipyridine-4,4'-dicarb-oxy-lic acid ligands, with inter-planar separations of 3.65 (1) and 3.72 (1) Å. Three O atoms of the perchlorate ion are each disordered equally over two positions. The hy-droxy group of the ethanol mol-ecule is also disordered over two sites with refined occupancies of 0.794 (9) and 0.206 (9). PMID:22259372

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Ru Thin Films Using a New Beta-Diketonate Ru Precursor and NH3 Plasma as a Reactant.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hun; Lee, Seung-Joon; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Min Young; Cheon, Taehoon; Bae, So Ik; Saito, Masayuki; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Nabeya, Shunichi; Lee, Jeongyeop; Kim, Sangdeok; Yeom, Seungjin; Seo, Jong Hyun; Kim, Soo-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) thin films were grown on thermally-grown SiO2 substrates by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) using a sequential supply of a new betadiketonate Ru metallorganic precursor, dicarbonyl-bis(5-methyl-2,4-hexanediketonato) Ru(II) (C16H22O6Ru) with a high vapor pressure and NH3 plasma as a reactant at the substrate temperature ranging from 175 and 310 degrees C. A self-limited film growth was confirmed at the deposition temperature of 225 degrees C and the growth rate was 0.063 nm/cycle on the SiO2 substrate with very short number of incubation cycles (approximately 10 cycles). The resistivity of PEALD-Ru films was dependent on the microstructural features characterized by grain size and crystallinity, which could be controlled by varying the deposition temperature. Ru film with the resistivity of -20 μΩ-cm and high density of 11.5 g/cm3 was obtained at the deposition temperature as low as 225 degrees C. It formed polycrystalline structure with hexagonal-close-packed phase that was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electronic microscopy analysis. Step coverage of PEALD-Ru film deposited with the optimum condition was good (-75%) at the very small-sized trench (aspect ratio: -4.5 and the top opening size of 25 nm).

  11. A cyclometallated fluorenyl Ir(iii) complex as a potential sensitiser for two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (2PE-PDT).

    PubMed

    Boreham, Elizabeth M; Jones, Lucy; Swinburne, Adam N; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Hugues, Vincent; Terryn, Christine; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Natrajan, Louise S

    2015-09-28

    A new Ir(iii) cyclometallated complex bearing a fluorenyl 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligand ([Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) is presented which exhibits enhanced triplet oxygen sensing properties. The efficacy of this complex to act as a photosensitiser for altering the morphology of C6 Glioma cells that represent malignant nervous tumours has been evaluated. The increased heavy metal effect and related spin-orbit coupling parameters on the photophysical properties of this complex are evidenced by comparison with Ru(ii) analogues. The complex [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6] is shown to exhibit relatively high two-photon absorption efficiencies for the lowest energy MLCT electronic transitions with two-photon absorption cross sections that range from 50 to 80 Goeppert-Mayer units between 750 to 800 nm. Quantum yields for the complex were measured up to 23% and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV was determined to be 40 bar(-1) in acetonitrile solution, confirming the high efficiency of the complex as a triplet oxygen sensitiser. Preliminary in vitro experiments with C6 Glioma cells treated with [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], show that the complex is an efficient sensitizer for triplet oxygen, producing cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by two-photon excitation at 740 nm resulting in photodynamic effects that lead to localised cell damage and death.

  12. DFT/TDDFT study of the adsorption of N3 and N719 dyes on ZnO(101̅0) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Jon M; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-08-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of research as a potential replacement of TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), owing to the unique combination of interesting electronic properties (i.e., high electron mobility) and structural richness. Here, we present a DFT/TDDFT study about the interaction of the prototypical N3 and N719 Ru(II) sensitizers on ZnO models to understand some of the atomistic details that are crucial to the dye/semiconductor interaction. We pay particular attention to the adsorption mode of the sensitizer and to the effect of the complexation on the electronic structure of the dye. The sensitizers are predicted to strongly interact with the ZnO surface. In particular, the interaction is strengthened when three dye carboxylic groups are involved in the adsorption. Moreover, if the anchoring group bears a proton, the adsorption is predicted to be dissociative. The charge density donation from the dye to the semiconductor raises the valence and conduction band edges of the latter, in such a way that the optical gap of ZnO widens. Proton transfer from the dye to the semiconductor balances the charge donation effect and restores the electronic levels of the noninteracting fragments. The impact of dye/semiconductor interaction on the adsorbed dye optical properties is then discussed.

  13. A cyclometallated fluorenyl Ir(iii) complex as a potential sensitiser for two-photon excited photodynamic therapy (2PE-PDT).

    PubMed

    Boreham, Elizabeth M; Jones, Lucy; Swinburne, Adam N; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Hugues, Vincent; Terryn, Christine; Miomandre, Fabien; Lemercier, Gilles; Natrajan, Louise S

    2015-09-28

    A new Ir(iii) cyclometallated complex bearing a fluorenyl 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline ligand ([Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) is presented which exhibits enhanced triplet oxygen sensing properties. The efficacy of this complex to act as a photosensitiser for altering the morphology of C6 Glioma cells that represent malignant nervous tumours has been evaluated. The increased heavy metal effect and related spin-orbit coupling parameters on the photophysical properties of this complex are evidenced by comparison with Ru(ii) analogues. The complex [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6] is shown to exhibit relatively high two-photon absorption efficiencies for the lowest energy MLCT electronic transitions with two-photon absorption cross sections that range from 50 to 80 Goeppert-Mayer units between 750 to 800 nm. Quantum yields for the complex were measured up to 23% and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV was determined to be 40 bar(-1) in acetonitrile solution, confirming the high efficiency of the complex as a triplet oxygen sensitiser. Preliminary in vitro experiments with C6 Glioma cells treated with [Ir(ppy)2()][PF6], show that the complex is an efficient sensitizer for triplet oxygen, producing cytotoxic singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by two-photon excitation at 740 nm resulting in photodynamic effects that lead to localised cell damage and death. PMID:26289593

  14. DNA-binding, topoisomerases I and II inhibition and in vitro cytotoxicity of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes: [Ru(dppz)2L]2+ (L = dppz-11-CO2Me and dppz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojun; Jin, Lianhe; Tan, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, [Ru(dppz)2dppz-11-CO2Me](ClO4)2 (Ru1) and [Ru(dppz)3](ClO4)2 (Ru2), have been synthesized and characterized. The spectral characteristics of Ru1 and Ru2 were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and revealed that both complexes were sensitive to solvent polarity. The binding properties of the two complexes towards calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by different spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements, indicating that both complexes bind to CT-DNA by means of intercalation, but with different binding affinities. Topoisomerase inhibition and DNA strand passage assay demonstrates that the two complexes are dual inhibitors of topoisomerases I and IIa. On the other hand, the cytotoxicity of both complexes has been evaluated by MTT assays and Giemsa staining experiments. The main results reveal that the ester functional group has a significant effect on the DNA-binding affinities and topoisomerases inhibition effects of Ru1 and Ru2, and further advance our knowledge on the DNA-binding and topoisomerase inhibition by Ru(II) complexes.

  15. A series of hybrid P450 BM3 enzymes with different catalytic activity in the light-initiated hydroxylation of lauric acid

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Ngoc-Han; Huynh, Ngoc; Chavez, Garrett; Nguyen, Angelina; Dwaraknath, Sudharsan; Nguyen, Thien-Anh; Nguyen, Maxine; Cheruzel, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a series of hybrid P450 BM3 enzymes to perform the light-activated hydroxylation of lauric acid. These enzymes contain a Ru(II)-diimine photosensitizer covalently attached to single cysteine residues of mutant P450 BM3 heme domains. The library of hybrid enzymes includes four non-native single cysteine mutants (K97C, Q397C, Q109C and L407C). In addition, mutations around the heme active site, F87A and I401P, were inserted in the Q397C mutant. Two heteroleptic Ru(II) complexes, Ru(bpy)2phenA (1) and Ru(phen)2phenA (2) (bpy=bipyridine, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, and phenA=5-acetamido-1,10-phenanthroline), are used as photosensitizers. Upon visible light irradiation, the hybrid enzymes display various total turnover numbers in the hydroxylation of lauric acid, up to 140 for the L407C-1 mutant, a 16-fold increase compared to the F87A/Q397C-1 mutant. CO binding studies confirm the ability of the photogenerated Ru(I) compound to reduce the fraction of ferric high spin species present in the mutants upon substrate binding. PMID:22922311

  16. Ultrafast photo-induced ligand solvolysis of cis-[Ru(bipyridine)2(nicotinamide)2](2+): experimental and theoretical insight into its photoactivation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Simon E; Roberts, Gareth M; Smith, Nichola A; Horbury, Michael D; McKinlay, Russell G; Żurek, Justyna M; Paterson, Martin J; Sadler, Peter J; Stavros, Vasilios G

    2014-09-28

    Mechanistic insight into the photo-induced solvent substitution reaction of cis-[Ru(bipyridine)2(nicotinamide)2](2+) (1) is presented. Complex 1 is a photoactive species, designed to display high cytotoxicity following irradiation, for potential use in photodynamic therapy (photochemotherapy). In Ru(II) complexes of this type, efficient population of a dissociative triplet metal-centred ((3)MC) state is key to generating high quantum yields of a penta-coordinate intermediate (PCI) species, which in turn may form the target species: a mono-aqua photoproduct [Ru(bipyridine)2(nicotinamide)(H2O)](2+) (2). Following irradiation of 1, a thorough kinetic picture is derived from ultrafast UV/Vis transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, using a 'target analysis' approach, and provides both timescales and quantum yields for the key processes involved. We show that photoactivation of 1 to 2 occurs with a quantum yield ≥0.36, all within a timeframe of ~400 ps. Characterization of the excited states involved, particularly the nature of the PCI and how it undergoes a geometry relaxation to accommodate the water ligand, which is a keystone in the efficiency of the photoactivation of 1, is accomplished through state-of-the-art computation including complete active space self-consistent field methods and time-dependent density functional theory. Importantly, the conclusions here provide a detailed understanding of the initial stages involved in this photoactivation and the foundation required for designing more efficacious photochemotherapy drugs of this type.

  17. A new era for homolytic aromatic substitution: replacing Bu3SnH with efficient light-induced chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Gurry, Michael; Aldabbagh, Fawaz

    2016-04-28

    Herein is a pertinent review of recent photochemical homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) literature. Issues with using the reductant Bu3SnH in an oxidative process where the net loss of a hydrogen atom occurs is discussed. Nowadays more efficient light-induced chain reactions are used resulting in HAS becoming a synthetic mechanism of choice rivaling organometallic, transition-metal and electrophilic aromatic substitution protocols. The review includes aromatic substitution as part of a tandem or cascade reaction, Pschorr reaction, as well as HAS facilitated by ipso-substitution, and Smiles rearrangement. Recently visible-light photoredox catalysis, which is carried out at room temperature has become one of the most important means of aromatic substitution. The main photoredox catalysts used are polypyridine complexes of Ru(ii) and Ir(iii), although eosin Y is an alternative allowing metal-free HAS. Other radical initiator-free aromatic substitutions have used 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion and N,N-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-bis(dicarboximide) as the photoredox catalyst, UV-light, photoinduced electron-transfer, zwitterionic semiquinone radical anions, and Barton ester intermediates.

  18. Photodissociation Spectroscopy of Ruthenium Polypyridyl Complexes in Vacuo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuang; Smith, James; Weber, J. Mathias

    Photoelectrochemical water oxidation is a direct way to produce solar fuels from renewable sources. Since this reaction has a high reaction barrier, a cost-effective catalyst is necessary. Ruthenium polypyridyl complexes are promising catalysts for water oxidation. However, the mechanism of catalytic action is not well understood. One major difficulty of a mechanistic understanding is the complexity of reactive solutions under turnover conditions. To circumvent this problem, we applied electronic photodissociation spectroscopy in the UV and visible spectral range to a series of mass selected ruthenium polypyridyl complex ions in vacuo. The ions in this work are of the form [RuII-L]2+, where RuII represents ruthenium(II)-bipyridine-terpyridine, a prototype catalyst belonging to the ruthenium-polypyridyl family. By varying the ligand L, we were able to study the ligand influence on the photophysical properties of the complex. The cases where L = (H2O)1 , 2 , 3 are of particular interest because they are directly related to an intermediate in the catalytic cycle for water oxidation. Our experiment in vacuo is an essential complement to experiments in solution and provides unique information for understanding the photophysics and photochemistry of these complexes on a molecular level.

  19. Theoretical and experimental studies of phenol oxidation by ruthenium complex with N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, J Guadalupe; Silva, Antonio Romero; Thangarasu, Pandiyan; Najera, Rafael Herrera; Moreno, Alfonso Duran; Ledesma, M Teresa Orta; Cruz-Borbolla, Julian; Singh, Narinder

    2015-09-01

    The ruthenium complex with (N,N,N-tris(benzimidazol-2yl-methyl)amine, L(1)) was prepared, and characterized. Fukui data were used to localize the reactive sites on the ligand. The structural and electronic properties of the complex were analyzed by DFT in different oxidation states in order to evaluate its oxidant properties for phenol oxidation. The results show that the hard Ru(IV) cation bonds preferentially with a hard base (Namine = amine nitrogen, or axial chloride ion), and soft Ru(II) with a soft base (Nbzim = benzimidazole nitrogen or axial triphenyl phosphine). Furthermore, the Jahn-Teller effect causes an elongation of the axial bond in the octahedral structure. The bonding nature and the orbital contribution to the electronic transitions of the complex were studied. The experimental UV-visible bands were interpreted by using TD-DFT studies. The complex oxidizes phenol to benzoquinone in the presence of H2O2 and the intermediate was detected by HPLC and (13)C NMR. A possible mechanism and rate law are proposed for the oxidation. The adduct formation of phenol with [Ru(O)L(1)](2+) or [Ru(OH)L(1)](+) is theoretically analyzed to show that [Ru(OH)L(1)-OPh](+) could produce the phenol radical. PMID:26252971

  20. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy=2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip=2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5±1.4)×10(5) M(-1) in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  1. Thiocyanate-free asymmetric ruthenium(II) dye sensitizers containing azole chromophores with near-IR light-harvesting capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guohua; Kaneko, Ryuji; Islam, Ashraful; Zhang, Yaohong; Sugawa, Kosuke; Han, Liyuan; Shen, Qing; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Otsuki, Joe

    2016-11-01

    A new series of thiocyanate-free bis-tridentate Ru(II) complexes containing azole ligands as well as an organometallic Ru-C bond are synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). CF3-substituted pyrazolyl, CF3-substituted triazolyl, and tetrazolyl derivatives are employed as ligands in the three neutral complexes PYZ, TRZ, and TEZ dyes, respectively. Despite their different structures, all the three complexes exhibit similar absorption features and panchromatic absorption covering the visible and near-IR regions. By switching from a pyrazolyl via triazolyl to tetrazolyl moiety in the ligand, the photocurrent value, open-circuit voltage, and overall efficiency are increased accordingly under the same conditions. Among them, photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ƞ) of TEZ dye reaches the maximum of 6.44% with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 17.8 mA cm-2, an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.54 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.67 under illumination of an AM1.5G solar simulator. TEZ dye shows a good long term light soaking stability and maintains up to more than 90% of the initial power conversion efficiency after 1000 h.

  2. The effects of linear assembly of two carbazole groups on acid-base and DNA-binding properties of a ruthenium(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Xue, Long-Xin; Ju, Chun-Chuan; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2013-07-01

    A novel Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(Hbcpip)](ClO4)2 {where bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, Hbcpip = 2-(4-(9H-3,9'-bicarbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} is synthesized and characterized. Calf-thymus DNA-binding properties of the complex were studied by UV-vis absorption and luminescence titrations, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, thermal denaturation and DNA viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the complex partially intercalated into the DNA with a binding constant of (5.5 ± 1.4) × 105 M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl. The acid-base properties of the complex were also studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, and ground- and excited-state acidity ionization constant values were derived.

  3. How Does Peripheral Functionalization of Ruthenium(II)-Terpyridine Complexes Affect Spatial Charge Redistribution after Photoexcitation at the Franck-Condon Point?

    PubMed

    Preiß, Julia; Jäger, Michael; Rau, Sven; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen; Martínez, Todd; Presselt, Martin

    2015-05-18

    Ruthenium polypyridine-type complexes are extensively used sensitizers to convert solar energy into chemical and/or electrical energy, and they can be tailored through their metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) properties. Much work has been directed at harnessing the triplet MLCT state in photoinduced processes, from sophisticated molecular architectures to dye-sensitized solar cells. In dye-sensitized solar cells, strong coupling to the semiconductor exploits the high reactivity of the (hot) singlet/triplet MLCT state. In this work, we explore the nature of the (1) MLCT states of remotely substituted Ru(II) model complexes by both experimental and theoretical techniques. Two model complexes with electron-withdrawing (i.e. NO2 ) and electron-donating (i.e. NH2 ) groups were synthesized; these complexes contained a phenylene spacer to serve as a spectroscopic handle and to confirm the contribution of the remote substituent to the (1) MLCT transition. [Ru(tpy)2 ](2+) -based complexes (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine) were further desymmetrized by tert-butyl groups to yield unidirectional (1) MLCTs with large transition dipole moments, which are beneficial for related directional charge-transfer processes. Detailed comparison of experimental spectra (deconvoluted UV/Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy data) with theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (including vibronic broadening) revealed different properties of the optically active bright (1) MLCT states already at the Franck-Condon point. PMID:25898828

  4. Biophysical studies of a ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex binding to DNA and RNA prove that nucleic acid structure has significant effects on binding behaviors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Liang, Yi; Zhang, Peng; Du, Fen; Zhou, Bing-Rui; Wu, Jun; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2005-08-01

    The interactions of a metal complex [Ru(phen)(2)PMIP](2+) {Ru=ruthenium, phen=1,10-phenanthroline, PMIP=2-(4-methylphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline} with yeast tRNA and calf thymus DNA (CT DNA) have been investigated comparatively by UV-vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, viscosity measurements, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), as well as equilibrium dialysis and circular dichroism (CD). Spectroscopic studies together with ITC and viscosity measurements indicate that both binding modes of the Ru(II) polypyridyl complex to yeast tRNA and CT DNA are intercalation and yeast tRNA binding of the complex is stronger than CT DNA binding. ITC experiments show that the interaction of the complex with yeast tRNA is driven by a moderately favorable enthalpy decrease in combination with a moderately favorable entropy increase, while the binding of the complex to CT DNA is driven by a large favorable enthalpy decrease with a less favorable entropy increase. The results from equilibrium dialysis and CD suggest that both interactions are enantioselective and the Delta enantiomer of the complex may bind more favorably to both yeast tRNA and CT DNA than the Lambda enantiomer does, and that the complex is a better candidate for an enantioselective binder to yeast tRNA than to CT DNA. Taken together, these results indicate that the structures of nucleic acids have significant effects on the binding behaviors of metal complexes.

  5. Synthesis, potentiometric titration, electrochemical investigation and biological properties of trans-[RuCl2(dinic)4] (dinic = 3,5-pyridinecarboxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Seifriz, I; Konzen, M; Paula, M M; Gonçalves, N S; Spoganickz, B; Creczynski-Pasa, T B; Bonetti, V R; Beirith, A; Calixto, J B; Franco, C V

    1999-09-30

    This work discusses both the synthesis of trans-[RuCl2(dinic)4], dinic = 3,5-pyridinecarboxylic acid, and its main characteristics including potentiometric titration, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties, and some biological properties. The complex was synthesized using ruthenium blue solution as the precursor in a synthetic route. The complex was characterized using electronic spectroscopy, vibrational FT-IR spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, as well as 1H and 13C NMR. The results indicated that the complex exhibits a trans-geometry. Cyclic voltammetry carried out in water:acetone 1:1 solution revealed a quasi-reversible process centered on the Ru(II) atom, as well as a dependence of the redox potential, E1/2, on pH. An analysis of the electronic spectra revealed that the MLCT (metal ligand charge transfer) band underwent a hypsochromic shift as the pH increased. Spectroelectrochemical analysis indicated that the visible region band progressively faded out upon oxidation. The equilibrium constants for the eight protons of the complex were determined by potentiometric titration. The complex neither inhibits the activity of nitrogen monoxide synthase nor acts as a scavenger for nitrogen monoxide. Nevertheless, the complex shows antinociceptive properties and acts as a scavenger for hydroxyl radicals.

  6. DNA Binding and Photocleavage Properties, Cellular Uptake and Localization, and in-Vitro Cytotoxicity of Dinuclear Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Varying Lengths in Bridging Alkyl Linkers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Wu, Bao-Yan; Liu, Jin; Dai, Yong-Cheng; Wang, You-Jun; Wang, Ke-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    Two new dinuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes containing three and ten methylene chains in their bridging linkers are synthesized and characterized. Their calf thymus DNA-binding and plasmid DNA photocleavage behaviors are comparatively studied with a previously reported, six-methylene-containing analog by absorption and luminescence spectroscopy, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6](4-), DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, DNA viscosity measurements, DNA thermal denaturation, and agarose gel electrophoresis analyses. Theoretical calculations applying the density functional theory (DFT) method for the three complexes are also performed to understand experimentally observed DNA binding properties. The results show that the two complexes partially intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. Cellular uptake and colocalization studies have demonstrated that the complexes could enter HeLa cells efficiently and localize within lysosomes. The in-vitro antitumor activity against HeLa and MCF-7 tumor cells of the complexes are studied by MTT cytotoxic analysis. A new method, high-content analysis (HCA), is also used to assess cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of the three complexes. The results show that the lengths of the alkyl linkers could effectively tune their biological properties and that HCA is suitable for rapidly identifying cytotoxicity and can be substituted for MTT assays to evaluate the cell cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents.

  7. Half-sandwich ruthenium(II) biotin conjugates as biological vectors to cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Babak, Maria V; Plażuk, Damian; Meier, Samuel M; Arabshahi, Homayon John; Reynisson, Jóhannes; Rychlik, Błażej; Błauż, Andrzej; Szulc, Katarzyna; Hanif, Muhammad; Strobl, Sebastian; Roller, Alexander; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2015-03-23

    Ruthenium(II)-arene complexes with biotin-containing ligands were prepared so that a novel drug delivery system based on tumor-specific vitamin-receptor mediated endocytosis could be developed. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods and their in vitro anticancer activity in cancer cell lines with various levels of major biotin receptor (COLO205, HCT116 and SW620 cells) was tested in comparison with the ligands. In all cases, coordination of ruthenium resulted in significantly enhanced cytotoxicity. The affinity of Ru(II) -biotin complexes to avidin was investigated and was lower than that of unmodified biotin. Hill coefficients in the range 2.012-2.851 suggest strong positive cooperation between the complexes and avidin. To estimate the likelihood of binding to the biotin receptor/transporter, docking studies with avidin and streptavidin were conducted. These explain, to some extent, the in vitro anticancer activity results and support the conclusion that these novel half-sandwich ruthenium(II)-biotin conjugates may act as biological vectors to cancer cells, although no clear relationship between the cellular Ru content, the cytotoxicity, and the presence of the biotin moiety was observed. PMID:25676245

  8. Ruthenium(II) Complexes with 2-Phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline Derivatives that Strongly Combat Cisplatin-Resistant Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Leli; Chen, Yu; Liu, Jiangping; Huang, Huaiyi; Guan, Ruilin; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin was the first metal-based therapeutic agent approved for the treatment of human cancers, but its clinical activity is greatly limited by tumor drug resistance. This work utilized the parent complex [Ru(phen)2(PIP)]2+ (1) to develop three Ru(II) complexes (2–4) with different positional modifications. These compounds exhibited similar or superior cytotoxicities compared to cisplatin in HeLa, A549 and multidrug-resistant (A549R) tumor cell lines. Complex 4, the most potent member of the series, was highly active against A549R cancer cells (IC50 = 0.8 μM). This complex exhibited 178-fold better activity than cisplatin (IC50 = 142.5 μM) in A549R cells. 3D multicellular A549R tumor spheroids were also used to confirm the high proliferative and cytotoxic activity of complex 4. Complex 4 had the greatest cellular uptake and had a tendency to accumulate in the mitochondria of A549R cells. Further mechanistic studies showed that complex 4 induced A549R cell apoptosis via inhibition of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), elevated intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell cycle arrest, making it an outstanding candidate for overcoming cisplatin resistance. PMID:26763798

  9. Catalysis of methyl acetate formation from methanol alone by ({mu}{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}RuX (X=Cl, SnCl{sub 3}, SnF{sub 3}): High activity for the SnF{sub 3} complex

    SciTech Connect

    Einaga, Hisahiro; Yamakawa, Tetsu; Shinoda, Sumio

    1994-12-31

    The authors have recently shown that the Ru(II)-Sn(II) bimetallic complex can catalyze the unprecedented one-step formation of acetic acid (or methyl acetate) with methanol used as the sole source. It was suggested that the reaction consists of sequential processes of methanol {r_arrow} formaldehyde (methyl){r_arrow}methyl formate {r_arrow} acetic acid (methyl acetate). While the Ru(II) complexes capable of catalyzing the dehydrogenation of methanol into methyl formate are known, this catalyst system is unique because of its extra ability to isomerize methyl formate to acetic acid without a CO atmosphere (usually high pressure) or an iodide promoter (often corrosive to reaction apparatus). In this communication, the authors examine the cyclopentadienyl bis(triphenylphosphine) ruthenium(II) auxilliary in view of its well defined geometry and configurational stability, and demonstrate that combination with the SnF{sub 3} ligand gives quite high catalytic ability compared to the conventional SnCl{sub 3} ligand. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Efficient hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates indicates alternative routes to methanol based on CO2 and CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaraman, Ekambaram; Gunanathan, Chidambaram; Zhang, Jing; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Milstein, David

    2011-08-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates, carbamates and formates is of significant interest both conceptually and practically, because these compounds can be produced from CO2 and CO, and their mild hydrogenation can provide alternative, mild approaches to the indirect hydrogenation of CO2 and CO to methanol, an important fuel and synthetic building block. Here, we report for the first time catalytic hydrogenation of organic carbonates to alcohols, and carbamates to alcohols and amines. Unprecedented homogeneously catalysed hydrogenation of organic formates to methanol has also been accomplished. The reactions are efficiently catalysed by dearomatized PNN Ru(II) pincer complexes derived from pyridine- and bipyridine-based tridentate ligands. These atom-economical reactions proceed under neutral, homogeneous conditions, at mild temperatures and under mild hydrogen pressures, and can operate in the absence of solvent with no generation of waste, representing the ultimate ‘green’ reactions. A possible mechanism involves metal-ligand cooperation by aromatization-dearomatization of the heteroaromatic pincer core.

  11. Three-dimensional nonlinear optical chromophores based on metal-to-ligand charge-transfer from ruthenium(II) or iron(II) centers.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Harris, James A; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Garín, Javier; Orduna, Jesús

    2005-09-28

    In this article, we describe a series of new complex salts in which electron-rich transition-metal centers are coordinated to three electron-accepting N-methyl/aryl-2,2':4,4' ':4',4' ''-quaterpyridinium ligands. These complexes contain either Ru(II) or Fe(II) ions and have been characterized by using various techniques, including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses beta have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies on the intense, visible d --> pi* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer bands. The latter experiments reveal that these putatively octupolar D(3) chromophores exhibit two substantial components of the beta tensor which are associated with transitions to dipolar excited states. Computations involving time-dependent density-functional theory and the finite field method serve to further illuminate the electronic structures and associated linear and NLO properties of the new chromophoric salts. PMID:16173774

  12. Rolling cycle amplification based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex assembling dyads for homogeneous and highly selective detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Su, Chen; Liu, Yufei; Ye, Tai; Xiang, Xia; Ji, Xinghu; He, Zhike

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a new, label-free, homogeneous, highly sensitive, and selective fluorescent biosensor for DNA detection is developed by using rolling-circle amplification (RCA) based single-color quantum dots-ruthenium complex (QDs-Ru) assembling dyads. This strategy includes three steps: (1) the target DNA initiates RCA reaction and generates linear RCA products; (2) the complementary DNA hybridizes with the RCA products to form long double-strand DNA (dsDNA); (3) [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) (dppx=7,8-dimethyldipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenanthroline) intercalates into the long dsDNA with strong fluorescence emission. Due to its strong binding propensity with the long dsDNA, [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) is removed from the surface of the QDs, resulting in restoring the fluorescence of the QDs, which has been quenched by [Ru(phen)2(dppx)](2+) through a photoinduced electron transfer process and is overlaid with the fluorescence of dsDNA bonded Ru(II) polypyridyl complex (Ru-dsDNA). Thus, high fluorescence intensity is observed, and is related to the concentration of target. This sensor exhibits not only high sensitivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) ssDNA with a low detection limit (0.5 pM), but also excellent selectivity in the complex matrix. Moreover, this strategy applies QDs-Ru assembling dyads to the detection of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) without any functionalization and separation techniques.

  13. Synthesis, DNA-binding and spectral properties of novel complexes [RuL 2(idpq)] 2+ (L = bpy, phen) with embedded C dbnd O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Xu, Lian-Cai; Li, Hong; Chao, Hui; Zheng, Kang-Cheng; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2009-02-01

    A novel ligand idpq with embedded C dbnd O and its two complexes, [Ru(bpy) 2(idpq)] 2+1 and [Ru(phen) 2(idpq)] 2+2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; idpq = indeno[1,2- b]dipyrido [3,2- f:2',3'- h]-quinoxaline-6-one), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR, UV-vis and CV. The DNA-binding behaviors of both complexes were studied by spectroscopic methods and viscosity measurements. The results indicate that the two complexes can all bind to CT-DNA in an intercalative mode, and they have rather high DNA-binding constants, which are (1.7 ± 0.4) × 10 6 M -1 and (4.0 ± 0.6) × 10 6 M -1, respectively. The results also show that these two Ru(II) complexes can promote photocleavage of pBR322 DNA. Their DNA-binding and electronic absorption-spectral properties were further studied by the DFT/TDDFT methods. The DNA-binding behaviors and difference of these complexes were reasonably explained, and the simulated absorption spectra were in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  14. A facile and versatile methodology for cysteine specific labeling of proteins with octahedral polypyridyl d6 metal complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dwaraknath, Sudharsan; Tran, Ngoc-Han; Dao, Thanh; Colbert, Alexander; Mullen, Sarah; Nguyen, Angelina; Cortez, Alejandro; Cheruzel, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized four octahedral polypyridyl d6 metal complexes bearing the 5,6-epoxy-5,6-dihydro-[1,10]phenanthroline ligand (L1) as cysteine specific labeling reagents. The proposed synthetic pathways allow the preparation of the metal complexes containing Re(I), Ru(II), Os(II) and Ir(III) while preserving the epoxide functionality. The complexes were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, UV-visible and luminescence spectroscopies as well as cyclic voltammetry. As proof of concept, a set of non-native single cysteine P450 BM3 heme domain mutants previously developed in our laboratory was used to study the labeling reaction. We demonstrate that the proposed labels can selectively react, often in high yield, with cysteine residues of the protein via the nucleophilic thiol ring opening of the epoxide moiety. In addition, under basic conditions, subsequent loss of a water molecule led to the aromatization of the phenanthroline ring on the protein-bound label compounds, as observed by mass spectrometry and luminescence measurements. PMID:24468675

  15. Structure-performance correlations of organic dyes with an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Sie-Rong; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Yang, Po-Fan; Liao, Chia-Wei; Lee, Mandy M; Su, Wei-Lin; Li, Chun-Ting; Lin, Hao-Wu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Sun, Shih-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    The high performances of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on seven new dyes are disclosed. Herein, the synthesis and electrochemical and photophysical properties of a series of intentionally designed dipolar organic dyes and their application in DSSCs are reported. The molecular structures of the seven organic dyes are composed of a triphenylamine group as an electron donor, a cyanoacrylic acid as an electron acceptor, and an electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline moiety integrated in the π-conjugated spacer between the electron donor and acceptor moieties. The DSSCs based on the dye DJ104 gave the best overall cell performance of 8.06 %; the efficiency of the DSSC based on the standard N719 dye under the same experimental conditions was 8.82 %. The spectral coverage of incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiencies extends to the onset at the near-infrared region due to strong internal charge-transfer transition as well as the effect of electron-deficient diphenylquinoxaline to lower the energy gap in these organic dyes. A combined tetraphenyl segment as a hydrophobic barrier in these organic dyes effectively slows down the charge recombination from TiO2 to the electrolyte and boosts the photovoltage, comparable to their Ru(II) counterparts. Detailed spectroscopic studies have revealed the dye structure-cell performance correlations, to allow future design of efficient light-harvesting organic dyes.

  16. Proton coupled electron transfer from the excited state of a ruthenium(II) pyridylimidazole complex.

    PubMed

    Pannwitz, Andrea; Wenger, Oliver S

    2016-04-28

    Proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) from the excited state of [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; pyimH = 2-(2'-pyridyl)imidazole) to N-methyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (monoquat, MQ(+)) was studied. While this complex has been investigated previously, our study is the first to show that the formal bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of the imidazole-N-H bond decreases from (91 ± 1) kcal mol(-1) in the electronic ground state to (43 ± 5) kcal mol(-1) in the lowest-energetic (3)MLCT excited state. This makes the [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) complex a very strong (formal) hydrogen atom donor even when compared to metal hydride complexes, and this is interesting for light-driven (formal) hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions with a variety of different substrates. Mechanistically, formal HAT between (3)MLCT excited [Ru(bpy)2pyimH](2+) and monoquat in buffered 1 : 1 (v : v) CH3CN/H2O was found to occur via a sequence of reaction steps involving electron transfer from Ru(ii) to MQ(+) coupled to release of the N-H proton to buffer base, followed by protonation of reduced MQ(+) by buffer acid. Our study is relevant in the larger contexts of photoredox catalysis and light-to-chemical energy conversion. PMID:27094541

  17. A new era for homolytic aromatic substitution: replacing Bu3SnH with efficient light-induced chain reactions.

    PubMed

    Gurry, Michael; Aldabbagh, Fawaz

    2016-04-28

    Herein is a pertinent review of recent photochemical homolytic aromatic substitution (HAS) literature. Issues with using the reductant Bu3SnH in an oxidative process where the net loss of a hydrogen atom occurs is discussed. Nowadays more efficient light-induced chain reactions are used resulting in HAS becoming a synthetic mechanism of choice rivaling organometallic, transition-metal and electrophilic aromatic substitution protocols. The review includes aromatic substitution as part of a tandem or cascade reaction, Pschorr reaction, as well as HAS facilitated by ipso-substitution, and Smiles rearrangement. Recently visible-light photoredox catalysis, which is carried out at room temperature has become one of the most important means of aromatic substitution. The main photoredox catalysts used are polypyridine complexes of Ru(ii) and Ir(iii), although eosin Y is an alternative allowing metal-free HAS. Other radical initiator-free aromatic substitutions have used 9-mesityl-10-methylacridinium ion and N,N-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)perylene-3,4,9,10-bis(dicarboximide) as the photoredox catalyst, UV-light, photoinduced electron-transfer, zwitterionic semiquinone radical anions, and Barton ester intermediates. PMID:27056571

  18. Surface immobilization of a tetra-ruthenium substituted polyoxometalate water oxidation catalyst through the employment of conducting polypyrrole and the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Nargis; Sartorel, Andrea; Yaqub, Mustansara; Wearen, Kevin; Laffir, Fathima; Armstrong, Gordon; Dickinson, Calum; Bonchio, Marcella; McCormac, Timothy

    2014-06-11

    A tetra Ru-substituted polyoxometalate Na10[{Ru4O4(OH)2(H2O)4}(γ-SiW10O36)2] (Ru4POM) has been successfully immobilised onto glassy carbon electrodes and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass slides through the employment of a conducting polypyrrole matrix and the layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. The resulting Ru4POM doped polypyrrole films showed stable redox behavior associated with the Ru centres within the Ru4POM, whereas, the POM's tungsten-oxo redox centres were not accessible. The films showed pH dependent redox behavior within the pH range 2-5 whilst exhibiting excellent stability towards redox cycling. The layer-by-layer assembly was constructed onto poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) modified carbon electrodes by alternate depositions of Ru4POM and a Ru(II) metallodendrimer. The resulting Ru4POM assemblies showed stable redox behavior for the redox processes associated with Ru4POM in the pH range 2-5. The charge transfer resistance of the LBL films was calculated through AC-Impedance. Surface characterization of both the polymer and LBL Ru4POM films was carried out using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Initial investigations into the ability of the Ru4POM LBL films to electrocatalytically oxidise water at pH 7 have also been conducted. PMID:24758586

  19. Electrochemical Instability of Phosphonate-Derivatized, Ruthenium(III) Polypyridyl Complexes on Metal Oxide Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Jacob T; Hanson, Kenneth; Vannucci, Aaron K; Lapides, Alexander M; Alibabaei, Leila; Norris, Michael R; Meyer, Thomas J; Harrison, Daniel P

    2015-05-13

    The oxidative stability of the molecular components of dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells for solar water splitting remains to be explored systematically. We report here the results of an electrochemical study on the oxidative stability of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes surface-bound to fluorine-doped tin oxide electrodes in acidic solutions and, to a lesser extent, as a function of pH and solvent with electrochemical monitoring. Desorption occurs for the Ru(II) forms of the surface-bound complexes with oxidation to Ru(III) enhancing both desorption and decomposition. Based on the results of long-term potential hold experiments with cyclic voltammetry monitoring, electrochemical oxidation to Ru(III) results in slow decomposition of the complex by 2,2'-bipyridine ligand loss and aquation and/or anation. A similar pattern of ligand loss was also observed for a known chromophore-catalyst assembly for both electrochemical water oxidation and photoelectrochemical water splitting. Our results are significant in identifying the importance of enhancing chromophore stability, or at least transient stability, in oxidized forms in order to achieve stable performance in aqueous environments in photoelectrochemical devices. PMID:25871342

  20. The contrasting activity of iodido versus chlorido ruthenium and osmium arene azo- and imino-pyridine anticancer complexes: control of cell selectivity, cross-resistance, p53 dependence, and apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Salassa, Luca; Sadler, Peter J

    2013-02-14

    Organometallic half-sandwich complexes [M(p-cymene)(azo/imino-pyridine)X](+) where M = Ru(II) or Os(II) and X ═ Cl or I, exhibit potent antiproliferative activity toward a range of cancer cells. Not only are the iodido complexes more potent than the chlorido analogues, but they are not cross-resistant with the clinical platinum drugs cisplatin and oxaliplatin. They are also more selective for cancer cells versus normal cells (fibroblasts) and show high accumulation in cell membranes. They arrest cell growth in G1 phase in contrast to cisplatin (S phase) with a high incidence of late-stage apoptosis. The iodido complexes retain potency in p53 mutant colon cells. All complexes activate caspase 3. In general, antiproliferative activity is greatly enhanced by low levels of the glutathione synthase inhibitor l-buthionine sulfoxime. The work illustrates how subtle changes to the design of low-spin d(6) metal complexes can lead to major changes in cellular metabolism and to potent complexes with novel mechanisms of anticancer activity.

  1. A Simple and Versatile Amide Directing Group for C-H Functionalizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; Farmer, Marcus E; Chen, Yan-Qiao; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-08-26

    Achieving selective C-H activation at a single and strategic site in the presence of multiple C-H bonds can provide a powerful and generally useful retrosynthetic disconnection. In this context, a directing group serves as a compass to guide the transition metal to C-H bonds by using distance and geometry as powerful recognition parameters to distinguish between proximal and distal C-H bonds. However, the installation and removal of directing groups is a practical drawback. To improve the utility of this approach, one can seek solutions in three directions: 1) Simplifying the directing group, 2) using common functional groups or protecting groups as directing groups, and 3) attaching the directing group to substrates via a transient covalent bond to render the directing group catalytic. This Review describes the rational development of an extremely simple and yet broadly applicable directing group for Pd(II) , Rh(III) , and Ru(II) catalysts, namely the N-methoxy amide (CONHOMe) moiety. Through collective efforts in the community, a wide range of C-H activation transformations using this type of simple directing group have been developed. PMID:27479708

  2. Dichlorido(3-phenyl-indenyl-idene)bis-(triphenyl-phosphane)ruthenium(II) tetra-hydro-furan disolvate.

    PubMed

    Bats, Jan W; Pérez Gomes, Jessica; Doppiu, Angelino; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2011-06-01

    The Ru(II) atom in the title compound, [RuCl(2)(C(15)H(10))(C(18)H(15)P)(2)]·2C(4)H(8)O, has a distorted square-pyramidal conformation. The P and Cl atoms are at the base of the pyramid and the Ru-C(indenyl-idene) bond is in the axial position. The two Cl ligands and the two phosphane ligands are in trans positions. The Cl-Ru-Cl and P-Ru-P angles are 157.71 (2) and 166.83 (2)°, respectively. The two independent tetra-hydro-furan (THF) solvent mol-ecules are disordered. One THF mol-ecule was refined using a split-atom model. The second THF mol-ecule was accounted for by using program PLATON/SQUEEZE [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. The molecular conformation shows three intramolecular C-H⋯Cl contacts and two C-H⋯π interactions while the crystal packing features an intermolecular C-H⋯Cl contact and two very weak intermolecular C-H⋯π contacts. PMID:21754621

  3. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II)(η(6) -arene)(quinolone)Cl](+) complexes with water; DFT computational study.

    PubMed

    Zábojníková, Tereza; Cajzl, Radim; Kljun, Jakob; Chval, Zdeněk; Turel, Iztok; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2016-07-15

    Full optimizations of stationary points along the reaction coordinate for the hydration of several quinolone Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes were performed in water environment using the B3PW91/6-31+G(d)/PCM/UAKS method. The role of diffuse functions (especially on oxygen) was found crucial for correct geometries along the reaction coordinate. Single-point (SP) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/DPCM/saled-UAKS level. In the first part, two possible reaction mechanisms-associative and dissociative were compared. It was found that the dissociative mechanism of the hydration process is kinetically slightly preferred. Another important conclusion concerns the reaction channels. It was found that substitution of chloride ligand (abbreviated in the text as dechlorination reaction) represents energetically and kinetically the most feasible pathway. In the second part the same hydration reaction was explored for reactivity comparison of the Ru(II)-complexes with several derivatives of nalidixic acid: cinoxacin, ofloxacin, and (thio)nalidixic acid. The hydration process is about four orders of magnitude faster in a basic solution compared to neutral/acidic environment with cinoxacin and nalidixic acid as the most reactive complexes in the former and latter environments, respectively. The explored hydration reaction is in all cases endergonic; nevertheless the endergonicity is substantially lower (by ∼6 kcal/mol) in basic environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27185047

  4. Label-free photoelectrochemical detection of double-stranded HIV DNA by means of a metallointercalator-functionalized electrogenerated polymer.

    PubMed

    Haddache, Fatima; Le Goff, Alan; Reuillard, Bertrand; Gorgy, Karine; Gondran, Chantal; Spinelli, Nicolas; Defrancq, Eric; Cosnier, Serge

    2014-11-17

    The design of photoactive functionalized electrodes for the sensitive transduction of double-stranded DNA hybridization is reported. Multifunctional complex [Ru(bpy-pyrrole)2 (dppn)](2+) (bpy-pyrrole=4-methyl-4'-butylpyrrole-2,2'-bipyridine, dppn=benzo[i]dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine) exhibiting photosensitive, DNA-intercalating, and electropolymerizable properties was synthesized and characterized. The pyrrole groups undergo oxidative electropolymerization on planar electrodes forming a metallopolymer layer on the electrode. Thanks to the photoelectrochemical and intercalating properties of the immobilized Ru(II) complex, the binding of a double-stranded HIV DNA target was photoelectrochemically detected on planar electrodes. Photocurrent generation through visible irradiation was correlated to the interaction between double-stranded DNA and the metallointercalator polymer. These interactions were well fitted by using a Langmuir isotherm, which allowed a dissociation constant of 2×10(6)  L mol(-1) to be estimated. The low detection limit of 1 fmol L(-1) and sensitivity of 0.01 units per decade demonstrate excellent suitability of these modified electrodes for detection of duplex DNA.

  5. Orbital entanglement and CASSCF analysis of the Ru–NO bond in a Ruthenium nitrosyl complex

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Leon; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian F.; Delcey, Mickaël G.; Aquilante, Francesco; Bondo Pedersen, Thomas; Lindh, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wavefunctions and an orbital entanglement analysis obtained from a density-matrix renormalisation group (DMRG) calculation are used to understand the electronic structure, and, in particular, the Ru–NO bond of a Ru nitrosyl complex. Based on the configurations and orbital occupation numbers obtained for the CASSCF wavefunction and on the orbital entropy measurements evaluated for the DMRG wavefunction, we unravel electron correlation effects in the Ru coordination sphere of the complex. It is shown that Ru–NO π bonds show static and dynamic correlation, while other Ru–ligand bonds feature predominantly dynamic correlation. The presence of static correlation requires the use of multiconfigurational methods to describe the Ru–NO bond. Subsequently, the CASSCF wavefunction is analysed in terms of configuration state functions based on localised orbitals. The analysis of the wavefunctions in the electronic singlet ground state and the first triplet state provides a picture of the Ru–NO moiety beyond the standard representation based on formal oxidation states. A distinct description of the Ru and NO fragments is advocated. The electron configuration of Ru is an equally weighted superposition of RuII and RuIII configurations, with the RuIII configuration originating from charge donation mostly from Cl ligands. However, and contrary to what is typically assumed, the electronic configuration of the NO ligand is best described as electroneutral. PMID:25767830

  6. Photoelectric Properties Based on Electric Field Modulation of Photoinduced Electron Transfer Processes in Flavin-Porphyrin Hetero-type Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoda, Satoru; Hanazato, Yoshio; Ueyama, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kouich

    2004-05-01

    Metal-insulator-meal devices composed of flavin-porphyrin hetero-type Langmuir-Blodgett films showed highly efficient photoelectric properties mainly attributable to the fast charge separation process at a molecular heterojunction (MHJ) between flavin and porphyrin. The photoelectric properties of the MHJ devices showed different characteristics depending on the redox state of the central metal of porphyrin, i.e., Ru(III) or Ru(II). The rectifying behavior of the photocurrent was observed for the Ru(III)-MHJ device, whereas the Ru(II)-MHJ device did not show the rectifying behavior. We concluded that the rectifying behavior was mainly controlled by the electric field dependence of the charge recombination process. Furthermore, a bell-shaped photocurrent-voltage curve was observed for the Ru(II)-MHJ device. The mechanism underlying the negative resistance might be based on the electric field dependence of the charge shift process in flavin monolayers controlled by the inverted region mechanism of the Marcus electron transfer theory.

  7. Duplex-Selective Ruthenium-based DNA Intercalators

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Chad M.; Kennedy, Robert D.; Rouge, Jessica L.; Rosen, Mari S.; Wang, Mary X.; Seo, Soyoung E.; Clingerman, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the design and synthesis of small molecules that exhibit enhanced luminescence in the presence of duplex rather than single-stranded DNA. The local environment presented by a well-known [Ru(dipyrido[2,3-a:3',2'-c]phenazine)L2]2+-based DNA intercalator was modified by functionalizing the bipyridine ligands with esters and carboxylic acids. By systematically varying the number and charge of the pendant groups, it was determined that decreasing the electrostatic interaction between the intercalator and the anionic DNA backbone reduced single-strand interactions and translated to better duplex specificity. In studying this class of complexes, a single RuII complex emerged that selectively luminesces in the presence of duplex DNA with little to no background from interacting with single stranded DNA. This complex shows promise as a new dye capable of selectively staining double versus single-stranded DNA in gel electrophoresis, which cannot be done with conventional SYBR dyes. PMID:26119581

  8. Penetratin Peptide-Functionalized Gold Nanostars: Enhanced BBB Permeability and NIR Photothermal Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Using Ultralow Irradiance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiantian; Xie, Wenjie; Sun, Jing; Yang, Licong; Liu, Jie

    2016-08-01

    The structural changes of amyloid-beta (Aβ) from nontoxic monomers into neurotoxic aggregates are implicated with pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Over the past decades, weak disaggregation ability and low permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may be the main obstacles for major Aβ aggregation blockers. Here, we synthesized penetratin (Pen) peptide loaded poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-stabilized gold nanostars (AuNS) modified with ruthenium complex (Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS), and Ru(II) complex as luminescent probes for tracking drug delivery. We revealed that Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS could obviously inhibit the formation of Aβ fibrils as well as dissociate preformed fibrous Aβ under the irradiation of near-infrared (NIR) due to the NIR absorption characteristic of AuNS. More importantly, this novel design could be applied in medicine as an appropriate nanovehicle, being highly biocompatible and hemocompatible. In addition, Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS had excellent neuroprotective effect on the Aβ-induced cellular toxicity by applying NIR irradiation. Meanwhile, Pen peptide could effectively improve the delivery of nanoparticles to the brain in vitro and in vivo, which overcame the major limitation of Aβ aggregation blockers. These consequences illustrated that the enhanced BBB permeability and efficient photothermolysis of Ru@Pen@PEG-AuNS are promising agents in AD therapy. PMID:27411476

  9. The effect of catalyst preparation on the performance of alumina-supported ruthenium catalysts. I. The impact of catalytic precursor on particle size and catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mieth, J.A.; Schwarz, J.A. )

    1989-07-01

    The effect of preparation method and the choice of metallic precursor on the performance of a series of Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts were studied. Wet impregnation and incipient wetness were the methods employed; ruthenium nitrosylnitrate and ruthenium trichloride were the reagents. In the latter case, either Ru(III)/Ru(IV) chlorospecies or mixtures of Ru(II) hydrazine complexes were the catalytic precursors. The series of Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts, with metal loadings from 0.7-5% by weight, were subjected to a battery of performance tests: CO temperature-programmed reaction, steady-state CO hydrogenation, and temperature-programmed surface reaction. The methanation activity and carbon deposited during steady-state reaction varied systematically with the dispersion of Ru on the alumina. High rates of methane production were found on catalysts containing a large reservoir of carbon-containing reaction intermediates. The performance of these catalysts depended on the precursor used in their preparation. The effects of weight loading, method of preparation, and variations in the impregnant pH were small within a group prepared from a common precursor.

  10. Nanocomposite semi-solid redox ionic liquid electrolytes with enhanced charge-transport capabilities for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Iwona A; Marszalek, Magdalena; Orlowska, Justyna; Ozimek, Weronika; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Kulesza, Pawel J; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-08-10

    The ability of Pt nanostructures to induce the splitting of the II bond in iodine (triiodide) molecules is explored here to enhance electron transfer in the iodine/iodide redox couple. Following the dispersal of Pt nanoparticles at 2 % (weight) level, charge transport was accelerated in triiodide/iodide-containing 1,3-dialkylimidazolium room-temperature ionic liquid. If both Pt nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were introduced into the ionic-liquid-based system, a solid-type (nonfluid) electrolyte was obtained. By using solid-state voltammetric (both sandwich-type and microelectrode-based) methodology, the apparent diffusion coefficients for charge transport increased to approximately 1×10(-6)  cm(2)  s(-1) upon the incorporation of the carbon-nanotube-supported iodine-modified Pt nanostructures. A dye-sensitized solar cell comprising TiO2 covered with a heteroleptic Ru(II) -type sensitizer (dye) and the semisolid triiodide/iodide ionic liquid electrolyte admixed with carbon-nanotube-supported Pt nanostructures yielded somewhat higher power conversion efficiencies (up to 7.9 % under standard reporting conditions) than those of the analogous Pt-free system.

  11. Peroxydisulfate activation by [RuII(tpy)(pic)(H2O)]+. Kinetic, mechanistic and anti-microbial activity studies.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Bose, Jagadeesh C K; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit

    2012-03-01

    The oxidation of [Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) (tpy = 2,2',6',2''-terpyridine; pic(-) = picolinate) by peroxidisulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) as precursor oxidant has been investigated kinetically by UV-VIS, IR and EPR spectroscopy. The overall oxidation of Ru(II)- to Ru(IV)-species takes place in a consecutive manner involving oxidation of [Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) to [Ru(III)(tpy)(pic)(OH)](+), and its further oxidation of to the ultimate product [Ru(IV)(tpy)(pic)(O)](+) complex. The time course of the reaction was followed as a function of [S(2)O(8)(2-)], ionic strength (I) and temperature. Kinetic data and activation parameters are interpreted in terms of an outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. Anti-microbial activity of Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) complex by inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli DH5α in presence of peroxydisulfate has been explored, and the results of the biological studies have been discussed in terms of the [Ru(IV)(tpy)(pic)(O)](+) mediated cleavage of chromosomal DNA of the bacteria.

  12. Probing the Electronic Structure of a Photoexcited Solar Cell Dye with Transient X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Benjamin E. Van; Huse, Nils; Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Lynch, Michael S.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Khalil, Munira

    2012-05-01

    This study uses transient X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy and timedependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to directly visualize the charge density around the metal atom and the surrounding ligands following an ultrafast metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) process in the widely used RuII solar cell dye, Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 (termed N3). We measure the Ru L-edge XA spectra of the singlet ground (1A1) and the transient triplet (3MLCT) excited state of N34 and perform TD-DFT calculations of 2p core-level excitations, which identify a unique spectral signature of the electron density on the NCS ligands. We find that the Ru 2p, Ru eg, and NCS orbitals are stabilized by 2.0, 1.0, and 0.6 eV, respectively, in the transient 3MLCT state of the dye. These results highlight the role of the NCS ligands in governing the oxidation state of the Ru center.

  13. Targeting Human Telomeric G-Quadruplex DNA and Inhibition of Telomerase Activity With [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Tongcheng; Liu, Jie; Gao, Xing; Hao, Jian; Lv, Chunyan; Huang, Hailiang; Xu, Jun; Yao, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of telomerase by inducing/stabilizing G-quadruplex formation is a promising strategy to design new anticancer drugs. We synthesized and characterized a new dinuclear complex [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+ (dmb = 4,4’-dimethyl-2,2’-bipyridine, obip = (2-(2-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline) with high affinity for both antiparallel and mixed parallel / antiparallel G-quadruplex DNA. This complex can promote the formation and stabilize G-quadruplex DNA. Dialysis and TRAP experiments indicated that [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+ acted as an excellent telomerase inhibitor due to its obvious selectivity for G-quadruplex DNA rather than double stranded DNA. In vitro co-culture experiments implied that [(dmb)2Ru(obip)Ru(dmb)2]4+ inhibited telomerase activity and hindered cancer cell proliferation without side effects to normal fibroblast cells. TUNEL assay indicated that inhibition of telomerase activity induced DNA cleavage further apoptosis in cancer cells. Therefore, RuII complex represents an exciting opportunity for anticancer drug design by specifically targeting cancer cell G-quadruplexes DNA. PMID:24386376

  14. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of labile intercalative ruthenium(ii) complexes for anticancer drug screening.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Chen, Yu; Qiu, Kangqiang; Jin, Chengzhi; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2016-08-16

    DNA binding and DNA transcription inhibition is regarded as a promising strategy for cancer chemotherapy. Herein, chloro terpyridyl Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(tpy)(N^N)Cl](+) (Ru1, N^N = 2,2'-bipyridine; Ru2, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]acenaphthylene; Ru3, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]phenanthrene; Ru4, N^N = 3-(pyrazin-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]pyrene) were prepared as DNA intercalative and covalent binding anticancer agents. The chloro ligand hydrolysis slowly and the octanol and water partition coefficient of Ru2-Ru4 were between 0.6 and 1.2. MALDI-TOF mass, DNA gel electrophoresis confirmed covalent and intercalative DNA binding modes of Ru2-Ru4, while Ru1 can only bind DNA covalently. As a result, Ru2-Ru4 exhibited stronger DNA transcription inhibition activity, higher cell uptake efficiency and better anticancer activity than Ru1. Ru4 was the most toxic complex toward all cancer cells which inhibited DNA replication and transcription. AO/EB, Annexin V/PI, nuclear staining, JC-1 assays further confirmed that Ru2-Ru4 induced cancer cell death by an apoptosis mechanism. PMID:27294337

  15. (1,6,7,12-Tetra-aza-perylene-κ(2) N,N')bis-(4,4',5,5'-tetra-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl-κ(2) N,N')ruthenium(II) bis-(hexa-fluorido-phosphate) aceto-nitrile tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Brietzke, Thomas; Kässler, Daniel; Kelling, Alexandra; Schilde, Uwe; Holdt, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    In the title compound, rac-[Ru(C14H16N2)2(C16H8N4)](PF6)2·3C2H3N, discrete dimers of complex cations, [Ru(tmbpy)2-tape](2+), of opposite chirality are formed (tmbpy = tetra-methyl-bipyridine; tape = tetraazaperylene), held together by π-π stacking inter-actions between the tetra-aza-perylene moieties with centroid-centroid distances in the range 3.563 (3)-3.837 (3) Å. These inter-actions exhibit a parallel displaced π-π stacking mode. Additional weak C-H⋯π-ring and C-H⋯N and C-H⋯F inter-actions are found, leading to a three-dimensional architecture. The Ru(II) atom is coordinated in a distorted octa-hedral geometry. The counter-charge is provided by two hexa-fluorido-phosphate anions and the asymmetric unit is completed by three aceto-nitrile solvent mol-ecules of crystallization. Four F atoms of one PF6 (-) anion are disordered over three sets of sites with occupancies of 0.517 (3):0.244 (3):0.239 (3). Two aceto-nitrile solvent mol-ecules are highly disordered and their estimated scattering contribution was subtracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:24940217

  16. (η(6)-Benzene)(carbonato-κ(2) O,O')[di-cyclohex-yl(naphthalen-1-ylmeth-yl)phosphane-κP]ruthenium(II) chloro-form tris-olvate.

    PubMed

    Gowrisankar, Saravanan; Neumann, Helfried; Spannenberg, Anke; Beller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    The title compound, [Ru(CO3)(η(6)-C6H6){(C6H11)2P(CH2C10H7)}]·3CHCl3, was synthesized by carbonation of [RuCl2(η(6)-C6H6){(C6H11)2P(CH2C10H7)}] with NaHCO3 in methanol at room temperature. The Ru(II) atom is surrounded by a benzene ligand, a chelating carbonate group and a phosphane ligand in a piano-stool configuration. The crystal packing is consolidated by C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between adjacent metal complexes and between the complexes and the solvent mol-ecules. The asymmetric unit contains one metal complex and three chloro-form solvent mol-ecules of which only one was modelled. The estimated diffraction contributions of the other two strongly disordered chloro-form solvent mol-ecules were substracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:25161531

  17. Rodlike bimetallic ruthenium and osmium complexes bridged by phenylene spacers. Synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysics.

    PubMed

    Welter, Steve; Salluce, Nunzio; Benetti, Arianna; Rot, Nicolette; Belser, Peter; Sonar, Prashant; Grimsdale, Andrew C; Müllen, Klaus; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; De Cola, Luisa

    2005-06-27

    In the search for light-addressable nanosized compounds we have synthesized 10 dinuclear homometallic trisbipyridyl complexes of linear structure with the general formula [M(bpy)3-BL-M(bpy)3]4+ [M = Ru(II) or Os(II); BL = polyphenylenes (2, 3, 4, or 5 units) or indenofluorene; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine]. By using a "chemistry on the complex" approach, different sizes of rodlike systems have been obtained with a length of 19.8 and 32.5 A for the shortest and longest complex, respectively. For one of the ruthenium precursors, [Rubpy-ph2-Si(CH3)3][PF6]2, single crystals were obtained by recrystallization from methanol. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties are reported. All the compounds are luminescent both at room and low temperature with long excited-state lifetimes due to an extended delocalization. Nanosecond transient absorption showed that the lowest excited state involves the chelating unit attached to the bridging ligand. Electrochemical data indicated that the first reduction is at a slightly more positive potential than for the reference complexes [M(bpy)3]2+ (M = Ru, Os). This result confirms that the best acceptor is the bipyridine moiety connected to the conjugated spacers. The role of the tilt angle between the phenylene units, in the two series of complexes, for the ground and excited states is discussed.

  18. Modeling the BZ reaction in gels with chemo-responsive crosslinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashin, Victor V.; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2010-03-01

    We model chemo-responsive polymer gels, which expand and contract periodically in response to the ongoing oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. This behavior is due to a ruthenium catalyst, which is grafted to the polymers and affects the polymer-solvent interactions as it undergoes the redox oscillations in the course of the reaction. We consider a permanently crosslinked polymer gel that encompasses Ru(terpy)2 catalytic units having both the terpyridine ligands chemically bonded to the network. It is known that oxidation of the Ru metal-ion from Ru(II) to Ru(III) results in the dissociation of the Ru(terpy)2 complexes since the Ru(III) ions form only mono-complexes with terpyridine. Hence, the grafted Ru(terpy)2 units would effectively create crosslinks that break and re-form in the response to the BZ reaction. We modified the Oregonator model for the BZ reaction and took into account that the re-formation of Ru(terpy)2 complexes is frustrated by the gel network. The time-dependent elastic contribution of the Ru(terpy)2 crosslinks was described by the BKZ-type constitutive equation. We report on the results of simulations in 1D. We show, in particular, that compression of the sample leads to stiffening of the gel due to an increase in the crosslink density.

  19. Self-assembly molecular squares with metal complexes as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, S.S.; Silva, A.S.; Brinn, I.M.; Lees, A.J.

    2000-04-03

    Polynuclear transition metal complexes containing multichromophoric units, such as metal polypyridyl complexes, are of considerable current interest. Much attention has been paid to the synthesis of multicomponent systems that exhibit photoinduced intercomponent electron and/or energy-transfer processes and to their potential applications for photonic and electronic devices. Systems incorporating Re(I)- Ru(II)-, and Os(II)-based polypyridyl chromophores are the most commonly studied because of their favorable redox and spectroscopic characteristics. In this communication, the authors combine the concepts of self-assembly and complexes as ligands and report the preparation of a series of molecular squares with the general molecular formula [fac-Br(CO){sub 3}Re({mu}-(pyterpy){sub 2}M)]{sub 4}(PF{sub 6}){sub 8}, where pyterpy is 4{prime}-(4{prime}{double_prime}-pyridyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime}2{double_prime}-terpyridine and M = Fe, Ru, or Os. The spectroscopic properties and a preliminary anion binding study of these novel octanuclear molecular squares are also presented.

  20. Ru-Catalyzed C–H Arylation of Fluoroarenes with Aryl Halides

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Although the ruthenium-catalyzed C–H arylation of arenes bearing directing groups with haloarenes is well-known, this process has never been achieved in the absence of directing groups. We report the first example of such a process and show that unexpectedly the reaction only takes place in the presence of catalytic amounts of a benzoic acid. Furthermore, contrary to other transition metals, the arylation site selectivity is governed by both electronic and steric factors. Stoichiometric and NMR mechanistic studies support a catalytic cycle that involves a well-defined η6-arene-ligand-free Ru(II) catalyst. Indeed, upon initial pivalate-assisted C–H activation, the aryl-Ru(II) intermediate generated is able to react with an aryl bromide coupling partner only in the presence of a benzoate additive. In contrast, directing-group-containing substrates (such as 2-phenylpyridine) do not require a benzoate additive. Deuterium labeling and kinetic isotope effect experiments indicate that C–H activation is both reversible and kinetically significant. Computational studies support a concerted metalation–deprotonation (CMD)-type ruthenation mode and shed light on the unusual arylation regioselectivity. PMID:26942551

  1. Crystal structures of cis-[Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PPh{sub 2}(o-tol))Cl][ClO{sub 4}]. 1.5 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), a structure containing both ordered and disordered dichloromethane molecules of crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.R.; Krajkowski, L.M.; Huynh, M.H.V.; Takeuchi, K.J.

    1996-02-01

    The complex cis-[Ru(bpy){sub 2}(PPh{sub 2}(o-tol))Cl][ClO{sub 4}]{center_dot}1.5 (CH{sub 2}Cl){sub 2} crystallizes from dichloromethane as the sesqui-dischloromethane solvate. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}/n with Z=4. The structure was refined to R-5.50% for those 2552 independent reflections with F{sub o}>6{sigma}(F{sub o}). The octahedral Ru(II) cation is associated with the following bond lengths: Ru-PPh{sub 2}(o-tol)=2.360(3){angstrom}, Ru-Cl=2.433(2){angstrom} and Ru-N(bpy)=2.041(8)-2.095(8){angstrom}. Both the perchlorate anion and the dichloromethane molecules of solvation exhibit large amplitudes of vibration. One dichloromethane molecule lies in general position, the other lies about an inversion center and suffers from disorder.

  2. DFT/TDDFT study of the adsorption of N3 and N719 dyes on ZnO(101̅0) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, Jon M; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-08-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of research as a potential replacement of TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), owing to the unique combination of interesting electronic properties (i.e., high electron mobility) and structural richness. Here, we present a DFT/TDDFT study about the interaction of the prototypical N3 and N719 Ru(II) sensitizers on ZnO models to understand some of the atomistic details that are crucial to the dye/semiconductor interaction. We pay particular attention to the adsorption mode of the sensitizer and to the effect of the complexation on the electronic structure of the dye. The sensitizers are predicted to strongly interact with the ZnO surface. In particular, the interaction is strengthened when three dye carboxylic groups are involved in the adsorption. Moreover, if the anchoring group bears a proton, the adsorption is predicted to be dissociative. The charge density donation from the dye to the semiconductor raises the valence and conduction band edges of the latter, in such a way that the optical gap of ZnO widens. Proton transfer from the dye to the semiconductor balances the charge donation effect and restores the electronic levels of the noninteracting fragments. The impact of dye/semiconductor interaction on the adsorbed dye optical properties is then discussed. PMID:24720354

  3. Dual lifetime referencing enables pH-control for oxidoreductions in hydrogel-stabilized biphasic reaction systems.

    PubMed

    Begemann, Jens; Spiess, Antje C

    2015-09-01

    pH-shifts are a serious challenge in cofactor dependent biocatalytic oxidoreductions. Therefore, a pH control strategy was developed for reaction systems, where the pH value is not directly measurable. Such a reaction system is the biphasic aqueous-organic reaction system, where the oxidoreduction of hydrophobic substrates in organic solvents is catalysed by hydrogel-immobilized enzymes, and enzyme-coupled cofactor regeneration is accomplished via formate dehydrogenase, leading to a pH-shift. Dual lifetime referencing (DLR), a fluorescence spectroscopic method, was applied for online-monitoring of the pH-value within the immobilizates during the reaction, allowing for a controlled dosage of formic acid. It could be shown that by applying trisodium 8-hydroxypyrene-1, 3, 6-trisulfonate as pH indicator and Ru(II) tris(4, 7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenantroline) (Ru[dpp]) as a reference luminophore the control of the pH-value in a macroscopic gel-bead-stabilized aqueous/organic two phase system in a range of pH 6.5 to 8.0 is possible. An experimental proof of concept could maintain a stable pH of 7.5 ± 0.15 during the reaction for at least 105 h. With these results, it could be shown that DLR is a powerful tool for pH-control within reaction systems with no direct access for conventional pH-measurement.

  4. Application of Hectorite-Coated Silica Gel Particles as a Packing Material for Chromatographic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomohiko; Kumasaki, Aisaku; Shimizu, Kei; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Sato, Hisako

    2016-08-01

    A new type of clay column particles was prepared, in which a hectorite layer (∼0.1 µm thickness) covered uniformly the surface of amorphous silica particles with an average radius of 5 µm (ref. Okada et al., The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, 21864-21869 (2012)). The hectorite layer was fully ion-exchanged with Δ-[Ru(phen)3](2+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) ions by being immersed in a methanol solution of Δ-[Ru(phen)3](ClO4)2 (1 mM). The modified silica gel particles thus prepared were packed into a stainless steel tube (4 mm (i.d.) × 25 cm) as a high-performance liquid chromatography column. Optical resolution was achieved when the racemic mixtures of several metal complexes or organic molecules were eluted with methanol. In the case of tris(acetylacetonato)ruthenium(III) ([Ru(acac)3]), for example, the Λ- and Δ-enantiomers gave an elution volume of 2.6 and 3.0 mL, respectively, with the separation factor of 1.2. The total elution volume (5 mL) was nearly one-tenth for the previously reported column of the same size (RU-1 (Shiseido Co., Ltd.)) packed with the spray-dried particles of synthetic hectorite (average radius 5 µm) ion-exchanged by the same Ru(II) complexes. PMID:27130880

  5. Efficient transfer of either one or two dithiolene ligands from nickel to ruthenium: synthesis and crystal structures of [Ru(SCR=CPhS)(2)(PPh(3))] and [RuCl(2)(SCR=CPhS)(PPh(3))(2)] (R = Ph, H).

    PubMed

    Adams, Harry; Coffey, Anna M; Morris, Michael J; Morris, Sarah A

    2009-12-21

    High yields of two different types of ruthenium dithiolene complex have been obtained by reactions that involve transfer of the dithiolene ligands from the nickel complexes [Ni(SCR=CPhS)(2)] (R = Ph, H) to [RuCl(2)(PPh(3))(3)]. At room temperature one dithiolene is rapidly transferred to yield [RuCl(2)(SCR=CPhS)(PPh(3))(2)], whereas under thermal conditions (refluxing toluene) two dithiolene ligands are incorporated to give [Ru(SCR=CPhS)(2)(PPh(3))]. The crystal structures of the ruthenium bis(dithiolene) complexes indicate that the dithiolene ligands are bonded in the monoanionic form, whereas in the monodithiolene complexes the dithioketone canonical form of the dithiolene ligand is more in evidence, as shown by the average C-S and C=C bond distances in the ligands. This is consistent with both complexes containing Ru(II) centers. The synthesis of the mixed-ligand bis(dithiolene) complex [Ru(SCH=CPhS)(S(2)C(2)Ph(2))(PPh(3))] has been achieved and it is shown that the bis(dithiolene) complexes undergo relatively slow scrambling of the dithiolene ligands in solution. The complex [Ru(SCH=CFcS)(2)(PPh(3))], containing two ferrocenyl-substituted dithiolene ligands, was also prepared, but attempts to establish the degree of electrochemical communication between them were hampered by instability and the irreversible nature of the redox processes.

  6. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing quinoline-azoimine (NN‧N″) tridentate ligands: Synthesis, spectral characterization, electrochemical properties and single-crystal X-ray structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Fasfous, Ismail I.; El-khateeb, Mohammad; Awwadi, Firas F.; Warad, Ismail

    Four octahedral ruthenium(II) azoimine-quinoline complexes having the general molecular formula [RuII(Lsbnd Y)(bpy)Cl](PF6) {Lsbnd Y = YC6H4Ndbnd NC(COCH3)dbnd NC9H6N, Y = H (1), CH3 (2), Br (3), NO2 (4) and bpy = 2,2‧-bipyrdine} were synthesized. The azoimine-quinoline based ligands behave as NN‧N″ tridentate donors and coordinated to ruthenium via azo-N‧, imine-N‧ and quinolone-N″ nitrogen atoms. The composition of the complexes has been established by elemental analysis, spectral methods (FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR, UV/Vis and electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry) techniques. The crystal structure of complex 1 is reported. The Ru(II) oxidation state is greatly stabilized by the novel tridentate ligands, showing Ru(III/II) couples ranging from 0.93-1.27 V vs. Cp2Fe/Cp2Fe+. The absorption spectrum of 1 in dichloromethane was modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  7. A Decaheme Cytochrome as a Molecular Electron Conduit in Dye-Sensitized Photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ee Taek; Sheikh, Khizar; Orchard, Katherine L; Hojo, Daisuke; Radu, Valentin; Lee, Chong-Yong; Ainsworth, Emma; Lockwood, Colin; Gross, Manuela A; Adschiri, Tadafumi; Reisner, Erwin; Butt, Julea N; Jeuken, Lars J C

    2015-01-01

    In nature, charge recombination in light-harvesting reaction centers is minimized by efficient charge separation. Here, it is aimed to mimic this by coupling dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals to a decaheme protein, MtrC from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, where the 10 hemes of MtrC form a ≈7-nm-long molecular wire between the TiO2 and the underlying electrode. The system is assembled by forming a densely packed MtrC film on an ultra-flat gold electrode, followed by the adsorption of approximately 7 nm TiO2 nanocrystals that are modified with a phosphonated bipyridine Ru(II) dye (RuP). The step-by-step construction of the MtrC/TiO2 system is monitored with (photo)electrochemistry, quartz-crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Photocurrents are dependent on the redox state of the MtrC, confirming that electrons are transferred from the TiO2 nanocrystals to the surface via the MtrC conduit. In other words, in these TiO2/MtrC hybrid photodiodes, MtrC traps the conduction-band electrons from TiO2 before transferring them to the electrode, creating a photobioelectrochemical system in which a redox protein is used to mimic the efficient charge separation found in biological photosystems. PMID:26180522

  8. Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed isomer-selective cyclization of 1,6-dienes leading to exo-methylenecyclopentanes: unprecedented cycloisomerization mechanism involving ruthenacyclopentane(hydrido) intermediate.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Nakagai, Y I; Ohkoshi, N; Itoh, K

    2001-07-01

    In the presence of a catalytic amount of ruthenium(II) complexes, [RuCl(2)(cod)](n)(), RuCl(2)(cod)(MeCN)(2), [RuCl(2)(nbd)](n)(), [RuCl(2)(CO)(3)](2), and Cp*Ru(cod)Cl, 1,6-dienes were effectively converted into the corresponding exo-methylenecyclopentanes in good to excellent yields with good isomer purity in i-PrOH at 90 degrees C. The alcoholic solvent was essential for the present catalytic cyclization, and the efficiency increased in the following order: t-BuOH < EtOH < or = i-PrOH. In contrast, a Ru(0) complex, (C(6)Me(6))Ru(cod), catalyzed the cycloisomerization only in 1,2-dichloroethane. The unusual isomer-selectivity occurred when a 1,7-octadiene was subjected to cyclization to give a similar exo-methylenecyclopentane isomer as the major product. The identical isomer selectivity was observed for the cyclization of unsymmetrical 1,6-dienes having one terminal- and one internal-alkene termini. On the basis of the results from the studies using the known ruthenium hydrides and deuterium-labeling substrates, the novel mechanism via the Ru(II) <--> Ru(IV) system involving a ruthenacyclopentane(hydrido) intermediate was proposed, which better explains the particular regiochemistry of the present cyclization than other previous mechanisms. PMID:11427063

  9. Real-time monitoring of antibody secretion from hybridomas on a microchip by time-resolved luminescence anisotropy analysis.

    PubMed

    Munaka, Tatsuya; Abe, Hirohisa; Kanai, Masaki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Shoji, Shuichi; Murakami, Akira

    2006-06-01

    This article presents a real-time monitoring system for cellular analysis using micro total analysis systems technology. Time-resolved luminescence anisotropy analysis was adopted for real-time detection of small amounts of a target protein produced by a small number of cells. The system was tested by real-time monitoring of the antibody secretion by hybridomas. The cells were successfully cultivated in a micro-incubation chamber (240 nl) fabricated on a microchip. The quantification of the antibody was achieved using the Ru(II) complex-labeled Staphylococcus aureus protein A probe, which can bind specifically to the Fc region of the antibody. Using this system, we detected as little as 24 fmol of immunoglobulin G under physiological conditions without the bound/free separation protocol. We successfully achieved real-time and quantitative monitoring of small amounts of antibody production by approximately 200 hybridoma cells. This method could be applied to various cellular analyses using small numbers of cells.

  10. Efficient energy conversion in photochromic ruthenium DMSO complexes.

    PubMed

    Rachford, Aaron A; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Rack, Jeffrey J

    2006-07-24

    The photochromic compounds trans- and cis-[Ru(tpy)(Mepic)(dmso)](OSO2CF3) (2 and 3, respectively; tpy is 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine; Mepic is 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxylate; dmso is dimethyl sulfoxide) and cis-[Ru(tpy)(Brpic)(dmso)](PF6) (4; Brpic is 6-bromo-2-pyridinecarboxylate) were prepared and characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, electrochemistry, NMR, IR, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The geometry labels refer to the relationship between the carboxylate oxygen of the picolinate ligand and dmso. Electrochemical studies reveal that only the trans isomer shows S-to-O isomerization following oxidation of Ru(II) and O-to-S isomerization following reduction of Ru(III). The cis isomers of both complexes feature reversible one-electron Ru(III/II) couples. All complexes undergo phototriggered S-to-O isomerization following MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation with quantum yields (Phi(S-->O)) of 0.79 (2), 0.011 (3), and 0.014 (4). The methyl group in 2 promotes isomerization by hindering rotation of the dmso ligand about the Ru-S bond. Computational results support this role for the methyl group. Relative energy calculations show that the barrier to rotation is approximately 8 kcal mol(-1). These results suggest that rotation is an important vibration for isomerization in photochromic ruthenium-dmso complexes. PMID:16842000

  11. Thiol-Activated HNO Release from a Ruthenium Antiangiogenesis Complex and HIF-1α Inhibition for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Metallonitrosyl complexes are promising as nitric oxide (NO) donors for the treatment of cardiovascular, endothelial, and pathogenic diseases, as well as cancer. Recently, the reduced form of NO– (protonated as HNO, nitroxyl, azanone, isoelectronic with O2) has also emerged as a candidate for therapeutic applications including treatment of acute heart failure and alcoholism. Here, we show that HNO is a product of the reaction of the RuII complex [Ru(bpy)2(SO3)(NO)]+ (1) with glutathione or N-acetyl-L-cysteine, using met-myoglobin and carboxy-PTIO (2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide) as trapping agents. Characteristic absorption spectroscopic profiles for HNO reactions with met-myoglobin were obtained, as well as EPR evidence from carboxy-PTIO experiments. Importantly, the product HNO counteracted NO-induced as well as hypoxia-induced stabilization of the tumor-suppressor HIF-1α in cancer cells. The functional disruption of neovascularization by HNO produced by this metallonitrosyl complex was demonstrated in an in vitro angiogenesis model. This behavior is consistent with HNO biochemistry and contrasts with NO-mediated stabilization of HIF-1α. Together, these results demonstrate for the first time thiol-dependent production of HNO by a ruthenium complex and subsequent destabilization of HIF-1α. This work suggests that the complex warrants further investigation as a promising antiangiogenesis agent for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27191177

  12. Bistable molecular switches based on linkage isomerization in ruthenium polypyridyl complexes with a ligand-bound ambidentate motif.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Olof; Johannissen, Linus O; Lomoth, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    Electron-transfer-induced linkage isomerization was investigated in a series of bis-tridentate Ru polypyridyl complexes [Ru(L-X-OH)(Y-tpy)](2+) with ambidentate ligand L-X-OH=bpy-C(R)(OH)-py (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; py=pyridine; R=H, Me, Ph, or tBu) and spectator ligand Y-tpy (tpy=2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; Y=p-tolyl, p-PhCO(2)Me, Cl, OEt, N-pyrrolidine). The ligand-bound ambidentate motif switches reversibly between N and O coordination in the Ru(II) and Ru(III) state, respectively. The potentials of the Ru(III/II) couple differ by about 0.5 V between the isomers, and this results in a bistable electrochemical response of the molecular switches. The effects of structural modifications in form of substituents on the linking carbon atom of the ambidentate ligand and on the central pyridine moiety of the spectator ligand were investigated by electrochemical and computational methods. Differences in isomerization behavior span six orders of magnitude in rate constants and two orders of magnitude in equilibrium constants. The results can be interpreted in terms of steric and electronic substituent effects and their influence on rotational barriers, ligation geometry, and electron deficiency of the metal center. PMID:19072945

  13. Application of Hectorite-Coated Silica Gel Particles as a Packing Material for Chromatographic Resolution.

    PubMed

    Okada, Tomohiko; Kumasaki, Aisaku; Shimizu, Kei; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Sato, Hisako

    2016-08-01

    A new type of clay column particles was prepared, in which a hectorite layer (∼0.1 µm thickness) covered uniformly the surface of amorphous silica particles with an average radius of 5 µm (ref. Okada et al., The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 116, 21864-21869 (2012)). The hectorite layer was fully ion-exchanged with Δ-[Ru(phen)3](2+) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) ions by being immersed in a methanol solution of Δ-[Ru(phen)3](ClO4)2 (1 mM). The modified silica gel particles thus prepared were packed into a stainless steel tube (4 mm (i.d.) × 25 cm) as a high-performance liquid chromatography column. Optical resolution was achieved when the racemic mixtures of several metal complexes or organic molecules were eluted with methanol. In the case of tris(acetylacetonato)ruthenium(III) ([Ru(acac)3]), for example, the Λ- and Δ-enantiomers gave an elution volume of 2.6 and 3.0 mL, respectively, with the separation factor of 1.2. The total elution volume (5 mL) was nearly one-tenth for the previously reported column of the same size (RU-1 (Shiseido Co., Ltd.)) packed with the spray-dried particles of synthetic hectorite (average radius 5 µm) ion-exchanged by the same Ru(II) complexes.

  14. Intramolecular energy transfer in ruthenium(II)-chromium(III) chromophore-luminophore complexes. Ru(bpy) sub 2 (Cr(cyclam)(CN) sub 2 ) sub 2 sup 4+

    SciTech Connect

    Bignozzi, C.A.; Bortolini, O.; Chiorboli, C.; Indelli, M.T.; Rampi, M.A.; Scandola, F. )

    1992-01-22

    A new trinuclear Ru(II)-Cr(III) chromophore-luminophore complex, Ru(bpy){sub 2}(Cr(cyclam)(CN){sub 2}){sub 2}{sup 4+}, has been synthesized and characterized. Visible light absorption by the Ru(bpy){sub 2}{sup 2+} chromophore leads to emission from the Cr(cyclam)(CN){sub 2}{sup +} luminophore, as a consequence of very efficient ({ge} 99%) and fast (subnanosecond time scale) chromophore-luminophore exchange energy-transfer process. The emission is intense ({Phi} = 5.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} in H{sub 2}O) and long-lived ({tau} = 260 {mu}s in H{sub 2}O). The photophysical properties of the luminophore are slightly perturbed by interaction with the chromophore, resulting in a sharper emission band shape and shorter radiative and radiationless lifetimes. The presence of a Ru(II) {yields} Cr(III) intervalence transfer state, hardly detectable in the ground-state spectrum, is clearly revealed by the excited-state absorption spectrum of the chromophore-luminophore complex.

  15. Interactions of the "piano-stool" [ruthenium(II)(η(6) -arene)(quinolone)Cl](+) complexes with water; DFT computational study.

    PubMed

    Zábojníková, Tereza; Cajzl, Radim; Kljun, Jakob; Chval, Zdeněk; Turel, Iztok; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2016-07-15

    Full optimizations of stationary points along the reaction coordinate for the hydration of several quinolone Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes were performed in water environment using the B3PW91/6-31+G(d)/PCM/UAKS method. The role of diffuse functions (especially on oxygen) was found crucial for correct geometries along the reaction coordinate. Single-point (SP) calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,2pd)/DPCM/saled-UAKS level. In the first part, two possible reaction mechanisms-associative and dissociative were compared. It was found that the dissociative mechanism of the hydration process is kinetically slightly preferred. Another important conclusion concerns the reaction channels. It was found that substitution of chloride ligand (abbreviated in the text as dechlorination reaction) represents energetically and kinetically the most feasible pathway. In the second part the same hydration reaction was explored for reactivity comparison of the Ru(II)-complexes with several derivatives of nalidixic acid: cinoxacin, ofloxacin, and (thio)nalidixic acid. The hydration process is about four orders of magnitude faster in a basic solution compared to neutral/acidic environment with cinoxacin and nalidixic acid as the most reactive complexes in the former and latter environments, respectively. The explored hydration reaction is in all cases endergonic; nevertheless the endergonicity is substantially lower (by ∼6 kcal/mol) in basic environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Role of configurational gating in intracomplex electron transfer from cytochrome c to the radical cation in cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Mei, H; Wang, K; Peffer, N; Weatherly, G; Cohen, D S; Miller, M; Pielak, G; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1999-05-25

    Electron transfer within complexes of cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) was studied to determine whether the reactions are gated by fluctuations in configuration. Electron transfer in the physiological complex of yeast Cc (yCc) and CcP was studied using the Ru-39-Cc derivative, in which the H39C/C102T variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c is labeled at the single cysteine residue on the back surface with trisbipyridylruthenium(II). Laser excitation of the 1:1 Ru-39-Cc-CcP compound I complex at low ionic strength results in rapid electron transfer from RuII to heme c FeIII, followed by electron transfer from heme c FeII to the Trp-191 indolyl radical cation with a rate constant keta of 2 x 10(6) s-1 at 20 degrees C. keta is not changed by increasing the viscosity up to 40 cP with glycerol and is independent of temperature. These results suggest that this reaction is not gated by fluctuations in the configuration of the complex, but may represent the elementary electron transfer step. The value of keta is consistent with the efficient pathway for electron transfer in the crystalline yCc-CcP complex, which has a distance of 16 A between the edge of heme c and the Trp-191 indole [Pelletier, H., and Kraut, J. (1992) Science 258, 1748-1755]. Electron transfer in the complex of horse Cc (hCc) and CcP was examined using Ru-27-Cc, in which hCc is labeled with trisbipyridylruthenium(II) at Lys-27. Laser excitation of the Ru-27-Cc-CcP complex results in electron transfer from RuII to heme c FeII with a rate constant k1 of 2.3 x 10(7) s-1, followed by oxidation of the Trp-191 indole to a radical cation by RuIII with a rate constant k3 of 7 x 10(6) s-1. The cycle is completed by electron transfer from heme c FeII to the Trp-191 radical cation with a rate constant k4 of 6.1 x 10(4) s-1. The rate constant k4 decreases to 3.4 x 10(3) s-1 as the viscosity is increased to 84 cP, but the rate constants k1 and k3 remain the same. The results are consistent with a

  17. Design strategies to improve the sensitivity of photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs) to visible light and their potential as CO-donors to biological targets.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Indranil; Carrington, Samantha J; Mascharak, Pradip K

    2014-08-19

    The recent surprising discovery of the beneficial effects of carbon monoxide (CO) in mammalian physiology has drawn attention toward site-specific delivery of CO to biological targets. To avoid difficulties in handling of this noxious gas in hospital settings, researchers have focused their attention on metal carbonyl complexes as CO-releasing molecules (CORMs). Because further control of such CO delivery through light-triggering can be achieved with photoactive metal carbonyl complexes (photoCORMs), we and other groups have attempted to isolate such complexes in the past few years. Typical metal carbonyl complexes release CO when exposed to UV light, a fact that often deters their use in biological systems. From the very beginning, our effort therefore was directed toward identifying design principles that could lead to photoCORMs that release CO upon illumination with low-power (5-15 mW/cm(2)) visible and near-IR light. In our work, we have utilized Mn(I), Re(I), and Ru(II) centers (all d(6) ground state configuration) to ensure overall stability of the carbonyl complexes. We also hypothesized that transfer of electron density from the electron-rich metal centers to π* MOs of the ligand frame via strong metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions in the visible/near-IR region would weaken metal-CO back-bonding and promote rapid CO photorelease. This expectation has been realized in a series of carbonyl complexes derived from a variety of designed ligands and smart choice of ligand/coligand combinations. Several principles have emerged from our systematic approach to the design of principal ligands and the choice of auxiliary ligands (in addition to the number of CO) in synthesizing these photoCORMs. In each case, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) study afforded insight into the dependence of the CO photorelease from a particular photoCORM on the wavelength of light. Results of these theoretical studies indicate that extended

  18. Role of configurational gating in intracomplex electron transfer from cytochrome c to the radical cation in cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Mei, H; Wang, K; Peffer, N; Weatherly, G; Cohen, D S; Miller, M; Pielak, G; Durham, B; Millett, F

    1999-05-25

    Electron transfer within complexes of cytochrome c (Cc) and cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) was studied to determine whether the reactions are gated by fluctuations in configuration. Electron transfer in the physiological complex of yeast Cc (yCc) and CcP was studied using the Ru-39-Cc derivative, in which the H39C/C102T variant of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c is labeled at the single cysteine residue on the back surface with trisbipyridylruthenium(II). Laser excitation of the 1:1 Ru-39-Cc-CcP compound I complex at low ionic strength results in rapid electron transfer from RuII to heme c FeIII, followed by electron transfer from heme c FeII to the Trp-191 indolyl radical cation with a rate constant keta of 2 x 10(6) s-1 at 20 degrees C. keta is not changed by increasing the viscosity up to 40 cP with glycerol and is independent of temperature. These results suggest that this reaction is not gated by fluctuations in the configuration of the complex, but may represent the elementary electron transfer step. The value of keta is consistent with the efficient pathway for electron transfer in the crystalline yCc-CcP complex, which has a distance of 16 A between the edge of heme c and the Trp-191 indole [Pelletier, H., and Kraut, J. (1992) Science 258, 1748-1755]. Electron transfer in the complex of horse Cc (hCc) and CcP was examined using Ru-27-Cc, in which hCc is labeled with trisbipyridylruthenium(II) at Lys-27. Laser excitation of the Ru-27-Cc-CcP complex results in electron transfer from RuII to heme c FeII with a rate constant k1 of 2.3 x 10(7) s-1, followed by oxidation of the Trp-191 indole to a radical cation by RuIII with a rate constant k3 of 7 x 10(6) s-1. The cycle is completed by electron transfer from heme c FeII to the Trp-191 radical cation with a rate constant k4 of 6.1 x 10(4) s-1. The rate constant k4 decreases to 3.4 x 10(3) s-1 as the viscosity is increased to 84 cP, but the rate constants k1 and k3 remain the same. The results are consistent with a

  19. A photochemically driven molecular-level abacus

    PubMed

    Ashton; Ballardini; Balzani; Credi; Dress; Ishow; Kleverlaan; Kocian; Preece; Spencer; Stoddart; Venturi; Wenger

    2000-10-01

    A molecular-level abacus-like system driven by light inputs has been designed in the form of a [2]rotaxane, comprising the pi-electron-donating macrocyclic polyether bis-p-phenylene-34-crown-10 (BPP34C10) and a dumbbell-shaped component that contains 1) a Ru(II) polypyridine complex as one of its stoppers in the form of a photoactive unit, 2) a p-terphenyl-type ring system as a rigid spacer, 3) a 4,4'-bipyridinium unit and a 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium unit as pi-electron-accepting stations, and 4) a tetraarylmethane group as the second stopper. The synthesis of the [2]rotaxane was accomplished in four successive stages. First of all, the dumbbell-shaped component of the [2]rotaxane was constructed by using conventional synthetic methodology to make 1) the so-called "west-side" comprised of the Ru(II) polypyridine complex linked by a bismethylene spacer to the p-terphenyl-type ring system terminated by a benzylic bromomethyl function and 2) the so-called "east-side" comprised of the tetraarylmethane group, attached by a polyether linkage to the bipyridinium unit, itself joined in turn by a trismethylene spacer to an incipient 3,3'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium unit. Next, 3) the "west-side" and "east-side" were fused together by means of an alkylation to give the dumbbell-shaped compound, which was 4) finally subjected to a thermodynamically driven slippage reaction, with BPP34C10 as the ring, to afford the [2]rotaxane. The structure of this interlocked molecular compound was characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, which also established, along with cyclic voltammetry, the co-conformational behavior of the molecular shuttle. The stable translational isomer is the one in which the BPP34C10 component encircles the 4,4'-bipyridinium unit, in keeping with the fact that this station is a better pi-electron acceptor than the other station. This observation raises the question- can the BPP34C10 macrocycle be made to shuttle between the two stations by a

  20. Electronic and Photophysical Properties of [Re (L)(CO)3(phen)](+) and [Ru(L)2(bpy)2](2+) (L = imidazole), Building Units for Long-Range Electron Transfer in Modified Blue Copper Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fumanal, Maria; Daniel, Chantal

    2016-09-01

    The electronic, optical, and photophysical properties of [Re(im)(CO)3(phen)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+) (im = imidazole; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) in water, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects, were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. The main features of the visible experimental absorption spectra of both molecules are well-reproduced. Whereas the theoretical spectrum of the Re(I) complex is characterized by one metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCTphen) state of low intensity at 394 nm and a strongly absorbing MLCTphen state calculated at 370 nm, the spectrum of the Ru(II) complex presents a high density of singlet MLCTbpy excited states with significant oscillator strengths that contribute to the two broad bands centered at 490 and 340 nm. The absorption spectrum of [Re(im) (CO)3(phen)](+) is perturbed by SOC with non-negligible mixing between the low-lying triplet and singlet absorbing states, while SOC has no effect on the absorption spectrum of [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+). A detailed structural investigation of the two lowest singlet and four lowest triplet excited states of the Re(I) complex point to MLCTphen (S1, S2, T1, T2) and intra-ligand ILphen (T3) localized spin-densities characterized by small contractions from both Re-N and phen CC central bonds in the MLCT states and nearly no deformation in the IL state. A mechanism of luminescent decay of [Re(im) (CO)3(phen)](+) is proposed on the basis of the calculated energy minima and wavelengths of emission for the interpretation of the three frequency/time-scale signals put in evidence by ultrafast experiments. The long-lived emissive properties of [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+) are analyzed on the basis of the relative energies of the two lowest (3)MLCTbpy and metal-centered (3)MC excited states. The minimum corresponding to the (3)MC spin density shows a significant structural rearrangement with an increase of the Ru-N bond distance of 0.33 Å and a

  1. Electronic and Photophysical Properties of [Re (L)(CO)3(phen)](+) and [Ru(L)2(bpy)2](2+) (L = imidazole), Building Units for Long-Range Electron Transfer in Modified Blue Copper Proteins.

    PubMed

    Fumanal, Maria; Daniel, Chantal

    2016-09-01

    The electronic, optical, and photophysical properties of [Re(im)(CO)3(phen)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+) (im = imidazole; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) in water, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects, were studied by means of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT. The main features of the visible experimental absorption spectra of both molecules are well-reproduced. Whereas the theoretical spectrum of the Re(I) complex is characterized by one metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCTphen) state of low intensity at 394 nm and a strongly absorbing MLCTphen state calculated at 370 nm, the spectrum of the Ru(II) complex presents a high density of singlet MLCTbpy excited states with significant oscillator strengths that contribute to the two broad bands centered at 490 and 340 nm. The absorption spectrum of [Re(im) (CO)3(phen)](+) is perturbed by SOC with non-negligible mixing between the low-lying triplet and singlet absorbing states, while SOC has no effect on the absorption spectrum of [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+). A detailed structural investigation of the two lowest singlet and four lowest triplet excited states of the Re(I) complex point to MLCTphen (S1, S2, T1, T2) and intra-ligand ILphen (T3) localized spin-densities characterized by small contractions from both Re-N and phen CC central bonds in the MLCT states and nearly no deformation in the IL state. A mechanism of luminescent decay of [Re(im) (CO)3(phen)](+) is proposed on the basis of the calculated energy minima and wavelengths of emission for the interpretation of the three frequency/time-scale signals put in evidence by ultrafast experiments. The long-lived emissive properties of [Ru(bpy)2(im)2](2+) are analyzed on the basis of the relative energies of the two lowest (3)MLCTbpy and metal-centered (3)MC excited states. The minimum corresponding to the (3)MC spin density shows a significant structural rearrangement with an increase of the Ru-N bond distance of 0.33 Å and a

  2. Crystal structure of azido­(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)bis­(tri­phenyl­phosphane-κP)ruthenium(II) di­chloro­methane hemisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Calva, Adriana; Meléndez-Balbuena, Lidia; Arroyo, Maribel; Ramírez-Monroy, Armando

    2014-01-01

    The title solvated complex, [Ru(η5-C5H5)(N3){P(C6H5)3}2]·0.5CH2Cl2, displays a typical piano-stool geometry about the RuII atom. The bond lengths and angles of the cyclo­penta­dienyl and phosphane ligands are very similar to that of the unsolvated complex [Taqui Khan et al. (1994 ▶). Acta Cryst. C50, 502–504]. The azide anion displays similar N—N distances of 1.173 (3) and 1.156 (3) Å and has an N—N—Ru angle of 119.20 (15)°, indicating a greater contribution of the canonical form Ru—N=N(+)=N(-) for the bonding situation. An intra­molecular C—H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter­action between one ortho H atom of a phosphane ligand and the N atom coordinating to the metal is observed. A similar inter­molecular inter­action is observed between a meta H atom of a phosphane ligand and the terminal azide N atom of a neighbouring complex. Finally, two C—H⋯N inter­actions exists between the H atoms of the di­chloro­methane solvent mol­ecule and the terminal N atom of two azide anions. The solvent mol­ecule is located about a twofold rotation axis and shows disorder of the Cl atoms with an occupancy ratio of 0.62 (3):0.38 (3). PMID:25484673

  3. Simulating Ru L3-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Model Complexes and Electron Localization in Mixed-Valence Metal Dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Valiev, Marat; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Bannan, Caitlin; Strader, Matthew L.; Cho, Hana; Huse, N.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Govind, Niranjan; Khalil, Munira

    2013-05-01

    Ruthenium L2,3-edge X-ray absorption (XA) spectroscopy probes transitions from core 2p orbitals to the 4d levels of the atom and is a powerful tool for interrogating the local electronic and molecular structure around the metal atom. However, a molecular-level interpretation of the Ru L2,3-edge spectral lineshapes is often complicated by spin–orbit coupling (SOC) and multiplet effects. In this study, we develop spin-free time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) as a viable and predictive tool to simulate the Ru L3-edge spectra. We successfully simulate and analyze the ground state Ru L3-edge XA spectra of a series of RuII and RuIII complexes: [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+, [Ru(CN)6]4-/3-, [RuCl6]4-/3-, and the ground (1A1) and photoexcited (3MLCT) transient states of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ and Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2 (termed N3). The TDDFT simulations reproduce all the experimentally observed features in Ru L3-edge XA spectra. The advantage of using TDDFT to assign complicated Ru L3-edge spectra is illustrated by its ability to identify ligand specific charge transfer features in complex molecules. We conclude that the B3LYP functional is the most reliable functional for accurately predicting the location of charge transfer features in these spectra. Experimental and simulated Ru L3-edge XA spectra are presented for the transition metal mixed-valence dimers [(NC)5MII-CN-RuIII(NH3)5]- (where M = Fe or Ru) dissolved in water. We explore the spectral signatures of electron delocalization in Ru L3-edge XA spectroscopy and our simulations reveal that the inclusion of explicit solvent molecules is crucial for reproducing the experimentally determined valencies, highlighting the importance of the role of the solvent in transition metal charge transfer chemistry.

  4. On the factors influencing the performance of solar reactors for water disinfection with photosensitized singlet oxygen.

    PubMed

    Manjón, Francisco; Villén, Laura; García-Fresnadillo, David; Orellana, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    Two solar reactors based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) were optimized for water disinfection by photosensitized singlet oxygen (1O2) production in the heterogeneous phase. Sensitizing materials containing Ru(II) complexes immobilized on porous silicone were produced, photochemically characterized, and successfully tested for the inactivation of up to 10(4) CFU mL(-1) of waterborne Escherichia coli (gram-negative) or Enterococcus faecalis (gram-positive) bacteria. The main factors determining the performance of the solar reactors are the type of photosensitizing material, the sensitizer loading, the CPC collector geometry (fin- vs coaxial-type), the fluid rheology, and the balance between concurrent photothermal--photolytic and 1O2 effects on the microorganisms' inactivation. In this way, at the 40 degrees N latitude of Spain, water can be disinfected on a sunny day (0.6-0.8 MJ m(-2) L(-1) accumulated solar radiation dose in the 360-700 nm range, typically 5-6 h of sunlight) with a fin-type reactor containing 0.6 m2 of photosensitizing material saturated with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II) (ca. 2.0 g m(-2)). The optimum rheological conditions require laminar-to-transitional water flow in both prototypes. The fin-type system showed better inactivation efficiency than the coaxial reactor due to a more important photolytic contribution. The durability of the sensitizing materials was tested and the operational lifetime of the photocatalyst is at least three months without any reduction in the bacteria inactivation efficiency. Solar water disinfection with 1O2-generating films is demonstrated to be an effective technique for use in isolated regions of developing countries with high yearly average sunshine.

  5. Effect of deprotonation on absorption and emission spectra of Ru(II)-bpy complexes functionalized with carboxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Badaeva, Ekaterina; Albert, Victor V; Kilina, Svetlana; Koposov, Alexey; Sykora, Milan; Tretiak, Sergei

    2010-08-21

    Changes in the ground and excited state electronic structure of the [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) complex induced by functionalization of bpy ligands with carboxyl and methyl groups in their protonated and deprotonated forms are studied experimentally using absorption and emission spectroscopy and theoretically using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT). The introduction of the carboxyl groups shifts the metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) absorption and emission bands to lower energies in functionalized complexes. Our calculations show that this red-shift is due to the stabilization of the lowest unoccupied orbitals localized on the substituted ligands, while the energies of the highest occupied orbitals localized on the Ru-center are not significantly affected. Consistent with previously observed trends in optical spectra of related Ru(II) complexes, deprotonation of the carboxyl groups results in a blue shift in the absorption and phosphorescence spectra. The effect originates from interplay of positive and negative solvatochromism in the protonated and deprotonated complexes, respectively. This results in more delocalized character of the electron transition orbitals in the deprotonated species and a strong destabilization of the three lowest unoccupied orbitals localized on the substituted and unsubstituted ligands, all of which contribute to the lowest-energy optical transitions. We also found that owing to the complexity of the excited state potential energy surfaces, the calculated lowest triplet excited state can be either weakly optically allowed (3)MLCT or optically forbidden Ru (3)d-d transition depending on the initial wavefunction guess used in TDDFT calculations. PMID:20556275

  6. Design of ruthenium-cytochrome c derivatives to measure electron transfer to cytochrome c peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Liu, R Q; Geren, L; Anderson, P; Fairris, J L; Peffer, N; McKee, A; Durham, B; Millet, F

    1995-01-01

    A new technique has been introduced to measure interprotein electron transfer which involves photoexcitation of a tris(bipyridine)ruthenium (Ru) complex covalently attached to one of the proteins. Four different strategies have been developed to specifically attach Ru to protein lysine amino groups, histidine imidazole groups, and cysteine sulhydryl groups. These strategies have been used to prepare more than 20 different singly-labeled Ru-cytochrome c derivatives. The new ruthenium photoexcitation technique has been used to study the mechanism for electron transfer between cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase. Laser excitation of a complex between Ru-cytochrome c and cytochrome c peroxidase compound I results in formation of Ru(II*) which is a strong reducing agent, and rapidly transfers an electron to heme c Fe(III) to form Fe(II). The heme c Fe(II) then rapidly transfers an electron to the Trp-191 radical cation in CMPI. The rate constant for this reaction is 6 x 10(4) s-1 for a horse Ru-cytochrome c derivative labeled at lysine 27, and greater than 10(6) s-1 for yeast Ru-cytochrome c derivatives. A second laser flash results in electron transfer from heme c to the oxyferryl heme in cytochrome c peroxidase compound II with a rate constant of 350 s-1. The ruthenium photoreduction technique has been used to study the interaction domain between the two proteins, the pathway for electron transfer to the radical cation and the oxyferryl heme, and the specific residues in the heme crevice which control the electron transfer properties of the Trp-191 radical cation and the oxyferryl heme.

  7. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: Synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F.; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S.; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The novel azoimine ligand, Phsbnd NHsbnd Ndbnd C(COCH3)sbnd NHPh(Ctbnd CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2 = Phsbnd Ndbnd Nsbnd C(COCH3)dbnd Nsbnd PhC(OH)dbnd CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y = L1 (1) and Y = L2 (2), bpy is 2.2‧-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D 1H NMR, 13C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D 1H-1H and 13C-1H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe0/+) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  8. Structure and spectroscopic properties of ruthenium(II) bipyridyl N-benzoyl-N'-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-Yl)-thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Siew San; Kassim, Mohammad B.

    2015-09-25

    Ruthenium bipyridyl incorporating phenanthroline with thiourea molecules, [Ru(bpy){sub 2}(Phen-BT)](PF{sub 6}){sub 2}], has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The infrared spectra of the complex shows the characteristics stretching frequencies for N-H at 3646 and 3585 cm{sup −1}, ν(C-N){sub phen} 1426 cm{sup −1}, ν(C=O) 1675 cm{sup −1}, ν(C=S) 1246 cm{sup −1}, ν(C-H){sub aromatic} 3353-3086 cm{sup −1}, ν(C-N){sub aliphatic} 1169-1026 cm{sup −1}, ν(C-H){sub bend} 764 cm{sup −1} and ν(PF{sub 6}{sup −}){sub free} 842 cm{sup −1}. The complex reveals two π→π* absorption bands at 237 (ε=26,302) and 286 nm (ε=36,848), which were assigned to the phenanthroline and bipyridyl moieties, respectively. A slightly broad and low energy band in the UV-vis spectrum at 450 nm (ε=7,209) of the complex was assigned to a MLCT transition. Besides, the complex also exhibits an emission band at 615 nm that arises from an excitation with a 440 nm light energy. The cyclic voltammetry of the complex shows an oxidation potential at +1.305 V vs. SCE that corresponds to the formal oxidation of Ru(II) to Ru(III)

  9. Combining very large quadratic and cubic nonlinear optical responses in extended, tris-chelate metallochromophores with six pi-conjugated pyridinium substituents.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Fielden, John; Foxon, Simon P; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Samoc, Anna; Samoc, Marek

    2010-03-17

    We describe a series of nine new complex salts in which electron-rich Ru(II) or Fe(II) centers are connected via pi-conjugated bridges to six electron-accepting N-methyl-/N-arylpyridinium groups. This work builds upon our previous preliminary studies (Coe , B. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13399-13410; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 472-478), with the aims of achieving greatly enhanced NLO properties and also combining large quadratic and cubic effects in potentially redox-switchable molecules. Characterization has involved various techniques, including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes display intense, visible d --> pi* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands, and their pi --> pi* intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) absorptions in the near-UV region show molar extinction coefficients as high as ca. 3.5 x 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1). Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses beta have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 and 1064 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies. The directly and indirectly derived beta values are very large, with the Stark-based static first hyperpolarizabilities beta(0) reaching as high as ca. 10(-27) esu, and generally increase on extending the pi-conjugation and enhancing the electron-accepting strength of the ligands. Cubic NLO properties have also been measured by using the Z-scan technique, revealing relatively high two-photon absorption cross sections of up to 2500 GM at 750 nm.

  10. Sensitization of nanocrystalline TiO2 anchored with pendant catechol functionality using a new tetracyanato ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex.

    PubMed

    Kar, Prasenjit; Verma, Sandeep; Sen, Anik; Das, Amitava; Ganguly, Bishwajit; Ghosh, Hirendra Nath

    2010-05-01

    We have synthesized a new photoactive ruthenium(II) complex having a pendant catechol functionality (K(2)[Ru(CN)(4)(L)] (1) (L is 4-[2-(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinyl-4-yl)vinyl]benzene-1,2-diol) for studying the dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between nanoparticulate TiO(2) and the photoexcited states of this Ru(II) complex using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Steady-state absorption and emission studies revealed that the complex 1 showed a strong solvatochromic behavior in solvents or solvent mixtures of varying polarity. Our steady-state absorption studies further revealed that 1 is bound to TiO(2) surfaces through the catechol functionality, though 1 has two different types of functionalities (catecholate and cyanato) for binding to TiO(2) surfaces. The longer wavelength absorption band tail for 1, bound to TiO(2) through the proposed catecholate functionality, could also be explained on the basis of the DFT calculations. Dynamics of the interfacial electron transfer between 1 and TiO(2) nanoparticles was investigated by studying kinetics at various wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared region. Electron injection to the conduction band of the nanoparticulate TiO(2) was confirmed by detection of the conduction band electron in TiO(2) ([e(-)](TiO(2))(CB)) and cation radical of the adsorbed dye (1(*+)) in real time as monitored by transient absorption spectroscopy. A single exponential and pulse-width limited (<100 fs) electron injection was observed. Back electron transfer dynamics was determined by monitoring the decay kinetics of 1(*+) and [e(-)](TiO(2))(CB). This is the first report on ultrafast ET dynamics on TiO(2) nanoparticle surface using a solvatochromic sensitizer molecule.

  11. The effects of grafting of 2-pyridyl to [Ru(bpy)(2)(Hpip)](2+) on acid-base and DNA-binding properties: experimental and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, An-Guo; Yang, Huai-Xia; Yang, Ke-Zhi

    2011-06-01

    A new Ru(II) complex of [Ru(bpy)(2)(Hpip)](2+) {bpy = 2,2'bipyridine; Hppip = 2-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} has been synthesized by grafting of 2-pyridyl to parent complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(Hpip)](2+) {Hppip = 2-(4-phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline}. The acid-base properties of [Ru(bpy)(2)(Hpip)](2+) studied by UV-visible and luminescence spectrophotometric pH titrations, revealed off-on-off luminescence switching of [Ru(bpy)(2)(Hpip)](2+) that was driven by the protonation/deprotonation of the imidazolyl and the pyridyl moieties. The complex was demonstrated to be a DNA intercalator with an intrinsic DNA binding constant of (5.56 ± 0.2) x 10(5) M-1 in buffered 50 mM NaCl, as evidenced by UV-visible and luminescence titrations, reverse salt effect, DNA competitive binding with ethidium bromide, steady-state emission quenching by [Fe(CN)6]4-, DNA melting experiments and viscosity measurements. The density functional theory method was also used to calculate geometric/electronic structures of the complex in an effort to understand the DNA binding properties. All the studies indicated that the introduction of 2-pyridyl onto Hpip ligand is more favorable for extension of conjugate plane of the main ligand than that of phenyl, and for greatly enhanced ct-DNA binding affinity accordingly.

  12. Dinuclear ruthenium complexes display loop isomer selectivity to c-MYC DNA G-quadriplex and exhibit anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chuping; Liu, Yanan; Liu, Ying; Qin, Xiuying; Zhou, Yanhui; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    G-quadruplex DNA, especially the cellular-myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (c-MYC) is closely associated with cell-cycle regulation, proliferation of tumour cells. In this work, the interaction between the c-MYC and two dinuclear Ru(II) complexes [(bpy)2Ru(bpibp)Ru(bpy)2](ClO4)4 (compound 1) and [(phen)2Ru(bpibp)Ru(phen)2](ClO4)4 (compound 2) have been studied. The data from UV-Visible, PCR-stop and Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed that two complexes can stabilize the structure of G-quadruplex in the c-MYC promoter and targeting the G-quadruplex loop isomers. Interestingly, the complex 2 has a greater effect on the 1:2:1 and 2:1:1 loop isomers while the 1 prefers to the 1:2:1 isomers. The mechanism studies revealed that complexes can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells by generating ROS metabolites, triggering mitochondrial membrane potential loss and down-regulation of P-Akt (Akt also known as protein kinase B), P-p44/42 MAP kinase protein (P-p44/42), and c-MYC. Taken together, these results suggested that the two dinuclear complexes may both be candidates as anti-tumour agents as they may reduce the c-MYC gene expression. {bpibp: 4, 4'-bis (1, 10-phenanthroline-[5, 6-d] imidazole-2-yl)-biphenyl, bpy: 2,2-bipyridine, phen: 1,10-phenanthroline}.

  13. Crystal structure of azido-(η(5)-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)bis-(tri-phenyl-phosphane-κP)ruthenium(II) di-chloro-methane hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Calva, Adriana; Meléndez-Balbuena, Lidia; Arroyo, Maribel; Ramírez-Monroy, Armando

    2014-10-01

    The title solvated complex, [Ru(η(5)-C5H5)(N3){P(C6H5)3}2]·0.5CH2Cl2, displays a typical piano-stool geometry about the Ru(II) atom. The bond lengths and angles of the cyclo-penta-dienyl and phosphane ligands are very similar to that of the unsolvated complex [Taqui Khan et al. (1994 ▶). Acta Cryst. C50, 502-504]. The azide anion displays similar N-N distances of 1.173 (3) and 1.156 (3) Å and has an N-N-Ru angle of 119.20 (15)°, indicating a greater contribution of the canonical form Ru-N=N((+))=N((-)) for the bonding situation. An intra-molecular C-H⋯N hydrogen-bonding inter-action between one ortho H atom of a phosphane ligand and the N atom coordinating to the metal is observed. A similar inter-molecular inter-action is observed between a meta H atom of a phosphane ligand and the terminal azide N atom of a neighbouring complex. Finally, two C-H⋯N inter-actions exists between the H atoms of the di-chloro-methane solvent mol-ecule and the terminal N atom of two azide anions. The solvent mol-ecule is located about a twofold rotation axis and shows disorder of the Cl atoms with an occupancy ratio of 0.62 (3):0.38 (3). PMID:25484673

  14. The first scorpionate ligand based on diazaphosphole.

    PubMed

    Mlateček, Martin; Dostál, Libor; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Honzíček, Jan; Holubová, Jana; Erben, Milan

    2015-12-14

    The reaction of PhBCl2 with 1H-1,2,4-λ(3)-diazaphosphole in the presence of NEt3 gives a new scorpionate ligand, phenyl-tris(1,2,4-diazaphospholyl)borate (PhTdap). The coordination behaviour of this ligand toward transition and non-transition metals has been comprehensively studied. In the thallium(I) complex, Tl(PhTdap), κ(2)-N,N bonding supported with intramolecular η(3)-phenyl coordination has been observed in the solid state. Tl(PhTdap) also shows unusual intermolecular π-interactions between five-membered diazaphosphole rings and the thallium atom giving infinite molecular chains in the crystal. In the square planar complex [Pd(C,N-C6H4CH2NMe2)(PhTdap)], κ(2)-bonded scorpionate has been detected in both solution and in the solid state. For other studied compounds with the central metal ion Ti(IV), Mo(II), Mn(I), Fe(II), Ru(II), Co(II), Co(III), Ni(II) and Cd(II), the κ(3)-N,N,N coordination pattern was observed. Electronic properties of PhTdap and its ligand-field strength were elucidated from UV-Vis spectra of transition-metal species. The CH/P replacement on going from tris(pyrazolyl)borate to the ligand PhTdap causes a slight increase in electronic density rendered to the central metal atom. The following order of ligand-field strength has been established: HB(3,5-Me2pz)3 < PhB(pz)3 < HB(1,2,4-triazolyl) < HB(pz)3 < PhB(1,2,4-triazolyl) < PhTdap. The crystal structures of ten metal complexes bearing the new ligand are reported. The possibility of PhTdap coordination through the phosphorus atom is also briefly discussed. PMID:26537349

  15. A novel dual-functioning ruthenium(II)-arene complex of an anti-microbial ciprofloxacin derivative - Anti-proliferative and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Ude, Ziga; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Twamley, Brendan; Fitzgerald Hughes, Deirdre; Sadler, Peter J; Marmion, Celine J

    2016-07-01

    7-(4-(Decanoyl)piperazin-1-yl)-ciprofloxacin, CipA, (1) which is an analogue of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, and its ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)(CipA-H)Cl], (2) have been synthesised and the x-ray crystal structures of 1·1.3H2O·0.6CH3OH and 2·CH3OH·0.5H2O determined. The complex adopts a typical pseudo-octahedral 'piano-stool' geometry, with Ru(II) π-bonded to the p-cymene ring and σ-bonded to a chloride and two oxygen atoms of the chelated fluoroquinolone ligand. The complex is highly cytotoxic in the low μM range and is as potent as the clinical drug cisplatin against the human cancer cell lines A2780, A549, HCT116, and PC3. It is also highly cytotoxic against cisplatin- and oxaliplatin-resistant cell lines suggesting a different mechanism of action. The complex also retained low μM cytotoxicity against the human colon cancer cell line HCT116p53 in which the tumour suppressor p53 had been knocked out, suggesting that the potent anti-proliferative properties associated with this complex are independent of the status of p53 (in contrast to cisplatin). The complex also retained moderate anti-bacterial activity in two Escherichia coli, a laboratory strain and a clinical isolate resistant to first, second and third generation β-lactam antibiotics.

  16. Combining very large quadratic and cubic nonlinear optical responses in extended, tris-chelate metallochromophores with six pi-conjugated pyridinium substituents.

    PubMed

    Coe, Benjamin J; Fielden, John; Foxon, Simon P; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Samoc, Anna; Samoc, Marek

    2010-03-17

    We describe a series of nine new complex salts in which electron-rich Ru(II) or Fe(II) centers are connected via pi-conjugated bridges to six electron-accepting N-methyl-/N-arylpyridinium groups. This work builds upon our previous preliminary studies (Coe , B. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 13399-13410; J. Phys. Chem. A 2007, 111, 472-478), with the aims of achieving greatly enhanced NLO properties and also combining large quadratic and cubic effects in potentially redox-switchable molecules. Characterization has involved various techniques, including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The complexes display intense, visible d --> pi* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) bands, and their pi --> pi* intraligand charge-transfer (ILCT) absorptions in the near-UV region show molar extinction coefficients as high as ca. 3.5 x 10(5) M(-1) cm(-1). Molecular quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses beta have been determined by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering at 800 and 1064 nm and also via Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopic studies. The directly and indirectly derived beta values are very large, with the Stark-based static first hyperpolarizabilities beta(0) reaching as high as ca. 10(-27) esu, and generally increase on extending the pi-conjugation and enhancing the electron-accepting strength of the ligands. Cubic NLO properties have also been measured by using the Z-scan technique, revealing relatively high two-photon absorption cross sections of up to 2500 GM at 750 nm. PMID:20166735

  17. Novel ruthenium(II) cyclopentadienyl thiosemicarbazone compounds with antiproliferative activity on pathogenic trypanosomatid parasites.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Mariana; Arce, Esteban Rodríguez; Sarniguet, Cynthia; Morais, Tânia S; Tomaz, Ana Isabel; Azar, Claudio Olea; Figueroa, Roberto; Diego Maya, J; Medeiros, Andrea; Comini, Marcelo; Helena Garcia, M; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

    2015-12-01

    Searching for new prospective antitrypanosomal agents, three novel Ru(II)-cyclopentadienyl compounds, [Ru(η(5)-C5H5)(PPh3)L], with HL=bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized in the solid state and in solution. The compounds were evaluated in vitro on the blood circulating trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c strain), the infective form of Trypanosoma brucei brucei (strain 427) and on J774 murine macrophages and human-derived EA.hy926 endothelial cells. The compounds were active against both parasites with IC50 values in the micromolar or submicromolar range. Interestingly, they are much more active on T. cruzi than previously developed Ru(II) classical and organometallic compounds with the same bioactive ligands. The new compounds showed moderate to very good selectivity towards the parasites in respect to mammalian cells. The global results point at [RuCp(PPh3)L2] (L2=N-methyl derivative of 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazone and Cp=cyclopentadienyl) as the most promising compound for further developments (IC50T. cruzi=0.41μM; IC50T. brucei brucei=3.5μM). Moreover, this compound shows excellent selectivity towards T. cruzi (SI>49) and good selectivity towards T. brucei brucei (SI>6). In order to get insight into the mechanism of antiparasitic action, the intracellular free radical production capacity of the new compounds was assessed by ESR. DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pirroline-N-oxide) spin adducts related to the bioreduction of the complexes and to redox cycling processes were characterized. In addition, DNA competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide by fluorescence measurements showed that the compounds interact with this biomolecule.

  18. Upconverting Nanoparticles Prompt Remote Near-Infrared Photoactivation of Ru(II)-Arene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Emmanuel; Garino, Claudio; Mareque-Rivas, Juan C; Habtemariam, Abraha; Salassa, Luca

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis and full characterisation (including X-ray diffraction studies and DFT calculations) of two new piano-stool Ru(II) -arene complexes, namely [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(m-CCH-Py)][(PF)6]2 (1) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(m-CCH-Py)][(PF)6]2 (2; p-cym=p-cymene, bpy=2,2'-bipyridine, bpm=2,2'-bipyrimidine, and m-CCH-Py=3-ethynylpyridine), is described and discussed. The reaction of the m-CCH-Py ligand of 1 and 2 with diethyl-3-azidopropyl phosphonate by Cu-catalysed click chemistry affords [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(P-Trz-Py)][(PF)6]2 (3) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(P-Trz-Py)][(PF)6]2 (4; P-Trz-Py=[3-(1-pyridin-3-yl-[1,2,3]triazol-4-yl)-propyl]phosphonic acid diethyl ester). Upon light excitation at λ=395 nm, complexes 1-4 photodissociate the monodentate pyridyl ligand and form the aqua adduct ions [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpy)(H2O)](2+) and [(η(6) -p-cym)Ru(bpm)(H2O)](2+). Thulium -doped upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) are functionalised with 4, thus exploiting their surface affinity for the phosphonate group in the complex. The so-obtained nanosystem UCNP@4 undergoes near-infrared (NIR) photoactivation at λ=980 nm, thus producing the corresponding reactive aqua species that binds the DNA-model base guanosine 5'-monophosphate. PMID:26785101

  19. Filamentation of Escherichia coli K12 elicited by some monomeric, dimeric and trimeric complexes of ruthenium in various oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J F; Hughes, M N; Poole, R K; Rees, J F

    1985-05-01

    A number of ruthenium complexes were tested for their ability to induce filamentation in Escherichia coli. These included monomeric and dimeric complexes with ruthenium in the II or III oxidation states, as well as mixed-valence complexes with ruthenium in the (II,III) oxidation states. In general, dimeric mixed-valence Ru(II,III) complexes were the most active class of compound, although some complexes of this type were relatively inactive. These were pyrazine- or bipyridyl-bridged complexes which are known to involve strong metal-ligand interaction, which stabilizes the Ru(II) oxidation state. Some Ru(III) complexes were also significantly active in induction of filamentous growth in E. coli. One of these was [Ru(NH3)5Cl]Cl2, which did not inhibit electron transport, Mg2+-ATPase activity or DNA synthesis in E. coli, but like [Ru2(NH3)6Br3]Br2 X H2O was a potent inhibitor of respiration-driven calcium transport in the organism. Filament-inducing activity of the complex was reduced in the presence of NaCl, but not in the presence of added Ca2+, ethanol, calcium pantothenate, or E. coli 'division promoting extract'. This behaviour is also similar to that of [Ru2(NH3)6Br3]Br2 X H2O. It is suggested that both complexes may induce filamentation in E. coli by a common mechanism, which may involve interference with calcium metabolism, or a wall or membrane target, rather than interaction with DNA. PMID:3159489

  20. Visible photoelectrochemical water splitting into H2 and O2 in a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell.

    PubMed

    Alibabaei, Leila; Sherman, Benjamin D; Norris, Michael R; Brennaman, M Kyle; Meyer, Thomas J

    2015-05-12

    A hybrid strategy for solar water splitting is exploited here based on a dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cell (DSPEC) with a mesoporous SnO2/TiO2 core/shell nanostructured electrode derivatized with a surface-bound Ru(II) polypyridyl-based chromophore-catalyst assembly. The assembly, [(4,4'-(PO3H2)2bpy)2Ru(4-Mebpy-4'-bimpy)Ru(tpy)(OH2)](4+) ([Ru(a) (II)-Ru(b) (II)-OH2](4+), combines both a light absorber and a water oxidation catalyst in a single molecule. It was attached to the TiO2 shell by phosphonate-surface oxide binding. The oxide-bound assembly was further stabilized on the surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of either Al2O3 or TiO2 overlayers. Illumination of the resulting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)|SnO2/TiO2|-[Ru(a) (II)-Ru(b) (II)-OH2](4+)(Al2O3 or TiO2) photoanodes in photoelectrochemical cells with a Pt cathode and a small applied bias resulted in visible-light water splitting as shown by direct measurements of both evolved H2 and O2. The performance of the resulting DSPECs varies with shell thickness and the nature and extent of the oxide overlayer. Use of the SnO2/TiO2 core/shell compared with nanoITO/TiO2 with the same assembly results in photocurrent enhancements of ∼ 5. Systematic variations in shell thickness and ALD overlayer lead to photocurrent densities as high as 1.97 mA/cm(2) with 445-nm, ∼ 90-mW/cm(2) illumination in a phosphate buffer at pH 7. PMID:25918426

  1. Mechanistic Insights into C-H Oxidations by Ruthenium(III)-Pterin Complexes: Impact of Basicity of the Pterin Ligand and Electron Acceptability of the Metal Center on the Transition States.

    PubMed

    Mitome, Hiroumi; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Kotani, Hiroaki; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kojima, Takahiko

    2016-08-01

    A ruthenium(II) complex, [Ru(dmdmp)Cl(MeBPA)] (2) (Hdmdmp = N,N-dimethyl-6,7-dimethylpterin, MeBPA = N-methyl-N,N-bis(pyridylmethyl)amine), having a pterin derivative as a proton-accepting ligand, was synthesized and characterized. Complex 2 shows higher basicity than that of a previously reported Ru(II)-pterin complex, [Ru(dmdmp) (TPA)](+) (1) (TPA = tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine). On the other hand, 1e(-)-oxidized species of 1 (1OX) exhibits higher electron-acceptability than that of 1e(-)-oxidized 2 (2OX). Bond dissociation enthalpies (BDE) of the two Ru(II) complexes having Hdmdmp as a ligand in proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) to generate 1OX and 2OX were calculated to be 85 kcal mol(-1) for 1OX and 78 kcal mol(-1) for 2OX. The BDE values are large enough to perform H atom transfer from C-H bonds of organic molecules to the 1e(-)-oxidized complexes through PCET. The second-order rate constants (k) of PCET oxidation reactions were determined for 1OX and 2OX. The logarithms of normalized k values were proportional to the BDE values of C-H bonds of the substrates with slopes of -0.27 for 1OX and -0.44 for 2OX. The difference between 1OX and 2OX in the slopes suggests that the transition states in PCET oxidations of substrates by the two complexes bear different polarization, as reflection of difference in the electron acceptability and basicity of 1OX and 2OX. The more basic 2OX attracts a proton from a C-H bond via a more polarized transition state than that of 1OX; on the contrary, the more electron-deficient 1OX forms less polarized transition states in PCET oxidation reactions of C-H bonds.

  2. Excited state decay of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes: insight from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kreitner, Christoph; Heinze, Katja

    2016-09-21

    Deactivation pathways of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes with [RuN5C](+) coordination are discussed on the basis of the available experimental data and a series of density functional theory calculations. Three different complex classes are considered, namely with [Ru(N^N)2(N^C)](+), [Ru(N^N^N)(N^C^N)](+) and [Ru(N^N^N)(N^N^C)](+) coordination modes. Excited state deactivation in these complex types proceeds via five distinct decay channels. Vibronic coupling of the (3)MLCT state to high-energy oscillators of the singlet ground state ((1)GS) allows tunneling to the ground state followed by vibrational relaxation (path A). A ligand field excited state ((3)MC) is thermally accessible via a (3)MLCT →(3)MC transition state with the (3)MC state being strongly coupled to the (1)GS surface via a low-energy minimum energy crossing point (path B). Furthermore, a (3)MLCT →(1)GS surface crossing point directly couples the triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (path C). Charge transfer states either with higher singlet character or with different orbital parentage and intrinsic symmetry restrictions are thermally populated which promote non-radiative decay via tunneling to the (1)GS state (path D). Finally, the excited state can decay via phosphorescence (path E). The dominant deactivation pathways differ for the three individual complex classes. The implications of these findings for isoelectronic iridium(iii) or iron(ii) complexes are discussed. Ultimately, strategies for optimizing the emission efficiencies of cyclometalated polypyridine complexes of d(6)-metal ions, especially Ru(II), are suggested. PMID:27334798

  3. Luminescent osmium(ii) bi-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl complexes: photophysical characterisation and application in light-emitting electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, Daniel A W; Scattergood, Paul A; Babaei, Azin; Pertegás, Antonio; Bolink, Henk J; Elliott, Paul I P

    2016-05-01

    The series of osmium(ii) complexes [Os(bpy)3-n(btz)n][PF6]2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl, btz = 1,1'-dibenzyl-4,4'-bi-1,2,3-triazolyl, n = 0, n = 1, n = 2, n = 3), have been prepared and characterised. The progressive replacement of bpy by btz leads to blue-shifted UV-visible electronic absorption spectra, indicative of btz perturbation of the successively destabilised bpy-centred LUMO. For , a dramatic blue-shift relative to the absorption profile for is observed, indicative of the much higher energy LUMO of the btz ligand over that of bpy, mirroring previously reported data on analogous ruthenium(ii) complexes. Unlike the previously reported ruthenium systems, heteroleptic complexes and display intense emission in the far-red/near-infrared (λmax = 724 and 713 nm respectively in aerated acetonitrile at RT) as a consequence of higher lying, and hence less thermally accessible, (3)MC states. This assertion is supported by ground state DFT calculations which show that the dσ* orbitals of to are destabilised by between 0.60 and 0.79 eV relative to their Ru(ii) analogues. The homoleptic complex appears to display extremely weak room temperature emission, but on cooling to 77 K the complex exhibits highly intense blue emission with λmax 444 nm. As complexes to display room temperature luminescent emission and readily reversible Os(ii)/(iii) redox couples, light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC) devices were fabricated. All LECs display electroluminescent emission in the deep-red/near-IR (λmax = 695 to 730 nm). Whilst devices based on and show inferior current density and luminance than LECs based on , the device utilising shows the highest external quantum efficiency at 0.3%. PMID:27055067

  4. Design of Os(II) -based sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: influence of heterocyclic ancillaries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fa-Chun; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Planells, Miquel; Robertson, Neil; Padhy, Harihara; Du, Bo-Sian; Chi, Yun; Yang, Po-Fan; Lin, Hao-Wu; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Chou, Pi-Tai

    2013-08-01

    A series of Os(II) sensitizers (TFOS-x, in which x=1, 2, or 3) with a single 4,4'-dicarboxy-2,2'-dipyridine (H2 dcbpy) anchor and two chelating 2-pyridyl (or 2-pyrimidyl) triazolate ancillaries was successfully prepared. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis showed that the core geometry of the Os(II) -based sensitizers consisted of one H2 dcbpy unit and two eclipsed cis-triazolate fragments; this was notably different from the Ru(II) -based counterparts, in which the azolate (both pyrazolate and triazolate) fragments are located at the mutual trans-positions. The basic properties were extensively probed by using spectroscopic and electrochemical methods as well as time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was then attempted by using the I(-) /I3 (-) -based electrolyte solution. One such DSC device, which utilized TFOS-2 as the sensitizer, showed promising performance characteristics with a short-circuit current density (JSC ) of 15.7 mA cm(-2) , an open-circuit voltage of 610 mV, a fill factor of 0.63, and a power conversion efficiency of 6.08 % under AM 1.5G simulated one-sun irradiation. Importantly, adequate incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency performances were observed for all TFOS derivatives over the wide spectral region of 450 to 950 nm, showing a panchromatic light harvesting capability that extended into the near-infrared regime. Our results underlined a feasible strategy for maximizing JSC and increasing the efficiency of DSCs. PMID:23843354

  5. Ruthenium(II) bipyridine complexes bearing new keto-enol azoimine ligands: synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Al-Noaimi, Mousa; Awwadi, Firas F; Mansi, Ahmad; Abdel-Rahman, Obadah S; Hammoudeh, Ayman; Warad, Ismail

    2015-01-25

    The novel azoimine ligand, Ph-NH-N=C(COCH3)-NHPh(C≡CH) (H2L), was synthesized and its molecular structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. Catalytic hydration of the terminal acetylene of H2L in the presence of RuCl3·3H2O in ethanol at reflux temperature yielded a ketone (L1=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-Ph(COCH3) and an enol (L2=Ph-N=N-C(COCH3)=N-PhC(OH)=CH2) by Markovnikov addition of water. Two mixed-ligand ruthenium complexes having general formula, trans-[Ru(bpy)(Y)Cl2] (1-2) (where Y=L1 (1) and Y=L2 (2), bpy is 2.2'-bipyrdine) were achieved by the stepwise addition of equimolar amounts of (H2L) and bpy ligands to RuCl3·3H2O in absolute ethanol. Theses complexes were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR (1D (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (DEPT-135), (DEPT-90), 2D (1)H-(1)H and (13)C-(1)H correlation (HMQC) spectroscopy)). The two complexes exhibit a quasi-reversible one electron Ru(II)/Ru(III) oxidation couple at 604 mV vs. ferrocene/ferrocenium (Cp2Fe(0/+)) couple along with one electron ligand reduction at -1010 mV. The crystal structure of complex 1 showed that the bidentate ligand L1 coordinates to Ru(II) by the azo- and imine-nitrogen donor atoms. The complex adopts a distorted trans octahedral coordination geometry of chloride ligands. The electronic spectra of 1 and 1+ in dichloromethane have been modeled by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT).

  6. Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangping; Chen, Yu; Li, Guanying; Zhang, Pingyu; Jin, Chengzhi; Zeng, Leli; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by poor depth efficacy and inefficient activation of the cell death machinery in cancer cells during treatment. To address these issues, photoactivation using two-photon absorption (TPA) is currently being examined. Mitochondria-targeted therapy represents a promising approach to target tumors selectively and may overcome the resistance in current anticancer therapies. Herein, four ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes (RuL1-RuL4) have been designed and developed to act as mitochondria-targeted two-photon photodynamic anticancer agents. These complexes exhibit very high singlet oxygen quantum yields in methanol (0.74-0.81), significant TPA cross sections (124-198 GM), remarkable mitochondrial accumulation, and deep penetration depth. Thus, RuL1-RuL4 were utilized as one-photon and two-photon absorbing photosensitizers in both monolayer cells and 3D multicellular spheroids (MCSs). These Ru(II) complexes were almost nontoxic towards cells and 3D MCSs in the dark and generate sufficient singlet oxygen under one- and two-photon irradiation to trigger cell death. Remarkably, RuL4 exhibited an IC50 value as low as 9.6 μM in one-photon PDT (λirr = 450 nm, 12 J cm(-2)) and 1.9 μM in two-photon PDT (λirr = 830 nm, 800 J cm(-2)) of 3D MCSs; moreover, RuL4 is an order of magnitude more toxic than cisplatin in the latter test system. The combination of mitochondria-targeting and two-photon activation provides a valuable paradigm to develop ruthenium(II) complexes for PDT applications.

  7. Mimicking photosynthesis in a computationally designed synthetic metalloprotein.

    PubMed

    Cristian, Lidia; Piotrowiak, Piotr; Farid, Ramy S

    2003-10-01

    While advances in protein design have made possible the construction of protein architectures with nativelike properties and predictable structures and function, there are as of yet no examples of functional, protein-based, solar energy conversion systems. This communication describes the design and characterization of an artificial reaction center (RC) protein that closely resembles the function of the natural photosynthetic RC. The synthetic protein, designed by the protein design program CORE, participates in multiple reduction/oxidation cycles with exogenous acceptors/donors following photoexcitation. The designed metalloprotein, aRC, consists of a tetrahelical bundle functionalized with two bis-histidine bound metal cofactors: a Ru(bpy)2 moiety and a heme group. Two distinct bis-histidine binding sites were engineered for each of these metal centers. Photoexcitation of aRC results in rapid ET from the RuII complex to the heme group (kET >/= 5 x 1010 s-1) yielding a long-lived (70 ns) charge-separated state (CSS), RuIII/FeII. This long-lived CSS participates in subsequent ET reactions with exogenous donors and acceptors in multiple photocycles, thus mimicking the basic function of native photosynthetic RCs. This study illustrates the successful design and construction of a protein-based functional charge separation device using a combination of automated computational protein design and knowledge of the engineering principles of biological electron tunneling extracted from natural electron-transfer systems. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a functional protein-based artificial reaction center. PMID:14505392

  8. Controlling ground and excited state properties through ligand changes in ruthenium polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Ashford, Dennis L; Glasson, Christopher R K; Norris, Michael R; Concepcion, Javier J; Keinan, Shahar; Brennaman, M Kyle; Templeton, Joseph L; Meyer, Thomas J

    2014-06-01

    The capture and storage of solar energy requires chromophores that absorb light throughout the solar spectrum. We report here the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical, and photophysical properties of a series of Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes of the type [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; N-N is a bidentate polypyridyl ligand). In this series, the nature of the N-N ligand was altered, either through increased conjugation or incorporation of noncoordinating heteroatoms, as a way to use ligand electronic properties to tune redox potentials, absorption spectra, emission spectra, and excited state energies and lifetimes. Electrochemical measurements show that lowering the π* orbitals on the N-N ligand results in more positive Ru(3+/2+) redox potentials and more positive first ligand-based reduction potentials. The metal-to-ligand charge transfer absorptions of all of the new complexes are mostly red-shifted compared to Ru(bpy)3(2+) (λmax = 449 nm) with the lowest energy MLCT absorption appearing at λmax = 564 nm. Emission energies decrease from λmax = 650 nm to 885 nm across the series. One-mode Franck-Condon analysis of room-temperature emission spectra are used to calculate key excited state properties, including excited state redox potentials. The impacts of ligand changes on visible light absorption, excited state reduction potentials, and Ru(3+/2+) potentials are assessed in the context of preparing low energy light absorbers for application in dye-sensitized photoelectrosynthesis cells.

  9. Versatile Photocatalytic Systems for H2 Generation in Water Based on an Efficient DuBois-Type Nickel Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The generation of renewable H2 through an efficient photochemical route requires photoinduced electron transfer (ET) from a light harvester to an efficient electrocatalyst in water. Here, we report on a molecular H2 evolution catalyst (NiP) with a DuBois-type [Ni(P2R′N2R″)2]2+ core (P2R′N2R″ = bis(1,5-R′-diphospha-3,7-R″-diazacyclooctane), which contains an outer coordination sphere with phosphonic acid groups. The latter functionality allows for good solubility in water and immobilization on metal oxide semiconductors. Electrochemical studies confirm that NiP is a highly active electrocatalyst in aqueous electrolyte solution (overpotential of approximately 200 mV at pH 4.5 with a Faradaic yield of 85 ± 4%). Photocatalytic experiments and investigations on the ET kinetics were carried out in combination with a phosphonated Ru(II) tris(bipyridine) dye (RuP) in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Time-resolved luminescence and transient absorption spectroscopy studies confirmed that directed ET from RuP to NiP occurs efficiently in all systems on the nano- to microsecond time scale, through three distinct routes: reductive quenching of RuP in solution or on the surface of ZrO2 (“on particle” system) or oxidative quenching of RuP when the compounds were immobilized on TiO2 (“through particle” system). Our studies show that NiP can be used in a purely aqueous solution and on a semiconductor surface with a high degree of versatility. A high TOF of 460 ± 60 h–1 with a TON of 723 ± 171 for photocatalytic H2 generation with a molecular Ni catalyst in water and a photon-to-H2 quantum yield of approximately 10% were achieved for the homogeneous system. PMID:24320740

  10. Optical Resolution, Determination of Absolute Configuration, and Photoracemization of cis-RuL2(CN)2 (L = 2,2'-Bipyridine and Its Analogues).

    PubMed

    Aihara, Yusuke; Sato, Kyohei; Shinozaki, Kazuteru

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized neutral Ru(II) complexes cis-Ru(bpy)2(CN)2 (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), cis-Ru(dmb)2(CN)2 (dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), cis-Ru(dbb)2(CN)2 (dbb = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine), and cis-Ru(phen)2(CN)2 (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and optically resolved them into respective enantiomers using high-performance liquid chromatography with a chiral column. The absolute configuration of enantiomer of cis-Ru(dbb)2(CN)2 was determined by an X-ray crystallography. Upon photoirradiation, the entire enantiomers of the complexes underwent the racemization with considerably slow rates (k = 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5) s(-1)) and small quantum yields (ϕ = 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-5)). The photoracemization was concluded to proceed via a five-coordinate pyramidal intermediate with the base plane composed of Ru, bidentate polypyridine, and two cyanides and the axial ligand of monodentate polypyridine. We derived the equations for photoracemization rate and quantum yield by a kinetics analysis of the photoracemization reaction that depended on polypyridine ligand, solvent, temperature, wavelength and intensity of irradiation light, and emission lifetime. From the temperature-dependent photoracemization reaction, the energy gap between (3)MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer) and (3)d-d* states was estimated as ΔE = 4000-5000 cm(-1), and the energy of invisible (3)d-d* state was estimated to be ca. 20 500 cm(-1), which was in good agreement with that of [Ru(bpy)3](2+). PMID:27518826

  11. Photoinduced processes within compact dyads based on triphenylpyridinium-functionalized bipyridyl complexes of ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Lainé, Philippe P; Ciofini, Ilaria; Ochsenbein, Philippe; Amouyal, Edmond; Adamo, Carlo; Bedioui, Fethi

    2005-06-01

    As an alternative to conventional charge-separation functional molecular models based on long-range ET within redox cascades, a "compact approach" has been examined. To this end, spacer elements usually inserted between main redox-active units within polyad systems have been removed, allowing extended rigidity but at the expense of enhanced intercomponent electronic communication. The molecular assemblies investigated here are of the P-(theta (1))-A type, where the theta (1) twist angle is related to the degree of conjugation between the photosensitizer (P, of {Ru(bpy)(3)}(2+) type) and the electron-acceptor (A). 4-N- and 4-N-,4'-N-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinio)-2,2'-bipyridine ligands (A(1)-bpy and A(2)-bpy, respectively) have been synthesized to give complexes with Ru(II), 1-bpy and 2-bpy, respectively. Combined solid-state analysis (X-ray crystallography), solution studies ((1)H NMR, cyclic voltammetry) and computational structural optimization allowed verifying that theta (1) angle approaches 90 degrees within 1-bpy and 2-bpy in solution. Also, anticipated existence of strong intercomponent electronic coupling has been confirmed by investigating electronic absorption properties and electrochemical behavior of the compounds. The capability of 1-bpy and 2-bpy to undergo PET process was evaluated by carrying out their photophysical study (steady state emission and time-resolved spectroscopy at both 293 and 77 K). The conformational dependence of photoinduced processes within P-(theta (1))-A systems has been established by comparing the photophysical properties of 1-bpy (and 2-bpy) with those of an affiliated species reported in the literature, 1-phen. A complementary theoretical analysis (DFT) of the change of spin density distribution within model [1-bpy(theta (1))](-) mono-reduced species as a function of theta (1) has been undertaken and the possibility of conformationally switching emission properties of P was derived. PMID:15822134

  12. pH luminescence switching, dihydrogen phosphate sensing, and cellular uptake of a heterobimetallic ruthenium(II)-rhenium(I) complex.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ze-Bao; Wu, Yong-Quan; Wang, Ke-Zhi; Li, Fuyou

    2014-02-28

    A new heterobimetallic ruthenium(II)-rhenium(I) complex of [Ru(bpy)2(HL)Re(CO)3Cl](ClO4)2·6H2O (RuHLRe) {bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine and HL = 2-(4-(2,6-di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridin-4-yl)phenyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline} was synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The ground- and excited-state acid-base properties of RuHLRe were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric titrations in a 100 : 1 (v/v) Britton-Robinson buffer-CH3CN solution combined with luminescence lifetime measurements. The complex exhibited two-step separate protonation-deprotonation processes in both the ground and excited states. The complex acted as pH-induced "off-on-off" luminescence switches (I(on)/I(off) = 31.0 and 14.6), with one of the switching actions being driven by pH variations over the physiological pH range (5.3-8.0). Importantly, cellular imaging and cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that RuHLRe rapidly and selectively illuminated the membrane of HeLa cells over fixed cells and exhibited reduced cytotoxicity at the imaging concentration compared to the Re(I)-free parent Ru(II) complex. In addition, RuHLRe acted as an efficient "turn on" emission sensor for H2PO4(-) and "turn off" emission sensor for F(-) and OAc(-).

  13. Excited state decay of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes: insight from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Kreitner, Christoph; Heinze, Katja

    2016-09-21

    Deactivation pathways of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((3)MLCT) excited state of cyclometalated polypyridine ruthenium complexes with [RuN5C](+) coordination are discussed on the basis of the available experimental data and a series of density functional theory calculations. Three different complex classes are considered, namely with [Ru(N^N)2(N^C)](+), [Ru(N^N^N)(N^C^N)](+) and [Ru(N^N^N)(N^N^C)](+) coordination modes. Excited state deactivation in these complex types proceeds via five distinct decay channels. Vibronic coupling of the (3)MLCT state to high-energy oscillators of the singlet ground state ((1)GS) allows tunneling to the ground state followed by vibrational relaxation (path A). A ligand field excited state ((3)MC) is thermally accessible via a (3)MLCT →(3)MC transition state with the (3)MC state being strongly coupled to the (1)GS surface via a low-energy minimum energy crossing point (path B). Furthermore, a (3)MLCT →(1)GS surface crossing point directly couples the triplet and singlet potential energy surfaces (path C). Charge transfer states either with higher singlet character or with different orbital parentage and intrinsic symmetry restrictions are thermally populated which promote non-radiative decay via tunneling to the (1)GS state (path D). Finally, the excited state can decay via phosphorescence (path E). The dominant deactivation pathways differ for the three individual complex classes. The implications of these findings for isoelectronic iridium(iii) or iron(ii) complexes are discussed. Ultimately, strategies for optimizing the emission efficiencies of cyclometalated polypyridine complexes of d(6)-metal ions, especially Ru(II), are suggested.

  14. Photoinduced charge, ion & energy transfer processes at transition-metal coordination compounds anchored to mesoporous, nanocrystalline metal-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardo, Shane

    spectroscopy can be employed to monitor lateral self-exchange energy- and hole-transfer reactions across the sensitized TiO2 surface. Under conditions of poor excited-state injection, support for Ru*/II self exchange was obtained, while subsequent to electron injection, the resulting RuIII state of the sensitizer was often capable of RuIII/II self-exchange reactions. The kinetics for many processes associated with mesoporous, nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films can be modeled by a stretched-exponential function, which possesses an underlying distribution of rate constants. In Chapter 5, we provide the first implementation of an Arrhenius analysis for the temperature dependence of these distributions.

  15. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions.

  16. Synthesis, structure and photophysical properties of a highly luminescent terpyridine-diphenylacetylene hybrid fluorophore and its metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Biswa Nath; Topić, Filip; Sahoo, Prasit Kumar; Mal, Prasenjit; Linnera, Jarno; Kalenius, Elina; Tuononen, Heikki M; Rissanen, Kari

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorescent terpyridyl-diphenylacetylene hybrid fluorophore 4'-[4-{(4-methoxyphenyl)ethynyl}phenyl]-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, L, was synthesized via Sonogashira cross-coupling of 4'-(4-bromophenyl)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 4-ethynylanisole in the presence of Pd(PPh3)4/CuI as a catalyst. The solid state structure of L shows a trans arrangement of pyridine nitrogen atoms along the interannular bond in the terpyridine domain. Five transition metal complexes of L, {[FeL2](CF3SO3)2 (1), [ZnL2](ClO4)2 (2), [CdL2](ClO4)2 (3), [RuL2](PF6)2 (4), and PtMe3IL (5)}, have also been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic methods and single crystal X-ray analysis. The X-ray crystal structures of complexes 1-3 show a distorted octahedral MN6 arrangement with tridentate coordination of the two terpyridine ligands, whereas in complex 5 the ligand L binds in a bidentate fashion. The ligand L displays bright blue emission in the solid state and in both non-polar and polar organic media. The fluorescence quantum yield of L is exceptionally high for a monoterpyridine ligand of its kind, which can be rationalized with density functional theory calculations. The electronic structure of L shows that the fluorescence involves intramolecular charge transfer from the diphenylacetylene moiety to the terpyridine group, and it is not affected by the usual non-radiative relaxation processes such as pyridine rotation. The Fe(II), Ru(II) and Pt(IV) complexes of L were found to be non-emissive, whereas both Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes displayed significant green emission attributed to intra-ligand charge transfer states. These results were supported by the observed red-shift of the emission maxima of complexes 2 and 3 with increasing the solvent polarity. PMID:25373423

  17. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response.

    PubMed

    Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  18. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukerblat, Boris E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Palii, Andrew E-mail: andrew.palii@uv.es; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-07

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(II) + 2Ru(III)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between

  19. Electron transfer reactivity of the aqueous iron(IV)–oxo complex. Outer-sphere vs proton-coupled electron transfer

    DOE PAGES

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2016-06-18

    Here, the kinetics of oxidation of organic and inorganic reductants by aqueous iron(IV) ions, FeIV(H2O)5O2+ (hereafter FeIVaqO2+), are reported. The substrates examined include several water-soluble ferrocenes, hexachloroiridate(III), polypyridyl complexes M(NN)32+ (M = Os, Fe and Ru; NN = phenanthroline, bipyridine and derivatives), HABTS–/ABTS2–, phenothiazines, CoII(dmgBF2)2, macrocyclic nickel(II) complexes, and aqueous cerium(III). Most of the reductants were oxidized cleanly to the corresponding one-electron oxidation products, with the exception of phenothiazines which produced the corresponding oxides in a single-step reaction, and polypyridyl complexes of Fe(II) and Ru(II) that generated ligand-modified products. FeIVaqO2+ oxidizes even Ce(III) (E0 in 1 M HClO4 = 1.7more » V) with a rate constant greater than 104 M–1 s–1. In 0.10 M aqueous HClO4 at 25 °C, the reactions of Os(phen)32+ (k = 2.5 × 105 M–1 s–1), IrCl63– (1.6 × 106), ABTS2– (4.7 × 107), and Fe(cp)(C5H4CH2OH) (6.4 × 107) appear to take place by outer sphere electron transfer (OSET). The rate constants for the oxidation of Os(phen)32+ and of ferrocenes remained unchanged in the acidity range 0.05 < [H+] < 0.10 M, ruling out prior protonation of FeIVaqO2+ and further supporting the OSET assignment. A fit to Marcus cross-relation yielded a composite parameter (log k22 + E0Fe/0.059) = 17.2 ± 0.8, where k22 and E0Fe are the self-exchange rate constant and reduction potential, respectively, for the FeIVaqO2+/FeIIIaqO+ couple. Comparison with literature work suggests k22 < 10–5 M–1 s–1 and thus E0(FeIVaqO2+/FeIIIaqO+) > 1.3 V. For proton-coupled electron transfer, the reduction potential is estimated at E0 (FeIVaqO2+, H+/FeIIIaqOH2+) ≥ 1.95 V.« less

  20. Theoretical studies of phosphorescence spectra of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) transition metal compounds.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Koichi; Takamori, Keisei; Nakatsugawa, Yuji; Ohno, Takeshi

    2006-08-01

    Phosphorescence spectra of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) metal compounds, [M(bpy)3]n+, where M = Zn(II), Ru(II), Os(II), Rh(III), and Ir(III), were calculated using a harmonic oscillator approximation of adiabatic potential surfaces obtained by density functional theory (DFT). Using the Huang-Rhys (S) factors calculated by theoretical Franck-Condon analysis of T1 and S0 geometries, we successfully reproduced the emission spectra observed under various conditions by nonempirical calculations. The simulations of well-structured spectra of the Zn(II), Rh(III), and Ir(III) compounds confirmed that the emission originated from localized ligand-centered excited states with considerably distorted geometries of C2 symmetry. The spectrum simulation revealed that the phosphorescence state of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ was localized 3MLCT both in a solution and a glass matrix. Furthermore, a highly resolved phosphorescence spectrum observed for [Ru(bpy)3]2+ doped in a [Zn(bpy)3](ClO4)2 crystal was reproduced well using the geometry of the localized 3MLCT by assuming mode-specific broadening of low-frequency intramolecular vibrational modes. The deuterium effects of the electronic origins of the doped crystal observed by Riesen et al. were in excellent agreement with those predicted for the localized 3MLCT. However, the calculated satellite structures of the localized 3MLCT involving bpy-h8 in [Ru(bpy-h8)(3-x)(bpy-d8)x]2+ (x = 1,2) exhibited only the bpy-h8 vibrational modes, inconsistent with the simultaneous appearance of both bpy-h8 and bpy-h8 modes in the observed spectra. A simulation on the basis of the geometry of the delocalized 3MLCT was in reasonable agreement with an unresolved spectrum observed for a neat crystal of [Ru(bpy)3](PF6)2, which is inconsistent with the assignments of localized 3MLCT on the basis of the electronic origins. The inconsistency of the assignment on the basis of the adiabatic model is discussed in terms of vibronic coupling between the localized 3MLCT states. The

  1. Shining Light on Copper: Unique Opportunities for Visible-Light-Catalyzed Atom Transfer Radical Addition Reactions and Related Processes.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Oliver

    2016-09-20

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis offers exciting opportunities to achieve challenging carbon-carbon bond formations under mild and ecologically benign conditions. Desired features of photoredox catalysts are photostability, long excited-state lifetimes, strong absorption in the visible region, and high reduction or oxidation potentials to achieve electron transfer to substrates, thus generating radicals that can undergo synthetic organic transformations. These requirements are met in a convincing way by Ru(II)(phenanthroline)3- and Ir(III)(phenylpyridine)3-type complexes and, as a low-cost alternative, by organic dyes that offer a metal-free catalyst but suffer in general from lower photostability. Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes have been recognized for more than 30 years as photoresponsive compounds with highly negative Cu(I)* → Cu(II) oxidation potentials, but nevertheless, they have not been widely considered as suitable photoredox catalysts, mainly because their excited lifetimes are shorter by a factor of 5 to 10 compared with Ru(II) and Ir(III) complexes, their absorption in the visible region is weak, and their low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potentials might impede the closure of a catalytic cycle for a given process. Contrasting again with Ru(II)L3 and Ir(III)L3 complexes, Cu(I)L2 assemblies undergo more rapid ligand exchange in solution, thus potentially reducing the concentration of the photoactive species. Focusing on atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) reactions and related processes, we highlight recent developments that show the utility of Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes as photoredox catalysts, demonstrating that despite their short excited-state lifetimes and weak absorption such complexes are efficient at low catalyst loadings. Moreover, some of the inherent disadvantages stated above can even be turned to advantages: (1) the low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potential might efficiently promote reactions via a radical chain pathway, and (2

  2. Ruthenium terpyridine complexes containing a pyrrole-tagged 2,2'-dipyridylamine ligand-synthesis, crystal structure, and electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kwong-Chak; Guo, Peng; So, Ming-Him; Zhou, Zhong-Yuan; Lee, Lawrence Yoon Suk; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2012-06-18

    Ruthenium(II) terpyridine complexes containing the pyrrole-tagged 2,2'-dipyridylamine ligand PPP (where PPP stands for N-(3-bis(2-pyridyl)aminopropyl)pyrrole with the general formula [Ru(tpy)(PPP)X](n+) (1, X = Cl(-); 2, X = H(2)O; 3, X = CH(3)CN; tpy = 2,2':6',2"-terpyridine) have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, UV-vis, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. 1 and 2 have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. Both 1 and 2 were successfully immobilized onto glassy carbon electrode via anodic oxidation of the pyrrole moiety on the PPP ligand to give stable and highly electroactive polymer films. Cyclic voltammetric studies of 1 in acetonitrile revealed a Ru(III)/Ru(II) couple at 0.4 V vs Cp(2)Fe(+/0) initially, but another redox couple resulting from chloride substitution by acetonitrile developed at E(1/2) = 0.82 V upon repetitive potential scan. This ligand substitution was induced by the acidic local environment caused by the release of protons during pyrrole polymerization. The electropolymerization of 2 in aqueous medium allowed the observation of the formation of Ru(IV)═O species in polypyrrole film. As the film grew thicker, the size of the Ru(III)/(/)Ru(II) couple (E(1/2) = 0.8 V vs SCE at pH 1) of poly[Ru(tpy)(PPP)(OH(2))](n+) increased accordingly, whereas the growth of the Ru(IV)/Ru(III) couple (E(1/2) = 0.89 V vs SCE at pH 1) leveled off after the film had reached a certain thickness. The Pourbaix diagram of the E(1/2) of the Ru(III) /Ru(II) and Ru(IV)/Ru(III) couples vs pH of the electrolyte medium has been obtained. The resulting poly[Ru(tpy)(PPP)(OH(2))](n+) film is electrocatalytically active toward the oxidation of benzyl alcohol.

  3. A novel ruthenium(II)-cobaloxime supramolecular complex for photocatalytic H2 evolution: Synthesis, characterisation, and mechanistic studies

    PubMed Central

    Cropek, Donald M.; Metz, Anja; Müller, Astrid M.; Gray, Harry B.; Horne, Toyketa; Horton, Dorothy C.; Poluektov, Oleg; Tiede, David M.; Weber, Ralph T.; Jarrett, William L.; Phillips, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of novel mixed-metal binuclear ruthenium(II)-cobalt(II) photocatalysts for hydrogen evolution in acidic acetonitrile. First, 2-(2′-pyridyl)benzothiazole (pbt), 1, was reacted with RuCl3·xH2O to produce [Ru(pbt)2Cl2] ·0.25CH3COCH3, 2, which was then reacted with 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione), 3 in order to produce [Ru(pbt)2(phendione)](PF6)2·4H2O, 4. Compound 4 was then reacted with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde in order to produce [Ru(pbt)2(L-pyr)](PF6)2·9.5H2O, 5 (where L-pyr = (4-pyridine)oxazolo[4,5-f]phenanthroline). Compound 5 was then reacted with [Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)2] (where dmgBF2 = difluorboryldimethylglyoximate) in order to produce the mixed-metal binuclear complex, [Ru(pbt)2(L-pyr)Co(dmgBF2)2(H2O)](PF6)2·11H2O·1.5CH3COCH3, 6. [Ru(Me2bpy)2(L-pyr)Co(dmgBF2)2(OH2)](PF6)2, 7 (where Me2bpy = 1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) and [Ru(phen)2(L-pyr)Co(dmgBF2)2(OH2)](PF6)2, 8 were also synthesised. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, UV-visible absorption, 11B, 19F, and 59Co NMR, ESR spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, where appropriate. Photocatalytic studies carried out in acidified acetonitrile demonstrated constant hydrogen generation longer than a 42 hour period as detected by gas chromatography. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements were performed on compound 6, which proved an intramolecular electron transfer from an excited Ru(II) metal centre to the Co(II) metal centre via the bridging L-pyr ligand. This resulted in the formation of a cobalt(I)-containing species that is essential for the production of H2 gas in the presence of H+ ions. A proposed mechanism for the generation of hydrogen is presented. PMID:23001132

  4. New bipyridyl/phenanthroline ruthenium(II) and ruthenium(III) complexes possessing acetate appended thioether. Evidence for oxidative linkage isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Rajeev

    2006-03-01

    The acetate bearing dithioether, sodium di(2-carboxymethylsufanyl)maleonitrile, L 1 upon reaction with [Ru II(bpy) 2Cl 2]·2H 2O, [Ru II(phen) 2Cl 2]·2H 2O, [Ru III(bpy) 2Cl 2] + or [Ru III(phen) 2Cl 2] + in methanol formed complexes of the type [(bpy) 2Ru{S 2(CH 2COO) 2C 2(CN) 2}], ( 1), [(phen) 2Ru{S 2(CH 2COO) 2C 2(CN) 2}], ( 2), [(bpy) 2Ru{(OOCCH 2) 2S 2C 2(CN) 2}] +, ( 5) and [(phen) 2Ru{(OOCCH 2) 2S 2C 2(CN) 2}] +, ( 6) respectively. Four other Ru(III) complexes with di(benzylsulfanyl)maleonitrile, L 2, [(bpy) 2Ru{S 2(PhCH 2)C 2(CN) 2}] 3+, ( 7) and [(phen) 2Ru{S 2(PhCH 2) 2C 2(CN) 2}] 3+, ( 8), and with acetate, [(bpy) 2Ru(OOCCH 3) 2] +, ( 9) and [(phen) 2Ru(OOCCH 3) 2] +, ( 10) were also synthesized. In the cyclic voltammetry, complexes ( 1) and ( 2) exhibited quasireversible oxidation waves at 1.01 and 1.02 V vs. Ag/AgCl over GC electrode in DMF, while the corresponding Ru(III) L 1 complexes ( 5) and ( 6) exhibit reversible oxidation at E1/2 0.59 and 0.58 V, respectively, under identical conditions. This is unlike the voltammetric behavior of the Ru(II) and Ru(III) L 2 complexes, wherein the complex pairs ( 3), ( 7) and ( 4), ( 8) exhibited identical voltammograms with single reversible one electron waves at E1/2 0.98 and 0.92 V, respectively under identical conditions. The voltammograms of Ru(II)-L 2 complexes (3) and (4) also became irreversible in presence of nearly four molar equivalent of sodium acetate. Hence, the irreversible redox behavior of complexes (1) and (2) has been interpreted in terms of rapid linkage isomerization, i.e. shift in κ 2-S,S' to κ 2-O,O' coordination, following the Ru(II)/Ru(III) electrode process. The electronic spectra of Ru(III)-L 1 complexes ( 5) and ( 6) resemble closely with that of ( 9) and ( 10) instead of Ru(III)-L 2 complexes ( 7) and ( 8), further supports proposed linkage isomerization. The cationic complexes were obtained as [PF 6] - salts and all compounds were characterized using analytical and spectral (IR

  5. Out of the Blue! Azuliporphyrins and Related Carbaporphyrinoid Systems.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy D

    2016-03-15

    First reported in 1997, azuliporphyrins have proven to be a truly remarkable family of porphyrin analogues. In this system, although the porphyrin framework is retained, one of the pyrrolic moieties has been replaced by an azulene unit. Azulene favors electrophilic substitution at the 1,3-positions, which are structurally analogous to the α-positions in pyrrole, and this property facilitates the construction of azulene-containing porphyrinoid systems. Azuliporphyrins were first prepared from tripyrranes and 1,3-azulenedicarbaldehyde using a "3 + 1" variant on the MacDonald reaction. Subsequently, azulenes were shown to react with acetoxymethylpyrroles under acidic conditions to generate azulitripyrranes that could be utilized in a back-to-front "3 + 1" methodology to form azuliporphyrins and related heteroporphyrinoids. In addition, the favorability of azulenes toward 1,3-substitution was applied to one-pot syntheses of tetraarylazuliporphyrins and calix[4]azulenes. Azuliporphyrins have significant diatropic character that is greatly enhanced upon protonation. They have been shown to form organometallic complexes with Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), Ir(III), Rh(III), and Ru(II) and undergo selective oxidations at the internal carbon with copper(II) or silver(I) salts to afford 21-oxyazuliporphyrins. In addition, oxidative ring contractions readily occur under basic conditions in the presence of peroxides to give benzocarbaporphyrins, and this reactivity provides access to tetraarylbenzocarbaporphyrins and their organometallic derivatives. A diazulenylmethane dialdehyde has been shown to react with dipyrrylmethanes in the presence of HCl or HBr to give diazuliporphyrins that were isolated in a monoprotonated form, and metalation with palladium(II) acetate afforded a stable zwitterionic palladium(II) complex. Equally intriguing dicarbaporphyrinoids incorporating indene and azulene rings have been reported, and these systems exhibit significant aromatic character. Recent

  6. Low molecular weight compounds with transition metals as free radical scavengers and novel therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Andrea; Failli, Paola; Valtancoli, Barbara; Bani, Daniele

    2010-07-01

    Molecules able to modulate the levels of endogenous free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), are of pivotal interest for pharmacological and pharmaceutical sciences because of their potential therapeutic relevance. In fact, ROS and NO, which are normal products of cell metabolism, may play a dual beneficial/deleterious role, depending on local concentration and mode of generation. As such, they have been identified as key pathogenic factors for many inflammatory, vascular dysfunctional and degenerative disorders, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and ageing. Therefore, the identification and characterization of novel antioxidant/free radical scavenger molecules may expand the current therapeutic implements for the treatment and prevention of the above diseases. In this perspective, low molecular weight complexes of transition metals with organic scaffolds are viewed and investigated as promising pharmaceutical agents. These complexes take advantage of the known principles of inorganic chemistry, i.e. the ability of transition metals, Fe(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ru(II), to bind to and react with NO and/or ROS, to counterbalance excessive endogenous free radical generation in biological systems. Among NO scavengers, representative examples are iron complexes with dithiocarbamates or ruthenium compounds with polyamine-polycarboxylate scaffolds; on the other hand, manganese-based molecules appear effective as ROS scavengers. Of note, Mn(II)-containing molecules, currently under study as ROS scavengers, have major functional similarities to Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), a Mn-containing enzyme acting as potent endogenous anti-oxidant. In this article, we briefly summarize the state-of-the-art concerning the chemical and biological properties of transition metal ion complexes with low molecular weight synthetic ligands as ROS/NO scavengers provided with

  7. Resolution of electrogenic steps coupled to conversion of cytochrome c oxidase from the peroxy to the ferryl-oxo state.

    PubMed

    Siletsky, S; Kaulen, A D; Konstantinov, A A

    1999-04-13

    Charge translocation across the membrane coupled to transfer of the third electron in the reaction cycle of bovine cytochrome c oxidase (COX) has been studied. Flash-induced reduction of the peroxy intermediate (P) to the ferryl-oxo state (F) by tris-bipyridyl complex of Ru(II) in liposome-reconstituted COX is coupled to several phases of membrane potential generation that have been time-resolved with the use of an electrometric technique applied earlier in the studies of the ferryl-oxo-to-oxidized (F --> O) transition of the enzyme [Zaslavsky, D., et al. (1993) FEBS Lett. 336, 389-393]. As in the case of the F --> O transition, the electric response associated with photoreduction of P to F includes a rapid KCN-insensitive electrogenic phase with a tau of 40-50 microseconds (reduction of heme a by CuA) and a multiphasic slower part; this part is cyanide-sensitive and is assigned to vectorial transfer of protons coupled to reduction of oxygen intermediate in the binuclear center. The net KCN-sensitive phase of the response is approximately 4-fold more electrogenic than the rapid phase, which is similar to the characteristics of the F --> O electrogenic transition and is consistent with net transmembrane translocation of two protons per electron, including vectorial movement of both "chemical" and "pumped" protons. The protonic part of the P --> F electric response is faster than in the F --> O transition and can be deconvoluted into three exponential phases with tau values varying for different samples in the range of 0.25-0.33, 1-1.5, and 6-7.5 ms at pH 8. Of these three phases, the 1-1.5 ms component is the major one contributing 50-60%. The P --> F conversion induced by single electron photoreduction of the peroxy state as studied in this work is several times slower than the P --> F transition resolved during oxidation of the fully reduced oxidase by molecular oxygen. The role of the CuB redox state in controlling the rate of P --> F conversion of heme a3 is

  8. Spectroscopic, Electrochemical and Computational Characterisation of Ru Species Involved in Catalytic Water Oxidation: Evidence for a [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)] Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Carla; Codolà, Zoel; Costas, Miquel; Lloret-Fillol, Julio

    2016-07-11

    A new family of ruthenium complexes based on the N-pentadentate ligand Py2 (Me) tacn (N-methyl-N',N''-bis(2-picolyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane) has been synthesised and its catalytic activity has been studied in the water-oxidation (WO) reaction. We have used chemical oxidants (ceric ammonium nitrate and NaIO4 ) to generate the WO intermediates [Ru(II) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , [Ru(III) (OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](3+) , [Ru(III) (OH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) and [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) , which have been characterised spectroscopically. Their relative redox and pH stability in water has been studied by using UV/Vis and NMR spectroscopies, HRMS and spectroelectrochemistry. [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) has a long half-life (>48 h) in water. The catalytic cycle of WO has been elucidated by using kinetic, spectroscopic, (18) O-labelling and theoretical studies, and the conclusion is that the rate-determining step is a single-site water nucleophilic attack on a metal-oxo species. Moreover, [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is proposed to be the resting state under catalytic conditions. By monitoring Ce(IV) consumption, we found that the O2 evolution rate is redox-controlled and independent of the initial concentration of Ce(IV) . Based on these facts, we propose herein that [Ru(IV) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) is oxidised to [Ru(V) (O)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) prior to attack by a water molecule to give [Ru(III) (OOH)(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) . Finally, it is shown that the difference in WO reactivity between the homologous iron and ruthenium [M(OH2 )(Py2 (Me) tacn)](2+) (M=Ru, Fe) complexes is due to the difference in the redox stability of the key M(V) (O) intermediate. These results contribute to a better understanding of the WO mechanism and the differences between iron and ruthenium complexes in WO reactions. PMID:27324949

  9. Mixed-valence molecular four-dot unit for quantum cellular automata: Vibronic self-trapping and cell-cell response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukerblat, Boris; Palii, Andrew; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Coronado, Eugenio

    2015-10-01

    Our interest in this article is prompted by the vibronic problem of charge polarized states in the four-dot molecular quantum cellular automata (mQCA), a paradigm for nanoelectronics, in which binary information is encoded in charge configuration of the mQCA cell. Here, we report the evaluation of the electronic levels and adiabatic potentials of mixed-valence (MV) tetra-ruthenium (2Ru(ii) + 2Ru(iii)) derivatives (assembled as two coupled Creutz-Taube complexes) for which molecular implementations of quantum cellular automata (QCA) was proposed. The cell based on this molecule includes two holes shared among four spinless sites and correspondingly we employ the model which takes into account the two relevant electron transfer processes (through the side and through the diagonal of the square) as well as the difference in Coulomb energies for different instant positions of localization of the hole pair. The combined Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT vibronic coupling is treated within the conventional Piepho-Krauzs-Schatz model adapted to a bi-electronic MV species with the square-planar topology. The adiabatic potentials are evaluated for the low lying Coulomb levels in which the antipodal sites are occupied, the case just actual for utilization in mQCA. The conditions for the vibronic self-trapping in spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are revealed in terms of the two actual transfer pathways parameters and the strength of the vibronic coupling. Spin related effects in degrees of the localization which are found for spin-singlet and spin-triplet states are discussed. The polarization of the cell is evaluated and we demonstrate how the partial delocalization caused by the joint action of the vibronic coupling and electron transfer processes influences polarization of a four-dot cell. The results obtained within the adiabatic approach are compared with those based on the numerical solution of the dynamic vibronic problem. Finally, the Coulomb interaction between the

  10. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory-Organometallic Anticancer Compounds.

    PubMed

    Păunescu, Emilia; McArthur, Sarah; Soudani, Mylène; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-15

    Compounds that combine metal-based drugs with covalently linked targeted organic agents have been shown, in some instances, to exhibit superior anticancer properties compared to the individual counterparts. Within this framework, we prepared a series of organometallic ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes modified with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin and diclofenac. The NSAIDs are attached to the organometallic moieties via monodentate (pyridine/phosphine) or bidentate (bipyridine) ligands, affording piano-stool Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes of general formula [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(N)], where N is a pyridine-based ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate}, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(P)], where P is a phosphine ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate, and [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(N,N')][Cl], where N,N' is a bipyridine-based ligand, (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetate), (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetate), (bis(2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate), or (bis(2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate). The antiproliferative properties of the complexes were assessed in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter being resistant to cisplatin) and nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Some of the complexes are considerably more cytotoxic than the original drugs and also display significant cancer cell selectivity. PMID:26824462

  11. Stepwise assembly of mixed-metal coordination cages containing both kinetically inert and kinetically labile metal ions: introduction of metal-centred redox and photophysical activity at specific sites.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ashley B; Metherell, Alexander J; Cullen, William; Ward, Michael D

    2015-11-01

    Stepwise preparation of the heterometallic octanuclear coordination cages [(M(a))4(M(b))4L12](16+) is reported, in which M(a) = Ru or Os and M(b) = Cd or Co (all in their +2 oxidation state). This requires initial preparation of the kinetically inert mononuclear complexes [(M(a))L3](2+) in which L is a ditopic ligand with two bidentate chelating pyrazolyl-pyridine units: in the complexes [(M(a))L3](2+) one terminus of each ligand is bound to the metal ion, such that the complex has three pendant bidentate sites at which cage assembly can propagate by coordination to additional labile ions M(b) in a separate step. Thus, combination of four [(M(a))L3](2+) units and four [M(b)](2+) ions results in assembly of the complete cages [(M(a))4(M(b))4L12](16+) in which a metal ion lies at each of the eight vertices, and a bridging ligand spans each of the twelve edges, of a cube. The different types of metal ion necessarily alternate around the periphery with each bridging ligand bound to one metal ion of each type. All four cages have been structurally characterised: in the Ru(ii)/Cd(ii) cage (reported in a recent communication) the Ru(ii) and Cd(ii) ions are crystallographically distinct; in the other three cages [Ru(ii)/Co(ii), Os(ii)/Cd(ii) and Os(ii)/Co(ii), reported here] the ions are disordered around the periphery such that every metal site refines as a 50 : 50 mixture of the two metal atom types. The incorporation of Os(ii) units into the cages results in both redox activity [a reversible Os(ii)/Os(iii) couple for all four metal ions simultaneously, at a modest potential] and luminescence [the Os(ii) units have luminescent (3)MLCT excited states which will be good photo-electron donors] being incorporated into the cage superstructure.

  12. Low molecular weight compounds with transition metals as free radical scavengers and novel therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Bencini, Andrea; Failli, Paola; Valtancoli, Barbara; Bani, Daniele

    2010-07-01

    Molecules able to modulate the levels of endogenous free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), are of pivotal interest for pharmacological and pharmaceutical sciences because of their potential therapeutic relevance. In fact, ROS and NO, which are normal products of cell metabolism, may play a dual beneficial/deleterious role, depending on local concentration and mode of generation. As such, they have been identified as key pathogenic factors for many inflammatory, vascular dysfunctional and degenerative disorders, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and ageing. Therefore, the identification and characterization of novel antioxidant/free radical scavenger molecules may expand the current therapeutic implements for the treatment and prevention of the above diseases. In this perspective, low molecular weight complexes of transition metals with organic scaffolds are viewed and investigated as promising pharmaceutical agents. These complexes take advantage of the known principles of inorganic chemistry, i.e. the ability of transition metals, Fe(II), Co(II), Mn(II) and Ru(II), to bind to and react with NO and/or ROS, to counterbalance excessive endogenous free radical generation in biological systems. Among NO scavengers, representative examples are iron complexes with dithiocarbamates or ruthenium compounds with polyamine-polycarboxylate scaffolds; on the other hand, manganese-based molecules appear effective as ROS scavengers. Of note, Mn(II)-containing molecules, currently under study as ROS scavengers, have major functional similarities to Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), a Mn-containing enzyme acting as potent endogenous anti-oxidant. In this article, we briefly summarize the state-of-the-art concerning the chemical and biological properties of transition metal ion complexes with low molecular weight synthetic ligands as ROS/NO scavengers provided with

  13. An investigation of the photochemical properties of transition metal arene complexes: Final report for the period July 1, 1983 to June 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    The photochemical removal of the arene from CpM(eta/sup 6/-arene)/sup +/ was studied for complexes of Fe(II) and Ru(II); (Fe, arene = p-dichlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, d/sub 8/-toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene, durene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, hexaethylbenzene, and tri-t-butylbenzene; Ru, p-dichlorobenzene, benzene, toluene, mesitylene, pentamethylbenzene, hexamethylbenzene, and tri-t-butylbenzene). Quantum yields were determined. The photoactive state was identified as the distorted a/sup 3/E/sub 1/ ligand field excited state. The excited state energy of the Fe complexes lies about 14,000 cm/sup -1/ above ground state. A theoretical photophysical model was developed to relate the quantum yield for arene release to the rate of arene release. This model predicts a linear correlation between log((phi/1-phi)) and sigma/sub p/, the Hammett parameter if electronic effects at the arene influence the rate of arene substitution. For chloro and methyl substituted arenes (up to 5 substituents for Fe and 6 substituents for Ru), the linear correlation was verified. The Hammett rho parameter is +1.03 and +0.53 for the Fe complexes in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ and CH/sub 3/CN solution respectively; for the Ru complexes in CH/sub 3/CN solution rho = +1.38. These data indicate a small negative charge builds up at the arene in the transition state for the arene release reaction. Deviations from the linear correlation of log(phi/(1-phi)) with sigma/sub p/ were found for the sterically hindered CpFe(eta/sup 6/-HMB)/sup +/, CpFe(eta/sup 6/-HEB)/sup +/ and CpFe(eta/sup 6/-1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene)/sup +/ complexes (HMB = hexamethylbenzene; HEB = hexaethylbenzene). These deviations result from steric interactions that hinder the interaction of nucleophiles in the transition state and ultimately control the quantum yield of arene release for a given complex.

  14. Influence of central metalloligand geometry on electronic communication between metals: syntheses, crystal structures, MMCT properties of isomeric cyanido-bridged Fe2Ru complexes, and TDDFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Hu, Sheng-Min; Tan, Chun-Hong; Wen, Yue-Hong; Sheng, Tian-Lu; Wu, Xin-Tao

    2014-06-01

    To investigate how the central metalloligand geometry influences distant or vicinal metal-to-metal charge-transfer (MMCT) properties of polynuclear complexes, cis- and trans-isomeric heterotrimetallic complexes, and their one- and two-electron oxidation products, cis/trans-[Cp(dppe)Fe(II)NCRu(II)(phen)2CN-Fe(II)(dppe)Cp][PF6]2 (cis/trans-1[PF6]2), cis/trans-[Cp(dppe)Fe(II)NCRu(II)(phen)2CNFe(III)-(dppe)Cp][PF6]3 (cis/trans-1[PF6]3) and cis/trans-[Cp(dppe)Fe(III)NCRu(II)(phen)2CN-Fe(III)(dppe)Cp][PF6]4 (cis/trans-1[PF6]4) have been synthesized and characterized. Electrochemical measurements show the presence of electronic interactions between the two external Fe(II) atoms of the cis- and trans-isomeric complexes cis/trans-1[PF6]2. The electronic properties of all these complexes were studied and compared by spectroscopic techniques and TDDFT//DFT calculations. As expected, both mixed valence complexes cis/trans-1[PF6]3 exhibited different strong absorption signals in the NIR region, which should mainly be attributed to a transition from an MO that is delocalized over the Ru(II)-CN-Fe(II) subunit to a Fe(III) d orbital with some contributions from the co-ligands. Moreover, the NIR transition energy in trans-1[PF6]3 is lower than that in cis-1[PF6]3, which is related to the symmetry of their molecular orbitals on the basis of the molecular orbital analysis. Also, the electronic spectra of the two-electron oxidized complexes show that trans-1[PF6]4 possesses lower vicinal Ru(II) → Fe(III) MMCT transition energy than cis-1[PF6]4. Moreover, the assignment of MMCT transition of the oxidized products and the differences of the electronic properties between the cis and trans complexes can be well rationalized using TDDFT//DFT calculations. PMID:24771667

  15. Electron Transfer Reactivity of the Aqueous Iron(IV)-Oxo Complex. Outer-Sphere vs Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Bataineh, Hajem; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2016-07-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of organic and inorganic reductants by aqueous iron(IV) ions, Fe(IV)(H2O)5O(2+) (hereafter Fe(IV)aqO(2+)), are reported. The substrates examined include several water-soluble ferrocenes, hexachloroiridate(III), polypyridyl complexes M(NN)3(2+) (M = Os, Fe and Ru; NN = phenanthroline, bipyridine and derivatives), HABTS(-)/ABTS(2-), phenothiazines, Co(II)(dmgBF2)2, macrocyclic nickel(II) complexes, and aqueous cerium(III). Most of the reductants were oxidized cleanly to the corresponding one-electron oxidation products, with the exception of phenothiazines which produced the corresponding oxides in a single-step reaction, and polypyridyl complexes of Fe(II) and Ru(II) that generated ligand-modified products. Fe(IV)aqO(2+) oxidizes even Ce(III) (E(0) in 1 M HClO4 = 1.7 V) with a rate constant greater than 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). In 0.10 M aqueous HClO4 at 25 °C, the reactions of Os(phen)3(2+) (k = 2.5 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), IrCl6(3-) (1.6 × 10(6)), ABTS(2-) (4.7 × 10(7)), and Fe(cp)(C5H4CH2OH) (6.4 × 10(7)) appear to take place by outer sphere electron transfer (OSET). The rate constants for the oxidation of Os(phen)3(2+) and of ferrocenes remained unchanged in the acidity range 0.05 < [H(+)] < 0.10 M, ruling out prior protonation of Fe(IV)aqO(2+) and further supporting the OSET assignment. A fit to Marcus cross-relation yielded a composite parameter (log k22 + E(0)Fe/0.059) = 17.2 ± 0.8, where k22 and E(0)Fe are the self-exchange rate constant and reduction potential, respectively, for the Fe(IV)aqO(2+)/Fe(III)aqO(+) couple. Comparison with literature work suggests k22 < 10(-5) M(-1) s(-1) and thus E(0)(Fe(IV)aqO(2+)/Fe(III)aqO(+)) > 1.3 V. For proton-coupled electron transfer, the reduction potential is estimated at E(0) (Fe(IV)aqO(2+), H(+)/Fe(III)aqOH(2+)) ≥ 1.95 V. PMID:27320290

  16. Ruthenium(III) chloride complex with a tridentate bis(arylimino)pyridine ligand: synthesis, spectra, X-ray structure, 9-ethylguanine binding pattern, and in vitro cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Maheswari, Palanisamy Uma; Siegler, Maxime; Spek, Anthony L; Reedijk, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The synthetic, spectroscopic, structural, and biological studies of a bis(arylimino)pyridine Ru(III) chloride compound containing the ligand, 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine are reported. The bis(arylimino)pyridine ligand, with three donor nitrogen atoms, was synthesized by condensation of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxaldehyde with 2,4,6-trimethylaniline. The Ru(III) complex, with formula [RuCl 3(L1)](H 2O) (RuL1), where L1 = 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyliminomethyl)pyridine, was structurally determined on the basis of analytical and spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, ESI-MS) studies. A straightforward strategy to fully characterize the paramagnetic compound using advanced (1)H NMR is reported. This new complex is a prototype for a series of new anticancer Ru(III) and Ru(II) compounds with improved cytostatic properties; likely to be modified in a desirable manner due to the relatively facile ligand modification of the bis(imino)pyridines and their molecular architecture. The present Ru(III) complex is the first example of this family of Ru(III)/Ru(II) anticancer compounds with the aimed physicochemical characteristics. Although the ligand itself is moderately active in selected cell lines (EVSA-T and MCF-7), the activity of the [Ru(L1)Cl 3] complex has increased significantly for a broad range of cancer cell lines tested in vitro (IC 50 values = 11 approximately 17 microM). Reaction of the RuL1 species with the DNA model base 9-ethylguanine (9EtGua) was found to produce in a redox reaction the species trans-[Ru(II)(L1)(9EtGua) 2(H 2O)](ClO 4) 2 (abbreviated as RuL1-9EtGua), which was studied in solution and also in the solid state, by X-ray crystallography. The structure comprises the as yet unknown trans-bis(purine)Ru(II) unit. PMID:18593112

  17. Computational Electrochemistry of Ruthenium Anticancer Agents. Unprecedented Benchmarking of Implicit Solvation Methods.

    PubMed

    Chiorescu, Ion; Deubel, Dirk V; Arion, Vladimir B; Keppler, Bernhard K

    2008-03-01

    Two ruthenium(III) complexes {(HIm)[trans-RuCl4(DMSO)(Im)] (NAMI-A) and (HInd)[trans-RuCl4(Ind)2] (KP1019), DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide, Im = imidazole, Ind = indazole} have been tested in phase I clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs. Ru(III) anticancer agents are likely activated in vivo upon reduction to their Ru(II) analogs. Aiming at benchmarking implicit solvation methods in DFT studies of ruthenium pharmaceuticals at the B3LYP level, we have calculated the standard redox potentials (SRPs) of Ru(III/II) pairs that were electrochemically characterized in the literature. 80 SRP values in four solvents were calculated using three implicit solvation methods and five solute cavities of molecular shape. Comparison with experimental data revealed substantial errors in some of the combinations of solvation method and solute cavity. For example, the overall mean unsigned error (MUE) with the PCM/UA0 combination, which is the popular default in Gaussian 03, amounts to 0.23 V (5.4 kcal/mol). The MUE with the CPCM/UAKS combination, which was employed by others for recent computational studies on the hydrolysis of NAMI-A and trans-[RuCl4(Im)2](-), amounts to 0.30 V (7.0 kcal/mol) for all compounds and to 0.60 V (13.9 kcal/mol) for a subset of compounds of the medicinally relevant type, trans-[RuCl4(L)(L')](-). The SRPs calculated with the PCM or CPCM methods in Gaussian 03 can be significantly improved by a more compact solute cavity constructed with Bondi's set of atomic radii. Earlier findings that CPCM performs better than PCM cannot be confirmed, as the overall MUE amounts to 0.19 V (4.3-4.4 kcal/mol) for both methods in combination with Bondi's set of radii. The Poisson-Boltzmann finite element method (PBF) implemented in Jaguar 7 together with the default cavity performs slightly better, with the overall MUE being 0.16 V (3.7 kcal/mol). Because the redox pairs considered in this study bear molecular charges from +3/+2 to -1/-2 and the prediction of solvation

  18. Influence of number of benzodioxan-stilbazole-based ancillary ligands on dye packing, photovoltage and photocurrent in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Hammad; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; El-Shafei, Ahmed

    2014-07-23

    Two novel heteroleptic Ru(II) bipyridyl complexes, HD-2 and HD-2-mono, were molecularly engineered, synthesized and characterized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The influences of mono versus bis electron-donor benzodioxan ancillary ligands on optical, dye packing, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties were examined and compared to the benchmark N719. HD-2 and HD-2-mono achieved solar-to-power conversion efficiencies (%η) of 9.64 and 9.50, respectively, compared to 9.32 for N719 under the same experimental device conditions. Optical results showed that HD-2 and HD-2-mono have much higher molar extinction coefficients, longer excited state lifetimes and narrower HOMO-LUMO gaps compared to N719. Although the molar extinction coefficient of HD-2-mono was 27% less than that of HD-2, it outperformed HD-2 in photovoltaic performance when anchored on TiO2, owing to better dye packing and loading of the former. Charge recombination at the dye/TiO2 interface by impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the recombination resistance and the lifetime of injected electron in TiO2 conduction band is directly proportional to the open-circuit voltage (Voc) observed. Furthermore, compared to HD-2 and HD-2-mono, the greater Voc of N719 can be attributed to the greater negative free energy for dye regeneration. Both HD-2 and HD-mono have almost the same negative free energy, which explains why they achieved almost the same Voc. Decay dynamic analysis for solar devices fabricated from the named dyes, by time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), elucidated that the lowest excited state decay lifetime for HD-2-mono, HD-2 and N719 are 3, 10 and 20 ps, respectively. The shorter the decay lifetime, the less kinetic redundancy, which leads to better photocurrent, and that explanation is consistent with the measured photocurrent and total solar-to-power conversion efficiency of the named dyes in the order of HD-2-mono > HD-2 > N719.

  19. Reaction of tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(III) with hydroxide and its application in a solar energy storage system.

    PubMed

    Creutz, C; Sutin, N

    1975-08-01

    Irradiation of Ru(bipy)(3) (2+) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with light below 560 nm results in the formation of a charge-transfer excited state potentially capable of reducing water to dihydrogen with concomitant production of Ru(bipy)(3) (3+). The latter may be reduced by hydroxide [Formula: see text] to form dioxygen and regenerate the starting complex. The use of these reactions in a cell designed to bring about the photochemical decomposition of water is proposed.The stoichiometry, kinetics, and mechanism of the Ru(bipy)(3) (3+)-hydroxide reaction have been investigated by conventional and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The dioxygen yield is a sharp function of pH, attaining its maximum value (about 80%) at pH 9. At low pH (3 and 4.8) the production of ruthenium(II) is first order with k(obsd) = (1.41 +/- 0.04) x 10(-4) sec(-1) (25 degrees , ionic strength mu = 1.00 M with sodium sulfate). In the intermediate pH range (7.9-10.0) complex kinetics are observed. In the hydroxide range 0.01-0.50 M, ruthenium(II) production is predominantly first order with k(obsd) = k(a)[OH(-)] + k(b)[OH(-)](2) sec(-1); k(a) = 148 M(-1) sec(-1) and k(b) = 138 M(-2) sec(-1) (25 degrees , mu = 1.00 M, sodium sulfate). For the k(a) term, the activation parameters are DeltaH(double dagger) = 15.3 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-1) and DeltaS(double dagger) = 7 +/- 3 cal deg(-1) mol(-1) (1 cal = 4.184 J). An intermediate species (lambda(max) 800 nm) forms at the same rate as ruthenium(II) in this hydroxide range. It disappears with k(obsd) = 1.2 + 1.1 x 10(2) [OH(-)] sec(-1) at 25 degrees . Similarly absorbing (lambda(max) 750 to 800 nm) species are generated by the addition of hydroxyl radical to M(bipy)(3) (2+/3+) [M = Fe(II), Os(II), Ru(II), Cr(III), Ru(III)] in pulse radiolysis experiments. The kinetics above pH 7 are described in terms of rate-determining nucleophilic attack by hydroxide on the bound bipyridine ring. The hydroxide adduct so generated is tentatively identified with that observed in

  20. Transition Metal Catalyzed Hydroarylation of Multiple Bonds: Exploration of Second Generation Ruthenium Catalysts and Extension to Copper Systems

    SciTech Connect

    T. Brent Gunnoe

    2011-02-17

    , which has provided a comprehensive understanding of the impact of steric and electronic parameters of 'L' on the catalytic hydroarylation of olefins. (3) We have completed and published a detailed mechanistic study of stoichiometric aromatic C-H activation by TpRu(L)(NCMe)Ph (L = CO or PMe{sub 3}). These efforts have probed the impact of functionality para to the site of C-H activation for benzene substrates and have allowed us to develop a detailed model of the transition state for the C-H activation process. These results have led us to conclude that the C-H bond cleavage occurs by a {sigma}-bond metathesis process in which the C-H transfer is best viewed as an intramolecular proton transfer. (4) We have completed studies of Ru complexes possessing the N-heterocyclic carbene IMes (IMes = 1,3-bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene). One of these systems is a unique four-coordinate Ru(II) complex that catalyzes the oxidative hydrophenylation of ethylene (in low yields) to produce styrene and ethane (utilizing ethylene as the hydrogen acceptor) as well as the hydrogenation of olefins, aldehydes and ketones. These results provide a map for the preparation of catalysts that are selective for oxidative olefin hydroarylation. (5) The ability of TpRu(PMe{sub 3})(NCMe)R systems to activate sp{sup 3} C-H bonds has been demonstrated including extension to subsequent C-C bond forming steps. These results open the door to the development of catalysts for the functionalization of more inert C-H bonds. (6) We have discovered that Pt(II) complexes supported by simple nitrogen-based ligands serve as catalysts for the hydroarylation of olefins. Given the extensive studies of Pt-based catalytic C-H activation, we believe these results will provide an entry point into an array of possible catalysts for hydrocarbon functionalization.

  1. Electrophilic, Ambiphilic, and Nucleophilic C-H bond Activation. Understanding the electronic continuum of C-H bond activation through transition-state and reaction pathway interaction energy decompositions

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Goddard, William A.; Periana, Roy A.

    2010-10-29

    The potential energy and interaction energy profiles for metal- and metal-ligand-mediated alkane C-H bond activation were explored using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) and the absolutely localized molecular orbital energy decomposition analysis (ALMO-EDA). The set of complexes explored range from late transition metal group 10 (Pt and Pd) and group 11 (Au) metal centers to group 7-9 (Ir, Rh, Ru, and W) metal centers as well as a group 3 Sc complex. The coordination geometries, electron metal count (d8, d6, d4, and d0), and ligands (N-heterocycles, O-donor, phosphine, and Cp*) are also diverse. Quantitative analysis using ALMO-EDA of both directions of charge-transfer stabilization (occupied to unoccupied orbital stabilization) energies between the metal-ligand fragment and the coordinated C-H bond in the transition state for cleavage of the C-H bond allows classification of C-H activation reactions as electrophilic, ambiphilic, or nucleophilic on the basis of the net direction of charge-transfer energy stabilization. This bonding pattern transcends any specific mechanistic or bonding paradigm, such as oxidative addition, σ-bond metathesis, or substitution. Late transition metals such as Au(III), Pt(II), Pd(II), and Rh(III) metal centers with N-heterocycle, halide, or O-donor ligands show electrophilically dominated reaction profiles with forward charge-transfer from the C-H bond to the metal, leading to more stabilization than reverse charge transfer from the metal to the C-H bond. Transition states and reaction profiles for d6 Ru(II) and Ir(III) metals with Tp and acac ligands were found to have nearly equal forward and reverse charge-transfer energy stabilization. This ambiphilic region also includes the classically labeled electrophilic cationic species Cp*(PMe3)Ir(Me). Nucleophilic character, where the metal to C-H bond charge-transfer interaction is most stabilizing, was found in

  2. Metal-organometallic polymers and frameworks derived from facially metalated arylcarboxylates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumalah Robinson, Sayon A.

    The interest in coordination polymers, also known as metal-organic frameworks, has risen drastically over the past 2 decades. In this time, the field has matured and given rise to a diverse range of crystalline structures possessing various functionalities. Coordination polymers are typically formed from the self assembly of metal ions which serve as nodes and organic ligands which act as bridges. By the careful selection of the organic ligand and the metal ion, the overall physical properties of the material may be tuned. In this work, the use of organometallic bridging ligands are explored using facially metalated aryl carboxylates ligands to synthesize metal-organometallic frameworks (MOMFs). Therefore, with the aim of synthesizing [CpM]+-functionalized (M = FeII, RuII; Cp = cyclopentadienyl) coordination polymers and metal organic frameworks, various [CpFe]+and [CpRu] + functionalized aryl carboxylates were synthesized and characterized. In particular, the [CpFe]+-functionalized benzoic, terephthalic and trimesic acids as well as the [CpRu]+-functionalized terephthalic acid were made. Using the [CpFe]+ complexes of the benzoic and terephthalic acid as bridging ligands, a number of 1D and 2D coordination polymers were synthesized. For instance, the reaction of [CpFe]+-functionalized benzoic acid with CdCl2 yielded the 1D chain of [Cd(benzoate)Cl 2]˙H2O whilst the reaction of [CpFe]+-functionalized terephthalic acid with Cu(NO3)2˙6H2O yielded a 2D square grid sheet. Using the [CpFe]+-functionalized terephthalic acid, a series of polymorphic, 3D metal-organometallic frameworks of the general formula [M3(terephthalate)4(mu-H2O)2(H 2O)2][NO3]2˙xsolvent (M = Co II, NiII ; solvent = EtOH, DMF, H2O) were synthesized and fully characterized. The polymorphic nature of these frameworks may be attributed to the different orientations that the [CpFe]+ moiety may adapt within the cavities in the 3D frameworks. The selectivity of the desolvated forms of the polymorphs for

  3. Photocatalytic water splitting: Materials design and high-throughput screening of molecular compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khnayzer, Rony S.

    , photons of low energy are converted into higher energy light using a process termed photon upconversion. Using this technique, low energy photons supplied by the sun can be converted into light of appropriate energy to trigger electronic transitions in high energy absorbing photoactive materials without any chemical modification of the latter. We have shown, that this technology is capable of upconverting visible sunlight to sensitize wide-bandgap semiconductors such as WO3, subsequently extending the photoaction of these materials to cover a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Besides the engineering of different compositions that serve as either sensitizers or catalysts in these solar energy conversion schemes, we have designed an apparatus for parallel high-throughput screening of these photocatalytic compositions. This combinatorial approach to solar fuels photocatalysis has already led to unprecedented fundamental understanding of the generation of hydrogen gas from pure water. The activity of a series of new Ru(II) sensitizers along with Co(II) molecular WRCs were optimized under visible light excitation utilizing different experimental conditions. The multi-step mechanism of activity of selected compositions was further elucidated by pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.

  4. New ruthenium(II) arene complexes of anthracenyl-appended diazacycloalkanes: effect of ligand intercalation and hydrophobicity on DNA and protein binding and cleavage and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ganeshpandian, Mani; Loganathan, Rangasamy; Suresh, Eringathodi; Riyasdeen, Anvarbatcha; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkadher; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2014-01-21

    A series of half-sandwich Ru(II) arene complexes of the type [Ru(η(6)-arene)(L)Cl](PF6) 1-4, where arene is benzene (1, 2) or p-cymene (3, 4) and L is N-methylhomopiperazine (L1) or 1-(anthracen-10-ylmethyl)-4-methylhomopiperazine (L2), has been isolated and characterized by using spectral methods. The X-ray crystal structures of 2, 3 and 4 reveal that the compounds possess a pseudo-octahedral "piano-stool" structure equipped with the arene ligand as the seat and the bidentate ligand and the chloride ion as the legs of the stool. The DNA binding affinity determined using absorption spectral titrations with CT DNA and competitive DNA binding studies varies as 4 > 2 > 3 > 1, depending upon both the arene and diazacycloalkane ligands. Complexes 2 and 4 with higher DNA binding affinities show strong hypochromism (56%) and a large red-shift (2, 10; 4, 11 nm), which reveals that the anthracenyl moiety of the ligand is stacked into the DNA base pairs and that the arene ligand hydrophobicity also dictates the DNA binding affinity. In contrast, the monocationic complexes 1 and 3 are involved in electrostatic binding in the minor groove of DNA. The enhancement in viscosities of CT DNA upon binding to 2 and 4 are higher than those for 1 and 3 supporting the DNA binding modes of interaction inferred. All the complexes cleave DNA effectively even in the absence of an external agent and the cleavage ability is enhanced in the presence of an activator like H2O2. Tryptophan quenching measurements suggest that the protein binding affinity of the complexes varies as 4 > 2 > 3 > 1, which is the same as that for DNA binding and that the fluorescence quenching of BSA occurs through a static mechanism. The positive ΔH(0) and ΔS(0) values for BSA binding of complexes indicate that the interaction between the complexes and BSA is mainly hydrophobic in nature and the energy transfer efficiency has been analysed according to the Förster non-radiative energy transfer theory. The

  5. Shining Light on Copper: Unique Opportunities for Visible-Light-Catalyzed Atom Transfer Radical Addition Reactions and Related Processes.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Oliver

    2016-09-20

    Visible-light photoredox catalysis offers exciting opportunities to achieve challenging carbon-carbon bond formations under mild and ecologically benign conditions. Desired features of photoredox catalysts are photostability, long excited-state lifetimes, strong absorption in the visible region, and high reduction or oxidation potentials to achieve electron transfer to substrates, thus generating radicals that can undergo synthetic organic transformations. These requirements are met in a convincing way by Ru(II)(phenanthroline)3- and Ir(III)(phenylpyridine)3-type complexes and, as a low-cost alternative, by organic dyes that offer a metal-free catalyst but suffer in general from lower photostability. Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes have been recognized for more than 30 years as photoresponsive compounds with highly negative Cu(I)* → Cu(II) oxidation potentials, but nevertheless, they have not been widely considered as suitable photoredox catalysts, mainly because their excited lifetimes are shorter by a factor of 5 to 10 compared with Ru(II) and Ir(III) complexes, their absorption in the visible region is weak, and their low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potentials might impede the closure of a catalytic cycle for a given process. Contrasting again with Ru(II)L3 and Ir(III)L3 complexes, Cu(I)L2 assemblies undergo more rapid ligand exchange in solution, thus potentially reducing the concentration of the photoactive species. Focusing on atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) reactions and related processes, we highlight recent developments that show the utility of Cu(I)(phenanthroline)2 complexes as photoredox catalysts, demonstrating that despite their short excited-state lifetimes and weak absorption such complexes are efficient at low catalyst loadings. Moreover, some of the inherent disadvantages stated above can even be turned to advantages: (1) the low Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction potential might efficiently promote reactions via a radical chain pathway, and (2

  6. Dual-lifetime referencing (DLR): a powerful method for on-line measurement of internal pH in carrier-bound immobilized biocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Industrial-scale biocatalytic synthesis of fine chemicals occurs preferentially as continuous processes employing immobilized enzymes on insoluble porous carriers. Diffusional effects in these systems often create substrate and product concentration gradients between bulk liquid and the carrier. Moreover, some widely-used biotransformation processes induce changes in proton concentration. Unlike the bulk pH, which is usually controlled at a suitable value, the intraparticle pH of immobilized enzymes may deviate significantly from its activity and stability optima. The magnitude of the resulting pH gradient depends on the ratio of characteristic times for enzymatic reaction and on mass transfer (the latter is strongly influenced by geometrical features of the porous carrier). Design and selection of optimally performing enzyme immobilizates would therefore benefit largely from experimental studies of the intraparticle pH environment. Here, a simple and non-invasive method based on dual-lifetime referencing (DLR) for pH determination in immobilized enzymes is introduced. The technique is applicable to other systems in which particles are kept in suspension by agitation. Results The DLR method employs fluorescein as pH-sensitive luminophore and Ru(II) tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenantroline), abbreviated Ru(dpp), as the reference luminophore. Luminescence intensities of the two luminophores are converted into an overall phase shift suitable for pH determination in the range 5.0-8.0. Sepabeads EC-EP were labeled by physically incorporating lipophilic variants of the two luminophores into their polymeric matrix. These beads were employed as carriers for immobilization of cephalosporin C amidase (a model enzyme of industrial relevance). The luminophores did not interfere with the enzyme immobilization characteristics. Analytical intraparticle pH determination was optimized for sensitivity, reproducibility and signal stability under conditions of continuous

  7. Oxidation Reactions of Dithiocarbamate Complexes of Ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Leung, Wa-Hung; Chim, Joyce L. C.; Hou, Hongwei; Hun, Tom S. M.; Williams, Ian D.; Wong, Wing-Tak

    1997-09-24

    interaction between the Ru(III) and Ru(II) centers. Oxidation of Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2) (L = PPh(3), t-BuNC) by I(2) gave the respective [Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)L(2)](+) cations. The reaction of cis-Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(PPh(3))(2) with excess tosyl azide gave the diamagnetic Ru(IV) tetrazene complex Ru(Et(2)dtc)(2)(Ts(2)N(4)), 7. Complex 7 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; with a = 10.380(1) Å, b = 11.322(1) Å, c = 15.310(1) Å, alpha = 106.84(2) degrees, beta = 106.87(2) degrees, and gamma = 92.63(2) degrees for Z = 2. The Ru-S and Ru-N(alpha) distances in 7 are 2.385 and 1.98 Å, respectively. The formal potentials of the Ru dithiocarbamate complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry.