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Sample records for rules introduction breeze

  1. Bayes’ Rule for Clinicians: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Westbury, Chris F.

    2010-01-01

    Bayes’ Rule is a way of calculating conditional probabilities. It is difficult to find an explanation of its relevance that is both mathematically comprehensive and easily accessible to all readers. This article tries to fill that void, by laying out the nature of Bayes’ Rule and its implications for clinicians in a way that assumes little or no background in probability theory. It builds on Meehl and Rosen's (1955) classic paper, by laying out algebraic proofs that they simply allude to, and by providing extremely simple and intuitively accessible examples of the concepts that they assumed their reader understood. PMID:21833252

  2. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  3. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Wu, Kung C.

    1996-12-31

    A zeroth level introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single- degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  4. Active structural control by fuzzy logic rules: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1995-07-01

    An introduction to fuzzy logic control applied to the active structural control to reduce the dynamic response of structures subjected to earthquake excitations is presented. It is hoped that this presentation will increase the attractiveness of the methodology to structural engineers in research as well as in practice. The basic concept of the fuzzy logic control are explained by examples and by diagrams with a minimum of mathematics. The effectiveness and simplicity of the fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by a numerical example in which the response of a single-degree-of-freedom system subjected to earthquake excitations is controlled by making use of the fuzzy logic controller. In the example, the fuzzy rules are first learned from the results obtained from linear control theory; then they are fine tuned to improve their performance. It is shown that the performance of fuzzy logic control surpasses that of the linear control theory. The paper shows that linear control theory provides experience for fuzzy logic control, and fuzzy logic control can provide better performance; therefore, two controllers complement each other.

  5. Interaction between a wildfire and the sea-breeze front

    Treesearch

    Deborah E. Hanley; Philip Cunningham; Scott Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Florida experiences sea breezes, lake breezes, and bay breezes almost every day during the year, and there are frequently complex interactions between many of these breezes. Given the often-rapid changes in temperature, humidity, and wind speed that accompany these breezes, most wildfires and prescribed fires in Florida are affected in some way by their interaction...

  6. Radar observations of land breeze fronts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

  7. Radar observations of land breeze fronts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

  8. The eastern Massachusetts sea breeze study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, Jennifer E.

    This study investigates many different aspects of the sea breeze at Logan Airport in Boston, Massachusetts (KBOS) and along the Massachusetts coastline. Part of the study adapts the method of predicting sea breeze events developed by Miller and Keim (2003) for Portsmouth, New Hampshire (KPSM) to KBOS. A nearly ten-year dataset of hourly KBOS surface observations (1998-2007) was used to identify 879 days when the sea breeze occurred or was likely to occur at the airport. These days were classified as sea breeze, marginal, or non-sea breeze events. Sea breeze events were further classified into fast and slow transitions, with a fast transition identified by a wind shift taking one hour or less to develop, and a slow transition identified by a wind shift taking two hours or more to develop. Marginal events were events that had a duration of 1 hour or less, no clear start or finish, or were interrupted by periods of "calm" or "light and variable" winds. Non-events were events in which the background conditions for a sea breeze to occur existed, but a sea breeze did not develop. Times of onset and event durations for the sea breeze events (fast, slow, and marginal) were calculated and used to create seasonal statistics by event type. It was found that seasonal variation did occur with both characteristics, but was more evident in the time of onset. Slow events occurred earliest in the day overall, while marginal events occurred a bit later, and fast events occurred the latest. Slow events had the longest duration overall, while marginal events, by definition, had the shortest duration. Seasonally, similar results were found for both characteristics with a few variations. United States surface analyses for each event at the time of onset (or average time of onset, 1500 UTC, for non-events) were classified using the seven synoptic classes developed by Miller and Keim (2003), and statistics were developed to evaluate the distribution of synoptic classes amongst the

  9. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  10. Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to a special issue of the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology dedicated to Insect Endocrinology. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequences ...

  11. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Baizerman, Michael

    2012-02-01

    This introduction opens a field of exploration about evaluation, evaluation practice, and the evaluator in the context of violent contested spaces, violently divided societies, war, and violent civil strife and conflict. Discussed in the introduction are the philosophical, theoretical, political and practical issues and concerns relevant to the work of evaluation and the doing of evaluation studies under these conditions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Mesoscale breeze circulation over Spitsbergen (Svalbard Archipelago)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Cisek, Małgorzata; Gutowska, Dorota; Makuch, Przemysław; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    We analyze data series (1992-2013) of wind measurements from meteorological stations in Ny-Ålesund and Hornsund in Svalbard and compared them to surface layer winds from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. We show large discrepancies between the local wind direction and directions of wind compatible with analysis of the large scale pressure fields. We show that frequency of simultaneous breeze events on northern and southern fjords of Spitsbergen and is highly correlated with sea-land temperature difference on monthly timescales. We argue that one of the most important factors controlling wind directions in the Svalbard fjords is the temperature difference between the neighboring glaciers and surface sea temperatures of open waters warmed by the West Spitsbergen current. This creates atmospheric circulation patterns similar to night breeze in temperate climates.

  13. Solar breeze power package and saucer ship

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, S. E.

    1985-11-12

    A solar breeze power package having versatile sail and windmast options useful both on land and sea and especially useful in the saucer ship type design. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) of the several Darrieus designs in conjunction with roll-up or permanently mounted solar cells combine in a hybrid or are used separately to provide power to a battery bank or other storage device.

  14. An observational study of the summer Mediterranean Sea breeze front penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, R.; Potchter, O.; Shafir, H.; Alpert, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean summer sea breeze front (SBF) climatic features of penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) were investigated. It was shown that the SBF penetration into the JRV occurs in a well-defined chronological order from north to south. One exception to this general rule is the breeze penetration of Sdom, which occurs after it has penetrated the Arava which is located further south, probably due to the micro-climatic effect of the Dead Sea. It was also noted that the breeze increases the local specific humidity as it reaches the JRV in spite of significant temperature increases. The temperature reaches its daily peak 2 to 3 h later in the southern valley compared to the northern valley and is suggested to be due to the later SBF penetration and the valley structure. The pre-SBF line features in the JRV are described.

  15. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-01-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions. PMID:26178138

  16. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  17. A Climatology of the Sea Breeze at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-22

    performed. The majority of sea-breeze studies have utilized two-dimensional numerical models (e.g., Walsh 1974; Arritt 1993; Estoque 1962; Bechtold et...The large-scale flow has a significant influence on the sea breeze (e.g., Zhong and 20 Takle 1993; Estoque 1962; Arritt 1993; Bechtold et al. 1991...the temperature gradient and the sea breeze ( Estoque 1962; Arritt 1993; Bechtold et al. 1991; Xian and Pielke 1991). The horizontal temperature

  18. Introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The introduction to the second edition of the Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases contains a general description of genus and species of commercial importance, some general information about growth and fruiting habits as well as recent production statistics. A general description of major scion c...

  19. Intensive care unit occupancy after introduction of the emergency department 4-hour discharge rule at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    van Heerden, Peter V; Blott, John A; Pinder, Mary; Cameron, Peter D; Roberts, Brigit L; Brinkworth, Anne; Stav, Ilana; Sviri, Sigal

    2013-12-01

    The 4-hour rule has been introduced in Western Australia, requiring that emergency department (ED) patients be admitted to hospital or discharged from the ED within 4 hours of presentation. We hypothesised that this rule might have been associated with changes in medical emergency team (MET) calls and intensive care unit exit bed block. Hospital databases were examined to determine compliance with the 4-hour rule, the effect on ICU exit bed block, and the number of MET calls, in 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule). We also measured background ICU and hospital activity in 2008 and 2011. Monthly compliance with the 4-hour rule ranged from 35%-46% in 2008 to 64%-75% in 2011 (P < 0.0001). There was a marked increase in bed block days for patients in the ICU between 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule) (P = 0.05). The increase in ICU bed block-days could not be explained by a difference in ICU occupancy, as there was a reduction in ICU bed-days between 2008 and 2011 (P = 0.014). There was a reduction in hospital mortality rate between 2008 and 2011 (P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in the number of MET calls from 2008 to 2011 (P = 0.221). Hospital activity (separations) increased from 2008 to 2011 (P < 0.0001). The introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with increased exit block from the ICU, but not with increased MET calls to attend to unstable or deteriorating ward patients. Introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with a small reduction in hospital mortality.

  20. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  1. Sea and Lake Breezes: A Review of Numerical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2010-10-01

    Numerical studies of sea and lake breezes are reviewed. The modelled dependence of sea-breeze and lake-breeze characteristics on the land surface sensible heat flux, ambient geostrophic wind, atmospheric stability and moisture, water body dimensions, terrain height and slope, Coriolis parameter, surface roughness length, and shoreline curvature is discussed. Consensus results on the influence of these geophysical variables on sea and lake breezes are synthesized as well as current gaps in our understanding. A brief history of numerical modelling, an overview of recent high-resolution simulations, and suggestions for future research related to sea and lake breezes are also presented. The results of this survey are intended to be a resource for numerical modelling, coastal air quality, and wind power studies.

  2. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Seth

    This forum opens a conversation between the history of technology and the history of capitalism by considering the "paper technologies of capitalism" of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries in England and the United States. Seth Rockman offers an overview, connecting a recent exhibition of quotidian business ephemera to scholarly efforts to historicize the economic past, to engage material artifacts as things, and to embed the production of social knowledge in communities of practice. Three essays follow: William Deringer considers the "computational technologies" available in England to calculate future values; Caitlin Rosenthal traces the "rule of three" in the everyday transactions of the "innumerate" in the U.S. Early Republic; Jonathan Senchyne examines the materiality of paper within the emerging "rags to riches" tropes of nineteenth-century capitalist culture. Finally, Barbara Hahn concludes the forum with reflections of the overlapping terrain of the history of technology and the history of capitalism.

  3. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Christian; Gibeault, Alain

    2011-06-01

    These papers were presented at the 7(th) meeting between Freudian and Jungian analysts held at the Montreal Congress of the International Association of Analytical Psychology (IAAP) in August 2010. The introduction describes the history and themes of previous meetings and discusses the choice of theme for the Montreal meeting. Both primal phantasies and archetypes imply a structural approach to psychological function but in different theoretical terms. These theoretical differences may also be emblematic of clinical differences between a focus on the sexual aspects of infancy in the Freudian tradition and a focus on ongoing emergence and transformation towards a goal of self-becoming in the Jungian tradition. The discussion aimed to test these hypotheses through the presentation of a single case history by Joseph Cambray (IAAP, USA), followed by commentaries from Eduardo Gastelumendi (IPA, Peru) and Verena Kast (IAAP, Switzerland). © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Luigi

    This chapter introduces the context, objectives and structure of the book. This book aims both to contribute to disseminate the knowledge about the scientific research conducted in space and to promote new exploitation of existing data in this field. While space experiments are characterised by a long time for preparation, high costs and few opportunities, significant scientific value is expected from the resulting data for almost scientific disciplines. In this context, ISS is a unique experimental environment for research. As part of its Seventh Framework Programme, the European Commission intends to support further exploitation and valorisation of space experimental data. This book was realised as part of the ULISSE project, co-funded by the European Union. The book intends to provide an introduction to space research with a focus on the experiments performed on the ISS and related disciplines. The book also intends to be a useful guide, not only for scientists but also for teachers, students and newcomers to space research activities.

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-04-01

    about these exciting developments in this newsletter. And as usual, you will also find a list of upcoming events, seminars and workshops related to ALMA and radio astronomy that we strongly recommend as well as the latest job opportunities to join the exciting and challenging ALMA adventure. I cannot finish this introduction without drawing your attention to the emerging results of the Herschel satellite and its instruments, HIFI, PACS and SPIRE. The images and spectra are truly stunning and very exciting and of great interest for future ALMA observing programs.

  6. Sulfate accumulation in a sea breeze/land breeze circulation system

    SciTech Connect

    Cass, G.R.; Shair, F.H.

    1984-02-20

    An atmosphere tracer study using SF/sub 6/ was conducted on July 22, 1977, to examine the origin of the high particulate sulfate concentrations observed in coastal Los Angeles County. It was found that the sea breeze/land breeze circulation system in the Los Angeles Basin both increases the retention time for sulfate formation in the marine environment and causes individual air parcels to make multiple passes over large coastal emissions sources. Day-old sulfur oxides emissions advected out to sea by the land breeze at night were estimated to be the largest single contributor to 24-hour average sulfate air quality over land the next day. In contrast, 24-hour average SO/sub 2/ concentrations were dominated by fresh emissions from nearby sources. The overall rate of SO/sub 2/ transformation to form particular sulfur oxides along some trajectories that spent a considerable time over the ocean at night probably exceeds the rate that can be explained by known photochemical processes acting during the daylight portion of these trajectories. This suggests that appreciable aerosol formation may occur in a polluted marine environment at night.

  7. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingshirn, C.

    The purpose of this introduction is - after a few general words on ZnO - to inform the reader about the history of ZnO research, the contents of this book and the intentions of the authors. Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a IIb-VI compound semiconductor. This group comprises the binary compounds of Zn, Cd and Hg with O, S, Se, Te and their ternary and quaternary alloys. The band gaps of these compounds cover the whole band gap range from E g ≈ 3. 94 eV for hexagonal ZnS down to semimetals (i.e., E g = 0 eV) for most of the mercury compounds. ZnO itself is also a wide gap semiconductor with E g ≈ 3. 436 eV at T = 0 K and (3. 37 ± 0. 01) eV at room temperature. For more details on the band structure, see Chaps. 4 and 6 or for a recent collection of data on ZnO, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17 B, 22, and 41B, 1999]. Like most of the compounds of groups IV, III-V, IIb-VI and Ib-VII, ZnO shows a tetrahedral coordination. In contrast to several other IIb-VI compounds, which occur both in the hexagonal wurtzite and the cubic zinc blende type structure such as ZnS, which gave the name to these two modifications, ZnO occurs almost exclusively in the wurtzite type structure. It has a relatively strong ionic binding (see Chap. 2). The exciton binding energy in ZnO is 60 meV [Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960], the largest among the IIb-VI compounds, but by far not the largest for all semiconductors since, for example, CuCl and CuO have exciton binding energies around 190 and 150 meV, respectively. See, for example, [Rössler et al. (eds) Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III, Vols. 17B, 22, and 41B, 1999; Thomas, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 15:86, 1960; Klingshirn and Haug, Phy. Rep. 70:315, 1981; Hönerlage et al., Phys. Rep. 124:161, 1985] and references therein. More details on excitons will be given in Chap. 6. ZnO has a density of about 5. 6 g / cm3 corresponding to 4. 2 × 1022 ZnO molecules per cm3 [Hallwig and

  9. Numerical Studies of the Georgia Coast Sea Breeze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-09

    measured the height and strength of the sea breeze from a manned hot-air balloon over Coney Island , New York for a two week period in July and August...Meteor., 34, 1739-1761. Sherman, 0. T., 1880: Observations on the height of land and sea breezes, taken at Coney Island . Amer. J. Sci., 119, 300-302. Staff...breeze front at each hour. SAV is Savannah; SVN is Hunter Army Airfield; SSI is Saint Simons Island ; NEA is Brunswick; and LIY is Ft Stewart. From W

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R

  11. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking southeast down the breeze ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking southeast down the breeze way that connects B Building to H Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  12. Recirculation of Air Pollutants During Lake Breeze Events in Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, M.; Hodzic, A.; Massie, S. T.

    2009-12-01

    Chicago is located at the southwestern end of Lake Michigan and experiences lake breezes on a regular basis during the summer months. In order to study transport and evolution of air pollution during such lake breeze events reactive trace gases NOx and ozone were measured as well as aerosol samples collected in summer 2003. The aerosol samples were analyzed for major ionic species by ion chromatography and for elemental species by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Several lake breeze events occurred during the field collections with one set of events on June 30 and July 1, 2003 standing out due to high levels of NOx and some aerosol species such as nitrate, iron and lead. The fully coupled chemistry-meteorology model WRF/CHEM was applied to simulate atmospheric conditions on these two days. The simulations show that a temperature and wind field front developed in the course of the lake breeze event creating a local cell of about 150km in diameter. Air and pollutants trapped in this cell appear to be re-circulating above Chicago and western Lake Michigan. The model results provide important insight on the evolution of ozone precursors, photolysis rates and ozone production during transport above the lake, and allow for quantifying the influence of this recirculation on the observed levels of local pollutants in Chicago. Whereas the June 30/July 1, 2003 lake breeze seems to be very pronounced, other lake breeze situations showed also enhanced NOx and nitrate mixing ratios compared to non-lake breeze days. Interestingly ozone mixing ratios were found to be lower in average during lake breeze events as compared to non-lake breeze conditions. To understand the development of the local lake breeze cell and possible recirculation of pollutants we plan to simulate temperature, wind field and pollutant level on other lake breeze days as well. Satellite data from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) will

  13. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  14. Mesoscale Modeling of the Inland Nocturnal Sea Breeze

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.; Buckley, R.L.

    1995-09-12

    The mesoscale sea breeze has important consequences for many densely populated coastal environments, including convection initiation, aviation safety, and air quality. The sea breeze characteristics before and after sunset are markedly different (Sha et al 1993). A gravity current will form during the early afternoon due to the relatively large density difference between the land and sea air. During the afternoon, as the lighter land air is forced upward by the cooler dense sea air, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) billows often form along the interface, as well as thin regions of turbulent rising air, playing a crucial role in the mixing process (Simpson 1994). After sunset, the frontal zone expands as longwave radiation cools the surface which reduces vertical mixing. With further inland penetration, the sea breeze encounters increasingly stable air near the ground, resulting in the formation of an undular bore or cutoff vortex (Sha et al. 1993). It has been demonstrated that large-scale winds have profound effects on both the strength and inland penetration of sea breezes (Arritt 1993, among others). In general, offshore flow results in a sharper frontal discontinuity and less inland penetration, while onshore flow produces weaker fronts which may penetrate further inland. Most sea breeze studies have focused on its more dramatic daytime properties near the coast whereas inland nocturnal sea breezes have received much less attention. The reason for this neglect is a lack of good observational data in the boundary layer. Sha et al. (1991) note the necessity of high resolution data to capture the finer structures of the sea breeze. A unique opportunity to examine the nocturnal sea breeze became available at the Savannah River Site (SRS, located roughly 150 km from the Atlantic Ocean in southwestern South Carolina) during the Stable Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE), 12-17 April, 1988. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Numerical simulation of breeze circulation over the Crimean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the WRF-ARW model, we have conducted a numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation in the Crimean region for a 30-day period in the summer. The characteristic features of the velocity fields of breeze circulation over Crimea have been identified. We have reproduced the specific features of the development of breeze as a gravity flow, such as the direct and indirect circulation cells, wave oscillations on the boundary between them associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the formation of the breeze head. The breeze velocities and their diurnal cycle have been estimated. For mountainous regions of the southern coast of Crimea (SCC), we have shown that the coastal circulation is predominantly contributed by quasi-diurnal oscillations associated with the wind excitation on the mountain slopes. The physical conditions for the development of a strong katabatic wind have been considered. The counter breeze flows in eastern Crimea formed under the influence of the adjacent Black and Azov seas generate an intense air rise in the meeting zone. The related linear cloudiness area is clearly traced on satellite images. We have obtained daily hodographs of breeze circulation reflecting the local conditions of the shoreline and the configuration of coastal mountains.

  16. On the characteristics of sea breezes over Nigerian coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Omotosho, Bayo J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of sea breezes over the coastal region of Nigeria. While considerable attention has been paid to monsoon circulation over this coastal region, there is virtually no information in literature on sea breezes over the region. This study analyzed 5 years (1979-1983) data of hourly temperature and wind speed and direction from four coastal stations in Nigerian—Lagos, Warri, Port-Harcourt, and Calabar—in order to examine the characteristics of the sea breeze in the region. The results show that sea breeze usually started between 1000 and 1200 UTC, attained maximum strength of about 2-5 m s-1 in the afternoon around 1500-1600 UTC and subsided between 2000 and 2200 UTC. Consistent with maxima temperature contrast between land and sea, the maximum frequency of sea breeze occurs in February-May and September-November, with duration of about 11-13 h. The diurnal variation of wind vectors with time, portrayed by means of hodograph, shows that sea breeze rotates clockwise and anticlockwise over the region. We found that only the stations adjacent to bay demonstrate clockwise rotation during the day.

  17. The sea breeze/land breeze circulation in Los Angeles and its influence on nitryl chloride production in this region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, N. L.; Riedel, T. P.; Roberts, J. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S. M.; Dubé, W. P.; Coffman, D. J.; Bon, D. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Kuster, W. C.; Gilman, J. B.; Brown, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The sea breeze/land breeze diurnal circulation within the Los Angeles Basin and adjacent waters transports marine air into the basin during the day and urban air to Santa Monica Bay during the night. Nitryl chloride, ClNO2 is a nocturnal trace gas formed from the heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentaoxide (N2O5) with chloride containing aerosol. Its photolysis after sunrise produces atomic chlorine radicals and regenerates NO2, both of which may increase ozone production. Mixing of the chloride source from marine sea salt with the urban NOx source in Los Angeles provides conditions ideal for the production of ClNO2. This paper presents an analysis using a wind profiler on the coast and measurements of ClNO2 and its precursors made from both ship and aircraft to assess the prevailing meteorological conditions important for ClNO2 production in this region, with a particular focus on the production over water within the land breeze phase of the circulation. A box model is used to calculate an upper limit to the amount of ClNO2 capable of being produced strictly over Santa Monica Bay during the land breeze. On three out of the four nights of ClNO2 measurements in Santa Monica Bay, the ClNO2 exceeds the upper limit calculated using the box model and shows that the majority of the ClNO2 is produced over the city and transported to Santa Monica Bay by the land breeze. This ClNO2 transport suggests the sea breeze more efficiently transports aerosol chloride inland than land breeze transports NOx offshore.

  18. The sea breeze/land breeze circulation in Los Angeles and its influence on nitryl chloride production in this region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, N. L.; Riedel, T. P.; Roberts, J. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Angevine, W. M.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S. M.; Dubé, W. P.; Coffman, D. J.; Bon, D. M.; Gouw, J. A.; Kuster, W. C.; Gilman, J. B.; Brown, S. S.

    2011-11-01

    The sea breeze/land breeze diurnal circulation within the Los Angeles Basin and adjacent waters transports marine air into the basin during the day and urban air to Santa Monica Bay during the night. Nitryl chloride, ClNO2 is a nocturnal trace gas formed from the heterogeneous reaction of dinitrogen pentaoxide (N2O5) with chloride containing aerosol. Its photolysis after sunrise produces atomic chlorine radicals and regenerates NO2, both of which may increase ozone production. Mixing of the chloride source from marine sea salt with the urban NOx source in Los Angeles provides conditions ideal for the production of ClNO2. This paper presents an analysis using a wind profiler on the coast and measurements of ClNO2 and its precursors made from both ship and aircraft to assess the prevailing meteorological conditions important for ClNO2 production in this region, with a particular focus on the production over water within the land breeze phase of the circulation. A box model is used to calculate an upper limit to the amount of ClNO2 capable of being produced strictly over Santa Monica Bay during the land breeze. On three out of the four nights of ClNO2 measurements in Santa Monica Bay, the ClNO2 exceeds the upper limit calculated using the box model and shows that the majority of the ClNO2 is produced over the city and transported to Santa Monica Bay by the land breeze. This ClNO2 transport suggests the sea breeze more efficiently transports aerosol chloride inland than land breeze transports NOx offshore.

  19. A Dynamical Analysis of Sea Breeze Hodograph Rotation on Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, Nadya; Steyn, Douw

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of diurnal sea-breeze rotation over coastal Sardinia using realistic and idealized model runs and historical observations. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days. WRF accurately captures the sea breeze circulation on all coasts, as depicted in station data. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island of similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia, but with dramatically simplified topography. Dynamical analysis of the idealized runs reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  20. Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over glaciers are of great interest as they can modify the response of glacier mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the glacier ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over glacier surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of melt. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca Glacier, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the glacier ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in glacier ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-glacier winds were observed over the glacier. These winds extended well beyond the glacier into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-glacier profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the glacier surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-glacier winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the glacier. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling glacier mass balance.

  1. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    BETWEEN SEA BREEZE FORCING AND HF RADAR-DERIVED SURFACE CURRENTS IN MONTEREY BAY by Emre Tukenmez June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Jeffrey D...2014 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SEA BREEZE FORCING AND HF RADAR- DERIVED...importance of sea breeze , only Hendrickson and MacMahan’s research has been done to determine sea breeze effects in Monterey Bay; other than that not

  2. Simulating sea breezes and plume concentrations with a puff-windfield model

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the study simulating sea breezes and plume concentrations was to improve the modeling of accidental airborne radiation releases during sea breeze conditions. The model was developed for Northeast Utilities' Millstone Point nuclear generating station, which is located on Connecticut's Atlantic coast and experiences sea breeze conditions frequently. The model provides a three-dimensional simulation of the complex sea breeze circulation, including the return flow aloft, and yields concentration patterns consistent with the simulated wind flows.

  3. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  4. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  5. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze (SB) rotation over an island at the middle latitudes. Earlier research on sea breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously studied sea-breeze days, and is shown to capture the circulation on all coasts accurately. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined, and patterns of clockwise and anticlockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with a complex topography and/or coastline.

  6. Airborne Doppler measurements of the central California extended sea breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    One data acquisition flight was executed in the late summer of 1984. The flight paths were designed to obtain measurements of the extended sea breeze penetration into the central valley of California over several hours. Data from this flight are being processed at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to release for analysis.

  7. Sea breezes and advective effects in southwest James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckendry, Ian; Roulet, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Observations from a transect extending 100 km inland during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) in 1990 show that the sea breeze develops on approximately 25% of days during summer and may penetrate up to 100 km inland on occasions. The sea breeze exhibits a marked diurnal clockwise rotation as a result of the Coriolis effect along the unobstructed coastline. The marine advective effect is shown to depend on gradient wind direction. With northwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to be northeasterly in direction and is associated with decreased temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD). With southwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to have a southeasterly direction and less effect on temperatures and VPD. This is attributed to shorter residence times of air parcels over water. For two cases, Colorado State University mesoscale model simulations show good agreement with surface wind observations and suggest that under northwesterly gradient flow, Bowen ratios are increased in the onshore flow along western James Bay, while during southwesterly gradient flow these effects are negligible. These results have implications for the interpretation of local climate, ecology, and hydrology as well as land-based and airborne turbulent flux measurements made during NOWES.

  8. Land- and sea-surface impacts on local coastal breezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.; Gilchrist, J.; Lodise, J.; Goldman, W.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Delaware has seen significant increases in population along the coastline in the past three decades. With this increase in population have come changes to the land surface, as forest and farmland has been converted to residential and commercial purposes, causing changes in the surface roughness, temperature, and land-atmosphere fluxes. There is also a semi-permanent upwelling center in the spring and summer outside the Delaware Bay mouth that significantly changes the structure of the sea surface temperature both inside and outside the Bay. Through a series of high resolution modeling and observational studies, we have determined that in cases of strong synoptic forcing, the impact of the land-surface on the boundary layer properties can be advected offshore, creating a false coastline and modifying the location and timing of the sea breeze circulation. In cases of weak synoptic forcing, the influence of the upwelling and the tidal circulation of the Delaware Bay waters can greatly change the location, strength, and penetration of the sea breeze. Understanding the importance of local variability in the surface-atmosphere interactions on the sea breeze can lead to improved prediction of sea breeze onset, penetration, and duration which is important for monitoring air quality and developing offshore wind power production.

  9. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze approx. 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment.

  10. Gulf Breeze, FL Lab--Office of Research and Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Gulf Breeze lab is recognized as a leader in advancing scientific knowledge concerning the effects of human-made stressors on the ecosystems of the Gulf Coast, and the impacts of those effects on the health and well-being of people and communities.

  11. A numerical study of nocturnal sea breezes: Prefrontal gravity waves in the compensating flow and inland penetration of the sea-breeze cutoff vortex

    SciTech Connect

    Weiming Sha ); Kawamura, Takeshi ); Ueda, Hiromasa )

    1993-04-15

    It is demonstrated in this numerical study that prefrontal perturbations may be triggered by a penetrating sea-breeze head into an existing nocturnal temperature inversion. The perturbations consist of the lower-layer wavelike perturbation and the upper-wave motion, both of which are manifested as rotor streaming. However, these prefrontal gravity waves take the form of the weak transient waves of a depression trapped in the ambient compensating flow field. The sea-breeze head dissipates as it penetrates inland into the nocturnal temperature inversion. At midnight, a horizontal vortex is completely detached from the feeder flow of the sea breeze. This isolated horizontal vortex is identified as the sea-breeze cutoff vortex. It is shown that the sea-breeze cutoff vortex may be evolved from a dissipating sea-breeze head. After the sea-breeze cutoff vortex is formed, it propagates farther inland as an isolated wave-type disturbance. Examination of the force balance suggests that the inertia and radiative energy loss are dominant in the processes of the sea-breeze cutoff vortex. 50 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Operation of the breeze tunnel to determine mass extinction coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.; Bonfante, R.; Catalano, E.; Rouse, W.G.; Banks, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The breeze tunnel at the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center (ERDEC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is a unique facility for determining the efficacy of released smoke/obscurants in flowing air as a function of controlling variables. Optimum material feed characteristics and generator operating conditions can be determined. The facility allows investigation of the effects of different generator operating variables, airborne concentrations, and airborne particle sizes on mass extinction coefficients. The breeze tunnel is now available for Department of Defense (DoD) trials. During trials in the breeze tunnel, obscurants have been released from the compact-disc-generator, the IR-Log generator, and the XM56 generator. Obscurant release rates have ranged from an instantaneous puff to a continuous release of 10 lb/min. Extinction can be measured in the visual, infrared, and millimeter ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Experimental conditions allow calculation of mass extinction coefficients as a function of generator variables, including material release rates. Average mass extinction coefficients address attenuation from obscurants, both single primary particles and aggregates.

  13. Simple lake breeze front position technique for off-site dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Burda, T.J.; Mazzola, C.A.

    1983-07-01

    During a lake/sea breeze an airflow trajectory reversal generally occurs at the leading edge (lake/sea breeze front) of the landward advancing marine air and can significantly affect the use of an off-site dose assessment procedure. Knowledge of the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time is vital in interpreting the results from a conventional straightline Gaussian off-site dose calculation methodology, which ignores this complex flow pattern. A simple, low-cost technique was developed to estimate the location of the lake/sea breeze front in real time from easily obtainable meteorological parameters recorded at National Weather Service stations. Although this technique was developed for lake breezes occurring near the Wisconsin Public Service Kewaunee nuclear plant, the concept is applicable after site-specific modifications for other lakeshore sites in approximating the location of the lake breeze front.

  14. Inclusion of the ocean breeze in Oyster Creek emergency off-site dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located 6 mi west of the Atlantic Ocean. From spring through late summer, atmospheric transport in the vicinity of OCNGS is periodically affected by the ocean breeze. The ocean breeze produces large differences in wind direction within the OCNGS emergency planning zone during the morning to evening hours. In addition, trajectory reversals can occur near the ocean breeze front. These two characteristics of the ocean breeze must be taken into account when interpreting results from conventional atmospheric dispersion models. The purpose of the study was to determine the flow characteristics of the ocean breeze and to apply these characteristics to an emergency preparedness implementing procedure (EPIP). The EPIP would be used to determine the radiological plume impact region if an accidental release occurred during an ocean breeze.

  15. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  16. A step-by-step introduction to rule-based design of synthetic genetic constructs using GenoCAD.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mandy L; Hertzberg, Russell; Adam, Laura; Peccoud, Jean

    2011-01-01

    GenoCAD is an open source web-based system that provides a streamlined, rule-driven process for designing genetic sequences. GenoCAD provides a graphical interface that allows users to design sequences consistent with formalized design strategies specific to a domain, organization, or project. Design strategies include limited sets of user-defined parts and rules indicating how these parts are to be combined in genetic constructs. In addition to reducing design time to minutes, GenoCAD improves the quality and reliability of the finished sequence by ensuring that the designs follow established rules of sequence construction. GenoCAD.org is a publicly available instance of GenoCAD that can be found at www.genocad.org. The source code and latest build are available from SourceForge to allow advanced users to install and customize GenoCAD for their unique needs. This chapter focuses primarily on how the GenoCAD tools can be used to organize genetic parts into customized personal libraries, then how these libraries can be used to design sequences. In addition, GenoCAD's parts management system and search capabilities are described in detail. Instructions are provided for installing a local instance of GenoCAD on a server. Some of the future enhancements of this rapidly evolving suite of applications are briefly described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  18. Modeling the impact of bay breeze circulations on nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C. P.; Tzortziou, M.; Pickering, K. E.; Duffy, M.; Satam, C.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric gases and aerosols are deposited into watersheds and estuarine waters contributing to water quality degradation and affecting estuarine and coastal biogeochemical processes. Pollution that is deposited onto land can be transported into storm drains, groundwater, streams, and rivers where it is eventually transported into near-shore waters. Air quality models, which simulate the chemical transformation, atmospheric transport, and deposition of pollutants onto land and surface waters, can play an integral role in forecasting water quality, preparing water quality regulations and providing information on the sources of nutrients and pollutants for advanced estuarine biogeochemical models. Previous studies have found that Chesapeake Bay breezes cause localized areas of high air pollution concentrations and that model simulations with horizontal resolutions coarser than about 5 km are not able to capture bay breeze circulations. Here, we investigate the importance of capturing bay breeze circulations with high resolution model simulations (horizontal resolution of 1.33 km) to accurately simulate the spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen deposition into the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Nitrogen deposition into the watershed from air quality model simulations are compared with observed wet deposition and estimated dry deposition rates from the National Acid Deposition Program (NADP) and the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), respectively. The model simulation is conducted for the months of June and July 2011. Two concurrent air and water quality field campaigns, DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) and GeoCAPE-CBODAQ (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events-Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic Campaign with DISCOVER-AQ), were conducted in July 2011, and data obtained from these field experiments are used to evaluate the model simulations.

  19. Accuracy of Wind Prediction Methods in the California Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumers, B. D.; Dvorak, M. J.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the accuracy of measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms and log law/power law scaling using data from two tall towers in coastal environments. We find that MCP algorithms accurately predict sea breeze winds and that log law/power law scaling methods struggle to predict 50-meter wind speeds. MCP methods have received significant attention as the wind industry has grown and the ability to accurately characterize the wind resource has become valuable. These methods are used to produce longer-term wind speed records from short-term measurement campaigns. A correlation is developed between the “target site,” where the developer is interested in building wind turbines, and a “reference site,” where long-term wind data is available. Up to twenty years of prior wind speeds are then are predicted. In this study, two existing MCP methods - linear regression and Mortimer’s method - are applied to predict 50-meter wind speeds at sites in the Salinas Valley and Redwood City, CA. The predictions are then verified with tall tower data. It is found that linear regression is poorly suited to MCP applications as the process produces inaccurate estimates of the cube of the wind speed at 50 meters. Meanwhile, Mortimer’s method, which bins data by direction and speed, is found to accurately predict the cube of the wind speed in both sea breeze and non-sea breeze conditions. We also find that log and power law are unstable predictors of wind speeds. While these methods produced accurate estimates of the average 50-meter wind speed at both sites, they predicted an average cube of the wind speed that was between 1.3 and 1.18 times the observed value. Inspection of time-series error reveals increased error in the mid-afternoon of the summer. This suggests that the cold sea breeze may disrupt the vertical temperature profile, create a stable atmosphere and violate the assumptions that allow log law scaling to work.

  20. Morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2016-05-01

    An experimental field campaign took place in September 2013 near the coastline in the southeastern Campos basin in the island of Mallorca to characterize experimentally the transition between the sea and the land breezes and to further study the successful cases with the corresponding high-resolution numerical simulations. Favorable weather conditions were only found for one episode that comprised a well-formed nocturnal land breeze, followed by the morning transition to sea breeze until noon the next day, when incoming clouds switched off the breeze regime. To analyse this transition between land and sea breezes, the official network of stations is used, supplemented by a portable station close to the shore and soundings of temperature (taken by a captive balloon and remotely controlled multicopter). These data are used to check the goodness of the corresponding simulation at a horizontal resolution of 1 km. Model and observations see similarly both regimes and the transition, showing some differences in the timing and the details in the surface layer. This transient event is analyzed in terms of phases, going consecutively through land breeze, phase previous to the sea breeze, when land heating starts, but it is still colder than the sea, the preparatory phase when the land becomes warmer than the sea, and the development phase when the breeze front progresses inland.

  1. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  2. Dispersal of seeds by the tropical sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Greene, D F; Quesada, M; Calogeropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    Given the dependence of most wind-pollinated and wind-dispersed species on low relative humidity (RH) for abscission, and the minimization of RH in the early afternoon, there ought to be a marked directional bias in seed dispersal at sites with a strong local diurnal circulation. We filmed the abscission of seeds of five wind-dispersed tropical species near the coast of Mexico (Jalisco). We found that (1) most abscission occurred during the period from 10:00 to 17:00 hours; (2) there was a strong bias for landward dispersal due to the midday sea breeze; (3) the little nocturnal dispersal that occurred was toward the sea (due to the night land breeze); (4) there was no abscission in the absence of wind (i.e., indoors) except for one species; and (5) holding relative humidity constant, the proportion of seeds diurnally abscising is strongly correlated with horizontal wind speed. We predict that a similar bias (this time for upslope dispersal) for xerochastic dispersal will occur in complex terrain. We conclude that in coastal and mountainous terrain, dispersal models (and inverse modeling efforts) must include a directionality term.

  3. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    PubMed

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection and Prediction of the Delaware Summertime Sea/Bay Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Bay/Sea Breeze is a thermally driven coastal circulation that has significant impacts along Delaware's coastline. The passage of a sea breeze front has a cooling effect which often moderates summer heat. Pollutants can be transported by a sea breeze circulation affecting air quality. In addition, this frequently occurring local circulation is strong enough and of enough vertical and horizontal extent to effect offshore wind turbines. The potential moderation of weather, air quality, and offshore wind resource all have significant environmental and economic impacts which are important to a coastal population which has nearly doubled in the last two decades. An analysis of weather radar (NEXRAD) images is used as an initial method for detecting a sea/bay breeze front. These case study days are then used to develop an objective sea breeze detection scheme based on changes in the observed conditions at twenty-one meteorological stations run by the Delaware Environmental Observing System and the National Data Buoy Center. Three distinct classes of sea breeze circulation (classic, dew-point and weak) are derived based on location, penetration distance, temperature drop, and time of onset. In general, based on nine years of data from 2000 to 2009, sea/bay breezes along the Delaware coast are found to occur in the summer 63% of the time at coastal stations and 20% at inland stations. These same data are used to develop a local sea breeze prediction scheme for the Delaware ocean coast. Details of the return flow and structure of the sea breeze at high spatial and temporal resolution are investigated using a regional atmospheric model, WRF. Characterization of Delaware's sea/bay breezes using multiple data sources and locations creates a more complete understating of the impact of this low-level circulation on the local climate, and will be useful in understanding how things may change in the future as local land-use and global climate changes.

  5. Observations of Lake-Breeze Events During the Toronto 2015 Pan-American Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Zen; Dehghan, Armin; Joe, Paul; Sills, David

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced meteorological observations were made during the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto in order to measure the vertical and horizontal structure of lake-breeze events. Two scanning Doppler lidars (one fixed and one mobile), a C-band radar, and a network including 53 surface meteorological stations (mesonet) provided pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction measurements over Lake Ontario and urban areas. These observations captured the full evolution (prior, during, and after) of 27 lake-breeze events (73% of observation days) in order to characterize the convective and dynamic processes driving lake breezes at the local scale and mesoscale. The dominant signal of a passing lake-breeze front (LBF) was an increase in dew-point temperature of 2.3 ± 0.3°C , coinciding with a 180° shift in wind direction and a decrease in air temperature of 2.1 ± 0.2°C . Doppler lidar observations over the lake detected lake breezes 1 hour (on average) before detection by radar and mesonet. On days with the synoptic flow in the offshore direction, the lidars observed wedge-shaped LBFs with shallow depths, which inhibited the radar's ability to detect the lake breeze. The LBF's ground speed and inland penetration distance were found to be well-correlated (r = 0.78 ), with larger inland penetration distances occurring on days with non-opposing (non-offshore) synoptic flow. The observed enhanced vertical motion ({>} 1 m s^{-1}) at the LBF, observed by the lidar on 54% of lake-breeze days, was greater (at times {>} 2.5 m s^{-1} ) than that observed in previous studies and longer-lasting over the lake than over land. The weaker and less pronounced lake-breeze structure over land is illustrated in two case studies highlighting the lifetime of the lake-breeze circulation and the impact of propagation distance on lake-breeze intensity.

  6. Sea-land breeze in a coastal city and its effect on pollen transport.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, María I; Pérez, Claudio F; Gardiol, Jesús M

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of the sea-land breeze in Mar del Plata (Argentina) to characterize the periods of the year when the breeze affects pollen transport, particularly the dispersion of airborne Poaceae pollen between urban and rural areas. In order to analyse the sea breeze circulation, hourly data from coastal, urban and rural meteorological stations were used. The effect of the sea breeze on the particulate matter was analysed from syncronic hourly airborne pollen records from an urban and a rural area. A sea-land breeze appeared between spring and early autumn in the hours of greatest diurnal warming. Results showed that the surface wind direction most probably associated with this phenomenon is NE and E, the time of occurrence shifting to new directions following the counterclockwise rotation, according to theoretical models for the Southern Hemisphere. Poaceae emission takes place in the morning, during the hours of maximum insolation. However, after the occurrence of the breeze, a rise in pollen concentration between 2000 hours and 0200 hours is detected because of pollen reentrainment brought about by air recirculation. The results showed that breeze transport brings a regional component to pollen assemblage.

  7. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  8. Inland and Offshore Propagation Speeds of a Sea Breeze from Simulations and Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkele, Klara

    The inland and offshore propagation speeds of a sea breeze circulation cell are simulated using a three-dimensional hydrostatic model within a terrain-following coordinate system. The model includes a third-order semi-Lagrangian advection scheme, which compares well in a one-dimensional stand-alone test with the more complex Bott and Smolarkiewicz advection schemes. Two turbulence schemes are available: a local scheme by Louis (1979) and a modified non-local scheme based on Zhang and Anthes (1982). Both compare well with higher-order closure schemes using the Wangara data set for Day 33-34 (Clark et al., 1971).Two-dimensional cross-sections derived from airborne sea breeze measurements (Finkele et al. 1995) constitute the basis for comparison with two-dimensional numerical model results. The offshore sea breeze propagation speed is defined as the speed at which the seaward extent of the sea breeze grows offshore. On a study day, the offshore sea breeze propagation speed, from both measurements and model, is -3.4 m s-1. The measured inland propagation speed of the sea breeze decreased somewhat during the day. The model results show a fairly uniform inland propagation speed of 1.6 m s-1 which corresponds to the average measured value. The offshore sea breeze propagation speed is about twice the inland propagation speed for this particular case study, from both the model and measurements.

  9. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  10. Sea breeze-induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between thunderstorm activity during the summer months along coastal regions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the dry sea breeze circulation was investigated. Satellite composites of thunderstorm activity for synoptically undisturbed conditions have been obtained for south Florida for a series of days in the summer of 1983. These data were catalogued into different low level synoptic flow regimes. Five synoptic flow regimes were found from the data. A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model was used for each sysnoptic flow regime to quantitatively predict the location of enhanced thunderstorm activity. This model includes a parameterization of vegetation and soil moisture feedbacks as well as a sophisticated planetary boundary layer representation. Using the results of the satellite image composites, spatial and temporal characteristics of deep convective cloud patterns and their variation with synoptic flow are described. The results from the numerical model have provided explanations for the observed patterns.

  11. SEA BREEZE REGIMES IN THE NEW YORK CITY REGION - MODELING AND RADAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    MICHAEL,P.; MILLER,M.; TONGUE,J.S.

    1998-01-11

    The evolution of the sea breeze front in the region where New York and New Jersey meet can be different from that in adjacent regions. Bornstein (1994) and Reiss et al. (1996) have reported observations that show the sea breeze front advancing more slowly in this region than over Long Island and central New Jersey. While in the southern section of New Jersey a single, classical sea breeze development occurs. This paper presents results from model simulations, surface observations and remote sensing using the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D).

  12. Sea-breeze front effects on boundary-layer aerosols at a tropical coastal station

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, K.K.; Murthy, B.V.K.; Nair, P.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The effects of sea breeze on optical depth, size distribution, and columnar loading of aerosols at the tropical coastal station of Trivandrum are studied. It has been observed that sea-breeze front activity results in a significant and short-lived enhancement in aerosol optical depth and columnar loading in contrast to the effects seen on normal sea-breeze days. Examination of the changes in columnar aerosol size distribution associated with sea-breeze activity revealed an enhancement of small-particle (size less than 0.28 [mu]m) concentration. The aerosol size distribution deduced from optical depth measurements generally show a pronounced bimodal structure associated with the frontal activity. 22 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Air quality in the Athens basin during sea breeze and non-sea breeze days using laser-remote-sensing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Weidauer, D.; Melas, D.; Ulbricht, M.

    It is well established both from theory and experimental evidence that sea breeze plays an advert role on air pollution situation over a coastal urban area, specially during summer. This also applies to Athens area. Ground-based measurements in the area have shown that northerly wind flows during summertime play a depollution role in the Greater Athens Area. A wind field over a city is responsible for a mechanism forming a particular profile of the air pollutant considered; such air pollutant profiles were found in Athens for first time to a height of 1200 m in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer during an experimental campaign in the summer of 1994. The paper gives profiles of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on sea-breeze and non-sea-breeze days with possible explanations. Air quality aspects within the first 1500 m of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer over Athens are also discussed.

  14. Beach Morphodynamics in Response to Sea-Breeze Cycles in Southwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura, L. E.; Hansen, J.; Lowe, R.; Symonds, G.; Contardo, S.

    2016-12-01

    The morphologies of sandy beaches along southwestern Australia (SWWA) are dictated by the seasonal variation of distantly-generated swell waves and by locally generated wind waves during strong (>15 m/s) sea-breeze cycles. In comparison to beach seasonal response, the physical mechanisms that drive beach changes from diurnal winds are not well understood. In this study, the morphological response to sea breeze forcing was observed on an alongshore uniform sandy beach with an offshore sandbar and beach cusps on the shoreface. The observations consisted of daily topographic surveys and hourly ARGUS time-exposure images during two consecutive periods: one six-day period with strong daily sea-breeze cycles and another six-day period with weak sea breezes. In addition, an array of ten pressure sensors and four current meters were deployed in the nearshore zone to measure the hydrodynamics forcing . Results indicate that during strong sea breezes short period wind waves dominate and significant erosion occurred at the lower swash zone but without destroying the cusp system on the upper shoreface. Overnight, wind waves decreased in energy and the beach response changed quickly to an accretive pattern. During the period of weak sea breezes, swell waves dominated and the beach accreted, largely surpassing the erosive impact occurring during the strong sea-breeze period. Two different patterns were also detected in the beach cusps during the two periods with a northward alongshore migration during strong sea-brezee cycles (coincident with the wind direction and corresponding alongshore currents) and a southward migration during the weak sea-breeze period when swell waves were dominant.

  15. Analysis of Delayed Sea Breeze Onset for Fort Ord Prescribed Burning Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    in Monterey County, California, and is reliant upon forecasting a delayed sea breeze for successful smoke management . This has been previously...prescribed burns at Fort Ord, in Monterey County, California, and is reliant upon forecasting a delayed sea breeze for successful smoke management . This has...Air Resources Board CFSR Climate Forecast System Reanalysis CONUS Continental United States DTSC Department of Toxic Substances Control EPA

  16. Sea Breezes over the Red Sea: Affect of topography and interaction with Desert Convective Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Basit A.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Abualnaja, Yasser

    2014-05-01

    Thermodynamic structure of sea-breeze, its interaction with coastal mountains, desert plateau and desert convective boundary layer have been investigated in the middle region of the Red Sea around 25°N, at the Western coast of Saudi Arabia. Sea and land breeze is a common meteorological phenomenon in most of the coastal regions around the world. Sea-Breeze effects the local meteorology and cause changes in wind speed, direction, cloud cover and sometimes precipitation. The occurrence of sea-breeze, its intensity and landward propagation are important for wind energy resource assessment, load forecasting for existing wind farms, air pollution, marine and aviation applications. The thermally induced mesoscale circulation of sea breeze modifies the desert Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) by forming Convective Internal Boundary Layer (CIBL), and propagates inland as a density current. The leading edge of the denser marine air rapidly moves inland undercutting the hot and dry desert air mass. The warm air lifts up along the frontal boundary and if contains enough moisture a band of clouds is formed along the sea breeze front (SBF). This study focuses on the thermodynamic structure of sea-breeze as it propagates over coastal rocky mountain range of Al-Sarawat, east of the Red Sea coast, and the desert plateau across the mountain range. Additional effects of topographical gaps such as Tokar gap on the dynamics of sea-land breezes have also been discussed. Interaction of SBF with the desert convective boundary layer provide extra lifting that could further enhance the convective instability along the frontal boundary. This study provides a detailed analysis of the thermodynamics of interaction of the SBF and convective internal boundary layer over the desert. Observational data from a buoy and meteorological stations have been utilized while The Advanced Research WRF (ARW) modeling system has been employed in real and 2D idealized configuration.

  17. The Nature of The Propagation of Sea Breeze Fronts in Central California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    if necessary and identify by block number) F.e.d Group [Subgroup LASBEX, Lidar , Sodar 19 Abstract (contimue on re.crse if necessary and identify by...Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) provided a series of meteorological observations including sodar. lidar . ra% insonde. radiosonde and surface...1987, the Land/Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) provided a series of meteorological observations including sodar, lidar , rawinsonde, radiosonde and

  18. A numerical simulation of an observed lake breeze over Southern Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddukuri, C. Subbarao

    1982-07-01

    A time-dependent, two-dimensional primitive-equation atmospheric boundary-layer model has been applied to the South shore of Lake Ontario, using data obtained by Estoque et al. (1976). The model has correctly predicted the times of onset, maximum intensity and disappearance of the lake breeze. However, it underestimated the maximum inland penetration of the lake breeze, probably due to the fact that horizontal variations of surface potential temperature over the land had not been taken into account.

  19. Scaling Characteristics of Developing Sea Breezes Simulated in a Water Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Renmin; Sun, Jianning; Luo, Tao; Wu, Xuping

    2013-09-01

    Sea-breeze circulations in a stably stratified environment have been simulated in a water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two halves representing land and sea; the land side was heated from the bottom of the tank, and the sea side was insulated by an underlying sponge slab. The temperature profiles over both land and sea sides, the land-sea temperature difference, and the horizontal temperature distributions were measured. Particle tracking velocimetry was applied to obtain the two-dimensional velocity field orthogonal to the coastline. It was shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea, and a strong updraft occurring at the sea-breeze front. The dimensionless governing parameters are calculated from the measurements and used to characterize the developing sea breezes. The analysis confirms the scaling laws for sea-breeze velocity and depth. The results indicate that the scaling characteristics of the sea-breeze translation speed during the developing period are different to those during the following maintaining period. A criterion for the onset of the sea breeze is proposed based on these results.

  20. Identifying and tracking plumes affected by an ocean breeze in support of emergency preparedness

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E.

    1989-01-01

    To better support emergency preparedness, General Public Utilities (GPU) Nuclear has investigated the frequency of occurrence of the mesoscale ocean breeze at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS). Through the analysis of the horizontal wind direction and temperature patterns, simple identification of the ocean breeze along with a plume tracking procedure has been developed and incorporated into the site's emergency plant to better safeguard the public with sophisticated protective action measures in case of a nonroutine release. The ocean breeze will frequently produce wind trajectory fields within the plant's emergency planning zone that are different from the normal gradient wind flow. This could greatly alter proper protective action measures since most utilities employ straight-line trajectory air dispersion models. Knowledge of the existence of the ocean breeze and the location of the ocean breeze front become important in the results generated from the straight-line Gaussian dose calculation methodology and in the further development of a more complex dose assessment model. This paper describes the verification and existence of the sea breeze phenomenon and the incorporation of its effects into the OCNGS emergency plan.

  1. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  2. Idealized Large-Eddy Simulations of Sea and Lake Breezes: Sensitivity to Lake Diameter, Heat Flux and Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2012-09-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations of lake and sea breezes are conducted to determine the sensitivity of these thermally-driven circulations to variations in the land-surface sensible heat flux and initial atmospheric stability. The lake-breeze and sea-breeze metrics of horizontal wind speed, horizontal extent, and depth are assessed. Modelled asymmetries about the coastline in the horizontal extent of the low-level onshore flow are found to vary as a function of the heat flux and stability. Small lake breezes develop similarly to sea breezes in the morning, but have a significantly weaker horizontal wind-speed component and a smaller horizontal extent than sea breezes in the afternoon.

  3. An observational and numerical study of the sea breeze in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The sea breeze and its characteristics are well studied in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but not so in the Cantabrian coast, perhaps due to a lower prevalence of stable synoptic conditions during the summer period. However, it was found that the sea breeze was one of the main drivers of pollution episodes in the industrialised metropolitan area of Bilbao. In addition, an accurate prediction of this mesoscale phenomenon is fundamental for forecasting hot spells with predominant southerly gradient winds, especially in the eastern half of the Cantabrian Sea, during which can be recorded up to 40 °C close to the shore. In this work, an automated method is used for selecting sea breeze days [1], based in 6 filters that evaluate the observed synoptic and surface conditions in the Eastern Cantabrian, provided by the Basque and Spanish meteorological agencies. The main objective is to make an observational and numerical analysis of this phenomenon in the aforementioned region, focusing on the predictability of the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) [2] and the evolution of turbulent parameters such as the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Numerical simulations are performed using the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). The selection method fails filtering a non-sea-breeze day owing to a shift hint in the wind direction, which is predominantly southerly making temperature reach around 40 °C in one of the meteorological stations. This day is simulated both with and without updating the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The latter simulation leads to a more unrealistic situation. Furthermore, the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution given by the model is compared for a sea breeze and a non-sea-breeze day, concluding that the establishment of a maritime flux results in a lower diffusive capacity in the lower atmosphere, which would lead to a higher concentration of pollutants close to the surface. It is also found that the cause of the

  4. Ground-Based Observations of the Thermodynamic and Kinematic Properties of Lake-Breeze Fronts in Southern Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Michelle; Hanesiak, John; Kehler, Scott; Sills, David M. L.; Taylor, Neil M.

    2017-04-01

    The "Effects of Lake Breezes on Weather in Manitoba" project was conducted during 6-24 July 2013 to better understand local lake-breeze characteristics. Data were collected using a variety of platforms including Doppler wind lidar, rawinsondes, Doppler radar, surface meteorological stations, and a mobile weather station. The spatial and temporal variability of thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of lake-breeze fronts are presented for three cases. Lake-breeze frontal passages were characterized by an average increase in dew point of 2.5°C and decrease in temperature of 0.5°C. The lake-breeze front width varied significantly over multiple measurements and cases, ranging between 50 and 800 m. The depth of the lake-breeze circulation varied between 100 and 700 m. Vertical velocities were measured at the lake-breeze front using lidar, with upward velocities of 2-3 m s^{-1} and small downward velocities of magnitude 0.5 m s^{-1} behind the front. These observations of lake-breeze fronts in southern Manitoba contribute both to the local and broader understanding of the variability (temporally and spatially) of inland shallow lake breezes.

  5. Sea/land breeze climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, M. Telišman; Grisogono, B.

    2007-11-01

    Climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast have been examined for nine meteorological stations for the summertime sea/land breeze circulation. The stations considered are Pula-airport, Opatija, Rijeka, Senj, Malinska, Rijeka-airport, Mali Lošinj, Rab and Zadar. The hourly surface measurements at each station from June to September for the period 1991 2004 as well as the radiosoundings in Zadar (from 2002 to 2004) were used for the analysis. A dataset with the sea/land breeze days was formed according to the several criteria. The mean daily maxima of both air and sea surface temperatures were more influenced by the large scale disturbances toward north (e.g. in Rijeka or Opatija) compared to the values for e.g. Zadar. Furthermore, the influence of the large scale disturbances diminished toward the south concerning the sea land temperature difference only at the stations placed at Rijeka Bay and Velebit channel. The strongest sea breeze was found at Pula-airport and the most frequent ones at Opatija and Zadar. At Senj the rarest, the weakest and the shortest sea breeze was observed. The climatological records of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference (Δ T) showed for Opatija, Malinska and Zadar that the maximum measured wind speed is around 4.5 °C confirming the nonlinear relationship between the sea breeze speeds and the Δ T during the day. At most stations, the clockwise rotation of the hodographs prevails which is typical for the Northern hemisphere due to Coriolis force, with the exception at Senj and Malinska. While the hodographs for Pula, Rijeka-airport and Mali Lošinj display a later onset of the prevailing sea breeze because of the interaction among several sea breeze circulations, the results for Opatija, Zadar and Senj show considerably distorted hodographs because of the nearby channeling of the air flow.

  6. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ∼7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ∼19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the

  7. Sea-breeze over area of Kattegat as a mean of transport for atmospheric nutrient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, J. N.; Zagar, M. Z.

    2003-04-01

    SEA BREEZE CIRCULATION OVER AREA OF KATTEGAT AS A MEAN OF TRANSPORT FOR ATMOSPHERIC NUTRIENT J.Nissen and Mark Zagar Risø National Laboratory (DK). Wind Energy Department Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University Here a study of sea breeze circulation in the Kattegat Sea between Denmark and Sweden is presented. In the study the structure and circulations path in the thermal internal boundary layer occurring over Jutland and southwestern part of Sweden at hot summer days is described. A divergent wind field is observed at surface level and a convergent field is observed at the upper layer and an anticyclonic circulation with associated subsidence is set up over the colder water. The hypothesis is that the subsidence from the two sea breeze cells creates a narrow region over central part of Kattegat where nitrogen containing air originating from the agricultural areas in Denmark and Sweden are brought down to the water surface and thus can increase nitrogen deposition in this very narrow area. Hence making the sea breeze circulation one of the meteorological processes that can cause an episodic deposition event. A case study of a sea breeze episode in august 2000 is undertaken where data analyses is carried out by using a model run of COAMPS and evaluate towards experimental chemical and meteorological data

  8. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  9. Flow vector, Mach number and abundance of the Warm Breeze of neutral He observed by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; McComas, David; Galli, Andre; Kucharek, Harald; Wurz, Peter; Schwadron, Nathan; Sokol, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Heirtzler, David M.; Möbius, Eberhard; Fuselier, Stephen; Swaczyna, Paweł; Leonard, Trevor; Park, Jeewoo

    2016-07-01

    With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis by the IBEX Science Team, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the interstellar neutral observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. The Warm Breeze is a newly discovered population of neutral He in the heliosphere. We search for the inflow velocity vector and the temperature of the Warm Breeze and used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximate the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and find a temperature of ~9 500 K, an inflow speed of ~11.3 km/s, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.6°, 12.0°. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.6% and the Mach number of the flow is 1.97. We discuss implications of this result for the heliospheric physics and an insight into the behavior of interstellar plasma in the outer heliosheath.

  10. A theoretical study of urban breeze-mountain wind interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango Seo, Jaemyeong; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are theoretically examined in a linear system that includes mountain mechanical forcing and non-zero basic-state wind. Flows induced by urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing are linearly superposed. Thermally induced asymmetric circulations in the presence of non-zero basic-state wind result in distinct flow patterns depending on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area. In the cases of the urban area being located on the downstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind induced by urban heating interacts with diverging (converging) flow from the mountain area in the nighttime (daytime). In the cases with the urban area being located on the upstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind is restricted in the urban area. Mountain mechanical forcing enhances downslope winds on the both sides of the mountain and updraft (downdraft) upstream (downstream) of the mountain. Sensitivities of the interactions to mountain height and basic-state wind speed are also examined. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum is analyzed by dividing the total momentum flux into five components. While terms that are related to flow induced by urban heating are dominant in the daytime, interaction terms that are related to flows induced by two thermal sources and by thermal and mechanical sources play important roles over the rest of times. Moreover, the total momentum flux is dependent on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area and basic-state wind speed.

  11. Breezes Along the Coast of Tamaulipas, Northeastern Mexico: Contribution to the Wind Energy Potencial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, J. M.; Rivas, D.

    2012-12-01

    The near-surface wind along the coast of northeastern Mexico and western Gulf of Mexico, with emphasis on the breeze regime, is characterized. Wind data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the period from 2000 to 2010 are used, which are validated by comparison with surface in-situ observations (weather stations). The validation shows a good agreement between the NARR product and the observations. The preliminary results show that the diurnal frequency associated with breezes has a significant contribution to the variability of the wind in the study area. This suggests that the breeze regime can be important for the wind power generation, and given the extensive coastal plain of Tamaulipas, the implementation of electricity-generation prototypes in the area is possible.

  12. Numerical simulation of the sea breeze, ideal and realistic: Baja California, Mexico case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, G.; Mateos, E.; Ayala, R.

    2016-12-01

    In studies, with data from weather stations in Bahia de Todos Santos, Baja California, Mexico, was found that the sea-land breeze is an important component of the wind circulation. Therefore, its behaviour was simulated numerically with the WRF model to identify not only the surface field, but the vertical component of this phenomenon, in addition to quantifying the number of events during the year 2010. The model was forced with NARR data, and triple nested meshes were defined, whose smallest nest has a horizontal resolution of 2 km. In parallel to realistic simulation, an idealized numerical experiment was done with the WRF-idealize sea breeze example to verify whether the WRF model can reproduce the sea breeze. In order to do this, three variables were analyzed: temperature, relative humidity and the U component of the wind.

  13. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  14. 78 FR 39062 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27; Invitation for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws: Vessel SEA BREEZE 27... of the vessel SEA BREEZE 27 is: Intended Commercial Use of Vessel: ``Charter fishing 6 people or less...

  15. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for...

  16. North-western Mediterranean sea-breeze circulation in a regional climate system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie; Arsouze, Thomas; Béranger, Karine; Flaounas, Emmanouil; Stéfanon, Marc

    2017-04-01

    In the Mediterranean basin, moisture transport can occur over large distance from remote regions by the synoptic circulation or more locally by sea breezes, driven by land-sea thermal contrast. Sea breezes play an important role in inland transport of moisture especially between late spring and early fall. In order to explicitly represent the two-way interactions at the atmosphere-ocean interface in the Mediterranean region and quantify the role of air-sea feedbacks on regional meteorology and climate, simulations at 20 km resolution performed with WRF regional climate model (RCM) and MORCE atmosphere-ocean regional climate model (AORCM) coupling WRF and NEMO-MED12 in the frame of HyMeX/MED-CORDEX are compared. One result of this study is that these simulations reproduce remarkably well the intensity, direction and inland penetration of the sea breeze and even the existence of the shallow sea breeze despite the overestimate of temperature over land in both simulations. The coupled simulation provides a more realistic representation of the evolution of the SST field at fine scale than the atmosphere-only one. Temperature and moisture anomalies are created in direct response to the SST anomaly and are advected by the sea breeze over land. However, the SST anomalies are not of sufficient magnitude to affect the large-scale sea-breeze circulation. The temperature anomalies are quickly damped by strong surface heating over land, whereas the water vapor mixing ratio anomalies are transported further inland. The inland limit of significance is imposed by the vertical dilution in a deeper continental boundary-layer.

  17. The Impact of Horizontal Sea Surface Temperature Gradients on Long Island Sound Sea Breezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinsky, E.; Lombardo, K.; Edson, J. B.; Whitney, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sea breeze is a mesoscale process that requires accurate estimates of land-sea temperature gradients for realistic forecasts. These forecasts are of interest to the oceanography community due to its influence on upwelling and estuarine circulation. Accurate representation of the SST is an important component to these forecasts. Specifically, the importance of properly represented horizontal SST gradients offshore of complex coastlines should be emphasized. A more realistic numerical representation of the horizontal SST field is expected to improve sea breeze forecasts. This work explores how horizontal SST gradients impact the dynamics of sea breeze circulations. The 8 July and 21 August 2013 sea breeze events are simulated using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model in the Long Island Sound (LIS) region. All simulations are initialized using the 32km North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for atmospheric conditions. To illustrate the impact of SST resolution on sea breeze forecasts, sensitivity experiments are performed varying the SST product used to initialize the model. The control experiment uses a spatially uniform SST of 22˚C. This will be compared to simulations initialized with the NARR 32km spatially varying SST (moderate SST gradient) and those initialized with the 1km G1SST (strong SST gradient). Comparing the moderate SST gradient experiment to the control during the 21 August event, the SST is 0.75˚C cooler in eastern LIS and 0.75˚C warmer in western LIS. This creates a stronger and weaker land-sea 2m temperature gradient in eastern and western LIS, respectively, compared to the control. As a result, the sea breeze front in the moderate SST experiment propagates more slowly inland in the western part of the domain and more quickly inland in the eastern part of the domain. Similar patterns are observed comparing the strong SST gradient experiment to the control, though the deviations from the control are greater.

  18. Interaction of a cold front with a sea-breeze front Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, B.; Hennemuth, B.; Rhodin, A.; Thiemann, S.

    1995-08-01

    On 9 May 1989, during the field experiment FRONTEX, a synoptic-scale cold front was observed which moved from the North Sea to Northern Germany and interacted with a sea-breeze front. The modification of the cold front is documented by satellite images and measurements over the sea, at the coast and further inland. The synoptic-scale front was characterized by weak frontal gradients over the sea. It was aligned approximately parallel to the coast as was approximately the wind ahead of it. While the synoptic-scale front approached the coast during the forenoon hours, a strong temperature contrast developed between sea and land due to solar heating of the land surface. This led to the formation of a sea-breeze front associated with a stronger temperature gradient than the synoptic-scale front. At about noon, when the synoptic-scale front almost reached the coast, the sea-breeze front began to move inland. The onshore wind behind the sea-breeze front and ahead of the synoptic-scale front was so large that the wind field at the synoptic-scale front changed from confluence to difluence. This process was supported by a shallow inversion ahead of the synoptic-scale front which confined the vertical depth of the sea-breeze. The former sea-breeze front overtook the main frontal characteristics, continued its inland propagation and was the only frontal event observed over the land. As a result of the interaction, the synoptic-scale front was significantly intensified in the boundary layer.

  19. A numerical study of the effects of a large sandbar upon sea breeze development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, R. C.; Pielke, R. A.; Mcqueen, J.; Eppel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations of sea breeze development over a large sandbar on the North Sea coast of Germany are reported. The numerical model used in these experiments contains a detailed treatment of soil moisture, which allows evaluation of the effects of differential surface characteristics on the airflow pattern. Results of the simulations indicate that the contrast between the moist sandbar and adjacent dry land, the tidal inundation of the sandbar, and the westward penetration of the Baltic sea breeze play important roles in the development of mesoscale airflow patterns in the sandbar region.

  20. On the effects of islands' geometry and size on inducing sea breeze circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrer, Y.; Segal, M.

    1985-01-01

    Model scaling of the characteristics of the sea breeze circulation involved with circular and slab elongated-symmetric midlatitude islands was performed. Larger horizontal and vertical velocities were indicated over the small circular islands as compared to those over corresponding elongated islands. The circulation characteristics of both types of islands become similar when the half-width of the island is about the same as the distance of inland penetration of the sea breeze in a nonisland case. Evaluation of the results through a scale analysis is presented.

  1. The lake breeze-ground-level ozone connection in eastern Wisconsin: a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartson, G. Jay; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2002-09-01

    The Lake Michigan Air Quality Region (LMAQR) experiences exceedances of the 1 h health standard for ozone numerous times each summer. Previous short-term investigations have revealed that the lake breeze circulation is connected with very high levels of ozone in eastern Wisconsin (EWI). Findings from one of the more recent short-term research efforts have led to the development of a generalized conceptual model that details the role that the lake breeze circulation plays in transporting ozone-rich air of the Lake Michigan conduction layer onshore to EWI. Short-term studies, however, are limited by the small number of cases examined. To understand the ozone-lake breeze relationship from a climatological perspective, we analysed the spatial and temporal pattern of 1 h ozone exceedances in EWI during the months of May through to September, over the period 1985-99. Further, we used Laird et al.'s recently developed technique for discriminating lake breeze days to determine which exceedance-days over the period of our climatology occurred in association with lake breezes.Our results show: (1) a decrease in both magnitude and frequency of exceedances of the 1 h ozone standard in EWI with increasing distance from the lakeshore; (2) a positive correlation between average onset time of the initial exceedance-hour and a site's distance from Lake Michigan; (3) a very high percentage of initial exceedance-hours occurring in association with southeasterly surface air flow; and (4) exceedances occurring in association with lake breezes 82.1% of the time at near-shore sites.Collectively, our findings provide strong evidence that the lake breeze circulation is closely associated with the distribution of ozone in EWI in both space and time. Moreover, our results show that the lake breeze circulation is directly associated with a significant proportion of the exceedances of the 1 h ozone standard in EWI-particularly at near-shore sites. Thus, mandated reductions in regional

  2. A morning transition case between the land and the sea breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Maria A.; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Guijarro, Jose A.; Cuxart, Joan

    2015-04-01

    To better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 the Mallorca Sea Breeze experimental field campaign (MSB13) took place in the Campos basin (located in the south side of the island). Measurements in the lower boundary layer (captive balloon and multicopter) and close to the surface were taken in a site close to the coast (500m inland). In this work an observed morning transition of the SB is further analysed through the observations and a high-resolution mesoscale simulation of this selected case. With the combined inspection of model results and observations, it is found that during the night-time the air flows out of the island: a land-breeze is found near the coast and downslope winds at the mountain slopes. After sunrise and during the previous phase (0600-0800 UTC) the temperature difference between land and sea is reduced meanwhile the wind has the land-breeze direction. During the preparatory phase (0800-1000 UTC) the land surface temperature is warmer than the sea and the wind weakens and veers towards the SB direction. Finally, during the development phase (1000-1200 UTC) the SB front propagates through the center of the Campos basin to the end of the basin, enhanced by the mountain upslope winds. Therefore, the radiative warming stops. The temperature, momentum and TKE budgets are used to understand the most relevant physical processes involved in each of the phases.

  3. The Effects of Highly Detailed Urban Roughness Parameters on a Sea-Breeze Numerical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varquez, Alvin Christopher G.; Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu

    2015-03-01

    We consider the effects of detailed urban roughness parameters on a sea-breeze simulation. An urban roughness database, constructed using a new aerodynamic parametrization derived from large-eddy simulations, was incorporated as a surface boundary condition in the advanced Weather Research and Forecasting model. The zero-plane displacement and aerodynamic roughness length at several densely built-up urban grids were three times larger than conventional values due to the consideration of building-height variability. A comparison between simulations from the modified model and its default version, which uses uniform roughness parameters within a conventional method, was conducted for a 2-month period during summer. Results showed a significant improvement in the simulation of surface wind speed but not with temperature. From the 2-month study period, a day with an evident sea-breeze penetration was selected and simulated at higher temporal resolution. Sea-breeze penetration weakened and was more delayed over urbanized areas. The slow sea-breeze penetration also lessened heat advection downwind allowing stronger turbulent mixing and a deeper boundary layer above urban areas. Horizontal wind-speed reduction due to the increased urban surface drag reached heights of several hundreds of metres due to the strong convection.

  4. Land-lake breezes at low latitudes: The case of Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Kumiko; Koike, Toshio

    2013-07-01

    Tonle Sap Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia. During the postmonsoon season, a small linear cloud system has been observed over this lake in early morning, while the sky above the surrounding land is clear. Although this cloud system is apparently generated by land breezes, previous studies on land-lake (sea) circulation have suggested that environmental factors at low latitudes inhibit development of nocturnal land breezes. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of these early morning clouds through numerical simulation. The simulations show a linear updraft system over the lake, forming along the southwest lakeshore around 22:00 and moving northeast to the middle of the lake. The heavier air mass from the land meets the extraordinarily warm and humid air mass over the lake, triggering updrafts under the conditionally convective instability. The characteristic high surface water temperature was favorable for generation of the land breeze and updraft systems. That high surface water temperature of the lake is produced by the tropical climate along with efficient energy absorption because of the shallowness of the water body. This unique feature can generate a clear nocturnal land breeze circulation accompanying a migrating updraft system over the lake despite its low latitude.

  5. Land Breeze and Thermals: A Scale Threshold to Distinguish Their Effects

    Treesearch

    Yongqiang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Land breeze is a type of mesoscale circulation developed due to thermal forcing over a heterogeneous landscape. It can contribute to atmospheric dynamic and hydrologic processes through affecting heat and water fluxes on the land-atmosphere interface and generating shallow convective precipitation. If the scale of the landscape heterogeneity is smaller than a certain...

  6. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  7. Air pollution studies in Chicago considering lake breeze events and land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeling, M.; Treering, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Trace elemental, ionic species and reactive trace gases were monitored and measured in Chicago air during the summers of 2002 to 2005. Weather data obtained for the same time periods provided information about major wind patterns. Sampling times and duration were selected to coincide with lake breezes, which occur with highest frequency in summer. Lake breezes were observed between 14 and 47 percent of total collection days per summer and appeared to be more frequent in the cooler summers of 2003 and 2004. Depending on the predominant wind direction on the day before, pollutants increased briefly during a lake breeze event. On days without the occurrence of a lake breeze, it was found that the highest concentrations of pollutants were transported by southerly wind currents. Some major sources, such as brick and cement manufacturing, steel industry and heavy road traffic, lay in the path of this wind current. Chicago area land use and transportation maps were analyzed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to identify major industrial complexes, intermodal terminals, highways and railroads. We also included demographic information in the GIS maps to analyze whether certain population groups are disproportionally exposed to air pollution. Our results will not only be interesting for the science community, but also to policy makers when considering air pollutant exposure and are expected to inform decisions regarding air pollution policy in the future.

  8. The Sea Breeze Convergence Zone and Its Relationship to Fair Weather Electricity in East Central Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    and Rodebust 1948; Gentry and Moore 1954; Estoque 1962; Frank et al. 1967; Neumann 1971; Pielke 1974; Blanchard and Lopez 1985; Waston et al. 1987...convection and boundary layer interactions. J. Appl. Meteor., 21, 953-977. Estoque , M.A., 1962: The sea breeze as a function of the prevailing synoptic

  9. Bay Breeze Influence on Surface Ozone at Edgewood, MD During July 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Clark, Richard D.; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4deg, lon: -76.3deg) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be a

  10. Bay breeze influence on surface ozone at Edgewood, MD during July 2011.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M; Martins, Douglas K; Clark, Richard D; Goldberg, Daniel L; Loughner, Christopher P; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R; Stehr, Jeffrey W; Tzortziou, Maria A

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4°, lon: -76.3°) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be

  11. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  12. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  13. A comparison of the results of a 3-D numerical model with observations for the study of dispersion within a sea breeze

    SciTech Connect

    Guerer, K.; Avissar, R.; Reiss, N.

    1996-12-31

    Sea breezes frequently occur along the coast of the eastern US from early spring to late Autumn. Because of the high population density and heavy industrialization along the coast, the occurrence of a sea breeze can cause the pollutants released within the are to concentrate over narrow air corridors along a sea breeze front and the formation of localized haze layers. Although there is considerable knowledge about the meteorological characteristics of sea breezes from observational and numerical studies, we do not know (1) if the results of numerical models correctly depict the 3-D structure of a sea breeze and (2) how the dispersion of particles are affected by the sea breeze. The North Eastern US Sea Breeze Experiment (NESBEX) has been underway since last March at Rutgers University in New Jersey. This study aims (1) to assess the meteorological characteristics of sea breeze, and (2) to investigate the effect of sea breeze on the dispersion of pollutants released from industrial sources operating along the east coast. The data collected by a wind profiler, two sodars and two meteorological towers located along the coast and 15 miles inland together with the data collected from surface, radiosondes and buoy stations will be used to study the temporal and spatial characteristics of sea breeze. The data is augmented by the NEXRAD data to locate sea breeze front and estimate the horizontal velocities as well as by NOAA-11 Tiros N operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Data to estimate sea-surface and land-surface temperatures.

  14. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  15. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O3) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  16. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, K. L.; Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Li, S.-M.; Makar, P. A.; Markovic, M. Z.; Liu, P.; Anlauf, K. G.; O'Brien, J. M.; Li, Q.; McLaren, R.

    2011-10-01

    High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects conducted at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and the air parcel circulation time in the lake-breeze circulation (3.0 to 5.0 h) enabled formation rates of organic aerosol (OA/ΔCO) and SO42- to be determined. The formation rate for OA (relative to excess CO in ppmv) was found to be 11.6-19.4 μg m-3 ppmv-1 h-1 and the SO42- formation rate was 5.0-8.8% h-1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42- and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution leading to elevated oxidant concentrations.

  17. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, K. L.; Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Li, S.-M.; Makar, P. A.; Markovic, M. Z.; Liu, P.; Anlauf, K. G.; O'Brien, J. M.; Li, Q.; McLaren, R.

    2011-04-01

    High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and best estimates for air parcel circulation times in the lake-breeze circulation (1.2 to 3.0 h) enabled formation rates of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA/ΔCO) and SO42- to be determined. The formation rate for OOA, relative to excess CO, was found to be 2.5-6.2 μg m-3 ppmv-1 h-1 and the SO42- formation rate was 1.8-4.6% h-1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42- and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution leading to elevated oxidant concentrations.

  18. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, Shane

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  19. A Sea Breeze Induced Thunderstorm over an Inland Station over Indian South Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhate, J. N.; Kesarkar, A. P.; Karipot, A.; Subrahamanyam, D. B.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present case studies of the genesis of the thunderstorm over Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) due to the interaction of sea breeze with different synoptic conditions. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convections over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique, The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability and thermodynamic instability generated because of intrusion of sea breeze front at Gadanki region and reduction in dew point depression

  20. Effect of sea breeze circulation on aerosol mixing state and radiative properties in a desert setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derimian, Yevgeny; Choël, Marie; Rudich, Yinon; Deboudt, Karine; Dubovik, Oleg; Laskin, Alexander; Legrand, Michel; Damiri, Bahaiddin; Koren, Ilan; Unga, Florin; Moreau, Myriam; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Karnieli, Arnon

    2017-09-01

    Chemical composition, microphysical, and optical properties of atmospheric aerosol deep inland in the Negev Desert of Israel are found to be influenced by daily occurrences of sea breeze flow from the Mediterranean Sea. Abrupt increases in aerosol volume concentration and shifts of size distributions towards larger sizes, which are associated with increase in wind speed and atmospheric water content, were systematically recorded during the summertime at a distance of at least 80 km from the coast. Chemical imaging of aerosol samples showed an increased contribution of highly hygroscopic particles during the intrusion of the sea breeze. Besides a significant fraction of marine aerosols, the amount of internally mixed marine and mineral dust particles was also increased during the sea breeze period. The number fraction of marine and internally mixed particles during the sea breeze reached up to 88 % in the PM1-2. 5 and up to 62 % in the PM2. 5-10 size range. Additionally, numerous particles with residuals of liquid coating were observed by SEM/EDX analysis. Ca-rich dust particles that had reacted with anthropogenic nitrates were evidenced by Raman microspectroscopy. The resulting hygroscopic particles can deliquesce at very low relative humidity. Our observations suggest that aerosol hygroscopic growth in the Negev Desert is induced by the daily sea breeze arrival. The varying aerosol microphysical and optical characteristics perturb the solar and thermal infrared radiations. The changes in aerosol properties induced by the sea breeze, relative to the background situation, doubled the shortwave radiative cooling at the surface (from -10 to -20.5 W m-2) and increased by almost 3 times the warming of the atmosphere (from 5 to 14 W m-2), as evaluated for a case study. Given the important value of observed liquid coating of particles, we also examined the possible influence of the particle homogeneity assumption on the retrieval of aerosol microphysical characteristics

  1. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  2. The influence of consecutive sea and land breeze days on the accumulation of photochemical oxidants and nitrogen oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ko; Takahashi, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    Efforts have been made to improve the air pollution environment, in Japan, since the first photochemical smog was reported in 1970. While nitrogen oxide and non-methane hydrocarbon levels, both of which are precursors of photochemical oxidants (Ox), are tending to decrease, Ox levels are tending to increase. Local wind, such as sea and land breeze circulation, plays important roles in the production and accumulation of Ox. It has been suggested that continuous sea and land breeze circulation serves to accumulate pollutants. However, pollutant concentrations do not necessarily increase compared with the previous day even if similar weather conditions persist, such as sea and land breeze circulation. As such, the factors related to changes in the pollutant concentrations are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the accumulation and distribution of air pollutants for days in which sea and land breeze days was consecutive for two days. We chose to study sea breeze days in which a southerly wind develops in the southern Kanto plain, north of Tokyo Bay, during July and August for the years 19902012. We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to classify the variations in pollutant concentrations. We classified sea breeze days into four groups, i.e., Group 1: days when the pollutant concentration decreased around Tokyo Bay and increased inland, Group 2: days when the concentration increased across almost the entire study region, Group 3: days when the concentration decreased inland and in southern Tokyo Bay, and Group 4: days when the concentration increased, particularly around Tokyo Bay. In Group 2, in which the pollutant concentration increased as compared with the previous day, the wind direction had clearly changed from southerly to northerly during the night of the first day and a land breeze penetrated toward the coastal area. In the other groups, wind velocity also became weaker but there was no change from sea-breeze to

  3. The Impact of Synoptic-Scale Flow on Sea Breeze Front Propagation and Intensity at Eglin Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Blanchard and Lopez 1985). Numerical ( Estoque 1962; Bechtold et al. 1991; Arritt 1993) and observational (Kingsmill 1995; Atkins and Wakimoto 1997...observation and numerical research suggest that the sea breeze evolves differently under the influence of a prevailing background synoptic flow ( Estoque 1962...penetration of the sea breeze are strongly modulated by the presence of a background flow. a. Model Studies Estoque (1962) was one of the first

  4. Effects of a sea breeze discontinuity on air quality in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Talbot, Charles; Fourmentin, Marc; Willart, Véronique; Delbarre, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The effects of interaction between the sea breeze and synoptic wind on air pollutants have been studied in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea. These effects have been investigated, during one day, using ground-based remote sensing systems and surface station data alongside with mesoscale modelling outputs. During a campaign in the North of France, continuous lidar measurements documented the structure and the evolution of the lower troposphere. The combination of lidar, sodar and surface station observations showed that the atmospheric boundary layer is well stratified during the night, with a stable double layer structure which slows the growing process of the mixing layer, in the morning and before the sea-breeze onset. During the day, we observed discontinuity in meteorological measurements due to the sea-breeze occurrences. We have found that these sudden changes were well correlated with high concentrations of sulphur dioxide at ground level (up to 400 ?g/m3). The first sea breeze puff generates a change of the structure of the lower troposphere with a coupling between the residual layer and the convective boundary layer. The discontinuity of the sea-breeze gravity current is well observed by lidar signals and sodar echo. The analysis revealed that the impacts of the sea-breeze discontinuity have significant implications on the local and the regional pollution above industrialized areas. This phenomenon triggers important changes on the local and regional air quality, more particularly in urban and industrial coastal localities.

  5. Association of non-marine sulfate aerosol with sea breeze circulation in Tampa bay

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.S.; Winchester, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    Peak concentrations of aerosol sulfur in Tampa, Florida may be the result of either regional-scale transformation and transport processes or local-scale transport from nearby air pollution sources. The existence of the latter has been demonstrated in Tampa through correspondence of sulfur with sea breeze circulation patterns and the resulting chloride concentration maxima (which serve as indicators of the marine aerosol), vanadium concentration maxima (which indicate times of high concentrations of certain plume constituents), and the locations of sources favorable for high concentrations of air pollution-derived sulfate during occurrences of the sea breeze. The analysis indicates that locally derived sulfate in the Tampa atmosphere, which may be less abundant than sulfate due to regional-scale processes, can be identified by the use of combined meteorological and chemical tracer interpretation.

  6. Further considerations on modeling the sea breeze with a mixed-layer model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthes, R. A.; Keyser, D.; Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Mixed-layer models have been used to simulate low-level flows under a variety of situations, including flow over complex terrain and in the vicinity of coastal zones. The advantage of mixed-layer models compared to multilevel models is their simplicity and minimal computational requirements. A disadvantage is that the atmosphere above the mixed layer is not modeled explicitly and approximations pertaining to this layer become necessary. This paper examines five approximations for treating this upper layer for a simple sea-breeze circulation. Approximating the flow immediately above the mixed-layer height h by the mixed-layer velocity and using this velocity to advect potential temperature above h gives a better simulation of the sea breeze than the approximation used by Anthes et al. (1980), which neglected horizontal advection at this level.

  7. A simplified method to compute radionuclide concentrations under sea breeze situations

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.T.; Kumar, A.

    1983-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an alternate method to compute ground-level radionuclide concentrations for the use under emergency conditions at a coastal nuclear power plant for sea breeze cases. The method involves the use of a work sheet and graphs. The results are compared with the EPA method given in ''Manual of Protective Action Guides and Protective Actions for Nuclear Incidents.'' A method has been developed to predict ground-level concentrations of radionuclides under sea-breeze conditions. Using the procedure outlined in this report in conjunction with Figures 2-9, an estimate of concentration/dose for Xe-133 and I-131 versus downwind distance can be obtained quickly. A comparison of the data from this study and the currently recommended EPA procedures shows a large discrepancy between the two methods and indicates a need for their revision.

  8. A wind-tunnel study of sea breeze effects. [diffusion pattern simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Griffiths, R.; Hoydysh, W. G.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze has been attempted. No attempt was made to reproduce the recirculation that characterizes a sea breeze, but the results indicate that the low-level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground-level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by Inoue (1960) and with the open, countryside results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good. The comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind-tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a lack of mesoscale turbulence in the wind tunnel.

  9. Influence of Coke Breeze Combustion Conditions on the Emission of NOx in Sintering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bo; Wu, Sheng-li; Zhang, Guo-liang; Que, Zhi-gang; Hou, Chao-gang

    NOx released during fuel combustion is one of the major air pollutants, such as acid rain and photochemical smog. At present, still not have an economical and effective method of inhibiting NOx emission for sintering flue gas. Therefore, controlling conditions of fuel combustions to enhance the reduction of NOx is important for decreased the emission. In this study, micro-sintering furnace has been performed to investigate the effects of NOx emission from char-N during coke breeze combustion. The results show that the emission concentration of NOx decreased with increasing temperature when it is sinter bed temperature higher than 1000°C. The lower emission concentration of NOx was obtained when the concentration of oxygen was decreased. And the maximum concentration of NOx will be reduced with the enhanced of heating rate. If heating preservation time was prolonged, it would promote to NOx reduction with reduction substances resulted in lower NOx emissions in the combustion of coke breezes.

  10. Investigation of the Mesoscale Interaction between the Sea Breeze Circulation and the Sandhills Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Aaron P.

    In the Carolinas of the United States, there are two key land-surface features over which convective precipitation often forms during the summer months. These geomorphic features are the Sandhills and coastline. Along the coastline, sea-breeze circulations regularly form and are known to initiate convection. The Sandhills is a transitional zone of sandy soil surrounded by mixture of soils that include clay and loam. It extends through the central part of the Carolinas and into Georgia and is also the origin of convective storms. The two geographical features, the coastline and the Sandhills, are in regional proximity of each other and the resultant sea-breeze front and the Sandhills convection interact during summer. During this research, the investigation of the mechanism of interaction between these two features has led to the discovery of the Sandhills front, a shallow outflow density current that develops from deep convection over the Sandhills and propagates eastward toward the coast. The convergence of the Sandhills front and the sea-breeze front initiates and enhances convection between the Sandhills and the coastline. Observations during the month of June for the period 2004 to 2015 are used to evaluate the interaction between these two phenomena. On average, these interactions occur on approximately 24% of all days in June and on 36% of all days in June when synoptic scale systems are absent. Thus, the interactions between the sea-breeze and the Sandhills circulations do contribute to the precipitation in this region. Background wind speeds and directions influence the location and the strength of convection associated with this interaction. Onshore, offshore, and southwesterly flow classifications each present different strengths and locations of the interactions. Light winds ( 3 m s-1 to 6 m s-1 ) also influence the interactions differently. Observations indicate that moderate southwesterly flow has the highest total average and total maximum

  11. A Mathematical Model of Sea Breezes Along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea Coast: Part II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozo, Thomas L.

    1982-07-01

    A nonlinear, time-dependent, two-dimensional sea breeze model allowing imposition of prevailing large-scale wind conditions has been developed. The model is an extension of Estoque's model with modifications in the treatment of the continuity equation, eddy diffusivity (unstable conditions), surface heating function and the numerical scheme.The model is applied to a cross section of the Beaufort Sea Coast using typically measured arctic conditions as input. These include u-w plane velocity vectors, isotachs of the u, v and w wind velocity components, temperature contours, surface wind vectors at varying distances from the coastline, and wind speed and direction profiles for various simulated synoptic wind directions.The mathematical results reproduced measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turning of the wind with height (pilot balloon data), temporal surface wind vector turning and inversion height variations, while also giving evidence that sea breeze circulation could be strengthened by weak offshore (southwesterly and westerly winds) opposing synoptic winds.

  12. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  13. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  14. Application of Land Surface Data Assimilation to Simulations of Sea Breeze Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackaro, Scott; Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSUNCAR MM5 V3-5 and applied at spatial resolutions of 12- and 4-km. It is recognized that even 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  15. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  16. Synoptic-Scale Influence on the Monterey Bay Sea-Breeze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    circulation often dictate circulation development more than the direct forcing terms. Studies such as Estoque (1962) and Arritt (1993) have demonstrated...penetration of the circulation ( Estoque , 1962). Along the eastern portion of the East Pacific Anticyclone, the immediate inland areas receive intense daytime...Marine Inversion Layer off the Central California Coast: Mesoscale Conditions." Mon. Wea. Rev., 121, 335-351. Estoque , M.A., 1962: "The Sea Breeze as

  17. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in Thoroughbreds after racing and breezing.

    PubMed

    Raphel, C F; Soma, L R

    1982-07-01

    Thoroughbred horses (n = 191) were examined with a flexible fiberoptic endoscope within 2 hours of racing on a dirt track; 147 (75.4%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), and 13 (9.0%) had blood at the nostrils. Of 107 Thoroughbreds examined within the same period after breezing, 41 (38.3%) had evidence of EIPH. One horse (2.4%) of this group had blood at the nostrils. Statistical analysis of frequency data showed that a relationship existed between EIPH and the horse's age or distance raced or breezed. Relationship did not exist between EIPH and sex or finishing position. Thoroughbreds were also examined endoscopically after steeplechase, flat turf, and timber races; 67.7% (21/31), 14.3% (2/14), and 66.6% (2/3) of the horses in such races were EIPH-positive, respectively; and 14.3% (3/21), 0% (0/2), and 100% (2/2) of these EIPH-positive horses had blood at the nostrils. Of 32 breezing Thoroughbreds in a 3rd survey, 21 (65.5%) were EIPH-positive. None bled from the nostrils. Endoscopic findings of EIPH are repeatable in the horses, indicating that bleeding is not a random event.

  18. Sea breeze modulated volatilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the Masnou Harbor (NW Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pérez, Sandra; Dachs, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2003-09-01

    Harbors, marinas, and coastal environments are impacted by important pollutant loadings, particularly of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Air-water exchange is an important process driving the environmental fate of organic pollutants in aquatic environments. However, its relevance as a factor affecting the environmental fate of pollutants from harbor sediments and waters has not been properly assessed, so far, except for few coastal environments. The objective of this study is to quantify the importance of volatilization losses of PAHs from harbor sediments and waters and to study the potential role of sea breeze as a modulator of air-water exchange in coastal environments. The results show that volatilization fluxes from a medium size marina located in the NW Mediterranean sea are relatively high in comparison to those observed in other aquatic systems, particularly for the low molecular weight (MW) compounds. This is consistent with PAHs profiles observed in harbor sediments, which are depleted by the lower MW hydrocarbons. Therefore, volatilization is an important loss of low MW PAHs such as phenanthrene, methyl phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, etc. Indeed, these PAHs have a residence time of few days in the harbor waters and sediments. Finally, the diurnal trends in volatilization fluxes mimics that of the sea breeze influenced wind speed. These results show the important role that the diurnal sea breeze exerts on the environmental fate of pollutants such as PAHs in coastal environments as a modulator of air-water exchange and as a potential driver of transport of pollutants between adjacent coastal and terrestrial environments.

  19. Numerical study of the daytime urban effect and its interaction with the sea breeze

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikado, Hiroshi )

    1992-10-01

    Under light gradient-wind conditions, the heat-island effect associated with large urban areas is characterized by a temperature rise after sunrise over the land (Delta theta L) and a temperature difference between the urban and rural areas (Delta theta) during the day, whereas by only Delta theta during the night. A numerical experiment using a two-dimensional hydrostatic boundary-layer model was performed to examine the basic characteristics of the daytime heat-island circulation. The results show that a daytime circulation can develop that is much stronger than the nocturnal circulation in spite of a generally smaller value of Delta theta. The circulation decays under the influence of a moderate gradient wind. On the other hand, it persists in the sea-breeze system, and has a notable effect on the sea-breeze pattern. Some characteristics of the sea breeze observed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, such as formation of a suburban stagnant region, frontal intensification, and the delay of its advance inland, were well simulated with the simplified model. Trajectory analyses for air parcels passing over the coastal city indicate that the heat island could prevent the dispersion of urban pollutants and delay their inland transport. 29 refs.

  20. Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Sea Breeze Initiated Precipitation Over Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, R. David; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    1999-01-01

    Land surface-atmosphere interaction plays a key role in the development of summertime convection and precipitation over the Florida peninsula. Land-ocean temperature contrasts induce sea-breeze circulations along both coasts. Clouds develop along sea-breeze fronts, and significant precipitation can occur during the summer months. However, other factors such as soil moisture distribution and coastline curvature may modulate the timing, location, and intensity of sea breeze initiated precipitation. Here, we investigate the role of soil moisture and coastline curvature on Florida precipitation using the 3-D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud model coupled with the Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model. This study utilizes data from the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE) collected on 27 July 1991. Our numerical simulations suggest that a realistic distribution of soil moisture influences the location and intensity of precipitation but not the timing of precipitation. In contrast, coastline curvature affects the timing and location of precipitation but has little influence on peak rainfall rates. However, both factors (soil moisture and coastline curvature) are required to fully account for observed rainfall amounts.

  1. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR.

  2. Modeling the role of lake breeze transport on ozone concentrations in southern Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, D.A.; Neary, L.; Kaminski, J.W.; McConnell, J.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study makes use of a modified version of the Mesoscale Compressible Community model (MC2), a fully compressible, non-hydrostatic meteorological model, to study the effects of the lake breeze circulation on the formation and distribution of high levels of ozone in south-eastern Ontario. Transport, photochemistry, emission, and deposition modules, based on the Acid Deposition and Oxidants Model (ADOM), have been added to the MC2 model. Chemistry is run on-line with the meteorology. While making greater demands on computing power, running the chemistry in-line alleviates, to some extent, the need for storage of large meteorological fields and potentially allows for greater consistency between the dynamical fields produced by the meteorology and the advection of trace gas species. The model can be run in a nested manner to allow a high resolution study of the interaction of lake breeze circulations with ozone precursor laden plumes of air leaving Toronto. The model has been successfully run for the first twenty days of August 1988 at a horizontal resolution of 21km. Modeling studies of lake breezes at a 5km resolution have been limited to meteorological only runs so far.

  3. Nocturnal boundary layer characteristics and land breeze development in Houston, Texas during TexAQS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Bridget M.; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Clements, Craig B.; Tucker, Sara C.; Alan Brewer, W.

    2010-10-01

    The nocturnal boundary layer in Houston, Texas was studied using a high temporal and vertical resolution tethersonde system on four nights during the Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS II) in August and September 2006. The launch site was on the University of Houston campus located approximately 4 km from downtown Houston. Of particular interest was the evolution of the nocturnal surface inversion and the wind flows within the boundary layer. The land-sea breeze oscillation in Houston has important implications for air quality as the cycle can impact ozone concentrations through pollutant advection and recirculation. The results showed that a weakly stable surface inversion averaging in depth between 145 and 200 m AGL formed on each of the experiment nights, typically within 2-3 h after sunset. Tethersonde vertical winds were compared with two other Houston data sets (High Resolution Doppler Lidar and radar wind profiler) from locations near the coastline and good agreement was found, albeit with a temporal lag at the tethersonde site. This comparison revealed development of a land breeze on three nights which began near the coastline and propagated inland both horizontally and vertically with time. The vertical temperature structure was significantly modified on one night at the tethersonde site after the land breeze wind shift, exhibiting near-adiabatic profiles below 100 m AGL.

  4. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, V.; Moeller, L.; Stefanova, L.; Chan, S.; O'Brien, J. J.; Smith, T.J.; Plant, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979-2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Moeller, Lauren; Stefanova, Lydia; Chan, Steven; O'Brien, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Plant, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979–2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze.

  6. Transient land breeze: Eclipse induced wind flow modifications—Observations over plant canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, B. S.; Latha, R.; Sreeja, P.; Dharmaraj, T.

    2012-11-01

    An experiment is conducted over Cassava plant canopy at a coastal station at CTCRI, Thiruvananthapuram (8°29'N, 76°59E) to study the response of meteorological parameters and land-sea breeze circulations to the annular solar eclipse on January 15, 2010. Observations reveal decrease of solar radiation to a minimum of 96 W m-2 during the peak eclipse period. Air temperature drops by 4 °C and relative humidity increases by 20%. Sensible heat flux reduces to zero. Transient land breeze occurs for a few minutes with a time lag of about 1 h possibly due to outflow from the umbra region or temperature gradient over land with the eclipse progressing in the eastward direction. Sea breeze is delayed by about 3 h on the next day of eclipse. Spectral energy density of wind (u, v, w) and temperature attains a minimum value during totality and increases later, attributable to reduction in turbulence due to eclipse-induced stability.

  7. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs<1 m) short-period (Tp<4 s) NE waves approaching with a high incidence wave angle. These wave conditions drive westward alongshore currents of up to 0.6 m/s in the inner surf zone and hence produce an active sediment transport in the swash zone. On the other hand, the more energetic (Hs>1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  8. A sea breeze induced thunderstorm over an inland station over Indian South Peninsula - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhate, Jyoti; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present a rare case study of the genesis of the thunderstorm that occurred on 4th May 2011 at 1500Z over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), one of the tropical inland stations (100 km) near to the east coast of the Indian peninsula. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convection over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, to bridge the gap of lack of high resolutional spatial observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique. The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability

  9. Providing operational guidance for the development of sea breeze thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center - An experiment using a mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Moon, Dennis A.; Keen, Cecil S.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Pielke, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of a mesoscale numerical model to provide improved local forecast guidance is evaluated with respect to sea breeze convection storms at the Kennedy Space Center. The model and operational forecast guidance production are described. A case study is presented for sea breeze convection storms and lightning events on July 1, 1986. It is found that the mesoscale numerical model outperforms purely subjective predictions of sea breeze convection. The range of applications for the model are considered.

  10. Mechanical strength of extrusion briquettes (BREX) for blast-furnace and ferroalloy production: II. Effect of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength of extrusion briquettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizhanov, A. M.; Kurunov, I. F.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength and the behavior of extrusion briquette (BREX) during static loading is studied. It is found that the size, the shape, and the surface relief of coke breeze particles affect the character of BREX fracture. The application of a shearing extruder for preliminary refinement of coke breeze can result in viscoelastic fracture of BREX due to an increase in its impact toughness.

  11. A study of the Merritt Island, Florida sea breeze flow regimes and their effect on surface heat and moisture fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubes, M. T.; Cooper, H. J.; Smith, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected during the Convective and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment were analyzed as part of an investigation of the sea breeze in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida. Analysis of near-surface divergence fields shows that the classical 24-hour oscillation in divergence over the island due to the direct sea breeze circulation is frequently disrupted and exhibits two distinct modes: the classical sea breeze pattern and deviations from that pattern. A comparison of clear day surface energy fluxes with fluxes on other days indicates that changes in magnitudes were dominated by the presence or absence of clouds. Non-classical sea breeze days tended to lose more available energy in the morning than classical sea breeze days due to earlier development of small cumulus over the island. A composite storm of surface winds, surface energy fluxes, rainfall, and satellite visible data was constructed. A spectral transmittance over the visible wavelengths for the cloud cover resulting from the composite storm was calculated. It is shown that pre-storm transmittances of 0.8 fall to values near 0.1 as the downdraft moves directly over the site. It is also found that under post-composite storm conditions of continuous clear sky days, 3.5 days are required to evaporate back into the atmosphere the latent heat energy lost to the surface by rainfall.

  12. A modelling investigation into lake-breeze development and convection triggering in the Nam Co Lake basin, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Tobias; Biermann, Tobias; Babel, Wolfgang; Herzog, Michael; Ma, Yaoming; Foken, Thomas; Graf, Hans-F.

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the cloud resolving Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model coupled to the interactive surface model Hybrid in order to investigate the diurnal development of a lake-breeze system at the Nam Co Lake on the Tibetan Plateau. Simulations with several background wind speeds are conducted, and the interaction of the lake breeze with topography and background wind in triggering moist and deep convection is studied. The model is able to adequately simulate the systems most important dynamical features such as turbulent surface fluxes and the development of a lake breeze for the different wind conditions. We identify two different mechanisms for convection triggering that are dependent on the direction of the background wind: triggering over topography, when the background wind and the lake breeze have the same flow direction, and triggering due to convergence between the lake-breeze front and the background wind. Our research also suggests that precipitation measurements at the centre of the basins on the Tibetan Plateau are not representative for the basin as a whole as precipitation is expected to occur mainly in the vicinity of the topography.

  13. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics.

  14. Interaction of a cold front with a sea-breeze front Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodin, A.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of a front which passed the coast between the North Sea and northern Germany and thereby experienced some modifications of its mesoscale characteristics. The event was observed during the field experiment FRONTEX'89. The two-dimensional non-hydrostatic simulations presented in this paper resemble some of the observed characteristics and yield a detailed description of the evolution of the surface front. Over the sea several narrow frontal rain bands develop in the boundary layer which becomes unstable due to the increasing sea surface temperature near the coast. The rain bands move forward relative to the front due to the cross frontal circulation which is enhanced by the release of latent heat in the ascending warm air and by the cooling of the cold air below by evaporating precipitation. Over the heated land surface a sea-breeze front develops ahead of the synoptic-scale cold front. The strong frontal gradients of the sea-breeze front mask the broader frontal zone of the cold front at the ground. The sea-breeze front triggers deep convection ahead of the cold front in the afternoon and takes over all characteristics of the synoptic-scale front in the evening. The simulations show the mechanisms that caused the observed evolution and modification of the synoptic-scale cold front. They emphasize the strong influence of the surface heat fluxes on the characteristics of fronts on the mesoscale. The most important feature of the numerical model, necessary for the proper representation of the frontal characteristics on the mesoscale, is its high resolution. The simulations are restricted by the difficulties of finding an initial state and appropriate boundary conditions so that the results fit the observations for a long time period and that spin-up problems are avoided.

  15. Validation of mesocale number sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts over Florida using LPATS - The Lightning Position and Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Schuh, J. A.; Pielke, R. A.; Highlands, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The research reported in the present paper has the objective to develop improved operational techniques for sea breeze (SB) initiated convective storms. It is pointed out that the sea breeze is a relatively simple mesoscale circulation. The considered studies are mainly concerned with detailed thunderstorm potential forecasts during the next several hours, taking into account real-time predictions using new supercomputer technology. Thunderstorm and coastal mesoscale circulations are discussed along with the P3DM model sea. The considered code represents the result of a further development of the NOAA Florida sea breeze model which was introduced by Pielke (1974). After its modificataion, the model was renamed the Prognostic Three Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) Model, with its 2-D connterpart the P2DM. Attention is also given to real time climatology, and a case study concerned with developments occurring on 5 May 1984 over the Florida Peninsula.

  16. Sea-Breeze and Topographic Influences on the Planetary Boundary Layer in the Coastal Upwelling Area of Cabo Frio (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    We use a fully coupled oceanic-atmospheric model to investigate the sources and sinks of turbulent kinetic energy in the Cabo Frio coastal area and to determine the role of topography and the sea breeze in planetary boundary-layer (PBL) development. The study area presents similar boundary-layer characteristics than other coastal upwelling areas with complex topography, such as increased stability and low-level jets. The results show that the major effect of upwelling, over the investigated area, is to maintain low temperatures in the lower atmosphere over the coastal zone, sustaining a strong temperature inversion that precludes the vertical PBL development. Therefore, the cooling effect reduces the horizontal thermal contrast between land and water, generating a negative feedback between the intensity of the sea breeze and the intensity of the upwelling. The topography at Cabo Frio prevents this cooling effect from propagating inland, since it limits the penetration of the sea-breeze circulation.

  17. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  18. The Characteristics of the Chicago Lake Breeze and Its Effects on Trace Particle Transport: Results from an Episodic Event Simulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Lucas; Rao Kotamarthi, V.

    2005-11-01

    The lake-breeze circulation that forms over Lake Michigan during the summer influences the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area’s weather in several ways. Of particular significance is the circulation’s effect on the dispersion of pollutants such as ozone and aerosols produced in and around the city. To investigate these effects, the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) was used to perform numerical simulations for two lake-breeze events—one in July 1999 and another in July 2002. The model runs were verified with data from several locations around the Chicago area. The simulated breeze circulation decreased the rate of increase in air temperature while penetrating roughly 12 km inland and lasting about 8 h, in reasonable agreement with observations. Furthermore, the inland penetration distance was related to the strength of the maximum vertical velocity within the front. Calculations of trajectories and transport of particles showed that the breeze tended to transport particles trapped within it to the north when release occurred before the circulation came ashore, whereas particles released at the time of the breeze’s landfall or afterward moved more northeasterly, in the direction of the prevailing wind. Thirty-four percent of all released particles were trapped by the circulation and raised to a height of at least 300 m, and 20% of the particles remained in the lowest 100 m above the surface. In addition, sensitivity tests showed little change in the modeled breeze when measured surface temperatures for Lake Michigan were used as initial conditions and boundary conditions in the place of surface skin temperature (as derived by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction). Raising the lake temperatures significantly in the simulation yielded a more elongated vertical circulation and a briefer lake-breeze event that did not reach as far inland.

  19. Diagnosis of sea breeze cases over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, C.; Freitas, E. D.

    2013-05-01

    The sea breeze is a great responsible for the organization of severe weather events, climate patterns and air pollution dispersion over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), being the knowledge about its correct predictability very important in the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model was used to simulate some events of sea breeze propagation over the MASP during the winter season of 2009 (18th and 20th june, 29th august, 02nd September) with the objective to analyze the skill of the model on the predictability of this events using the default parameterizations available in the model and identify some flaws and possible adjustments to be made in the model. For this purpose, the simulation results were compared with the observed velocity and wind direction collected in the "Campo de Marte" Airport - SP. The model had a good response for all simulated days, where the horizontal wind and the vapor mixing ratio indicating correctly the sea breeze arrival over the region. Another important feature observed in the wind moisture fields was the moments that the sea breeze reaches different parts of MASP in response to the Urban Heat Island effect, which can accelerate or prevent the sea breeze propagation depending on location, as observed in other studies, and the relative position of the metropolitan area with respect to the sea-shore and the topography of the region. It was observed that the sea-breeze front reaches the southwest portion of MASP approximately two hours before it reaches the northwest portion.

  20. Observations and Numerical Simulations of Urban Heat Island and Sea Breeze Circulations over New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Peter P.; Raman, Sethu

    2005-10-01

    Observations from two SOund Detection And Ranging (SODAR) units, a 10 m micrometeorological tower and five Automated Surface Observing Stations (ASOS) were examined during several synoptic scale flow regimes over New York City after the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. An ARPS model numerical simulation was conducted to explore the complex mesoscale boundary layer structure over New York City. The numerical investigation examined the urban heat island, urban roughness effect and sea breeze structure over the New York City region. Estimated roughness lengths varied from 0.7 m with flow from the water to 4 m with flow through Manhattan. A nighttime mixed layer was observed over lower Manhattan, indicating the existence of an urban heat island. The ARPS model simulated a sea-breeze front moving through lower Manhattan during the study period consistent with the observations from the SODARs and the 10-m tower observations. Wind simulations showed a slowing and cyclonic turning of the 10-m air flow as the air moved over New York City from the ocean. Vertical profiles of simulated TKE and wind speeds showed a maximum in TKE over lower Manhattan during nighttime conditions. It appears that this TKE maximum is directly related to the influences of the urban heat island.

  1. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The Internal... agency by which these functions are performed. Within an internal revenue district the internal...

  2. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  3. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze immediately offshore. On the day of the case study, the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. Although a colder SST would also imply a larger land-sea temperature contrast and hence a stronger onshore wind - an effect which alone would discourage blocking - the increased static stability exerts a dominant control over whether blocking takes place. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  4. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  5. Amazon And Negro River Breeze And Manaus Urban Area Influence In Surface Wind And Water Vapor Daily Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, M.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Freitas, E. D.; Meteorologia Aplicada A Sistemas de Tempo Regionais-Master

    2013-05-01

    Close to the urban area of Manaus the Negro and Amazon rivers provide a scenario where river breeze can be particularly well detected due to their width of about 5 - 10 km. Previous studies have looked into the river breeze in the Amazon Basin and detected their influence in surface data, particularly into the effect on wind and moisture. The heat island effect of the Manaus urban area has also been demonstrated using surface temperature data. Here we present an analysis using 35 years of surface weather station hourly data from the two Manaus airports, Eduardo Gomes (AEG) and Ponta de Pelada (APP). The location of these stations allows the analysis of local circulations contrasting the evolution close to the margin and in the Southern tip of the urban area and a more inland location (APP) about 25 km to the Northewest of AEG. We focus on dew point temperature, water vapor pressure, wind speed and direction providing direction statistics for the two stations and contrasting the evolution in the dry and wet seasons.In the AEG weather station data we found relatively high values of accumulated frequency of the southwest and northwest wind in the period from 9 am to 6 pm (local time - LT) due to the action of the river breeze associated to the Negro River. In June and July (dry season), when the wind was blowing from the Southeast (river-breeze wind), high values of vapor pressure (VP) were observed during the daytime due to the transport of moist air from river to land. In the wind frequency data of the APP weather station we verified maximums in nighttime and minimums in daytime period when the wind direction was from the Northwest. These characteristics of maximums and minimums of wind frequency were observed in Northeastern winds only in the dry season. High frequency of South winds in daytime and minimums in nighttime period also indicates the action of river breeze. When the wind direction was southern, we found high values of VP (e.g, higher than 30.5 hPa in

  6. Assimilating QuikSCAT SeaWinds With WRF Model for High Latitude Sea Breeze Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Zhang, J.; Krieger, J. R.; Morton, D. J.; Shulski, M. D.; Klene, A. E.; Zhang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Sea breezes along the Arctic coastal areas, especially in the Beaufort Sea coast, are associated with seasonal change of solar insolation, sea ice retreat, and complex terrain of the Brooks Range. Improvement of sea surface wind simulation with a high resolution mesoscale model is of particular interest in oil spill impact assessment and management, as well as in coastal erosion assessment. The objective of this study is to use the mesoscale weather research and forecast (WRF) model with satellite data assimilation to achieve a high quality simulation of Beaufort Sea regional weather patterns. The SeaWinds instrument onboard the polar-orbiting quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite is a specialized radar that measures ice-free ocean surface wind speed and direction. This data provides significant information over open water areas, where conventional observations are very sparse, for model validation and simulation improvement. The QuikSCAT SeaWinds level 2B data which have a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km are assimilated into the WRF model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (WRF-Var) to study the impacts of QuikSCAT data on WRF simulations of surface wind fields and sea breezes. The modeling domain has been setup to cover the Beaufort Sea area with 235x136 grid points at 10 km resolution and is centered at (155W, 71.3N). In order to apply the WRF-Var system, a customized WRF model error statistics and length scales are created using a one-year simulation of WRF for this particular domain. Two 5-day periods, 10/01/2002-10/05/2000 and 9/20/2004-9/24/2004, are selected to conduct our case study. The years 2002 and 2004 had most open water area, i.e., the farthest ice retreat, during recent seven years; and thus, there are more QuikSCAT SeaWinds data available for our study. Preliminary results show that the WRF model is capable of simulating wind fields very well by verifying modeled winds with station observations. Further results on

  7. Observations and modeling of coastal internal waves driven by a diurnal sea breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerczak, J. A.; Hendershott, M. C.; Winant, C. D.

    2001-09-01

    During the Internal Waves on the Continental Margin (IWAVES) field experiments of 1996 and 1997 off of Mission Beach, California (32.75°N), we observed energetic, diurnal-band motions across the entire study site in water depths ranging from 15 to 500 m and spanning a cross-shore distance of 15 km. The spectral peak of the currents was at the diurnal frequency (σDi = 1 cpd) and was sufficiently well resolved to be clearly separated from the slightly higher local inertial frequency (ƒ = 1.08 cpd). These motions were surface enhanced and clockwise circularly polarized and had an upward phase propagation speed of ˜68 m d-1, suggesting that the motions were driven predominantly by the diurnal sea breeze. However, the downward energy (upward phase) propagation seems irreconcilable with the subinertial diurnal period, and moreover, the intermittent diurnal current events were not obviously associated with diurnal sea breeze events. We rationalize these features using a flat-bottomed linear modal sum internal wave model that includes advection and refraction due to subtidal alongshore flow, V(x, t). Fluctuations in V at the observing site can change the "effective" local Coriolis parameter ƒ + Vx by as much as 50%, thus making the diurnal motions at different times effectively either subinertial or superinertial. The model is integrated numerically for 200 days at a latitude of 32.75°N under different wind and subtidal flow conditions: purely diurnal winds and no V, purely diurnal winds and a time-independent V, narrow-band diurnal winds and no V, and narrow-band diurnal winds and subtidal, time-dependent V. Model diurnal currents forced by narrow-band diurnal winds and subtidal V show complex offshore structure with realistic intermittency and spectral broadening. This study suggests that continental margins in the vicinity of the 30° latitude (where σDi = ƒ) are regions that could potentially produce energetic, sea breeze-driven baroclinic motions and that

  8. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  9. The effect of the sea breeze circulation on surface ozone levels at Wallops Island, Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, C. L.; Williams, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    Surface measurements of windspeed, direction, and ozone concentration collected at Wallops Island, Virginia, during the summers of 1977 and 1978 are analyzed to study the effects of the dominant mesoscale sea breeze circulation on the local photochemical oxidant levels. A bimodality in the atmospheric dynamics is linked to systematic variations in ozone concentration. It is concluded that during certain phases of the two circulation modes, increased wind speed reduces the resistance of the earth's surface to the deposition of ozone, and decreased ozone concentration levels result. For other phases, light winds occur, signifying high resistance to deposition and high ozone levels. This modulation by the local dynamics is a major impediment for pollutant studies in coastal environments, especially those centering on transport, because it tends to mask other processes that may be occurring.

  10. Sea breeze regimes in the New York City region - modeling and radar observations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, P.; Miller, M.; Tongue, J.S.

    1998-04-01

    During spring and summer, the well known sea breeze circulations can strongly influence airport operations, air-quality, energy utilization, marine activities and infrastructure. The geographic configuration of the New York City region presents a special challenge to atmospheric prediction and analysis. The New Jersey and Long Island coasts are at approximate right angles to each other, additionally Long Island is separated from the mainland of Connecticut by Long Island Sound. The various bodies of water in the region (Atlantic Ocean, Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, Jamaica Bay, etc.) have different surface temperatures. In addition the urbanization of the New York areas can modify atmospheric flows. This paper will present results from model simulations, surface observations and remote sensing using the Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D).

  11. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  12. An Israeli haboob: Sea breeze activating local anthropogenic dust sources in the Negev loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, Onn; Dayan, Uri; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda

    2017-02-01

    Meso-scale weather systems, such as convective haboobs, are considered to be an important dust generation mechanism. In Israel, however, rather than of meso-scale weather systems, most dust storms are generated by synoptic-scale systems, originating from Sahara and Arabia. Consequently, only distal sources of suspended and deposited dust in Israel are currently reported. Here we report the first detailed study on the merging of synoptic- and meso-scale weather systems leading to a prominent dust outbreak over the Negev, Israel. During the afternoon of May 2nd, 2007, a massive dust storm covered the northern Negev, forming a one kilometer high wall of dust. The haboob was associated with PM10 concentrations of 1000-1500 μg m-3 that advanced at a speed of 10-15 m s-1 and caused temporary closure of local airports. In contrast to most reported haboobs, this one was generated by a sea breeze front acting as a weak cold front enhanced by a cold core cyclone positioned over Libya and Egypt. The sea breeze that brought cold and moist marine air acted as a gravity current with strong surface winds. The sources for the haboob were the loessial soils of the northwestern Negev, especially agricultural fields that were highly disturbed in late spring to early summer. Such surface disturbance is caused by agricultural and/or intensive grazing practices. Our study emphasizes the importance of local dust sources in the Negev and stresses loess recycling as an important process in contemporary dust storms over Israel.

  13. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, I. M.; Dayan, U.

    2011-12-01

    The sea breeze (SB) is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation) and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction) from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected. In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West), which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2=0.75), as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough) yielding lower value (R2=0.5). The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements. Visualizing a product of time series analysis of the satellite data enabled clear distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough). This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  14. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, I. M.; Dayan, U.

    2012-07-01

    The sea breeze (SB) is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation) and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction) from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected. In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West), which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2 = 0.75), as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough) yielding lower value (R2 = 0.5). The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements. Visualizing timing of the SB retrieved from satellite data enabled distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough). This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  15. Influence of tides on the sea breeze in the German Bight: How much model complexity is needed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischereit, Jana; Heinke Schlünzen, K.; Gierisch, Andrea M. U.; Grawe, David; Petrik, Ronny; Hübner, Udo; Backhaus, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The state of the atmosphere near the coast is affected by the interaction of atmosphere and ocean. Thus, in order to predict the state of the atmosphere in coastal areas correctly, different oceanic characteristics and processes need to be considered. The goal of the present study is to identify whether tidal effects are relevant for the prediction of sea breezes at the German North Sea coast. For that an atmosphere model was extended to simulate the ocean in different complexities, leading to a coupled ocean-atmosphere-model. In contrast to many other studies the present study considers a two-way-coupling for momentum. That is, the simulation not only consideres a transfer of momentum from the atmosphere to the ocean but also a transfer from the ocean to the atmosphere. The model system is tested for a sea breeze situation, which is a common phenomenon in the German Bight in May and June. Six different scenarios with a grid size of 1.5 km are calculated: Inundated/dry mudflats for the entire simulation, high/low tide at Heligoland at midday and high/low tide at Heligoland at midday with a two-way-coupling for momentum. Tides influence sea breezes in two ways. Firstly, they influence the heat budget in coastal areas, as mudflats are inundated and fall dry. The study reveals that the air temperature in 10 m height follows the tidal cycle and thus reflects an inundated scenario during high tide and a dry scenario during low tide, respectively. Because of the alternation of the air temperature above the mudflats, the temperature gradient between land and sea areas is influenced, which modifies the sea breeze development. A time difference of one hour is found for the formation of the sea breeze front and its related cloud formation between those scenarios where low tide and high tide occur at midday respectively. Also the inland penetration of sea breezes is influenced by tides: with incoming tide their fronts are moved further inland. Secondly, tidal currents

  16. Stratified coastal ocean interactions with hurricanes and the sea breeze in the U.S. Mid-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seroka, Gregory Nicholas

    This dissertation uses the integration of modeling with observations and new analysis techniques to better understand and predict how the stratified coastal ocean interacts with important summer weather processes--tropical cyclones (TCs), which incur large coastal and inland damages, and the sea breeze circulation, which occurs nearly daily in the summer during high electricity demand periods. TC intensity prediction skill lags TC track prediction skill, and the shallow, coastal ocean remains a gap in TC research. The offshore component of the sea breeze is under-observed and poorly understood relative to its onshore component, and has important wind resource implications for the burgeoning U.S. offshore wind energy industry. Using atmospheric modeling and coastal ocean observations with underwater gliders and buoys, it is shown in Hurricane Irene (2011) that stratified coastal ocean cooling--found to occur primarily ahead of the storm's eye center offshore the U.S. Mid-Atlantic--was the key missing contribution in modeling Irene's rapid decay just prior to NJ landfall. Irene's intensity was more sensitive to this cooling than any other model parameter tested, and including this cooling in modeling mitigated the high bias in storm intensity predictions. Using ocean modeling, the spatiotemporal variability in the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in Irene and Tropical Storm Barry (2007) was investigated. It was found that the dominant force balance across the entire Mid-Atlantic shelf ahead of storm eye passage for both storms was onshore wind stress balanced by offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents ahead-of-eye-center and enhancing surface to bottom current shear and surface cooling. Turbulent mixing cooled the surface layer while tides dominated the alternating warming/cooling advection signal. Finally, a new analysis technique, i.e. Lagrangian coherent structures, performed on

  17. The effects of large-scale winds on the sea-land-breeze circulations in an area of complex coastal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, S.; Takle, E.S. )

    1993-07-01

    A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model has been used to examine the effects of large-scale background winds on the characteristics of the sea-land-breeze circulations over an irregular coastline and complex surface-heating patterns at Kennedy Space Center. The surface heating was based on measured surface-temperature variation from the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (KABLE) during the spring when the land-sea temperature gradient reaches its maximum. The results from the simulations compared well with data from KABLE. The results show an onshore large-scale flow produces weaker sea-breeze perturbations compared to those generated by an offshore flow. The coastal rivers and lagoon create intense surface convergence with strong vertical motion on the seaward side of the river by merging of the onshore flow with offshore river breezes. The disturbances caused by the inland water bodies are significant in the sea-breeze phase but are very minor in the land-breeze phase. An onshore synoptic wind causes an earlier onset of the sea-breeze phase but, delays the the onset of the land breeze, and a strong onshore flow of more than 5 m s[sup [minus]1] does not allow the land breeze to develop at all. The maximum offshore wind speed and vertical motion at night are less sensitive to the magnitude of surface cooling than to the large-scale flow and daytime surface heating, which determine the initial flow at the beginning of the land-breeze phase. The results show that the magnitude, the sense of rotation, and the diurnal variation of the dominant forces governing the wind-vector rotation change as the orientation of the synoptic wind direction changes. The rate of rotation in the sea-breeze phase is dominated by the balance between the mesoscale pressure gradient and friction; at night, the Coriolis effect also contributes to the balance of forces in the land-breeze phase. 35 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A meteorological study of the sea and land breezes in Bangka Indonesia during the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Rachmat Tayubi, Yuyu; Gandini, Ryantika; Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Nurfiani, Dini; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Ramlan Ramalis, Taufik

    2016-11-01

    Of all mesoscale phenomena, sea and land breezes have been the most studied, both observationally and theoretically. During the total solar eclipse (TSE), some parameters vary anomalously in response to the occurrence of TSE on 9th March 2016 in Bangka, Indonesia. As it occurred during morning hours, it is considered to be much more significant because of its effect in sea and land breezes pattern, especially in term of lag time. We use Portlog Rainwise Automatic Weather Station which is able to measure data in 1 Hz accuracy. Comparison of hourly observations during first contact until final contact result a slow cooling temperature reduction of 0.1°C until totality phase. A significant weakening in wind speed of about 2.5 ms-1 was observed clearly from the instrument. Unfortunately, the reduction is not coincided with the change of wind direction until the third contact. A near constancy in temperature and the wind's behaviour during TSE result delay time in sea and land breezes pattern after the totality. The lag time occurred in three days measurement data, especially sea breeze onset on the next morning day. The lag time in sea breeze was about one hour retardation. The effect of eclipse on the onset timing of sea and land breeze may be attributed to the proportion of heat accumulation due to the obscuration.

  19. Forecasting sea breeze thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center using the Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Model (P 3DM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Segal, Moti M.

    1986-01-01

    A Prognostic Three-Dimensional Model (P3DM) to produce 1- to 12-hr predictions of sea breeze convective (SBC) storms at KSC is described. The P3DM was developed to account for a scale of about 10 km, interactions between surface heat and moisture fluxes, boundary layer convergence, the movement of moisture into cloud formation zones, and alterations in the convective potential in the lower levels of the atmosphere during the diurnal cycle. Initialized with wind, temperature, specific humidity and local water temperature data, the model allows for the distortion of the boundary layer moisture and thermal fields by sea breeze conditions. The results of three simulations of events leading to the onset of SBC storms are presented to demonstrate the model's capabilities, and techniques which may enhance the accuracy of the predictions are discussed.

  20. Forecasting sea breeze thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center using the Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Model (P 3DM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Segal, Moti M.

    1986-01-01

    A Prognostic Three-Dimensional Model (P3DM) to produce 1- to 12-hr predictions of sea breeze convective (SBC) storms at KSC is described. The P3DM was developed to account for a scale of about 10 km, interactions between surface heat and moisture fluxes, boundary layer convergence, the movement of moisture into cloud formation zones, and alterations in the convective potential in the lower levels of the atmosphere during the diurnal cycle. Initialized with wind, temperature, specific humidity and local water temperature data, the model allows for the distortion of the boundary layer moisture and thermal fields by sea breeze conditions. The results of three simulations of events leading to the onset of SBC storms are presented to demonstrate the model's capabilities, and techniques which may enhance the accuracy of the predictions are discussed.

  1. Dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa María del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, David; Filonov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Irina

    2002-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa Maria del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico. Hourly records of wind measurements were used to construct a hydrodynamical model of the level fluctuations of the lake's water as well as integrated drift currents. The calculations show that the valley breeze circulation stimulates barotropic seiches in the lake with a period of 2.6 minutes and maximal level in the southwest part up to 18 mm. The drift current form two circulating rings having an opposite directions: anticyclonical in northern part of the lake and cyclonical in the southern. At the external edge of these rings the current speed can reach 20 cm/s. The measurements have shown that most part of the year the lake is strongly stratified. The maximal vertical temperature gradients are over 1°C/m in November and August, in a layer of 17-20 m.

  2. Impacts of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir on the diurnal cycle of cloudiness and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, Marcel; Fink, Andreas H.; Knippertz, Peter; Yorke, Charles

    2017-04-01

    Lake Volta in Ghana is the artificial lake on Earth with the largest surface area (8502 km2). It has been constructed in the early 1960s, with the lake being filled around 1966. Land-lake breezes and their effects on the diurnal cycle of local wind systems, cloudiness, and precipitation have been studied for several tropical lakes, among which studies on the effects of Lake Victoria in East Africa are one of the most perceived ones. To date, no studies on the strengths and effects of the land-lake breeze of the Volta reservoir are known to the authors. Using surface station data, a variety of satellite data on clouds and precipitation, and a convection-resolving regional model, the land-lake breeze and its impacts were studied for Lake Volta between 1998 and 2015. The observational data sets confirm a significant land-lake circulation. The only manned weather station operated by the Ghana Meteorological Service that is situated at the lake is Kete Krachi. Hourly observations for 2006 and 2014 show on several days a clearing of skies in the afternoon associated with a shift in the surface winds from southwest to southeast, the latter potentially indicating a lake breeze effect. Cloud occurrence frequency derived from the CLARA-A2, MODIS, and CLAAS2 cloud masks and the cloud physical properties from CLAAS2 clearly show the development of clouds at the lake breeze front in the course of the morning and around mid-day. This effect is most pronounced in March when also the difference between the surface temperatures of the lake and the desiccated land surface is strongest. During the peak of the wet season in July, the lake breeze cloudiness is masked by a high background cloudiness and likely also weaker due to the strong southwesterly monsoon flow that tends to weaken the land-lake circulation. However, the precipitation signal was found to be strongest in July, most probably due to the fact that in boreal fall, winter and spring, the lake breeze cloudiness often

  3. Final results of an experiment in operational forecasting of sea breeze thunderstorms using a mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William R.; Keen, Cecil S.; Moon, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    Sea breeze thunderstorms during quiescent synoptic conductions account for 40 percent of Florida rainfall, and are the dominant feature of April-October weather at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). An effort is presently made to assess the feasibility of a mesoscale numerical model in improving the point-specific thunderstorm forecasting accuracy at the KSC, in the 2-12 hour time frame. Attention is given to the Applied Regional Atmospheric Modeling System.

  4. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  5. Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Nadir; Reis, Neyval Costa; Santos, Jane Meri; Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Loriato, Ayres Geraldo; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Moreira, Davidson Martins

    2016-12-01

    Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.

  6. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  7. Impact of Sea breeze event on air quality in tropical city: case of Greater Muscat city, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charabi, Yassine

    2010-05-01

    Muscat is a tropical coastal city. In 2006, the population of the Muscat metropolitan witnessed a three-fold increase between 1970 and 2006 resulting in an enormous functional and spatial transition of land from agriculture to urban land uses. Muscat City had 797000 inhabitants. However, subsequent changes in the land-atmosphere energy balance relationships and air quality must have accompanied this urban transition as the case is in all other urban centers. One of the manifestations of these alterations is the "Urban heat island" in Muscat which is highly magnified by its topography of a narrow plane situated between mountain and sea. This configuration makes Muscat city a perfect trap for air pollutants advected by sea breeze from intense road traffic and their dispersion is blocked by steep mountain slopes. In Muscat city urban road system capacity is undergoing expansion, the pace of development of public transport facilities are not keeping up with improvements in car traffic facilities, and car use is in constant rising. A strategic project was developed in 2007 to observe, measure, model, and analyze the impact of this rapid growth of Muscat on the region's climate and air quality. Numerical simulations compared with field measurements are used to explain the effect of sea breezes on air quality in greater Muscat during summer and winter seasons. The sea breeze circulation is seen to develop early with larger strength and inland propagation in the summer case under the influence of moderate synoptic wind and strong heating conditions than in the NE monsoon and winter cases. The horizontal and vertical extents of thermal internal boundary layer are found to be larger in the summer case than in other cases. The analysis shows that air quality in greater Muscat is much more deteriorated in winter season than the summer cases. An analysis based on pollution amounts and sea breeze ventilation is carried out to divide Muscat into areas, each of which corresponds

  8. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kitada, T.; Igarashi, K.; Owada, M.

    1986-06-01

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO/sub 2/, HNO/sub 3/, PAN, O/sub 3/, SO/sub 2/, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ concentrations are discussed.

  9. A two-dimensional numerical investigation of the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Melville E.; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William R.

    1991-01-01

    The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System is used to investigate the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula, and it is shown that this model can simulate the broad features of the three characteristic types of convection systems classified by Blanchard and Lopez (1985). In sensitivity tests performed for a variety of wind and thermodynamic profiles and for different soil-moisture contents, it was found that increases in the low-level temperature and in moisture content speeded up the development of convection. It was found that the dry-soil simulation produced rapidly developing sea breezes that moved inland quickly, while the moist soil case produced a much more slowly developing sea breeze. The total rainfall over the peninsula for the dry-soil case was greater than for the moist soil; it is suggested that the enhanced surface heat fluxes for the dry soil case create stronger low-level convergence over the peninsula (than in the moist-soil case) to force the convection.

  10. Sensitivity of WRF model to landuse, with applications to Chicago metropolitan Urban Heat Island and lake breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Fernando, H. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Hellmann, J.; Barlage, M. J.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the sensitivity of high-resolution mesoscale simulations of urban heat island (UHI) in the Chicago metropolitan area (CMA) and its environs to landuse and urban physical parameterizations, with special emphasis on the role of lake breeze. A series of climate downscaling experiments are conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 1 km horizontal resolution for a hot period with strong lake breeze. The study examines the impacts of land use data assimilation for initialization of the regional climate model, the role of urbanization on UHI and the lake breeze, and the effects of sub-grid scale land cover variability on urban predictions. Comparisons of simulations with station observations and MODIS satellite data show that the WRF model, with modifications, is able to replicate the measured surface temperature and wind speeds reasonably well. Variation of near surface temperatures was significant during nighttime, when the UHI was pronounced, and the inclusion of sub-grid scale variability of landuse in sub-urban areas improved the near surface temperatures predictions. The results show that representing surface characteristics with better detail and model initialization with reliable land surface observational data yield more accurate near surface temperatures and wind speeds.

  11. A two-dimensional numerical investigation of the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Melville E.; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William R.

    1991-01-01

    The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System is used to investigate the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula, and it is shown that this model can simulate the broad features of the three characteristic types of convection systems classified by Blanchard and Lopez (1985). In sensitivity tests performed for a variety of wind and thermodynamic profiles and for different soil-moisture contents, it was found that increases in the low-level temperature and in moisture content speeded up the development of convection. It was found that the dry-soil simulation produced rapidly developing sea breezes that moved inland quickly, while the moist soil case produced a much more slowly developing sea breeze. The total rainfall over the peninsula for the dry-soil case was greater than for the moist soil; it is suggested that the enhanced surface heat fluxes for the dry soil case create stronger low-level convergence over the peninsula (than in the moist-soil case) to force the convection.

  12. Identifying a Sea Breeze Circulation Pattern Over the Los Angeles Basin Using Airborne In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannan, A. L.; Schill, S.; Trousdell, J.; Heath, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Yang, M. M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin in Southern California is an optimal location for a circulation study, due to its location between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountain ranges to the east, as well as its booming metropolitan population. Sea breeze circulation carries air at low altitudes from coastal to inland regions, where the air rises and expands before returning back towards the coast at higher altitudes. As a result, relatively clean air is expected at low altitudes over coastal regions, but following the path of sea breeze circulation should increase the amount of anthropogenic influence. During the 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, a highly modified DC-8 aircraft completed flights from June 23 to 25 in and around the LA Basin, including missed approaches at four local airports—Los Alamitos and Long Beach (coastal), Ontario and Riverside (inland). Because carbon dioxide (CO2) is chemically inert and well-suited as a conserved atmospheric tracer, the NASA Langley Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth's Troposphere (AVOCET) instrument was used to make airborne in situ carbon dioxide measurements. Combining measured wind speed and direction data from the aircraft with CO2 data shows that carbon dioxide can be used to trace the sea breeze circulation pattern of the Los Angeles basin.

  13. A Comparison of Cumulus Parameterizations in Idealized Sea-Breeze Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Charles; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Four cumulus parameterizations in the Penn State-NCAR model MM5 are compared in idealized sea-breeze simulations, with the aim of discovering why they work as they do. The most realistic results appear to be those using the Kain-Fritsch scheme. Rainfall is significantly delayed with the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, due to the method of computing the reference sounding. This method can be corrected, but downdrafts should be added in a physically realistic manner. Even without downdrafts, a corrected version of the BMJ scheme produces nearly the same timing and location of deep convection as the KF scheme, despite the very different physics. In order to simulate the correct timing of the rainfall, a minimum amount of mass is required in the layer that is the source of a parameterized updraft. The Grell parameterization, in the present simulation, always derives the updraft from the top of the mixed layer, where vertical advection predominates over horizontal advection in increasing the moist static energy. This makes the application of the quasi-equilibrium closure more correct than it would be if the updrafts were always derived from the most unstable layer, but it evades the question of whether or not horizontal advection generates instability. Using different physics, the parameterizations produce significantly different cloud-top heights.

  14. A Comparison of Cumulus Parameterizations in Idealized Sea-Breeze Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Charles; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Four cumulus parameterizations in the Penn State-NCAR model MM5 are compared in idealized sea-breeze simulations, with the aim of discovering why they work as they do. The most realistic results appear to be those using the Kain-Fritsch scheme. Rainfall is significantly delayed with the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, due to the method of computing the reference sounding. This method can be corrected, but downdrafts should be added in a physically realistic manner. Even without downdrafts, a corrected version of the BMJ scheme produces nearly the same timing and location of deep convection as the KF scheme, despite the very different physics. In order to simulate the correct timing of the rainfall, a minimum amount of mass is required in the layer that is the source of a parameterized updraft. The Grell parameterization, in the present simulation, always derives the updraft from the top of the mixed layer, where vertical advection predominates over horizontal advection in increasing the moist static energy. This makes the application of the quasi-equilibrium closure more correct than it would be if the updrafts were always derived from the most unstable layer, but it evades the question of whether or not horizontal advection generates instability. Using different physics, the parameterizations produce significantly different cloud-top heights.

  15. Impact of fair-weather cumulus clouds and the Chesapeake Bay breeze on pollutant transport and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Zhang, Da-Lin; Shou, Yi-Xuan; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2011-08-01

    Two fine-scale meteorological processes, fair-weather cumulus cloud development and a bay breeze, are examined along with their impacts on air chemistry. The impact of model resolution on fair-weather cumulus cloud development, transport of pollutants through clouds, sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion in clouds, and the development of the Chesapeake Bay breeze are examined via 13.5, 4.5, 1.5, and 0.5 km resolution simulations covering the Washington - Baltimore area. Results show that as the resolution increases, more pollutants are transported aloft through fair-weather cumulus clouds causing an increase in the rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate aerosols. The high resolution model runs more nearly match observations of a local pollutant maximum near the top of the boundary layer and produce an increase in boundary layer venting with subsequent pollutant export. The sensitivity of sulfur dioxide to sulfate conversion rates to cloud processing is examined by comparing sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations from simulations that use two different methods to diagnose clouds. For this particular event, a diagnostic method produces the most clouds and the most realistic cloud cover, has the highest oxidation rates, and generates sulfur dioxide and sulfate concentrations that agree best with observations. The differences between the simulations show the importance of accurately simulating clouds in sulfate simulations. The fidelity of the model's representation of the bay breeze is examined as a function of resolution. As the model resolution increases, a larger temperature gradient develops along the shoreline of the Chesapeake Bay causing the bay breeze to form sooner, push farther inland, and loft more pollutants upward. This stronger bay breeze results in low-level convergence, a buildup of near surface ozone over land and a decrease in the land-to-sea flux of ozone and ozone precursors as seen in measurements. The resulting 8 h maximum ozone

  16. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  17. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  18. Neurolaw: A brief introduction

    PubMed Central

    Petoft, Arian

    2015-01-01

    Neurolaw, as an interdisciplinary field which links the brain to law, facilitates the pathway to better understanding of human behavior in order to regulate it accurately through incorporating neuroscience achievements in legal studies. Since 1990’s, this emerging field, by study on human nervous system as a new dimension of legal phenomena, leads to a more precise explanation for human behavior to revise legal rules and decision-makings. This paper strives to bring about significantly a brief introduction to neurolaw so as to take effective steps toward exploring and expanding the scope of law and more thorough understanding of legal issues in the field at hand. PMID:25874060

  19. 49 CFR 1103.10 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics § 1103.10 Introduction. The following canons of ethics are adopted as a general guide for those admitted to practice before the Surface... by a broad code of ethics and unwritten rules of professional conduct which apply to every activity...

  20. 49 CFR 1103.10 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by a broad code of ethics and unwritten rules of professional conduct which apply to every activity..., but do not negate the applicability of other ethical codes. The canons are organized under three... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics § 1103.10 Introduction. The...

  1. Object-Driven and Temporal Action Rules Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajja, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I present my complete research work in the field of action rules, more precisely object-driven and temporal action rules. The drive behind the introduction of object-driven and temporally based action rules is to bring forth an adapted approach to extract action rules from a subclass of systems that have a specific nature, in which…

  2. Ground Rules for Talk: The Acceptable Face of Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambirth, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this second article on the theory of "ground rules for talk" I extend a debate between myself and Professor Neil Mercer over the introduction of "ground rules" into classrooms. I critique ground rules through the use of sociological theory and argue that advocates of the ground rules perspective need to recognise the ideological nature of their…

  3. Ground Rules for Talk: The Acceptable Face of Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambirth, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this second article on the theory of "ground rules for talk" I extend a debate between myself and Professor Neil Mercer over the introduction of "ground rules" into classrooms. I critique ground rules through the use of sociological theory and argue that advocates of the ground rules perspective need to recognise the ideological nature of their…

  4. AVHRR Infrared brightness temperatures at the cloud tops of sea breeze fronts over the Iberian Mediterranean area and the isle of Mallorca (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Estrela-Navarro, M. J.; Connell, B.; Baena-Calatrava, R.

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of this remote sensing study is to investigate infrared (IR) brightness temperatures at the cloud tops of sea breeze fronts over the Iberian Mediterranean area and the isle of Mallorca, both in Spain. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR - HRPT) data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites is collected May through October 2004. We use a new daytime over land cloud detection scheme (Azorin et al., 2007) to derive cloud masks from NOAA-17 and NOAA-16 overpasses. In this study, we analyze the frequency of cloud tops that are colder than different IR threshold temperatures in order to represent areas that experience deep convection associated by sea breezes. Here we present cloud frequency composites for different IR thresholds and prevailing large-scale situations which aid in highlighting the location of hotspots. Preliminary results indicate that cloud tops associated with sea breeze convection are normally warmer than 235K, a threshold which is used in the literature for indicating deep convection. We also use surface synoptic observations with the aim to study if sea breeze storms with IR brightness temperatures >235K at 11.0 and 12.0 µm is related to severe thunderstorms (e.g. impact of hail storms on the agriculture economy). Previous studies have concluded that severe and moderate thunderstorms events can occur under sea breeze situations, even though weather reports forecast mostly clear skies. Results from this remote sensing study could have applications for short-term forecasts.

  5. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  6. How does the Warm Breeze affect the heliospheric backscatter glow of interstellar neutral helium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Sokół, Justyna

    2017-04-01

    Based on direct sampling observations of interstellar neutral helium (ISN He) by IBEX, we have discovered a new population of ISN He, dubbed the Warm Breeze (WB), and identified it as the secondary population of ISN He, created in the outer heliosheath. The WB flow is twice slower and hotter by half than the primary ISN He, and it flows from a direction different by 5° in longitude and 6° in latitude. Its density is 5% of that of ISN He. ISN He had been extensively studied in the past by analysis of the backscatter glow, but the WB was not considered in these analyses because its existence had been unknown. However, the ISN He speed and temperature derived from analyses of the heliospheric helium glow tended to be systematically biased towards slower speeds or higher temperatures with respect to those obtained from direct-sampling experiments. We calculate the expected intensity of the backscatter glow due to the ISN He and WB using the best-fit parameters recently obtained from IBEX direct-sampling observations and compare its distribution in the sky with that expected only from the primary ISN gas. In the modeling, we use a time-dependent hot model of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of ISN gas and carefully account for the bulk velocities and temperatures of the direct and indirect beams of the two populations, as well as for details of the ionization rates. We discuss differences between intensities of the backscatter glow expected from different regions in the sky, obtained for the models including and excluding the WB and point out that the absence of the WB component in the modeling may have biased the parameters of the primary population of ISN He derived from the helium backscatter glow and lead to underestimating the Mach number of the flow, due to a slower bulk speed or higher temperature.

  7. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin Compact...

  8. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  9. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  10. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  11. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  12. 32 CFR 2102.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 2102.1 Section 2102.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL RULES AND REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2102.1 Introduction. (a) Insofar as the Privacy Act of 1974 (5...

  13. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  14. Shallow Convection along the Sea Breeze Front and its Interaction with Horizontal Convective Rolls and Convective Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, B. A.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow convection has been studied in the sea breeze frontal zone along the Arabian Red Sea coast. This convection is forced by thermal and dynamic instabilities and generally is capped below 500 hPa. The thermally induced sea breeze modifies the desert Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and propagates inland as a density current. The leading edge of the denser marine air rapidly moves inland undercutting the hot and dry desert air mass. The warm air lifts up along the sea breeze front (SBF). Despite large moisture flux from the sea, the shallow convection in SBF does not cause precipitation on the most part of the Arabian coastal plane. The main focus of this research is to study the vertical structure and extent of convective activity in SBF and to differentiate flow regimes that lead to dry and wet convection. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) has been employed at a high spatial resolution of 500 m to investigate the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric column along the SBF. We found that convection occurs during offshore and cross-shore mean wind conditions; precipitation in SBF frequently develops in the southern region of the Red Sea along the high terrain of Al-Sarawat Mountains range, while on most of the days convection is dry in the middle region and further north of the Red Sea. The coherent structures in the PBL, horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) and open convective cells (OCCs), play an important role shaping interaction of SBF with the desert boundary layer. The HCRs develop in the midmorning along the mean wind vector and interact with the SBF. Later in the afternoon HCRs evolve into OCCs. The convection is strongest, where the HCR and OCC updrafts overlap with SBF and is weakest in their downdraft regions.

  15. Short range forecasting of sea breeze generated thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center: A real-time experiment using a primitive equation mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Moon, Dennis; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William; Arritt, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    The operational efficiency of using guidance from a mesoscale numerical model to improve sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts at and around the Shuttle landing strip was assessed. The Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) model, developed as a sea breeze model, reveals a strong correlation between regions of mesoscale convergence and the triggering of sea breeze convection thunderstorms. The P3DM was modified to generate stability parameters familiar to the operational forecaster. In addition to the mesoscale fields of wind, vertical motion, moisture, temperature, a stability indicator, a combination of model-predicted K and Lifted Indices and the maximum grid cell vertical motion, were proposed and tested. Results of blind tests indicate that a forecaster, provided with guidance derived from model output, could improve local thunderstorm forecasts.

  16. Short range forecasting of sea breeze generated thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center: A real-time experiment using a primitive equation mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Moon, Dennis; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William; Arritt, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    The operational efficiency of using guidance from a mesoscale numerical model to improve sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts at and around the Shuttle landing strip was assessed. The Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) model, developed as a sea breeze model, reveals a strong correlation between regions of mesoscale convergence and the triggering of sea breeze convection thunderstorms. The P3DM was modified to generate stability parameters familiar to the operational forecaster. In addition to the mesoscale fields of wind, vertical motion, moisture, temperature, a stability indicator, a combination of model-predicted K and Lifted Indices and the maximum grid cell vertical motion, were proposed and tested. Results of blind tests indicate that a forecaster, provided with guidance derived from model output, could improve local thunderstorm forecasts.

  17. Interaction between turbulent flow and sea breeze front over urban-like coast in large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ping; Wen, Zhiping; Sha, Weiming; Chen, Guixing

    2017-05-01

    Turbulent flow and its interaction with a sea breeze front (SBF) over an urban-like coast with a regular block array were investigated using a building-resolving computational fluid dynamics model. It was found that during daytime with an offshore ambient flow, streaky turbulent structures tended to grow within the convective boundary layer (CBL) over a warm urban surface ahead of the SBF. The structures were organized as streamwise streaks at an interval of a few hundred meters, which initiated at the rooftop level with strong wind shear and strengthens in the CBL with moderate buoyancy. The streaks then interacted with the onshore-propagating SBF as it made landfall. The SBF, which was initially characterized as a shallow and quasi-linear feature over the sea, developed three-dimensional structures with intensified updrafts at an elevated frontal head after landfall. Frontal updrafts were locally enhanced at intersections where the streaks merged with the SBF, which greatly increased turbulent fluxes at the front. The frontal line was irregular because of merging, tilting, and transformation effects of vorticity associated with streaky structures. Inland penetration of the SBF was slowed by the frictional effect of urban-like surfaces and turbulent flow on land. The overall SBF intensity weakened after the interaction with turbulent flow. These findings aid understanding of local weather over coastal cities during typical sea breeze conditions.

  18. Proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of a laboratory simulation of land- and sea-breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, Antonio; Monti, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    A land- and sea-breeze (LSB) circulation under a calm stably stratified environment was simulated in the laboratory using a temperature-controlled water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two sections representing land and sea. Two heat exchangers, each of them connected to a thermostat, simulated the diurnal thermal cycle typically experienced by the surface in coastal zones. A third heat exchanger positioned at the top of the tank provided a stable thermal stratification. Particle-tracking velocimetry was applied to evaluate the two-dimensional velocity field in the vertical centreline section of the tank orthogonal to the coastline, while a rack of thermocouples measured the vertical temperature profile near the coastline and further inland. It is shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the periodic change of the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea surfaces. Furthermore, the formations of cellular convection during the first phase of warming of the land-side as well as the genesis of the sea-breeze front were detected and analysed. Application of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique allowed the vortical large-scale structures in the flow to be determined. The results suggest that the energy contained in the first POD eigenmodes rapidly converged with the first mode, associated with the overall LSB circulation, being dominant with 73% of the energy. The other less energetic modes were mainly associated with the cellular convection.

  19. Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Allen, Benjamin; Hoffman, Moshe; Simon, Burton; Veller, Carl

    2017-02-07

    This paper reviews and addresses a variety of issues relating to inclusive fitness. The main question is: are there limits to the generality of inclusive fitness, and if so, what are the perimeters of the domain within which inclusive fitness works? This question is addressed using two well-known tools from evolutionary theory: the replicator dynamics, and adaptive dynamics. Both are combined with population structure. How generally Hamilton's rule applies depends on how costs and benefits are defined. We therefore consider costs and benefits following from Karlin and Matessi's (1983) "counterfactual method", and costs and benefits as defined by the "regression method" (Gardner et al., 2011). With the latter definition of costs and benefits, Hamilton's rule always indicates the direction of selection correctly, and with the former it does not. How these two definitions can meaningfully be interpreted is also discussed. We also consider cases where the qualitative claim that relatedness fosters cooperation holds, even if Hamilton's rule as a quantitative prediction does not. We furthermore find out what the relation is between Hamilton's rule and Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. We also consider cancellation effects - which is the most important deepening of our understanding of when altruism is selected for. Finally we also explore the remarkable (im)possibilities for empirical testing with either definition of costs and benefits in Hamilton's rule.

  20. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  1. 6 GHz Microwave Power-Beaming Demonstration with 6-kV Rectenna and Ion-Breeze Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, T.; Janssen, J.; Karnesky, J.; Laks, D.; Santillo, M.; Strause, B.; Myrabo, L. N.; Alden, A.; Bouliane, P.; Zhang, M.

    2004-03-01

    On 14 April 2003 at the Communications Research Center (CRC) in Ottawa, Ontario, a 5.85-GHz transmitter beamed 3-kW of microwave power to a remote rectifying antenna (i.e., rectenna) that delivered 6-kV to a special `Ion-Breeze' Engine (IBE). Three of CRC's 26.5-cm by 31-cm rectennas were connected in series to provide the ~6-kV output. RPI's low-voltage IBE thrusters performed well in a ``world's first'' power-beaming demonstration with rectennas and endoatmospheric ion-propulsion engines. The successful tests were a low-tech, proof-of-concept demonstration for the future full-sized MicroWave Lightcraft (MWLC) and its air breathing `loiter' propulsion mode. Additional IBE experiments investigated the feasibility of producing flight control forces on the MWLC. The objective was to torque the charged hull for `pitch' or `roll' maneuvers. The torquing demonstration was entirely successful.

  2. Transformed shoreline-following horizontal coordinates in a mesoscale model: A sea-land-breeze case study

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, G.J.; Nunez, M.N. Pabellon II Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires )

    1993-05-01

    A hydrostatic and incompressible mesoscale model with transformed horizontal coordinates is presented. The model is applied to study the sea-land-breeze circulation over Rio de La Plata. One of the new coordinates is shoreline-following and the other one is locally quasi-perpendicular to the first one. The original set of equations in the Cartesian coordinates is rewritten in the curvilinear coordinates. This transformation is useful provided that the curvilinear coordinates are close to being orthogonal. The horizontal domain covers 250 km [times] 250 km, and the vertical domain is 2 km deep. To predict the sea-land-breeze circulation the model is integrated over 12 h. The forcing of the model is a cyclic perturbation of the surface temperature. The changes in the wind direction during the day are in good agreement with the observations from six weather stations in the region. The same program code is applied to uniform domains of different resolutions in order to test the coordinate transformation. Results show that the predictions based upon the variable-resolution version resemble ones obtained using high uniform resolution but consume only one-fourth the computer time needed by the latter. Comparison of the vertical velocity patterns predicted by the model to the cumulus clouds distribution observed from satellite images show a very good agreement too. The authors believe that all these results justify the use of the coordinate transformation in this type of model, although further verifications are needed in order to draw more definitive conclusions. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  4. A Mesoscale Study of Sea Breeze Enhanced Summer Thunderstorms in the Florida Panhandle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    the average number of thunderstorms per year in the United States (After Lutgens and Tarbuck , 1989) .................................... 2 2 GOES 1 km...of Florida has the largest concentration of thunderstorm activity of any state in the nation (Lutgens and Tarbuck 1989). Locations in the Florida...activity in south Florida. Mon. Wea. Rev., 11 2, 686-703. Lutgens, F. K., and E. J. Tarbuck , 1989, The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology

  5. Examining the Interaction Between the Sea Breeze and the Timing of the Daily Maximum Temperature in Summer Season over the Mediterranean Region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozcu, Sesil; Önol, Barış; Batıbeniz, Fulden

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sea-breeze and its effects on timing and severity of maximum temperature have been analyzed over the Mediterranean basin of Turkey for the period of the 2007-2013 summer season. The calculation of the extreme climate index TX35 (days of Tmax > 35 ° C) by using the station data indicated that TX35 is less than expected over southern coasts of Turkey. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to define days of extreme temperatures in terms of the sea-breeze phenomenon over the coastal region. Sub-daily (hourly) observations for wind speed, direction frequencies and temperature from the selected meteorological stations (totally 21) in Mugla, Antalya, Mersin, Adana and Hatay Provinces have been analyzed. Two of the five stations are located inland for Adana province. The sea breeze is observed in the coastal stations and the maximum temperature occurred before 13:00. However, the maximum temperature is observed one hour later at 14:00 for inland stations in same province and it exceeds 35 ° C. We also examined the similar characteristics for the coastal and inland stations of Mugla province. In addition, the maximum temperature from daily high-resolution gridded data (E-OBS) and daily 10-m surface wind from ERA-Interim dataset have investigated to define correlation between the wind speed-direction and maximum temperature. Daily analysis present that the days of the highest maximum temperature observed in each summer months coherent the weak (or no) sea-breeze. The monthly means of summer months also indicate that the wind vectors at 12:00 GMT (3 pm at local) explains clearly the sea-breeze over the coast of Mediterranean basin, since prevailing wind is mainly from the southwest, meanwhile the surface wind over the Mediterranean Sea is mostly from the west. Consequently, the sea-breeze causes that the maximum temperature does not exceed 35 ° C after 12:00 for central provinces of the Mediterranean region of Turkey.

  6. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin Compact...—Administrative and Other Hearings. Article 7—Penalties and Settlements in Lieu of Penalties. Article 8—Public...

  7. Observed and simulated features of the phases of the sea-breeze in the island of Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria A.; Cuxart, Joan; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martinez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Guijarro, Jose A.; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Lopez, Alvaro; Picos, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 and June 2014 two experimental field campaigns have been conducted in the Campos basin (at the south side). A total of 6 IOPs (clear skies and weak pressure gradient conditions) are analysed using observations taken close to the coastline (about 900 m inland) that consist on a surface portable station (equipped with a temperature and humidity probe, and one 2-D and 3-D sonic anemometers), a captive balloon (temperature and humidity) and a multicopter (temperature and humidity). Besides, observations from automatic weather stations of the AEMET network are taken as well as satellite-derived surface temperatures that together with the model outputs from high-resolution mesoscale simulations are used to better understand the organization of the flow at lower levels. With the combined inspection of observations and model results it is found that during the previous phase (after sunrise) land-breeze conditions were present and the sensible heat flux turned to positive meanwhile the turbulence started. In the preparatory phase (about 3 hours after sunrise) the wind close to the coast started to veer progressively towards the SB direction. As soon as the SB was initiated (about 5 hours after sunrise), the SB front progressed to the inland direction reaching a mature phase starting at noon. Afterwards, the SB decaying starts and close to sunset the wind speed was close to zero and veered towards the land to sea direction. During the campaign all phases were measured with special emphasis to the morning transition (from LB to SB) and the evening transition (from SB to LB) because of the strong wind shear (turbulence) reported during the mature phase. It is found that for all the different phases the model is able to capture the organization of the flow at lower levels although it experiences some difficulties in reproducing the thermal profile during the

  8. A Tropical Lake Breeze System : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-04-01

    During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing ratios at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing ratios on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind system, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing ratios can be confined to

  9. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  10. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  11. 77 FR 55888 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) To Add a PL Select Order September 5, 2012. I. Introduction On May 22...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to amend NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) to add a PL Select... Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) To Add a PL Select Order Type)....

  12. Study of the thermal internal boundary layer during sea-breeze events in the complex coastal area of Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Isabelle; Mestayer, Patrice

    2016-02-01

    A revisit of two sea-breeze episodes is presented, based on higher spatial resolution large eddy simulations (LES) of the lower atmosphere over the coastal area of Marseille and measurements obtained during the June 2001 experimental campaign UBL-ESCOMPTE. The focus is on the development of thermal internal boundary layers (TIBL) over a complex topography: the dynamic and thermal mechanisms that contribute to the TIBL growth and its further degeneration into a convective mixed layer, the respective influences of the coast shape, the large-scale flow above and the local low-level slope flows. The high-resolution LES permits exploring the potential temperature and turbulent kinetic energy fields in relation with the evolution of TIBL depth and heat fluxes along representative streamlines. Several theoretical TIBL depth models are further compared to the LES-deduced inversion height and other parameters, leading to a discussion of the relationships between the values of these parameters, the respective influences of the governing physical phenomena, and the TIBL behaviour. A threshold value of 0.35 is proposed for the friction velocity to convective velocity scale ratio u */ w * between the two regimes where the TIBL is either dominated by dynamical kinetic energy production or controlled by buoyancy.

  13. The Helium Warm Breeze in IBEX Observations As a Result of Charge-exchange Collisions in the Outer Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Czechowski, Andrzej; Grygorczuk, Jolanta

    2017-08-01

    We simulated the signal due to neutral He atoms, observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), assuming that charge-exchange collisions between neutral He atoms and He+ ions operate everywhere between the heliopause and a distant source region in the local interstellar cloud, where the neutral and charged components are in thermal equilibrium. We simulated several test cases of the plasma flow within the outer heliosheath (OHS) and investigated the signal generation for plasma flows both in the absence and in the presence of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). We found that a signal in the portion of IBEX data identified as being due to the Warm Breeze (WB) does not arise when a homogeneous plasma flow in front of the heliopause is assumed, but it appears immediately when any reasonable disturbance in its flow due to the presence of the heliosphere is assumed. We obtained a good qualitative agreement between the data selected for comparison and the simulations for a model flow with the velocity vector of the unperturbed gas and the direction and intensity of magnetic field adopted from recent determinations. We conclude that direct-sampling observations of neutral He atoms at 1 au from the Sun are a sensitive tool for investigating the flow of interstellar matter in the OHS, that the WB is indeed the secondary population of interstellar helium, which was hypothesized earlier, and that the WB signal is consistent with the heliosphere distorted from axial symmetry by the ISMF.

  14. Relevance of Surface Energy Budget within Florida Sea-Breeze Front to Cross-Peninsula Rainwater Runoff Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Rubes, Michael T.

    1998-09-01

    Analysis of surface latent heat flux measurements taken within the sea-breeze front of the coast of Florida during active thunderstorm periods demonstrates an important effect of the timing of coastal storms on the seasonal surface water budget. Historical records document a systematic cross-peninsula water runoff gradient across Florida, with total runoff greater on the east coast (Atlantic side) than on the west coast (gulf side). This situation persists even though convective rainfall tends to be greater in the summertime on the gulf side. In this paper, the authors examine the effect of the time of day that summer thunderstorms occur at a given location on poststorm evaporation of rainfall and place these effects into the context of the annual runoff at the coasts and seasonal rainfall in order to assess their possible significance.A surface water exchange analysis, based on datasets obtained during the 1991 summertime Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment, finds that part of the runoff gradient can be explained by an indirect atmospheric mechanism. Results indicate that differences in the diurnal timing of thunderstorms between the two coasts and the associated differences in postthunderstorm evapotranspiration can account for a significant portion of the annual differential in runoff. During the summer months, gulf coast storms often occur earlier in the day than Atlantic coast storms because of the combined effects of the mesoscale sea-breeze convergence and synoptic-scale flow around the Bermuda high. Under these conditions, once the later-day east coast thunderstorms dissipate, there is no longer any net solar radiation source to drive evapotranspiration, so that rainwater not taken up by ground filtration tends to go into runoff. On the west coast, when thunderstorms occur earlier and dissipate in midafternoon, there is still enough net surface radiation to drive significant rates of evapotranspiration, which reduces the amount of water

  15. A modeling study of convection initiation prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front and a gust front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulikemu, Abuduwaili; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhang, Shushi; Shen, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Convection initiation (CI) prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front (SBF) with a gust front (GF) in North China is investigated using a real-data Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation with a high resolution of 444.4 m. The overall evolution of the GF and SBF is well reproduced by the simulation. The GF was produced by the decaying convective storm over northern Beijing, while the SBF came from the Bohai Sea. Several convective cells were generated between the two fronts even though they were still about 25-30 km far away from each other. During the development of these cells, the low-level convergence and conditional instability averaged within the intermediate area between the two fronts were enhanced significantly, both of which favored the initiation of convection. Vertical momentum budgets were conducted in the intermediate area as well as along the backward trajectories of parcels within a selected convective cell. The vertical acceleration was decomposed into dynamic and buoyant components, respectively. The diagnostic results showed that the dynamic acceleration dominated in the low level, while buoyant acceleration became evident only when the parcel reached a high altitude above 2 km. Therefore the dynamic forcing appeared to be more relevant to CI. The dynamic acceleration was further decomposed into four terms based on anelastic approximation. The positive dynamic acceleration was mainly caused by fluid extension associated with the low-level convergence, while fluid twisting in the vertical contributed negatively to the dynamic acceleration. The other two terms related to horizontal curvature and height variation of density were negligibly small.

  16. Aerosol extinction properties over coastal West Bengal Gangetic plain under inter-seasonal and sea breeze influenced transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; B, Priyadharshini.; Pani, S. K.; Bharath Kumar, D.; Faruqi, A. R.; Bhanja, S. N.; Mandal, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the atmospheric aerosol extinction properties under an influence of inter-seasonal and sea breeze (SB) transport processes over coastal West Bengal (WB) Gangetic plain (WBGP). The predominant frequency of airmass back trajectory path was through the Arabian Sea (AS) during southwest monsoon (SWmon) and that through the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during transition to winter (Twin) season and the Bay of Bengal during transition to summer (Tsumm) season. Aerosol surface concentration (Sconc) and aerosol extinction exhibited heterogeneity in the seasonal variability over coastal WBGP with their highest seasonal mean being during winter and summer seasons respectively. Seasonal mean extinction was respectively 17% and 30% higher during winter and summer seasons than that during SWmon. While angstrom exponent (AE) was less than one during SWmon, Tsumm, and summer seasons, it was near to one during Twin and winter monsoon (Wmon), and was more than one during winter season. Relative contribution (%) of upper (at altitude above 1 km) aerosol layer (UAL) to aerosol extinction during summer was four times of that during winter. Seasonally distinct vertical distribution of aerosol extinction associated with meteorological and SB influenced transport and that due to influence of high rise open burning emissions was inferred. Possible aerosol subtypes extracted during days in Tsumm were inferred to be mostly constituted of dust and polluted dust during daytime, in addition to polluted continental and smoke in UAL during nighttime. In contrast to that at nearby urban location (Kolkata, KOL), intensity of updraft of airmass evaluated during evening/SB activity hour (1730 local time, (LT)) at study site (Kharagpur, KGP) was as high as 3.5 times the intensity during near to noon hour (1130 LT); this intensity was the highest along coast of westBengal-Orissa. Enhanced Sconc and relative contribution of UAL to aerosol extinction (58% compared to 36% only at nearby urban

  17. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. IV. Flow Vector, Mach Number, and Abundance of the Warm Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.

    2016-04-01

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010-2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ˜9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s-1, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  18. Impact of land surface heterogeneity on urban heat island circulation and sea-land breeze circulation in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Di Sabatino, S.; Martilli, A.; Li, Y.; Wong, M. S.; Gutiérrez, E.; Chan, P. W.

    2017-04-01

    Hong Kong is one of the most high-rise and highly compact cities in the world. The urban land surface is highly heterogeneous, which creates low-level convergence zones in urban areas, particularly the Kowloon Peninsula. The low-level convergence zone is due to the combined effect of urban heat island circulation (UHIC) and sea-land breeze circulation (SLBC) under weak northeasterly synoptic flow. To study the impacts of anthropogenic fluxes and built-up areas on the local circulation, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model is combined with the multilayer urban canopy building effect parameterization/building energy model (BEP/BEM) parameterization to produce a 3 day simulation of an air pollution episode in Hong Kong in September 2012. To better represent the city land surface features, building information is assimilated in the central part of the Kowloon Peninsula. The WRF-BEP-BEM model captures the 2 m temperature distribution and local wind rotation reasonably well but overestimates the 10 m wind speed with a mean bias error of 0.70 m/s. A dome-shaped feature with a high level of moisture is captured in the convergence zones due to intensified UHIC and inflowing SLBC. The anthropogenic heat increases the air temperature by around 0.3°C up to 250 m, which in turn modifies the SLBC. A new drag coefficient based on λP, plan area per unit ground area, is tested. Besides the basic physical characteristics captured by the WRF-BEP-BEM model, the stagnation of wind in the lower level convergence zone is better captured by this approach than by the traditional constant value coefficient.

  19. Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

  20. Observational and numerical study of the nocturnal stratification evolution of the lower troposphere after a sea-breeze day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Talbot, Charles; Dmitriev, Egor; Fourmentin, Marc; Willart, Véronique; Delbarre, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the lower troposphere and vertical ozone concentrations have been studied in a post-sea-breeze atmosphere and over an industrialized coastal area of the North Sea. During this campaign, ground-based remote sensing systems (lidar and sodar) were deployed over the city of Dunkerque, in the North of France, together with surface meteorological and air quality network stations. The measurements were interpreted by means of simulations of non-hydrostatic atmospheric model MESO-NH. After the sunset, the structure of the lower troposphere changed considerably and became increasingly complex. We observed a multiple-layer structure between 200 m and 400 m with high ozone concentrations. The mechanism of this phenomenon has been deduced from numerical simulations. In the middle of the night, the change of the synoptic wind direction resulted in a ramification of the advective atmospheric boundary-layer into two different residual layers. Above the gravity current, an air mass consisting in horizontal multilayer structures was observed at an altitude between 400 m and 800 m. The numerical simulations revealed a relationship between these structures and the vertical profiles of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, water vapour mixing ratio and potential temperature. The origins of these structures were obtained by means of Lagrangian backtrajectories of passive tracers. Simultaneously a stable double-layer structure has been detected by the lidar, near the ground, from the surface to 200 m. This structure persisted until the morning and inhibited the development of the mixing layer. We showed that a presence of the double-layer structure may lead to high pollution concentrations near the surface at night in the industrialized coastal area.

  1. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A en español La regla ... drop it, he or she might have yelled, "5-second rule!" This so-called rule says food is OK ...

  2. Mesoscale Simulations of a Florida Sea Breeze Using the PLACE Land Surface Model Coupled to a 1.5-Order Turbulence Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Stauffer, David R.; Wetzel, Peter J.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Perlin, Natal; Baker, R. David; Munoz, Ricardo; Boone, Aaron; Jia, Yiqin

    1999-01-01

    A sophisticated land-surface model, PLACE, the Parameterization for Land Atmospheric Convective Exchange, has been coupled to a 1.5-order turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) turbulence sub-model. Both have been incorporated into the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) mesoscale model MM5. Such model improvements should have their greatest effect in conditions where surface contrasts dominate over dynamic processes, such as the simulation of warm-season, convective events. A validation study used the newly coupled model, MM5 TKE-PLACE, to simulate the evolution of Florida sea-breeze moist convection during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE). Overall, eight simulations tested the sensitivity of the MM5 model to combinations of the new and default model physics, and initialization of soil moisture and temperature. The TKE-PLACE model produced more realistic surface sensible heat flux, lower biases for surface variables, more realistic rainfall, and cloud cover than the default model. Of the 8 simulations with different factors (i.e., model physics or initialization), TKE-PLACE compared very well when each simulation was ranked in terms of biases of the surface variables and rainfall, and percent and root mean square of cloud cover. A factor separation analysis showed that a successful simulation required the inclusion of a multi-layered, land surface soil vegetation model, realistic initial soil moisture, and higher order closure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). These were needed to realistically model the effect of individual, joint, and synergistic contributions from the land surface and PBL on the CAPE sea-breeze, Lake Okeechobee lake breeze, and moist convection.

  3. Interannual Variation of the Summer Rainfall in the Taipei Basin Caused by the Impact of ENSO on the Land-Sea Breeze Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Takle, Eugene S.

    2015-04-01

    The Taipei Basin, located in northern Taiwan, is formed by the intersection of the Tanshui River Valley (~30km) and the Keelung River Valley (~60km). Summer is the dry season in northern Taiwan, but the maximum rainfall in the Taipei Basin occurs during the summer. The majority of summer rainfall (75%) in this Basin is produced by afternoon thunderstorms triggered by the sea breeze interactions with the mountains to the south of this Basin. Environmental conditions for the roughly three million people living in the Taipei Basin are greatly affected by the land-sea breeze and afternoon thunderstorm activities. Thus, the water supply, air-land traffic, and pollution for this extremely urbanized basin can be profoundly affected by interannual variations of thunderstorm days and rainfall. A systematic analysis was made of thunderstorm days and rainfall for the past two decades. Opposite the interannual variation of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the NOAA NINO3 - 4 region, ΔSST (NINO3 - 4), clear interannual variations of these two variables emerge. Occurrence days of afternoon thunderstorm and rainfall amount in the Taipei Basin are double during the cold ΔSST(NINO3 - 4) phase compared to the warm phase. During the latter (former) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, the Taipei Basin needs a stronger (weaker) warm/moist monsoon southwesterly flow channeled through the land-sea breeze to trigger thunderstorm activity. In contrast, the convergence of water vapor flux over the southeast/east Asian monsoon region toward Taiwan is enhanced more (less) to maintain rainfall over the Taipei Basin during the cold (warm) ENSO phase.

  4. A numerical study of interactions between surface forcing and sea breeze circulations and their effects on stagnation in the greater Houston area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Bao, Jian-Wen; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution simulations from the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model, coupled to an urban canopy model (UCM), are used to investigate impacts of soil moisture, sea surface temperature (SST), and city of Houston itself on the development of a stagnant wind event in the Houston-Galveston (HG) area on 30 August 2000. Surface and wind profiler observations are used to evaluate the performance of WRF-UCM. The model captures the observed nocturnal urban-heat-island intensity, diurnal rotation of surface winds, and the timing and vertical extent of sea breeze and its reversal in the boundary layer remarkably well. Using hourly SST slightly improves the WRF simulation of offshore wind and temperature. Model sensitivity tests demonstrate a delicate balance between the strength of sea breeze and prevailing offshore weak flow in determining the duration of the afternoon-evening stagnation in HG. When the morning offshore flow is weak (3-5 m s-1), variations (1°-3°C) in surface temperature caused by environmental conditions substantially modify the wind fields over HG. The existence of the city itself seems to favor stagnation. Extremely dry soils increase daytime surface temperature by about 2°C, produced more vigorous boundary layer and faster moving sea breeze, favoring stagnation during late afternoon. The simulation with dry soils produces a 3 h shorter duration stagnation in the afternoon and 4 h longer duration in the evening, which may lead to more severe nighttime air pollution. Hourly variations of SST in shallow water in the Galveston Bay substantially affect the low-level wind speed in HG.

  5. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  6. A scale model wind tunnel study of dispersion in the Cleveland area. Laboratory simulation of lake breeze effects on diffusion from ground level emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoydysh, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel simulation of the diffusion patterns in a sea breeze was attempted. The results indicate that the low level onshore flow was well simulated for neutral, stable, unstable, and elevated inversion conditions. Velocity, turbulence, shear stress, and temperature data were taken, and the spread of emissions from ground level sources was investigated. Comparison is made with theoretical predictions by E. Inoue and with the open, homogeneous plane field results of Pasquill. Agreement with the predictions by Inoue is good, and the comparison with Pasquill's results shows that the wind tunnel flows are shifted two categories towards more stable. The discrepancy may be explained as a matter of averaging time.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Air Pollution Along the Gulf Coast Observed During BRACE: A Case Study of the Land-Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, D.; Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. One objective of the aircraft flights was to investigate the role of the sea breeze circulation in determining patterns of nutrient deposition and pollutant loads in the Tampa Bay watershed. Results will be presented from a May 8 flight designed to investigate the effect of the sea breeze recirculation upon Tampa's air quality. The Twin Otter took off at 1425 UTC and after performing a spiral ascent over the Sydney ground site, proceeded to fly north, at 200 feet above mean sea level (MSL) just off the Gulf coast, west of St. Petersburg. Back trajectory analysis suggested the dominance of a northerly rotation in the sea breeze; thus, air sampled over the Gulf passed some hours earlier to the south of the Tampa metropolitan area, in an area largely devoid of major pollution sources, before being advected eastward in the afternoon return flow. Ozone levels in this air mass ranged from 40 to 50 ppbv. Farther north the Twin Otter encountered the advected urban plume from Tampa, displaced to the north by the combination of southeasterly sea breeze flow and westerly return flow, and tracked this plume inland. Ozone levels quickly jumped to 60 ppbv, and increased to as high as 90 ppbv as photochemical processing continued in the advected plume. Nitric acid levels, which approached 4 ppbv in the aged urban air at the coast, dropped rapidly to as low as 1 ppbv inland. A final flight leg to the east of downtown Tampa encountered fresh anthropogenic pollution from the afternoon rush hour; ozone was rapidly produced in the

  8. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. IV. FLOW VECTOR, MACH NUMBER, AND ABUNDANCE OF THE WARM BREEZE

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2016-04-15

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s{sup −1}, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  9. The impact of anthropogenic land-cover change on the Florida Peninsula Sea Breezes and warm season sensible weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Willard, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the natural landscape of the Florida peninsula was transformed extensively by agriculture, urbanization, and the diversion of surface water features. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical modeling study in which the possible impacts of this transformation on the warm season climate of the region were investigated. For three separate July–August periods (1973, 1989, and 1994), a pair of simulations was performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Within each pair, the simulations differed only in the specification of land-cover class. The two different classes were specified using highly detailed datasets that were constructed to represent pre-1900 natural land cover and 1993 land-use patterns, thus capturing the landscape transformation within each pair of simulations.When the pre-1900 natural cover was replaced with the 1993 land-use dataset, the simulated spatial patterns of the surface sensible and latent heat flux were altered significantly, resulting in changes in the structure and strength of climatologically persistent, surface-forced mesoscale circulations—particularly the afternoon sea-breeze fronts. This mechanism was associated with marked changes in the spatial distribution of convective rainfall totals over the peninsula. When averaged over the model domain, this redistribution was reflected as an overall decrease in the 2-month precipitation total. In addition, the domain average of the diurnal cycle of 2-m temperature was amplified, with a noted increase in the daytime maximum. These results were consistent among all three simulated periods, and largely unchanged when subjected to a number of model sensitivity factors. Furthermore, the model results are in reasonable agreement with an analysis of observational data that indicates decreasing regional precipitation and increasing daytime maximum temperature during the twentieth century.These results could have important implications for water

  10. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  11. Forecasting for New York City and its Surroundings, with Emphasis on Sea-Surface Temperature's Effect on Sea Breezes and Other Coastal Circulations that Influence Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knievel, J. C.; Rife, D. L.; Grim, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The complex coastal setting of New York City, Long Island, and the surrounding urban environment affects boundary-layer winds and the way they transport hazardous airborne materials, including pollutants. Properly forecasting coastal circulations, such as sea breezes, is critical if weather-based decision support systems (DSSs) are to be useful to health officials, emergency responders, and anyone else interested in the challenges of predicting transport and dispersion in urban settings. The Research Applications Laboratory (RAL) within the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is running a real-time forecast system focused on New York City (NYC) and its urban and suburban surroundings. The system is based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and NCAR's Real-Time Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (RTFDDA) System. The presenter will provide an overview of the project and present results from a few case studies of sea breezes and other circulations characteristic of the complex coastal setting of NYC and Long Island. A particular emphasis of the presentation will be the sensitivity of forecasts to sea-surface temperature (SST). The forecast system is currently using SSTs from gridded composites created by NCAR from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.

  12. Volume 1 - Introduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An introduction to the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) materials. Describes EIIP development, use of EIIP, inventory staff training, and planning, development, documentation, and reporting of inventories.

  13. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  14. 76 FR 36596 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Stock Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend Minor Rule Plan June 16, 2011. I. Introduction On April 20, 2011, the Chicago Stock..., (provides for fines to be issued by ``the Exchange''); International Stock Exchange Rule 1614(a),...

  15. 77 FR 65754 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Change Relating to the Complex Order Auction Process October 24, 2012. I. Introduction On August 30, 2012...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to modify C2 Rule 6.13(c), ``Process for Complex...'') message sent to Participants at the start of a Complex Order Auction (``COA''); and (ii) require...

  16. Two Rules for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…

  17. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  18. Modifying Intramural Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    1981-01-01

    Standard sports rules can be altered to improve the game for intramural participants. These changes may improve players' attitudes, simplify rules for officials, and add safety features to a game. Specific rule modifications are given for volleyball, football, softball, floor hockey, basketball, and soccer. (JN)

  19. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  20. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Teens > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Almost everyone ... wanted to eat it. Some people apply the "5-second rule" — that random saying about how food ...

  1. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  2. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

  3. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

  4. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

  5. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  6. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  7. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  8. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  9. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  10. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Big Lagoon, Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound, and the Gulf of Mexico from Seaglades eastward to Pensacola Beach, Florida. The still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  11. Helix Tool Introduction Laboratories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    REPORT Helix Tool Introduction Laboratories 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Computer forensics has become its own area of scientific...expertise, with accompanying coursework and certification. For someone who would like to get started practicing computer forensics it might be a little...Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Helix Tool Introduction Laboratories Report Title ABSTRACT Computer forensics has become its own area of

  12. Introduction to RTM Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Several successful experiments were run using different types of resins and fibers for both RTM and VARTM processes. 3. According to DSC measures...INTRODUCTION TO RTM WORKSTATION Jeffrey M. Lawrence Mathieu Devillard Peter Friede Dr. Suresh G. Advani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction To RTM Workstation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  13. Concentration of bacterial aerosols in response to synoptic weather and land-sea breeze at a seaside site downwind of the Asian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Kotaro; Zhang, Daizhou

    2016-10-01

    Airborne bacteria are a major group of bioaerosols, but their temporal and spatial variations in the atmosphere are poorly understood due to a lack of accurate information at an appropriate temporal resolution. In this study, we quantified the concentration and viability of airborne bacteria at a seaside site on the southwestern coast of Japan in spring to investigate their association with synoptic weather, which was governed alternately by cyclones and anticyclones moving in the middle-latitude westerly flow. The concentration of bacteria, on the order of 105-106 cells m-3, showed a small amplitude of variation, while the viability significantly differed in the range of 23-96% under different weather conditions. Cyclones transported bacteria from the Asian continent in their postfrontal air. Compared to bacteria under other weather conditions, the bacteria in postfrontal air had a large concentration, a low viability, and a close correlation with coarse aerosol particles. In contrast, bacterial concentration and viability in prefrontal air varied over small ranges, and no correlation between bacteria and aerosol particle number concentration was observed. During anticyclones, although bacterial concentration was similar to that in prefrontal air, bacterial viability was high, and the concentration had pulse increases of approximately 2 times the usual level when the wind changed to land/sea breezes. The increases were attributed to the accumulation of bacteria in stagnant air due to local sources. These results show the following two distinct patterns of bacterial concentration and viability at the seaside location of this study: (1) during postfrontal long-distance dust plume transport related to a cyclone approaching from the Asian continent, the bacterial concentration is correlated with the coarse aerosol particle number concentration and the bacterial viability is low, and (2) pulse increases of viable bacteria are observed at anticyclone conditions

  14. Radial diffusive samplers for determination of 8-h concentration of BTEX, acetone, ethanol and ozone in ambient air during a sea breeze event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukos, Joelle; Locoge, Nadine; Sacco, Paolo; Plaisance, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The radial diffusive sampler Radiello ® filled with Carbograph 4 was evaluated for monitoring BTEX, ethanol and acetone concentrations for 8-hour exposure time. The sampling rates were first evaluated in an exposure chamber under standard conditions. Benzene and toluene showed the highest sampling rates with satisfactory standard deviations. Ethylbenzene and xylenes showed medium sampling rates but higher standard deviations that can be attributed to a low affinity of these compounds with the adsorbent medium for short sampling time. Acetone has a fair result because of the increase of its partial pressure in the vicinity of the adsorbent surface in the course of sampling. The Carbograph 4 adsorbent does not seem to be suitable for sampling ethanol, likely because of its high volatility. The influences of three environmental factors (temperature (T), relative humidity (RH) and concentration level (C)) on the sampling rates were also evaluated, following a fractional factorial design at two factor levels (low and high). Results were only investigated on benzene, toluene and acetone. Temperature and relative humidity are found to be the most important factors leading to variability of the benzene and toluene sampling rates. The applicability of the sampler for 8-hour sampling was demonstrated by the results of a measurement campaign carried out during a sea breeze event. Mapping of benzene, toluene and acetone concentrations showed the highest concentrations in the industrial zone following the wind direction coming from the North. Nevertheless, the sea breeze tends to reduce the spread of the industrial plumes. On the contrary, the ozone map presents the lowest concentrations at the same industrial area indicating a net consumption of ozone. The highest ozone concentrations were found in the southeastern zone suggesting a local ozone formation.

  15. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  16. Rules, culture, and fitness

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1995-01-01

    Behavior analysis risks intellectual isolation unless it integrates its explanations with evolutionary theory. Rule-governed behavior is an example of a topic that requires an evolutionary perspective for a full understanding. A rule may be defined as a verbal discriminative stimulus produced by the behavior of a speaker under the stimulus control of a long-term contingency between the behavior and fitness. As a discriminative stimulus, the rule strengthens listener behavior that is reinforced in the short run by socially mediated contingencies, but which also enters into the long-term contingency that enhances the listener's fitness. The long-term contingency constitutes the global context for the speaker's giving the rule. When a rule is said to be “internalized,” the listener's behavior has switched from short- to long-term control. The fitness-enhancing consequences of long-term contingencies are health, resources, relationships, or reproduction. This view ties rules both to evolutionary theory and to culture. Stating a rule is a cultural practice. The practice strengthens, with short-term reinforcement, behavior that usually enhances fitness in the long run. The practice evolves because of its effect on fitness. The standard definition of a rule as a verbal statement that points to a contingency fails to distinguish between a rule and a bargain (“If you'll do X, then I'll do Y”), which signifies only a single short-term contingency that provides mutual reinforcement for speaker and listener. In contrast, the giving and following of a rule (“Dress warmly; it's cold outside”) can be understood only by reference also to a contingency providing long-term enhancement of the listener's fitness or the fitness of the listener's genes. Such a perspective may change the way both behavior analysts and evolutionary biologists think about rule-governed behavior. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:22478201

  17. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

  18. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  19. A Reconceptualization of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Malcolm

    Recently, communications scholars and theorists have begun formulating rules to describe the workings of language in various situations of everyday use. Theoretically, current rules approaches are in violation of the basic philosophy underlying communication theory--Whitehead's notion of process. The inconsistency is a function of the degree of…

  20. Are Intuitive Rules Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…

  1. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  2. How Rules Shape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

  3. Core Rules of Netiquette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Virginia

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rules of etiquette for communicating via computer networks, including conversing as politely as you would face-to-face; ethical behavior; becoming familiar with the domain that you are in; rules for discussion groups; quality of writing; sharing appropriate knowledge; and respecting individuals' privacy. (LRW)

  4. Beyond Rules to Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…

  5. How Rules Shape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

  6. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

  7. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

  8. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Applicability and Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

  9. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rule of construction (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

  10. 18 CFR 385.104 - Rule of construction (Rule 104).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rule of construction (Rule 104). 385.104 Section 385.104 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.104 Rule of construction (Rule 104). To the extent that the text of a rule is inconsistent...

  11. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  12. An Introduction to Ninja

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    A RAND NOTE Prepared for Rand 1700 MAIN STREET P 0. BOX 2136 SANTAMONICA.CA 90406-2138 AN INTRODUCTION TO NINJA J. R. Clark, T. G. Covington...Corporation A RAND NOTE Prepared for Rand 1700 MAIN STREET P.O. BOX 2138 SANTA MONICA, CA 90406-2136 AN INTRODUCTION TO NINJA J. R. Clark, T. G...the topic of this Note--the Ninja light ground combat vehicle--emerged, in the judgment both of Rand and of the DARPA sponsors, as the most promising

  13. Introduction to Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  14. Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to articles in this special "Perspectives" issue of "Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology." The articles, taken collectively, contain significant elements of a research agenda in image indexing and retrieval for the next decade. Articles focus on user, representation,…

  15. Introduction to HACCP.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  16. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  17. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-08

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented.

  18. Writing the introduction.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2008-10-01

    The introduction section of a scientific paper aims to introduce a specific topic and to stimulate the reader's interest. It provides background information about what has already been done by others, supported by a limited number of relevant references. The reader should be informed about the purpose of the paper, what it will address, and how it relates to previous work.

  19. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…

  20. Introduction to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  1. Introduction to Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Educationalists and social scientists are increasingly interested in childhood as a distinct social category, and Childhood Studies is now a recognized area of research and analysis. This book brings together the key themes of Childhood Studies in a broad and accessible introduction for students and practitioners working in this field.…

  2. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-08-26

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  3. Introduction to Relational Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    such as Russell’s "rami- tied type theory." In most other respects our notation follows that of Carnap 11] and Whitehead and Russell [8]. There is no... Carnap , R. Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applica- tions, Dover, 1958. [2] Childs, D.L. Feasibility of a set-theoretic data structure based on a

  4. Mauritian Creole: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Morris F.; And Others

    The format of this 23-unit course in Mauritian Creole is based on "microwave" cycles, each cycle beginning with the introduction of new material and ending with the use of that material in communication. A small amount of new material is introduced at a time (usually in a monolog, drill, or dialog) which, after a brief bit of practice is…

  5. 4.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  6. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  7. Influenza viruses: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Neumann, Gabriele

    2012-01-01

    We provide a brief introduction into the genome organization, life cycle, pathogenicity, and host range of influenza A viruses. We also briefly summarize influenza pandemics and currently available measures to control influenza virus outbreaks, including vaccines and antiviral compounds to influenza viruses.

  8. Introduction to Retail Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, James E., Ed.

    This collection consists of 15 articles dealing with retail security. Included in the volume are the following papers: "Retail Security--an Introduction," by Andrew J. Thacker and Linda Cressman; "Systematic Planning and Retail Security," by Linda T. Thomas; "Identifying Potentially Dishonest Employees," by James E.…

  9. Historiography: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2002-03-01

    This introduction precedes the four papers given in October 2000 in Copenhagen on analysing problems in the history of the neurosciences. The term historiography can be defined in different ways but means the study, and not simply the writing, of history. Although it goes back two millennia, it is a rapidly developing field as illustrated by the subsequent contributions.

  10. Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Arthopods & Pentastomes Arthropods (phylum Arthropoda ) are invertebrates with a chitinous exoskeleton, segmented body and jointed ap- pendages. A...Protozoan Cyst Forms (Continued) 11 inTroducTion • 1 1. Phylum Arthropoda a. Subphylum mandibulata Class Insecta (fleas, flies, mosquitoes, bees

  11. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  12. Introduction to superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.

    1988-01-01

    This tutorial introduces the development of, and current trends in, superstring theory, a significant and still controversial attempt to unify general relatively and quantum field theory. Stressing current areas of research activity, Introduction to Superstrings addresses topics including string field theory, multi-loops and Teichmuller spaces, conformal field theory, and four-dimensional superstrings.

  13. An Introduction to Akan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jack; Aidoo, Agnes Akosua

    This introduction to Akan is designed to provide the basic structures and vocabulary that a non-native speaker would need to use Akan. The text is based on the Asante dialect of Akan, and is divided into twenty units. Each unit consists of a conversation given in English and Asante, drills for the classroom or individual practice, grammar notes,…

  14. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  15. Following the Rules.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  16. The age 60 rule.

    PubMed

    2004-08-01

    The impetus for amending the Age 60 Rule compels the review of recent scientific literature pertinent to pilot age and performance. The Rule has been the subject of extensive debate among policymakers and the aviation community. The aviation medical community is in a position to continue research and discussion that may provide additional evidence for the development of future policy decisions. Those addressing the future of the Age 60 Rule may benefit from understanding the nature and limitations of these studies, whether their outcomes are conclusive or not. Hopefully, some measure of guidance may be achieved as they address pilot age limits and related safety, economic, and operational issues of the aviation industry.

  17. 77 FR 68182 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... To Amend EDGX Rule 11.5(c) To Add the Edge Market Close\\SM\\ Order November 8, 2012. I. Introduction... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change that would have introduced the Edge... William O'Brien, Chief Executive Officer, DirectEdge, dated November 8, 2012. On November 6, 2012, the...

  18. 78 FR 57911 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Modify the Complex Order Filter September 16, 2013. I. Introduction On July 22, 2013, BOX Options...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to modify the Exchange's rules governing the filtering of inbound Complex... Rule 7240(b)(3)(iii) to modify the procedures governing the filtering of inbound Complex Orders. BOX...

  19. 77 FR 28919 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.45 To Address the Authority of NYSE Arca or Archipelago Securities LLC To... Archipelago Securities May 10, 2012. I. Introduction On March 15, 2012, NYSE Arca, Inc. (``Exchange'' or... rule change to amend NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.45 to address the authority of NYSE Arca or Archipelago...

  20. 78 FR 6385 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h)(7) To Permit PL Select Orders To Interact With Incoming Orders Larger Than the Size of the PL Select Order January 24, 2013. I. Introduction On November 27, 2012, NYSE Arca...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to amend NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h)(7) to permit PL Select Orders...

  1. 77 FR 520 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... purpose of the proposed rule change is to remove any potential cloud on the jurisdictional status of... 29, 2011. I. Introduction On September 21, 2011, the Options Clearing Corporation (``OCC'') filed...

  2. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  3. 6 new buying rules.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, A

    1998-02-20

    Times change--and so does software purchasing. Buying in bulk, paying top dollar for what a system does, trusting a vendor to watch out for you--that's old input. Here are six fresh rules for the buying game.

  4. Memorizing Parliamentary Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Larry James

    1983-01-01

    Applies the following memorization techniques to the learning of parliamentary rules: selectivity, organization, understanding, motivation, and association. Available from American Institute of Parliamentarians, 229 Army Post Road, Suite B, Des Moines, IA 50315; sc $1.25. (PD)

  5. Draft Wetlands Rule Released

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers released on 28 March a draft of a new rule to guide compensatory mitigation for when wetlands are unavoidably lost due to development. However, whether the rule is successful in preventing a net loss in wetlands will depend largely on its implementation, according to two wetlands scientists who evaluated the issue for the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) in 2001. Under the federal Clean Water Act, developers who seek to build on wetlands must compensate for any wetlands loss if they are unable to avoid or minimize the loss. Such compensation is covered under the newly proposed compensatory mitigation rule. Benjamin Grumbles, EPA assistant administrator for water, called the rule an ``innovative new standard that will accelerate the pace of wetlands conservation and restoration.''

  6. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  7. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  8. Data breaches. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  9. Observations of Urban Heat Island Mitigation in California Coastal Cities due to a Sea Breeze Induced Coastal-Cooling ``REVERSE-REACTION'' to Global Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.

    2010-12-01

    The study evaluated long-term (1948-2005) air temperatures at over 300 urban and rural sites in California (CA) during summer (June-August, JJA). The aggregate CA results showed asymmetric warming, as daily min temperatures increased faster than daily max temperatures. The spatial distributions of daily max temperatures in the heavily urbanized South Coast and San Francisco Bay Area air basins, however, exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling at low-elevation (mainly urban) coastal-areas and warming at (mainly rural) inland areas. Previous studies have suggested that cooling summer max temperatures in CA were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover. The current hypothesis, however, is that this temperature pattern arises from a “reverse-reaction” to greenhouse gas (GHG) induced global-warming. In this hypothesis, the global warming of inland areas resulted in an increased (cooling) sea breeze activity in coastal areas. That daytime summer coastal cooling was seen in coastal urban areas implies that urban heat island (UHI) warming was weaker than the reverse-reaction sea breeze cooling; if there was no UHI effect, then the cooling would have been even stronger. Analysis of daytime summer max temperatures at four adjacent pairs of urban and rural sites near the inland cooling-warming boundary, however, showed that the rural sites experienced cooling, while the urban sites showed warming due to UHI development. The rate of heat island growth was estimated as the sum of each urban warming rate and the absolute magnitude of the concurrent adjacent rural cooling rate. Values ranged from 0.12 to 0.55 K decade-1, and were proportional to changes in urban population and urban extent. As Sacramento, Modesto, Stockton, and San José have grown in aerial extent (21 to 59%) and population (40 to 118%), part of the observed increased JJA max values could be due to increased daytime UHI-intensity. Without UHI effects, the currently observed JJA SFBA

  10. Radiation Countermeasures Symposium: Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    SH-containing molecules) protected animals from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Free radical scavengers • 1950s-1980s: US Army (WRAIR) advanced...applications for G-CSF (Neupogen®) in case of radiation incident • Neupogen® in Strategic National Stockpile UNI FORM ED SERVIC ESUNIV ERSI T Y of theHealth...success for any radiation countermeasure under Animal Rule: long-term survival? (Need to cure hematopoietic syndrome when assessing GI

  11. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  12. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  13. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  14. Introduction to Acquisition Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    thus to avoid the logistics support and inventory management iightinares that have often resulted from poor configuration management on past programs...11-114G 60 1/4 ii UNCASSIFID I H. 1 .251 1 . 4 1. MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS- 1963-A .TO. ACQUISITION * MANAGEMENT ...PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO. I11. TITLE (include Secuti.ty Classift(ation) Introduction to Acquisition Management (UNCLAS) 12

  15. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2010-07-12

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  16. Introduction to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Preface; Table of physical quantities; Part I. Foundations: 1. Introduction; 2. Magnetohydrodynamics; 3. Conservation laws; Part II. Fundamental Processes: 4. Magnetohydrodynamic waves; 5. Dynamo; 6. Discontinuities and shocks; 7. Magnetic reconnection; Part III. Instabilities and Magnetic Confinement: 8. Static equilibrium; 9. Linear perturbation theory; 10. Study of MHD instabilities; Part IV. Turbulence: 11. Hydrodynamic turbulence; 12. MHD turbulence; 13. Advanced MHD turbulence; Appendix 1. Solutions to the exercises; Appendix 2. Formulary; References; Index.

  17. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  18. Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-143 9 - 1 Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Turbomachinery Laboratory Texas A... rotordynamics of turbomachinery, excessive vibration and instability. The acceptable performance of a turbomachine depends on the adequate design and operation...on rotordynamics . The basic equations for the modeling of linear rotor-bearing systems are given along with an example for the rotordynamics of a

  19. Introduction to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryden, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Preface to second edition; Preface to first edition; 1. Introduction; 2. Fundamental observations; 3. Newton versus Einstein; 4. Cosmic dynamics; 5. Model universes; 6. Measuring cosmological parameters; 7. Dark matter; 8. The cosmic microwave background; 9. Nucleosynthesis and the early Universe; 10. Inflation and the very early Universe; 11. Structure formation: gravitational instability; 12. Structure formation: baryons and photons; Epilogue; Bibliography; Table of useful constants; Index.

  20. 20 CFR 627.802 - Rules of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a DOL agency or official is required. Technical rules of evidence shall not apply to hearings... submission of evidence. The ALJ shall not permit the introduction at the hearing of any documentation if such documentation has not been made available for review by the other parties to the proceeding either at the...

  1. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  2. Sticky Rules: Integration Between Abstract Rules and Specific Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Bryck, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors manipulated repetitions and/or changes of abstract response rules and the specific stimulus- response (S-R) associations used under these rules. Experiments 1 and 2, assessing trial-to-trial priming effects, showed that repetition of complete S-R couplings produced only benefits when the rule also repeated (i.e., rule-S-R conjunctions)…

  3. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false References to rules (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

  4. 18 CFR 385.103 - References to rules (Rule 103).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false References to rules (Rule 103). 385.103 Section 385.103 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Definitions § 385.103 References to rules (Rule 103). This part cross-references its sections according to...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  6. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  7. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  8. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In general...

  9. 75 FR 11210 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Amendment to Board Rules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Amendment to Board Rules Relating to Inspections March 4, 2010. I. Introduction On July 2, 2009, the Public Company Accounting... accounting firms. Notice of the proposed rule amendment was published in the Federal Register on November 25...

  10. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Relating to Financial Reporting by Canadian Clearing Members October 26, 2012. I. Introduction On September... to OCC's By-Laws and Rules relating to financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect... Financial Reporting Standards. OCC Rule 310, through cross-references to interpretive provisions of OCC...

  11. 76 FR 78059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Management of Liquidity Risk December 9, 2011. I. Introduction On October 12, 2011, the Options... proposed rule change SR-OCC-2011-15 pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  12. 77 FR 15438 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Mechanism March 9, 2012. I. Introduction On December 30, 2011, C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated (``Exchange... rule change relating to its Automated Improvement Mechanism (``AIM''). The proposed rule change was... perfect the mechanism for a free and open market and a national market system, and, in general, to...

  13. 77 FR 43407 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... to Article VI, Section 11A, governing stock options.) However, in the case of stock futures, One... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Amendments to Certain Rules Applicable to Stock Futures July 18, 2012. I. Introduction...

  14. Introduction to the problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Solid propellant rockets were used extensively in space missions ranging from large boosters to orbit-raising upper stages. The smaller motors find exclusive use in various earth-based applications. The advantage of the solids include simplicity, readiness, volumetric efficiency, and storability. Important recent progress in related fields (combustion, rheology, micro-instrumentation/diagnostics, and chaos theory) can be applied to solid rockets to derive maximum advantage and avoid waste. Main objectives of research in solid propellants include: to identify critical parameters, to establish specification rules, and to develop quantitative criteria.

  15. Communicating rules in recreation areas

    Treesearch

    Terence L. Ross; George H. Moeller

    1974-01-01

    Five hundred fifty-eight campers were surveyed on the Allegheny National Forest to determine their knowledge of rules governing recreation behavior. Most of them were uninformed about the rules. Results of the study suggest that previous camping experience, age, camping style, and residence significantly affect knowledge of rules. Campers who received rule brochures or...

  16. Nature and Function of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  17. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  18. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  19. The unified method rules

    SciTech Connect

    Juric, R.

    1996-12-31

    Any methodology for information systems development defines rules and conditions that are to be followed and satisfied when applying it to developing analysis and design models of a system. The newest attempt to achieve a successful systems development and establish standards in object oriented analysis and design technologies resulted in the unified method documentation set, version 0.8 being published in late 1995. In this paper I will analyse the first draft and present a set of rules that must be satisfied by the valid unified method. The rules are divided into different sections: (A) classes/objects and categories, (B) attributes and operations, (C) associations and inheritance, (D) message trace diagram/object message diagram/state diagram/use cases.

  20. Introduction to Electrochemical Impedance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-24

    in polar coordinates and Z’ and Z" in Cartesian coordinates. Algebra has a special way of expressing "two-component numbers" as complex numbers. This...test is a small batch file that invokes a BASICA program and loads P STAT.BAS program in it. By replacing test with atwill, the program at-will will be...SYSTEM. This will end the BASICA program, return the computer to DOS and consequently, return to Z-PLOT. Petr Vantsek Introduction to impedance 55 23

  1. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  2. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  3. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  4. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  5. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  6. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  7. Introduction to Accelerator Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peggs, Stephen; Satogata, Todd

    2017-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Linear motion; 3. Strong focusing transverse optics; 4. Longitudinal and off-momentum motion; 5. Action and emittance – one particle or many?; 6. Magnets; 7. RF cavities; 8. Linear errors and their correction; 9. Sextupoles, chromaticity and the Hénon map; 10. Octupoles, detuning and slow extraction; 11. Synchrotron radiation – classical damping; 12. Synchrotron radiation – quantum excitation; 13. Linacs – protons and ions; 14. Linacs – electrons; 15. The beam-beam interaction and 1-D resonances; 16. Routes to chaos; Appendix: selected formulae for accelerator design; References; Index.

  8. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  9. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  10. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents a "degree of aggressiveness" in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: "conservative" driving with high speed limit and "aggressive" driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  11. Sum rules for leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  12. Sum Rules for Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of avor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briey sketch how this happens and discuss briey the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  13. Introduction to bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Can, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field mainly involving molecular biology and genetics, computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Data intensive, large-scale biological problems are addressed from a computational point of view. The most common problems are modeling biological processes at the molecular level and making inferences from collected data. A bioinformatics solution usually involves the following steps: Collect statistics from biological data. Build a computational model. Solve a computational modeling problem. Test and evaluate a computational algorithm. This chapter gives a brief introduction to bioinformatics by first providing an introduction to biological terminology and then discussing some classical bioinformatics problems organized by the types of data sources. Sequence analysis is the analysis of DNA and protein sequences for clues regarding function and includes subproblems such as identification of homologs, multiple sequence alignment, searching sequence patterns, and evolutionary analyses. Protein structures are three-dimensional data and the associated problems are structure prediction (secondary and tertiary), analysis of protein structures for clues regarding function, and structural alignment. Gene expression data is usually represented as matrices and analysis of microarray data mostly involves statistics analysis, classification, and clustering approaches. Biological networks such as gene regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, and protein-protein interaction networks are usually modeled as graphs and graph theoretic approaches are used to solve associated problems such as construction and analysis of large-scale networks.

  14. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  15. Elimination of Social Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Teddy

    The thesis of this document is that arbitrary social rules must be eliminated. Chapters cover: (1) what it is like to be a student whose personal activities are controlled; (2) the necessity of environmental freedom as a prerequisite to successful educational reform; (3) the question of environmental control; (4) the legal history of environmental…

  16. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  17. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  18. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  19. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  20. An Airship Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  1. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  2. Szego-Lobatto quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagels, Carl; Reichel, Lothar

    2007-03-01

    Gauss-type quadrature rules with one or two prescribed nodes are well known and are commonly referred to as Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature rules, respectively. Efficient algorithms are available for their computation. Szego quadrature rules are analogs of Gauss quadrature rules for the integration of periodic functions; they integrate exactly trigonometric polynomials of as high degree as possible. Szego quadrature rules have a free parameter, which can be used to prescribe one node. This paper discusses an analog of Gauss-Lobatto rules, i.e., Szego quadrature rules with two prescribed nodes. We refer to these rules as Szego-Lobatto rules. Their properties as well as numerical methods for their computation are discussed.

  3. An introduction to phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor components of cellular membranes that play critical regulatory roles in several intracellular functions. This chapter describes the main enzymes regulating the turnover of each of the seven PIs in mammalian cells and introduces to some of their intracellular functions and to some evidences of their involvement in human diseases. Due to the complex interrelation between the distinct PIs and the plethora of functions that they can regulate inside a cell, this chapter is not meant to be a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of PI signalling but rather an introduction to this complex signalling field. For more details of their regulation/functions and extensive description of their intracellular roles, more detailed reviews are suggested on each single topic.

  4. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. PMID:25685949

  5. Introduction to Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittle, Elise

    A course in mineralogy is a rite of passage for most undergraduate Earth sciences majors. As fluency with minerals is so basic for deciphering a range of geologic processes, many Earth scientists can recall long hours in the lab memorizing mineral samples, their chemical formulae and crystal systems, and perhaps staring through a petrographic microscope wondering, what exactly is 2V? In this venerable field with so many classic textbooks, one might ask why another mineralogy text is warranted.Introduction to Mineralogy is organized in a traditional way, with Part I covering the topics of symmetry, crystallography, crystal chemistry and structure, and crystal growth. Part II covers physical properties of minerals and methods for studying mineral structures and chemistry (including optical mineralogy and x-ray diffraction), and Part III presents the systematic mineralogy of all of the mineral groups.

  6. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  7. Introduction to Tidal Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newberg, Heidi Jo

    Dwarf galaxies that come too close to larger galaxies suffer tidal disruption; the differential gravitational force between one side of the galaxy and the other serves to rip the stars from the dwarf galaxy so that they instead orbit the larger galaxy. This process produces "tidal streams" of stars, which can be found in the stellar halo of the Milky Way, as well as in halos of other galaxies. This chapter provides a general introduction to tidal streams, including the mechanism through which the streams are created, the history of how they were discovered, and the observational techniques by which they can be detected. In addition, their use in unraveling galaxy formation histories and the distribution of dark matter in galaxies is discussed, as is the interaction between these dwarf galaxy satellites and the disk of the larger galaxy.

  8. Introduction to biosensors.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Introduction to lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of the lectures on lattice QCD (LQCD) is to provide an overview of both the technical issues and the progress made so far in obtaining phenomenologically useful numbers. The lectures consist of three parts. The author`s charter is to provide an introduction to LQCD and outline the scope of LQCD calculations. In the second set of lectures, Guido Martinelli will discuss the progress they have made so far in obtaining results, and their impact on Standard Model phenomenology. Finally, Martin Luescher will discuss the topical subjects of chiral symmetry, improved formulation of lattice QCD, and the impact these improvements will have on the quality of results expected from the next generation of simulations.

  10. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  11. Cubature rules of prescribed merit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Sloan, I.H.

    1996-03-01

    We introduce a criterion for the evaluation of multidimensional quadrature, or cubature, rules for the hypercube: this is the merit of a rule, which is closely related to its trigonometric degree, and which reduces to the Zaremba figure of merit in the case of a lattice rule. We derive a family of rules Q{sub k}{sup a} having dimension s and merit 2{sup k}. These rules seem to be competitive with lattice rules with respect to the merit that can be achieved with a given number of abscissas.

  12. Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…

  13. Parental Rule Socialization for Preventive Health and Adolescent Rule Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bylund, Carma L.; Baxter, Leslie A.; Imes, Rebecca S.; Wolf, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family rules about nutrition, exercise, and sun protection in 164 parent-young adult children dyads. Both parents and their young adult children independently reported on health rules that they perceived throughout their child's adolescent years and the extent to which the rules were articulated, violations sanctioned, and…

  14. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  15. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  16. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  17. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  18. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  19. ``Robinson's sum rule'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2010-02-01

    This discussion revisits two articles on synchrotron radiation damping published in 1958, one by this author and Evgeny K. Tarasov [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 651 (1958)ZETFA70044-4510; Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 449 (1958)SPHJAR0038-5646], and one by Kenneth W. Robinson [Phys. Rev. 111, 373 (1958)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.111.373]. The latter is the source of what is known as “Robinson’s sum rule.” Both present the familiar rule, but with very different proofs and calculations of concrete damping decrements. Comparative analysis of these differences reveals serious flaws in Robinson’s proof and calculations.

  20. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  1. Emissions Inventory Final Rule TSD

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical support document (TSD) provides the details of emissions data processing done in support of EPA's final rulemaking effort for the Federal Transport Rule, now known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule.

  2. Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Jeff; Moffett, Jonathan

    1996-06-01

    Special Issue on Management This special issue contains seven papers originally presented at an International Workshop on Services for Managing Distributed Systems (SMDS'95), held in September 1995 in Karslruhe, Germany. The workshop was organized to present the results of two ESPRIT III funded projects, Sysman and IDSM, and more generally to bring together work in the area of distributed systems management. The workshop focused on the tools and techniques necessary for managing future large-scale, multi-organizational distributed systems. The open call for papers attracted a large number of submissions and the subsequent attendance at the workshop, which was larger than expected, clearly indicated that the topics addressed by the workshop were of considerable interest both to industry and academia. The papers selected for this special issue represent an excellent coverage of the issues addressed by the workshop. A particular focus of the workshop was the need to help managers deal with the size and complexity of modern distributed systems by the provision of automated support. This automation must have two prime characteristics: it must provide a flexible management system which responds rapidly to changing organizational needs, and it must provide both human managers and automated management components with the information that they need, in a form which can be used for decision-making. These two characteristics define the two main themes of this special issue. To satisfy the requirement for a flexible management system, workers in both industry and universities have turned to architectures which support policy directed management. In these architectures policy is explicitly represented and can be readily modified to meet changing requirements. The paper `Towards implementing policy-based systems management' by Meyer, Anstötz and Popien describes an approach whereby policy is enforced by event-triggered rules. Krause and Zimmermann in their paper `Implementing

  3. Influence of sea breeze circulation and road traffic emissions on the relationship between particle number, black carbon, PM1, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 concentrations in a coastal city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Cuevas, Emilio; González, Yenny; Ramos, Ramón; Romero, Pedro Miguel; Pérez, Noemí; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    The physical characterisation of metrics representative of ambient air particle concentration is becoming a topic of great interest for urban air quality monitoring and human exposure assessment. In this article, the influence of sea breeze circulation and primary road traffic emissions on the relationship between the urban aerosol number (N3, particles >3 nm), black carbon <10 μm (BC), PM1, PM2.5, PM2.5-10 (PM x) concentrations was studied in a coastal city (Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands). The daily cycles of sea and mountain breezes (inland during daylight and seaward at night) and road traffic emissions exerted a great, and well differentiated, influence on the BC, N3 and PM x concentrations. In this scenario, the following major aerosol features were observed: (1) fresh vehicle exhaust emissions resulted in high BC and N3 concentrations, in such a way that these two metrics increased when the "road traffic intensity (vehicles h -1)/wind speed" ratio increased, (2) PM1 and PM2.5 levels were lower during daylight (due to inland entry of relatively clean marine air masses) than at night (due to the seaward drainage airflow resulting in the transport of aged particulate pollutants from the city), (3) although N3 and BC concentrations exhibited a significant correlation during the whole study period, the N3/BC ratio experienced a daily evolution with a maximum during daylight. Thus, high N3 concentrations associated with high N3/BC ratios and high solar irradiance conditions were recorded during the daylight inland breeze period due to an enhancement of processes favouring new particle formation. Data analysis points out that this enhancement in the new particle formation processes is strongly related to the nucleation of photo-oxidized vapours under the relatively low PM x (and consequently low aerosol surface area) concentrations prompted by the inland entry of clean marine air due to the daylight breeze blowing. The results obtained show that, in

  4. Comparison of the safety-related physical and combustion properties of liquid hydrogen and liquid natural gas in the context of the SF-BREEZE high-speed fuel-cell ferry

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, L. E.; Pratt, J. W.; LaFleur, C. B.

    2016-11-25

    Here, we review liquid hydrogen (LH2) as a maritime vessel fuel, from descriptions of its fundamental properties to its practical application and safety aspects, in the context of the San Francisco Bay Renewable Energy Electric Vessel with Zero Emissions (SF-BREEZE) high-speed fuel-cell ferry. Since marine regulations have been formulated to cover liquid natural gas (LNG) as a primary propulsion fuel, we frame our examination of LH2 as a comparison to LNG, for both maritime use in general, and the SF-BREEZE in particular. Due to weaker attractions between molecules, LH2 is colder than LNG, and evaporates more easily. We describe the consequences of these physical differences for the size and duration of spills of the two cryogenic fuels. The classical flammability ranges are reviewed, with a focus on how fuel buoyancy modifies these combustion limits. We examine the conditions for direct fuel explosion (detonation) and contrast them with initiation of normal (laminar) combustion. Direct fuel detonation is not a credible accident scenario for the SF-BREEZE. For both fuels, we review experiments and theory elucidating the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). LH2 fires have a shorter duration than energy-equivalent LNG fires, and produce significantly less thermal radiation. The thermal (infrared) radiation from hydrogen fires is also strongly absorbed by humidity in the air. Hydrogen permeability is not a leak issue for practical hydrogen plumbing. We describe the chemistry of hydrogen and methane at iron surfaces, clarifying their impact on steel-based hydrogen storage and transport materials. These physical, chemical and combustion properties are pulled together in a comparison of how a LH2 or LNG pool fire on the Top Deck of the SF-BREEZE might influence the structural integrity of the aluminum deck. Neither pool fire scenario leads to net heating of the aluminum decking. Overall, LH2 and

  5. Comparison of the safety-related physical and combustion properties of liquid hydrogen and liquid natural gas in the context of the SF-BREEZE high-speed fuel-cell ferry

    DOE PAGES

    Klebanoff, L. E.; Pratt, J. W.; LaFleur, C. B.

    2016-11-25

    Here, we review liquid hydrogen (LH2) as a maritime vessel fuel, from descriptions of its fundamental properties to its practical application and safety aspects, in the context of the San Francisco Bay Renewable Energy Electric Vessel with Zero Emissions (SF-BREEZE) high-speed fuel-cell ferry. Since marine regulations have been formulated to cover liquid natural gas (LNG) as a primary propulsion fuel, we frame our examination of LH2 as a comparison to LNG, for both maritime use in general, and the SF-BREEZE in particular. Due to weaker attractions between molecules, LH2 is colder than LNG, and evaporates more easily. We describe themore » consequences of these physical differences for the size and duration of spills of the two cryogenic fuels. The classical flammability ranges are reviewed, with a focus on how fuel buoyancy modifies these combustion limits. We examine the conditions for direct fuel explosion (detonation) and contrast them with initiation of normal (laminar) combustion. Direct fuel detonation is not a credible accident scenario for the SF-BREEZE. For both fuels, we review experiments and theory elucidating the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). LH2 fires have a shorter duration than energy-equivalent LNG fires, and produce significantly less thermal radiation. The thermal (infrared) radiation from hydrogen fires is also strongly absorbed by humidity in the air. Hydrogen permeability is not a leak issue for practical hydrogen plumbing. We describe the chemistry of hydrogen and methane at iron surfaces, clarifying their impact on steel-based hydrogen storage and transport materials. These physical, chemical and combustion properties are pulled together in a comparison of how a LH2 or LNG pool fire on the Top Deck of the SF-BREEZE might influence the structural integrity of the aluminum deck. Neither pool fire scenario leads to net heating of the aluminum decking. Overall, LH2 and LNG are very similar in their physical and combustion

  6. Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nancey

    This chapter provides an overview of some of the history of debates regarding free will, and concurs with several authors who claim that the philosophical discussions have reached a stalemate due to their focus on a metaphysical doctrine of universal determinism. The way ahead, therefore, requires two developments. One is to focus not on determinism but on reductionism; the other is to attend to specific scientific findings that appear to call free will into question. The chapter provides an introduction to the topics of reductionism, emergence, and downward causation, and then surveys the works of Daniel Wegner and Benjamin Libet, which have been taken to show the irrelevance of conscious will in human action. It summarizes the chapters comprising the rest of the volume, and then offers a reflection on the achievement of the work as a whole - in brief, a critique of free-will skeptics based on human capacities such as meta-cognition and long-term planning, which allow agents to exert downward control on neural processes and behavior. It ends by highlighting, in light of Alasdair MacIntyre's work on moral responsibility, an important additional factor involved in creating the possibility for freedom of choice, namely the possession of abstract symbolic language.

  7. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    PubMed

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-06-21

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  8. Arctic freshwater synthesis: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prowse, T.; Bring, A.; Mârd, J.; Carmack, E.

    2015-11-01

    In response to a joint request from the World Climate Research Program's Climate and Cryosphere Project, the International Arctic Science Committee, and the Arctic Council's Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, an updated scientific assessment has been conducted of the Arctic Freshwater System (AFS), entitled the Arctic Freshwater Synthesis (AFSΣ). The major reason for joint request was an increasing concern that changes to the AFS have produced, and could produce even greater, changes to biogeophysical and socioeconomic systems of special importance to northern residents and also produce extra-Arctic climatic effects that will have global consequences. Hence, the key objective of the AFSΣ was to produce an updated, comprehensive, and integrated review of the structure and function of the entire AFS. The AFSΣ was organized around six key thematic areas: atmosphere, oceans, terrestrial hydrology, terrestrial ecology, resources and modeling, and the review of each coauthored by an international group of scientists and published as separate manuscripts in this special issue of Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences. This AFSΣ—Introduction reviews the motivations for, and foci of, previous studies of the AFS, discusses criteria used to define the domain of the AFS, and details key characteristics of the definition adopted for the AFSΣ.

  9. Quantum Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Werner; Welsch, Dirk-Gunnar; Wallentowitz, Sascha

    2005-12-01

    This is the third, completely updated and supplemented edition of the acknowledged "Lectures on Quantum Optics" by W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch. It offers theoretical concepts of quantum optics, with special emphasis on current research trends. Quantum-state reconstruction and laser-driven quantized motion of trapped atoms are new topics that are included in the revised edition. The rigorous development of quantum optics in the context of quantum field theory and the attention spent to details make the book valuable to graduate students as well as to researchers in related areas. From the contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Elements of quantum electrodynamics; 3. Quantum states of bosonic systems; 4. Phase-space representations; 5. Quantum theory of damping; 6. Photoelectric detection of light; 7. Quantum-state reconstruction; 8. Non-classical states; 9. Leaky optical cavities; 10. Theory of resonance fluorescence; 11. A single atom in a high-Q cavity; 12. Laser-driven quantized motion of a trapped atom; 13. Forces on atoms in electromagnetic fields (NEW CHAPTER!)

  10. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  11. Introduction to metallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Vicky V.; Siwale, Rodney; Singh, Ajay; Mody, Hardik R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have fascinated scientist for over a century and are now heavily utilized in biomedical sciences and engineering. They are a focus of interest because of their huge potential in nanotechnology. Today these materials can be synthesized and modified with various chemical functional groups which allow them to be conjugated with antibodies, ligands, and drugs of interest and thus opening a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology, magnetic separation, and preconcentration of target analytes, targeted drug delivery, and vehicles for gene and drug delivery and more importantly diagnostic imaging. Moreover, various imaging modalities have been developed over the period of time such as MRI, CT, PET, ultrasound, SERS, and optical imaging as an aid to image various disease states. These imaging modalities differ in both techniques and instrumentation and more importantly require a contrast agent with unique physiochemical properties. This led to the invention of various nanoparticulated contrast agent such as magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold, and silver nanoparticles for their application in these imaging modalities. In addition, to use various imaging techniques in tandem newer multifunctional nanoshells and nanocages have been developed. Thus in this review article, we aim to provide an introduction to magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4), gold nanoparticles, nanoshells and nanocages, and silver nanoparticles followed by their synthesis, physiochemical properties, and citing some recent applications in the diagnostic imaging and therapy of cancer. PMID:21180459

  12. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  13. The formula Scribner log rule.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler

    1952-01-01

    The Scribner Decimal C is the accepted log rule in the Pacific Northwest. Usually volume, growth and yield tables are expressed by this rule to give them practical meaning. Yet in the research required for such studies, the rule is unsatisfactory because of rounded values and irregular jumps in volume from diameter to diameter and length to length.

  14. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  15. Connection with dynamics: General introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief nontechnical introduction to a few theoretical issues to the density-velocity relation. The aim of this introduction is not an exhaustive analysis of the current theoretical situation but rather setting a stage for the following talks. The selection of topics has been determined by the sequel program.

  16. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  17. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  18. Dental conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-30

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. This amendment clarifies that principles governing determinations by VA's Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for dental treatment by VA's Veterans Health Administration (VHA), apply only when VHA requests information or a rating from VBA for those purposes. This amendment also clarifies existing regulatory provisions and reflects the respective responsibilities of VHA and VBA in determinations concerning eligibility for dental treatment.

  19. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  20. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  1. Requiem for the max rule?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei Ji; Shen, Shan; Dziugaite, Gintare; van den Berg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In tasks such as visual search and change detection, a key question is how observers integrate noisy measurements from multiple locations to make a decision. Decision rules proposed to model this process haven fallen into two categories: Bayes-optimal (ideal observer) rules and ad-hoc rules. Among the latter, the maximum-of-outputs (max) rule has been most prominent. Reviewing recent work and performing new model comparisons across a range of paradigms, we find that in all cases except for one, the optimal rule describes human data as well as or better than every max rule either previously proposed or newly introduced here. This casts doubt on the utility of the max rule for understanding perceptual decision-making. PMID:25584425

  2. Multiple-rule bias in the comparison of classification rules.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Mohammadmahdi R; Hua, Jianping; Dougherty, Edward R

    2011-06-15

    There is growing discussion in the bioinformatics community concerning overoptimism of reported results. Two approaches contributing to overoptimism in classification are (i) the reporting of results on datasets for which a proposed classification rule performs well and (ii) the comparison of multiple classification rules on a single dataset that purports to show the advantage of a certain rule. This article provides a careful probabilistic analysis of the second issue and the 'multiple-rule bias', resulting from choosing a classification rule having minimum estimated error on the dataset. It quantifies this bias corresponding to estimating the expected true error of the classification rule possessing minimum estimated error and it characterizes the bias from estimating the true comparative advantage of the chosen classification rule relative to the others by the estimated comparative advantage on the dataset. The analysis is applied to both synthetic and real data using a number of classification rules and error estimators. We have implemented in C code the synthetic data distribution model, classification rules, feature selection routines and error estimation methods. The code for multiple-rule analysis is implemented in MATLAB. The source code is available at http://gsp.tamu.edu/Publications/supplementary/yousefi11a/. Supplementary simulation results are also included.

  3. Multiple-rule bias in the comparison of classification rules

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Mohammadmahdi R.; Hua, Jianping; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: There is growing discussion in the bioinformatics community concerning overoptimism of reported results. Two approaches contributing to overoptimism in classification are (i) the reporting of results on datasets for which a proposed classification rule performs well and (ii) the comparison of multiple classification rules on a single dataset that purports to show the advantage of a certain rule. Results: This article provides a careful probabilistic analysis of the second issue and the ‘multiple-rule bias’, resulting from choosing a classification rule having minimum estimated error on the dataset. It quantifies this bias corresponding to estimating the expected true error of the classification rule possessing minimum estimated error and it characterizes the bias from estimating the true comparative advantage of the chosen classification rule relative to the others by the estimated comparative advantage on the dataset. The analysis is applied to both synthetic and real data using a number of classification rules and error estimators. Availability: We have implemented in C code the synthetic data distribution model, classification rules, feature selection routines and error estimation methods. The code for multiple-rule analysis is implemented in MATLAB. The source code is available at http://gsp.tamu.edu/Publications/supplementary/yousefi11a/. Supplementary simulation results are also included. Contact: edward@ece.tamu.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21546390

  4. Interaction of Sea Breeze and Deep Convection over the Northeastern Adriatic Coast: An Analysis of Sensitivity Experiments Using a High-Resolution Mesoscale Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehler-Poljak, Gabrijela; Telišman Prtenjak, Maja; Kvakić, Marko; Šariri, Kristina; Večenaj, Željko

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of a high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric model in the model reproduction of thermally induced local wind (i.e., sea breezes, SB) on the development of deep convection (Cb). The three chosen cases are simulated by the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model at three (nested) model domains, whereas the area of the interest is Istria (peninsula in the northeastern Adriatic). The sensitivity tests are accomplished by modifying (1) the model setup, (2) the model topography and (3) the sea surface temperature (SST) distribution. The first set of simulations (over the three 1.5-day periods during summer) is conducted by modifying the model setup, i.e., microphysics and the boundary layer parameterizations. The same events are simulated with the modified topography where the mountain heights in Istria are reduced to 30% of their initial height. The SST distribution has two representations in the model: a constant SST field from the ECMWF skin temperature analysis and a varying SST field, which is provided by hourly geostationary satellite data. A comprehensive set of numerical experiments is statistically analyzed through several different approaches (i.e., the standard statistical measures, the spectral method and the image moment analysis). The overall model evaluation of each model setup revealed certain advantages of one model setup over the others. The numerical tests with the modified topography showed the influence of reducing the mountains heights on the pre-thunderstorm characteristics due to: (1) decrease of sensible heat flux and mid-tropospheric moisture and (2) change of slope-SB wind system. They consequently affect the evolution and dimensions of SBs and the features of the thunderstorm itself: timing, location and intensity (weaker storm). The implementation of the varying SST field in the model have an impact on the characteristics and dynamics of the SB and finally on the accuracy of Cb evolution

  5. Rules to acquire by.

    PubMed

    Nolop, Bruce

    2007-09-01

    When Bruce Nolop was an investment banker, he saw only the glamorous side of acquisitions. Since becoming executive vice president and chief financial officer of Pitney Bowes, however, he's learned how hard it is to pull them off. In this article, he shares the lessons his organization has learned throughout its successful six-year acquisition campaign, which comprised more than 70 deals: Stick to adjacent spaces, take a portfolio approach, have a business sponsor, know how to judge an acquisition, and don't shop when you're hungry. Pitney Bowes's management and board of directors now use these five basic rules to chart the company's growth course. For example, when evaluating a potential acquisition, Pitney Bowes distinguishes between "platform" and "bolt-on" acquisitions to set expectations and guide integration efforts; the company applies different criteria, depending on the type. According to Nolop, any company can improve its acquisition track record if it is able to learn from experience, and he suspects that Pitney Bowes's rules apply just as well to other organizations. Buying a company should be treated like any other business process, he maintains. It should be approached deliberately and reviewed and improved constantly. That means mapping a complex chain of actions; paying attention to what can go right or wrong at different stages; and using standard, constantly honed, approaches and tools.

  6. 77 FR 52977 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk Capital Rule; Proposed... 325 RIN 3064-AD97 Regulatory Capital Rules: Advanced Approaches Risk-Based Capital Rule; Market Risk... the agencies' current capital rules. In this NPR (Advanced Approaches and Market Risk NPR) the...

  7. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  8. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  9. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  10. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  11. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule criteria...

  12. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  13. 76 FR 66339 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... United States Copper Index Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200 October 20, 2011. I. Introduction On... Copper Index Fund (``USCUI'') (collectively, the ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200. The... consists of six base metals--aluminum, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead--and four precious metals:...

  14. 76 FR 6503 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Allocation Growth Income ETF January 31, 2011. I. Introduction On December 15, 2010, NYSE Arca, Inc... Rule 8.600: SiM Dynamic Allocation Diversified Income ETF and SiM Dynamic Allocation Growth Income ETF... Allocation Growth Income ETF (each a ``Fund'' and, collectively, ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule...

  15. 77 FR 48570 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...-Linked Security must be disseminated at least once every second over the NASDAQ OMX Global Index Data... Relating to the Listing and Trading of Alpha Index-Linked Securities August 8, 2012. I. Introduction On... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade Alpha...

  16. 75 FR 20018 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, As...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Amended, To Offer Certain BATS Exchange Data Products April 9, 2010. I. Introduction On February 2, 2010...''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, a proposed rule change to offer certain new Exchange data products to Exchange Members \\3\\ and other market data recipients. On February 22, 2010, BATS filed...

  17. 77 FR 43618 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Modify Its Corporate Governance Rules July 19, 2012. I. Introduction On May 17, 2012, The...

  18. 78 FR 19790 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change, as Modified by Amendments No. 1 and 2 Thereto, To Update Chapter 26 and Remove Schedule 502 of the ICE Clear Credit Rules March 27, 2013. I. Introduction On January 31, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed...

  19. 77 FR 61649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Amend Schedule 502 of the ICE Clear Credit Rules To Provide for Clearing of Additional Single Name Investment Grade CDS Contracts October 3, 2012. I. Introduction On August 9, 2012, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC...

  20. 75 FR 25901 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Deleting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Filed by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. April 30, 2010. I. Introduction On March 11..., March 12, 2008. In 2008, FINRA deleted FINRA Incorporated NYSE Rule 446 (Business Continuity and Contingency Plans) as substantively duplicative of NASD Rules 3510 (Business Continuity Plans) and 3520...

  1. 75 FR 25902 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. April 30, 2010. I. Introduction On March 11, 2010, the New York Stock... (Business Continuity and Contingency Plans) as substantively duplicative of NASD Rules 3510 (Business... Rule 446 (Business Continuity and Contingency Plans) to remove the existing text and incorporate NASD...

  2. 41 CFR 300-2.70 - How is the rule expressed in the title and narrative format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expressed in the title and narrative format? 300-2.70 Section 300-2.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Title and Narrative Format § 300-2.70 How is the rule expressed in the title and narrative format? The rule is in...

  3. 75 FR 4598 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Establish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish the NYSE Amex Realtime Reference Prices... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Establish the NYSE Amex Realtime Reference Prices Service January 22, 2010. I. Introduction On November 30,...

  4. 77 FR 49032 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Changes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... Election of Fair Representation Directors August 8, 2012. I. Introduction On June 18, 2012, NYSE Arca, Inc...'') Rule 3.2, which concern the nomination and election of fair representation directors. The proposed rule... representation directors for the NYSE Arca Board of Directors ] (``NYSE Arca Board''),\\5\\ and NYSE Arca Equities...

  5. 75 FR 6778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... To List and Trade the Sprott Physical Gold Trust February 4, 2010. I. Introduction On December 15... Physical Gold Trust (the ``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. The proposed rule change was... Services Trust is the trustee of the Trust. The Royal Canadian Mint is the custodian for the physical...

  6. 75 FR 6758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... To List and Trade the Sprott Physical Gold Trust February 4, 2010. I. Introduction On December 15... Physical Gold Trust (the ``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. The proposed rule change was... Services Trust is the trustee of the Trust. The Royal Canadian Mint is the custodian for the physical...

  7. 75 FR 38585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX BX...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to co-location services and related fees. The proposed rule... codify fees for its existing co-location services. Co-location services are a suite of hardware,...

  8. 75 FR 38584 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to co-location services and related fees. The proposed rule... fees for its existing co-location services. Co-location services are a suite of hardware,...

  9. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Introduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If you handle, manufacture, use, or store any of the toxic and flammable substances listed in 40 CFR Part 68 above the specified threshold quantities in a process, you are required to develop and implement a risk management program rule.

  10. Intel design for manufacturing and evolution of design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Clair

    2008-03-01

    The difficult issues in continuing Moore's law with the lack of improvement in lithography resolution are well known. 1, 2, 3 Design rules have to change and DFM methodology has to continue to improve to enable Moore's law scaling. This paper will discuss our approach to DFM though co-optimization across design and process. The poly layer is used to show how rules have changed to meet patterning requirements and how co-optimization has been used to define the poly design rules. With the introduction and ramp of several products on our 45nm technology, we have shown our ability to meet the goals of Moore's law scaling at high yields in volume manufacturing on a two year cycle.

  11. Unanimity rule on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  12. Rule groupings in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Mala; Johnson, Sally C.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, expert system shells do not address software engineering issues for developing or maintaining expert systems. As a result, large expert systems tend to be incomprehensible, difficult to debug or modify, and almost impossible to verify or validate Partitioning rule-based systems into rule groups which reflect the underlying subdomains of the problem should enhance the comprehensibility, maintainability, and reliability of expert-system software. In this paper, we investigate methods to semi-automatically structure a CLIPS rule base e into groups of rules that carry related information. We discuss three different distance metrics for measuring the relatedness of rules and describe two clustering algorithms based on these distance metrics. The results of our experiment with three sample rule bases are also presented.

  13. Rule extraction by successive regularization.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, M

    2000-12-01

    Knowledge acquisition is, needless to say, important, because it is a key to the solution to one of the bottlenecks in artificial intelligence. Recently, knowledge acquisition using neural networks, called rule extraction, is attracting wide attention because of its computational simplicity and ability to generalize. Proposed in this paper is a novel approach to rule extraction named successive regularization. It generates a small number of dominant rules at an earlier stage and less dominant rules or exceptions at later stages. It has various advantages such as robustness of computation, better understanding, and similarity to child development. It is applied to the classification of mushrooms, the recognition of promoters in DNA sequences and the classification of irises. Empirical results indicate superior performance of rule extraction in terms of the number and the size of rules for explaining data.

  14. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  15. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. A collection of log rules

    Treesearch

    Frank Freese

    1973-01-01

    A log rule may be defined as a table or formula showing the estimated net yield for logs of a given diameter and length. Ordinarily the yield is expressed in terms of board feet of finished lumber, though a few rules give the cubic volume of the log or some fraction of it. Built into each log rule are allowances for losses due to such things as slabs, saw kerf, edgings...

  17. Committee proposals and restrictive rules

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    I analyze a game-theoretic model of committee–legislature interaction in which a majority decision to adopt either an open or closed amendment rule occurs following the committee’s proposal of a bill. I find that, in equilibrium, the closed rule is almost always chosen when the dimension of the policy space is >1. Furthermore, the difference between the equilibrium outcome and that which would have occurred under the open rule can be arbitrarily small. PMID:10393988

  18. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Acknowledgments Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) originated in ancient China and has evolved over thousands of years. ... and mental focus). TCM is rooted in the ancient philosophy of Taoism and dates back more than ...

  19. Anticircumvention rules: threat to science.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, P

    2001-09-14

    Scientists who study encryption or computer security or otherwise reverse engineer technical measures, who make tools enabling them to do this work, and who report the results of their research face new risks of legal liability because of recently adopted rules prohibiting the circumvention of technical measures and manufacture or distribution of circumvention tools. Because all data in digital form can be technically protected, the impact of these rules goes far beyond encryption and computer security research. The scientific community must recognize the harms these rules pose and provide guidance about how to improve the anticircumvention rules.

  20. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  1. Fluctuations in classical sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elton, John R.; Lakshminarayan, Arul; Tomsovic, Steven

    2010-10-01

    Classical sum rules arise in a wide variety of physical contexts. Asymptotic expressions have been derived for many of these sum rules in the limit of long orbital period (or large action). Although sum-rule convergence may well be exponentially rapid for chaotic systems in a global phase-space sense with time, individual contributions to the sums may fluctuate with a width which diverges in time. Our interest is in the global convergence of sum rules as well as their local fluctuations. It turns out that a simple version of a lazy baker map gives an ideal system in which classical sum rules, their corrections, and their fluctuations can be worked out analytically. This is worked out in detail for the Hannay-Ozorio sum rule. In this particular case the rate of convergence of the sum rule is found to be governed by the Pollicott-Ruelle resonances, and both local and global boundaries for which the sum rule may converge are given. In addition, the width of the fluctuations is considered and worked out analytically, and it is shown to have an interesting dependence on the location of the region over which the sum rule is applied. It is also found that as the region of application is decreased in size the fluctuations grow. This suggests a way of controlling the length scale of the fluctuations by considering a time dependent phase-space volume, which for the lazy baker map decreases exponentially rapidly with time.

  2. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  3. Evolving Compact Decision Rule Sets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    While data mining technology holds the promise of automatically extracting useful patterns (such as decision rules) from data, this potential has yet...to be realized. One of the major technical impediments is that the current generation of data mining tools produce decision rule sets that are very

  4. Art as a Singular Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avital, Doron

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…

  5. Drinking Water Arsenic Rule History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA published the final arsenic rule on January 22, 2001. In response to the national debate surrounding the arsenic rule related to science and costs, the EPA announced on March 20, 2001 that the agency would reassess the science and cost issues.

  6. Rules based process window OPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Sean; Soper, Robert; Best, Shane; Mason, Mark

    2008-03-01

    As a preliminary step towards Model-Based Process Window OPC we have analyzed the impact of correcting post-OPC layouts using rules based methods. Image processing on the Brion Tachyon was used to identify sites where the OPC model/recipe failed to generate an acceptable solution. A set of rules for 65nm active and poly were generated by classifying these failure sites. The rules were based upon segment runlengths, figure spaces, and adjacent figure widths. 2.1 million sites for active were corrected in a small chip (comparing the pre and post rules based operations), and 59 million were found at poly. Tachyon analysis of the final reticle layout found weak margin sites distinct from those sites repaired by rules-based corrections. For the active layer more than 75% of the sites corrected by rules would have printed without a defect indicating that most rulesbased cleanups degrade the lithographic pattern. Some sites were missed by the rules based cleanups due to either bugs in the DRC software or gaps in the rules table. In the end dramatic changes to the reticle prevented catastrophic lithography errors, but this method is far too blunt. A more subtle model-based procedure is needed changing only those sites which have unsatisfactory lithographic margin.

  7. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Art as a Singular Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avital, Doron

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…

  9. Miner's rule revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, W.; Heuler, P.

    1994-03-01

    In the first sections, the requirements to be met by hypotheses for fatigue life prediction (including those for the crack initiation and crack propagation phases) are discussed in detail. These requirements are shown to be different for 'scientific' and for 'industrial' fatigue life prediction. Aspects with regard to an assessment of fatigue life prediction hypotheses are discussed. The last section presents the results of a large cooperative program between IABG and several automobile manufacturers, in which Miner's Rule in several versions was assessed against spectrum tests with five different actual automobile components: forged steel stub axle; forged steel stub axle, induction hardened; sheet steel welded rear axle (front wheel drive car); cast aluminum wheel; and welded sheet steel wheel. Since up to 80 components each were available, and two different, but typical, automotive stress-time histories were employed, the assessment was very thorough, avoiding many of the drawbacks of previous assessments. It is shown that damage sums to failure were usually far below 1.0; they also depended on the component in question, the aluminum wheel resulting in the lowest damage sums to failure; the damage sums to failure where always lower for a mild spectrum than for a severe one; and the influence of spectrum variation was predicted best - among the hypotheses tested - by use of a recent proposal of Zenner and Liu.

  10. Fast discovery of simple rules

    SciTech Connect

    Domingos, P.

    1996-12-31

    The recent emergence of data mining as a major application of machine learning has led to increased interest in fast rule induction algorithms. These are able to efficiently process large numbers of examples, under the constraint of still achieving good accuracy. If e is the number of examples, many rule learners have {Theta}(e{sup 4}) asymptotic time complexity in noisy domains, and C4.5RULES has been empirically observed to sometimes require {Theta}(e{sup 4}) time. Recent advances have brought this bound down to {Theta}(e log{sup 2} e), while maintaining accuracy at the level of C4.5RULES`s. Ideally, we would like to have an algorithm capable of inducing accurate rules in time linear in e, without becoming too expensive in other factors. This extended abstract presents such an algorithm.

  11. Generalisation of the Ostwald's rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisimov, M. P.; Petrova-Bogdanova, O. O.

    2013-05-01

    More than century ago, Ostwald (1897) [1] manifested a rule, which, according his assumption, was a general principle for any process in nature. The rule was formulated by Ostwald and named as a rule of stages with is giving a formation sequence of different phases. Schmelzer et al. [2] generalized this rule of stages for nucleation. In the present research the dynamics of phase transformations is considered using the recent idea (Anisimov et al. [3]) for a semiempirical design of the nucleation rate surfaces. The current generalization of the Ostwald's rule for the formation sequences of phases is proved on the basis of common results on nucleation studies. It is very natural to think that any new phase formation (not prohibited by thermodynamic constrains) can be realized for each channel of phase transformation even the probability of some kind of the new phases is low. The relative efficiency of each channel can be dramatically changed when parameters of process are varied.

  12. An Introduction to Eye Safety. General Metals I, Lesson Plan No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higa, Floyd

    Designed for a 110-hour general metals course, this lesson plan presents an introduction to eye safety, including a brief guided imagery prelude, an overview of the lesson, an overview of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) rules and regulations regarding eye and face…

  13. Pattern perception and computational complexity: introduction to the special issue

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research on pattern perception and rule learning, grounded in formal language theory (FLT) and using artificial grammar learning paradigms, has exploded in the last decade. This approach marries empirical research conducted by neuroscientists, psychologists and ethologists with the theory of computation and FLT, developed by mathematicians, linguists and computer scientists over the last century. Of particular current interest are comparative extensions of this work to non-human animals, and neuroscientific investigations using brain imaging techniques. We provide a short introduction to the history of these fields, and to some of the dominant hypotheses, to help contextualize these ongoing research programmes, and finally briefly introduce the papers in the current issue. PMID:22688630

  14. Pattern perception and computational complexity: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    Research on pattern perception and rule learning, grounded in formal language theory (FLT) and using artificial grammar learning paradigms, has exploded in the last decade. This approach marries empirical research conducted by neuroscientists, psychologists and ethologists with the theory of computation and FLT, developed by mathematicians, linguists and computer scientists over the last century. Of particular current interest are comparative extensions of this work to non-human animals, and neuroscientific investigations using brain imaging techniques. We provide a short introduction to the history of these fields, and to some of the dominant hypotheses, to help contextualize these ongoing research programmes, and finally briefly introduce the papers in the current issue.

  15. Introduction to Drywall. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of drywall is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  16. Introduction to Sheet Metal. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of sheet metal is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in…

  17. Introduction to Drywall. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of drywall is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  18. A history of slide rules for blackbody radiation computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-10-01

    During the Second World War the importance of utilizing detection devices capable of operating in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was firmly established. Up until that time, laboriously constructed tables for blackbody radiation needed to be used in calculations involving the amount of radiation radiated within a given spectral region or for other related radiometric quantities. To rapidly achieve reasonably accurate calculations of such radiometric quantities, a blackbody radiation calculator was devised in slide rule form first in Germany in 1944 and soon after in England and the United States. In the immediate decades after its introduction, the radiation slide rule was widely adopted and recognized as a useful and important tool for engineers and scientists working in the infrared field. It reached its pinnacle in the United States in 1970 in a rule introduced by Electro Optical Industries, Inc. With the onset in the latter half of the 1970s of affordable, hand-held electronic calculators, the impending demise of the radiation slide rule was evident. No longer the calculational device of choice, the radiation slide rule all but disappeared within a few short years. Although today blackbody radiation calculations can be readily accomplished using anything from a programmable pocket calculator upwards, with each device making use of a wide variety of numerical approximations to the integral of Planck's function, radiation slide rules were in the early decades of infrared technology the definitive "workhorse" for those involved in infrared systems design and engineering. This paper presents a historical development of radiation slide rules with many versions being discussed.

  19. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  20. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...-Advertising (``MAP-Ad'') Rule and the Mortgage Assistance Relief Services (``MARS'') Rule. \\20\\ Omnibus... Commission is rescinding its MAP-Ad and MARS rules. The CFPB republished these rules on an interim final... The MARS Rule addresses the practices of entities (other than mortgage servicers) who offer...

  1. English Stress Rules and Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that compares Chomsky and Halle's main stress rule with Guierre's stress rules to discover which rules lead to the same word stress replacement that native speakers would give to totally unfamiliar words. Only five of Chomsky and Halle's rules were as consistently followed as Guierre's suffix rules. (SED)which+that

  2. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  3. Revisions to direct fee payment rules. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-01-06

    We are adopting, with two revisions, our interim final rules that implemented amendments to the Social Security Act (Act) made by the Social Security Disability Applicants' Access to Professional Representation Act of 2010 (PRA). The interim final rules made permanent the direct fee payment rules for eligible non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act and for attorney representatives under title XVI of the Act. They also revised some of our eligibility policies for non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act. Based on public comment and subsequent inquiries, we are revising our rules to clarify that an eligible non-attorney representative's liability insurance policy must include malpractice coverage. We are also reaffirming that a business entity legally permitted to provide the required insurance in the States in which the non-attorney representative conducts business must underwrite the policies.

  4. Kappa rule-based modeling in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kanamori, John; Danos, Vincent; Thomson, Ty; Honorato-Zimmer, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Rule-based modeling, an alternative to traditional reaction-based modeling, allows us to intuitively specify biological interactions while abstracting from the underlying combinatorial complexity. One such rule-based modeling formalism is Kappa, which we introduce to readers in this chapter. We discuss the application of Kappa to three modeling scenarios in synthetic biology: a unidirectional switch based on nitrosylase induction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the repressilator in Escherichia coli formed from BioBrick parts, and a light-mediated extension to said repressilator developed by the University of Edinburgh team during iGEM 2010. The second and third scenarios in particular form a case-based introduction to the Kappa BioBrick Framework, allowing us to systematically address the modeling of devices and circuits based on BioBrick parts in Kappa. Through the use of these examples, we highlight the ease with which Kappa can model biological interactions both at the genetic and the protein-protein interaction level, resulting in detailed stochastic models accounting naturally for transcriptional and translational resource usage. We also hope to impart the intuitively modular nature of the modeling processes involved, supported by the introduction of visual representations of Kappa models. Concluding, we explore future endeavors aimed at making modeling of synthetic biology more user-friendly and accessible, taking advantage of the strengths of rule-based modeling in Kappa.

  5. The Dimensions of Maltreatment: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Diana J.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue includes an introduction and seven papers exploring dimensions of maltreatment including type, severity, chronicity, and substantiation status of referrals to CPS, utilizing a subsample of the LONGSCAN studies. Each paper examines one of the dimensions of maltreatment from various perspectives to determine if different…

  6. Pedagogical Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, T

    2004-09-27

    Extra dimensions provide a new window on a number of problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides an introduction to this very broad subject aimed at experimental graduate students and post-docs based on a lecture given at the 2004 SLAC Summer Institute.

  7. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  8. Introduction to the Special Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1986-01-01

    Presents a special series of seven articles dealing with biopsychosocial oncology, the role of psychology in cancer treatment. Includes an introduction by Lizette Peterson and articles by Thomas Burish and Michael Carey, Susan Jay et al., Shelley Taylor et al., David Cella and Susan Tross, Gerald Koocher, and Leonard Derogatis. (KS)

  9. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  10. AN INTRODUCTION TO A CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS SERVES AS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER'S JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM. IN ADDITION TO A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM AND OUTLINES OF THE AVERAGE AND HONORS CURRICULA, THE FOLLOWING PAPERS ARE INCLUDED--(1) "THE THEME-CONCEPT UNIT IN LITERATURE," (2) "APPROACHES TO MEANING--A…

  11. Introduction to the Special Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1986-01-01

    Presents a special series of seven articles dealing with biopsychosocial oncology, the role of psychology in cancer treatment. Includes an introduction by Lizette Peterson and articles by Thomas Burish and Michael Carey, Susan Jay et al., Shelley Taylor et al., David Cella and Susan Tross, Gerald Koocher, and Leonard Derogatis. (KS)

  12. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  13. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    The compaction algorithm This section defines mathematically the problem of compaction with auto- matk jog introduction, and presents a practical...t(5) of potential cuts of S, and usng their mutability cmndi to constrain the positiokn of modulo in S. The proof that this technique gen - erates a

  14. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford; Preston, Daniel N.

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  15. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  16. Introduction to Computing Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…

  17. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology.

  18. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  19. Introduction: The Computer After Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Jeremy

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computer Awareness in Science Fiction * Computer Awareness and Self-Awareness * How many senses does a computer have? * Does a computer know that it is a computer? * Does metal know when it is weakening? * Why Does Computer Awareness Matter? * Chapter Overviews * Summary and Conclusions

  20. The Lisbon Agenda: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lice, Anita; Striedinger, Angelika; Scholz, Christine; Mac Sithigh, Daithi; Fenech, Justin; Miklavic, Klemen; Geven, Koen; Stambolieva, Marija; Haslinger, Susi

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is an introduction to Lisbon Agenda and it is presented as a basis for ESIB's (The National Unions of Students in Europe) concerted work on the European Union's all-embracing strategy that is changing the parameters of the education systems. The reason for the existence of this handbook is the necessity to coordinate the work on all…