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Sample records for rules introduction breeze

  1. Land-Breeze Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The nocturnal land breeze at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) is both operationally significant and challenging to forecast. The occurrence and timing of land breezes impact low-level winds, atmospheric stability, low temperatures, and fog development. Accurate predictions of the land breeze are critical for toxic material dispersion forecasts associated with space launch missions, since wind direction and low-level stability can change noticeably with the onset of a land breeze. This report presents a seven-year observational study of land breezes over east-central Florida from 1995 to 2001. This comprehensive analysis was enabled by the high-resolution tower observations over KSC/CCAFS. Five-minute observations of winds, temperature, and moisture along with 9 15-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler data were used to analyze specific land-breeze cases, while the tower data were used to construct a composite climatology. Utilities derived from this climatology were developed to assist forecasters in determining the land-breeze occurrence, timing, and movement based on predicted meteorological conditions.

  2. Radar observations of land breeze fronts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. H.

    1971-01-01

    Description of a radar-observed apparent land breeze front 12 to 14 n mi off the coast of Wallops Island, Va. Accompanying meteorological data show the land breeze at the shore to be a layer of cold air less than 300 ft deep moving seaward at approximately 2 knots. The radar observations show the land breeze vertical frontal surface sloping landward at about 20 deg, with convection over the warm water increasing the layer thickness to 2000 ft near the frontal zone. The radar-observed horizontal frontal surface is a sharp scalloped line echo in the lower 1000 ft, but becomes diffuse above. As the local circulation during daylight hours changes to a sea breeze, the land breeze front recedes toward land and dissipates.

  3. Solar breeze power package and saucer ship

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, S. E.

    1985-11-12

    A solar breeze power package having versatile sail and windmast options useful both on land and sea and especially useful in the saucer ship type design. The Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) of the several Darrieus designs in conjunction with roll-up or permanently mounted solar cells combine in a hybrid or are used separately to provide power to a battery bank or other storage device.

  4. An observational study of the summer Mediterranean Sea breeze front penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naor, R.; Potchter, O.; Shafir, H.; Alpert, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean summer sea breeze front (SBF) climatic features of penetration into the complex topography of the Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) were investigated. It was shown that the SBF penetration into the JRV occurs in a well-defined chronological order from north to south. One exception to this general rule is the breeze penetration of Sdom, which occurs after it has penetrated the Arava which is located further south, probably due to the micro-climatic effect of the Dead Sea. It was also noted that the breeze increases the local specific humidity as it reaches the JRV in spite of significant temperature increases. The temperature reaches its daily peak 2 to 3 h later in the southern valley compared to the northern valley and is suggested to be due to the later SBF penetration and the valley structure. The pre-SBF line features in the JRV are described.

  5. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to a special issue of the journal General and Comparative Endocrinology dedicated to Insect Endocrinology. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequences ...

  6. A Climatology of the Sea Breeze at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-28

    interaction near the sea coast to time and location of air-mass showers . J. Meteor ., 11, 507-511. Guillory, A. R. and G. J. Jedlovec, 1994: A mesoscale...the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor ., 32, 116-125. Atkins, N. T., R. M. Wakimoto and T. M. Weckwerth, 1995: Observations of the sea- breeze front during...of the influence of large-scale winds on the sea-breeze-and inland-breeze-type circulations. J. Appl. Meteor ., 30, 1268-1279. Blanchard, D. 0. and R

  7. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction to the second edition of the Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases contains a general description of genus and species of commercial importance, some general information about growth and fruiting habits as well as recent production statistics. A general description of major scion c...

  8. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Lily A.; Harris, Leonard A.; Faeder, James R.; Hlavacek, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions.

  9. Modeling for (physical) biologists: an introduction to the rule-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Chylek, Lily A; Harris, Leonard A; Faeder, James R; Hlavacek, William S

    2015-01-01

    Models that capture the chemical kinetics of cellular regulatory networks can be specified in terms of rules for biomolecular interactions. A rule defines a generalized reaction, meaning a reaction that permits multiple reactants, each capable of participating in a characteristic transformation and each possessing certain, specified properties, which may be local, such as the state of a particular site or domain of a protein. In other words, a rule defines a transformation and the properties that reactants must possess to participate in the transformation. A rule also provides a rate law. A rule-based approach to modeling enables consideration of mechanistic details at the level of functional sites of biomolecules and provides a facile and visual means for constructing computational models, which can be analyzed to study how system-level behaviors emerge from component interactions. PMID:26178138

  10. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  11. Numerical Studies of the Georgia Coast Sea Breeze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-09

    measured the height and strength of the sea breeze from a manned hot-air balloon over Coney Island , New York for a two week period in July and August...Meteor., 34, 1739-1761. Sherman, 0. T., 1880: Observations on the height of land and sea breezes, taken at Coney Island . Amer. J. Sci., 119, 300-302. Staff...breeze front at each hour. SAV is Savannah; SVN is Hunter Army Airfield; SSI is Saint Simons Island ; NEA is Brunswick; and LIY is Ft Stewart. From W

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, Luigi

    This chapter introduces the context, objectives and structure of the book. This book aims both to contribute to disseminate the knowledge about the scientific research conducted in space and to promote new exploitation of existing data in this field. While space experiments are characterised by a long time for preparation, high costs and few opportunities, significant scientific value is expected from the resulting data for almost scientific disciplines. In this context, ISS is a unique experimental environment for research. As part of its Seventh Framework Programme, the European Commission intends to support further exploitation and valorisation of space experimental data. This book was realised as part of the ULISSE project, co-funded by the European Union. The book intends to provide an introduction to space research with a focus on the experiments performed on the ISS and related disciplines. The book also intends to be a useful guide, not only for scientists but also for teachers, students and newcomers to space research activities.

  13. Cosmic rays in a galactic breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew M.; Giacinti, Gwenael

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the discovery of the nonthermal Fermi bubble features both below and above the Galactic plane, we investigate a scenario in which these bubbles are formed through galacto-centric outflow. Cosmic rays (CR) both diffusing and advecting within a galactic breeze outflow, interacting with the ambient gas present, give rise to γ -ray emission, providing an approximately flat surface brightness profile of this emission, as observed. Applying the same outflow profile further out within the disk, the resultant effects on the observable CR spectral properties are determined. A hardening in the spectra due to the competition of advective and diffusive propagation within a particular energy range is noted, even in the limiting case of equal CR diffusion coefficients in the disk and halo. It is postulated that this hardening effect may relate to the observed hardening feature in the CR spectrum at a rigidity of ≈200 GV .

  14. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking southeast down the breeze ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking southeast down the breeze way that connects B Building to H Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  15. Mesoscale Modeling of the Inland Nocturnal Sea Breeze

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.J.; Buckley, R.L.

    1995-09-12

    The mesoscale sea breeze has important consequences for many densely populated coastal environments, including convection initiation, aviation safety, and air quality. The sea breeze characteristics before and after sunset are markedly different (Sha et al 1993). A gravity current will form during the early afternoon due to the relatively large density difference between the land and sea air. During the afternoon, as the lighter land air is forced upward by the cooler dense sea air, Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) billows often form along the interface, as well as thin regions of turbulent rising air, playing a crucial role in the mixing process (Simpson 1994). After sunset, the frontal zone expands as longwave radiation cools the surface which reduces vertical mixing. With further inland penetration, the sea breeze encounters increasingly stable air near the ground, resulting in the formation of an undular bore or cutoff vortex (Sha et al. 1993). It has been demonstrated that large-scale winds have profound effects on both the strength and inland penetration of sea breezes (Arritt 1993, among others). In general, offshore flow results in a sharper frontal discontinuity and less inland penetration, while onshore flow produces weaker fronts which may penetrate further inland. Most sea breeze studies have focused on its more dramatic daytime properties near the coast whereas inland nocturnal sea breezes have received much less attention. The reason for this neglect is a lack of good observational data in the boundary layer. Sha et al. (1991) note the necessity of high resolution data to capture the finer structures of the sea breeze. A unique opportunity to examine the nocturnal sea breeze became available at the Savannah River Site (SRS, located roughly 150 km from the Atlantic Ocean in southwestern South Carolina) during the Stable Boundary Layer Experiment (STABLE), 12-17 April, 1988. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  17. On the characteristics of sea breezes over Nigerian coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Omotosho, Bayo J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of sea breezes over the coastal region of Nigeria. While considerable attention has been paid to monsoon circulation over this coastal region, there is virtually no information in literature on sea breezes over the region. This study analyzed 5 years (1979-1983) data of hourly temperature and wind speed and direction from four coastal stations in Nigerian—Lagos, Warri, Port-Harcourt, and Calabar—in order to examine the characteristics of the sea breeze in the region. The results show that sea breeze usually started between 1000 and 1200 UTC, attained maximum strength of about 2-5 m s-1 in the afternoon around 1500-1600 UTC and subsided between 2000 and 2200 UTC. Consistent with maxima temperature contrast between land and sea, the maximum frequency of sea breeze occurs in February-May and September-November, with duration of about 11-13 h. The diurnal variation of wind vectors with time, portrayed by means of hodograph, shows that sea breeze rotates clockwise and anticlockwise over the region. We found that only the stations adjacent to bay demonstrate clockwise rotation during the day.

  18. Numerical simulation of breeze circulation over the Crimean peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Using the WRF-ARW model, we have conducted a numerical simulation of the atmospheric circulation in the Crimean region for a 30-day period in the summer. The characteristic features of the velocity fields of breeze circulation over Crimea have been identified. We have reproduced the specific features of the development of breeze as a gravity flow, such as the direct and indirect circulation cells, wave oscillations on the boundary between them associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and the formation of the breeze head. The breeze velocities and their diurnal cycle have been estimated. For mountainous regions of the southern coast of Crimea (SCC), we have shown that the coastal circulation is predominantly contributed by quasi-diurnal oscillations associated with the wind excitation on the mountain slopes. The physical conditions for the development of a strong katabatic wind have been considered. The counter breeze flows in eastern Crimea formed under the influence of the adjacent Black and Azov seas generate an intense air rise in the meeting zone. The related linear cloudiness area is clearly traced on satellite images. We have obtained daily hodographs of breeze circulation reflecting the local conditions of the shoreline and the configuration of coastal mountains.

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R

  20. A Dynamical Analysis of Sea Breeze Hodograph Rotation on Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, Nadya; Steyn, Douw

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of diurnal sea-breeze rotation over coastal Sardinia using realistic and idealized model runs and historical observations. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days. WRF accurately captures the sea breeze circulation on all coasts, as depicted in station data. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island of similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia, but with dramatically simplified topography. Dynamical analysis of the idealized runs reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  1. Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over glaciers are of great interest as they can modify the response of glacier mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the glacier ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over glacier surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of melt. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca Glacier, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the glacier ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in glacier ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-glacier winds were observed over the glacier. These winds extended well beyond the glacier into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-glacier profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the glacier surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-glacier winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the glacier. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling glacier mass balance.

  2. The Influence of Soil Moisture, Coastline Curvature, and Land-Breeze Circulations on Sea-Breeze Initiated Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David R.; Lynn, Barry H.; Boone, Aaron; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    Idealized numerical simulations are performed with a coupled atmosphere/land-surface model to identify the roles of initial soil moisture, coastline curvature, and land breeze circulations on sea breeze initiated precipitation. Data collected on 27 July 1991 during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CAPE) in central Florida are used. The 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) cloud resolving model is coupled with the Goddard Parameterization for Land-Atmosphere-Cloud Exchange (PLACE) land surface model, thus providing a tool to simulate more realistically land-surface/atmosphere interaction and convective initiation. Eight simulations are conducted with either straight or curved coast-lines, initially homogeneous soil moisture or initially variable soil moisture, and initially homogeneous horizontal winds or initially variable horizontal winds (land breezes). All model simulations capture the diurnal evolution and general distribution of sea-breeze initiated precipitation over central Florida. The distribution of initial soil moisture influences the timing, intensity and location of subsequent precipitation. Soil moisture acts as a moisture source for the atmosphere, increases the connectively available potential energy, and thus preferentially focuses heavy precipitation over existing wet soil. Strong soil moisture-induced mesoscale circulations are not evident in these simulations. Coastline curvature has a major impact on the timing and location of precipitation. Earlier low-level convergence occurs inland of convex coastlines, and subsequent precipitation occurs earlier in simulations with curved coastlines. The presence of initial land breezes alone has little impact on subsequent precipitation. however, simulations with both coastline curvature and initial land breezes produce significantly larger peak rain rates due to nonlinear interactions.

  3. Ocean breeze monitoring network at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1987-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located in New Jersey 10 km west of the Atlantic Ocean. Routine meteorological monitoring at the station has consisted of a single meteorological tower 120 m high and instrumented at the 10-m, 46-m, and 116-m levels. An analysis of 5 yr of data from this tower showed the OCNGS is affected by an ocean breeze approx. 1 day out of 4 during May through August. This suggested the need for meteorological monitoring in addition to the single met tower at OCNGS. As a result of the 1985 OCNGS meteorological monitoring study, GPU Nuclear established an ocean breeze monitoring network in the fall of 1986. It is a permanent part of OCNGS meteorological monitoring and consists of the same sites as used in the 1985 field study. Meteorological towers are located at the ocean site, the inland site, and at OCNGS. The ocean tower is 13 m (43 ft) high, the inland tower 10 m (33 ft), and the OCNGS tower 116 m (380 ft). Wind speed, wind direction, and temperature are measured on each tower; delta-temperature is also measured on the main tower. The instruments are calibrated in the spring, summer, and fall. The network is operated and maintained by GPU Nuclear Environmental Controls. The ocean breeze monitoring network and meteorological information system forms the basis for including the effects of the ocean breeze in OCNGS emergency off-site dose assessment.

  4. Sea breezes and advective effects in southwest James Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckendry, Ian; Roulet, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Observations from a transect extending 100 km inland during the Northern Wetlands Study (NOWES) in 1990 show that the sea breeze develops on approximately 25% of days during summer and may penetrate up to 100 km inland on occasions. The sea breeze exhibits a marked diurnal clockwise rotation as a result of the Coriolis effect along the unobstructed coastline. The marine advective effect is shown to depend on gradient wind direction. With northwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to be northeasterly in direction and is associated with decreased temperatures and vapor pressure deficits (VPD). With southwesterly upper level flow the sea breeze tends to have a southeasterly direction and less effect on temperatures and VPD. This is attributed to shorter residence times of air parcels over water. For two cases, Colorado State University mesoscale model simulations show good agreement with surface wind observations and suggest that under northwesterly gradient flow, Bowen ratios are increased in the onshore flow along western James Bay, while during southwesterly gradient flow these effects are negligible. These results have implications for the interpretation of local climate, ecology, and hydrology as well as land-based and airborne turbulent flux measurements made during NOWES.

  5. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze rotation over an island in the mid-latitudes. Earlier research on sea-breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anti-clockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously-studied sea-breeze days and is shown to accurately capture the circulation on all coasts. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined and patterns of clockwise and anti-clockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography, yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with complex topography and/or coastline.

  6. Dynamical analysis of sea-breeze hodograph rotation in Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisseeva, N.; Steyn, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the diurnal evolution of sea-breeze (SB) rotation over an island at the middle latitudes. Earlier research on sea breezes in Sardinia shows that the onshore winds around various coasts of the island exhibit both the theoretically predicted clockwise rotation as well as seemingly anomalous anticlockwise rotation. A non-hydrostatic fully compressible numerical model (WRF) is used to simulate wind fields on and around the island on previously studied sea-breeze days, and is shown to capture the circulation on all coasts accurately. Diurnal rotation of wind is examined, and patterns of clockwise and anticlockwise rotation are identified. A dynamical analysis is performed by extracting individual forcing terms from the horizontal momentum equations. Analysis of several regions around the island shows that the direction of rotation is a result of a complex interaction between near-surface and synoptic pressure gradient, Coriolis and advection forcings. An idealized simulation is performed over an artificial island with dramatically simplified topography yet similar dimensions and latitude to Sardinia. Dynamical analysis of the idealized case reveals a rather different pattern of hodograph rotation to the real Sardinia, yet similar underlying dynamics. The research provides new insights into the dynamics underlying sea-breeze hodograph rotation, especially in coastal zones with a complex topography and/or coastline.

  7. Land- and sea-surface impacts on local coastal breezes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.; Gilchrist, J.; Lodise, J.; Goldman, W.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Delaware has seen significant increases in population along the coastline in the past three decades. With this increase in population have come changes to the land surface, as forest and farmland has been converted to residential and commercial purposes, causing changes in the surface roughness, temperature, and land-atmosphere fluxes. There is also a semi-permanent upwelling center in the spring and summer outside the Delaware Bay mouth that significantly changes the structure of the sea surface temperature both inside and outside the Bay. Through a series of high resolution modeling and observational studies, we have determined that in cases of strong synoptic forcing, the impact of the land-surface on the boundary layer properties can be advected offshore, creating a false coastline and modifying the location and timing of the sea breeze circulation. In cases of weak synoptic forcing, the influence of the upwelling and the tidal circulation of the Delaware Bay waters can greatly change the location, strength, and penetration of the sea breeze. Understanding the importance of local variability in the surface-atmosphere interactions on the sea breeze can lead to improved prediction of sea breeze onset, penetration, and duration which is important for monitoring air quality and developing offshore wind power production.

  8. Operation of the breeze tunnel to determine mass extinction coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Sehmel, G.A.; Bonfante, R.; Catalano, E.; Rouse, W.G.; Banks, D.R.

    1993-06-01

    The breeze tunnel at the Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center (ERDEC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is a unique facility for determining the efficacy of released smoke/obscurants in flowing air as a function of controlling variables. Optimum material feed characteristics and generator operating conditions can be determined. The facility allows investigation of the effects of different generator operating variables, airborne concentrations, and airborne particle sizes on mass extinction coefficients. The breeze tunnel is now available for Department of Defense (DoD) trials. During trials in the breeze tunnel, obscurants have been released from the compact-disc-generator, the IR-Log generator, and the XM56 generator. Obscurant release rates have ranged from an instantaneous puff to a continuous release of 10 lb/min. Extinction can be measured in the visual, infrared, and millimeter ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum. Experimental conditions allow calculation of mass extinction coefficients as a function of generator variables, including material release rates. Average mass extinction coefficients address attenuation from obscurants, both single primary particles and aggregates.

  9. Inclusion of the ocean breeze in Oyster Creek emergency off-site dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.

    1986-01-01

    The Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (OCNGS) is located 6 mi west of the Atlantic Ocean. From spring through late summer, atmospheric transport in the vicinity of OCNGS is periodically affected by the ocean breeze. The ocean breeze produces large differences in wind direction within the OCNGS emergency planning zone during the morning to evening hours. In addition, trajectory reversals can occur near the ocean breeze front. These two characteristics of the ocean breeze must be taken into account when interpreting results from conventional atmospheric dispersion models. The purpose of the study was to determine the flow characteristics of the ocean breeze and to apply these characteristics to an emergency preparedness implementing procedure (EPIP). The EPIP would be used to determine the radiological plume impact region if an accidental release occurred during an ocean breeze.

  10. Impact of lake breezes on ozone and nitrogen oxides in the Greater Toronto Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, G. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.

    2015-05-01

    Meteorological and air quality datasets from summertime (May to September, 2010-2012) were analysed in order to assess the influence of lake-breeze circulations on pollutant levels in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). While previous estimates of the frequency of summer days experiencing lake breezes range between 25 and 32 % for the GTA, a simple algorithm using surface meteorological observations suggested Lake Ontario breezes occurred on 56% of summer days, whereas a more reliable multiplatform approach yielded a frequency of 74%. Data from five air quality stations across the GTA were used to compare air quality on days during which a lake-breeze circulation formed ("lake breeze days") versus days when one did not ("non-lake breeze days"). Average daytime O3 maxima were 13.6-14.8 ppb higher on lake breeze days relative to non-lake breeze days. Furthermore, the Ontario Ambient Air Quality Criteria (AAQC) for 1-h average O3 (80 ppb) and 8-h average O3 (65 ppb) were exceeded only on lake breeze days and occurred on a total of 30 and 54 days throughout the study period, respectively. A causal link between lake-breeze circulations and enhanced O3 was identified by examining several days in which only some of the air quality sites were inside the lake-breeze circulation. O3 mixing ratios at sites located within the circulation were at least 30 ppb higher than sites outside the circulation, despite similar temperatures, cloud conditions and synoptic regimes across the region. Rapid O3 increases were concurrent with the arrival of the lake-breeze front, suggesting O3-rich air from over the lake is being advected inland throughout the day. Lake-breeze circulations were found to have less impact on nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels. Morning NOx was greater on lake breeze days, probably due to the stagnant conditions favourable for lake breeze formation. During the late afternoon, only inland sites experience increased NOx on lake breeze days, likely as a result of being downwind

  11. A Numerical Study of Sea Breeze and Spatiotemporal Variation in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer at Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qian-Qian; Cai, Xu-Hui; Song, Yu; Kang, Ling

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations of sea breezes and the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) at Hainan Island, China during summer and winter are discussed. The different behaviour of sea breezes and the ABL on the leeward and windward sides of the island are examined, and it is found that offshore flows are more likely to create a strong sea-breeze signature, whereas the process of sea-breeze development under onshore flows is difficult to capture. At the location where the sea-breeze signal is remarkable, the height of the coastal ABL displays an abnormal decrease, corresponding to a transitional point from a continental ABL to a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formed under sea-breeze conditions. This is corroborated by the sudden increase in the water vapour mixing ratio and/or wind speed, indicating the arrival of the sea breeze. Regarding the spatial distribution, the TIBL height decreases abruptly just ahead of the sea-breeze front, and above the cold air mass. When the sea-breeze front occurs with a raised head, a cold air mass is separated from the sea-breeze flow and penetrates inland. This separation is attributed to the interaction between the sea breeze and valley breeze, while the dry airflow entraining to the sea-breeze flow may also partially contribute to this air mass separation.

  12. Accuracy of Wind Prediction Methods in the California Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumers, B. D.; Dvorak, M. J.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the accuracy of measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms and log law/power law scaling using data from two tall towers in coastal environments. We find that MCP algorithms accurately predict sea breeze winds and that log law/power law scaling methods struggle to predict 50-meter wind speeds. MCP methods have received significant attention as the wind industry has grown and the ability to accurately characterize the wind resource has become valuable. These methods are used to produce longer-term wind speed records from short-term measurement campaigns. A correlation is developed between the “target site,” where the developer is interested in building wind turbines, and a “reference site,” where long-term wind data is available. Up to twenty years of prior wind speeds are then are predicted. In this study, two existing MCP methods - linear regression and Mortimer’s method - are applied to predict 50-meter wind speeds at sites in the Salinas Valley and Redwood City, CA. The predictions are then verified with tall tower data. It is found that linear regression is poorly suited to MCP applications as the process produces inaccurate estimates of the cube of the wind speed at 50 meters. Meanwhile, Mortimer’s method, which bins data by direction and speed, is found to accurately predict the cube of the wind speed in both sea breeze and non-sea breeze conditions. We also find that log and power law are unstable predictors of wind speeds. While these methods produced accurate estimates of the average 50-meter wind speed at both sites, they predicted an average cube of the wind speed that was between 1.3 and 1.18 times the observed value. Inspection of time-series error reveals increased error in the mid-afternoon of the summer. This suggests that the cold sea breeze may disrupt the vertical temperature profile, create a stable atmosphere and violate the assumptions that allow log law scaling to work.

  13. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  14. Detection and Prediction of the Delaware Summertime Sea/Bay Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Bay/Sea Breeze is a thermally driven coastal circulation that has significant impacts along Delaware's coastline. The passage of a sea breeze front has a cooling effect which often moderates summer heat. Pollutants can be transported by a sea breeze circulation affecting air quality. In addition, this frequently occurring local circulation is strong enough and of enough vertical and horizontal extent to effect offshore wind turbines. The potential moderation of weather, air quality, and offshore wind resource all have significant environmental and economic impacts which are important to a coastal population which has nearly doubled in the last two decades. An analysis of weather radar (NEXRAD) images is used as an initial method for detecting a sea/bay breeze front. These case study days are then used to develop an objective sea breeze detection scheme based on changes in the observed conditions at twenty-one meteorological stations run by the Delaware Environmental Observing System and the National Data Buoy Center. Three distinct classes of sea breeze circulation (classic, dew-point and weak) are derived based on location, penetration distance, temperature drop, and time of onset. In general, based on nine years of data from 2000 to 2009, sea/bay breezes along the Delaware coast are found to occur in the summer 63% of the time at coastal stations and 20% at inland stations. These same data are used to develop a local sea breeze prediction scheme for the Delaware ocean coast. Details of the return flow and structure of the sea breeze at high spatial and temporal resolution are investigated using a regional atmospheric model, WRF. Characterization of Delaware's sea/bay breezes using multiple data sources and locations creates a more complete understating of the impact of this low-level circulation on the local climate, and will be useful in understanding how things may change in the future as local land-use and global climate changes.

  15. The impact of sea breeze under different synoptic patterns on air pollution within Athens basin.

    PubMed

    Mavrakou, Thaleia; Philippopoulos, Kostas; Deligiorgi, Despina

    2012-09-01

    Air quality in densely populated urban coastal areas is directly related to the coupling of the synoptic and the local scale flows. The dispersion conditions within Athens basin, under the influence of different meteorological forcings, lead to distinct spatio-temporal air pollution patterns. The aim of the current observational research is to identify and examine the effect of sea breeze under different atmospheric circulation patterns on air pollution levels for a one-year study period (2007). The study employs surface pressure maps, routine meteorological observations at two coastal sites and nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) concentrations from a network of four air quality stations within the Athens basin. A three-step methodology is applied that incorporates a set of criteria for classifying atmospheric circulation and identifying sea breeze events under each circulation pattern. Two types of sea breeze development are identified (pure sea breeze-PSB and modified sea breeze-MSB) with distinct characteristics. Sea breeze is found to develop more frequently under offshore compared to onshore and parallel to the shoreline background flows. Poor dispersion conditions (high nitrogen oxides-NO(x) and O(3) concentrations) are connected to the pure sea breeze cases and to those cases where sea breeze interacts with a moderate northerly flow during the warm period. The levels of NO(x) and O(3) for the northern Athens basin area are found to be significantly higher during the sea breeze days compared to the Etesian days. Regarding the diurnal variation of ozone for the sea breeze days, peak concentrations and higher intra-daily ranges are observed. Day-to-day pollution accumulation (build-up effect) is measured for O(3) at the northern stations in the Athens basin.

  16. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  17. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, C. J.; Dorling, S. R.; von Glasow, R.; Bacon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s-1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s-1) conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be considered in order to improve the accuracy of both assessments of the offshore wind energy climate and

  18. Sea breeze-induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between thunderstorm activity during the summer months along coastal regions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the dry sea breeze circulation was investigated. Satellite composites of thunderstorm activity for synoptically undisturbed conditions have been obtained for south Florida for a series of days in the summer of 1983. These data were catalogued into different low level synoptic flow regimes. Five synoptic flow regimes were found from the data. A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model was used for each sysnoptic flow regime to quantitatively predict the location of enhanced thunderstorm activity. This model includes a parameterization of vegetation and soil moisture feedbacks as well as a sophisticated planetary boundary layer representation. Using the results of the satellite image composites, spatial and temporal characteristics of deep convective cloud patterns and their variation with synoptic flow are described. The results from the numerical model have provided explanations for the observed patterns.

  19. The Relationship Between Sea Breeze Forcing and HF Radar-Derived Surface Currents in Monterey Bay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    counter clockwise GARP GEMPAK Analysis and Rendering Program GEMPAK General Meteorology Package HF high frequency MBARI Monterey Bay Aquarium Research...Ocean Dynamics Application Radar (CODAR), Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI), and a 915 MHz wind profiler along the Monterey Bay coast...weak land breeze. In Hendrickson and MacMahan’s study (2009) they pointed out that “[d]uring sea breeze cross-shore exchange of material seems to

  20. The Nature of The Propagation of Sea Breeze Fronts in Central California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    if necessary and identify by block number) F.e.d Group [Subgroup LASBEX, Lidar , Sodar 19 Abstract (contimue on re.crse if necessary and identify by...Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) provided a series of meteorological observations including sodar. lidar . ra% insonde. radiosonde and surface...1987, the Land/Sea Breeze Experiment (LASBEX) provided a series of meteorological observations including sodar, lidar , rawinsonde, radiosonde and

  1. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  2. An observational and numerical study of the sea breeze in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ander Arrillaga, Jon; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The sea breeze and its characteristics are well studied in the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, but not so in the Cantabrian coast, perhaps due to a lower prevalence of stable synoptic conditions during the summer period. However, it was found that the sea breeze was one of the main drivers of pollution episodes in the industrialised metropolitan area of Bilbao. In addition, an accurate prediction of this mesoscale phenomenon is fundamental for forecasting hot spells with predominant southerly gradient winds, especially in the eastern half of the Cantabrian Sea, during which can be recorded up to 40 °C close to the shore. In this work, an automated method is used for selecting sea breeze days [1], based in 6 filters that evaluate the observed synoptic and surface conditions in the Eastern Cantabrian, provided by the Basque and Spanish meteorological agencies. The main objective is to make an observational and numerical analysis of this phenomenon in the aforementioned region, focusing on the predictability of the Sea Breeze Index (SBI) [2] and the evolution of turbulent parameters such as the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE). Numerical simulations are performed using the mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecast (WRF). The selection method fails filtering a non-sea-breeze day owing to a shift hint in the wind direction, which is predominantly southerly making temperature reach around 40 °C in one of the meteorological stations. This day is simulated both with and without updating the Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The latter simulation leads to a more unrealistic situation. Furthermore, the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height evolution given by the model is compared for a sea breeze and a non-sea-breeze day, concluding that the establishment of a maritime flux results in a lower diffusive capacity in the lower atmosphere, which would lead to a higher concentration of pollutants close to the surface. It is also found that the cause of the

  3. Ground-Based Observations of the Thermodynamic and Kinematic Properties of Lake-Breeze Fronts in Southern Manitoba, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Michelle; Hanesiak, John; Kehler, Scott; Sills, David M. L.; Taylor, Neil M.

    2017-04-01

    The "Effects of Lake Breezes on Weather in Manitoba" project was conducted during 6-24 July 2013 to better understand local lake-breeze characteristics. Data were collected using a variety of platforms including Doppler wind lidar, rawinsondes, Doppler radar, surface meteorological stations, and a mobile weather station. The spatial and temporal variability of thermodynamic and kinematic characteristics of lake-breeze fronts are presented for three cases. Lake-breeze frontal passages were characterized by an average increase in dew point of 2.5°C and decrease in temperature of 0.5°C. The lake-breeze front width varied significantly over multiple measurements and cases, ranging between 50 and 800 m. The depth of the lake-breeze circulation varied between 100 and 700 m. Vertical velocities were measured at the lake-breeze front using lidar, with upward velocities of 2-3 m s^{-1} and small downward velocities of magnitude 0.5 m s^{-1} behind the front. These observations of lake-breeze fronts in southern Manitoba contribute both to the local and broader understanding of the variability (temporally and spatially) of inland shallow lake breezes.

  4. Sea/land breeze climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, M. Telišman; Grisogono, B.

    2007-11-01

    Climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast have been examined for nine meteorological stations for the summertime sea/land breeze circulation. The stations considered are Pula-airport, Opatija, Rijeka, Senj, Malinska, Rijeka-airport, Mali Lošinj, Rab and Zadar. The hourly surface measurements at each station from June to September for the period 1991 2004 as well as the radiosoundings in Zadar (from 2002 to 2004) were used for the analysis. A dataset with the sea/land breeze days was formed according to the several criteria. The mean daily maxima of both air and sea surface temperatures were more influenced by the large scale disturbances toward north (e.g. in Rijeka or Opatija) compared to the values for e.g. Zadar. Furthermore, the influence of the large scale disturbances diminished toward the south concerning the sea land temperature difference only at the stations placed at Rijeka Bay and Velebit channel. The strongest sea breeze was found at Pula-airport and the most frequent ones at Opatija and Zadar. At Senj the rarest, the weakest and the shortest sea breeze was observed. The climatological records of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference (Δ T) showed for Opatija, Malinska and Zadar that the maximum measured wind speed is around 4.5 °C confirming the nonlinear relationship between the sea breeze speeds and the Δ T during the day. At most stations, the clockwise rotation of the hodographs prevails which is typical for the Northern hemisphere due to Coriolis force, with the exception at Senj and Malinska. While the hodographs for Pula, Rijeka-airport and Mali Lošinj display a later onset of the prevailing sea breeze because of the interaction among several sea breeze circulations, the results for Opatija, Zadar and Senj show considerably distorted hodographs because of the nearby channeling of the air flow.

  5. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Möbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ∼7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ∼19° from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the

  6. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  7. Flow vector, Mach number and abundance of the Warm Breeze of neutral He observed by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; McComas, David; Galli, Andre; Kucharek, Harald; Wurz, Peter; Schwadron, Nathan; Sokol, Justyna M.; Bzowski, Maciej; Heirtzler, David M.; Möbius, Eberhard; Fuselier, Stephen; Swaczyna, Paweł; Leonard, Trevor; Park, Jeewoo

    2016-07-01

    With the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He recently obtained with high precision from a coordinated analysis by the IBEX Science Team, we analyzed the IBEX observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the interstellar neutral observation seasons 2010---2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze persists. The Warm Breeze is a newly discovered population of neutral He in the heliosphere. We search for the inflow velocity vector and the temperature of the Warm Breeze and used the same simulation model and a very similar parameter fitting method to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximate the parent population of the Warm Breeze in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and find a temperature of ~9 500 K, an inflow speed of ~11.3 km/s, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.6°, 12.0°. The abundance of the Warm Breeze relative to the interstellar neutral He is 5.6% and the Mach number of the flow is 1.97. We discuss implications of this result for the heliospheric physics and an insight into the behavior of interstellar plasma in the outer heliosheath.

  8. Sea-breeze over area of Kattegat as a mean of transport for atmospheric nutrient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissen, J. N.; Zagar, M. Z.

    2003-04-01

    SEA BREEZE CIRCULATION OVER AREA OF KATTEGAT AS A MEAN OF TRANSPORT FOR ATMOSPHERIC NUTRIENT J.Nissen and Mark Zagar Risø National Laboratory (DK). Wind Energy Department Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University Here a study of sea breeze circulation in the Kattegat Sea between Denmark and Sweden is presented. In the study the structure and circulations path in the thermal internal boundary layer occurring over Jutland and southwestern part of Sweden at hot summer days is described. A divergent wind field is observed at surface level and a convergent field is observed at the upper layer and an anticyclonic circulation with associated subsidence is set up over the colder water. The hypothesis is that the subsidence from the two sea breeze cells creates a narrow region over central part of Kattegat where nitrogen containing air originating from the agricultural areas in Denmark and Sweden are brought down to the water surface and thus can increase nitrogen deposition in this very narrow area. Hence making the sea breeze circulation one of the meteorological processes that can cause an episodic deposition event. A case study of a sea breeze episode in august 2000 is undertaken where data analyses is carried out by using a model run of COAMPS and evaluate towards experimental chemical and meteorological data

  9. A theoretical study of urban breeze-mountain wind interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mango Seo, Jaemyeong; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The interactions of urban breeze circulation with mountain slope winds are theoretically examined in a linear system that includes mountain mechanical forcing and non-zero basic-state wind. Flows induced by urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing are linearly superposed. Thermally induced asymmetric circulations in the presence of non-zero basic-state wind result in distinct flow patterns depending on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area. In the cases of the urban area being located on the downstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind induced by urban heating interacts with diverging (converging) flow from the mountain area in the nighttime (daytime). In the cases with the urban area being located on the upstream of the mountain area, strong positive near-surface horizontal wind is restricted in the urban area. Mountain mechanical forcing enhances downslope winds on the both sides of the mountain and updraft (downdraft) upstream (downstream) of the mountain. Sensitivities of the interactions to mountain height and basic-state wind speed are also examined. The vertical flux of horizontal momentum is analyzed by dividing the total momentum flux into five components. While terms that are related to flow induced by urban heating are dominant in the daytime, interaction terms that are related to flows induced by two thermal sources and by thermal and mechanical sources play important roles over the rest of times. Moreover, the total momentum flux is dependent on the location of the urban area relative to the mountain area and basic-state wind speed.

  10. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  11. Breezes Along the Coast of Tamaulipas, Northeastern Mexico: Contribution to the Wind Energy Potencial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, J. M.; Rivas, D.

    2012-12-01

    The near-surface wind along the coast of northeastern Mexico and western Gulf of Mexico, with emphasis on the breeze regime, is characterized. Wind data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the period from 2000 to 2010 are used, which are validated by comparison with surface in-situ observations (weather stations). The validation shows a good agreement between the NARR product and the observations. The preliminary results show that the diurnal frequency associated with breezes has a significant contribution to the variability of the wind in the study area. This suggests that the breeze regime can be important for the wind power generation, and given the extensive coastal plain of Tamaulipas, the implementation of electricity-generation prototypes in the area is possible.

  12. 78 FR 62300 - Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding, of Prairie Breeze Wind Energy LLC's application for...

  13. Interaction of a cold front with a sea-breeze front Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brümmer, B.; Hennemuth, B.; Rhodin, A.; Thiemann, S.

    1995-08-01

    On 9 May 1989, during the field experiment FRONTEX, a synoptic-scale cold front was observed which moved from the North Sea to Northern Germany and interacted with a sea-breeze front. The modification of the cold front is documented by satellite images and measurements over the sea, at the coast and further inland. The synoptic-scale front was characterized by weak frontal gradients over the sea. It was aligned approximately parallel to the coast as was approximately the wind ahead of it. While the synoptic-scale front approached the coast during the forenoon hours, a strong temperature contrast developed between sea and land due to solar heating of the land surface. This led to the formation of a sea-breeze front associated with a stronger temperature gradient than the synoptic-scale front. At about noon, when the synoptic-scale front almost reached the coast, the sea-breeze front began to move inland. The onshore wind behind the sea-breeze front and ahead of the synoptic-scale front was so large that the wind field at the synoptic-scale front changed from confluence to difluence. This process was supported by a shallow inversion ahead of the synoptic-scale front which confined the vertical depth of the sea-breeze. The former sea-breeze front overtook the main frontal characteristics, continued its inland propagation and was the only frontal event observed over the land. As a result of the interaction, the synoptic-scale front was significantly intensified in the boundary layer.

  14. The lake breeze-ground-level ozone connection in eastern Wisconsin: a climatological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennartson, G. Jay; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2002-09-01

    The Lake Michigan Air Quality Region (LMAQR) experiences exceedances of the 1 h health standard for ozone numerous times each summer. Previous short-term investigations have revealed that the lake breeze circulation is connected with very high levels of ozone in eastern Wisconsin (EWI). Findings from one of the more recent short-term research efforts have led to the development of a generalized conceptual model that details the role that the lake breeze circulation plays in transporting ozone-rich air of the Lake Michigan conduction layer onshore to EWI. Short-term studies, however, are limited by the small number of cases examined. To understand the ozone-lake breeze relationship from a climatological perspective, we analysed the spatial and temporal pattern of 1 h ozone exceedances in EWI during the months of May through to September, over the period 1985-99. Further, we used Laird et al.'s recently developed technique for discriminating lake breeze days to determine which exceedance-days over the period of our climatology occurred in association with lake breezes.Our results show: (1) a decrease in both magnitude and frequency of exceedances of the 1 h ozone standard in EWI with increasing distance from the lakeshore; (2) a positive correlation between average onset time of the initial exceedance-hour and a site's distance from Lake Michigan; (3) a very high percentage of initial exceedance-hours occurring in association with southeasterly surface air flow; and (4) exceedances occurring in association with lake breezes 82.1% of the time at near-shore sites.Collectively, our findings provide strong evidence that the lake breeze circulation is closely associated with the distribution of ozone in EWI in both space and time. Moreover, our results show that the lake breeze circulation is directly associated with a significant proportion of the exceedances of the 1 h ozone standard in EWI-particularly at near-shore sites. Thus, mandated reductions in regional

  15. Impact of Bay-Breeze Circulations on Surface Air Quality and Boundary Layer Export

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Follette-Cook, Melanie; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Goldberg, Daniel; Satam, Chinmay; Weinheimer, Andrew; Crawford, James H.; Knapp, David J.; Montzka, Denise D.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological and air-quality model simulations are analyzed alongside observations to investigate the role of the Chesapeake Bay breeze on surface air quality, pollutant transport, and boundary layer venting. A case study was conducted to understand why a particular day was the only one during an 11-day ship-based field campaign on which surface ozone was not elevated in concentration over the Chesapeake Bay relative to the closest upwind site and why high ozone concentrations were observed aloft by in situ aircraft observations. Results show that southerly winds during the overnight and early-morning hours prevented the advection of air pollutants from the Washington, D.C., and Baltimore, Maryland, metropolitan areas over the surface waters of the bay. A strong and prolonged bay breeze developed during the late morning and early afternoon along the western coastline of the bay. The strength and duration of the bay breeze allowed pollutants to converge, resulting in high concentrations locally near the bay-breeze front within the Baltimore metropolitan area, where they were then lofted to the top of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Near the top of the PBL, these pollutants were horizontally advected to a region with lower PBL heights, resulting in pollution transport out of the boundary layer and into the free troposphere. This elevated layer of air pollution aloft was transported downwind into New England by early the following morning where it likely mixed down to the surface, affecting air quality as the boundary layer grew.

  16. Bay breeze influence on surface ozone at Edgewood, MD during July 2011.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M; Martins, Douglas K; Clark, Richard D; Goldberg, Daniel L; Loughner, Christopher P; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R; Stehr, Jeffrey W; Tzortziou, Maria A

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4°, lon: -76.3°) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be

  17. Bay Breeze Influence on Surface Ozone at Edgewood, MD During July 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Ryan M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Martins, Douglas K.; Clark, Richard D.; Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Delgado, Ruben; Dickerson, Russell R.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Tzortziou, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was analyzed to investigate the role of the bay breeze on air quality at two locations in Edgewood, Maryland (lat: 39.4deg, lon: -76.3deg) for the month of July 2011. Measurements were taken as part of the first year of NASA's "Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality" (DISCOVER-AQ) Earth Venture campaign and as part of NASA's Geostationary for Coastal and Air Pollution Events Chesapeake Bay Oceanographic campaign with DISCOVER-AQ (Geo-CAPE CBODAQ). Geo-CAPE CBODAQ complements DISCOVER-AQ by providing ship-based observations over the Chesapeake Bay. A major goal of DISCOVER-AQ is determining the relative roles of sources, photochemistry and local meteorology during air quality events in the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Surface characteristics, transport and vertical structures of O3 during bay breezes were identified using in-situ surface, balloon and aircraft data, along with remote sensing equipment. Localized late day peaks in O3 were observed during bay breeze days, maximizing an average of 3 h later compared to days without bay breezes. Of the 10 days of July 2011 that violated the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 8 h O3 standard of 75 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at Edgewood, eight exhibited evidence of a bay breeze circulation. The results indicate that while bay breezes and the processes associated with them are not necessary to cause exceedances in this area, bay breezes exacerbate poor air quality that sustains into the late evening hours at Edgewood. The vertical and horizontal distributions of O3 from the coastal Edgewood area to the bay also show large gradients that are often determined by boundary layer stability. Thus, developing air quality models that can sufficiently resolve these dynamics and associated chemistry, along with more consistent monitoring of O3 and meteorology on and along the complex coastline of Chesapeake Bay must be a

  18. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  19. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  20. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  1. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, K. L.; Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Li, S.-M.; Makar, P. A.; Markovic, M. Z.; Liu, P.; Anlauf, K. G.; O'Brien, J. M.; Li, Q.; McLaren, R.

    2011-10-01

    High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects conducted at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and the air parcel circulation time in the lake-breeze circulation (3.0 to 5.0 h) enabled formation rates of organic aerosol (OA/ΔCO) and SO42- to be determined. The formation rate for OA (relative to excess CO in ppmv) was found to be 11.6-19.4 μg m-3 ppmv-1 h-1 and the SO42- formation rate was 5.0-8.8% h-1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42- and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution leading to elevated oxidant concentrations.

  2. Aircraft study of the impact of lake-breeze circulations on trace gases and particles during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, K. L.; Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Li, S.-M.; Makar, P. A.; Markovic, M. Z.; Liu, P.; Anlauf, K. G.; O'Brien, J. M.; Li, Q.; McLaren, R.

    2011-04-01

    High time-resolved aircraft data, concurrent surface measurements and air quality model simulations were explored to diagnose the processes influencing aerosol chemistry under the influence of lake-breeze circulations in a polluted region of southwestern Ontario, Canada. The analysis was based upon horizontal aircraft transects at multiple altitudes across an entire lake-breeze circulation. Air mass boundaries due to lake-breeze fronts were identified in the aircraft meteorological and chemical data, which were consistent with the frontal locations determined from surface analyses. Observations and modelling support the interpretation of a lake-breeze circulation where pollutants were lofted at a lake-breeze front, transported in the synoptic flow, caught in a downdraft over the lake, and then confined by onshore flow. The detailed analysis led to the development of conceptual models that summarize the complex 3-D circulation patterns and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The identified air mass boundaries, the interpretation of the lake-breeze circulation, and best estimates for air parcel circulation times in the lake-breeze circulation (1.2 to 3.0 h) enabled formation rates of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA/ΔCO) and SO42- to be determined. The formation rate for OOA, relative to excess CO, was found to be 2.5-6.2 μg m-3 ppmv-1 h-1 and the SO42- formation rate was 1.8-4.6% h-1. The formation rates are enhanced relative to regional background rates implying that lake-breeze circulations are an important dynamic in the formation of SO42- and secondary organic aerosol. The presence of cumulus clouds associated with the lake-breeze fronts suggests that these enhancements could be due to cloud processes. Additionally, the effective confinement of pollutants along the shoreline may have limited pollutant dilution leading to elevated oxidant concentrations.

  3. Photovoltaic at Hollywood and Desert Breeze Recreational Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ammerman, Shane

    2015-09-24

    Executive Summary Renewable Energy Initiatives for Clark County Parks and Recreation Solar Project DOE grant # DE-EE0003180 In accordance with the goals of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy for promoting solar energy as clean, carbon-free and cost-effective, the County believed that a recreational center was an ideal place to promote solar energy technologies to the public. This project included the construction of solar electricity generation facilities (40kW) at two Clark County facility sites, Desert Breeze Recreational Center and Hollywood Recreational Center, with educational kiosks and Green Boxes for classroom instruction. The major objectives and goals of this Solar Project include demonstration of state of the art technologies for the generation of electricity from solar technology and the creation of an informative and educational tool in regards to the benefits and process of generating alternative energy. Clark County partnered with Anne Johnson (design architect/consultant), Affiliated Engineers Inc. (AEI), Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Morse Electric. The latest photovoltaic technologies were used in the project to help create the greatest expected energy savings for60443 each recreational center. This coupled with the data created from the monitoring system will help Clark County and NREL further understand the real time outputs from the system. The educational portion created with AEI and DRI incorporates material for all ages with a focus on K - 12. The AEI component is an animated story telling the fundamentals of how sunlight is turned into electricity and DRI‘s creation of Solar Green Boxes brings environmental education into the classroom. In addition to the educational component for the public, the energy that is created through the photovoltaic system also translates into saved money and health benefits for the general public. This project has helped Clark County to further add to its own

  4. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2013-09-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze. On the day of the case study the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  5. The influence of consecutive sea and land breeze days on the accumulation of photochemical oxidants and nitrogen oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Ko; Takahashi, Hideo

    2015-04-01

    Efforts have been made to improve the air pollution environment, in Japan, since the first photochemical smog was reported in 1970. While nitrogen oxide and non-methane hydrocarbon levels, both of which are precursors of photochemical oxidants (Ox), are tending to decrease, Ox levels are tending to increase. Local wind, such as sea and land breeze circulation, plays important roles in the production and accumulation of Ox. It has been suggested that continuous sea and land breeze circulation serves to accumulate pollutants. However, pollutant concentrations do not necessarily increase compared with the previous day even if similar weather conditions persist, such as sea and land breeze circulation. As such, the factors related to changes in the pollutant concentrations are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to analyze the accumulation and distribution of air pollutants for days in which sea and land breeze days was consecutive for two days. We chose to study sea breeze days in which a southerly wind develops in the southern Kanto plain, north of Tokyo Bay, during July and August for the years 19902012. We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to classify the variations in pollutant concentrations. We classified sea breeze days into four groups, i.e., Group 1: days when the pollutant concentration decreased around Tokyo Bay and increased inland, Group 2: days when the concentration increased across almost the entire study region, Group 3: days when the concentration decreased inland and in southern Tokyo Bay, and Group 4: days when the concentration increased, particularly around Tokyo Bay. In Group 2, in which the pollutant concentration increased as compared with the previous day, the wind direction had clearly changed from southerly to northerly during the night of the first day and a land breeze penetrated toward the coastal area. In the other groups, wind velocity also became weaker but there was no change from sea-breeze to

  6. The Impact of Synoptic-Scale Flow on Sea Breeze Front Propagation and Intensity at Eglin Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    scale flow on characteristic features of the sea breeze. J. Appl. Meteor . 32, 116–125. Atkins, N. T, and R. M. Wakimoto, 1997: Influence of the...type circulations. J. Appl. Meteor ., 30, 1268–1279. Biggar, David G., 1992: A mesoscale study of sea breeze enhanced summer thunderstorms in the...dimensional numerical sensitivity study of convection over the Florida peninsula. Bound.-Layer Meteor ., 60, 325-359. Burpee, R.W., 1979

  7. Effects of a sea breeze discontinuity on air quality in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Talbot, Charles; Fourmentin, Marc; Willart, Véronique; Delbarre, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The effects of interaction between the sea breeze and synoptic wind on air pollutants have been studied in an industrial coastal environment of the North Sea. These effects have been investigated, during one day, using ground-based remote sensing systems and surface station data alongside with mesoscale modelling outputs. During a campaign in the North of France, continuous lidar measurements documented the structure and the evolution of the lower troposphere. The combination of lidar, sodar and surface station observations showed that the atmospheric boundary layer is well stratified during the night, with a stable double layer structure which slows the growing process of the mixing layer, in the morning and before the sea-breeze onset. During the day, we observed discontinuity in meteorological measurements due to the sea-breeze occurrences. We have found that these sudden changes were well correlated with high concentrations of sulphur dioxide at ground level (up to 400 ?g/m3). The first sea breeze puff generates a change of the structure of the lower troposphere with a coupling between the residual layer and the convective boundary layer. The discontinuity of the sea-breeze gravity current is well observed by lidar signals and sodar echo. The analysis revealed that the impacts of the sea-breeze discontinuity have significant implications on the local and the regional pollution above industrialized areas. This phenomenon triggers important changes on the local and regional air quality, more particularly in urban and industrial coastal localities.

  8. Analysis of Delayed Sea Breeze Onset for Fort Ord Prescribed Burning Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    surrounding Fort Ord with proper smoke management through accurate prediction of the timing of the onset of local sea breeze is vital. 6 THIS...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources...Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202–4302, and to the Office of Management and

  9. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  10. Application of Land Surface Data Assimilation to Simulations of Sea Breeze Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackaro, Scott; Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske

    2003-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite- observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSUNCAR MM5 V3-5 and applied at spatial resolutions of 12- and 4-km. It is recognized that even 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  11. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  12. Modeling mesoscale diffusion and transport processes for releases within coastal zones during land/sea breezes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.A.; Keen, C.S.; Schuh, J.A.

    1983-12-01

    This document discusses the impacts of coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) upon the transport and diffusion of potential accidental radionuclide releases from a shoreline nuclear power plant. CMRs exhibit significant spatial (horizontal and vertical) and temporal variability. Case studies illustrate land breezes, sea/lake breeze inflows and return flows, thermal internal boundary layers, fumigation, plume trapping, coastal convergence zones, thunderstorms and snow squalls. The direct application of a conventional Gaussian straight-line dose assessment model, initialized only by on-site tower data, can potentially produce highly misleading guidance as to plume impact locations. Since much is known concerning CMRs, there are many potential improvements to modularized dose assessment codes, such as by proper parameterization of TIBLs, forecasting the inland penetration of convergence zones, etc. A three-dimensional primitive equation prognostic model showed excellent agreement with detailed lake breeze field measurements, giving indications that such codes can be used in both diagnostic and prognostic studies. The use of relatively inexpensive supplemental meteorological data especially from remote sensing systems (Doppler sodar, radar, lightning strike tracking) and computerized data bases should save significantly on software development costs. Better quality assurance of emergency response codes could include systems of flags providing personnel with confidence levels as to the applicability of a code being used during any given CMR.

  13. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, V.; Moeller, L.; Stefanova, L.; Chan, S.; O'Brien, J. J.; Smith, T.J.; Plant, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979-2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. The influence of the Atlantic Warm Pool on the Florida panhandle sea breeze

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Moeller, Lauren; Stefanova, Lydia; Chan, Steven; O'Brien, James J.; Smith, Thomas J.; Plant, Nathaniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the variations of the boreal summer season sea breeze circulation along the Florida panhandle coast from relatively high resolution (10 km) regional climate model integrations. The 23 year climatology (1979–2001) of the multidecadal dynamically downscaled simulations forced by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) Reanalysis II at the lateral boundaries verify quite well with the observed climatology. The variations at diurnal and interannual time scales are also well simulated with respect to the observations. We show from composite analyses made from these downscaled simulations that sea breezes in northwestern Florida are associated with changes in the size of the Atlantic Warm Pool (AWP) on interannual time scales. In large AWP years when the North Atlantic Subtropical High becomes weaker and moves further eastward relative to the small AWP years, a large part of the southeast U.S. including Florida comes under the influence of relatively strong anomalous low-level northerly flow and large-scale subsidence consistent with the theory of the Sverdrup balance. This tends to suppress the diurnal convection over the Florida panhandle coast in large AWP years. This study is also an illustration of the benefit of dynamic downscaling in understanding the low-frequency variations of the sea breeze.

  15. Nocturnal boundary layer characteristics and land breeze development in Houston, Texas during TexAQS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Bridget M.; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Clements, Craig B.; Tucker, Sara C.; Alan Brewer, W.

    2010-10-01

    The nocturnal boundary layer in Houston, Texas was studied using a high temporal and vertical resolution tethersonde system on four nights during the Texas Air Quality Study II (TexAQS II) in August and September 2006. The launch site was on the University of Houston campus located approximately 4 km from downtown Houston. Of particular interest was the evolution of the nocturnal surface inversion and the wind flows within the boundary layer. The land-sea breeze oscillation in Houston has important implications for air quality as the cycle can impact ozone concentrations through pollutant advection and recirculation. The results showed that a weakly stable surface inversion averaging in depth between 145 and 200 m AGL formed on each of the experiment nights, typically within 2-3 h after sunset. Tethersonde vertical winds were compared with two other Houston data sets (High Resolution Doppler Lidar and radar wind profiler) from locations near the coastline and good agreement was found, albeit with a temporal lag at the tethersonde site. This comparison revealed development of a land breeze on three nights which began near the coastline and propagated inland both horizontally and vertically with time. The vertical temperature structure was significantly modified on one night at the tethersonde site after the land breeze wind shift, exhibiting near-adiabatic profiles below 100 m AGL.

  16. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage in Thoroughbreds after racing and breezing.

    PubMed

    Raphel, C F; Soma, L R

    1982-07-01

    Thoroughbred horses (n = 191) were examined with a flexible fiberoptic endoscope within 2 hours of racing on a dirt track; 147 (75.4%) had evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), and 13 (9.0%) had blood at the nostrils. Of 107 Thoroughbreds examined within the same period after breezing, 41 (38.3%) had evidence of EIPH. One horse (2.4%) of this group had blood at the nostrils. Statistical analysis of frequency data showed that a relationship existed between EIPH and the horse's age or distance raced or breezed. Relationship did not exist between EIPH and sex or finishing position. Thoroughbreds were also examined endoscopically after steeplechase, flat turf, and timber races; 67.7% (21/31), 14.3% (2/14), and 66.6% (2/3) of the horses in such races were EIPH-positive, respectively; and 14.3% (3/21), 0% (0/2), and 100% (2/2) of these EIPH-positive horses had blood at the nostrils. Of 32 breezing Thoroughbreds in a 3rd survey, 21 (65.5%) were EIPH-positive. None bled from the nostrils. Endoscopic findings of EIPH are repeatable in the horses, indicating that bleeding is not a random event.

  17. Transient land breeze: Eclipse induced wind flow modifications—Observations over plant canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, B. S.; Latha, R.; Sreeja, P.; Dharmaraj, T.

    2012-11-01

    An experiment is conducted over Cassava plant canopy at a coastal station at CTCRI, Thiruvananthapuram (8°29'N, 76°59E) to study the response of meteorological parameters and land-sea breeze circulations to the annular solar eclipse on January 15, 2010. Observations reveal decrease of solar radiation to a minimum of 96 W m-2 during the peak eclipse period. Air temperature drops by 4 °C and relative humidity increases by 20%. Sensible heat flux reduces to zero. Transient land breeze occurs for a few minutes with a time lag of about 1 h possibly due to outflow from the umbra region or temperature gradient over land with the eclipse progressing in the eastward direction. Sea breeze is delayed by about 3 h on the next day of eclipse. Spectral energy density of wind (u, v, w) and temperature attains a minimum value during totality and increases later, attributable to reduction in turbulence due to eclipse-induced stability.

  18. Nearshore Coastal Dynamics on a Sea-Breeze Dominated Micro-Tidal Beach (NCSAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Ruiz de Alegría-Arzaburu, A.; Figlus, J.; Mendoza, T.; Pintado-Patino, J. C.; Pieterse, A.; Chardon-Maldonado, P.; DiCosmo, N. R.; Wellman, N.; Garcia-Nava, H.; Palemón-Arcos, L.; Roberts, T.; López-González, J.; Bravo, M.; Ojeda, E.; Medellín, G.; Appendini, C. M.; Figueroa, B.; González-Leija, M.; Enriquez, C.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Salles, P.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive field experiment devoted to the study of coastal processes on a micro-tidal beach was conducted from March 30th to April 12th 2014 in Sisal, Yucatán México. Wave conditions in the study area are controlled by local (i.e., sea-breezes) and meso-scale (i.e., Nortes) meteorological events. Simultaneous measurements of waves, tides, winds, currents, sediment transport, runup, and beach morphology were obtained in this experiment. Very dense nearshore instrumentation arrays allow us the study of the cross-/along- shore variability of surf/swash zone dynamics during different forcing conditions. Strong sea-breeze wind events produced a diurnal cycle with a maximum wind speed of 14 m/s. The persistent sea-breeze system forces small-amplitude (Hs<1 m) short-period (Tp<4 s) NE waves approaching with a high incidence wave angle. These wave conditions drive westward alongshore currents of up to 0.6 m/s in the inner surf zone and hence produce an active sediment transport in the swash zone. On the other hand, the more energetic (Hs>1 m) Norte event, lasting 48 hours, reached the coast on April 8th generating a long-period swell (Tp>10 s) arriving from the NNW. This event induced an eastward net sediment transport across a wide surf zone. However, long-term observations of sand impoundment at a groin located near the study area suggests that the net sediment transport in the northern Yucatan peninsula is controlled by sea-breeze events and hence swash zone dynamics play an important role in the net sediment budget of this region. A comparative study of surf and swash zone dynamics during both sea-breeze and Norte events will be presented. The Institute of Engineering of UNAM, throughout an International Collaborative Project with the University of Delaware, and CONACYT (CB-167692) provided financial support. The first author acknowledges ONR Global for providing financial support throughout the Visiting Scientist Program.

  19. A sea breeze induced thunderstorm over an inland station over Indian South Peninsula - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhate, Jyoti; Kesarkar, Amit P.; Karipot, Anandakumar; Bala Subrahamanyam, D.; Rajasekhar, M.; Sathiyamoorthy, V.; Kishtawal, C. M.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic interaction of sea breeze with the prevailing synoptic flows can give rise to meteorological conditions conducive for the occurrence to the thunderstorms over coastal and adjoining regions. Here, we present a rare case study of the genesis of the thunderstorm that occurred on 4th May 2011 at 1500Z over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), one of the tropical inland stations (100 km) near to the east coast of the Indian peninsula. The objective of present work is to understand the underlying physical mechanism of initiation of such convection over this region. A set of meteorological observations obtained from microwave radiometer profiler, eddy covariance flux tower system, and Doppler weather radar, are used for investigating the convection genesis characteristics. In conjunction with observations, to bridge the gap of lack of high resolutional spatial observations, the high-resolution (2 km) model analysis is developed using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and four-dimensional data assimilation technique. The analysis of thermodynamical and dynamical indices carried out from the model analysis as well as observations. Results obtained from this study indicated the presence of a wind discontinuity line and a warm air advection from the north Indian region towards Gadanki caused this area hot dry and convectively active. The sea breeze front propagated over hot and dry area few hours before the genesis of the thunderstorm. The moisture flux convergence increased with the inland propagation of sea breeze front. We found that the inland penetration of sea-breeze front caused advection of moist and cold air over warm and dry region; reduction in dew point depression causing bulging of dry line and lowering of lifting condensation level; development of shear in wind direction and speed; increase in low level convergence and vertical velocity, upward transport of moist air and finally increase in helicity of the environment. The wind shear instability

  20. Development of a decision support system for the introduction of alternative methods into local irritancy/corrosivity testing strategies. Creation of fundamental rules for a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Gerner, I; Zinke, S; Graetschel, G; Schlede, E

    2000-01-01

    The notification procedure of the European Union (EU) for new chemicals requires the application of protocols on physicochemical and toxicological tests for the evaluation of physicochemical properties and probable toxic effects of each notified substance. A computerised database was developed from data sets and toxicological test protocols relating to substance properties responsible for skin and eye irritation/corrosion. To develop specific structure-activity relationship (SAR) models and to find rules for a decision support system (DSS) to predict local irritation/corrosion, physical property data, chemical structure data and toxicological data for approximately 1300 chemicals, each having a purity of 95% or more, were evaluated. The evaluation demonstrated that the lipid solubility and aqueous solubility of a chemical are relevant to, or - in some cases - responsible for, the observed local effects of a substance on the skins and eyes of rabbits. The octanol/water partition coefficient and the measured value of the surface tension of a saturated aqueous solution of the substance give additional information that permits the definition of detailed SAR algorithms that use measured solubility values. Data on melting points and vapour pressure can be used to assess the intensity and duration of local contact with a chemical. Considerations relating to the reactivity of a pure chemical can be based on molecular weight and the nature of the heteroatoms present. With respect to local lesions produced following contact with the skin and eyes of rabbits, the data evaluation revealed that no general "local irritation/corrosion potential" of a chemical can be defined. A variety of mechanisms are responsible for the formation of local lesions on the skin or in the eyes: serious lesions are produced by mechanisms different from those that cause moderate irritation in these organs. In order to develop a DSS that uses the information extracted from the database, chemical main

  1. A study of the Merritt Island, Florida sea breeze flow regimes and their effect on surface heat and moisture fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubes, M. T.; Cooper, H. J.; Smith, E. A.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected during the Convective and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment were analyzed as part of an investigation of the sea breeze in the vicinity of Merritt Island, Florida. Analysis of near-surface divergence fields shows that the classical 24-hour oscillation in divergence over the island due to the direct sea breeze circulation is frequently disrupted and exhibits two distinct modes: the classical sea breeze pattern and deviations from that pattern. A comparison of clear day surface energy fluxes with fluxes on other days indicates that changes in magnitudes were dominated by the presence or absence of clouds. Non-classical sea breeze days tended to lose more available energy in the morning than classical sea breeze days due to earlier development of small cumulus over the island. A composite storm of surface winds, surface energy fluxes, rainfall, and satellite visible data was constructed. A spectral transmittance over the visible wavelengths for the cloud cover resulting from the composite storm was calculated. It is shown that pre-storm transmittances of 0.8 fall to values near 0.1 as the downdraft moves directly over the site. It is also found that under post-composite storm conditions of continuous clear sky days, 3.5 days are required to evaporate back into the atmosphere the latent heat energy lost to the surface by rainfall.

  2. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus bacterial counts in a dental clinic using an Ionic Breeze air purifier: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hubar, J Sean; Pelon, William; Strother, Elizabeth A; Sicard, F Scott

    2009-01-01

    Aerosols and droplets generated by dental procedures are contaminated with blood and bacteria and represent a potential route for the transmission of disease. This study sought to determine if Ionic Breeze air purifiers are effective in collecting and destroying bacteria found in dental aerosols (such as Staphylococcus aureus). This study placed one Sharper Image Professional Series Ionic Breeze Quadra unit and one Ionic Breeze GP unit (with germicidal protection) in dental operatories within the Louisiana State University School of Dentistry. After six hours of operation, bacterial samples were collected and streaked over surfaces of petri dishes containing trypticase soy sucrose bacitracin agar that had been supplemented with 5% sheep blood. The samples were incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours; at that point, the microbial colonies were counted. Additional testing was performed on suspect colonies to identify S. aureus strains and to determine if any of those isolates were pathogenic with or without antibiotic resistance. The Ionic Breeze GP unit killed more than 99% of all bacteria on the stainless steel collecting blades. The non-germicidal Ionic Breeze Quadra air purifier collected numerous bacteria that were found to include some pathogenic strains of S. aureus; however, none of these were resistant to antibiotics.

  3. Interaction of a cold front with a sea-breeze front Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodin, A.

    1995-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of a front which passed the coast between the North Sea and northern Germany and thereby experienced some modifications of its mesoscale characteristics. The event was observed during the field experiment FRONTEX'89. The two-dimensional non-hydrostatic simulations presented in this paper resemble some of the observed characteristics and yield a detailed description of the evolution of the surface front. Over the sea several narrow frontal rain bands develop in the boundary layer which becomes unstable due to the increasing sea surface temperature near the coast. The rain bands move forward relative to the front due to the cross frontal circulation which is enhanced by the release of latent heat in the ascending warm air and by the cooling of the cold air below by evaporating precipitation. Over the heated land surface a sea-breeze front develops ahead of the synoptic-scale cold front. The strong frontal gradients of the sea-breeze front mask the broader frontal zone of the cold front at the ground. The sea-breeze front triggers deep convection ahead of the cold front in the afternoon and takes over all characteristics of the synoptic-scale front in the evening. The simulations show the mechanisms that caused the observed evolution and modification of the synoptic-scale cold front. They emphasize the strong influence of the surface heat fluxes on the characteristics of fronts on the mesoscale. The most important feature of the numerical model, necessary for the proper representation of the frontal characteristics on the mesoscale, is its high resolution. The simulations are restricted by the difficulties of finding an initial state and appropriate boundary conditions so that the results fit the observations for a long time period and that spin-up problems are avoided.

  4. Theoretical calculations of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jaemyeong Mango; Ganbat, Gantuya; Han, Ji-Young; Baik, Jong-Jin

    2017-02-01

    Many big cities around the world are located near mountains. In city-mountain regions, thermally and topographically forced local winds are produced and they affect the transport of pollutants emitted into the urban atmosphere. A better understanding of the dynamics of thermally and topographically forced local winds is necessary to improve the prediction of local winds and to cope with environmental problems. In this study, we theoretically examine the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds in the presence of basic-state wind within the context of the response of a stably stratified atmosphere to prescribed thermal and mechanical forcing. The interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds are viewed through the linear superposition of individual analytical solutions for urban thermal forcing, mountain thermal forcing, and mountain mechanical forcing. A setting is considered in which a city is located downwind of a mountain. In the nighttime, in the mountain-side urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain cooling and mountain mechanical forcing cooperatively interact with urban breezes, resulting in strengthened winds. In the daytime, in the urban area, surface/near-surface horizontal flows induced by mountain heating are opposed to urban breezes, giving rise to weakened winds. It is shown that the degree of interactions between urban breezes and mountain slope winds is sensitive to mountain height and basic-state wind speed. Particularly, a change in basic-state wind speed affects not only the strength of thermally and mechanically induced flows (internal gravity waves) but also their vertical wavelength and decaying rate. The examination of a case in a setting in which a city is located upwind of a mountain reveals that basic-state wind direction is an important factor that significantly affects the interactions of urban breezes with mountain slope winds.

  5. Diagnosis of sea breeze cases over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo with the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homann, C.; Freitas, E. D.

    2013-05-01

    The sea breeze is a great responsible for the organization of severe weather events, climate patterns and air pollution dispersion over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), being the knowledge about its correct predictability very important in the region. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model was used to simulate some events of sea breeze propagation over the MASP during the winter season of 2009 (18th and 20th june, 29th august, 02nd September) with the objective to analyze the skill of the model on the predictability of this events using the default parameterizations available in the model and identify some flaws and possible adjustments to be made in the model. For this purpose, the simulation results were compared with the observed velocity and wind direction collected in the "Campo de Marte" Airport - SP. The model had a good response for all simulated days, where the horizontal wind and the vapor mixing ratio indicating correctly the sea breeze arrival over the region. Another important feature observed in the wind moisture fields was the moments that the sea breeze reaches different parts of MASP in response to the Urban Heat Island effect, which can accelerate or prevent the sea breeze propagation depending on location, as observed in other studies, and the relative position of the metropolitan area with respect to the sea-shore and the topography of the region. It was observed that the sea-breeze front reaches the southwest portion of MASP approximately two hours before it reaches the northwest portion.

  6. Observations and Numerical Simulations of Urban Heat Island and Sea Breeze Circulations over New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, Peter P.; Raman, Sethu

    2005-10-01

    Observations from two SOund Detection And Ranging (SODAR) units, a 10 m micrometeorological tower and five Automated Surface Observing Stations (ASOS) were examined during several synoptic scale flow regimes over New York City after the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. An ARPS model numerical simulation was conducted to explore the complex mesoscale boundary layer structure over New York City. The numerical investigation examined the urban heat island, urban roughness effect and sea breeze structure over the New York City region. Estimated roughness lengths varied from 0.7 m with flow from the water to 4 m with flow through Manhattan. A nighttime mixed layer was observed over lower Manhattan, indicating the existence of an urban heat island. The ARPS model simulated a sea-breeze front moving through lower Manhattan during the study period consistent with the observations from the SODARs and the 10-m tower observations. Wind simulations showed a slowing and cyclonic turning of the 10-m air flow as the air moved over New York City from the ocean. Vertical profiles of simulated TKE and wind speeds showed a maximum in TKE over lower Manhattan during nighttime conditions. It appears that this TKE maximum is directly related to the influences of the urban heat island.

  7. A case study of sea breeze blocking regulated by sea surface temperature along the English south coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. K.; Chagnon, J. M.; Gray, S. L.

    2014-05-01

    The sensitivity of sea breeze structure to sea surface temperature (SST) and coastal orography is investigated in convection-permitting Met Office Unified Model simulations of a case study along the south coast of England. Changes in SST of 1 K are shown to significantly modify the structure of the sea breeze immediately offshore. On the day of the case study, the sea breeze was partially blocked by coastal orography, particularly within Lyme Bay. The extent to which the flow is blocked depends strongly on the static stability of the marine boundary layer. In experiments with colder SST, the marine boundary layer is more stable, and the degree of blocking is more pronounced. Although a colder SST would also imply a larger land-sea temperature contrast and hence a stronger onshore wind - an effect which alone would discourage blocking - the increased static stability exerts a dominant control over whether blocking takes place. The implications of prescribing fixed SST from climatology in numerical weather prediction model forecasts of the sea breeze are discussed.

  8. Amazon And Negro River Breeze And Manaus Urban Area Influence In Surface Wind And Water Vapor Daily Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, M.; da Silva Dias, M. F.; Freitas, E. D.; Meteorologia Aplicada A Sistemas de Tempo Regionais-Master

    2013-05-01

    Close to the urban area of Manaus the Negro and Amazon rivers provide a scenario where river breeze can be particularly well detected due to their width of about 5 - 10 km. Previous studies have looked into the river breeze in the Amazon Basin and detected their influence in surface data, particularly into the effect on wind and moisture. The heat island effect of the Manaus urban area has also been demonstrated using surface temperature data. Here we present an analysis using 35 years of surface weather station hourly data from the two Manaus airports, Eduardo Gomes (AEG) and Ponta de Pelada (APP). The location of these stations allows the analysis of local circulations contrasting the evolution close to the margin and in the Southern tip of the urban area and a more inland location (APP) about 25 km to the Northewest of AEG. We focus on dew point temperature, water vapor pressure, wind speed and direction providing direction statistics for the two stations and contrasting the evolution in the dry and wet seasons.In the AEG weather station data we found relatively high values of accumulated frequency of the southwest and northwest wind in the period from 9 am to 6 pm (local time - LT) due to the action of the river breeze associated to the Negro River. In June and July (dry season), when the wind was blowing from the Southeast (river-breeze wind), high values of vapor pressure (VP) were observed during the daytime due to the transport of moist air from river to land. In the wind frequency data of the APP weather station we verified maximums in nighttime and minimums in daytime period when the wind direction was from the Northwest. These characteristics of maximums and minimums of wind frequency were observed in Northeastern winds only in the dry season. High frequency of South winds in daytime and minimums in nighttime period also indicates the action of river breeze. When the wind direction was southern, we found high values of VP (e.g, higher than 30.5 hPa in

  9. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  10. Assimilating QuikSCAT SeaWinds With WRF Model for High Latitude Sea Breeze Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Zhang, J.; Krieger, J. R.; Morton, D. J.; Shulski, M. D.; Klene, A. E.; Zhang, X.

    2007-12-01

    Sea breezes along the Arctic coastal areas, especially in the Beaufort Sea coast, are associated with seasonal change of solar insolation, sea ice retreat, and complex terrain of the Brooks Range. Improvement of sea surface wind simulation with a high resolution mesoscale model is of particular interest in oil spill impact assessment and management, as well as in coastal erosion assessment. The objective of this study is to use the mesoscale weather research and forecast (WRF) model with satellite data assimilation to achieve a high quality simulation of Beaufort Sea regional weather patterns. The SeaWinds instrument onboard the polar-orbiting quick scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite is a specialized radar that measures ice-free ocean surface wind speed and direction. This data provides significant information over open water areas, where conventional observations are very sparse, for model validation and simulation improvement. The QuikSCAT SeaWinds level 2B data which have a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km are assimilated into the WRF model and its three-dimensional variational data assimilation system (WRF-Var) to study the impacts of QuikSCAT data on WRF simulations of surface wind fields and sea breezes. The modeling domain has been setup to cover the Beaufort Sea area with 235x136 grid points at 10 km resolution and is centered at (155W, 71.3N). In order to apply the WRF-Var system, a customized WRF model error statistics and length scales are created using a one-year simulation of WRF for this particular domain. Two 5-day periods, 10/01/2002-10/05/2000 and 9/20/2004-9/24/2004, are selected to conduct our case study. The years 2002 and 2004 had most open water area, i.e., the farthest ice retreat, during recent seven years; and thus, there are more QuikSCAT SeaWinds data available for our study. Preliminary results show that the WRF model is capable of simulating wind fields very well by verifying modeled winds with station observations. Further results on

  11. 26 CFR 601.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 601.101 Section 601.101 Internal... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.101 Introduction. (a) General. The Internal... agency by which these functions are performed. Within an internal revenue district the internal...

  12. Sea breeze regimes in the New York City region - modeling and radar observations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, P.; Miller, M.; Tongue, J.S.

    1998-04-01

    During spring and summer, the well known sea breeze circulations can strongly influence airport operations, air-quality, energy utilization, marine activities and infrastructure. The geographic configuration of the New York City region presents a special challenge to atmospheric prediction and analysis. The New Jersey and Long Island coasts are at approximate right angles to each other, additionally Long Island is separated from the mainland of Connecticut by Long Island Sound. The various bodies of water in the region (Atlantic Ocean, Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, Jamaica Bay, etc.) have different surface temperatures. In addition the urbanization of the New York areas can modify atmospheric flows. This paper will present results from model simulations, surface observations and remote sensing using the Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D).

  13. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, I. M.; Dayan, U.

    2011-12-01

    The sea breeze (SB) is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation) and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction) from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected. In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West), which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2=0.75), as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough) yielding lower value (R2=0.5). The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements. Visualizing a product of time series analysis of the satellite data enabled clear distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough). This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  14. Continuous detection and characterization of the Sea Breeze in clear sky conditions using Meteosat Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensky, I. M.; Dayan, U.

    2012-07-01

    The sea breeze (SB) is a thermally induced boundary layer phenomenon that occurs at coastal locations throughout the world. Previous satellite remote sensing studies used low-level clouds formed over the sea-breeze convergence zones to identify the SB. In this study continuous thermal infrared data from a geostationary satellite (Meteosat Second Generation) and concurrent field measurements were used to detect and characterize the SB in clear sky conditions during the summer. Surface data (wind speed and direction) from 11 sites over Israel for ten summer days in July 2010 for three different synoptic circulation categories were selected. In order to assess the impact of the synoptic induced flow on the SB, we looked for the best agreement between surface and satellite SB timing. An independent classification of synoptic categories performed for the ten summer days revealed two distinct patterns of the SB. During weak horizontal pressure gradient (Weak Persian Trough and High to the West), which enables full development of the SB, the timing of the SB from satellite and field measurements were well correlated (R2 = 0.75), as compared to unfavorable atmospheric conditions (Deep Persian Trough) yielding lower value (R2 = 0.5). The SB was identified by surface measurements in an earlier time of the day, with respect to the satellite column integrated measurements. Visualizing timing of the SB retrieved from satellite data enabled distinction of SB behavior under different synoptic categories. Over desert regions the strong thermal contrast enables detection of the SB even under suppressing synoptic conditions (Deep Persian Trough). This method enables detection and timing of the SB over desert regions where clouds and field measurements are scarce, and is applicable worldwide.

  15. An Israeli haboob: Sea breeze activating local anthropogenic dust sources in the Negev loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, Onn; Dayan, Uri; Amit, Rivka; Enzel, Yehouda

    2017-02-01

    Meso-scale weather systems, such as convective haboobs, are considered to be an important dust generation mechanism. In Israel, however, rather than of meso-scale weather systems, most dust storms are generated by synoptic-scale systems, originating from Sahara and Arabia. Consequently, only distal sources of suspended and deposited dust in Israel are currently reported. Here we report the first detailed study on the merging of synoptic- and meso-scale weather systems leading to a prominent dust outbreak over the Negev, Israel. During the afternoon of May 2nd, 2007, a massive dust storm covered the northern Negev, forming a one kilometer high wall of dust. The haboob was associated with PM10 concentrations of 1000-1500 μg m-3 that advanced at a speed of 10-15 m s-1 and caused temporary closure of local airports. In contrast to most reported haboobs, this one was generated by a sea breeze front acting as a weak cold front enhanced by a cold core cyclone positioned over Libya and Egypt. The sea breeze that brought cold and moist marine air acted as a gravity current with strong surface winds. The sources for the haboob were the loessial soils of the northwestern Negev, especially agricultural fields that were highly disturbed in late spring to early summer. Such surface disturbance is caused by agricultural and/or intensive grazing practices. Our study emphasizes the importance of local dust sources in the Negev and stresses loess recycling as an important process in contemporary dust storms over Israel.

  16. Observed and simulated sea breeze characteristics over Rayong coastal area, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Tung Thanh; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the detailed characterization of sea breeze (SB) over the Rayong coastal area, one of the most rapidly developed and highly industrialized areas during the last decade in Thailand, using observation data analysis and fine-resolution (2 km) mesoscale meteorological modeling with incorporation of new land cover and satellite-derived vegetation fraction data sets. The key characteristics considered include frequency of SB occurrence, sea-breeze day (SBD) identification, degree of inland penetration, and boundary layer development. It was found that SBs occur frequently in the winter due mainly to relatively large land-sea temperature contrasts and minimally in the wet season. Monthly mean SB onset and cessation times are at around 12-15 local time (LT) and 18-21 LT, respectively, and its strength peaks during the early- to mid-afternoon. Monthly SB hodographs generally exhibit clockwise rotations, and SB inland penetration (at PCD-T tower) ranges widely with the monthly means of 25-55 km from the coast. Mesoscale MM5 modeling was performed on two selected SBDs (13 January and 16 March 2006), on which the SBs are under weak and onshore strong influences from background winds, respectively. Simulated near-surface winds and temperature were found to be in fair-to-acceptable agreement with the observations. The SB circulation along the Rayong coast is clearly defined with a return flow aloft and a front on 13 January, while it is enhanced by the onshore background winds on 16 March. Another SB along the Chonburi coast also develops separately, but their fronts merge into one in the mid-afternoon, resulting in large area coverage by the SB. Simulated planetary boundary layer height over the land area is significantly affected by a thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) induced by an SB, which is found to be low near the coast and increases toward the front (up to 800-1,000 m along the Rayong coast).

  17. Cramer's Rule Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoub, Ayoub B.

    2005-01-01

    In 1750, the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer published a well-written algebra book entitled "Introduction a l'Analyse des Lignes Courbes Algebriques." In the appendix to this book, Cramer gave, without proof, the rule named after him for solving a linear system of equations using determinants (Kosinki, 2001). Since then several derivations of…

  18. A meteorological study of the sea and land breezes in Bangka Indonesia during the total solar eclipse on March 9, 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Ardi, Nanang; Rachmat Tayubi, Yuyu; Gandini, Ryantika; Puji Asmoro, Cahyo; Nurfiani, Dini; Wijaya, Agus Fany Chandra; Ramlan Ramalis, Taufik

    2016-11-01

    Of all mesoscale phenomena, sea and land breezes have been the most studied, both observationally and theoretically. During the total solar eclipse (TSE), some parameters vary anomalously in response to the occurrence of TSE on 9th March 2016 in Bangka, Indonesia. As it occurred during morning hours, it is considered to be much more significant because of its effect in sea and land breezes pattern, especially in term of lag time. We use Portlog Rainwise Automatic Weather Station which is able to measure data in 1 Hz accuracy. Comparison of hourly observations during first contact until final contact result a slow cooling temperature reduction of 0.1°C until totality phase. A significant weakening in wind speed of about 2.5 ms-1 was observed clearly from the instrument. Unfortunately, the reduction is not coincided with the change of wind direction until the third contact. A near constancy in temperature and the wind's behaviour during TSE result delay time in sea and land breezes pattern after the totality. The lag time occurred in three days measurement data, especially sea breeze onset on the next morning day. The lag time in sea breeze was about one hour retardation. The effect of eclipse on the onset timing of sea and land breeze may be attributed to the proportion of heat accumulation due to the obscuration.

  19. Dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa María del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, David; Filonov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Irina

    2002-07-01

    The paper discusses the dynamic response to valley breeze circulation in Santa Maria del Oro, a volcanic lake in Mexico. Hourly records of wind measurements were used to construct a hydrodynamical model of the level fluctuations of the lake's water as well as integrated drift currents. The calculations show that the valley breeze circulation stimulates barotropic seiches in the lake with a period of 2.6 minutes and maximal level in the southwest part up to 18 mm. The drift current form two circulating rings having an opposite directions: anticyclonical in northern part of the lake and cyclonical in the southern. At the external edge of these rings the current speed can reach 20 cm/s. The measurements have shown that most part of the year the lake is strongly stratified. The maximal vertical temperature gradients are over 1°C/m in November and August, in a layer of 17-20 m.

  20. Forecasting sea breeze thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center using the Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale Model (P 3DM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Pielke, Roger A.; Segal, Moti M.

    1986-01-01

    A Prognostic Three-Dimensional Model (P3DM) to produce 1- to 12-hr predictions of sea breeze convective (SBC) storms at KSC is described. The P3DM was developed to account for a scale of about 10 km, interactions between surface heat and moisture fluxes, boundary layer convergence, the movement of moisture into cloud formation zones, and alterations in the convective potential in the lower levels of the atmosphere during the diurnal cycle. Initialized with wind, temperature, specific humidity and local water temperature data, the model allows for the distortion of the boundary layer moisture and thermal fields by sea breeze conditions. The results of three simulations of events leading to the onset of SBC storms are presented to demonstrate the model's capabilities, and techniques which may enhance the accuracy of the predictions are discussed.

  1. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  2. Evaluation of weather research and forecasting model parameterizations under sea-breeze conditions in a North Sea coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Nadir; Reis, Neyval Costa; Santos, Jane Meri; Albuquerque, Taciana Toledo de Almeida; Loriato, Ayres Geraldo; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Sokolov, Anton; Moreira, Davidson Martins

    2016-12-01

    Three atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) schemes and two land surface models that are used in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, version 3.4.1, were evaluated with numerical simulations by using data from the north coast of France (Dunkerque). The ABL schemes YSU (Yonsei University), ACM2 (Asymmetric Convective Model version 2), and MYJ (Mellor-Yamada-Janjic) were combined with two land surface models, Noah and RUC (Rapid Update Cycle), in order to determine the performances under sea-breeze conditions. Particular attention is given in the determination of the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL), which is very important in air pollution scenarios. The other physics parameterizations used in the model were consistent for all simulations. The predictions of the sea-breeze dynamics output from the WRF model were compared with observations taken from sonic detection and ranging, light detection and ranging systems and a meteorological surface station to verify that the model had reasonable accuracy in predicting the behavior of local circulations. The temporal comparisons of the vertical and horizontal wind speeds and wind directions predicted by the WRF model showed that all runs detected the passage of the sea-breeze front. However, except for the combination of MYJ and Noah, all runs had a time delay compared with the frontal passage measured by the instruments. The proposed study shows that the synoptic wind attenuated the intensity and penetration of the sea breeze. This provided changes in the vertical mixing in a short period of time and on soil temperature that could not be detected by the WRF model simulations with the computational grid used. Additionally, among the tested schemes, the combination of the localclosure MYJ scheme with the land surface Noah scheme was able to produce the most accurate ABL height compared with observations, and it was also able to capture the TIBL.

  3. Identifying a Sea Breeze Circulation Pattern Over the Los Angeles Basin Using Airborne In Situ Carbon Dioxide Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannan, A. L.; Schill, S.; Trousdell, J.; Heath, N.; Lefer, B. L.; Yang, M. M.; Bertram, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Los Angeles Basin in Southern California is an optimal location for a circulation study, due to its location between the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Santa Monica and San Gabriel mountain ranges to the east, as well as its booming metropolitan population. Sea breeze circulation carries air at low altitudes from coastal to inland regions, where the air rises and expands before returning back towards the coast at higher altitudes. As a result, relatively clean air is expected at low altitudes over coastal regions, but following the path of sea breeze circulation should increase the amount of anthropogenic influence. During the 2014 NASA Student Airborne Research Program, a highly modified DC-8 aircraft completed flights from June 23 to 25 in and around the LA Basin, including missed approaches at four local airports—Los Alamitos and Long Beach (coastal), Ontario and Riverside (inland). Because carbon dioxide (CO2) is chemically inert and well-suited as a conserved atmospheric tracer, the NASA Langley Atmospheric Vertical Observations of CO2 in the Earth's Troposphere (AVOCET) instrument was used to make airborne in situ carbon dioxide measurements. Combining measured wind speed and direction data from the aircraft with CO2 data shows that carbon dioxide can be used to trace the sea breeze circulation pattern of the Los Angeles basin.

  4. Sensitivity of WRF model to landuse, with applications to Chicago metropolitan Urban Heat Island and lake breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Fernando, H. J.; Hamlet, A. F.; Hellmann, J.; Barlage, M. J.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    This study explores the sensitivity of high-resolution mesoscale simulations of urban heat island (UHI) in the Chicago metropolitan area (CMA) and its environs to landuse and urban physical parameterizations, with special emphasis on the role of lake breeze. A series of climate downscaling experiments are conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 1 km horizontal resolution for a hot period with strong lake breeze. The study examines the impacts of land use data assimilation for initialization of the regional climate model, the role of urbanization on UHI and the lake breeze, and the effects of sub-grid scale land cover variability on urban predictions. Comparisons of simulations with station observations and MODIS satellite data show that the WRF model, with modifications, is able to replicate the measured surface temperature and wind speeds reasonably well. Variation of near surface temperatures was significant during nighttime, when the UHI was pronounced, and the inclusion of sub-grid scale variability of landuse in sub-urban areas improved the near surface temperatures predictions. The results show that representing surface characteristics with better detail and model initialization with reliable land surface observational data yield more accurate near surface temperatures and wind speeds.

  5. A two-dimensional numerical investigation of the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, Melville E.; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William R.

    1991-01-01

    The Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System is used to investigate the interaction between sea breezes and deep convection over the Florida peninsula, and it is shown that this model can simulate the broad features of the three characteristic types of convection systems classified by Blanchard and Lopez (1985). In sensitivity tests performed for a variety of wind and thermodynamic profiles and for different soil-moisture contents, it was found that increases in the low-level temperature and in moisture content speeded up the development of convection. It was found that the dry-soil simulation produced rapidly developing sea breezes that moved inland quickly, while the moist soil case produced a much more slowly developing sea breeze. The total rainfall over the peninsula for the dry-soil case was greater than for the moist soil; it is suggested that the enhanced surface heat fluxes for the dry soil case create stronger low-level convergence over the peninsula (than in the moist-soil case) to force the convection.

  6. Evaluation of the atmospheric model WRF on the Qatar peninsula for a converging sea-breeze event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Nayak, Sashikant; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Qatar, a narrow peninsula covering an area of 11437 sq km, extends northwards into the Arabian Gulf for about 160km and has a maximum width of 88km. The convex shape of the coast-line and narrowness of the peninsula results in the Qatar region experiencing complex wind patterns. The geometry is favorable for formation of the land-sea breeze from both coastal sides of the peninsula. This can lead to the development of sea breeze convergence zones in the middle of the country. Although circulations arising from diurnal thermal contrast of land and water are amongst most intensively studied meteorological phenomena, there is no reported study for the Qatar peninsula and very few studies are reported for the Arabian Gulf region as whole. It is necessary to characterize the wind field for applications such as assessing air pollution, renewable energy etc. A non-hydrostatic mesoscale model, Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a nested high resolution grid permits the investigation of such fine scale phenomena. Data from eighteen land based Automated Weather Stations (AWS) and two offshore buoys deployed and maintained by the Qatar Meteorological Department were analyzed. Based on the analysis a clear case of sea breeze convergence were seen on 18 September 2015. Model simulations were used to investigate the synoptic conditions associated with the formation of this event. The season is characterized by week ambient north westerly wind over the Arabian Gulf. The WRF model performance is validated using observed in-situ data. Model simulations show that vertical extent of sea breeze cell was up to 1 km and the converging sea breeze regions were characterized with high vertical velocities. The WRF simulation also revealed that with high resolution, the model is capable of reproducing the fine scale patterns accurately. The error of predictions in the inner domain (highest resolution) are found to be relatively lower than coarse resolution domain. The maximum wind speed

  7. A Comparison of Cumulus Parameterizations in Idealized Sea-Breeze Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Charles; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Four cumulus parameterizations in the Penn State-NCAR model MM5 are compared in idealized sea-breeze simulations, with the aim of discovering why they work as they do. The most realistic results appear to be those using the Kain-Fritsch scheme. Rainfall is significantly delayed with the Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme, due to the method of computing the reference sounding. This method can be corrected, but downdrafts should be added in a physically realistic manner. Even without downdrafts, a corrected version of the BMJ scheme produces nearly the same timing and location of deep convection as the KF scheme, despite the very different physics. In order to simulate the correct timing of the rainfall, a minimum amount of mass is required in the layer that is the source of a parameterized updraft. The Grell parameterization, in the present simulation, always derives the updraft from the top of the mixed layer, where vertical advection predominates over horizontal advection in increasing the moist static energy. This makes the application of the quasi-equilibrium closure more correct than it would be if the updrafts were always derived from the most unstable layer, but it evades the question of whether or not horizontal advection generates instability. Using different physics, the parameterizations produce significantly different cloud-top heights.

  8. AVHRR Infrared brightness temperatures at the cloud tops of sea breeze fronts over the Iberian Mediterranean area and the isle of Mallorca (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Estrela-Navarro, M. J.; Connell, B.; Baena-Calatrava, R.

    2009-09-01

    The main objective of this remote sensing study is to investigate infrared (IR) brightness temperatures at the cloud tops of sea breeze fronts over the Iberian Mediterranean area and the isle of Mallorca, both in Spain. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR - HRPT) data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar orbiting satellites is collected May through October 2004. We use a new daytime over land cloud detection scheme (Azorin et al., 2007) to derive cloud masks from NOAA-17 and NOAA-16 overpasses. In this study, we analyze the frequency of cloud tops that are colder than different IR threshold temperatures in order to represent areas that experience deep convection associated by sea breezes. Here we present cloud frequency composites for different IR thresholds and prevailing large-scale situations which aid in highlighting the location of hotspots. Preliminary results indicate that cloud tops associated with sea breeze convection are normally warmer than 235K, a threshold which is used in the literature for indicating deep convection. We also use surface synoptic observations with the aim to study if sea breeze storms with IR brightness temperatures >235K at 11.0 and 12.0 µm is related to severe thunderstorms (e.g. impact of hail storms on the agriculture economy). Previous studies have concluded that severe and moderate thunderstorms events can occur under sea breeze situations, even though weather reports forecast mostly clear skies. Results from this remote sensing study could have applications for short-term forecasts.

  9. Neurolaw: A brief introduction

    PubMed Central

    Petoft, Arian

    2015-01-01

    Neurolaw, as an interdisciplinary field which links the brain to law, facilitates the pathway to better understanding of human behavior in order to regulate it accurately through incorporating neuroscience achievements in legal studies. Since 1990’s, this emerging field, by study on human nervous system as a new dimension of legal phenomena, leads to a more precise explanation for human behavior to revise legal rules and decision-makings. This paper strives to bring about significantly a brief introduction to neurolaw so as to take effective steps toward exploring and expanding the scope of law and more thorough understanding of legal issues in the field at hand. PMID:25874060

  10. Shallow Convection along the Sea Breeze Front and its Interaction with Horizontal Convective Rolls and Convective Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, B. A.; Stenchikov, G. L.; Abualnaja, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow convection has been studied in the sea breeze frontal zone along the Arabian Red Sea coast. This convection is forced by thermal and dynamic instabilities and generally is capped below 500 hPa. The thermally induced sea breeze modifies the desert Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) and propagates inland as a density current. The leading edge of the denser marine air rapidly moves inland undercutting the hot and dry desert air mass. The warm air lifts up along the sea breeze front (SBF). Despite large moisture flux from the sea, the shallow convection in SBF does not cause precipitation on the most part of the Arabian coastal plane. The main focus of this research is to study the vertical structure and extent of convective activity in SBF and to differentiate flow regimes that lead to dry and wet convection. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) has been employed at a high spatial resolution of 500 m to investigate the thermodynamic structure of the atmospheric column along the SBF. We found that convection occurs during offshore and cross-shore mean wind conditions; precipitation in SBF frequently develops in the southern region of the Red Sea along the high terrain of Al-Sarawat Mountains range, while on most of the days convection is dry in the middle region and further north of the Red Sea. The coherent structures in the PBL, horizontal convective rolls (HCRs) and open convective cells (OCCs), play an important role shaping interaction of SBF with the desert boundary layer. The HCRs develop in the midmorning along the mean wind vector and interact with the SBF. Later in the afternoon HCRs evolve into OCCs. The convection is strongest, where the HCR and OCC updrafts overlap with SBF and is weakest in their downdraft regions.

  11. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  12. Short range forecasting of sea breeze generated thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center: A real-time experiment using a primitive equation mesoscale numerical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Walter A.; Schuh, Jerome A.; Moon, Dennis; Pielke, Roger A.; Cotton, William; Arritt, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    The operational efficiency of using guidance from a mesoscale numerical model to improve sea breeze thunderstorm forecasts at and around the Shuttle landing strip was assessed. The Prognostic Three-Dimensional Mesoscale (P3DM) model, developed as a sea breeze model, reveals a strong correlation between regions of mesoscale convergence and the triggering of sea breeze convection thunderstorms. The P3DM was modified to generate stability parameters familiar to the operational forecaster. In addition to the mesoscale fields of wind, vertical motion, moisture, temperature, a stability indicator, a combination of model-predicted K and Lifted Indices and the maximum grid cell vertical motion, were proposed and tested. Results of blind tests indicate that a forecaster, provided with guidance derived from model output, could improve local thunderstorm forecasts.

  13. Association Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höppner, Frank

    Association rules are rules of the kind "70% of the customers who buy vine and cheese also buy grapes". While the traditional field of application is market basket analysis, association rule mining has been applied to various fields since then, which has led to a number of important modifications and extensions. We discuss the most frequently applied approach that is central to many extensions, the Apriori algorithm, and briefly review some applications to other data types, well-known problems of rule evaluation via support and confidence, and extensions of or alternatives to the standard framework.

  14. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  15. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  16. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  17. 22 CFR 1501.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1501.1 Section 1501.1 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.1 Introduction. The regulations of this part are issued pursuant to the provisions of the Freedom of...

  18. 49 CFR 1103.10 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1103.10 Section 1103.10 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics § 1103.10 Introduction....

  19. 32 CFR 2102.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Introduction. 2102.1 Section 2102.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL RULES AND REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2102.1 Introduction. (a) Insofar as the Privacy Act of 1974 (5...

  20. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 401.0 Introduction. (a) The Delaware River Basin...

  1. Proper orthogonal decomposition in the analysis of a laboratory simulation of land- and sea-breeze regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, Antonio; Monti, Paolo

    2004-07-01

    A land- and sea-breeze (LSB) circulation under a calm stably stratified environment was simulated in the laboratory using a temperature-controlled water tank. The floor of the tank was divided into two sections representing land and sea. Two heat exchangers, each of them connected to a thermostat, simulated the diurnal thermal cycle typically experienced by the surface in coastal zones. A third heat exchanger positioned at the top of the tank provided a stable thermal stratification. Particle-tracking velocimetry was applied to evaluate the two-dimensional velocity field in the vertical centreline section of the tank orthogonal to the coastline, while a rack of thermocouples measured the vertical temperature profile near the coastline and further inland. It is shown that the overall flow consists of a closed circulation caused by the periodic change of the horizontal temperature difference between land and sea surfaces. Furthermore, the formations of cellular convection during the first phase of warming of the land-side as well as the genesis of the sea-breeze front were detected and analysed. Application of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) technique allowed the vortical large-scale structures in the flow to be determined. The results suggest that the energy contained in the first POD eigenmodes rapidly converged with the first mode, associated with the overall LSB circulation, being dominant with 73% of the energy. The other less energetic modes were mainly associated with the cellular convection.

  2. Object-Driven and Temporal Action Rules Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajja, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I present my complete research work in the field of action rules, more precisely object-driven and temporal action rules. The drive behind the introduction of object-driven and temporally based action rules is to bring forth an adapted approach to extract action rules from a subclass of systems that have a specific nature, in which…

  3. Ground Rules for Talk: The Acceptable Face of Prescription

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambirth, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In this second article on the theory of "ground rules for talk" I extend a debate between myself and Professor Neil Mercer over the introduction of "ground rules" into classrooms. I critique ground rules through the use of sociological theory and argue that advocates of the ground rules perspective need to recognise the ideological nature of their…

  4. Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, Clayton; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    Water is in high demand for farmers regardless of where you go. Unfortunately, farmers in southern Florida have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. There is an interest by the agricultural community about the effect weather has on usable surface water, however, research into viable weather patterns during La Nina and El Nino has yet to be researched. Using rainfall accumulation data from NASA Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite, this project s purpose was to assess the influence of El Nino and La Nina Oscillations on sea breeze thunderstorm patterns, as well as general rainfall patterns during the summer season in South Florida. Through this research we were able to illustrate the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall accumulation for each oscillation in relation to major agricultural areas. The study period for this project is from 1998, when TRMM was first launched, to 2009. Since sea breezes in Florida typically occur in the months of May through October, these months were chosen to be the months of the study. During this time, there were five periods of El Nino and two periods of La Nina, with a neutral period separating each oscillation. In order to eliminate rainfall from systems other than sea breeze thunderstorms, only days that were conducive to the development of a sea breeze front were selected.

  5. 6 GHz Microwave Power-Beaming Demonstration with 6-kV Rectenna and Ion-Breeze Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, T.; Janssen, J.; Karnesky, J.; Laks, D.; Santillo, M.; Strause, B.; Myrabo, L. N.; Alden, A.; Bouliane, P.; Zhang, M.

    2004-03-01

    On 14 April 2003 at the Communications Research Center (CRC) in Ottawa, Ontario, a 5.85-GHz transmitter beamed 3-kW of microwave power to a remote rectifying antenna (i.e., rectenna) that delivered 6-kV to a special `Ion-Breeze' Engine (IBE). Three of CRC's 26.5-cm by 31-cm rectennas were connected in series to provide the ~6-kV output. RPI's low-voltage IBE thrusters performed well in a ``world's first'' power-beaming demonstration with rectennas and endoatmospheric ion-propulsion engines. The successful tests were a low-tech, proof-of-concept demonstration for the future full-sized MicroWave Lightcraft (MWLC) and its air breathing `loiter' propulsion mode. Additional IBE experiments investigated the feasibility of producing flight control forces on the MWLC. The objective was to torque the charged hull for `pitch' or `roll' maneuvers. The torquing demonstration was entirely successful.

  6. Hamilton's rule.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Matthijs; Allen, Benjamin; Hoffman, Moshe; Simon, Burton; Veller, Carl

    2017-02-07

    This paper reviews and addresses a variety of issues relating to inclusive fitness. The main question is: are there limits to the generality of inclusive fitness, and if so, what are the perimeters of the domain within which inclusive fitness works? This question is addressed using two well-known tools from evolutionary theory: the replicator dynamics, and adaptive dynamics. Both are combined with population structure. How generally Hamilton's rule applies depends on how costs and benefits are defined. We therefore consider costs and benefits following from Karlin and Matessi's (1983) "counterfactual method", and costs and benefits as defined by the "regression method" (Gardner et al., 2011). With the latter definition of costs and benefits, Hamilton's rule always indicates the direction of selection correctly, and with the former it does not. How these two definitions can meaningfully be interpreted is also discussed. We also consider cases where the qualitative claim that relatedness fosters cooperation holds, even if Hamilton's rule as a quantitative prediction does not. We furthermore find out what the relation is between Hamilton's rule and Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. We also consider cancellation effects - which is the most important deepening of our understanding of when altruism is selected for. Finally we also explore the remarkable (im)possibilities for empirical testing with either definition of costs and benefits in Hamilton's rule.

  7. A Mesoscale Study of Sea Breeze Enhanced Summer Thunderstorms in the Florida Panhandle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    the average number of thunderstorms per year in the United States (After Lutgens and Tarbuck , 1989) .................................... 2 2 GOES 1 km...of Florida has the largest concentration of thunderstorm activity of any state in the nation (Lutgens and Tarbuck 1989). Locations in the Florida...activity in south Florida. Mon. Wea. Rev., 11 2, 686-703. Lutgens, F. K., and E. J. Tarbuck , 1989, The Atmosphere: An Introduction to Meteorology

  8. The role of refinery flaring events and bay breezes on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Fried, A.; Pickering, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area with maximum 8-hour average ozone peaking along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv. The NASA P-3B aircraft observed plumes from refinery flares west and northwest of Galveston Bay that were transported over the water. Continental air pollution from the north was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and a CMAQ model simulation with integrated source apportionment, which tracks the contribution of emissions source groups and regions on ozone concentrations.

  9. The role of bay breezes and regional transport on a high surface ozone episode during the Houston, Texas DISCOVER-AQ field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.; Estes, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The highest observed surface ozone concentrations in the Houston metropolitan area in 2013 occurred on September 25, which coincided with the Texas DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) field campaign. Surface ozone was elevated throughout the Houston metropolitan area. Maximum 8-hour average ozone peaked along the western shore of Galveston Bay, reaching 124 ppbv, almost 50 ppbv above the current EPA standard of 75 ppbv, at La Porte Sylvan Beach. Continental air pollution from the north and northeast was transported into the Houston metropolitan area where it mixed with locally generated emissions. A bay breeze circulation formed causing pollutants that were transported out over the water in the morning to recirculate back inland where they mixed with freshly emitted pollution near the bay breeze convergence zone. The highest surface ozone concentrations were reported near the bay breeze front at La Porte Sylvan Beach. This ozone episode will be presented using measurements made during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign and WRF and CMAQ model simulations.

  10. Observed and simulated features of the phases of the sea-breeze in the island of Mallorca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Maria A.; Cuxart, Joan; Simó, Gemma; Wrenger, Burkhard; Martinez-Villagrasa, Daniel; Guijarro, Jose A.; Telisman-Prtenjak, Maja; Lopez, Alvaro; Picos, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    In order to better understand the diurnal cycle of the Sea-Breeze (SB) in the island of Mallorca, during September 2013 and June 2014 two experimental field campaigns have been conducted in the Campos basin (at the south side). A total of 6 IOPs (clear skies and weak pressure gradient conditions) are analysed using observations taken close to the coastline (about 900 m inland) that consist on a surface portable station (equipped with a temperature and humidity probe, and one 2-D and 3-D sonic anemometers), a captive balloon (temperature and humidity) and a multicopter (temperature and humidity). Besides, observations from automatic weather stations of the AEMET network are taken as well as satellite-derived surface temperatures that together with the model outputs from high-resolution mesoscale simulations are used to better understand the organization of the flow at lower levels. With the combined inspection of observations and model results it is found that during the previous phase (after sunrise) land-breeze conditions were present and the sensible heat flux turned to positive meanwhile the turbulence started. In the preparatory phase (about 3 hours after sunrise) the wind close to the coast started to veer progressively towards the SB direction. As soon as the SB was initiated (about 5 hours after sunrise), the SB front progressed to the inland direction reaching a mature phase starting at noon. Afterwards, the SB decaying starts and close to sunset the wind speed was close to zero and veered towards the land to sea direction. During the campaign all phases were measured with special emphasis to the morning transition (from LB to SB) and the evening transition (from SB to LB) because of the strong wind shear (turbulence) reported during the mature phase. It is found that for all the different phases the model is able to capture the organization of the flow at lower levels although it experiences some difficulties in reproducing the thermal profile during the

  11. A Tropical Lake Breeze System : The Effect on Surface NO, NO2, O3, and CO2 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Moura, M. A.; Eça D'Almeida Rocha, C. H.; Trebs, I.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2003-04-01

    During the Cooperative LBA Airborne Regional Experiment 2001 (CLAIRE2001, July 2001), we investigated diel variations of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO_2), ozone (O_3) and carbon dioxide (CO_2) mixing ratios at Balbina Limnological Station (01^o55'994''S, 59^o28'071''W, Amazonia,Brazil). We applied sensitive and species-specific chemiluminescence (NO, NO_2, O_3) and NDIR (CO_2) analysers to record ambient mixing ratios on 1 min intervals. Simultaneously, we extensively monitored (micro-)meteorological qauntities (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and -direction, thermal stratification, rainfall intensity, soil temperatures and moisture, as well as radiation fluxes (global, net, short wave, NO_2 photolysis, and photosynthetic active)). Balbina Limnological Station is located just a few hundred meters south of a 2.360 km^2 hydroelectric power dam (Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina) and about 100m north from the edge of a primary rainforest. Marked differences in surface albedo and heat storage capacity generate a local wind system, the lake breeze, which advects air from the dam (09:00 to 15:00 local) and from the rainforest (18:00 to 06:00 local), respectively. Generally, we observed marked diel variations of NO, NO_2, O_3, and CO_2 (high/low levels during night/day) and O_3 (low/high levels during night/day). Especially in the tropics, this behaviour is usually related to (a) accumulation of soil emissions (NO, CO_2), chemical reactions (NO, from NO_2-O_3 reaction) and surface destruction (O_3) in a shallow and strong nocturnal boundary layer inversion, and (b) to soil emission (NO), photochemical reactions (NO-NO_2-O_3), dry deposition/plant uptake (NO_2, O_3, and CO_2) and strong turbulent vertical mixing in the daytime mixed layer. However, under the specific conditions of the lake breeze soil emission and dry deposition/ plant uptake can be neglected during daytime. Consequently, the investigation of daytime mixing ratios can be confined to

  12. Collaboration rules.

    PubMed

    Evans, Philip; Wolf, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Corporate leaders seeking to boost growth, learning, and innovation may find the answer in a surprising place: the Linux open-source software community. Linux is developed by an essentially volunteer, self-organizing community of thousands of programmers. Most leaders would sell their grandmothers for workforces that collaborate as efficiently, frictionlessly, and creatively as the self-styled Linux hackers. But Linux is software, and software is hardly a model for mainstream business. The authors have, nonetheless, found surprising parallels between the anarchistic, caffeinated, hirsute world of Linux hackers and the disciplined, tea-sipping, clean-cut world of Toyota engineering. Specifically, Toyota and Linux operate by rules that blend the self-organizing advantages of markets with the low transaction costs of hierarchies. In place of markets' cash and contracts and hierarchies' authority are rules about how individuals and groups work together (with rigorous discipline); how they communicate (widely and with granularity); and how leaders guide them toward a common goal (through example). Those rules, augmented by simple communication technologies and a lack of legal barriers to sharing information, create rich common knowledge, the ability to organize teams modularly, extraordinary motivation, and high levels of trust, which radically lowers transaction costs. Low transaction costs, in turn, make it profitable for organizations to perform more and smaller transactions--and so increase the pace and flexibility typical of high-performance organizations. Once the system achieves critical mass, it feeds on itself. The larger the system, the more broadly shared the knowledge, language, and work style. The greater individuals' reputational capital, the louder the applause and the stronger the motivation. The success of Linux is evidence of the power of that virtuous circle. Toyota's success is evidence that it is also powerful in conventional companies.

  13. 77 FR 13951 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...; Introduction; United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement; Small Entity Compliance Guide; Final Rules #0;#0... Chapter 1 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Federal Acquisition Circular 2005-57; Introduction...

  14. 18 CFR 401.0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction. 401.0 Section 401.0 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE... Access to the Commission's Records and Information. Article 9—General Provisions. (f) These rules...

  15. Relevance of Surface Energy Budget within Florida Sea-Breeze Front to Cross-Peninsula Rainwater Runoff Gradient.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Harry J.; Smith, Eric A.; Rubes, Michael T.

    1998-09-01

    Analysis of surface latent heat flux measurements taken within the sea-breeze front of the coast of Florida during active thunderstorm periods demonstrates an important effect of the timing of coastal storms on the seasonal surface water budget. Historical records document a systematic cross-peninsula water runoff gradient across Florida, with total runoff greater on the east coast (Atlantic side) than on the west coast (gulf side). This situation persists even though convective rainfall tends to be greater in the summertime on the gulf side. In this paper, the authors examine the effect of the time of day that summer thunderstorms occur at a given location on poststorm evaporation of rainfall and place these effects into the context of the annual runoff at the coasts and seasonal rainfall in order to assess their possible significance.A surface water exchange analysis, based on datasets obtained during the 1991 summertime Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment, finds that part of the runoff gradient can be explained by an indirect atmospheric mechanism. Results indicate that differences in the diurnal timing of thunderstorms between the two coasts and the associated differences in postthunderstorm evapotranspiration can account for a significant portion of the annual differential in runoff. During the summer months, gulf coast storms often occur earlier in the day than Atlantic coast storms because of the combined effects of the mesoscale sea-breeze convergence and synoptic-scale flow around the Bermuda high. Under these conditions, once the later-day east coast thunderstorms dissipate, there is no longer any net solar radiation source to drive evapotranspiration, so that rainwater not taken up by ground filtration tends to go into runoff. On the west coast, when thunderstorms occur earlier and dissipate in midafternoon, there is still enough net surface radiation to drive significant rates of evapotranspiration, which reduces the amount of water

  16. 77 FR 55888 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) To Add a PL Select Order September 5, 2012. I. Introduction On May 22...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to amend NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) to add a PL Select... Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h) To Add a PL Select Order Type)....

  17. Interstellar Neutral Helium in the Heliosphere from IBEX Observations. IV. Flow Vector, Mach Number, and Abundance of the Warm Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Galli, A.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; McComas, D. J.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wurz, P.

    2016-04-01

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010-2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ˜9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s-1, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  18. A modeling study of convection initiation prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front and a gust front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulikemu, Abuduwaili; Xu, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ding, Jinfeng; Zhang, Shushi; Shen, Wenqiang

    2016-12-01

    Convection initiation (CI) prior to the merger of a sea-breeze front (SBF) with a gust front (GF) in North China is investigated using a real-data Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulation with a high resolution of 444.4 m. The overall evolution of the GF and SBF is well reproduced by the simulation. The GF was produced by the decaying convective storm over northern Beijing, while the SBF came from the Bohai Sea. Several convective cells were generated between the two fronts even though they were still about 25-30 km far away from each other. During the development of these cells, the low-level convergence and conditional instability averaged within the intermediate area between the two fronts were enhanced significantly, both of which favored the initiation of convection. Vertical momentum budgets were conducted in the intermediate area as well as along the backward trajectories of parcels within a selected convective cell. The vertical acceleration was decomposed into dynamic and buoyant components, respectively. The diagnostic results showed that the dynamic acceleration dominated in the low level, while buoyant acceleration became evident only when the parcel reached a high altitude above 2 km. Therefore the dynamic forcing appeared to be more relevant to CI. The dynamic acceleration was further decomposed into four terms based on anelastic approximation. The positive dynamic acceleration was mainly caused by fluid extension associated with the low-level convergence, while fluid twisting in the vertical contributed negatively to the dynamic acceleration. The other two terms related to horizontal curvature and height variation of density were negligibly small.

  19. Aerosol extinction properties over coastal West Bengal Gangetic plain under inter-seasonal and sea breeze influenced transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, S.; Priyadharshini, B.; Pani, S. K.; Bharath Kumar, D.; Faruqi, A. R.; Bhanja, S. N.; Mandal, M.

    2016-01-01

    We analysed the atmospheric aerosol extinction properties under an influence of inter-seasonal and sea breeze (SB) transport processes over coastal West Bengal (WB) Gangetic plain (WBGP). The predominant frequency of airmass back trajectory path was through the Arabian Sea (AS) during southwest monsoon (SWmon) and that through the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during transition to winter (Twin) season and the Bay of Bengal during transition to summer (Tsumm) season. Aerosol surface concentration (Sconc) and aerosol extinction exhibited heterogeneity in the seasonal variability over coastal WBGP with their highest seasonal mean being during winter and summer seasons respectively. Seasonal mean extinction was respectively 17% and 30% higher during winter and summer seasons than that during SWmon. While angstrom exponent (AE) was less than one during SWmon, Tsumm, and summer seasons, it was near to one during Twin and winter monsoon (Wmon), and was more than one during winter season. Relative contribution (%) of upper (at altitude above 1 km) aerosol layer (UAL) to aerosol extinction during summer was four times of that during winter. Seasonally distinct vertical distribution of aerosol extinction associated with meteorological and SB influenced transport and that due to influence of high rise open burning emissions was inferred. Possible aerosol subtypes extracted during days in Tsumm were inferred to be mostly constituted of dust and polluted dust during daytime, in addition to polluted continental and smoke in UAL during nighttime. In contrast to that at nearby urban location (Kolkata, KOL), intensity of updraft of airmass evaluated during evening/SB activity hour (1730 local time, (LT)) at study site (Kharagpur, KGP) was as high as 3.5 times the intensity during near to noon hour (1130 LT); this intensity was the highest along coast of westBengal-Orissa. Enhanced Sconc and relative contribution of UAL to aerosol extinction (58% compared to 36% only at nearby urban

  20. Distribution of Particulates in Hydrothermal Plumes of the Endeavour Axial Valley: Preliminary Results from the Sea Breeze Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, T. H.; McDuff, R. E.; Robigou, V.; Stahr, F.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal vent plumes provide zones for chemical reactions between vent fluids and seawater, potential habitats for anaerobic bacteria and zooplankton, and a probable mechanism for the dispersal of vent larvae. Within the Endeavour Integrated Study Site are five known vent fields situated along the axial valley of the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (N.E. Pacific Ocean). Each of these fields has a particle rich neutrally buoyant plume above it almost constantly, a common characteristic of vent systems worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine 1) how plume particle distribution varies along the Endeavour segment axial valley; 2) whether a correlation exists between vent activity and particle density in the surrounding water, and 3) if the peak signals in backscatter and light transmission fall within a consistent range of potential density values along the axial valley. Light transmission and backscatter data were collected from vertically oscillating CTD casts at 21 stations along the axial valley covering the fields of Mothra, Main Endeavour, High Rise, Salty Dawg, and Sasquatch during the Sea Breeze - REVEL 2004 seagoing program. Plume particle density within ocean water was measured using a Wetlabs transmissometer and a Seapoint turbidity sensor. Preliminary results indicate a positive correlation between "black smoker" activity and signal strength in backscatter and light transmission. Main Endeavour and High Rise, known to exhibit the most rigorous hydrothermal activity, show correspondingly high amplitude signals in both backscatter and light transmission. Predicted diurnal currents seem to effect lateral plume particle movement away from vent sources, greatly impacting the particle density in surrounding areas. Peak signals in backscatter and light transmission occur in less dense water moving northward from Mothra to Salty Dawg.

  1. Observational and numerical study of the nocturnal stratification evolution of the lower troposphere after a sea-breeze day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Talbot, Charles; Dmitriev, Egor; Fourmentin, Marc; Willart, Véronique; Delbarre, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the lower troposphere and vertical ozone concentrations have been studied in a post-sea-breeze atmosphere and over an industrialized coastal area of the North Sea. During this campaign, ground-based remote sensing systems (lidar and sodar) were deployed over the city of Dunkerque, in the North of France, together with surface meteorological and air quality network stations. The measurements were interpreted by means of simulations of non-hydrostatic atmospheric model MESO-NH. After the sunset, the structure of the lower troposphere changed considerably and became increasingly complex. We observed a multiple-layer structure between 200 m and 400 m with high ozone concentrations. The mechanism of this phenomenon has been deduced from numerical simulations. In the middle of the night, the change of the synoptic wind direction resulted in a ramification of the advective atmospheric boundary-layer into two different residual layers. Above the gravity current, an air mass consisting in horizontal multilayer structures was observed at an altitude between 400 m and 800 m. The numerical simulations revealed a relationship between these structures and the vertical profiles of meteorological parameters such as wind speed, water vapour mixing ratio and potential temperature. The origins of these structures were obtained by means of Lagrangian backtrajectories of passive tracers. Simultaneously a stable double-layer structure has been detected by the lidar, near the ground, from the surface to 200 m. This structure persisted until the morning and inhibited the development of the mixing layer. We showed that a presence of the double-layer structure may lead to high pollution concentrations near the surface at night in the industrialized coastal area.

  2. A numerical study of interactions between surface forcing and sea breeze circulations and their effects on stagnation in the greater Houston area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Miao, Shiguang; Tewari, Mukul; Bao, Jian-Wen; Kusaka, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution simulations from the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW-WRF) model, coupled to an urban canopy model (UCM), are used to investigate impacts of soil moisture, sea surface temperature (SST), and city of Houston itself on the development of a stagnant wind event in the Houston-Galveston (HG) area on 30 August 2000. Surface and wind profiler observations are used to evaluate the performance of WRF-UCM. The model captures the observed nocturnal urban-heat-island intensity, diurnal rotation of surface winds, and the timing and vertical extent of sea breeze and its reversal in the boundary layer remarkably well. Using hourly SST slightly improves the WRF simulation of offshore wind and temperature. Model sensitivity tests demonstrate a delicate balance between the strength of sea breeze and prevailing offshore weak flow in determining the duration of the afternoon-evening stagnation in HG. When the morning offshore flow is weak (3-5 m s-1), variations (1°-3°C) in surface temperature caused by environmental conditions substantially modify the wind fields over HG. The existence of the city itself seems to favor stagnation. Extremely dry soils increase daytime surface temperature by about 2°C, produced more vigorous boundary layer and faster moving sea breeze, favoring stagnation during late afternoon. The simulation with dry soils produces a 3 h shorter duration stagnation in the afternoon and 4 h longer duration in the evening, which may lead to more severe nighttime air pollution. Hourly variations of SST in shallow water in the Galveston Bay substantially affect the low-level wind speed in HG.

  3. Interannual Variation of the Summer Rainfall in the Taipei Basin Caused by the Impact of ENSO on the Land-Sea Breeze Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang; Tsay, Jenq-Dar; Takle, Eugene S.

    2015-04-01

    The Taipei Basin, located in northern Taiwan, is formed by the intersection of the Tanshui River Valley (~30km) and the Keelung River Valley (~60km). Summer is the dry season in northern Taiwan, but the maximum rainfall in the Taipei Basin occurs during the summer. The majority of summer rainfall (75%) in this Basin is produced by afternoon thunderstorms triggered by the sea breeze interactions with the mountains to the south of this Basin. Environmental conditions for the roughly three million people living in the Taipei Basin are greatly affected by the land-sea breeze and afternoon thunderstorm activities. Thus, the water supply, air-land traffic, and pollution for this extremely urbanized basin can be profoundly affected by interannual variations of thunderstorm days and rainfall. A systematic analysis was made of thunderstorm days and rainfall for the past two decades. Opposite the interannual variation of the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over the NOAA NINO3 - 4 region, ΔSST (NINO3 - 4), clear interannual variations of these two variables emerge. Occurrence days of afternoon thunderstorm and rainfall amount in the Taipei Basin are double during the cold ΔSST(NINO3 - 4) phase compared to the warm phase. During the latter (former) El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase, the Taipei Basin needs a stronger (weaker) warm/moist monsoon southwesterly flow channeled through the land-sea breeze to trigger thunderstorm activity. In contrast, the convergence of water vapor flux over the southeast/east Asian monsoon region toward Taiwan is enhanced more (less) to maintain rainfall over the Taipei Basin during the cold (warm) ENSO phase.

  4. Mesoscale Simulations of a Florida Sea Breeze Using the PLACE Land Surface Model Coupled to a 1.5-Order Turbulence Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, Barry H.; Stauffer, David R.; Wetzel, Peter J.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Perlin, Natal; Baker, R. David; Munoz, Ricardo; Boone, Aaron; Jia, Yiqin

    1999-01-01

    A sophisticated land-surface model, PLACE, the Parameterization for Land Atmospheric Convective Exchange, has been coupled to a 1.5-order turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) turbulence sub-model. Both have been incorporated into the Penn State/National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU/NCAR) mesoscale model MM5. Such model improvements should have their greatest effect in conditions where surface contrasts dominate over dynamic processes, such as the simulation of warm-season, convective events. A validation study used the newly coupled model, MM5 TKE-PLACE, to simulate the evolution of Florida sea-breeze moist convection during the Convection and Precipitation Electrification Experiment (CaPE). Overall, eight simulations tested the sensitivity of the MM5 model to combinations of the new and default model physics, and initialization of soil moisture and temperature. The TKE-PLACE model produced more realistic surface sensible heat flux, lower biases for surface variables, more realistic rainfall, and cloud cover than the default model. Of the 8 simulations with different factors (i.e., model physics or initialization), TKE-PLACE compared very well when each simulation was ranked in terms of biases of the surface variables and rainfall, and percent and root mean square of cloud cover. A factor separation analysis showed that a successful simulation required the inclusion of a multi-layered, land surface soil vegetation model, realistic initial soil moisture, and higher order closure of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). These were needed to realistically model the effect of individual, joint, and synergistic contributions from the land surface and PBL on the CAPE sea-breeze, Lake Okeechobee lake breeze, and moist convection.

  5. Identification and interpretation of representative ozone distributions in association with the sea breeze from different synoptic winds over the coastal urban area in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Oh, In-Bo; Lee, Hwa Woon; Kim, Cheol-Hee

    2007-12-01

    To aid the studies of long-term impact assessment of cumulative ozone (O3) exposures, the representative 8-hr O3 pollution patterns have been identified over the Greater Seoul Area (GSA) in Korea. Principal component analysis and two-stage clustering techniques were used to identify the representative O3 patterns, and numerical and observational analyses were also used to interpret the identified horizontal distribution patterns. The results yielded three major O3 distribution patterns, and each of the three patterns was found to have strong correlations with local and synoptic meteorological conditions over the GSA. For example, pattern 1, accounting for 46% of O3 concentration distributions, mostly occurred under relatively weak westerly synoptic winds. The predominant features of this pattern were infrequent high O3 levels but a distinct gradient of O3 concentration from the western coastal area to the eastern inland area that was mainly induced by the local sea breeze. Pattern 2, accounting for 31% of O3 concentration distributions, was found with higher O3 levels in the western coastal area but lower in the eastern inland area. This is due to the modified sea breeze under the relatively stronger easterly opposing synoptic wind, affecting the high O3 occurrence in the western coastal area only. However, pattern 3, accounting for 21% of O3 concentration distributions, showed significantly higher O3 concentrations over the whole GSA mainly due to the retarded and slow-moving sea-breeze front under the weak opposing synoptic flow. Modeling study also indicated that local and synoptic meteorological processes play a major role in determining the high O3 concentration distribution patterns over the GSA.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Air Pollution Along the Gulf Coast Observed During BRACE: A Case Study of the Land-Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellman, D.; Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. One objective of the aircraft flights was to investigate the role of the sea breeze circulation in determining patterns of nutrient deposition and pollutant loads in the Tampa Bay watershed. Results will be presented from a May 8 flight designed to investigate the effect of the sea breeze recirculation upon Tampa's air quality. The Twin Otter took off at 1425 UTC and after performing a spiral ascent over the Sydney ground site, proceeded to fly north, at 200 feet above mean sea level (MSL) just off the Gulf coast, west of St. Petersburg. Back trajectory analysis suggested the dominance of a northerly rotation in the sea breeze; thus, air sampled over the Gulf passed some hours earlier to the south of the Tampa metropolitan area, in an area largely devoid of major pollution sources, before being advected eastward in the afternoon return flow. Ozone levels in this air mass ranged from 40 to 50 ppbv. Farther north the Twin Otter encountered the advected urban plume from Tampa, displaced to the north by the combination of southeasterly sea breeze flow and westerly return flow, and tracked this plume inland. Ozone levels quickly jumped to 60 ppbv, and increased to as high as 90 ppbv as photochemical processing continued in the advected plume. Nitric acid levels, which approached 4 ppbv in the aged urban air at the coast, dropped rapidly to as low as 1 ppbv inland. A final flight leg to the east of downtown Tampa encountered fresh anthropogenic pollution from the afternoon rush hour; ozone was rapidly produced in the

  7. 48 CFR 6101.17 - Exhibits [Rule 17].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the hearing in order, for example, to eliminate the introduction of additional exhibits at the hearing. (2) If a party elects to proceed on the record without a hearing pursuant to 6101.19 (Rule...

  8. The impact of anthropogenic land-cover change on the Florida Peninsula Sea Breezes and warm season sensible weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, C.H.; Pielke, R.A.; Steyaert, L.T.; Willard, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    During the twentieth century, the natural landscape of the Florida peninsula was transformed extensively by agriculture, urbanization, and the diversion of surface water features. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical modeling study in which the possible impacts of this transformation on the warm season climate of the region were investigated. For three separate July-August periods (1973, 1989, and 1994), a pair of simulations was performed with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Within each pair, the simulations differed only in the specification of land-cover class. The two different classes were specified using highly detailed datasets that were constructed to represent pre-1900 natural land cover and 1993 land-use patterns, thus capturing the landscape transformation within each pair of simulations. When the pre-1900 natural cover was replaced with the 1993 land-use dataset, the simulated spatial patterns of the surface sensible and latent heat flux were altered significantly, resulting in changes in the structure and strength of climatologically persistent, surface-forced mesoscale circulations-particularly the afternoon sea-breeze fronts. This mechanism was associated with marked changes in the spatial distribution of convective rainfall totals over the peninsula. When averaged over the model domain, this redistribution was reflected as an overall decrease in the 2-month precipitation total. In addition, the domain average of the diurnal cycle of 2-m temperature was amplified, with a noted increase in the daytime maximum. These results were consistent among all three simulated periods, and largely unchanged when subjected to a number of model sensitivity factors. Furthermore, the model results are in reasonable agreement with an analysis of observational data that indicates decreasing regional precipitation and increasing daytime maximum temperature during the twentieth century. These results could have important implications for water

  9. INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE FROM IBEX OBSERVATIONS. IV. FLOW VECTOR, MACH NUMBER, AND ABUNDANCE OF THE WARM BREEZE

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, Marzena A.; Swaczyna, P.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Heirtzler, D.; Kucharek, H.; Leonard, T. W.; Möbius, E.; Park, J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2016-04-15

    Following the high-precision determination of the velocity vector and temperature of the pristine interstellar neutral (ISN) He via a coordinated analysis summarized by McComas et al., we analyzed the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observations of neutral He left out from this analysis. These observations were collected during the ISN observation seasons 2010–2014 and cover the region in the Earth's orbit where the Warm Breeze (WB) persists. We used the same simulation model and a parameter fitting method very similar to that used for the analysis of ISN He. We approximated the parent population of the WB in front of the heliosphere with a homogeneous Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function and found a temperature of ∼9500 K, an inflow speed of 11.3 km s{sup −1}, and an inflow longitude and latitude in the J2000 ecliptic coordinates 251.°6, 12.°0. The abundance of the WB relative to ISN He is 5.7% and the Mach number is 1.97. The newly determined inflow direction of the WB, the inflow directions of ISN H and ISN He, and the direction to the center of the IBEX Ribbon are almost perfectly co-planar, and this plane coincides within relatively narrow statistical uncertainties with the plane fitted only to the inflow directions of ISN He, ISN H, and the WB. This co-planarity lends support to the hypothesis that the WB is the secondary population of ISN He and that the center of the Ribbon coincides with the direction of the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). The common plane for the direction of the inflow of ISN gas, ISN H, the WB, and the local ISMF is given by the normal direction: ecliptic longitude 349.°7 ± 0.°6 and latitude 35.°7 ± 0.6 in the J2000 coordinates, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85.

  10. Mesoscale modeling of smoke transport over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent: Interplay of sea breeze, trade wind, typhoon, and topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Ge, Cui; Yang, Zhifeng; Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Chew, Boon-Ning; Mahmud, Mastura; Zhang, Yongxin; Zhang, Meigen

    2013-03-01

    The online-coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRFchem) is used to simulate the transport of smoke particles over the Southeast Asian Maritime Continent during September-October 2006. In this period, dry conditions associated with the moderate El Niño event caused the largest regional biomass burning outbreak since 1997. Smoke emission in WRFchem is specified according to the Fire Locating and Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) database derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire products. The modeled smoke transport pathway is found to be consistent with the MODIS true color images and measured mass concentration of surface PM10 (particulate matter with diameter less than 10 μm). The interplay of sea/land breezes, typhoons and storms over the subtropical western Pacific Ocean, trade winds, and topographic effects, can be clearly seen in the model simulation. The most severe smoke events in 1-5 October 2006 are found to be associated with the meteorological responses to the typhoon Xangsane (#18) over the western subtropical Pacific Ocean, which moved smoke from Sumatra eastward in the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa), forming smoke layers mixed with and above the boundary layer clouds over Borneo. In contrast, the second largest week-long smoke transport event of 15-18 October 2006 was associated with the seasonal monsoonal transition period, during which smoke plumes were wide spread over the 5°S-5°N zone as a result of (a) the near surface divergence coupled with the 700 hPa bifurcation of wind (flowing both to the west and to the east), and (b) the near-surface southeasterly and easterly winds along the equator transporting smoke from Borneo to Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Analysis of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarisation (CALIOP) shows that smoke particles in October 2006 were primarily located within 3.5 km above the surface. Smoke particles contributed roughly half

  11. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Kids > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A en español La ... it, he or she might have yelled, "5-second rule!" This so-called rule says food is ...

  12. Volume 1 - Introduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An introduction to the Emissions Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) materials. Describes EIIP development, use of EIIP, inventory staff training, and planning, development, documentation, and reporting of inventories.

  13. 76 FR 36608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... List and Trade the Meidell Tactical Advantage ETF June 16, 2011. I. Introduction On April 15, 2011... Tactical Advantage ETF (``Fund'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.600. The proposed rule change...

  14. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas quadrangles, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, Marvin A.; Scott, John C.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Gulf Breeze-Fort Barrancas topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of Big Lagoon, Pensacola Bay, Santa Rosa Sound, and the Gulf of Mexico from Seaglades eastward to Pensacola Beach, Florida. The still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

  15. 77 FR 65754 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Change Relating to the Complex Order Auction Process October 24, 2012. I. Introduction On August 30, 2012...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to modify C2 Rule 6.13(c), ``Process for Complex...'') message sent to Participants at the start of a Complex Order Auction (``COA''); and (ii) require...

  16. Phonological reduplication in sign language: Rules rule.

    PubMed

    Berent, Iris; Dupuis, Amanda; Brentari, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Productivity-the hallmark of linguistic competence-is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL). As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX)-a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such a rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating), and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task). The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  17. Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    1 1 Introduction Mary K. Klassen-Fischer and Ronald C. Neafie Introduction Protozoa Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic animals first dis...phylogeny of protozoa , see Table 1.1. A recent trend is to replace the term “ protozoa ” with “protista.” For these topics we retain “pro- tozoa” and...JUN 2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Pathogenic Protozoa 5a. CONTRACT

  18. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness The 5-Second Rule KidsHealth > For Teens > The 5-Second Rule Print A A A Almost everyone has ... to eat it. Some people apply the "5-second rule" — that random saying about how food won' ...

  19. A Better Budget Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dothan, Michael; Thompson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Debt limits, interest coverage ratios, one-off balanced budget requirements, pay-as-you-go rules, and tax and expenditure limits are among the most important fiscal rules for constraining intertemporal transfers. There is considerable evidence that the least costly and most effective of such rules are those that focus directly on the rate of…

  20. Two Rules for Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important and most difficult skills of academic leadership is communication. In this column, the author defines what he considers to be the two most important rules for communication. The first rule, which he terms the "Great American Rule," involves trusting that the person on the other end of the line or the fax or the e-mail is…

  1. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  2. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the fifteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  3. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XIV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the thirteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide sequ...

  4. Introduction: Invertebrate Neuropeptides XVI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication represents an introduction to the sixteenth in a series of special issues of the Peptides journal dedicated to invertebrate neuropeptides. The issue addresses a number of aspects of invertebrate neuropeptide research including identification of novel invertebrate neuropeptide seque...

  5. Rules on determining hearing appearances. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-05-21

    This final rule is another step in our continual efforts to handle workloads more effectively and efficiently. We are publishing final rules for portions of the rules we proposed in October 2007 that relate to persons, other than the claimant or any other party to the hearing, appearing by telephone. We are also clarifying that the administrative law judge (ALJ) will allow the claimant or any other party to a hearing to appear by telephone under certain circumstances when the claimant or other party requests to make his or her appearance in that manner. We expect that these final rules will make the hearings process more efficient and help us continue to reduce the hearings backlog. In addition, we made some minor editorial changes to our regulations that do not have any effect on the rights of claimants or any other parties.

  6. Introduction to RTM Workstation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    Several successful experiments were run using different types of resins and fibers for both RTM and VARTM processes. 3. According to DSC measures...INTRODUCTION TO RTM WORKSTATION Jeffrey M. Lawrence Mathieu Devillard Peter Friede Dr. Suresh G. Advani Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction To RTM Workstation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  7. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  8. Florida Agriculture - Utilizing TRMM to Analyze Sea Breeze Thunderstorm Patterns During El Nino Southern Oscillations and Their Effects Upon Available Fresh Water for South Florida Agricultural Planning and Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake; Cooley, Zachary Clayton; Mitchell, Brandie

    2010-01-01

    This project utilizes Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Landsat satellite data to assess the impact of sea breeze precipitation upon areas of agricultural land use in southern Florida. Water is a critical resource to agriculture, and the availability of water for agricultural use in Florida continues to remain a key issue. Recent projections of statewide water use by 2020 estimate that 9.3 billion gallons of water per day will be demanded, and agriculture represents 47% of this demand (Bronson 2003). Farmers have fewer options for water supplies than public users and are often limited to using available supplies from surface and ground water sources which depend in part upon variable weather patterns. Sea breeze thunderstorms are responsible for much of the rainfall delivered to Florida during the wet season (May-October) and have been recognized as an important overall contributor of rainfall in southern Florida (Almeida 2003). TRMM satellite data was used to analyze how sea breeze-induced thunderstorms during El Nino and La Nina affected interannual patterns of precipitation in southern Florida from 1998-2009. TRMM's Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager provide data to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere, precipitation rates and intensity, and the distribution of precipitation. Rainfall accumulation data derived from TRMM and other microwave sensors were used to analyze the temporal and spatial variations of rainfall during each phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Through the use of TRMM and Landsat, slight variations were observed, but it was determined that neither sea breeze nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida were strongly affected by ENSO during the study period. However, more research is needed to characterize the influence of ENSO on summer weather patterns in South Florida. This research will provide the basis for continued observations and study with the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission.

  9. Introduction to Childhood Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehily, Mary Jane, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Educationalists and social scientists are increasingly interested in childhood as a distinct social category, and Childhood Studies is now a recognized area of research and analysis. This book brings together the key themes of Childhood Studies in a broad and accessible introduction for students and practitioners working in this field.…

  10. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Paul

    2015-01-21

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  11. Introduction to Relational Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    such as Russell’s "rami- tied type theory." In most other respects our notation follows that of Carnap 11] and Whitehead and Russell [8]. There is no... Carnap , R. Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applica- tions, Dover, 1958. [2] Childs, D.L. Feasibility of a set-theoretic data structure based on a

  12. Writing the introduction.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C; Ng, K H

    2008-10-01

    The introduction section of a scientific paper aims to introduce a specific topic and to stimulate the reader's interest. It provides background information about what has already been done by others, supported by a limited number of relevant references. The reader should be informed about the purpose of the paper, what it will address, and how it relates to previous work.

  13. An Introduction to Akan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Jack; Aidoo, Agnes Akosua

    This introduction to Akan is designed to provide the basic structures and vocabulary that a non-native speaker would need to use Akan. The text is based on the Asante dialect of Akan, and is divided into twenty units. Each unit consists of a conversation given in English and Asante, drills for the classroom or individual practice, grammar notes,…

  14. Why SRS Matters - Introduction

    ScienceCinema

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-08-26

    A video series presenting an overview of the Savannah River Site's (SRS) mission and operations. Each episode features a specific area/operation and how it contributes to help make the world safer. This episode provides an introduction to the SRS mission and operations.

  15. Introduction to International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  16. Mauritian Creole: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Morris F.; And Others

    The format of this 23-unit course in Mauritian Creole is based on "microwave" cycles, each cycle beginning with the introduction of new material and ending with the use of that material in communication. A small amount of new material is introduced at a time (usually in a monolog, drill, or dialog) which, after a brief bit of practice is…

  17. Introduction to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  18. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  19. An Introduction to Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written to have a preliminary introduction about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the interrelation between linguistic factors and psychological aspects. The main subject of research in psycholinguistics is the study of cognitive processes that underlie the comprehension and production of…

  20. Introduction to HACCP.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  1. Strategy as simple rules.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, K M; Sull, D N

    2001-01-01

    The success of Yahoo!, eBay, Enron, and other companies that have become adept at morphing to meet the demands of changing markets can't be explained using traditional thinking about competitive strategy. These companies have succeeded by pursuing constantly evolving strategies in market spaces that were considered unattractive according to traditional measures. In this article--the third in an HBR series by Kathleen Eisenhardt and Donald Sull on strategy in the new economy--the authors ask, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? The secret, they say, is strategy as simple rules. The companies know that the greatest opportunities for competitive advantage lie in market confusion, but they recognize the need for a few crucial strategic processes and a few simple rules. In traditional strategy, advantage comes from exploiting resources or stable market positions. In strategy as simple rules, advantage comes from successfully seizing fleeting opportunities. Key strategic processes, such as product innovation, partnering, or spinout creation, place the company where the flow of opportunities is greatest. Simple rules then provide the guidelines within which managers can pursue such opportunities. Simple rules, which grow out of experience, fall into five broad categories: how- to rules, boundary conditions, priority rules, timing rules, and exit rules. Companies with simple-rules strategies must follow the rules religiously and avoid the temptation to change them too frequently. A consistent strategy helps managers sort through opportunities and gain short-term advantage by exploiting the attractive ones. In stable markets, managers rely on complicated strategies built on detailed predictions of the future. But when business is complicated, strategy should be simple.

  2. How Rules Shape Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Rules guide and constrain participants' actions as they participate in any educational activity. This ethnographically driven case study examines how organizational rules--the implicit and explicit regulations that constrain actions and interactions--influence children to use science in the experiential educational activity of raising 4-H market…

  3. "Chaos Rules" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    About 20 years ago, while lost in the midst of his PhD research, the author mused over proposed titles for his thesis. He was pretty pleased with himself when he came up with "Chaos Rules" (the implied double meaning was deliberate), or more completely, "Chaos Rules: An Exploration of the Work of Instructional Designers in Distance Education." He…

  4. Rules for Thesaurus Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Research and Development (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Panel on Educational Terminology.

    This is a revision of the "Rules for Thesaurus Preparation," published in October 1966. These rules are designed to help the Central ERIC staff and the staffs of the ERIC Clearinghouses make similar decisions related to the addition and modification of terms in the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors," Second Edition. In addition to…

  5. Ruling Out Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Papaparaskevas, Joseph; Houhoula, Dimitra P.; Papadimitriou, Maria; Saroglou, Georgios; Legakis, Nicholas J.

    2004-01-01

    Optimization of methods for ruling out Bacillus anthracis leads to increased yields, faster turnaround times, and a lighter workload. We used 72 environmental non–B. anthracis bacilli to validate methods for ruling out B. anthracis. Most effective were horse blood agar, motility testing after a 2-h incubation in trypticase soy broth, and screening with a B. anthracis–selective agar. PMID:15200872

  6. A Reconceptualization of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushner, Malcolm

    Recently, communications scholars and theorists have begun formulating rules to describe the workings of language in various situations of everyday use. Theoretically, current rules approaches are in violation of the basic philosophy underlying communication theory--Whitehead's notion of process. The inconsistency is a function of the degree of…

  7. Are Intuitive Rules Universal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavy, Ruth; Babai, Reuven; Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Lin, Fou-Lai; McRobbie, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the intuitive rules theory. The study was conducted in Australia (with aboriginal children) in Taiwan and in Israel. Our findings indicate that Taiwanese and Australian Aboriginal students, much like Israeli ones, provided incorrect responses, most of which were in line with the intuitive rules. Also,…

  8. Beyond Rules to Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Rules are not helpful in the adult-child community. They are usually stated in the negative: "No," "Don't," etc. The way they are worded, adults seem to expect children to break them. Even when they are not totally negative, like "Be nice to your friends," rules have an "or else" moral implication that adults carry around in their heads. When…

  9. Radiation Countermeasures Symposium: Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-15

    SH-containing molecules) protected animals from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Free radical scavengers • 1950s-1980s: US Army (WRAIR) advanced...applications for G-CSF (Neupogen®) in case of radiation incident • Neupogen® in Strategic National Stockpile UNI FORM ED SERVIC ESUNIV ERSI T Y of theHealth...success for any radiation countermeasure under Animal Rule: long-term survival? (Need to cure hematopoietic syndrome when assessing GI

  10. Introduction to ultrasonic motors

    SciTech Connect

    Sashida, Toshiiku; Kenjo, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasonic motor, invented in 1980, utilizes the piezoelectric effect in the ultrasonic frequency range to provide the motive force. (In conventional electric motors the motive force is electromagnetic.) The result is a motor with unusually good low-speed high-torque and power-to-weight characteristics. It has already found applications in camera autofocus mechanisms, medical equipment subject to high magnetic fields, and motorized car accessories. Its applications will increase as designers become more familiar with its unique characteristics. This book is the result of a collaboration between the inventor and an expert in conventional electric motors: the result is an introduction to the general theory presented in a way that links it to conventional motor theory. It will be invaluable both to motor designers and to those who design with and use electric motors as an introduction to this important new invention.

  11. Introduction to Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    materials’ • 1959 Feynman Lecture “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” provided the vision of exciting new discoveries if one could fabricate...NATO LECTURES M. Meyyappan Introduction to Nanotechnology Abstract Nanotechnology deals with creation of materials, devices and systems in... lecture will first define nanotechnology, particularly describing what it is and what it is not, followed by detailed examples of change in various

  12. Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    RTO-EN-AVT-143 9 - 1 Introduction to Pump Rotordynamics Luis San Andrés Mast-Childs Tribology Professor Turbomachinery Laboratory Texas A... rotordynamics of turbomachinery, excessive vibration and instability. The acceptable performance of a turbomachine depends on the adequate design and operation...on rotordynamics . The basic equations for the modeling of linear rotor-bearing systems are given along with an example for the rotordynamics of a

  13. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2010-07-12

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  14. Introduction to Modern Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Preface; Table of physical quantities; Part I. Foundations: 1. Introduction; 2. Magnetohydrodynamics; 3. Conservation laws; Part II. Fundamental Processes: 4. Magnetohydrodynamic waves; 5. Dynamo; 6. Discontinuities and shocks; 7. Magnetic reconnection; Part III. Instabilities and Magnetic Confinement: 8. Static equilibrium; 9. Linear perturbation theory; 10. Study of MHD instabilities; Part IV. Turbulence: 11. Hydrodynamic turbulence; 12. MHD turbulence; 13. Advanced MHD turbulence; Appendix 1. Solutions to the exercises; Appendix 2. Formulary; References; Index.

  15. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  16. Introduction to Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryden, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    Preface to second edition; Preface to first edition; 1. Introduction; 2. Fundamental observations; 3. Newton versus Einstein; 4. Cosmic dynamics; 5. Model universes; 6. Measuring cosmological parameters; 7. Dark matter; 8. The cosmic microwave background; 9. Nucleosynthesis and the early Universe; 10. Inflation and the very early Universe; 11. Structure formation: gravitational instability; 12. Structure formation: baryons and photons; Epilogue; Bibliography; Table of useful constants; Index.

  17. Earth System Monitoring, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, John

    This section provides sensing and data collection methodologies, as well as an understanding of Earth's climate parameters and natural and man-made phenomena, to support a scientific assessment of the Earth system as a whole, and its response to natural and human-induced changes. The coverage ranges from climate change factors and extreme weather and fires to oil spill tracking and volcanic eruptions. This serves as a basis to enable improved prediction and response to climate change, weather, and natural hazards as well as dissemination of the data and conclusions. The data collection systems include satellite remote sensing, aerial surveys, and land- and ocean-based monitoring stations. Our objective in this treatise is to provide a significant portion of the scientific and engineering basis of Earth system monitoring and to provide this in 17 detailed articles or chapters written at a level for use by university students through practicing professionals. The reader is also directed to the closely related sections on Ecological Systems, Introduction and also Climate Change Modeling Methodology, Introduction as well as Climate Change Remediation, Introduction to. For ease of use by students, each article begins with a glossary of terms, while at an average length of 25 print pages each, sufficient detail is presented for use by professionals in government, universities, and industries. The chapters are individually summarized below.

  18. 78 FR 6385 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h)(7) To Permit PL Select Orders To Interact With Incoming Orders Larger Than the Size of the PL Select Order January 24, 2013. I. Introduction On November 27, 2012, NYSE Arca...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to amend NYSE Arca Equities Rule 7.31(h)(7) to permit PL Select Orders...

  19. 75 FR 80553 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Complex Orders December 16, 2010. I. Introduction On October 20, 2010, NYSE Amex LLC (``NYSE Amex'' or the... rule change to: (i) Add to Rule 900.3NY(h) a definition of ``Stock/Complex Order;'' (ii) revise Rule 963NY(d) to update the provisions governing open outcry trading of Complex Orders and Stock/...

  20. Following the Rules.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-05-01

    I am getting better at following the rules as I grow older, although I still bristle at many of them. I was a typical rebellious teenager; no one understood me, David Bowie was my idol, and, one day, my generation was going to change the world. Now I really want people to understand me: David Bowie remains one of my favorite singers and, yes, my generation has changed the world, and not necessarily for the better. Growing up means that you have to make the rules, not just follow those set by others, and, at times, having rules makes a lot of sense.
.

  1. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medication Therapy Management programs Drug plan coverage rules , current page Using your drug plan for the first time Filling a prescription without your new plan card Costs for Medicare drug coverage Joining a health or ...

  2. 6 new buying rules.

    PubMed

    Pasternack, A

    1998-02-20

    Times change--and so does software purchasing. Buying in bulk, paying top dollar for what a system does, trusting a vendor to watch out for you--that's old input. Here are six fresh rules for the buying game.

  3. The 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... to know about the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A floor that looks dirty is usually worse, but even dry floors that look clean can contain bacteria. Why? Some germs can survive ...

  4. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  5. Introduction to the problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar

    1989-01-01

    Solid propellant rockets were used extensively in space missions ranging from large boosters to orbit-raising upper stages. The smaller motors find exclusive use in various earth-based applications. The advantage of the solids include simplicity, readiness, volumetric efficiency, and storability. Important recent progress in related fields (combustion, rheology, micro-instrumentation/diagnostics, and chaos theory) can be applied to solid rockets to derive maximum advantage and avoid waste. Main objectives of research in solid propellants include: to identify critical parameters, to establish specification rules, and to develop quantitative criteria.

  6. (FIELD) SYMMETRIZATION SELECTION RULES

    SciTech Connect

    P. PAGE

    2000-08-01

    QCD and QED exhibit an infinite set of three-point Green's functions that contain only OZI rule violating contributions, and (for QCD) are subleading in the large N{sub c} expansion. We prove that the QCD amplitude for a neutral hybrid {l_brace}1,3,5. . .{r_brace}{+-} exotic current to create {eta}{pi}{sup 0} only comes from OZI rule violating contributions under certain conditions, and is subleading in N{sub c}.

  7. Data breaches. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2008-04-11

    This document adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2007, addressing data breaches of sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). This final rule implements certain provisions of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006. The regulations prescribe the mechanisms for taking action in response to a data breach of sensitive personal information.

  8. Introduction to biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello

    2016-01-01

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. PMID:27365030

  9. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  10. Introduction to Econophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  11. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  12. Theoretical Optics: An Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, Hartmann

    2005-02-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researchers.

  13. An introduction to webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. D.

    2016-04-01

    Webs are sets of Feynman diagrams that contribute to the exponents of scattering amplitudes, in the kinematic limit in which emitted radiation is soft. As such, they have a number of phenomenological and formal applications, and offer tantalizing glimpses into the all-order structure of perturbative quantum field theory. This article is based on a series of lectures given to graduate students, and aims to provide a pedagogical introduction to webs. Topics covered include exponentiation in (non-)abelian gauge theories, the web mixing matrix formalism for non-abelian gauge theories, and recent progress on the calculation of web diagrams. Problems are included throughout the text, to aid understanding.

  14. Introduction to Numerical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schoonover, Joseph A.

    2016-06-14

    These are slides for a lecture for the Parallel Computing Summer Research Internship at the National Security Education Center. This gives an introduction to numerical methods. Repetitive algorithms are used to obtain approximate solutions to mathematical problems, using sorting, searching, root finding, optimization, interpolation, extrapolation, least squares regresion, Eigenvalue problems, ordinary differential equations, and partial differential equations. Many equations are shown. Discretizations allow us to approximate solutions to mathematical models of physical systems using a repetitive algorithm and introduce errors that can lead to numerical instabilities if we are not careful.

  15. Mechanisms of rule acquisition and rule following in inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; De Pisapia, Nicola; Jovicich, Jorge; Amati, Daniele; Shallice, Tim

    2011-05-25

    Despite the recent interest in the neuroanatomy of inductive reasoning processes, the regional specificity within prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the different mechanisms involved in induction tasks remains to be determined. In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the contribution of PFC regions to rule acquisition (rule search and rule discovery) and rule following. Twenty-six healthy young adult participants were presented with a series of images of cards, each consisting of a set of circles numbered in sequence with one colored blue. Participants had to predict the position of the blue circle on the next card. The rules that had to be acquired pertained to the relationship among succeeding stimuli. Responses given by subjects were categorized in a series of phases either tapping rule acquisition (responses given up to and including rule discovery) or rule following (correct responses after rule acquisition). Mid-dorsolateral PFC (mid-DLPFC) was active during rule search and remained active until successful rule acquisition. By contrast, rule following was associated with activation in temporal, motor, and medial/anterior prefrontal cortex. Moreover, frontopolar cortex (FPC) was active throughout the rule acquisition and rule following phases before a rule became familiar. We attributed activation in mid-DLPFC to hypothesis generation and in FPC to integration of multiple separate inferences. The present study provides evidence that brain activation during inductive reasoning involves a complex network of frontal processes and that different subregions respond during rule acquisition and rule following phases.

  16. 20 CFR 627.802 - Rules of procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a DOL agency or official is required. Technical rules of evidence shall not apply to hearings... submission of evidence. The ALJ shall not permit the introduction at the hearing of any documentation if such documentation has not been made available for review by the other parties to the proceeding either at the...

  17. Sticky Rules: Integration Between Abstract Rules and Specific Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ulrich; Bryck, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors manipulated repetitions and/or changes of abstract response rules and the specific stimulus- response (S-R) associations used under these rules. Experiments 1 and 2, assessing trial-to-trial priming effects, showed that repetition of complete S-R couplings produced only benefits when the rule also repeated (i.e., rule-S-R conjunctions)…

  18. 26 CFR 1.468A-1T - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules...-1T Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules (temporary). (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income...

  19. 77 FR 43407 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Amendments to Certain Rules Applicable to Stock Futures July 18, 2012. I. Introduction On May 24, 2012, The Options...

  20. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  1. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  2. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  3. 26 CFR 1.468A-1 - Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. 1...-1 Nuclear decommissioning costs; general rules. (a) Introduction. Section 468A provides an elective method for taking into account nuclear decommissioning costs for Federal income tax purposes. In...

  4. 77 FR 15438 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Mechanism March 9, 2012. I. Introduction On December 30, 2011, C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated (``Exchange... rule change relating to its Automated Improvement Mechanism (``AIM''). The proposed rule change was... perfect the mechanism for a free and open market and a national market system, and, in general, to...

  5. 75 FR 11210 - Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Amendment to Board Rules...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Public Company Accounting Oversight Board; Order Approving Proposed Amendment to Board Rules Relating to Inspections March 4, 2010. I. Introduction On July 2, 2009, the Public Company Accounting... accounting firms. Notice of the proposed rule amendment was published in the Federal Register on November...

  6. 76 FR 78059 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Management of Liquidity Risk December 9, 2011. I. Introduction On October 12, 2011, the Options... proposed rule change SR-OCC-2011-15 pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities Exchange Act of...

  7. 77 FR 6608 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Change To Implement a Competitive Liquidity Provider Program February 2, 2012. I. Introduction On... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 ] thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to implement a Competitive Liquidity... create a new category of market participants, known as Competitive Liquidity Providers (``CLPs''),...

  8. 77 FR 66196 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Relating to Financial Reporting by Canadian Clearing Members October 26, 2012. I. Introduction On September... to OCC's By-Laws and Rules relating to financial reporting by Canadian clearing members to reflect... Financial Reporting Standards. OCC Rule 310, through cross-references to interpretive provisions of OCC...

  9. 77 FR 30562 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change Relating to Stock Loan Buy-In and Sell-Out Rules May 17, 2012. I. Introduction On March 22, 2012, The Options Clearing Corporation (``OCC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange...

  10. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  11. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  12. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Rory D.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2015-01-01

    Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field. PMID:25685949

  13. An introduction to phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Maffucci, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) are minor components of cellular membranes that play critical regulatory roles in several intracellular functions. This chapter describes the main enzymes regulating the turnover of each of the seven PIs in mammalian cells and introduces to some of their intracellular functions and to some evidences of their involvement in human diseases. Due to the complex interrelation between the distinct PIs and the plethora of functions that they can regulate inside a cell, this chapter is not meant to be a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of PI signalling but rather an introduction to this complex signalling field. For more details of their regulation/functions and extensive description of their intracellular roles, more detailed reviews are suggested on each single topic.

  14. Novice Rules for Projectile Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, David P.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates several aspects of undergraduate students' rules for projectile motion including general patterns; rules for questions about time, distance, solids and liquids; and changes in rules when asked to ignore air resistance. Reports approach differences by sex and high school physics experience, and that novice rules are situation…

  15. Nature and Function of Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Barry A.

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed Year 1 and 2 teachers in Australia about their classroom rules. Found that teachers have about six rules for their classes relating to pupil-pupil relations, completing academic tasks, movement around the classroom, property, safety, and other. Most rules concerned pupil-pupil interactions, and all rules can be seen as a way of…

  16. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  17. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents a "degree of aggressiveness" in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: "conservative" driving with high speed limit and "aggressive" driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  18. Vet Centers. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-02

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule that amends its medical regulation that governs Vet Center services. The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2013 (the 2013 Act) requires Vet Centers to provide readjustment counseling services to broader groups of veterans, members of the Armed Forces, including a member of a reserve component of the Armed Forces, and family members of such veterans and members. This final rule adopts as final the regulatory criteria to conform to the 2013 Act, to include new and revised definitions.

  19. Sum rules for leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2016-06-01

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of flavor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briefly sketch how this happens and discuss briefly the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  20. Sum Rules for Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    There is a wide class of models which give a dynamical description of the origin of avor in terms of spontaneous symmetry breaking of an underlying symmetry. Many of these models exhibit sum rules which relate on the one hand mixing angles and the Dirac CP phase with each other and/or on the other hand neutrino masses and Majorana phases with each other. We will briey sketch how this happens and discuss briey the impact of renormalization group corrections to the mass sum rules.

  1. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Provides rules for protecting computers from viruses, Trojan horses, or worms. Topics include purchasing commercial antivirus programs and keeping them updated; updating virus definitions weekly; precautions before opening attached files; macro virus protection in Microsoft Word; and precautions with executable files. (LRW)

  2. Crispen's Five Antivirus Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crispen, Patrick Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Explains five rules to protect computers from viruses. Highlights include commercial antivirus software programs and the need to upgrade them periodically (every year to 18 months); updating virus definitions at least weekly; scanning attached files from email with antivirus software before opening them; Microsoft Word macro protection; and the…

  3. Willpower and Personal Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benabou, Roland; Tirole, Jean

    2004-01-01

    We develop a theory of internal commitments or "personal rules" based on self-reputation over one's willpower, which transforms lapses into precedents that undermine future self-restraint. The foundation for this mechanism is the imperfect recall of past motives and feelings, leading people to draw inferences from their past actions. The degree of…

  4. 5-Second Rule

    MedlinePlus

    ... feel tempted by the 5-second rule: A clean-looking floor isn't necessarily clean. A shiny linoleum floor ... cleaner than a 1970s-era carpet. But even clean, dry floors can harbor bacteria. Newly washed floors are only ...

  5. An Airship Slide Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, E R; Pickering, S F

    1924-01-01

    This report prepared for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, describes an airship slide rule developed by the Gas-Chemistry Section of the Bureau of Standards, at the request of the Bureau of Engineering of the Navy Department. It is intended primarily to give rapid solutions of a few problems of frequent occurrence in airship navigation, but it can be used to advantage in solving a great variety of problems, involving volumes, lifting powers, temperatures, pressures, altitudes and the purity of the balloon gas. The rule is graduated to read directly in the units actually used in making observations, constants and conversion factors being taken care of by the length and location of the scales. It is thought that with this rule practically any problem likely to arise in this class of work can be readily solved after the user has become familiar with the operation of the rule; and that the solution will, in most cases, be as accurate as the data warrant.

  6. Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Jeff; Moffett, Jonathan

    1996-06-01

    Special Issue on Management This special issue contains seven papers originally presented at an International Workshop on Services for Managing Distributed Systems (SMDS'95), held in September 1995 in Karslruhe, Germany. The workshop was organized to present the results of two ESPRIT III funded projects, Sysman and IDSM, and more generally to bring together work in the area of distributed systems management. The workshop focused on the tools and techniques necessary for managing future large-scale, multi-organizational distributed systems. The open call for papers attracted a large number of submissions and the subsequent attendance at the workshop, which was larger than expected, clearly indicated that the topics addressed by the workshop were of considerable interest both to industry and academia. The papers selected for this special issue represent an excellent coverage of the issues addressed by the workshop. A particular focus of the workshop was the need to help managers deal with the size and complexity of modern distributed systems by the provision of automated support. This automation must have two prime characteristics: it must provide a flexible management system which responds rapidly to changing organizational needs, and it must provide both human managers and automated management components with the information that they need, in a form which can be used for decision-making. These two characteristics define the two main themes of this special issue. To satisfy the requirement for a flexible management system, workers in both industry and universities have turned to architectures which support policy directed management. In these architectures policy is explicitly represented and can be readily modified to meet changing requirements. The paper `Towards implementing policy-based systems management' by Meyer, Anstötz and Popien describes an approach whereby policy is enforced by event-triggered rules. Krause and Zimmermann in their paper `Implementing

  7. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    PubMed

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  8. Introduction and Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Nancey

    This chapter provides an overview of some of the history of debates regarding free will, and concurs with several authors who claim that the philosophical discussions have reached a stalemate due to their focus on a metaphysical doctrine of universal determinism. The way ahead, therefore, requires two developments. One is to focus not on determinism but on reductionism; the other is to attend to specific scientific findings that appear to call free will into question. The chapter provides an introduction to the topics of reductionism, emergence, and downward causation, and then surveys the works of Daniel Wegner and Benjamin Libet, which have been taken to show the irrelevance of conscious will in human action. It summarizes the chapters comprising the rest of the volume, and then offers a reflection on the achievement of the work as a whole - in brief, a critique of free-will skeptics based on human capacities such as meta-cognition and long-term planning, which allow agents to exert downward control on neural processes and behavior. It ends by highlighting, in light of Alasdair MacIntyre's work on moral responsibility, an important additional factor involved in creating the possibility for freedom of choice, namely the possession of abstract symbolic language.

  9. Szego-Lobatto quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagels, Carl; Reichel, Lothar

    2007-03-01

    Gauss-type quadrature rules with one or two prescribed nodes are well known and are commonly referred to as Gauss-Radau and Gauss-Lobatto quadrature rules, respectively. Efficient algorithms are available for their computation. Szego quadrature rules are analogs of Gauss quadrature rules for the integration of periodic functions; they integrate exactly trigonometric polynomials of as high degree as possible. Szego quadrature rules have a free parameter, which can be used to prescribe one node. This paper discusses an analog of Gauss-Lobatto rules, i.e., Szego quadrature rules with two prescribed nodes. We refer to these rules as Szego-Lobatto rules. Their properties as well as numerical methods for their computation are discussed.

  10. Cubature rules of prescribed merit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyness, J.N.; Sloan, I.H.

    1996-03-01

    We introduce a criterion for the evaluation of multidimensional quadrature, or cubature, rules for the hypercube: this is the merit of a rule, which is closely related to its trigonometric degree, and which reduces to the Zaremba figure of merit in the case of a lattice rule. We derive a family of rules Q{sub k}{sup a} having dimension s and merit 2{sup k}. These rules seem to be competitive with lattice rules with respect to the merit that can be achieved with a given number of abscissas.

  11. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, William J.

    Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October 2003 to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions. If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism, the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations. It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book. It is particularly germane in view of a broad range of geomagnetic topics that are at the forefront of today's science, including environmental magnetism, so-called ``jerks'' observed in the Earth's magnetic field, the perplexing magnetic field of Mars, improved satellite magnetic field observations, and the increasing availability of high-quality continental magnetic anomaly maps, to name only a few.

  12. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  13. Connection with dynamics: General introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief nontechnical introduction to a few theoretical issues to the density-velocity relation. The aim of this introduction is not an exhaustive analysis of the current theoretical situation but rather setting a stage for the following talks. The selection of topics has been determined by the sequel program.

  14. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  15. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  16. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  17. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  18. 4 CFR 22.1 - Applicability of Rules [Rule 1].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... any contract entered into by a legislative branch agency. These rules shall apply to all appeals filed... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE GENERAL PROCEDURES RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE CONTRACT APPEALS BOARD § 22.1 Applicability of Rules . The Government Accountability...

  19. ``Robinson's sum rule'' revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri F.

    2010-02-01

    This discussion revisits two articles on synchrotron radiation damping published in 1958, one by this author and Evgeny K. Tarasov [Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 34, 651 (1958)ZETFA70044-4510; Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 449 (1958)SPHJAR0038-5646], and one by Kenneth W. Robinson [Phys. Rev. 111, 373 (1958)PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.111.373]. The latter is the source of what is known as “Robinson’s sum rule.” Both present the familiar rule, but with very different proofs and calculations of concrete damping decrements. Comparative analysis of these differences reveals serious flaws in Robinson’s proof and calculations.

  20. Modifications of Team Sports Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    In general, there are two reasons for modifying the rules in sport activities: (1) to meet a specific objective or (2) to solve a perceived problem. The sense of the original game is usually not altered significantly because the number of rule changes is kept to a minimum. Changes in rules may be made for administrative or financial reasons, or to…

  1. RMP Guidance for Warehouses - Introduction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If you handle, manufacture, use, or store any of the toxic and flammable substances listed in 40 CFR Part 68 above the specified threshold quantities in a process, you are required to develop and implement a risk management program rule.

  2. Service dogs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) amends its regulations concerning veterans in need of service dogs. Under this final rule, VA will provide to veterans with visual, hearing, or mobility impairments benefits to support the use of a service dog as part of the management of such impairments. The benefits include assistance with veterinary care, travel benefits associated with obtaining and training a dog, and the provision, maintenance, and replacement of hardware required for the dog to perform the tasks necessary to assist such veterans.

  3. Rules for Optical Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Based on 30 years of optical testing experience, a lot of mistakes, a lot of learning and a lot of experience, I have defined seven guiding principles for optical testing - regardless of how small or how large the optical testing or metrology task: Fully Understand the Task, Develop an Error Budget, Continuous Metrology Coverage, Know where you are, Test like you fly, Independent Cross-Checks, Understand All Anomalies. These rules have been applied with great success to the inprocess optical testing and final specification compliance testing of the JWST mirrors.

  4. The Product and Quotient Rules Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleton, Roger; Kustov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Mathematical elegance is illustrated by strikingly parallel versions of the product and quotient rules of basic calculus, with some applications. Corresponding rules for second derivatives are given: the product rule is familiar, but the quotient rule is less so.

  5. 75 FR 25007 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Amending...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Its Schedule of Fees and Charges for Exchange Services April 29, 2010. I. Introduction On March 5...\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to co-location services and related fees...-location services offered by the Exchange, and proposed to amend its Schedules of Fees and Charges...

  6. 75 FR 50789 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... List and Trade Shares of the ETFS Precious Metals Basket Trust August 11, 2010. I. Introduction On June... Precious Metals Basket Trust (``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. The proposed rule... metals to sites maintained by major newspapers, such as The Wall Street Journal. In addition, the...

  7. 77 FR 48570 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...-Linked Security must be disseminated at least once every second over the NASDAQ OMX Global Index Data... Relating to the Listing and Trading of Alpha Index-Linked Securities August 8, 2012. I. Introduction On... (``Act'') \\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to list and trade Alpha...

  8. 75 FR 20018 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change, As...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Amended, To Offer Certain BATS Exchange Data Products April 9, 2010. I. Introduction On February 2, 2010...''),\\1\\ and Rule 19b-4 \\2\\ thereunder, a proposed rule change to offer certain new Exchange data products to Exchange Members \\3\\ and other market data recipients. On February 22, 2010, BATS filed...

  9. 78 FR 9088 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To... Rules and Procedures February 1, 2013. I. Introduction On October 22, 2012, ICE Clear Europe Limited (``ICE Clear Europe'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``SEC'' or ``Commission'')...

  10. 77 FR 26066 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...-04] Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Europe Limited; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change to... Europe Limited April 26, 2012. I. Introduction On March 6, 2012, ICE Clear Europe Limited (``ICE Clear Europe'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change...

  11. 78 FR 69167 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... 12, 2013. I. Introduction On September 17, 2013, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change SR-ICC-2013-07 pursuant to..., 2013), 78 FR 60357 (Oct. 1, 2013) (SR-ICC-2013-07). II. Description of the Proposed Rule Change...

  12. 77 FR 25522 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Credit LLC April 24, 2012. I. Introduction On March 1, 2012, ICE Clear Credit LLC (``ICC'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission'') the proposed rule change SR-ICC-2012-02... 14578 (March 12, 2012). II. Description ICC proposed rule amendments that were intended to modify...

  13. 76 FR 66339 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... United States Copper Index Fund Under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200 October 20, 2011. I. Introduction On... Copper Index Fund (``USCUI'') (collectively, the ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.200. The... consists of six base metals--aluminum, copper, zinc, nickel, tin, and lead--and four precious metals:...

  14. 77 FR 43618 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To Modify Its Corporate Governance Rules July 19, 2012. I. Introduction On May 17, 2012, The...

  15. 76 FR 6503 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... Allocation Growth Income ETF January 31, 2011. I. Introduction On December 15, 2010, NYSE Arca, Inc... Rule 8.600: SiM Dynamic Allocation Diversified Income ETF and SiM Dynamic Allocation Growth Income ETF... Allocation Growth Income ETF (each a ``Fund'' and, collectively, ``Funds'') under NYSE Arca Equities Rule...

  16. 41 CFR 300-2.70 - How is the rule expressed in the title and narrative format?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... expressed in the title and narrative format? 300-2.70 Section 300-2.70 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Title and Narrative Format § 300-2.70 How is the rule expressed in the title and narrative format? The rule is in...

  17. 76 FR 18817 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Change To Expand the $2.50 Strike Price Program March 31, 2011. I. Introduction On February 2, 2011...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to expand the $2.50 Strike Price Program. The proposed rule change was published for comment in the Federal Register on February 22, 2011.\\3\\ The Commission...

  18. 75 FR 4598 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Establish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to establish the NYSE Amex Realtime Reference Prices... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex, Inc.; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change To Establish the NYSE Amex Realtime Reference Prices Service January 22, 2010. I. Introduction On November 30,...

  19. 76 FR 2182 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Change Establishing a $5 Strike Price Program January 6, 2011. I. Introduction On November 12, 2010... Strike Price Program. III. Discussion The Commission finds that the proposed rule change is consistent...-4 thereunder,\\2\\ a proposed rule change to allow the Exchange to list and trade option series...

  20. 75 FR 38585 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX BX...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to co-location services and related fees. The proposed rule... codify fees for its existing co-location services. Co-location services are a suite of hardware,...

  1. 75 FR 38584 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX, Inc.; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Codify Prices for Co-Location Services June 28, 2010. I. Introduction On January 29, 2010, NASDAQ OMX...,\\2\\ a proposed rule change relating to co-location services and related fees. The proposed rule... fees for its existing co-location services. Co-location services are a suite of hardware,...

  2. 75 FR 6778 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... To List and Trade the Sprott Physical Gold Trust February 4, 2010. I. Introduction On December 15... Physical Gold Trust (the ``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. The proposed rule change was... Services Trust is the trustee of the Trust. The Royal Canadian Mint is the custodian for the physical...

  3. 75 FR 6758 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of a Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... To List and Trade the Sprott Physical Gold Trust February 4, 2010. I. Introduction On December 15... Physical Gold Trust (the ``Trust'') pursuant to NYSE Arca Equities Rule 8.201. The proposed rule change was... Services Trust is the trustee of the Trust. The Royal Canadian Mint is the custodian for the physical...

  4. Unanimity rule on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambiotte, Renaud; Thurner, Stefan; Hanel, Rudolf

    2007-10-01

    We present a model for innovation, evolution, and opinion dynamics whose spreading is dictated by a unanimity rule. The underlying structure is a directed network, the state of a node is either activated or inactivated. An inactivated node will change only if all of its incoming links come from nodes that are activated, while an activated node will remain activated forever. It is shown that a transition takes place depending on the initial condition of the problem. In particular, a critical number of initially activated nodes is necessary for the whole system to get activated in the long-time limit. The influence of the degree distribution of the nodes is naturally taken into account. For simple network topologies we solve the model analytically; the cases of random and small world are studied in detail. Applications for food-chain dynamics and viral marketing are discussed.

  5. The biosphere rules.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Gregory C

    2008-02-01

    Sustainability, defined by natural scientists as the capacity of healthy ecosystems to function indefinitely, has become a clarion call for business. Leading companies have taken high-profile steps toward achieving it: Wal-Mart, for example, with its efforts to reduce packaging waste, and Nike, which has removed toxic chemicals from its shoes. But, says Unruh, the director of Thunderbird's Lincoln Center for Ethics in Global Management, sustainability is more than an endless journey of incremental steps. It is a destination, for which the biosphere of planet Earth--refined through billions of years of trial and error--is a perfect model. Unruh distills some lessons from the biosphere into three rules: Use a parsimonious palette. Managers can rethink their sourcing strategies and dramatically simplify the number and types of materials their companies use in production, making recycling cost-effective. After the furniture manufacturer Herman Miller discovered that its leading desk chair had 200 components made from more than 800 chemical compounds, it designed an award-winning successor whose far more limited materials palette is 96% recyclable. Cycle up, virtuously. Manufacturers should design recovery value into their products at the outset. Shaw Industries, for example, recycles the nylon fiber from its worn-out carpet into brand-new carpet tile. Exploit the power of platforms. Platform design in industry tends to occur at the component level--but the materials in those components constitute a more fundamental platform. Patagonia, by recycling Capilene brand performance underwear, has achieved energy costs 76% below those for virgin sourcing. Biosphere rules can teach companies how to build ecologically friendly products that both reduce manufacturing costs and prove highly attractive to consumers. And managers need not wait for a green technological revolution to implement them.

  6. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  8. Anticircumvention rules: threat to science.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, P

    2001-09-14

    Scientists who study encryption or computer security or otherwise reverse engineer technical measures, who make tools enabling them to do this work, and who report the results of their research face new risks of legal liability because of recently adopted rules prohibiting the circumvention of technical measures and manufacture or distribution of circumvention tools. Because all data in digital form can be technically protected, the impact of these rules goes far beyond encryption and computer security research. The scientific community must recognize the harms these rules pose and provide guidance about how to improve the anticircumvention rules.

  9. Challenges for Rule Systems on the Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuh-Jong; Yeh, Ching-Long; Laun, Wolfgang

    The RuleML Challenge started in 2007 with the objective of inspiring the issues of implementation for management, integration, interoperation and interchange of rules in an open distributed environment, such as the Web. Rules are usually classified as three types: deductive rules, normative rules, and reactive rules. The reactive rules are further classified as ECA rules and production rules. The study of combination rule and ontology is traced back to an earlier active rule system for relational and object-oriented (OO) databases. Recently, this issue has become one of the most important research problems in the Semantic Web. Once we consider a computer executable policy as a declarative set of rules and ontologies that guides the behavior of entities within a system, we have a flexible way to implement real world policies without rewriting the computer code, as we did before. Fortunately, we have de facto rule markup languages, such as RuleML or RIF to achieve the portability and interchange of rules for different rule systems. Otherwise, executing real-life rule-based applications on the Web is almost impossible. Several commercial or open source rule engines are available for the rule-based applications. However, we still need a standard rule language and benchmark for not only to compare the rule systems but also to measure the progress in the field. Finally, a number of real-life rule-based use cases will be investigated to demonstrate the applicability of current rule systems on the Web.

  10. Introduction to Drywall. Introduction to Construction Series. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This competency-based curriculum guide on the specialty area of drywall is part of the Introduction to Construction series. The series is designed with the flexible training requirements of open shop contractors, preapprenticeship programs, multicraft high school programs, technology education programs, and cooperative education programs in mind.…

  11. An Introduction to Eye Safety. General Metals I, Lesson Plan No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higa, Floyd

    Designed for a 110-hour general metals course, this lesson plan presents an introduction to eye safety, including a brief guided imagery prelude, an overview of the lesson, an overview of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) rules and regulations regarding eye and face…

  12. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  13. Pattern perception and computational complexity: introduction to the special issue.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-07-19

    Research on pattern perception and rule learning, grounded in formal language theory (FLT) and using artificial grammar learning paradigms, has exploded in the last decade. This approach marries empirical research conducted by neuroscientists, psychologists and ethologists with the theory of computation and FLT, developed by mathematicians, linguists and computer scientists over the last century. Of particular current interest are comparative extensions of this work to non-human animals, and neuroscientific investigations using brain imaging techniques. We provide a short introduction to the history of these fields, and to some of the dominant hypotheses, to help contextualize these ongoing research programmes, and finally briefly introduce the papers in the current issue.

  14. Pattern perception and computational complexity: introduction to the special issue

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Friederici, Angela D.; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research on pattern perception and rule learning, grounded in formal language theory (FLT) and using artificial grammar learning paradigms, has exploded in the last decade. This approach marries empirical research conducted by neuroscientists, psychologists and ethologists with the theory of computation and FLT, developed by mathematicians, linguists and computer scientists over the last century. Of particular current interest are comparative extensions of this work to non-human animals, and neuroscientific investigations using brain imaging techniques. We provide a short introduction to the history of these fields, and to some of the dominant hypotheses, to help contextualize these ongoing research programmes, and finally briefly introduce the papers in the current issue. PMID:22688630

  15. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Drinking Water Arsenic Rule History

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA published the final arsenic rule on January 22, 2001. In response to the national debate surrounding the arsenic rule related to science and costs, the EPA announced on March 20, 2001 that the agency would reassess the science and cost issues.

  17. Art as a Singular Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avital, Doron

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine an unresolved tension inherent in the question of art and argue for the idea of a singular rule as a natural resolution. In so doing, the structure of a singular rule will be fully outlined and its paradoxical constitution will be resolved. The tension I mention above unfolds both as a matter of history and as a product of…

  18. A General Introduction to Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muiznieks, Viktors

    This basic introduction to microcomputers provides the neophyte with the terminology, definitions, and concepts that explain the microcomputer and computing technology in general. Mathematical operations with binary numbers, computer storage, controlling logic, and the concepts of stack and interrupt are explained. (RAO)

  19. Introduction to Pesticides. MP-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Alvin F.

    This document is one in a series distributed by the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Wyoming-Laramie. It provides an introduction to pesticides and is concerned with pesticide development, labeling and safety associated with the use, storage and disposal of these substances and their containers. Safety aspects of handling and…

  20. Introduction: The Computer After Me

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Jeremy

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computer Awareness in Science Fiction * Computer Awareness and Self-Awareness * How many senses does a computer have? * Does a computer know that it is a computer? * Does metal know when it is weakening? * Why Does Computer Awareness Matter? * Chapter Overviews * Summary and Conclusions

  1. AN ACTIVE INTRODUCTION TO HINDI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACDOUGALL, BONNIE G.; STONE, JAMES W.

    THIS TWO-PART INTRODUCTION TO HINDI INCLUDES METHOD GUIDELINES FOR THE INSTRUCTOR AND EMPHASIZES REPRODUCING CORRECT PRONUNCIATION BEFORE UNDERSTANDING MEANING. THE HINDI MICROWAVE COURSE INCORPORATES 47 CYCLES OF INSTRUCTION, MOST OF WHICH CONTAIN AN M-PHASE (MIMICRY AND MEMORIZATION) AND A C-PHASE (COMMUNICATION). THE DRILLS INTRODUCE BASIC…

  2. Levantine Arabic: Introduction to Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James A.

    This introduction to Levantine Arabic pronunciation is designed to teach the student to recognize the major points of phonological interference between Levantine Arabic and American English, as well as the significant phonological contrasts within the dialect of Arabic itself, and to provide the student with a model for mimicry. Tape recordings…

  3. Introduction to Data Analysis Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This Handbook provides an introduction to basic procedures and methods of data analysis. The authors provide a framework to guide program staff in their thinking about these procedures and methods and their relevant applications in MSHS (Migrant and Seasonal Head Start) settings. Accordingly, this Handbook was developed to support the work of…

  4. Introduction to the Special Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1986-01-01

    Presents a special series of seven articles dealing with biopsychosocial oncology, the role of psychology in cancer treatment. Includes an introduction by Lizette Peterson and articles by Thomas Burish and Michael Carey, Susan Jay et al., Shelley Taylor et al., David Cella and Susan Tross, Gerald Koocher, and Leonard Derogatis. (KS)

  5. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    The compaction algorithm This section defines mathematically the problem of compaction with auto- matk jog introduction, and presents a practical...t(5) of potential cuts of S, and usng their mutability cmndi to constrain the positiokn of modulo in S. The proof that this technique gen - erates a

  6. The Lisbon Agenda: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lice, Anita; Striedinger, Angelika; Scholz, Christine; Mac Sithigh, Daithi; Fenech, Justin; Miklavic, Klemen; Geven, Koen; Stambolieva, Marija; Haslinger, Susi

    2006-01-01

    This handbook is an introduction to Lisbon Agenda and it is presented as a basis for ESIB's (The National Unions of Students in Europe) concerted work on the European Union's all-embracing strategy that is changing the parameters of the education systems. The reason for the existence of this handbook is the necessity to coordinate the work on all…

  7. Introduction to Weeds and Herbicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwig, Nathan L.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University is an introduction to weed control and herbicide use. An initial discussion of the characteristics of weeds includes scientific naming, weed competition with crops, weed dispersal and dormancy, and conditions affecting weed seed germination. The main body of the…

  8. Introduction to Computing Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Developed to aid intermediate-level teachers and principals in initiating and developing computer literacy programs for their students, this document is a guide for the development of a one-semester course--Introduction to Computing--for the seventh and eighth grades. The course is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop computer…

  9. Introduction to High Explosives Science

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, Cary Bradford; Preston, Daniel N.

    2016-11-17

    These are a set of slides for educational outreach to children on high explosives science. It gives an introduction to the elements involved in this science: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. Combined, these form the molecule HMX. Many pictures are also included to illustrate explosions.

  10. Introduction to December 2013 issue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Wendy A

    2013-12-01

    In this introduction to the December 2013 issue of the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, the editor discusses her goals to get the Journal back on track. She gives thanks for the research that continues to advance both science and practice in experimental psychology.

  11. Freud's "On Narcissism: An Introduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crockatt, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The author reviews Freud's (1914) seminal paper "On narcissism: an introduction". Freud's paper is briefly set in the historical context of the evolution of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic theories, and Freud's metapsychology up to the publication of his Narcissism paper is outlined. A detailed and comprehensive description of the content of the…

  12. AN INTRODUCTION TO A CURRICULUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid English Demonstration Center, OH.

    THIS COLLECTION OF PAPERS SERVES AS AN INTRODUCTION TO THE EUCLID ENGLISH DEMONSTRATION CENTER'S JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM. IN ADDITION TO A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROGRAM AND OUTLINES OF THE AVERAGE AND HONORS CURRICULA, THE FOLLOWING PAPERS ARE INCLUDED--(1) "THE THEME-CONCEPT UNIT IN LITERATURE," (2) "APPROACHES TO MEANING--A…

  13. The Dimensions of Maltreatment: Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Diana J.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2005-01-01

    This special issue includes an introduction and seven papers exploring dimensions of maltreatment including type, severity, chronicity, and substantiation status of referrals to CPS, utilizing a subsample of the LONGSCAN studies. Each paper examines one of the dimensions of maltreatment from various perspectives to determine if different…

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ariano, G. M.; Montorsi, A.; Rasetti, M. G.

    1985-04-01

    The number of exactly solved models in the Statistical Mechanics of classical two-dimensional systems has grown to be relatively large. The field has had its successes uniformly distributed in the period between 1944, when Lars Onsager so ingeniously solved the two-dimensional Ising model, and 1980 when Rodney Baxter produced the solution of the hard hexagon model. In between ice-type models, vertex models and some related models, such as the Ashkin-Teller, Potts or the hard square models, were either solved, or partially dealt with, very often by not so different techniques. Thus recently, the attention of mathematical physicists has been focused more and more on the connection between the different methods of solution, in the effort to understand the relevant underlying structure and to try to extend it eventually to higher dimensional systems. Also the equivalence of several of such classical models with quantum ones, living in one-dimensional space, has played a relevant role, raising the hope to find in the methods characteristic of quantum mechanics and field theory a way out of the often formidable difficulties.

  15. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodstein, David

    Many non-scientists tend to think that cosmology became a science only in our own time, prior to which it was a vague system of beliefs that did not amount to much. But in fact the Greeks were cosmological scientists (Plato, Aristotle and many who predated those two), and the tradition continued with Ptolemy in second-century Alexandria, and especially with the likes of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Isaac Newton. Each of those thinkers had a vision of how the Universe works and tried to arrange the empirical facts to fit that vision. That is what cosmology is all about. This book presents essays on the current state of the art by their modern counterparts…

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    This brief introductory chapter sets the stage for a broad discussion of many aspects of virtual worlds, by comparing episodes experienced by two avatar researchers, one in Second Life (SL), and the other in Star Wars Galaxies (SWG). Interviewer Wilber attends a medieval dance on an SL island created by Starfleet, an innovative and hard-working group of 500 Star Trek fans, who have created working virtual technology and soaring architecture to make real their fantasies about the human future. Algorithma Teq visits the Mos Eisley Cantina in SWG, where Luke Skywalker originally met Han Solo, and is scrutinized by two Imperial storm troopers, even as she attempts to remain aloof from the Star Wars mythos and simply practice her engineering skills in making droids. It can be useful to distinguish gamelike virtual worlds from non-game worlds, yet as these examples show, they are not distinct categories, and virtual worlds inevitably mix fantasy and reality in complex ways.

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, René G. M.

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings are the fruits of a workshop held on the island of La Palma from 9 to 11 May 2005, hosted by the Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes. The meeting was inspired by the fact that integral-field spectroscopy and adaptive optics techniques are coming of age and being deployed on several telescopes around the world. The combination of integral-field spectrographs and adaptive optics is still a relatively unexplored area where the potential benefits for astronomy are huge. The scientific prospects are particularly promising in the areas of: the dynamics of the central regions of galaxies and active galactic nuclei; spectroscopy of gravitationally lensed high-redshift galaxies; star forming regions and outflow of evolved stars, and the dynamics of crowded stellar fields.

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drysdall, Alan R.; Ramsay, Colin R.; Stoeser, Douglas B.

    Felsic plutonic rocks ranging from dioritic to granitic in composition and from 900 to 550 Ma in age are a major component of the Arabian Shield. These rocks and the potential for associated mineralization have been extensively investigated by the Saudi Arabian Deputy Ministry for Mineral Resources during the past decade in particular. This volume describes the multidisciplinary approach which has been developed, and summarizes results. The classification, distribution, petrology, mineralogy and structure of the felsic plutonic rocks, petrogenetic and metallogenetic concepts and representative examples of mineralization are described. It is concluded that the potential for additional mineral resources is substantial.

  19. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voneche, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Discusses ontogeny and phylogeny in Piaget's work, differences between Piagetian (constructivist) and Darwinian (selectionist) approaches, and problems associated with transposing conceptual systems from one field to another. (RH)

  20. Introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    This is the third iteration of the National Wildlife Health Center's (NWHC) field guide developed primarily to assist field managers and biologists address diseases they encounter. By itself, the first iteration, “Field Guide of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds,” was simply another addition to an increasing array of North American field guides and other publications focusing on disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Collectively, those publications were reflecting the ongoing transition in the convergence of wildlife management and wildlife disease as foundational components within the structure of wildlife conservation as a social enterprise serving the stewardship of our wildlife resources. For context, it is useful to consider those publications relative to a timeline of milestones involving the evolution of wildlife conservation in North America.

  1. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalia, Giusy; Lagerwall, Jan P. F.

    Liquid crystals are amazing materials. They are amazing because they combine, in a single phase, the fluidity of ordinary liquids with the longrange order that we otherwise find only in crystalline solids. This unique combination reflects the ability of the constituents to self-organize into ordered structures while maintaining a degree of translational freedom that is absent in the solid state. In fact, as counterintuitive as it may seem to the novice, the drive for liquid crystalline ordering is typically dominated by entropic effects, i.e. the ordered structures appear because these states minimize the constraints on the entities building up the phase...

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Sidney

    The way a scientist looks at the materials world is changing dramatically. Advances in the synthesis of nanostructures and in high-resolution microscopy are allowing us to create and probe assemblies of atoms and molecules at a level that was unimagined only a short time ago — the prospect of manipulating materials for device applications, one atom at a time, is no longer a fantasy. Being able to see and touch the materials up close means that we are more interested than ever in understanding their properties and behavior at the atomic level. Another factor which contributes to the present state of affairs is the advent of large-scale computation, once a rare and highly sophisticated resource accessible only to a few privileged scientists. In the past few years materials modeling, in the broad sense of theory and simulation in integration with experiments, has emerged as a field of research with unique capabilities, most notably the ability to analyze and predict a very wide range of physical structures and phenomena. Some would now say the modeling approach is becoming an equal partner to theory and experiment, the traditional methods of scientific inquiry.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dum, Ralph

    Various types of diverse networks — communication networks, transport networks, global business networks, networks of friends, or the Internet — shape our daily life and the way we think and act. We depend on various social, economic, and technological networks that weave a tissue of businesses, governments, technologies and that contain us as citizens, users, or customers. We only become aware of our dependence if failures occur in these networks: when cities are plunged into darkness because of a breakdown of the power grid like happened recently in New York, when national economies collapse because of a failure of global financial systems like happened in the South-Asian banking crisis, or when computer viruses spread with mind-boggling speed over information networks destroying or, even worse, exposing sensitive data.

  4. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Rabier, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    The special issue "Fitting for Health" offers a critical inquiry into the co-construction of medicine and technology in the early industrial age. It investigates the "social life" of medical things, through their material configuration, invention, improvement, and diversification, the sites of their deployment, their status as both novelties and less spectacular objects of everyday use, and the challenges they faced in fitting themselves into people's lives and European res publica. The set of articles (on steel trusses, medical electricity, anatomical models, and trade catalogs) heuristically uses "technology" to analyze how medicine and its material processes were crafted, endowed with meaning, and woven into European societies. Opening the medical "black box"—circumventing its tendency to be ignored as a mediating tool—provides a significant common point of entry for the four enquiries, triggering further analysis of the relationship between humans and non-humans as shaped in medical knowledge and practice. PMID:27057070

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegati, Franco; Aracil, Javier; López, Víctor

    At the present time, optical transmission systems are capable of sending data over hundreds of wavelengths on a single fiber thanks to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technologies, reaching bit rates on the order of gigabits per second per wavelength and terabits per second per fiber. In the last decade the availability of such a huge bandwidth caused transport networks to be considered as having infinite capacity. The recent massive deployment of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and broadband wireless access solutions, as well as the outburst of new multimedia network services (such as Skype, YouTube, Joost, etc.) caused a significant increase of end user traffic and bandwidth demands. Therefore, the apparently “infinite” capacity of optical networks appears much more “finite” today, despite the latest developments in photonic transmission.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    The brave new world of ambient intelligence is almost upon us. Ambient intelligence is the phrase coined to describe a world in which "intelligence" is embedded in virtually everything around us. It has been called an Internet of things, where radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are attached to all products. It is a world of smart dust with networked sensors and actuators so small as to be virtually invisible, where the clothes you wear, the paint on your walls, the carpets on your floor, and the paper money in your pocket have a computer communications capability. It is a 4G world where today's mobile phone is transformed into a terminal capable of receiving television, accessing the Internet, downloading music, reading RFIDs, taking pictures, enabling interactive video telephony, and much more. It is a world of convergence, where heterogeneous devices are able to communicate seamlessly across today's disparate networks, a world of machine learning and intelligent software, where computers monitor our activities, routines and behaviours to predict what we will do or want next. In the brave new world of ambient intelligence, we will never have to worry about losing track of our children because they will have a location device implanted under the skin or, if they are squeamish about that, then at least they will have one in their wristwatch.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    Spin is an entirely non-classical property of (elementary) particles [1], p. 198. A reference which deals with many aspects of spin (although the—in my mind—seminal Stern-Gerlach experiment (for details see Sect. 8.1 ) is never even mentioned) is "The Story of Spin" by Tomonaga [2] from which we cite: "It is a mysterious beast, and yet its practical effect prevails over the whole of science. The existence of spin, and the statistics associated with it, is the most subtle and ingenious design of Nature—without it the whole universe would collapse" (from the translator's (T. Oka) preface, p. vii). In nuclear physics, the nuclear, nucleon, and even quark spins enter in many ways. Examples are: hyperfine interaction, spin-orbit interaction, tensor force, spin-spin nucleon-nucleon interaction, the relation between spin and statistics which is not only the basis of the periodic table, but markedly influences the scattering of identical particles (e.g.{^{12}C} on {^{12}C} vs.{^{13}C} on ^{13}C,) etc.

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging and Overhauser imaging are magnetic resonance techniques for detecting paramagnetic substances (i.e. molecules which have one or more unpaired electron(s) in their outer orbitals). The main impetus for developing these techniques is the intriguing possibility of detecting and imaging the distribution of free radicals in the body. Naturally occurring free radicals are widely believed to be involved in the early development of many diseases, so the ability to localize and quantify them in vivo would have profound implications for many areas of biomedical research. Stable free radicals can also be used as `contrast agents', and following their fate in the body can give useful insights into organ function. Some free radicals and paramagnetic solids have the ability to probe the chemical and physical nature of their surroundings, also offering a wide variety of potential applications, in particular the measurement of oxygen concentrations in tissues. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was first demonstrated in 1945, the same year that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were first carried out. EPR and NMR are very closely related at the fundamental level, differing mainly in the fact that EPR involves a magnetic resonance experiment on unpaired electrons in the sample, while NMR uses atomic nuclei with non-zero spin. On a practical level, the techniques are also closely related, despite the fact that most EPR experiments are continuous-wave, while virtually all NMR is carried out using pulsed, Fourier-transform methods. Overhauser-based techniques combine both flavours of magnetic resonance in EPR/NMR double-resonance experiments. While NMR has found a valuable place in clinical practice, in the form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biomedical EPR is still in its relative infancy, with about twenty research groups world-wide having the capability to use EPR spectroscopy or imaging to study small animals in vivo. It may appear to the casual observer that progress in the field of EPR is much slower than in NMR, but this is not actually the case: EPR is technically much more demanding than NMR, due to the six orders-of-magnitude shorter relaxation times encountered in EPR. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in the technology and applications of EPR-based methods over the last five years, and the field has now developed sufficiently to enable useful biomedical applications to be investigated. The papers presented in this topical issue represent a broad cross-section of the work being carried out in developing and applying EPR and Overhauser techniques in biology and medicine. A number of papers describe recent advances in technology and methods, including continuous-wave, longitudinally detected and pulsed EPR, and Overhauser imaging. Others focus on applications including those using both endogenous and exogenous free radicals. Two of the most promising areas are in the detection of nitric oxide, a ubiquitous, naturally occurring free radical, and in the measurement of local oxygen concentrations by EPR. Both of these topics are covered in this issue. It is both timely and appropriate that Physics in Medicine and Biology, with its strong reputation in the field of physics applied to medicine and biology, should publish a topical issue on this subject, at a time when rapid improvements in technology are being made, and when useful applications are starting to emerge. The guest editors hope that this summary of the state-of-the-art will act as a comprehensive reference work for those in the field, and will encourage others to develop new applications for the techniques, which we believe have a valuable role to play in biomedical research. David J Lurie Antonello Sotgiu Guest Editors

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuidam, Nicolaas Jan; Nedović, Viktor A.

    Consumers prefer food products that are tasty, healthy and convenient. Encapsulation, a process to entrap active agents into particles, is an important way to meet these demands by delivering food ingredients at the right time and place. For example, this technology may allow taste and aroma differentiation, mask bad tasting or bad smelling components, stabilize food ingredients and/or increase their bioavailability. Encapsulation may also be used to immobilize cells or enzymes in the production of food materials or products, as in fermentation or metabolite production.

  10. Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the summer of 2009 an interdisciplinary group of leading scientists from 11 countries assembled on the shores of Lake Mendota in Madison, Wisconsin for a three-day conference on sustaining soil productivity in response to global climate change. Although there have been numerous conferences on cli...

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hames, W.; McHone, J. G.; Renne, P.; Ruppel, C.

    Large igneous provinces represent catastrophic outpourings of immense quantities of basaltic lava, the origin of processes that are hidden deep within Earth's interior and obscured by the movements of tectonic plates. Scientists from many different fields are combining their efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms by which large igneous provinces' form, the distribution and timing of such provinces, and the effects and consequences of the associated volcanism. This book presents a collection of thirteen papers that delve into such fundamental questions for one of Earth's most calamitous events—the profound and extensive magmatism that accompanied the breakup of Pangea. Dramatic relics of the magmatism that accompanied breakup of Pangea are preserved on every continent of the circum-Atlantic region, in exposures of igneous intrusions that once provided magma conduits, as partially eroded and buried flood basalts that once covered large areas of the land, and in the sedimentary strata that host the volcanic remnants. Scientists collect forensic evidence in rock exposures from coastal Brittany to Brazilian rainforests, in strata buried deeply beneath Texas and on plateaus in sub-Saharan Mali in the effort to describe this province and determine its origin. Indeed, over the past several years we have learned through research that much of the magmatism in this province was very sudden, although it may have spread diachronously. The absolute age and stratigraphic juxtaposition of this province seems coincident with the transition from the Triassic to the Jurassic period. Many scientists are now studying this magmatic province in an effort to understand how its effects may relate to the global climate changes and profound mass extinction at the end of the Triassic (when perhaps 80% of Earth's terrestrial and marine faunas perished). And yet such a catastrophic distress for some may provide opportunity to others, as the Jurassic rise of dinosaurs to dominate Earth may have begun with global climate changes wrought by this large igneous province. Thus, the research on this individual magmatic province is part of a broader and contentious scientific trial to determine whether massive volcanic events, meteorite impact events, or combinations of both are responsible for the major mass extinction events that have modulated the course of life on Earth for the past 300 million years.

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Barbara; Kienhuis, Bart; Ayguadé, Eduard; Bodin, François; Plata, Oscar; Stotzer, Eric

    During the past few years, mainstream computing has rapidly embraced multicore architectures and there is now considerable research into the design of such systems and into all aspects of their utilization. In particular, much work is needed in order to improve their programmability. Limitations on the amount of memory, bandwidth constraints, multiple layers of parallelism and heterogeneous components all introduce new challenges for application development and execution. In recognition of the importance of this architectural shift, multi-core programming was added to the collection of Euro-Par topics this year. The focus of the topic covered general-purpose multi-core programming techniques, models and languages, as well as those for multi-core embedded systems, and included related work on compilers, run-time systems, and performance and scalability studies.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Terry M.; Talburt, John R.; Chan, Yupo

    Many companies and organizations face the common problem illustrated in Figure 1.1. The challenge is to take data from the real world and convert it into a model that can be used for decision making. For example, the model can be used as a tool to drive campaigns. The purpose of these campaigns is to affect the real world in a positive way from the perspective of the organization running the campaign. The general process is to collect data from a number of sources, then integrate that data into a consistent and logically related set of data. The integrated data is stored in a repository. This repository is often called a data warehouse and is often stored in a commercial relational database. Using the data, mathematical techniques, and algorithms, a model of the real world is constructed to support the decision making process. A variety of campaign management tools then use the model to drive campaigns executed in the real world.

  14. INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces the book, "Life Cycle Impact Assessment: Striving Towards Best Available Practice" which is a summary of the contributions of the second SETAC-Europe Working Group on Life Cycle Impact Assessment (WIA-2) to the development and recognition of best...

  15. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, Pedro C.; Juurlink, Ben; Darte, Alain; Karl, Wolfgang

    This topic deals with architecture design and compilation for high performance systems. The areas of interest range from microprocessors to large-scale parallel machines; from general-purpose platforms to specialized hardware (e.g., graphic coprocessors, low-power embedded systems); and from hardware design to compiler technology. On the compilation side, topics of interest include programmer productivity issues, concurrent and/or sequential language aspects, program analysis, transformation, automatic discovery and/or management of parallelism at all levels, and the interaction between the compiler and the rest of the system. On the architecture side, the scope spans system architectures, processor micro-architecture, memory hierarchy, and multi-threading, and the impact of emerging trends.

  16. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Tatrallyay, M.

    Venus and Mars, our neighboring planets, have a long history in the human consciousness. Venus, in particular, was notable because of its brightness compared to other star-like objects in the sky. The first observations of Venus on record may be those enscribed by Babylonians on the famous "Venus tablet" in the British museum, which has been dated to ˜1700 BC. Venus has generally been associated with the female gender, except in ancient India. The name comes from the Roman goddess of love and beauty (analogous to the Babylonian Ishtar and the Greek Aphrodite). Venus was first thought by the Greeks to be two objects—a morning star "Phosphorus" and an evening star "Hesperus". Phythagoras, in 6 BC, is credited with being first to recognize they were the same object. Venus has since figured prominently in the history of physics and astronomy. The Greek Aristarchus first suggested (in ˜310-250 BC) that the planets move around the sun, but the idea lost favor to a theory of Ptolemy, which placed Earth at the center of the solar system. In the 9th-15th centuries, Arab astronomers studied Venus, and in the "new world," the Mayas used it in the organization of their calendar. In 1543, Copernicus finally published his own version of Aristarchus' vision of a heliocentric solar system, but it was probably not until Galileo, in ˜1610, telescopically observed that Venus had phases like the moon, that heliocentric theory was widely accepted (despite delays associated with the prevailing religious dogma). He announced that momentous discovery in a coded message to his contemporary Kepler (a usual practice of the time), which translated to "the mother of the loves imitates the phases of Cynthia".

  17. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boner, Patrick J.

    The history of cosmology in medieval and early modern Europe involves an interdisciplinary array of scholars who redefined the nature and knowability of the world. The papers in this volume focus primarily on astronomers who put forward new ways of relating the heavens and earth and our role as cosmic actors. Together, they represent a rich variety of views that brought the heavens and earth closer together as new forms of cosmic continuity reflected new forms of knowledge.1 More than a monolithic response to scholastic philosophy, these views suggest a growing number of voices that spoke to the essence and structure of the cosmos as a whole. Johannes Kepler, among "a new breed of astronomers" who studied the science of the stars in concert with cosmology,2 is a radical example of this emerging enterprise of cosmic synthesis.

  18. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Kamini; Hyndman, David W.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.

    Understanding the processes that control water movement in the subsurface has been recognized as a "grand challenge" in environmental science [National Research Council, 2001b]. Research into methods to estimate hydrologic parameters that control water movement extends at least back to Theis [1935], who worked simultaneously on methods to predict (forward model) aquifer response to pumping, and also to estimate (using an inverse model) the controlling hydrologic parameters—transmissivity and storativity. Seventy years after Theis' pioneering work, hydrologists continue to use pumping tests and slug tests to characterize heterogeneous aquifers. Despite advances in modeling tools and inverse methods, aquifer characterization remains an extremely difficult problem due to spatial heterogeneity, temporal variability, and coupling between chemical, physical, and biological processes.

  19. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Christodoulides, Demetrios

    2005-03-21

    Discreteness provides unique opportunities for controlling the flow of light. As in solidstate physics, optical discrete or lattice configurations are known to exhibit a succession of allowed Floquet-Bloch bands and forbidden bandgaps. In weakly coupled systems, the Floquet-Bloch states can be accurately described by local modes, and thus the tight-binding approximation or coupled-mode theory is applicable. As a result, the field dynamics become effectively discretized. In optics, arrays of evanescently coupled waveguides, photonic crystal fibers, chains of coupled microresonators, and photonic crystals are prime examples of such structures where discrete wave dynamics can be experimentally investigated. Perhaps the most exciting outcome of the interplay between discreteness and optica nonlinearity is the existence of self-localized entities better known as discrete solitons. This class of optical solitons were first suggested in the late 1980s and successfully observed in AlGaAs waveguide arrays a decade later. Since then, discrete optical solitons have been observed in many other material systems such as in optically induced lattices, in quadratic waveguide arrays, and in liquid-crystal cells. This experimental work has not only resulted in a deeper understanding of nonlinear processes in periodic environments, but it has also helped to assess the potential of these self-trapped states toward future applications. Nowadays, the field of discrete optical dynamics in nonlinear lattices is at an exciting stage of development. Even though some of the basic concepts in this area have been around for a while, much remains to be explored and discovered.

  20. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    It would be hard to argue against the fact that Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a fast growing discipline within material science and engineering. A quick scan of the proceedings from conferences such as Aeromat, Material Science and Technology, and the TMS Annual Meeting clearly shows it. What began a few years ago as one symposium has grown into multiple ICME related symposia at each of these conferences. As encouraging as the number of symposia being offered is the attendance at the symposia. For example, one of the ICME symposia at MS&T 10, the symposium in which this book is based, had five sessions which culminated in a panel discussion that was standing room only. In addition to the large, annual materials science and engineering conferences, smaller 1 to 2-day conferences/workshops sponsored by government agencies (e.g. AFRL and NIST) on specific aspects of ICME and by universities promoting their ICME work are regularly offered. And arguably the most significant news with regards to ICME and conferences is the July 2011 First World Congress on ICME. This five day TMS sponsored conference, specifically focused on ICME with an international advisory board of ICME leaders, shows how far ICME has spread across the globe. Evidence for the growth of ICME can also be found in Academia. The University Materials Council (UMC) is composed of department heads for material science and engineering from major U.S. and Canadian universities. Meeting twice a year to share best practices in order to strengthen both the engineering content [1] and the educational process, the UMC s agenda for their Spring 2010 meeting was dedicated to ICME [2]. This meeting was held in response to the growing awareness that the universities play a major role in the success of ICME and therefore need to develop ICME curriculum in order to meet that need. To aid educators in the development of ICME courses, NSF is funding a "Summer School" on ICME to be held at the University of Michigan in 2011 [3]. Northwestern University recently announced a MS Certificate Program in ICME [4]. Course work for this certificate begins in the Fall of 2011. Other signs that ICME is growing comes from the formation of ICME initiatives from work that did not start off with ICME in mind. One of the committees in ASM International is the Materials Properties Database Committee (MPDC). In the 2010 meeting of the MPDC, based on a study by ASM, the committee decided that it would create an ICME sub-committee in order to determine how ASM can meet the growing needs of the ICME community [5]. In 1999, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) created a consortium, the Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI), with members from both industry and government with a goal of reducing the cost and time to market of producing metal parts for aerospace applications [6].

  1. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullick, Bryan; Byra, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a collection of articles on the spectrum of teaching styles, a framework of instructional models based on teacher and learner decision making. The article discusses national standards for physical education and reviews the feature articles, which highlight psychomotor, cognitive, and social development spectrum style; maximizing…

  2. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poprawe, Reinhart

    The motivation for writing this book is at least threefold: the extremely promising laser characteristics of high-power diode lasers; their vast application potential in production processes like welding, soldering, polymer joining, cutting, and surface treatment; and last but not least, a 5-year project called "Modular Diode Laser Tools" funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, which this book summarizes in terms of results and future outlook.

  3. Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video provides a quick overview of high-power rocketry as well as a preview for the rest of the High-Power Rocketry video series. The video describes the two recognized rocketry organizations ...

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ICGC Meetings: 1987-2011 When India became an independent nation in 1947, the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru on the scene, as the Prime Minister was a fortunate circumstance. For, Nehru was a visionary, who believed that the future of the new nation should be guided by science and technology (S & T), and so with like-minded scientists like, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, Homi Bhabha, Meghnad Saha, and Daulatsingh Kothari in leading positions, Nehru set about creating an extensive infrastructure for S & T. The initiatives taken in and around 1947 began to yield dividends in a couple of decades, and by the late 60s and early 70s, major S & T organizations and associated trained human resources were making significant contributions to the country's development, both material and intellectual. Amongst these may be included, the creation of various scientific societies devoted to specific subjects. These came in response to the urge of scientists to meet as a group for discussions in their fields of research. So, it was in 1969, a number of research workers in the field of general relativity and gravitation (GRG), who had gathered for a workshop in Ahmedabad, resolved to form a society for GRG. The initiative was taken by P C Vaidya, who pointed out the advantages of forming such a recognized group, mentioning that the international community of workers in GRG had already formed such a society. The Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), thus, came up in 1969 with the veteran relativist V V Narlikar, as its first President. Some three years later, the astronomical community responding to a similar urge, formed the Astronomical Society of India (ASI), under the presidency of Vainu Bappu, the Founder Director of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Since the days of discovery of quasars in 1963, there has been an alliance between gravitation theorists and astrophysicists, resulting in the Texas Symposia, which are held once every two years. The International Society of GRG, referred above, also has a world congress (numbered GR-n) once in four years. The ASI and IAGRG have, naturally, many members in common, and over the years, these organizations have grown. Their national meets take place approximately once in two years. It is customary to invite overseas scientists to these meets, if they happen to be visiting India. In the early 80s, the scientific community in India felt more ambitious, and debated the possibility of hosting a truly international meet in India. Thus, in 1985 the astronomers successfully hosted the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. The GRG members, likewise, were pressing for hosting a meeting in the GR-n series. Since the human resources and institutional base of relativists were not as wide and strong as of the astronomers, they were advised to proceed in stages. ''First successfully hold a miniature version of GR-n, and once your credibility and capability are established, bid for the big one.'' This was the advice of some international veterans. That is how the ICGC-series of conferences came about. The first ICGC As the name (International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology) implies, the conference sought to combine the interests of the Texas Symposia as well as of GR-n. The meetings were planned to be once in four years starting in mid-December 1987. (This was the blank year for the Texas Symposium.) To launch them in an impressive manner, the opening meeting was planned to be in the famous tourist resort state of Goa. As IAGRG lacked the infrastructure to organize such a conference, the main organizational responsibility had to be taken up by one of the research institutes; and the biggest amongst these was the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai. The TIFR, therefore, was approached, and agreed. As the 'most interested person" from TIFR, I was put in charge of the enterprise. Of course, I had the backing of my senior colleague Kumar (S.M.) Chitre and the younger one, Ajit Kembhavi, and the organizational infrastructure of TIFR. In particular, the then administrator dealing with scientific meetings, Parelkar enthusiastically joined me to set up the local boundary conditions in Goa. To get our priorities right, we first picked upon Hotel Mandovi in Panjim (Capital of Goa) as the nodal hotel for catering, accommodation, and arrangements of the academic sessions. We were expecting around 100 participants with 50% from abroad. Kamat, the Manager of Hotel Mandovi, promised all help including beds in nearby hotels to make up any shortfall. Regarding the quality of food, for which Hotel Mandovi was justly famous, its in-charge, Satish Prabhu took care of all our worries. Delegates may still recall the various Goan delicacies featured on the conference menus. Parelkar negotiated the basic deal with the hotels to extract the maximum benefits for the conference. But we were still rather vulnerable in lack of the local conditions. An unexpected helping hand came to make up for our lack of local knowledge. The amateur astronomer organization, called ''Friends of Astronomy in Goa'', led by their venerable President, Percival Noronha offered to run errands for us and play the role of local volunteer. Noronha had been associated with the state government of Goa, since the days when it was a Portuguese colony. His 'inside knowledge' came in useful, especially when he advised us to request the Chief Minister, Pratapsingh Rane to entertain the conference participants in the state catamaran. Somewhat hesitatingly, I wrote a request letter, and to my delightful surprise, the CM agreed. Indeed, the boat-ride followed by the CM's riverside banquet was the entertainment high point of the conference. The food, Goan drinks, and musical entertainment were well appreciated by the participants, and an uninitiated person might be forgiven for thinking that ICGC stood for ''International Conference on Goan Conviviality''. However, it was the academic menu of ICGC-1987 that took precedence over anything else. The Scientific Organizing Committee, consisting of Vishveshwara (Vishu, if your tongue is not up to pronouncing the full name) as the Chairman, and Ashtekar, Barrow, Bertotti, Brill, Carr, Hartle, Hu, Iyer, MacCallum, Narlikar, Novikov, Penrose, and Sciama reflected a nice international mix as well as a mix of active branches of Gravitation and Cosmology. Later meetings The original intention of meeting every four years in some part of India was honoured by the community, and accordingly, the ICGC met in Ahmedabad (1991), Pune (1995), Kharagpur (2000), Cochin (2004), and Pune (2007) before reconvening in Goa in 2011. These meetings were more modestly planned, and instead of trying to cover many fields, each meeting was limited to some specialized topics. Thus, the Kharagpur meeting had highlighted gravitational waves, while the Pune (1995) meeting had emphasized the Raychaudhuri equation and the singularity theorems. These conferences did help to put India firmly on the map of GR and Cosmology, to the extent that the GR-15 was held successfully in Pune with Naresh Dadhich from IUCAA playing the main coordinator's role. It has been a pleasure to see young blood being attracted to these areas of research. Two major developments are on the horizon at the time of writing this piece. The LIGO is planning to set up an extra detector of gravitational waves in India with local help, both in hardware and software. Likewise, steps are being taken for India to join the TMT mega-telescope project as an international partner. These heartening developments help us to bear the loss of old doyens like, V V Narlikar, P C Vaidya, and A K Raychaudhuri. Though 'small is beautiful' is a truism, the decision was taken to return to Goa with a wider and richer academic menu to recall and celebrate the first ICGC. This is how we all find ourselves in Goa and its pleasant surroundings. As they say: ''Your problem is simplified if you choose the right boundary conditions!'' J V Narlikar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Post Bag 4, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India E-mail: jvn@iucaa.ernet.in

  5. Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia; Rivera, Melissa; Quinones, Sandra; Irizarry, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The work of addressing the challenge of the education of Latinos/as has begun through, among other efforts, the National Latino/a Education Research and Policy Project (NLERAP). Beginning in 2000 as a national initiative of the Centro de Estudios Puertorriquenos at Hunter College, NLERAP's goal has been to add multiple Latino/a perspectives to the…

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    According to Ernst Haeckel, any detailed hypothesis whatever concerning the origin of life must, as yet, be considered worthless, because up till now we have no satisfactory information concerning the extremely peculiar conditions which prevailed on the surface of the earth at the time when the first organisms developed" (Haeckel 1866). Erwin Schrödinger (1943) also expressed pessimism regarding the chances of understanding life. In the same vein: Life is like consciousness. If you think you can explain what it is, you got it all wrong" (Shaw 2002). Niels Bohr interpreted life as a fundamental property of matter analogous to certain quantum properties, to be taken as given, and thus allowing little if any logical scrutiny (Bohr 1933):

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouwen, Rick; van Rooij, Robert; Sauerland, Uli; Schmitz, Hans-Christian

    One could define vagueness as the existence of borderline cases and characterise the philosophical debate on vagueness as being about the nature of these. The prevalent theories of vagueness can be divided into three categories, paralleling three logical interpretations of borderline cases: (i) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value gap; it is neither true nor false; (ii) a borderline case is a case of a truth-value glut; it is both true and false; and (iii) a borderline case is a case where the truth-value is non-classical. The third of these is proposed in the fuzzy logic approach to vagueness. Three-valued approaches have only 1/2 as a value in addition to the standard values 1 and 0. These approaches can be interpreted either as allowing for gaps or gluts, depending on how the notion of satisfaction or truth is defined. If a sentence is taken to be true only if its value is 1, it allows for gaps, but if it is taken to be true already if its value is at least 1/2 it allows for gluts. The most popular theories advertising gluts and gaps, however, are supervaluationism and subvaluationism, both of which make use of the notion of precisifications, that is, ways of making things precise. Truth-value gaps in supervaluationism are due to the way truth simpliciter, or supertruth, is defined: A proposition is supertrue (superfalse) if it is true (false) at all precisifications. This means that a proposition can be neither true nor false in case there exist two precisifications, one of which make it true and one of which makes it false. Conversely, in subvaluation theory, the same scenario would lead to a truth-value glut. That is, the proposition would be both true and false. This is because subvaluationism defines truth simpliciter as being true at some precisifcation.

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, J. H.

    1998-04-01

    The past few years have seen remarkable developments in the ability to control atomic motion by optical techniques. Among the key tools that have been developed for this purpose are the techniques of laser cooling, the significance of which was recognized by the award of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics to Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Phillips. These techniques have made it possible to cool atoms to temperatures lower than have been produced in any other physical system - around 10(-8) degrees Kelvin above absolute zero - and to confine those in traps for extended periods of observation.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel

    Security research as a practical discipline has a long-standing history. Faced with myriad hazards throughout its past, mankind has developed sophisticated means to counter such threats. The latter include natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods and fires, but also encompass man-made hazards such as military aggression, terrorist attacks or threats resulting from the malicious application of technological developments. Since the end of the Cold War major armed conflicts between nations of the Western hemisphere have become highly unlikely and genuinely different security issues have become the focus of concern. The terrorist attacks of 2001 against the United States, the train bombings of Madrid in 2004 and the bombings of London in 2005 were horrific embodiments of a new security environment that has evolved on a global scale. One could list numerous other examples of both executed attacks and successfully deterred attempts from around the world. Our modern industrial societies are interlinked with infrastructure networks, providing citizens with mobility, energy and information flows, which also open the door to a whole new dimension of vulnerabilities. Security research, once anything but a practical discipline with a capacity for reacting to short-term demands, has in the span of only a few years evolved into an entirely new scientific discipline uniting various fields of research. Today, security research (in Europe) encompasses a broad community of natural/engineering and social sciences.

  10. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bub, J.

    The papers in this issue stem from a conference, 'New Directions in the Foundations of Physics: A Memorial Conference for Rob Clifton (1964-2002),' organized by members of the Foundations of Physics Group of the University of Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, and Georgetown University (Jossi Berkovitz, Jeffrey Bub, James Mattingly, and Rob Rynasiewicz), John Earman and John Norton of the University of Pittsburgh, and Jeremy Butterfield of Oxford University.

  11. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-11-01

    A year has passed since Raymond left us, but for many of us it seems like it was yesterday. Indeed, since his departure last July, not a week or even a day has gone by without his former collaborators, students, colleagues having a thought for him. Some initiatives have already been taken in order to celebrate Raymond's memory. The special day for Raymond organized at CERN last December was an opportunity to celebrate this exceptional man. In Annecy, with the implication of CERN and Marseille and thanks to a spontaneous and generous gift of Raymond's wife Marie-Françoise and their children Olivier and Thierry, the opening of a special room containing a huge collection of scientific books of Raymond is almost completed. It is in the same spirit that the present editors decided to dedicate a special issue of Nuclear Physics in memory of Raymond. In the following pages, some important problems Raymond was interested in are presented, discussed and sometimes solved. The diversity of topics in this issue reflects well the extent of Raymond's interests in Physics and Mathematics. Raymond was not only a gifted man for the so-called theoretical sciences, mathematics and physics, but he was also passionate about arts, music, drawing and of course literature, just as he was a leader always ready to bring his help and share his deep knowledge in physics and mathematics with others. Many people were deeply touched by Paul Sorba's tribute during Raymond's funeral. This is why we asked Paul to translate his speech, originally given in French, which seemed to us a perfect Prolegomena for this special volume of Nuclear Physics. The volume "Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Field Theory" is organized as follows:

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, R. W.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Particle accelerators are a field of continuing and growing success. Today about 30,000 accelerators are operated with various types of particles, including electrons, positrons, protons, neutrinos and various kinds of ions. These particles are used for the investigation of fundamental particles and forces in our universe. In parallel a fast growing field of accelerator-based photon science has developed since the 1970"s. Modern particle beams produce unique photon pulses that are used in ground-breaking studies on fast processes in chemistry and biology, on structures of viruses and bacteria, on the phenomenon of multi-resistivity to medication, on the functioning of photo-synthesis at the electronic level and on other important challenges for human mankind. Last not least, numerous particle accelerators are being used every day for industrial and medical applications, including the irradiation of tumors in human patients.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Joseph J.; Morss, Lester R.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean

    The actinide elements are the 15 chemical elements with atomic numbers 89 through 103, the first member of which is actinium and the last member is lawrencium (Fig. 1.1). The transactinide elements (those beyond the actinides) are the heaviest known chemical elements. Both the actinide and the transactinide elements have chemical properties that are governed by their outermost electronic subshells. Each of these groups of elements is a unique transition series (a group of elements in which d or f electronic subshells are being filled).

  14. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-12-01

    This special issue of Applied Surface Science is a compilation of papers inspired by the symposium on 'Surface/Interfaces Characterization and Renewable Energy' held at the 2013 MRS Fall Meeting. Practical uses of renewable energy are one of the greatest technical challenges today. The symposium explored a number of surface and interface-related questions relevant to this overarching theme. Topics from fuel cells to photovoltaics, from water splitting to fundamental and practical issues in charge generation and storage were discussed. The work presented included the use of novel experimental spectroscopic and microscopic analytical techniques, theoretical and computational understanding of interfacial phenomena, characterization of intricate behavior of charged species, as well as molecules and molecular fragments at surfaces and interfaces. It emphasized fundamental understanding of underlying processes, as well as practical devices design and applications of surface and interfacial phenomena related to renewable energy. These subjects are complicated by the transport of photons, electrons, ions, heat, and almost any other form of energy. Given the current concerns of climate change, energy independence and national security, this work is important and of interest to the field of Applied Surface Science. The sixteen papers published in this special issue have all been refereed.

  15. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Matson, C

    1997-11-24

    Imaging through the atmosphere is an important technology area, with applications in fields such as astronomy and remote sensing. For optimal results, many facets of signal collection and recovery must be understood. These facets include understanding relevant atmospheric effects, optimizing the signal collection system, and effectively processing the collected signals to obtain the desired imagery. Many different types of radiation can be used to obtain images through the atmosphere, including microwave, infrared, and optical. This radiation can be supplied by the object or natural sources (passive illumination), or it can be provided by the user (active illumination). This focus issue contains a number of invited papers describing imaging work being accomplished in the Advanced Optics and Imaging Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory, formerly the Optical Sensing Division of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory. These papers assume that optical or infrared radiation is being used, either actively or passively.

  16. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Rees, Martin J

    2003-11-15

    It is embarrassing that 95% of the Universe is unaccounted for. Galaxies and larger-scale cosmic structures are composed mainly of "dark matter", whose nature is still unknown. Favoured candidates are weakly interacting particles that have survived from the very early Universe, but more exotic options cannot be excluded. (There are strong arguments that the dark matter is not composed of baryons.) Intensive experimental searches are being made for the "dark" particles (which pervade our entire Galaxy), but we have indirect clues to their nature too. Inferences from galactic dynamics and gravitational lensing allow astronomers to "map" the dark-matter distribution; comparison with numerical simulations of Galaxy formation can constrain (for example) the particle velocities and collision cross-sections; and, of course, progress in understanding the extreme physics of the ultra-early Universe could offer clues to what particles might have existed then, and how many would have survived. The mean cosmic density of dark matter (plus baryons) is now pinned down to be only ca.30% of the so-called critical density corresponding to a "flat" Universe. However, other recent evidence-microwave background anisotropies, complemented by data on distant supernovae-reveals that our Universe actually is "flat", but that its dominant ingredient (ca.70% of the total mass energy) is something quite unexpected: "dark energy" pervading all space, with negative pressure. We now confront two mysteries. (i) Why does the Universe have three quite distinct basic ingredients-baryons, dark matter and dark energy-in the proportions (roughly) 5%, 25% and 70%? (ii) What are the (almost certainly profound) implications of the "dark energy" for fundamental physics?

  17. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This section of the report describes the history of the tribology program of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) in the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The mission of the Office of Transportation Technology is discussed. OTT`s research objectives focus on (1) automobiles and light-duty trucks and vans and (2) heavy duty trucks and buses. Even small gains in efficiency can produce large paybacks for the tax dollar. The mission of the Office of Transportation Materials is also described. Its research objective is to enable the development and engineering of energy-efficient transportation systems that will make possible the transition of the U.S. transportation sector from dependence on petroleum to alternative fuels and electricity. The mission of the Tibology Program is to provide the base technology to enable savings in annual U.S. energy consumption through tribological advances in the transportation sector. Current task areas are in the fields of advanced lubrication, engineered tribological interfaces, advanced tribomaterials and components, and project management.

  18. Introduction*

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Wayne J.; Rockoff, Maxine L.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This paper introduces the special supplement to the Journal of the Medical Library Association (JMLA) that documents the proceedings of the “Symposium on Community-based Health Information Outreach” held on December 2 and 3, 2004, at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The goal of the symposium was to explore new models of health information outreach that are emerging as technology dramatically changes the abilities of medical and health services libraries to provide resources and services beyond their traditional institutional boundaries, with particular concern for consumer health information outreach through community-based organizations. The symposium's primary objectives were to learn about successful and promising work that had already been done as well as to develop a vision for the future that could inform the NLM's next National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) contract. Another objective was to review and assess the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities with special emphasis on Native Americans. Method: The paper describes the background events and rationale that led to the NLM's decision to convene the symposium and summarizes the supplement's ten other papers, some of which were presented at the symposium and some of which were written afterward to capture the symposium's working sessions. Results: The symposium convened approximately 150 invited participants with a wide variety of perspectives and experience. Sessions were held to present exemplary outreach projects, to review the NLM's Strategic Plan to Reduce Health Disparities, to summarize the research underpinnings for evaluating outreach projects, and to provide a futurist's perspective. A panel of community representatives gave voice to the participants in outreach projects, and sixteen posters describing outreach projects were available, many of them with community representatives on hand to explain the work. Implications: This JMLA supplement provides a comprehensive summary of the state of the art in community-based outreach and a jumping-off point for future outreach efforts. PMID:16437797

  19. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Meinard; Lyre, Holger; Wayne, Andrew

    The following sections are included: * Ontology of QFT: Aims, Methods and Work Ahead * Why Study the Ontology of QFT * The Ontologist's Toolbox * An Agenda for the Ontologist of QFT * A Layperson's Guide to QFT * The Field Concept * Two Routes to QFT * Basic Mathematical Formulations of QFT * QFT in Hilbert Space * Algebraic QFT * Path Integrals * QFT and Interactions * A Layperson's Guide to Ontology, Semantics and Epistemology * Ontology * Semantics * Epistemology * Overview of this Book * Approaches to Ontology * Field Ontologies for QFT * Relativity, Measurement and Renormalization * Gauge Symmetries and the Vacuum * References

  20. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Bowman, S

    1997-08-18

    Before the field of electro-optics can realize its potential in the applied world, practical sources and detectors are needed which cover the important spectral ranges. For applications involving either ambient thermal emissions or remote chemical analysis, high brightness sources are needed in the 2 - 15 micron range. Over the last five years, several very promising techniques have been developed for generating solid-state mid-IR sources. Important advances in nonlinear materials have dramatically improved the efficiency and reliability of the frequency down-conversion approach to mid-IR sources. Also parallel efforts to develop direct solid-state mid-IR laser have begun to bear fruit. Room temperature mid-IR lasers have been demonstrated using both cascaded quantum well materials and low phonon rare earth doped materials. While potentially simple and compact, the development of solid-state mid-IR lasers poses a number of difficult material problems. The papers in this issue of Optics Express were invited to present recent progress on materials intended for direct emission in the mid-IR.

  1. Introduction:

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    summary Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study. PMID:26521666

  2. Introduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Southern, Sarka O.; Mentzer, Mark A.; Rodriquez-Chavez, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 SPIE Sensing Technologies for Global Health, Military Medicine and Environmental Monitoring conference embraced a wealth of state-of-the-art information in basic and applied science. This event covered the latest developments in the following areas: Non-invasive Disease Diagnostics for Global Health- This opening series of two consecutive sessions focused on oral biospecimen based rapid assays and point-of-care devices for the detection of pathogens causing infectious diseases, biomarkers for cancer, and analytes for noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes. They also covered presentations on the human proteasome and microbiome with linkage to human diseases and diagnostic approaches. The sessions were built on the past experience and expertise of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Military Medicine I: Traumatic Brain Injury and PTSD-This assembly covered oral-biomarker based diagnostics for brain damage and TBI as well as prevention and rehabilitation technologies. Neurorehabilitation and noninvasive neuromodulation were also discussed as critical approaches for effective functioning. Military Medicine II: Physiology and Medicine of Extreme Environments and Spaceflight-This scientific segment showcased physiological, pharmacological and diagnostic sensing methodologies during spaceflight per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as well as military-relevant toxicans and future sensing trends per the Department of Defense. It also included latest technologies to determine hydration status in warfighters, eye surgery using the latest laser technologies, and sensing tools for blood analysis. ? Sensing Technologies for Disease Diagnostics and Environmental Monitoring-This closing series of two consecutive sessions provided the venues to learn and discuss more results on the next generation of diagnostic tools and field technologies for diseases, including biomarker detection by digital imaging, multiplex technologies, capillary electrophoresis and molecular platforms serving as labs-on-chips. This conference allowed cross-fertilization of ideas, projects and collaborative work by a multidisciplinary audience of national and international colleagues from the academia, industry and federal government: The National Institutes of Health, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Department of Defense.

  3. [Introduction].

    PubMed

    Gerard, Adrienne; van den Bogaard, Alberts

    2008-01-01

    Along with the international trends in history of computing, Dutch contributions over the past twenty years moved away from a focus on machinery to the broader scope of use of computers, appropriation of computing technologies in various traditions, labour relations and professionalisation issues, and, lately, software. It is only natural that an emerging field like computer science sets out to write its genealogy and canonise the important steps in its intellectual endeavour. It is fair to say that a historiography diverging from such "home" interest, started in 1987 with the work of Eda Kranakis--then active in The Netherlands--commissioned by the national bureau for technology assessment, and Gerard Alberts, turning a commemorative volume of the Mathematical Center into a history of the same institute. History of computing in The Netherlands made a major leap in the spring of 1994 when Dirk de Wit, Jan van den Ende and Ellen van Oost defended their dissertations, on the roads towards adoption of computing technology in banking, in science and engineering, and on the gender aspect in computing. Here, history of computing had already moved from machines to the use of computers. The three authors joined Gerard Alberts and Onno de Wit in preparing a volume on the rise of IT in The Netherlands, the sequel of which in now in preparation in a team lead by Adrienne van den Bogaard. Dutch research reflected the international attention for professionalisation issues (Ensmenger, Haigh) very early on in the dissertation by Ruud van Dael, Something to do with computers (2001) revealing how occupations dealing with computers typically escape the pattern of closure by professionalisation as expected by the, thus outdated, sociology of professions. History of computing not only takes use and users into consideration, but finally, as one may say, confronts the technological side of putting the machine to use, software, head on. The groundbreaking works of the 2000 Paderborn meeting and by Martin Campbell-Kelly resonate in work done in The Netherlands and recently in a major research project sponsored by the European Science Foundation: Software for Europe. The four contributions to this issue offer a true cross-section of ongoing history of computing in The Netherlands. Gerard Alberts and Huub de Beer return to the earliest computers at the Mathematical Center. As they do so under the perspective of using the machines, the result is, let us say, remarkable. Adrienne van den Bogaard compares the styles of software as practiced by Van der Poel and Dijkstra: so much had these two pioneers in common, so different the consequences they took. Frank Veraart treats us with an excerpt from his recent dissertation on the domestication of the micro computer technology: appropriation of computing technology is shown by the role of intermediate actors. Onno de Wit, finally, gives an account of the development, prior to internet, of a national data communication network among large scale users and its remarkable persistence under competition with new network technologies.

  4. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Ken; Briggs*, Richard J.

    The motivation for the initial development of linear induction accelerators starting in the early 1960s came mainly from applications requiring intense electron pulses with beam currents and a charge per pulse above the range accessible to RF accelerators, and with particle energies beyond the capabilities of single stage pulsed-power diodes. The linear induction accelerators developed to meet these needs utilize a series of induction cells containing magnetic cores (torroidal geometry) driven directly by pulse modulators (pulsed power sources). This multistage "one-to-one transformer" configuration with non-resonant, low impedance induction cells accelerates kilo-Ampere-scale electron beam current pulses in induction linacs.

  5. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-01-01

    First of all, I would like to wish all of you an happy New Year, which I sincerely hope will bring you success, happiness and interesting new opportunities. For us in ALMA, the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 have been very exciting and this is once more a special moment in the development of our observatory. After transporting our third antenna to the high altitude Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 meters above sea level, our team successfully combined the outputs of these antennas using "phase closure", a standard method in interferometry. This achievement marks one more milestone along the way to the beginning of Commissioning and Science Verification, CSV, which, once completed, will mark the beginning of Early Science for ALMA. There was an official announcement about this milestone at the AAS meeting early January and we also wanted to share this good news with you through this newsletter, which contains the content of the announcement. In another area, this newsletter contains the progress on site and a presentation of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA). This is the second part of a two part series on antennas, a continuation of the article in the last newsletter. The ACA plays a crucial part in the imaging of extended sources with ALMA. Without the ACA, the ability to produce accurate images would be very restricted. Finally, as you know, we like to show the human face of this great endeavour we are building and this time, we decided to highlight the Department of Technical Services, another fundamental piece working actively to make ALMA the most powerful radio observatory ever built.

  6. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Cees; Develder, Chris; Jukan, Admela; Mambretti, Joe

    This topic is devoted to communication issues in scalable compute and storage systems, such as parallel computers, networks of workstations, and clusters. All aspects of communication in modern systems were solicited, including advances in the design, implementation, and evaluation of interconnection networks, network interfaces, system and storage area networks, on-chip interconnects, communication protocols, routing and communication algorithms, and communication aspects of parallel and distributed algorithms. In total 15 papers were submitted to this topic of which we selected the 7 strongest papers. We grouped the papers in two sessions of 3 papers each and one paper was selected for the best paper session. We noted a number of papers dealing with changing topologies, stability and forwarding convergence in source routing based cluster interconnect network architectures. We grouped these for the first session. The authors of the paper titled: “Implementing a Change Assimilation Mechanism for Source Routing Interconnects” propose a mechanism that can obtain the new topology, and compute and distribute a new set of fabric paths to the source routed network end points to minimize the impact on the forwarding service. The article entitled “Dependability Analysis of a Fault-tolerant Network Reconfiguration Strateg” reports on a case study analyzing the effects of network size, mean time to node failure, mean time to node repair, mean time to network repair and coverage of the failure when using a 2D mesh network with a fault-tolerant mechanism (similar to the one used in the BlueGene/L system), that is able to remove rows and/or columns in the presence of failures. The last paper in this session: “RecTOR: A New and Efficient Method for Dynamic Network Reconfiguration” presents a new dynamic reconfiguration method, that ensures deadlock-freedom during the reconfiguration without causing performance degradation such as increased latency or decreased throughput. The second session groups 3 papers presenting methods, protocols and architectures that enhance capacities in the Networks. The paper titled: “NIC-assisted Cache-Efficient Receive Stack for Message Passing over Ethernet” presents the addition of multiqueue support in the Open-MX receive stack so that all incoming packets for the same process are treated on the same core. It then introduces the idea of binding the target end process near its dedicated receive queue. In general this multiqueue receive stack performs better than the original single queue stack, especially on large communication patterns where multiple processes are involved and manual binding is difficult. The authors of: “A Multipath Fault-Tolerant Routing Method for High-Speed Interconnection Networks” focus on the problem of fault tolerance for high-speed interconnection networks by designing a fault tolerant routing method. The goal was to solve a certain number of link and node failures, considering its impact, and occurrence probability. Their experiments show that their method allows applications to successfully finalize their execution in the presence of several faults, with an average performance value of 97% with respect to the fault-free scenarios. The paper: “Hardware implementation study of the Self-Clocked Fair Queuing Credit Aware (SCFQ-CA) and Deficit Round Robin Credit Aware (DRR-CA) scheduling algorithms” proposes specific implementations of the two schedulers taking into account the characteristics of current high-performance networks. A comparison is presented on the complexity of these two algorithms in terms of silicon area and computation delay. Finally we selected one paper for the special paper session: “A Case Study of Communication Optimizations on 3D Mesh Interconnects”. In this paper the authors present topology aware mapping as a technique to optimize communication on 3-dimensional mesh interconnects and hence improve performance. Results are presented for OpenAtom on up to 16,384 processors of Blue Gene/L, 8,192 processors of Blue Gene/P and 2,048 processors of Cray XT3.

  7. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Corinne; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are fundamental to the biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. In the deep biosphere, microbial mediated transformations are responsible for shaping our natural resources over geological time. However, for many years our knowledge and understanding of microrogansisms in sub-surface environments, like oil reservoirs has been based primarily on culture-based approaches such as plate counts or most probable numbers (MPN).

  8. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskin, J. A.; Smith, I. S.; Jones, W. V.

    In 1783, the Montgolfier brothers ushered in a new era of transportation and exploration when they used hot air to drive an un-tethered balloon to an altitude of 2 km. Made of sackcloth and held together with cords, this balloon challenged the way we thought about human travel, and it has since evolved into a robust platform for performing novel science and testing new technologies. Today, high-altitude balloons regularly reach altitudes of 40 km, and they can support payloads that weigh more than 3000 kg. Long-duration balloons can currently support mission durations lasting 55 days, and developing balloon technologies (i.e. Super-Pressure Balloons) are expected to extend that duration to 100 days or longer; competing with satellite payloads. This relatively inexpensive platform supports a broad range of science payloads, spanning multiple disciplines (astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary and earth science). Applications extending beyond traditional science include testing new technologies for eventual space-based application and stratospheric airships for planetary applications.

  9. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Brett E.

    1998-09-01

    The pace of technological advancement of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) over the last several years has been extremely rapid. The field has progressed from one-dimensional low-coherence ranging to full three-dimensional imaging with individual two-dimensional images aquired at near video rate in a span of less than eight years. Imaging applications have included polymers and advanced composites, Ophthalmology, Developmental Biology, Gastroenterology, Urology, Cardiology, Neurology, and Gynecology. These preliminary studies indicate the great potential for OCT to make a significant impact, especially in clinical medicine.

  10. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  11. Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Attansi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H. Jr. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that the outlook for exploration depends on the economic health of the mining industry and, in turn, general economic conditions. It is too early to determine the overall impact of the cessation of hostilities in the Persian Gulf War. Its conclusion would allow funds to be redirected to individual country's economies. The rebuilding of the war-damaged countries will probably translate into net increases in demand for the minerals industry. A return to stability in energy costs will also benefit the mining industry. Alternatively, the capital requirements to rebuild war-torn countries could put some strain on capital markets and affect the funds available for private commercial investment. Along with increasing the cost of capital to mining operations, a capital shortage could stall recovery of western industrialized economies that are currently in recession.

  12. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Eric

    2016-07-01

    The formation of life remains a mystery. In our three-day scientific event, we will hear talks and see posters concerning what astrochemistry and astrobiology can currently tell us about this mystery. The first subject to be explored by our speakers will be astrochemistry, and what has been learned about the formation of complex molecules in star- and planet-forming regions of the interstellar medium. This topic will be sub-divided into three subjects: astronomical observations, laboratory experiments, and simulations of the chemistry leading to large molecules, both in the gas and on the surfaces of interstellar dust particles. Some introductory remarks will be given about these subjects. We will next learn about the roles of comets and exoplanets. We will hear how comets can produce water and complex molecules, and possibly deliver them to nascent planets such as the early earth, and we will learn what current space probes such as Rosetta can tell us about the chemical make-up of comets. Regarding exoplanets, speakers will explore their likely atmospheres, and what complex molecules can be simulated in them. The last part of the event will be divided into various fields of astrobiology, including synthetic approaches to primitive life, paths to observations of life on other worlds, simulations of the origin of life, and the particular role of hydrothermal environments. In summary, we will learn about significant progress in astrochemistry and astrobiology, and yet we will also learn about how much more must be known before we can solve in its entirety the basic problem of how life arose.

  13. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Vaníček, Petr

    A symposium entitled "Slow Deformation and Transmission of Stress in the Earth" was convened at the XIXth General Assembly Meeting of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. This monograph is based on presentations made at that symposium which was held on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada on August 15th and 17th, 1987. The objective of the symposium was to engage geophysicists and geodesists in a discussion of the mechanisms, models, and measurements of slow deformations and stress transmission in the Earth's crust and mantle. These deformations are characterized by their quasi-static nature in which the effects of acceleration are negligible compared to those due to gravitational, rheological, thermal, chemical, and phase-change stresses. Phenomena such as tectonic plate motions, postglacial rebound, mantle convection, strain accumulation, aseismic strain release, and polar motion-induced deformations are included in this description. For many phenomena the effects of anelasticity and temporal nonlinearity are significant. This view of slow deformations is largely geophysical. From a geodetic point of view, however, the maintenance of accurate coordinates of points on the Earth's surface requires that the geometry of ongoing deformation be taken into account [International Association of Geodesy, 1987]. This necessitates an understanding of the geophysical models of the temporal deformations and their predictive powers. Thus the symposium presenters were challenged to address such key issues as: the current state of understanding of the phenomena of slow deformation and transmission of stress, contrasts between alternative models, applicability of geophysical models to prediction of positional changes, and assessment of model and parameter accuracies. These were formidable challenges and as such were pursued by only some of the authors.

  14. A history of slide rules for blackbody radiation computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-10-01

    During the Second World War the importance of utilizing detection devices capable of operating in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum was firmly established. Up until that time, laboriously constructed tables for blackbody radiation needed to be used in calculations involving the amount of radiation radiated within a given spectral region or for other related radiometric quantities. To rapidly achieve reasonably accurate calculations of such radiometric quantities, a blackbody radiation calculator was devised in slide rule form first in Germany in 1944 and soon after in England and the United States. In the immediate decades after its introduction, the radiation slide rule was widely adopted and recognized as a useful and important tool for engineers and scientists working in the infrared field. It reached its pinnacle in the United States in 1970 in a rule introduced by Electro Optical Industries, Inc. With the onset in the latter half of the 1970s of affordable, hand-held electronic calculators, the impending demise of the radiation slide rule was evident. No longer the calculational device of choice, the radiation slide rule all but disappeared within a few short years. Although today blackbody radiation calculations can be readily accomplished using anything from a programmable pocket calculator upwards, with each device making use of a wide variety of numerical approximations to the integral of Planck's function, radiation slide rules were in the early decades of infrared technology the definitive "workhorse" for those involved in infrared systems design and engineering. This paper presents a historical development of radiation slide rules with many versions being discussed.

  15. English Stress Rules and Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptista, B. O.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a study that compares Chomsky and Halle's main stress rule with Guierre's stress rules to discover which rules lead to the same word stress replacement that native speakers would give to totally unfamiliar words. Only five of Chomsky and Halle's rules were as consistently followed as Guierre's suffix rules. (SED)which+that

  16. 77 FR 22200 - Rescission of Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...-Advertising (``MAP-Ad'') Rule and the Mortgage Assistance Relief Services (``MARS'') Rule. \\20\\ Omnibus... Commission is rescinding its MAP-Ad and MARS rules. The CFPB republished these rules on an interim final... The MARS Rule addresses the practices of entities (other than mortgage servicers) who offer...

  17. Revisions to direct fee payment rules. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2015-01-06

    We are adopting, with two revisions, our interim final rules that implemented amendments to the Social Security Act (Act) made by the Social Security Disability Applicants' Access to Professional Representation Act of 2010 (PRA). The interim final rules made permanent the direct fee payment rules for eligible non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act and for attorney representatives under title XVI of the Act. They also revised some of our eligibility policies for non-attorney representatives under titles II and XVI of the Act. Based on public comment and subsequent inquiries, we are revising our rules to clarify that an eligible non-attorney representative's liability insurance policy must include malpractice coverage. We are also reaffirming that a business entity legally permitted to provide the required insurance in the States in which the non-attorney representative conducts business must underwrite the policies.

  18. Universal waste rule: Final rule issued. Environmental Guidance Regulatory Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-14

    On February 11, 1993, EPA proposed to streamline the management requirements for certain hazardous wastes that were generated in large quantities by a variety of generators (i.e., residential, small businesses, industries, etc.). EPA`s intention was to facilitate the environmentally sound collection and disposal of these types of wastes. In this proposed rule, EPA termed these types of hazardous wastes ``universal wastes`` and developed a management system which was less stringent than the existing Subtitle C regulations. EPA proposed that the following three types of hazardous wastes be managed as universal wastes: batteries, certain pesticides, and thermostats. Because EPA believed that the authority to propose the promulgation of the universal waste rule was not significantly linked to HSWA provisions, the Agency proposed the promulgation of the universal waste rule under pre-HSWA authority. On May 11, 1995, at FR 25492, EPA promulgated a pre-HSWA rule that streamlined hazardous waste management regulations for universal wastes.

  19. Logarithmic conformal field theory: beyond an introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Ridout, David

    2013-12-01

    This article aims to review a selection of central topics and examples in logarithmic conformal field theory. It begins with the remarkable observation of Cardy that the horizontal crossing probability of critical percolation may be computed analytically within the formalism of boundary conformal field theory. Cardy’s derivation relies on certain implicit assumptions which are shown to lead inexorably to indecomposable modules and logarithmic singularities in correlators. For this, a short introduction to the fusion algorithm of Nahm, Gaberdiel and Kausch is provided. While the percolation logarithmic conformal field theory is still not completely understood, there are several examples for which the formalism familiar from rational conformal field theory, including bulk partition functions, correlation functions, modular transformations, fusion rules and the Verlinde formula, has been successfully generalized. This is illustrated for three examples: the singlet model \\mathfrak {M} (1,2), related to the triplet model \\mathfrak {W} (1,2), symplectic fermions and the fermionic bc ghost system; the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten model based on \\widehat{\\mathfrak {sl}} \\left( 2 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2}, related to the bosonic βγ ghost system; and the Wess-Zumino-Witten model for the Lie supergroup \\mathsf {GL} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 1 \\right), related to \\mathsf {SL} \\left( 2 {\\mid} 1 \\right) at k=-\\frac{1}{2} and 1, the Bershadsky-Polyakov algebra W_3^{(2)} and the Feigin-Semikhatov algebras W_n^{(2)}. These examples have been chosen because they represent the most accessible, and most useful, members of the three best-understood families of logarithmic conformal field theories. The logarithmic minimal models \\mathfrak {W} (q,p), the fractional level Wess-Zumino-Witten models, and the Wess-Zumino-Witten models on Lie supergroups (excluding \\mathsf {OSP} \\left( 1 {\\mid} 2n \\right)). In this review, the emphasis lies on the representation theory

  20. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  1. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  2. Lattice QCD: A Brief Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, H. B.

    A general introduction to lattice QCD is given. The reader is assumed to have some basic familiarity with the path integral representation of quantum field theory. Emphasis is placed on showing that the lattice regularization provides a robust conceptual and computational framework within quantum field theory. The goal is to provide a useful overview, with many references pointing to the following chapters and to freely available lecture series for more in-depth treatments of specifics topics.

  3. An introduction to quantum turbulence.

    PubMed

    Vinen, W F

    2008-08-28

    This paper provides a brief introduction to quantum turbulence in simple superfluids, in which the required rotational motion in the superfluid component is due entirely to the topological defects that are identified as quantized vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the basic dynamical behaviour of the quantized vortices and on turbulent decay mechanisms at a very low temperature. There are possible analogies with the behaviour of cosmic strings.

  4. 2-Ethylhexanol; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-ethylhexanol (EH: CAS No. 104-76-7) to conduct a 2-year oncogenicity bioassay.

  5. 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT, CAS No. 149—30-4) to perform testing.

  6. Toxic Substances; Biphenyl; Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This rule promulgates EPA’s decision to require manufacturers and processors to test biphenyl (CAS No: 92—52—4) for environmental effects and chemical fate under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  7. Proposed Rule (April 18, 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Listings of Substitutes; Changes of Listing Status; Reinterpretation of Unacceptability for Closed Cell Foam Products under the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program; and Revision of Clean Air Ac

  8. A Perspective on Solubility Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Manus; Abrams, Karl

    1984-01-01

    Presents four generalizations about solubilities. These generalizations (rules), are useful in introducing the dynamic topics of solubility and in helping high school and introductory college chemistry students make some order out of the tremendous number of facts available. (JN)

  9. Rule-Based Runtime Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barringer, Howard; Goldberg, Allen; Havelund, Klaus; Sen, Koushik

    2003-01-01

    We present a rule-based framework for defining and implementing finite trace monitoring logics, including future and past time temporal logic, extended regular expressions, real-time logics, interval logics, forms of quantified temporal logics, and so on. Our logic, EAGLE, is implemented as a Java library and involves novel techniques for rule definition, manipulation and execution. Monitoring is done on a state-by-state basis, without storing the execution trace.

  10. 76 FR 30551 - Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules AGENCY: Federal... Order, Amendment of the Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules. DATES: The amendments to... rules and other procedural rules contained in information collection OMB Control No: 3060-0430,...

  11. 47 CFR 95.402 - (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules? 95.402... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Citizens Band (CB) Radio Service General Provisions § 95.402 (CB Rule 2) How do I use these rules? (a) You must comply with these rules (See CB Rule 21 § 95.421, for...

  12. 78 FR 63263 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Internet Access'' October 17, 2013. I. Introduction On August 23, 2013, The Options Clearing Corporation... Rule 205 \\4\\ entitled ``Back-up Communication Channel to Internet Access'' requiring clearing members that use the internet as their primary means to access OCC's information and data systems to maintain...

  13. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy December 12, 2012. I. Introduction Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the mid-Atlantic Coast on October 29... in the Vault at the time Hurricane Sandy made landfall, facilitating DTCC's ability to...

  14. 78 FR 1278 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Fixed Income Clearing Corporation; Order Approving Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Services and Certain Other Clarifications and Corrections to Its Rules January 2, 2013. I. Introduction On... settle with an industry-accepted variance of 0.01% (i.e., $100 per $1MM). When FICC applies NOS to open... submitted by each Dealer on whose behalf the Broker is acting the Net Position Match Mode.'' \\9\\ The...

  15. The INTELLIGENT RuleTutor: A Structured Approach to Intelligent Tutoring. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Alice B.

    This final report describes a general purpose system for developing intelligent tutors based on the Structural Learning Theory. The report opens with a discussion of the rules and related constructs that underlie cognitive constructs in all structural learning theories. The remainder of the text provides: (1) an introduction to the Structural…

  16. 76 FR 20063 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving a Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Approving a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Stock Loan Programs April 5, 2011. I. Introduction On December 16, 2010, The Options... positions carried in the account, including stock loan positions as well as options positions.\\7\\...

  17. An Optimal Class Association Rule Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean Claude, Turiho; Sheng, Yang; Chuang, Li; Kaia, Xie

    Classification and association rule mining algorithms are two important aspects of data mining. Class association rule mining algorithm is a promising approach for it involves the use of association rule mining algorithm to discover classification rules. This paper introduces an optimal class association rule mining algorithm known as OCARA. It uses optimal association rule mining algorithm and the rule set is sorted by priority of rules resulting into a more accurate classifier. It outperforms the C4.5, CBA, RMR on UCI eight data sets, which is proved by experimental results.

  18. Introduction of new technology in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, D

    2008-01-01

    In this review paper introduction of new technologies in vascular surgery is discussed. The difficulties compared to introduction of pharmacological treatment are analyzed. Pros and cons with randomized controlled trials and observational studies are listed.

  19. Introduction to SQL. Ch. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, T.; Santisteban, M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter provides a very brief introduction to the Structured Query Language (SQL) for getting information from relational databases. We make no pretense that this is a complete or comprehensive discussion of SQL. There are many aspects of the language the will be completely ignored in the presentation. The goal here is to provide enough background so that users understand the basic concepts involved in building and using relational databases. We also go through the steps involved in building a particular astronomical database used in some of the other presentations in this volume.

  20. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  1. Modern Introduction to Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Challener, William

    2010-05-01

    1. Introduction; 2. Electromagnetics of planar surface waves; 3. Single-interface modes in the microwave regime; 4. Single-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 5. Double-interface lossless modes in ɛr'-μr' parameter space; 6. Single-interface surface plasmons; 7. Double-interface surface plasmons in symmetric guides; 8. Quasi one-dimensional surface plasmons; 9. Localized surface plasmons; 10. Techniques for exciting surface plasmons; 11. Plasmonic materials; 12. Applications; Appendixes; Index.

  2. A Guide to the Changing Court Rulings on Union Security in the Public Sector: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jascourt, Hugh D.

    1985-01-01

    Introduces two articles that (1) supply the union and management perspectives of the Supreme Court decision in "Ellis vs. Brotherhood of Railway, Airline and Steamship Clerks" and (2) discuss how this decision affects the public sector in the area of education. (MLF)

  3. 26 CFR 41.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 41.0-1 Section 41.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES EXCISE TAX ON USE OF CERTAIN HIGHWAY MOTOR VEHICLES Introduction § 41.0-1 Introduction. The regulations...

  4. 26 CFR 20.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 20.0-1 Section 20.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Introduction § 20.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....

  5. 26 CFR 31.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 31.0-1 Section 31.0-1 Internal... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Introduction § 31.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general. The regulations in this part relate to the employment taxes imposed by subtitle...

  6. 26 CFR 4.954-0 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 4.954-0 Section 4.954-0 Internal... INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 954 OF THE INTERNAL REVENUE CODE § 4.954-0 Introduction. (a... corporation beginning after December 31, 1986. (I) § 4.954-0 Introduction. (a) Effective dates. (b)...

  7. 26 CFR 44.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 44.0-1 Section 44.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES TAXES ON WAGERING; EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 1955 Introduction § 44.0-1 Introduction. (a) In general....

  8. 26 CFR 48.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 48.0-1 Section 48.0-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Introduction § 48.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 48...

  9. 26 CFR 46.0-1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 46.0-1 Section 46.0-1 Internal... TAX ON POLICIES ISSUED BY FOREIGN INSURERS AND OBLIGATIONS NOT IN REGISTERED FORM Introduction § 46.0-1 Introduction. The regulations in this part 46 relate to the taxes on policies issued by...

  10. 27 CFR 53.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 53.1 Section... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS MANUFACTURERS EXCISE TAXES-FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Introduction § 53.1 Introduction. The regulations in this part (part 53, subchapter C, chapter I, title 27, Code...

  11. Data assimilation of AVHRR and MODIS data for land base initialization and boundary conditions in the UTC-M atmospheric boundary layer sea-breeze model of Space Coast Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; King, Jerome A.; Huddleston, Lisa H.; Bassetti, Luce

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present results of simulations of the Florida Tech UTC-M sea-breeze model with the addition of a simplified atmospheric downwelling radiation subroutine combined and a thermal inertia subroutine into the atmospheric planetary boundary layer model, in order to calculate time dependant heat flux boundary conditions at the air-land boundary that are derived from satellite data from AVHRR and MODIS sensors. The improved UTC-M planetary boundary layer model with this thermal sub-model subroutine is used to demonstrate the use of thermal inertia to help estimate heat fluxes at the land-air interface which in turn influences convergence and vertical fluxes near the bottom boundary, and which may affect mesoscale meteorological wind and seabreeze over complex land-water margins. Additionally, message passage interface (MPI) parallelizing Fortran techniques were used to improve the computational time when the model grid was decreased down to 2 or 1 km cell when simulations where performed on the FIT supercomputer based on an IBM Beowulf Linux cluster. We present some results of the UTC-M simulations and associated results due to the influence of the parameterization of the net surface radiation and thermal inertia using the spectral or wavelength (channel) specific data from MODIS and AVHRR satellite sensors.

  12. Three dimensional airflow patterns within a coastal trough-bowl blowout during fresh breeze to hurricane force winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Thomas A. G.; Jackson, Derek W. T.; Cooper, J. Andrew G.

    2013-06-01

    Wind flow within blowouts is extremely complex as streamline compression, expansion and reversal may occur over and around a single landform. As a result high resolution temporal and spatial measurements are required during a range of incident wind conditions to resolve near surface airflow patterns and turbulent structures. This study examined three-dimensional airflow within a coastal dune trough-bowl blowout using 15 ultrasonic anemometers (UAs) and a high resolution computational fluid dynamics model. Measured total wind speed and vertical wind speed behaved consistently through 5 Beaufort wind scales ranging from 'fresh breeze' to 'strong gale', increasing relative to incident wind speed, whilst wind direction at each UA did not alter. Due to the agreement of modelled and measured data, 'hurricane' (37 m s-1) incident winds were also simulated and were consistent with modelled and measured wind direction at lower wind speeds. Modelled wind turbulence data was not compared with measured as only average conditions were simulated. However, the standard deviation of measured wind direction remained constant at each anemometer throughout the range of incident wind speeds, whilst the standard deviation of wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy increased relative to incident wind speed. This paper demonstrates that wind flow behaviour within blowouts throughout this range of wind speeds is governed by topography and is relative to, but does not change structurally with incident wind speed. As a result the extent of streamline compression, expansion, steering and reversal remain constant.

  13. Rule-based simulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph L.; Seraphine, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    Procedural modeling systems, rule based modeling systems, and a method for converting a procedural model to a rule based model are described. Simulation models are used to represent real time engineering systems. A real time system can be represented by a set of equations or functions connected so that they perform in the same manner as the actual system. Most modeling system languages are based on FORTRAN or some other procedural language. Therefore, they must be enhanced with a reaction capability. Rule based systems are reactive by definition. Once the engineering system has been decomposed into a set of calculations using only basic algebraic unary operations, a knowledge network of calculations and functions can be constructed. The knowledge network required by a rule based system can be generated by a knowledge acquisition tool or a source level compiler. The compiler would take an existing model source file, a syntax template, and a symbol table and generate the knowledge network. Thus, existing procedural models can be translated and executed by a rule based system. Neural models can be provide the high capacity data manipulation required by the most complex real time models.

  14. Eleutherodactylus frog introductions to Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Fred; Campbell, Earl W.; Allison, Allen; Pratt, Thane K.

    1999-01-01

    As an oceanic archipelago isolated from continental source areas, Hawaii lacks native terrestrial reptiles and amphibians, Polynesians apparently introduced seven gecko and skink species after discovering the islands approximately 1500 years ago, and another 15 reptiles and five frogs have been introduced in the last century and a half (McKeown 1996). The Polynesian introductions are probably inadvertent because the species involved are known stowaway dispersers (Gibbons 1985; Dye and Steadman 1990), In contrast, most of the herpetological introductions since European contact with Hawaii have been intentional. Several frog species were released for biocontrol of insects (e.g., Dendrobates auratus, Bufo marinus, Rana rugosa, Bryan 1932; Oliver and Shaw 1953), and most of the remaining species are released or escaped pets (e.g., Phelsuma spp., Chamaeleo jacksonii, Iguana iguana, McKeown 1996), Government-approved releases have not occurred for many years, but the rate of establishment of new species has increased in the past few decades because of the importation and subsequent release of pets.

  15. 75 FR 3886 - Amateur Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amateur Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document proposes to amend the amateur radio service rules to clarify certain rules and codify existing procedures governing the amateur service vanity call sign system, and to...

  16. Faculty Union Contracts: The New Organizational Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold I., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The recent expansion of collective bargaining among faculty unions has led to the establishment of new organizational rules. These new rules eliminate discretion, but unlike traditional rules imposed by superiors to control subordinates, collective bargaining initiates a different format for rule-making--formal joint determination. Collective…

  17. Integration rules for scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2015-09-01

    As described by Cachazo, He and Yuan, scattering amplitudes in many quantum field theories can be represented as integrals that are fully localized on solutions to the so-called scattering equations. Because the number of solutions to the scattering equations grows quite rapidly, the contour of integration involves contributions from many isolated components. In this paper, we provide a simple, combinatorial rule that immediately provides the result of integration against the scattering equation constraints fo any Möbius-invariant integrand involving only simple poles. These rules have a simple diagrammatic interpretation that makes the evaluation of any such integrand immediate. Finally, we explain how these rules are related to the computation of amplitudes in the field theory limit of string theory.

  18. Reevaluating the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mike

    2010-04-01

    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but further, the ethical principles which themselves justify the dead donor rule are better served by abandoning that rule and instead allowing individuals who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage to become organ donors, even though they are not yet dead and even though the removal of their organs would be the proximal cause of death.

  19. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-02

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  20. Conformance Testing: Measurement Decision Rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to provide assurance to the customer that end products meet specifications. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipment (MTE), are used to provide the evidence of product conformity to specified requirements. Unfortunately, processes that employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to the measurement process design, capability, and implementation. Documented "decision rules" establish the requirements to ensure measurement processes provide the measurement data that supports the needs of the QMS. Measurement data are used to make the decisions that impact all areas of technology. Whether measurements support research, design, production, or maintenance, ensuring the data supports the decision is crucial. Measurement data quality can be critical to the resulting consequences of measurement-based decisions. Historically, most industries required simplistic, one-size-fits-all decision rules for measurements. One-size-fits-all rules in some cases are not rigorous enough to provide adequate measurement results, while in other cases are overly conservative and too costly to implement. Ideally, decision rules should be rigorous enough to match the criticality of the parameter being measured, while being flexible enough to be cost effective. The goal of a decision rule is to ensure that measurement processes provide data with a sufficient level of quality to support the decisions being made - no more, no less. This paper discusses the basic concepts of providing measurement-based evidence that end products meet specifications. Although relevant to all measurement-based conformance tests, the target audience is the MTE end-user, which is anyone using MTE other than calibration service providers. Topics include measurement fundamentals, the associated decision risks, verifying conformance to specifications, and basic measurement

  1. Parallel machine architecture for production rule systems

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., John D.; Butler, Philip L.

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing system for production rule programs utilizes a host processor for storing production rule right hand sides (RHS) and a plurality of rule processors for storing left hand sides (LHS). The rule processors operate in parallel in the recognize phase of the system recognize -Act Cycle to match their respective LHS's against a stored list of working memory elements (WME) in order to find a self consistent set of WME's. The list of WME is dynamically varied during the Act phase of the system in which the host executes or fires rule RHS's for those rules for which a self-consistent set has been found by the rule processors. The host transmits instructions for creating or deleting working memory elements as dictated by the rule firings until the rule processors are unable to find any further self-consistent working memory element sets at which time the production rule system is halted.

  2. A Short Note on Rules and Higher Order Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandura, Joseph M.

    This brief paper argues that structural analysis--an extended form of cognitive task analysis--demonstrates that both domain dependent and domain independent knowledge can be derived from specific content domains. It is noted that the major difference between the two is that lower order rules (specific knowledge) are derived directly from specific…

  3. Division rules for polygonal cells.

    PubMed

    Cowan, R; Morris, V B

    1988-03-07

    A number of fascinating mathematical problems concerning the division of two-dimensional space are formulated from questions about the planes of cell division in embryonic epithelia. Their solution aids in the quantitative description of cellular arrangement in epithelia. Cells, considered as polygons, site their division line according to stochastic rules, eventually forming a tessellation of the plane. The equilibrium distributions for the resulting mix of polygonal types are explored for a range of stochastic rules. We find surprising links with some classical distributions from the theory of probability.

  4. Flight Rules Critical Readiness Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, E.; Knudsen, F.; Rice, S.

    2010-01-01

    The increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review (CRR) flight rules are presented. The topics include: 1) B13-152 Acoustic Constraints; 2) B13-113 IFM/Corrective Action Prioritization Due to Loss of Exercise Capability; 3) B13-116 Constraints on Treadmill VIS Failure; 4) B13-201 Medical Management of ISS Fire/Smoke Response; 5) ARED and T2 Exercise constraints Flight rules (flight and stage specific); 6) FYI: B14 FR to be updated with requirement to sample crew sleep locations prior to receiving a "recommendation" from SRAG on where to sleep.

  5. Rule generation from neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.

    1994-08-01

    The neural network approach has proven useful for the development of artificial intelligence systems. However, a disadvantage with this approach is that the knowledge embedded in the neural network is opaque. In this paper, we show how to interpret neural network knowledge in symbolic form. We lay down required definitions for this treatment, formulate the interpretation algorithm, and formally verify its soundness. The main result is a formalized relationship between a neural network and a rule-based system. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the neural network generates rules of better performance than the decision tree approach in noisy conditions. 7 refs.

  6. Bilinearity, Rules, and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Humans can be instructed verbally to perform computationally complex cognitive tasks; their performance then improves relatively slowly over the course of practice. Many skills underlie these abilities; in this paper, we focus on the particular question of a uniform architecture for the instantiation of habitual performance and the storage, recall, and execution of simple rules. Our account builds on models of gated working memory, and involves a bilinear architecture for representing conditional input-output maps and for matching rules to the state of the input and working memory. We demonstrate the performance of our model on two paradigmatic tasks used to investigate prefrontal and basal ganglia function. PMID:18946523

  7. Medical Qualification Determinations. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-18

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing a final rule to revise its regulations for medical qualification determinations. The revised regulations update references and language; add and modify definitions; clarify coverage and applicability; address the need for medical documentation and medical examination and/or testing for an applicant or employee whose position may or may not have medical standards and/or physical requirements; and recommend the establishment of agency medical review boards. The final rule provides agencies guidance regarding medical evaluation procedures.

  8. Introduction to Global Health Promotion.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Global health education is becoming increasingly prominent in universities throughout the country especially in programs focused on health and behavioral sciences, law, economics, and political science. Introduction to Global Health Promotion is a book that can be used by both instructors and students in the field of global health. The book provides theories and models, human rights, and technology relevant to the field. In addition the book is designed to share best evidence for promoting health and reducing morbidity and mortality in a variety of areas. The book can be used by health educators, public health practitioners, professors, and students as a resource for research and practice in the field of health promotion and disease prevention.

  9. An introduction to the Internet.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-03-10

    The aim of this multipart series is to show members of the dental team why the Internet is becoming an essential tool and to encourage colleagues to 'get online'. The various ways of connecting to the Internet are discussed, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each. How to use email and browse the World Wide Web is covered in some detail. There are plenty of practical tips on how to use the Internet safely and efficiently. The amount of information available on the Internet is vast and the series gives practical illustrations on how to be successful in searching for relevant information. There is an introduction on how to create a practice website and the final part looks at how to put all these skills together to make the most use of the Internet in the practice of dentistry.

  10. Modelling in nutrition: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P D; Dainty, J R

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide an introduction to modelling, particularly mathematical modelling, for nutritional researchers with little or no experience of the modelling process. It aims to outline the function of modelling, and to give some guidance on factors to consider when designing protocols to generate data as part of the modelling process. It is not intended in any way to be a comprehensive guide to mathematical modelling. The paper discusses the uses of modelling, and presents a 'hydrodynamic analogy' to compartmental modelling, to explain the process to the non-mathematically-minded and to examine some of the pitfalls to be avoided when using stable-isotope tracers. Examples of the use of modelling in nutrition are presented, including methods for determining absorption, as well as a discussion of possible future avenues for nutritional modelling.

  11. Pediatric obesity. An introduction

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  12. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: An Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Oelkers, Dr. Eric; Cole, David R

    2008-01-01

    The success of human and industrial development over the past hundred years has lead to a huge increase in fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emission to the atmosphere leading to an unprecedented increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. This increased CO2 content is believed to be responsible for a significant increase in global temperature over the past several decades. Global-scale climate modeling suggests that this temperature increase will continue at least over the next few hundred years leading to glacial melting, and raising seawater levels. In an attempt to attenuate this possibility, many have proposed the large scale sequestration of CO2 from our atmosphere. This introduction presents a summary of some of the evidence linking increasing atmosphere CO2 concentration to global warming and our efforts to stem this rise though CO2 sequestration.

  13. Affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.; Patrick, J.S.; Cooks, R.G. )

    1995-02-15

    A new technique, affinity membrane introduction mass spectrometry, is described. In this method, a chemically modified membrane is used to selectively adsorb analytes bearing a particular functional group and concentrate them from solution. Release of the bound analyte results in its transfer across the membrane and allows it to be monitored mass spectrometrically, using, in the present case, a benchtop ion trap instrument. Alkylamine-modified cellulose membranes are used to bind substituted benzaldehydes through imine formation at high pH. Release of the bound aldehyde is achieved by acid hydrolysis of the surface-bound imine. Benzaldehyde is detected with excellent specificity at 10 ppm in a complex mixture using this method. Using the enrichment capability of the membrane, a full mass spectrum of benzaldehyde can be measured at a concentration of 10 ppb. The behavior of a variety of other aldehydes is also discussed to illustrate the capabilities of the method. 21 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Introduction to Statistically Designed Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Mike

    2016-09-13

    Statistically designed experiments can save researchers time and money by reducing the number of necessary experimental trials, while resulting in more conclusive experimental results. Surprisingly, many researchers are still not aware of this efficient and effective experimental methodology. As reported in a 2013 article from Chemical & Engineering News, there has been a resurgence of this methodology in recent years (http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i13/Design-Experiments-Makes-Comeback.html?h=2027056365). This presentation will provide a brief introduction to statistically designed experiments. The main advantages will be reviewed along with the some basic concepts such as factorial and fractional factorial designs. The recommended sequential approach to experiments will be introduced and finally a case study will be presented to demonstrate this methodology.

  15. An introduction to computer forensics.

    PubMed

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  16. Bisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of bisphenol A, hereinafter BPA, (4.4’-isopropylidenediphenol, CAS No. 80-05—7) to conduct a 90-day inhalation study.

  17. Data breaches. Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-06-22

    This document establishes regulations to address data breaches regarding sensitive personal information that is processed or maintained by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The regulations implement certain provisions of Title IX of the Veterans Benefits, Health Care, and Information Technology Act of 2006, which require promulgation of these regulations as an interim final rule.

  18. Tetrabromobisphenol A; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule, under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), requiring manufacturers and processors of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA. CAS No. 79—94—7) to perform testing for chemical fate and environmental effects.

  19. TRICARE reimbursement revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-27

    This final rule provides several necessary revisions to the regulation in order for TRICARE to be consistent with Medicare. These revisions affect: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and diagnosis-related group values, removing references to specific numeric diagnosis-related group values and replacing them with their narrative description.

  20. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students…

  1. Navigation Rules, International-Inland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-05-01

    of the United Nations ’ Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) in 1972. The 72 COLREGS enter into force at 12 noon, local zone...OF BARGES ----------------------------- 161 XV REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES------------------ 163 XVI APPENDIX...they appear in the inter- national convention. COLUMN II A cross-reference index to the 1960 International Rules appears in the second column from the

  2. All Things Out of Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    This article brings together and compares my own artistic practice of drawing/painting and the eighteenth-century novel "Tristram Shandy." In both cases, there is a free play of lines, textual or graphic, which sets "all things out of rule". A whole typology of lines is woven throughout Sterne's text and reappears,…

  3. The Eighteen-Electron Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, P. R.; Parish, R. V.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the stability of the structures of transition metal complexes (primarily carbonyls and organometallic compounds) having 18 electrons or less in their valence shell. Presents molecular orbital diagrams for various structures involving alpha and pi bonding and describes the conditions under which the 18 electron rule applies. (RR)

  4. Rules of Procedure for Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities.

    Among the functions of the Commission on Professional Rights and Responsibilities of the NEA is the investigation of cases of alleged unethical conduct by members of the teaching profession. The rules of procedure for investigations presented in this document are intended to assure all parties in a conflict of their individual rights of procedural…

  5. Intonation Rules in ELT Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauldwell, Richard; Hewings, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Examines the two rules of intonation most commonly found in English language teaching textbooks: those concerning intonation in lists and intonation in questions. The article suggests that teachers and materials writers must provide learners with descriptions of intonation allowing them to understand the communicative significance of intonation…

  6. Rule Induction with Extension Matrices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xindong

    1998-01-01

    Presents a heuristic, attribute-based, noise-tolerant data mining program, HCV (Version 2.0) based on the newly-developed extension matrix approach. Outlines some techniques implemented in the HCV program for noise handling and discretization of continuous domains; an empirical comparison shows that rules generated by HCV are more compact than the…

  7. 77 FR 71714 - Final Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...) requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the costs, benefits, and other effects of proposed or... regulations shall be written to minimize litigation; and (3) The agency's proposed legislation and regulations... (adjusted for inflation with the base year of 1995). Before promulgating a rule for which a...

  8. Hidden Rules of the Superintendency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caloss, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    Effective superintendents recognize three key management precepts and their hidden rules. Administrators should avoid mixing emotion and logic, attending to detractors' emotional needs before presenting a differing viewpoint. They should be graceful under pressure, expect the unexpected, and build coalitions gradually, mindful of all community…

  9. The privacy rule that's not.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Richard

    2007-01-01

    HIPAA is often described as a privacy rule. It is not. In fact, HIPAA is a disclosure regulation, and it has effectively dismantled the longstanding moral and legal tradition of patient confidentiality. By permitting broad and easy dissemination of patients' medical information, with no audit trails for most disclosures, it has undermined both medical ethics and the effectiveness of medical care.

  10. 10 CFR 2.906 - Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information. 2.906 Section 2.906 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Special Procedures Applicable to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving...

  11. 10 CFR 2.906 - Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... data or national security information. 2.906 Section 2.906 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.906 Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information. It is...

  12. 10 CFR 2.906 - Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... data or national security information. 2.906 Section 2.906 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES... to Adjudicatory Proceedings Involving Restricted Data and/or National Security Information § 2.906 Obligation of parties to avoid introduction of restricted data or national security information. It is...

  13. Teaching and Learning Mathematics in a Non-Native Language: Introduction of the CLIL Methodology in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favilli, Franco; Maffei, Laura; Peroni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The recent reform act for the Italian upper secondary school has ruled the gradual introduction, from the 2012-2013 school year onwards, of the CLIL (content and language integrated learning) methodology in the "Licei" and technical schools. While CLIL clearly offers students great opportunities for developing their skills and abilities…

  14. The electrophysiological signature of deliberate rule violations.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Roland; Wirth, Robert; Schwarz, Katharina A; Foerster, Anna; Steinhauser, Marco; Kunde, Wilfried

    2016-12-01

    Humans follow rules by default, and violating even simple rules induces cognitive conflict for the rule breaker. Previous studies revealed this conflict in various behavioral measures, including response times and movement trajectories. Based on these experiments, we investigated the electrophysiological signature of deliberately violating a simple stimulus-response mapping rule. Such rule violations were characterized by a delayed and attenuated P300 component when evaluating a rule-relevant stimulus, most likely reflecting increased response complexity. This parietal attenuation was followed by a frontal positivity for rule violations relative to correct response trials. Together, these results reinforce previous findings on the need to inhibit automatic S-R translation when committing a rule violation, and they point toward additional factors involved in rule violation. Candidate processes such as negative emotional responses and increased monitoring should be targeted by future investigations.

  15. An Introduction to High Resolution Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peter C.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Strangfeld, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-01

    High resolution coherent multidimensional spectroscopy is a technique that can be used to analyze and assign peaks for molecules that have resisted spectral analysis. Molecules that yield heavily congested and seemingly patternless spectra using conventional methods can yield 2D spectra that have recognizable patterns. The off-diagonal region of the coherent 2D plot shows only cross-peaks that are related by rotational selection rules. The resulting patterns facilitate peak assignment if they are sufficiently resolved. For systems that are not well-resolved, coherent 3D spectra may be generated to further improve resolution and provide selectivity. This presentation will provide an introduction to high resolution coherent 2D and 3D spectroscopies.

  16. Introduction to Software Product Lines (Slides)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    2014 by Carnegie Mellon University Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Introduction to...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Introduction to Software...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Introduction to Software Product Lines 2 Copyright 2014 Carnegie

  17. Introduction to lattice gauge theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.

    The lattice formulation of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) can be exploited in many ways. We can derive the lattice Feynman rules and carry out weak coupling perturbation expansions. The lattice then serves as a manifestly gauge invariant regularization scheme, albeit one that is more complicated than standard continuum schemes. Strong coupling expansions: these give us useful qualitative information, but unfortunately no hard numbers. The lattice theory is amenable to numerical simulations by which one calculates the long distance properties of a strongly interacting theory from first principles. The observables are measured as a function of the bare coupling g and a gauge invariant cut-off approx. = 1/alpha, where alpha is the lattice spacing. The continuum (physical) behavior is recovered in the limit alpha yields 0, at which point the lattice artifacts go to zero. This is the more powerful use of lattice formulation, so in these lectures the author focuses on setting up the theory for the purpose of numerical simulations to get hard numbers. The numerical techniques used in Lattice Gauge Theories have their roots in statistical mechanics, so it is important to develop an intuition for the interconnection between quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics.

  18. Introduction to Preharvest Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Torrence, Mary E

    2016-10-01

    This introductory article provides an overview of preharvest food safety activities and initiatives for the past 15 years. The section on traditional areas of preharvest food safety focuses on significant scientific advancements that are a culmination of collaborative efforts (both public health and agriculture) and significant research results. The highlighted advancements provide the foundation for exploring future preharvest areas and for improving and focusing on more specific intervention/control/prevention strategies. Examples include Escherichia coli and cattle, Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry, and interventions and prevention and control programs. The section on "nontraditional" preharvest food safety areas brings attention to potential emerging food safety issues and to future food safety research directions. These include organic production, the FDA's Produce Rule (water and manure), genomic sequencing, antimicrobial resistance, and performance metrics. The concluding section emphasizes important themes such as strategic planning, coordination, epidemiology, and the need for understanding food safety production as a continuum. Food safety research, whether at the pre- or postharvest level, will continue to be a fascinating complex web of foodborne pathogens, risk factors, and scientific and policy interactions. Food safety priorities and research must continue to evolve with emerging global issues, emerging technologies, and methods but remain grounded in a multidisciplinary, collaborative, and systematic approach.

  19. BOOK REVIEW An Introduction to Relativity An Introduction to Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2011-02-01

    As is clearly stated in the preface, this book is a fresh rewrite of Narlikar's published lecture notes [1] from 1978, resulting in a unique historical perspective with a modernized presentation. For workers in the field, this book provides a fascinating glimpse of the state of the art 30 years ago, but there are some inevitable idiosyncracies which might make it less useful to the beginner, especially those attempting to read this book on their own. The author is well-known for his informal, readable style, and this book is no exception. Although the treatment is overly algebraic from this reviewer's modern perspective, that is not necessarily a drawback, and does accurately reflect contemporary usage. This text is a `math first' approach to relativity, presenting the tensor calculus first, and the physics second. Not surprisingly given the author's interests, there is an emphasis on cosmological applications. After a quick review of special relativity, the book jumps right in with a fairly standard introduction to tensor calculus, followed almost immediately by chapters on Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, experimental tests, relativistic astrophysics, and black holes, followed in turn by several chapters on cosmology. This new text is a faithful adaptation of the earlier text, with essentially identical tables of contents. In fact, the only notable differences are the opening chapter summarizing special relativity, a brief new chapter on gravitational radiation, and the exclusion of a lecture on the Steady State Theory — and that material appears separately in the author's cosmology text [2]. Some of the material, such as the excellent chapter on symmetries, is largely identical to the original, but most of the material has been extensively rewritten, with most of the changes being to presentation, rather than content. There are some seldom seen gems in this book, such as the aforementioned discussion of symmetries, the extensive discussion of

  20. Introduction: Unsolved Problems on Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oriols, X.; Ciliberto, S.

    2016-05-01

    This paper is an introduction to the special issue of the 7th Int. Conf. on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) that took place at Casa Convalescència in Barcelona (Spain) in July 2015. The aim of the UPoN conferences is to provide a forum for researchers working on different fields of noise, fluctuations and variability, where they present their scientific problems which resist solutions. The papers of this Special Issue reflect the interdisciplinary topics (physics, biology, circuits, financial markets, psychology, technology, etc) presented at the UPoN conference. Noise is not only a hindrance to signal detection, but it is indeed a valuable source of information (not present in the signal) that help us to get a deeper understanding on how Nature works. This special issue of the 7th International Conference on Unsolved Problems on Noise (UPoN) is dedicated to Laszlo Kish in the occasion of his 60th birthday. He organized the first edition of these UPoN conferences in Szeged (Hungary) in 1996. Many of us have greatly benefited from his ‘volcanic imagination in tackling new problems from unconventional points of views’.

  1. Introduction: Towards Sustainable 2020 Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Faced with the immanent end of the nanometer roadmap at 10 nm, and with an electronics energy crisis, we have to engineer the largest strategy change in the 50-years history of microelectronics, renamed to nanoelectronics in 2000 with the first chips containing 100-nm transistors. Accepting the 10 nm-limit, the new strategy for the future growth of chip functionalities and markets has to deliver, within a decade, another 1,000× improvement in the energy per processing operation as well as in the energy per bit of memory and of communication. As a team from industry and from research, we present expectations, requirements and possible solutions for this challenging energy scenario of femto- and atto-Joule electronics. The introduction outlines the book's structure, which aims to describe the innovation eco-system needed for optimum-energy, sustainable nanoelectronics. For the benefit of the reader, chapters are grouped together into interest areas like transistors and circuits, technology, products and markets, radical innovations, as well as business and policy issues.

  2. Compaction with automatic jog introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maley, F. M.

    1985-10-01

    A novel polynomial-time algorithm for compacting a VLSI layout is presented. Compared to previous algorithms, the algorithm promises to produce higher quality output while reducing the need for designer intervention. The performance gain is realized by converting wires into constraints on the positions of the active devices. These constraints can be solved by graph-theoretic techniques to yield optimal positions for chip components. A single-layer router is then used to restore the wires to the layout, using as many as jogs as necessary. An automated compaction procedure is an effective tool for cutting production costs of a VLSI circuit at low cost to the designer, because the yield of fabricated chips is strongly dependent on the total circuit area. Sect 1 is an introduction. Sect 2 states the definitions and theoretical results that underlie the new compaction method. Sect 3 shows how the circuit layout is converted to a data structure appropriate for compaction, and Sect 4 details the body of the compaction algorithm. Sect 5 covers several improvements to the algorithm that should make it run considerably faster. Sect 6 comments on the algorithms of results, and a discussion of the practical value of the compaction algorithm.

  3. Introduction to Grand Unified Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiero, Antonio

    The following sections are included: * THE STANDARD MODEL: A CRITICAL APPRAISAL * The "Low Energy" Limit of Renormalizable Gauge Theories * The Standard Model: its purity * The Standard Model: its impurity * Vices and Virtues of the Standard Model * INTRODUCTION TO GRAND UNIFIED THEORIES * When "Strong" and "Weak" Merge Together * The "Big Desert" Picture of the World * A Persistent Cloud: the hierarchy problem * PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF GUTs * What is New in GUTs * General Features of the B and L Violating Processes * A FIRST GLIMPSE AT THE SU(5) MODEL * Why SU(5)? * The Higgs Sector and the Hierarchy Nightmare * LOW ENERGY PHENOMENOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF SU(5) * The Successful sin2θW Prediction of SU(5) * Fermion Masses in SU(5) * Mixing Angles and Phases * Proton Lifetime: A Death Blow to the SU(5) Model? * B-L and Neutrino Masses in SU(5) * SU(5): A Final Score * NEW PHYSICS NOT FAR FROM THE FERMI SCALE? * L-Right Symmetry: A Fundamental Symmetry? * Massive Majorana Neutrinos * Neutron -Antineutron Oscillations * Lepton Number as a Fourth Colour * THE SO(10) MODEL * Few Generalities on the Orthogonal Groups * The SO(10) Gauge Interactions * Patterns of Symmetry Breaking in the SO(10) Model * The Fermion Mass Spectrum * The Question of the Neutrino Mass * PHENOMENOLOGY OF THE INTERMEDIATE MASS SCALES * Renormalization Group Equations in the Presence of IMS * MI and MX in IMS models * Higgs Contributions to the β-Functions * Phenomenological Consequences of IMS * A GENERAL OUTLOOK ON GUTs * General Constraints on GUTs * Major Unsolved Questions in GUTs * Bibliography * References

  4. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia, and the Point Breeze Refinery, southern Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water flow in the Potomac-Raritan- Magothy aquifer system (PRM) in south Philadelphia and adjacent southwestern New Jersey was simulated by use of a three-dimensional, seven-layer finite-difference numerical flow model. The simulation was run from 1900, which was prior to groundwater development, through 1995 with 21 stress periods. The focus of the modeling was on a smaller area of concern in south Philadelphia in the vicinity of the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia (DSCP) and the Point Breeze Refinery (PBR). In order to adequately simulate the ground-water flow system in the area of concern, a much larger area was modeled that included parts of New Jersey where significant ground-water withdrawals, which affect water levels in southern Philadelphia, had occurred in the past. At issue in the area of concern is a hydrocarbon plume of unknown origin and time of release. The ground-water-flow system was simulated to estimate past water-level altitudes in and near the area of concern and to determine the effect of the Packer Avenue sewer, which lies south of the DSCP, on the ground-water-flow system. Simulated waterlevel altitudes for the lower sand unit of the PRM on the DSCP prior to 1945 ranged from pre-development, unstressed altitudes to 3 feet below sea level. Simulated water-level altitudes for the lower sand unit ranged from 3 to 7 feet below sea level from 1946 to 1954, from 6 to 10 feet below sea level from 1955 to 1968, and from 9 to 11 feet below sea level from 1969 to 1978. The lowest simulated water-level altitude on the DSCP was 10.69 feet below sea level near the end of 1974. Model simulations indicate ground water was infiltrating the Packer Avenue sewer prior to approximately 1947 or 1948. Subsequent to that time, simulated ground-water-level altitudes were lower than the bottom of the sewer.

  5. Passive acquisition of CLIPS rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The automated acquisition of knowledge by machine has not lived up to expectations, and knowledge engineering remains a human intensive task. Part of the reason for the lack of success is the difference in the cognitive focus of the expert. The expert must shift his or her focus from the subject domain to that of the representation environment. In doing so this cognitive shift introduces opportunity for errors and omissions. Presented here is work that observes the expert interact with a simulation of the domain. The system logs changes in the simulation objects and the expert's actions in response to those changes. This is followed by the application of inductive reasoning to move the domain specific rules observed to general domain rules.

  6. Ariel Database Rule System Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-14

    NOTES EL CT a Distribution unlimited UL 13. ABSTRACT (Mmmuum 200 we~ The Ariel project has culminated in several advancements in active database...4] Moez Chaabouni. A top-level discrimination network for database rule systems. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Wright State... Moez Chaabouni. The IBS-tree: A data structure for finding all intervals that overlap a point. Technical Report WSU-CS-90-11, Dept. of Computer

  7. 47 CFR 1.1200 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Ex... its decision-making, the Commission has prescribed rules to regulate ex parte presentations in Commission proceedings. These rules specify “exempt” proceedings, in which ex parte presentations may be...

  8. 47 CFR 2.1501 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS FCC Procedure for Testing Class A, B and S Emergency Position Indicating... the applicable portions of the FCC Rules and Regulations. Other methods and test results may be...

  9. AACR2--An Introduction with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saye, Jerry D.

    This presentation of basic rules, principles and assumptions underlying the use of the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2) covers aspects of AACR2 which are easily overlooked, with emphasis on descriptive cataloging. The paper expands upon the following comments: (1) AACR2 is not intended for any specific type of library; (2)…

  10. Introduction of a Classical Level in Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperi, G. M.

    2016-11-01

    In an old paper of our group in Milano a formalism was introduced for the continuous monitoring of a system during a certain interval of time in the framework of a somewhat generalized approach to quantum mechanics (QM). The outcome was a distribution of probability on the space of all the possible continuous histories of a set of quantities to be considered as a kind of coarse grained approximation to some ordinary quantum observables commuting or not. In fact the main aim was the introduction of a classical level in the context of QM, treating formally a set of basic quantities, to be considered as beables in the sense of Bell, as continuously taken under observation. However the effect of such assumption was a permanent modification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the statistical operator by the introduction of a dissipative term which is in conflict with basic conservation rules in all reasonable models we had considered. Difficulties were even encountered for a relativistic extension of the formalism. In this paper I propose a modified version of the original formalism which seems to overcome both difficulties. First I study the simple models of an harmonic oscillator and a free scalar field in which a coarse grain position and a coarse grained field respectively are treated as beables. Then I consider the more realistic case of spinor electrodynamics in which only certain coarse grained electric and magnetic fields are introduced as classical variables and no matter related quantities.

  11. Lead and Copper Rule Revisions White Paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) Revisions White Paper provides examples of regulatory options to improve the existing rule. The paper highlights key challenges, opportunities, and analytical issues presented by these options.

  12. 7 CFR 29.6104 - Rule 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.6104 Rule 18. Burn shall be determined as the average burning time of leaves... candle, alcohol lamp, or electrical-lighting device. Good burn shall average 6 seconds or longer;...

  13. 7 CFR 29.6104 - Rule 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.6104 Rule 18. Burn shall be determined as the average burning time of leaves... candle, alcohol lamp, or electrical-lighting device. Good burn shall average 6 seconds or longer;...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1132 - Rule 26.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Rules § 29.1132 Rule 26. Tobacco that contains a moderate amount of dirt or sand, but... from the Primings group, shall be designated by placing the special factor, “dirt” or “sand” after...

  15. Grammar: Rules and Reasons Working Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that from a pedagogical perspective, there is a cost to associating grammar with rules. Discusses reasons for underlying rules and gives implications for a reason-based approach to teaching grammar. (Author/VWL)

  16. Simple Derivation of Some Basic Selection Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannigrahi, A. B.; Das, Ranjan

    1980-01-01

    Presents the selection rules for all four quantum numbers of the hydrogen atom and for a linear harmonic oscillator. Suggests that these rules deserve special mention in an elementary course of quantum chemistry. (Author/JN)

  17. Statistical inference of static analysis rules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, Dawson Richards (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Various apparatus and methods are disclosed for identifying errors in program code. Respective numbers of observances of at least one correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the at least one correctness rule are counted in the program code. Each code instance has an associated counted number of observances of the correctness rule by the code instance. Also counted are respective numbers of violations of the correctness rule by different code instances that relate to the correctness rule. Each code instance has an associated counted number of violations of the correctness rule by the code instance. A respective likelihood of the validity is determined for each code instance as a function of the counted number of observances and counted number of violations. The likelihood of validity indicates a relative likelihood that a related code instance is required to observe the correctness rule. The violations may be output in order of the likelihood of validity of a violated correctness rule.

  18. Autonomous Rule Creation for Intrusion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Vollmer; Jim Alves-Foss; Milos Manic

    2011-04-01

    Many computational intelligence techniques for anomaly based network intrusion detection can be found in literature. Translating a newly discovered intrusion recognition criteria into a distributable rule can be a human intensive effort. This paper explores a multi-modal genetic algorithm solution for autonomous rule creation. This algorithm focuses on the process of creating rules once an intrusion has been identified, rather than the evolution of rules to provide a solution for intrusion detection. The algorithm was demonstrated on anomalous ICMP network packets (input) and Snort rules (output of the algorithm). Output rules were sorted according to a fitness value and any duplicates were removed. The experimental results on ten test cases demonstrated a 100 percent rule alert rate. Out of 33,804 test packets 3 produced false positives. Each test case produced a minimum of three rule variations that could be used as candidates for a production system.

  19. Abegg, Lewis, Langmuir, and the Octet Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses major events leading to the development of the octet rule. Three conclusions based on the work of Mendeleev, Abegg, Thompson, Kossel, Lewis, and Langmuir are considered as is the debate over the rule's validity. (JN)

  20. An Introduction to Space Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, David

    2008-04-01

    Space debris is any human-made object in orbit that no longer serves a useful purpose, including defunct satellites, discarded equipment and rocket stages, and fragments from the breakup of satellites and rocket stages. It is a concern because--due to its very high speed in orbit--even relatively small pieces can damage or destroy satellites in a collision. Since debris at high altitudes can stay in orbit for decades or longer, it accumulates as more is produced and the risk of collisions with satellites grows. Since there is currently no effective way to remove large amounts of debris from orbit, controlling the production of debris is essential for preserving the long-term use of space. Today there are 860 active satellites in orbit, supporting a wide range of civil and military uses. The 50 years of space activity since the launch of Sputnik 1 has also resulted in well over half a million pieces of orbiting debris larger than 1 cm in size. There are two main sources of space debris: (1) routine space activity and the accidental breakup of satellites and stages placed in orbit by such activity, and (2) the testing or use of destructive anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons that physically collide with satellites at high speed. The international community is attempting to reduce the first category by developing strict guidelines to limit the debris created as a result of routine space activities. However, the destruction of a single large spy satellite by an ASAT weapon could double the total amount of large debris in low earth orbit, and there are currently no international restrictions on these systems. This talk will give an introduction to what's in space, the origins of space debris, efforts to stem its growth, the threat it poses to satellites in orbit, and the long-term evolution of the debris population.

  1. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  2. Refinements of some new efficient quadrature rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayyum, A.; Shoaib, M.; Faye, I.; Kashif, A. R.

    2016-11-01

    In the field of Engineering and Applied Mathematical Sciences, minimizing approximation error is very important task and therefore quadrature rules are investigated regularly. In this paper, using some standard results of theoretical inequalities, e.g. Ostrowski type inequality, some new efficient quadrature rules are introduced for n-times differentiable mappings. These quadrature rules are expected to give better results comparing to the conventional quadrature rules.

  3. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  4. 7 CFR 762.101 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Introduction. 762.101 Section 762.101 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.101 Introduction. (a) Scope. This subpart...

  5. Introduction to Horticulture. Teacher Edition. Horticulture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is designed to provide a core of instruction for the many different fields in agricultural/horticultural education. This course contains 21 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to horticulture; beginning a career in horticulture; hand and power tools; introduction to safety; growing facilities;…

  6. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  7. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  8. 20 CFR 221.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 221.1 Section 221.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT JURISDICTION DETERMINATIONS § 221.1 Introduction. This part explains the factors involved in deciding whether the...

  9. 20 CFR 330.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 330.1 Section 330.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.1 Introduction. The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act provides for...

  10. 1 CFR 456.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Introduction. 456.1 Section 456.1 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.1 Introduction. The following regulations implement the Freedom of Information Act,...

  11. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  12. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  13. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  14. 22 CFR 1002.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 1002.1 Section 1002.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 1002.1 Introduction. (a) It is the policy of... available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. (b)...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1500 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 416.1500 Section 416.1500 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Representation of Parties § 416.1500 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1700 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Introduction. 404.1700 Section 404.1700 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Representation of Parties § 404.1700 Introduction. You may appoint someone to represent you in any of...

  17. AN INTRODUCTION TO OPTIMAL CONTROL THEORY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report presents an introduction to some of the concepts and results currently popular in optimal control theory . The introduction is intended...for someone acquainted with ordinary differential equations and real variables, but with no prior knowledge of control theory . The material covered

  18. Reconstruction of Zika Virus Introduction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathryn; Brownstein, John S.; Marinho, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre F.; Nsoesie, Elaine O.

    2017-01-01

    We estimated the speed of Zika virus introduction in Brazil by using confirmed cases at the municipal level. Our models indicate a southward pattern of introduction starting from the northeastern coast and a pattern of movement toward the western border with an average speed of spread of 42 km/day or 15,367 km/year. PMID:27618573

  19. 9 CFR 204.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Introduction. 204.1 Section 204.1... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Public Information § 204.1 Introduction. The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (Packers and Stockyards...

  20. 22 CFR 301.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Introduction. 301.1 Section 301.1 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS PUBLIC ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED MATERIAL § 301.1 Introduction. The following regulations... declassification of a document of the Peace Corps....